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Sample records for dust mite allergen

  1. Recombinant house dust mite allergens

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    House dust mites (HDM) are a globally important source of allergen responsible for the sensitization of more than 50% of allergic patients. Specific immunotherapy with HDM extracts is effective but allergen extracts cannot be fully standardized and severe side-effects can occur during the protracted course of treatment. The introduction of molecular biological techniques into allergy research allowed the indentification of more than 20 groups of HDM allergens. Recombinant HDM allergens can be...

  2. [House dust mites and their allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessot, J-C; Pauli, G

    2011-02-01

    The taxonomy, anatomy, life cycle and ecology of Pyroglyphidae mites and storage mites (Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, B. tropicalis) are described. Pyroglyphidae and storage mites have similar morphologies: they are octopods, with characteristic gnathosoma and sensory hairs. Salivary glands and the mid gut produce most of the allergens excreted, which are enzymatic proteins. Biological cycles and development are similar, although fecundity is superior in storage mites compared to the Pyroglyphides. Relative humidity is the main parameter, which regulates mite development, with a higher degree of temperature and humidity required for storage mites. Bedding is the ecological niche of Pyroglyphidae, which feed on human skin. Moulds and food products are the storage mite biotope from which they spread in the dwelling. Initially considered as rural mites, storage mites are also present in urban dwellings. B. tropicalis, in tropical regions is a true domestic mite. Because of this, it is justified to denominate Pyroglyphidae "house dust mites" and storage mites "domestic mites". In addition to the respiratory allergic symptoms, the storage mites can also cause occupational contact dermatoses.

  3. Decay of house-dust mite allergen Der f 1 at indoor climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Kirsten E; Hallas, Thorkil E; Stenderup, Jørgen;

    2002-01-01

    The decay of house-dust mite allergens is important for the outcome of avoidance measures for house-dust mite-allergic patients.......The decay of house-dust mite allergens is important for the outcome of avoidance measures for house-dust mite-allergic patients....

  4. Mite antigen and allergen contents of house dust samples.

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    Ishii,Akira

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available The house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus antigen and allergen contents were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with enzyme-labelled anti-human IgE and anti-mite rabbit IgG antibodies. Antigen content was high in dust samples from homes of patients with allergy but not in samples from homes of patients with Kawasaki disease or of normal control subjects. Allergen content was high in dust samples from homes of Kawasaki disease patients. However, the values overlapped, and we considered these differences to be of little ecological significance, although the assay method itself is useful.

  5. House dust mites and their allergens at selected locations in the homes of house dust mite-allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, K E; Hallas, T E; Brygge, T

    2002-01-01

    Knowledge of the occurrence of house dust mites (HDM) and their allergens in domestic locations is important when planning intervention.......Knowledge of the occurrence of house dust mites (HDM) and their allergens in domestic locations is important when planning intervention....

  6. Allergens with Protease Activity from House Dust Mites

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    Manuel Reithofer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Globally, house dust mites (HDM are one of the main sources of allergens causing Type I allergy, which has a high risk of progressing into a severe disabling disease manifestation such as allergic asthma. The strong protease activities of a number of these allergens are thought to be involved in several steps of the pathophysiology of this allergic disease. It has been a common notion that protease activity may be one of the properties that confers allergenicity to proteins. In this review we summarize and discuss the roles of the different HDM proteases in the development of Type I allergy.

  7. Structure of the house dust mite allergen Der f 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannessen, Birthe R; Skov, Lars; Kastrup, Jette S

    2005-01-01

    The X-ray structure of the group 2 major allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 2) was determined to 1.83 A resolution. The overall Der f 2 structure comprises a single domain of immunoglobulin fold with two anti-parallel beta-sheets. A large hydrophobic cavity is formed in the interior of...... of Der f 2. Structural comparisons to distantly related proteins suggest a role in lipid binding. Immunoglobulin E (IgE) cross-reactivity between group 2 house dust mite major allergens can be explained by conserved surface areas representing IgE binding epitopes....

  8. Evidence refuting the contribution of the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides to the allergenicity of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, D B; Hart, B J; Douglas, A E

    1992-01-01

    This communication demonstrates unequivocally that the fungi associated with house dust mites do not contribute to mite allergenicity. The evidence is twofold: first, larval mites which lack fungi have allergen profiles indistinguishable from fungus-bearing adult mites. Second, the allergen profile of experimentally-derived fungus-free adult mites and mites re-fed the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides are identical.

  9. Hierarchy and molecular properties of house dust mite allergens

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    Wayne R. Thomas

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24–33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations.

  10. Hierarchy and molecular properties of house dust mite allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Wayne R

    2015-10-01

    The allergenic load of house dust mite allergy is largely constituted by a few proteins with a hierarchical pattern of allergenicity. The serodominant specificities are the group 1&2 and the group 23 faecal allergens. The collective IgE binding to the group 1&2 allergens can measure unequivocal HDM sensitisation better than HDM extracts although discrepancies have been found in regions with complex acarofauna suggesting a need to investigate the specificity with allergen components. The group 4, 5, 7&21 allergens that each induce responses in about 40% of subjects are mid-tier allergens accounting for most of the remaining IgE binding. Their titres are proportional to the concomitant responses to Der p1&2. Group 2 allergen variants have different antibody binding. Body proteins only occasionally induce sensitisation although a higher prevalence of binding by atopic dermatitis patients provides a new avenue of research. A broad spectrum of IgE binding has been associated with diverse symptoms but not with the severity of asthma which is associated with low IgG antibody. Some allergens such as the group 14 large lipid binding proteins and the recently described proteins Der f 24-33, need further investigation but with the cognoscence that other denominated allergens have been found to be minor sensitisers by comparative quantitative analyses. Scabies is a confounder for diagnosis with extracts, inducing cross-reactive antibodies with Der p 4&20 as is seafood allergy with cross reactivity to Der p 10 a minor HDM allergen. The HDM genome sequence can now be used to verify allelic and paralogous variations.

  11. House-dust mite and mite-and pet-allergens in indoor environment; Dani oyobi dani-allergen, pet-allergen no jittai

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    Irie, T. [Shinshu Univ., Matsumoto, Nagano (Japan)

    1998-05-31

    In this paper, the actual state of mite and mite-allergen, and the actual state of pet-allergen that the researches thereof proceed gradually in recent years are described. The following findings are obtained as the results of the actual state investigations. In respect to the mite-allergen, airborne mite, particularly I with high allergen activity shows high concentration from fall to winter. The reasons thereof are considered from two aspects, I.e., the fragmentation and suspension of mite-allergen, and the decrease of ventilation frequency, while it can also be explained from a fact that the fit of infantile asthma is most frequent during a period from October to November. Mite-allergen contained in futon dust is about 10 times more than that contained in floor dust. In respect to pet-allergen, although the indoor accumulative amount and airborne concentration of main pet-allergen such as cat-, and dog-allergen varies greatly depending on whether pet is kept indoor or outdoor, the quantities of dog- and cat-allergen are almost of the same order, but 2 to 3-order higher than the quantity of mite-allergen. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  12. Child car seats – a habitat for house dust mites and reservoir for harmful allergens

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    David Clarke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available [b]Introduction and objective[/b]. House dust mites produce allergens which can cause or aggravate diseases such as asthma, eczema and rhinitis. The objectives of this study are to quantify typical house dust mite and Der p 1 allergen levels in child car seats, and to determine external variables that may influence mite populations in cars. [b]Materials and Methods[/b]. Dust samples were collected from the child car seats and driver seats of 106 cars using a portable vacuum sampling pump over a two minute sampling period. Mites were counted and identified and results were expressed as mites per gram (mites/g of dust, while Der p 1 content of samples were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Questionnaires were completed by participants to identify environmental and behavioural effects on mite populations. Results were analysed using General Linear Model (GLM procedures. [b]Results[/b]. Twelve species of mites, of which nine are known to produce harmful allergens, were recorded from 212 dust samples. Over 80% of drivers’ seats and over 77% of child car seats harboured dust mites with a significant correlation (p = 0.001 between the mites/g of dust and Der p 1 content recovered from each seat. A mean of 53 mites/g of dust per seat was recovered, with a mean Der p 1 level of 1.1µg/g. Over 12% of driver seats and 15% of child car seats contained house dust mite levels sufficient to be risk factors for sensitisation and allergic reactions. [b]Conclusions[/b]. Child car seats and driver seats are habitats to a range of mite species which can be present in sufficient concentrations to cause or aggravate allergen related illnesses in individuals who are genetically predisposed.

  13. A house dust mite allergen homologue from poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisbet, A J; Huntley, J F; Mackellar, A; Sparks, N; McDevitt, R

    2006-08-01

    Tropomyosin is an allergenic, actin-binding protein and a proposed vaccine candidate from several species of parasite. Tropomyosin cDNA, obtained by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification from Dermanyssus gallinae RNA, encoded a predicted protein with 89% and 88% identity to tropomyosins from the ticks Boophilus microplus and Haemaphysalis longicornis, respectively, and 85% identity to the house dust mite (HDM) tropomyosin Der p 10. Mouse antibodies raised against HDM tropomyosin reacted with a band of 38 kDa on Western blots of D. gallinae extract, consistent with the molecular masses of acarine tropomyosins and the putative product of the cDNA encoding D. gallinae tropomyosin. When the same preparation of D. gallinae proteins was used in Western blots with serum from infested hens, the IgY component of the serum bound to a number of mite proteins, but not to tropomyosin, indicating that hens are not directly exposed to this allergen during a natural infestation. Immunolocalization of tropomyosin in mites indicated a ubiquitous distribution of the molecule in mite tissues. Immunolocalization and Western blotting also indicated that poultry red mites ingest host IgY.

  14. House dust-mite allergen exposure is associated with serum specific IgE but not with respiratory outcomes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakolis, I.; Heinrich, J.; Zock, J.P.; Norbäck, D.; Svanes, C.; Chen, C.M.; Accordini, S.; Verlato, G.; Olivieri, M.; Jarvis, D.

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to house dust has been associated with asthma in adults, and this is commonly interpreted as a direct immunologic response to dust-mite allergens in those who are IgE sensitized to house dust-mite. Mattress house dust-mite concentrations were measured in a population-based sample of 2890

  15. Unlocking the allergenic structure of the major house dust mite allergen der f 2 by elimination of key intramolecular interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takai, T; Ichikawa, S; Yokota, T; Hatanaka, H; Inagaki, F; Okumura, Y

    2000-11-03

    We report on the structural background of the remarkable reduction of allergenicity in engineering of the major house dust mite allergen Der f 2. Disruption of intramolecular disulfide bonds in Der f 2 caused extensive conformational change that was monitored by circular dichroism and gel-filtration analysis. The degree of conformational change correlated well with the degree of reductions in the capacity to bind IgE and to induce histamine release from basophils in mite-allergic patients. Loosening the rigid tertiary structure by elimination of key intramolecular interactions is an effective strategy to reduce the number of high affinity IgE epitopes of allergen vaccine.

  16. Cloning, bioinformatics analysis, and expression of the dust mite allergen Der f 5 of Dermatophagoides farinae

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    Yubao Cui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of house dust mites are used clinically for diagnosis and immunotherapy of allergic diseases, including bronchial asthma, perennial rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis. However, crude extracts are complexes with non-allergenic antigens and lack effective concentrations of important allergens, resulting in several side effects. Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes; Acari: Pyroglyphidae is one of the predominant sources of dust mite allergens, which has more than 30 groups of allergen. The cDNA coding for the group 5 allergen of D. farinae from China was cloned, sequenced and expressed. According to alignment using the VECTOR NTI 9.0 software, there were eight mismatched nucleotides in five cDNA clones resulting in seven incompatible amino acid residues, suggesting that the Der f 5 allergen might have sequence polymorphism. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the matured Der f 5 allergen has a molecular mass of 13604.03 Da, a theoretical pI of 5.43 and is probably hydrophobic and cytoplasmic. Similarities in amino acid sequences between Der f 5 and allergens of other domestic mite species, viz. Der p 5, Blo t 5, Sui m 5, and Lep d 5, were 79, 48, 53, and 37%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Der f 5 and Der p 5 clustered together. Blo t 5 and Ale o 5 also clustered together, although Blomia tropicalis and Aleuroglyphus ovatus belong to different mite families, viz. Echimyopodidae and Acaridae, respectively.

  17. Reduction of the in vivo allergenicity of Der p 2, the major house-dust mite allergen, by genetic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Wei; Fuchs, Gudrun; Sonneck, Karoline; Gieras, Anna; Swoboda, Ines; Douladiris, Nikolas; Linhart, Birgit; Jankovic, Marija; Pavkov, Tea; Keller, Walter; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2008-05-01

    The major allergen of the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Der p 2, is recognized by approximately 90% of mite-allergic patients. We have produced two recombinant fragments of Der p 2 comprising aa 1-53 and aa 54-129 and a hybrid molecule (aa 54-129+1-53), combining the two fragments in inverse order, by genetic engineering. The recombinant Der p 2 derivatives were expressed in E. coli and purified to homogeneity. rDer p 2 derivatives (fragments and hybrid) showed a considerably reduced beta sheet structure and IgE reactivity compared to the Der p 2 wild-type allergen. The allergenic activity of the Der p 2 derivatives was reduced more than tenfold as evaluated in vitro in basophil activation assays and in vivo by skin prick testing of mite-allergic patients. Immunization of mice and rabbits with rDer p 2 derivatives induced Der p 2-specific IgG antibodies, which inhibited the binding of allergic patients' IgE to Der p 2. Immunization of mice with rDer p 2 derivatives induced less allergenic IgE responses than immunization with rDer p 2. Thus the rDer p 2 derivatives exhibited less in vivo allergenic activity and allergenicity than the Der p 2 allergen but preserved immunogenicity and may hence represent candidates for specific immunotherapy of house-dust mite allergy.

  18. House dust mites: a risk factor to be considered for occupational safety or source of work-related allergens.

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    Saleh, Ahmed Megahed Ahmed; Ali, Hisham Abd El-Raouf; Ahmed, Salwa Abdalla Mohamed; Mohammad, Naema Mahmoud; Morsy, Tosson A

    2013-12-01

    House dust mites (HDM) can be found worldwide where human beings live independent from the climate and are a major source of multiple allergens. Mite allergens sensitize and induce perennial rhinitis, asthma, or atopic dermatitis in a large portion of patients with allergic disease particularly children. There is convincing evidence that avoidance of mite allergen can effectively reduce allergic symptoms. This study examined dust from a military hospital and the private home of some nursing staff. A total of seven species of mites belonging to six genera were recovered. The commonest species was Dermatophagoides farinae followed by D. pteronyssinus and the lowest Laelaps nuttalli. Besides, the 7th mite or Parasitus consanguineous live free on dust as a bio-control agent of mites. The presence of mites in and out doors in a hospital and dwellings of medical personnel pave the way to consider HDM as occupational or nosocomial Allergens.

  19. Requirements for acquiring a high-quality house dust mite extract for allergen immunotherapy

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    Frati F

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Franco Frati,1 Cristoforo Incorvaia,2 Marie David,3 Silvia Scurati,3 Simona Seta,4 Guglielmo Padua,4 Eleonora Cattaneo,1 Carlo Cavaliere,5 Alessia Di Rienzo,6 Ilaria Dell'Albani,1 Paola Puccinelli11Medical and Scientific and Regulatory Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 2Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 3Laboratoire Stallergenes, Antony, France; 4Marketing Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 5Ear, Nose and Throat Department, University Sapienza, Rome, Italy; 6Azienda Sanitaria Locale, Allergology Service, Frosinone, ItalyAbstract: The house dust mite is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide. The management of mite allergy is based on avoidance measures, drug treatment, and allergen immunotherapy, but only allergen immunotherapy is able to modify the natural history of the disease. Injectable subcutaneous immunotherapy was introduced a century ago, while sublingual immunotherapy was proposed in the 1980s and emerged in the ensuing years as an effective and safe option to subcutaneous immunotherapy. However, the quality of the extracts to be used in allergen immunotherapy is crucial for the success of treatment. The mite extract for sublingual immunotherapy known as Staloral 300 was developed to offer optimal characteristics concerning the mite culture medium, standardization, and allergen dose. Double-blind, placebo-controlled trials with Staloral 300 have provided a substantial part of the clinical evidence analyzed in a meta-analysis of the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy in mite-induced rhinitis and asthma. Safety and tolerability are very good, mild local reactions in the mouth being the most common side effect. This makes it feasible to carry out sublingual immunotherapy for the 3–5-year duration needed to achieve long-lasting tolerance to the specific allergen. The performance of Staloral 300 may provide optimal conditions for an effective and safe sublingual immunotherapy in patients with

  20. Isolation and characterization of the 68 kD allergen from house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

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    KATARINA MILOVANOVIĆ

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available House dust mites (HDM represent a major source of allergens, contributing to the increasing incidence of type I hypersensitivity disease worldwide. Over 30 different IgE-binding proteins from the HDM extract were detected. Although group 1 and 2 have been identified as major allergens, due to the safety and efficacy of allergy diagnosis and immunotherapy, there is a need to carefully evaluate the clinical relevance of other allergens present in the HDM extract. In regard to this, a high molecular mass allergen of about 68 kD was purified from the HDM extract using a combination of gel permeation chromatography and reversed-phase chromatography. The IgG and IgE reactivity of the purified protein were preserved during the purification process, as confirmed by Western blot analysis with polyclonal rabbit antibodies and dot blot analysis with a pool of sera from subjects with house dust mite allergy, respectively. In addition, the IgE reactivity was confirmed using ELISA testing with nine patient sera. The biological potency of the 68 kD allergen was confirmed by skin prick testing in five allergic subjects, suggesting that the high molecular mass allergen is a good candidate for component-resolved diagnosis of house dust mite allergy and eventual therapeutic treatment.

  1. Alpha-actinin is a new type of house dust mite allergen.

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    Su An

    Full Text Available Main indoor allergens for humans are from house dust mites. There are more than 30 allergens in Dermatophagoides farinae but only fourteen allergens have been identified from this mite including Der f 1-3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13-18, and 22. A native allergen protein (Der f 24, 90 kDa was purified from D. farinae by gel filtration and anionic exchange liquid chromatography combined with IgE immunodetection. Its primary structure was determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry analysis and cDNA cloning. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition tests (ELISA-IT, immunoblots, basophil activation test (BAT and skin prick test (SPT were performed to evaluate the allergenicity. It was identified as an alpha (α-actinin containing a CaM-like domain with EF-hand motifs. Der f 24 reacted to sera from 85.4% (35/41 of patients on western blot analysis. It reduced ∼20% sera IgE reactivity to D. farinae extracts on a competitive ELISA. Eighty percent (8/10 of patients with D. farinae allergy showed positive reactions to Der f 24 in skin prick test. The expression of CD63 on basophils from patients was up-regulated by Der f 24 by ∼5.4-fold. Alpha-actinin was identified as a new type of house dust mite allergen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of α-actinin as an allergen.

  2. Alpha-actinin is a new type of house dust mite allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Su; Shen, Chuanbing; Liu, Xiaoyu; Chen, Lingling; Xu, Xuemei; Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Zhigang; Lai, Ren

    2013-01-01

    Main indoor allergens for humans are from house dust mites. There are more than 30 allergens in Dermatophagoides farinae but only fourteen allergens have been identified from this mite including Der f 1-3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13-18, and 22. A native allergen protein (Der f 24, 90 kDa) was purified from D. farinae by gel filtration and anionic exchange liquid chromatography combined with IgE immunodetection. Its primary structure was determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry analysis and cDNA cloning. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition tests (ELISA-IT), immunoblots, basophil activation test (BAT) and skin prick test (SPT) were performed to evaluate the allergenicity. It was identified as an alpha (α)-actinin containing a CaM-like domain with EF-hand motifs. Der f 24 reacted to sera from 85.4% (35/41) of patients on western blot analysis. It reduced ∼20% sera IgE reactivity to D. farinae extracts on a competitive ELISA. Eighty percent (8/10) of patients with D. farinae allergy showed positive reactions to Der f 24 in skin prick test. The expression of CD63 on basophils from patients was up-regulated by Der f 24 by ∼5.4-fold. Alpha-actinin was identified as a new type of house dust mite allergen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of α-actinin as an allergen.

  3. The distribution of dust mite allergen in the houses of patients with asthma

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    Tovey, E.R.; Chapman, M.D.; Wells, C.W.; Platts-Mills, T.A.

    1981-11-01

    Using an inhibition radioimmunoassay for the major allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (antigen P1), we studied the distribution of this dust allergen in the houses of patients with asthma. Both bed and floor dust samples contained a wide range of antigen P1, 100 to 100,000 ng/g of fine dust, and this concentration correlated well with the number of mite bodies (r . 0.81, p less than 0.001). We were unable to detect antigen P1 in the air of undisturbed rooms. However, during domestic activity, between 1 and 30 ng were collected on a filter than sampled air for 45 min at 17 L/min. Using a cascade impactor it was shown that greater than 80% of the airborne antigen P1 was associated with particles greater than 10 mu in diameter. Some of the particles containing allergen could be identified because they formed precipitin rings when impacted onto agarose containing rabbit antimite antiserum. These particles had the physical appearance of mite feces, which are the major source of antigen P1 in mite cultures. The results suggested that natural exposure to this dust allergen allows occasional fecal particles to enter the lungs and that these particles contain very concentrated allergen.

  4. Orchestration of an uncommon maturation cascade of the house dust mite protease allergen quartet

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    Marie-Eve eDumez

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In more than 20% of the world population, sensitization to house dust mite (HDM allergens triggers typical allergic diseases such as allergic rhinitis and asthma. Amongst the 23 mite allergen groups hitherto identified, groups 1 are cysteine proteases belonging to the papain-like family whereas groups 3, 6 and 9 are serine proteases displaying trypsin, chymotrypsin and collagenolytic activities, respectively. While these proteases are more likely to be involved in the mite digestive system, they also play critical roles in the initiation and in the chronicity of the allergic response notably through the activation of innate immune pathways. All these allergenic proteases are expressed in mite as inactive precursor form. Until recently, the exact mechanisms of their maturation into active proteases remained to be fully elucidated. Recent breakthroughs in the understanding of the activation mechanisms of mite allergenic protease precursors have highlighted an uncommon and unique maturation pathway orchestrated by group 1 proteases that tightly regulates the proteolytic activities of groups 1, 3, 6 and 9 through complex intra- or intermolecular mechanisms. This review presents and discusses the currently available knowledge of the activation mechanisms of group 1, 3, 6 and 9 allergens of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus laying special emphasis on their localization, regulation and interconnection.

  5. Repeated measurements of mite and pet allergen levels in house dust over a time period of 8 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antens, C. J. M.; Oldenwening, M.; Wolse, A.; Gehring, U.; Smit, H. A.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kerkhof, M.; Gerritsen, J.; de Jongste, J. C.; Brunekreef, B.

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies of the association between indoor allergen exposure and the development of allergic diseases have often measured allergen exposure at one point in time. Objective We investigated the variability of house dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1) and cat (Fel d 1) allergen in Dutch homes over a

  6. Repeated measurements of mite and pet allergen levels in house dust over a time period of 8 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antens, C. J. M.; Oldenwening, M.; Wolse, A.; Gehring, U.; Smit, H. A.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kerkhof, M.; Gerritsen, J.; de Jongste, J. C.; Brunekreef, B.

    2006-01-01

    Background Studies of the association between indoor allergen exposure and the development of allergic diseases have often measured allergen exposure at one point in time. Objective We investigated the variability of house dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1) and cat (Fel d 1) allergen in Dutch homes over a

  7. Evaluation of skin sensitivity in dogs bearing allergic dermatitis to standardized allergenic extract of house dust and storage mites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Victor E.S. Cunha; Ruppert L. Hahnstadt; Ana Maria B. Soares; João Luiz H. Faccini

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether allergenic extracts of five house dust and storage mite species standardized for humans might be used for the diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD...

  8. Serological identification of house dust mite allergens in dogs with atopic dermatitis

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    Victor E.S. Cunha

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available House dust mite antigens have been used for decades to diagnose allergic diseases in humans and animals. The objective of this study was to identify allergens in commercial Dermatophagoides farinae and Blomia tropicalis extracts by immunoblotting using sera from allergic dogs and anti-dog IgE conjugate. The analysis of antigens present in the D. farinae extract (FDA Allergenic using sera from 10 dogs allergic to D. farinae showed that eight sera recognized a band of approximately 102 kDa, eight recognized two bands of 52 to 76 kDa, five recognized one band of approximately 76 kDa, four recognized one band of 31 to 38 kDa, and two recognized one band of 12 to 17 kDa. Immunoblot assays of the B. tropicalis extract (FDA Allergenic using sera from 10 animals allergic to B. tropicalis showed that five sera recognized two bands of 52 to 76 kDa. These results demonstrate the importance of the two house dust mite species for the pathogenesis of canine atopic dermatitis in Brazil. In addition, the results indicate which allergens should be present in allergenic extracts used for diagnosis and allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  9. Molecular Determinants for Antibody Binding on Group 1 House Dust Mite Allergens

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    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Pomés, Anna; Glesner, Jill; Vailes, Lisa D.; Osinski, Tomasz; Porebski, Przemyslaw J.; Majorek, Karolina A.; Heymann, Peter W.; Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Minor, Wladek; Chapman, Martin D. (INDOOR Bio.); (UV); (UVHS)

    2012-07-11

    House dust mites produce potent allergens, Der p 1 and Der f 1, that cause allergic sensitization and asthma. Der p 1 and Der f 1 are cysteine proteases that elicit IgE responses in 80% of mite-allergic subjects and have proinflammatory properties. Their antigenic structure is unknown. Here, we present crystal structures of natural Der p 1 and Der f 1 in complex with a monoclonal antibody, 4C1, which binds to a unique cross-reactive epitope on both allergens associated with IgE recognition. The 4C1 epitope is formed by almost identical amino acid sequences and contact residues. Mutations of the contact residues abrogate mAb 4C1 binding and reduce IgE antibody binding. These surface-exposed residues are molecular targets that can be exploited for development of recombinant allergen vaccines.

  10. Protective effect of the DNA vaccine encoding the major house dust mite allergens on allergic inflammation in the murine model of house dust mite allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jaechun

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccination with naked DNA encoding antigen induces cellular and humoral immunity characterized by the activation of specific Th1 cells. Objective To evaluate the effects of vaccination with mixed naked DNA plasmids encoding Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 3, Der f 1, Der f 2, and Der f 3, the major house dust mite allergens on the allergic inflammation to the whole house dust mites (HDM crude extract. Methods Three hundred micrograms of these gene mixtures were injected into muscle of BALB/c mice. Control mice were injected with the pcDNA 3.1 blank vector. After 3 weeks, the mice were actively sensitized and inhaled with the whole house dust mite extract intranasally. Results The vaccinated mice showed a significantly decreased synthesis of total and HDM-specific IgE compared with controls. Analysis of the cytokine profile of lymphocytes after challenge with HDM crude extract revealed that mRNA expression of interferon-γ was higher in the vaccinated mice than in the controls. Reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells and the prominent infiltration of CD8+ T cells were observed in histology of lung tissue from the vaccinated mice. Conclusion Vaccination with DNA encoding the major house dust mite allergens provides a promising approach for treating allergic responses to whole house dust mite allergens.

  11. House dust mite allergen level and allergen sensitization as risk factors for asthma among student in Central Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    This study is a community-based study to get an overview about House Dust Mite (HDM) allergen level, allergen sensitization as risk factors of asthma. This is a cross-sectional study on 3,840 students from 19 junior high schools, aged 13-14 years. All of the respondents filled out the International Study on Asthma and Allergy in Children (ISAAC) questionnaire. Of 3840 respondents, 288 (7.5%) were assigned to asthma group (experience wheezing during the last 12 months). The skin prick test was...

  12. House dust mites and their allergens in Danish mattresses -- results from a population based study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Kirsten E; Hallas, Thorkil E; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the level of house dust mites (HDMs) and their allergens in mattresses, not selected on their owners atopic status, and to find associated factors. Dust was collected from 68 mattresses. The recruitment was population-based and conducted during the screen......The purpose of this study was to identify the level of house dust mites (HDMs) and their allergens in mattresses, not selected on their owners atopic status, and to find associated factors. Dust was collected from 68 mattresses. The recruitment was population-based and conducted during...... the screening phase of a HDM intervention study. The visited persons declared to have had a "cold" bedroom the previous winter. HDMs were counted and dust was analysed by ELISA for Der 1 (= Der f 1+ Der p 1+ Der m 1). Multiple regression analysis was carried out to find housing conditions associated with high...... HDM levels. Type of housing, mattress age and self-assessed winter bedroom-temperature explained 47% of Der 1. Median concentrations were 3.77 microg Der 1/g and 1 HDM/0.1 g dust. Both immunochemically and microscopically Dermatophagoides farinae was dominant; D. pteronyssinus less frequent...

  13. Seasonal differences in airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic patients : Relationship with allergen exposure and sensitization to house dust mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderHeide, S; deMonchy, JGR; deVries, K; Dubois, AEJ; Kauffman, HF

    Background The degree of airway hyperresponsiveness in allergic asthmatic patients may be influenced by changes in environmental exposure to inhalant allergens. Objective This study investigates the relationship between seasonal changes in exposure to house dust mite (HDM) allergens and non-specific

  14. Efficacy of a House Dust Mite Sublingual Allergen Immunotherapy Tablet in Adults With Allergic Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virchow, J Christian; Backer, Vibeke; Kuna, Piotr;

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: The house dust mite (HDM) sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is a potential novel treatment option for HDM allergy-related asthma. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of the HDM SLIT tablet vs placebo for asthma exacerbations during an inhaled corticos......IMPORTANCE: The house dust mite (HDM) sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is a potential novel treatment option for HDM allergy-related asthma. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and adverse events of the HDM SLIT tablet vs placebo for asthma exacerbations during an inhaled...... moderate or severe asthma exacerbation during the ICS reduction period. Secondary outcomes were deterioration in asthma symptoms, change in allergen-specific immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4), change in asthma control or asthma quality-of-life questionnaires, and adverse events. RESULTS: Among 834 randomized...... in allergen-specific IgG4. However, there was no significant difference for change in asthma control questionnaire or asthma quality-of-life questionnaire for either dose. There were no reports of severe systemic allergic reactions. The most frequent adverse events were mild to moderate oral pruritus (13...

  15. HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGEN (Derp1 AND Blot5) LEVELS IN ASTHMATICS' HOME IN HONGKONG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-qing Sun; Adrian Wu; Albert Chan; Stanley Chik; Dorothy Wong; Nan-shan Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Objective To measure Derpl and Blot5 allergen levels in asthmatics' homes in Hongkong.Methods Seventy houses were enrolled for a mite indoor environment study. Dust samples were obtained from two sites of each patients' house: bed and floor. Derpl and Blot5 levels were quantified by a two-site monoclonal antibody-based ELISA technique.Results The levels of Derpl allergens found in bed (geometric mean (GM) 3.43 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 1.89-4.96 μg/g)and on the floor (GM 1.12 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.71-1.53 μg/g) indicated significant differences (P=0.005). However, the levels of Blot5 allergens found in bed (GM 19.00 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.89-38.90 μg/g) and on the floor (GM 6.14 μg/g of dust; 95%CI, 0.40-11.90 μg/g) showed no statistically significant difference. In addition, in regards to the exposure index for Derpl and Blot5 allergens found in bed and on the floor, 17.6% in bed and 8.6% on the floor had levels of Blot5 ≥ 10 μg/g of dust, higher than those obtained for Derp1 (7.2% and 0% in bed and on the floor respectively, P< 0.05); higher percentages in bed and on the floor (25.0% and 35.7%) were observed for levels of Blot5 =0 μg/g of dust as compared with Derpl in bed and on the floor (4.3% and 14.5% respectively, P< 0.05).Conclusions Derpl and Blot5 are the major allergens found in this regional study, Blot5 is a more potent allergen in Hongkong, probably reflecting the high level of exposure to Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Bt and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) allergens should be included for precise diagnosis and effective immuno-therapeutic treatment of mite allergy in Hongkong.

  16. A milestone in house dust-mite-allergen immunotherapy: the new sublingual tablet S-524101 (actair).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahceciler, Nerin N; Babayigit Hocaoglu, Arzu; Galip, Nilufer

    2014-12-01

    Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy has long been used in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and/or asthma and its efficacy has been confirmed. However, due to the discomfort of injections and the risk of severe adverse reactions, alternative routes of allergen administration have emerged. Delivery of allergens through the mucosal route had been proposed and investigated thoroughly, confirming the sublingual route to be the most efficacious. Later, the efficacy and safety of this route have been documented by numerous controlled trials both for house dust mite (HDM) and pollens. Recently, sublingual orodispersable grass pollen allergen tablets were in use followed by the newly developed HDM allergen tablets with satisfactory clinical results: Moreover, very recently 1 year of HDM tablet treatment was demonstrated to exert its clinical efficacy 1 year after discontinuation of tablet IT. The persistence of efficacy after only 1 year of treatment is a new and promising era. Currently, Sublingual Immunotherapy is the most easily administered and safe treatment option until more immunogenic, less allergenic and more efficient allergen extracts are developed.

  17. Immune response to allergens in sheep sensitized to house dust mite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velden Joanne

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background House dust mite (HDM allergens are a major cause of allergic asthma. Most studies using animal models of allergic asthma have used rodents sensitized with the 'un-natural' allergen ovalbumin. It has only recently been recognized that the use of animal models based on HDM provide a more relevant insight into the allergen-induced mechanisms that underpin human allergic disease. We have previously described a sheep model of human allergic asthma that uses Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus HDM. The present study extends our understanding of the immune effects of HDM and the allergens Der p 1 and Der p 2 in the sheep model of asthma. Methods Peripheral blood sera from non-sensitized (control sheep and sheep sensitized to HDM was collected to determine immunoglobulin (Ig reactivities to HDM, Der p 1 and Der p 2 by ELISA. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid collected following allergen challenge was also assessed for the presence of HDM-specific antibodies. To examine the cellular immune response to HDM allergens, T cell proliferation and cutaneous responses were assessed in sensitized and control sheep. Results Strong HDM- and Der p 1-specific IgE, IgG1, IgG2 and IgA serum responses were observed in sensitized sheep, while detectable levels of HDM-specific IgG1 and IgA were seen in BAL fluid of allergen-challenged lungs. In contrast, minimal antibody reactivity was observed to Der p 2. Marked T cell proliferation and late phase cutaneous responses, accompanied by the recruitment of eosinophils, indicates the induction of a cellular and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH type II response by HDM and Der p 1 allergen, but not Der p 2. Conclusion This work characterizes the humoral and cellular immune effects of HDM extract and its major constituent allergens in sheep sensitized to HDM. The effects of allergen in HDM-sensitized sheep were detectable both locally and systemically, and probably mediated via enzymatic and immune actions of the

  18. Prolonged effect of allergen sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mites in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozek, Andrzej; Starczewska-Dymek, Liwia; Jarzab, Jerzy

    2017-07-01

    The prolonged effect of allergen immunotherapy is unknown, especially in older patients. To analyze the 3-year effect of sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SLIT) to house dust mites in elderly patients with allergic rhinitis. Forty-seven elderly patients (65.78 ± 4.89 years old) underwent SLIT to house dust mites and were monitored for 3 years and compared with a placebo group. SLIT was performed with the use of oral Staloral 300 SR Der p and Der f 50/50% extract (Stallergens Greer, London, United Kingdom) or placebo. Symptoms and medication score, represented by the average adjusted symptom score (AAdSS), serum level of immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Der p 1, and Der p 2, and quality of life, were assessed immediately after SLIT and 3 years later. The AAdSS was significantly decreased after SLIT, and the level remained low during the 3 years after SLIT compared with placebo. Serum-specific IgG4 against D pteronyssinus, D farinae, Der p 1, and Der p 2 increased during the SLIT trial in the study group. For the 3 years of observation after SLIT, there were no significant changes of specific IgG4 levels against the analyzed allergens compared with results just after SLIT. Quality of life based on the Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire score was significantly decreased in patients who received SLIT, from 1.48 (95% confidence interval 1.33-1.79) to 0.98 (95% confidence interval 0.67-1.07; P mites was observed in elderly patients with allergic rhinitis. Further trials are needed to confirm this effect. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01605760. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. House dust mite allergen Der f enhanced bronchial epithelial cell cytokine expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAO QING SUN; WEI TANG; ALBERT CHAN; ADRIAN WU; NAN SHAN ZHONG

    2006-01-01

    The house dust mites ( Dermatophagoides farinae, Der f) are the major source of aeroallergens implicated in the expression of atopic disorders, including asthma, allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis. In particular, strong circumstantial evidence suggests that house dust mite antigens are important precipitating factors of asthma. Many house dust mite allergens are proteases that can elicit airway inflammation by stimulating the release of cytokines from bronchial epithelial cells. To investigate whether Derf allergen proteases induced cytokine production from the epithelial cell line BEAS-2B,BEAS-2B cells were cultured with 4 different concentrations of Derf (0.02, 0.2, 2, 20 μg/ml) for 24-96 h, after which supernatants were assayed for interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 with ELISA. Reverse transcription-PCR was also performed. The cell sheets were intact throughout the observation in control group without any exposure to Derf antigen. In the experimental groups cells treated with Der f allergen showed changes in the anchorage status of the monolayer. There was a significant increase in the level of cytokine production compared with the untreated sample. The release of IL-6 and IL-8 increased in a concentration-dependent manner ( P < 0.05, respectively) with the addition of increasing dosage of Der f to the cell sheets. Levels of IL-6 and IL-8 began to rise at 24 h and 48 h after allergen exposure, and they increased significantly in the supernatants at 72 h and 96 h. At the same time the concentration dependence of induction of IL-6 and IL-8 expression as well as an increase in the expression of IL-6 and IL-8 mRNA manifested evidently. HDM-induced airway inflammation may include Der f-mediated release of inflammatory mediators, and the proteolytic activity of an allergen may stimulate the release of proinflammatory cytokines from human bronchial epithelium. It is suggested that IL-6 and IL-8 production by bronchial epithelial cells may play a role in the

  20. Purification and characterization of M-177, a 177 kDa allergen, from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiro Fujikawa

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A high molecular weight allergen, M-177, was recently discovered in the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae. The aims of this study were to develop a conventional purification procedure for M-177 and then to analyze some of the immunochemical properties of M-177. Mite extracts obtained from purified mite bodies were a suitable material for preparing M-177, because the purified mite extract contained large amounts of M-177. The purification of this allergen from the extract was achieved by ethanol fractionation, anion exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. The purified antigen was immunochemically equivalent to that of a preparation obtained by a previous affinity method using an anti-Mag 3-immobilized column. The yield of this purification procedure was 36.8% of the initial amount of M-177 in the extract, 40-fold greater than that of the previous immunoaffinity method. Our purification method was useful for preparing this allergen. The purified M-177 reacted in skin tests in 11 of 16 miteallergic patients, compared to 10 of 16 with Der f 2. The amount of M-177 in the purified mite extract determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition was as much as 0.95% of the total protein, which was higher than the amounts of Der f 1 (0.52% and Der f 2 (0.32%. The potent allergenic activity and large amount of M-177 in the mites indicate that it is an important mite allergen.

  1. Dust Mite Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dust mite allergy Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Dust mite allergy is an allergic reaction to tiny bugs that commonly live in house dust. Signs of dust mite allergy include those common to hay fever, such as ...

  2. Allergens of mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Siwak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mite allergens belong to the group of inhalant allergens and represent antigenic substances which are particutlarly important in the pathogenesis of respiratory system diseases and skin diseases. The most common diseases associated with chronic exposure to these aeroallergens include: allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and atopic dermatitis. Mite allergens are simple proteins or glycoproteins with different molecular structures and various biochemical functions. The sensitizing capacity of these proteins is connected from their physicochemical properties. Individual allergens perform, among others, the functions of structural proteins, act as enzymes, transport lipids, bind metal ions, and are capable of glycosylation. In addition, mite allergenic proteases degrade proteins of the skin epithelium-resulting in a weakening of its natural protective barrier-and induce the immune response. The proteases also induce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines: interleukin-4 (IL-4, interleukin 6 (IL-6, interleukin 8 (IL-8, eotaxin, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-GM-CSF. The article presents the tertiary structure of major and mid-range mite allergens and their classification. Based on literature reports concerning the chemical structure of allergenic proteins, it was emphasized that the structural differences between homologous proteins with allergenic pozoproperties relate to the distribution of amino acid residues on the surface of the molecule. IgE binding affinity and the similarities and differences in the amino acid sequence of the allergens were also the basis for determining cross-reactivity of allergenic proteins. The paper shows an example of this phenomenon, describing the existence of common allergens for various mite species.

  3. Proteome, Allergenome, and Novel Allergens of House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides farinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choopong, Jintarat; Reamtong, Onrapak; Sookrung, Nitat; Seesuay, Watee; Indrawattana, Nitaya; Sakolvaree, Yuwaporn; Chaicumpa, Wanpen; Tungtrongchitr, Anchalee

    2016-02-05

    Dermatophagoides farinae mite is a predominant source of indoor allergens causing high incidence of allergy worldwide. People with different genetic background respond differently to the mite components, and thus the component-resolved diagnosis (CRD) is preferred to the conventional allergy test based on crude mite extract. In this study, proteome and culprit components in the D. farinae whole body extract that sensitized the allergic patients were studied by using SDS-PAGE (1DE) and 2DE-IgE immunoblotting followed by LC-MS/MS and database search for protein identification. From the 1DE, the mite extract revealed 105 proteins that could be classified into seven functionally different groups: allergens, structural components, enzymes, enzyme inhibitor, receptor proteins, transporters, and binding/regulatory/cell signaling proteins. From the 2DE, the mite extract produced 94 spots; 63 were bound by IgE in sera of 20 D. farinae allergic patients. One more protein that was not revealed by the 2DE and protein staining reacted with IgE in 2 allergic patients. Proteins in 40 spots could be identified as 35 different types. Three of them reacted to IgE of >50% of the allergic patients, and hence they are major allergens: tropomyosin or Der f 10 (75%), aconitate hydratase (70%), and one uncharacterized protein (55%). Aconitate hydratase is a novel D. farinae major allergen unraveled in this study. Several mite minor allergens that have never been previously reported are also identified. The data have clinical applications in the component-resolved diagnosis for tailor-designed allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  4. Enzymatic activities of allergen extracts from three species of dust mites and cockroaches commonly found in Korean home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Kim, Chungryul; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2010-06-01

    Allergen extracts from dust mites and cockroaches commonly found in Korean homes were used to evaluate their enzymatic activity as they are believed to influence allergenicity. Allergen extracts were prepared from 3 dust mite species (Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae) and 3 cockroach species (Blattella germanica, Periplaneta americana, and P. fuliginosa) maintained in the Korea National Arthropods of Medical Importance Resource Bank. Proteins were extracted in PBS after homogenization using liquid nitrogen. The activities of various enzymes were investigated using the API Zym system. No significant difference in phosphatase, lipase, or glycosidase activity was observed among the 6 allergen extracts, but much difference was observed in protease activity. Protease activity was assessed in more detail by gelatin zymography and the EnzChek assay. Extract from T. putrescentiae showed the highest protease activity, followed by those of the cockroach extracts. Extracts from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus showed only weak protease activity. Gelatinolytic activity was detected mainly in a 30-kDa protein in D. farinae, a 28-kDa protein in D. pteronyssinus, a > 26-kDa protein in T. putrescentiae, a > 20-kDa protein in B. germanica, and a > 23-kDa protein in P. americana and P. fuliginosa. The information on various enzymatic activities obtained in this study may be useful for future studies. In particular, the strong protease activity found in cockroach extracts could contribute to sensitization to cockroach allergens, which is known to be associated with the development of asthma.

  5. [House dust mite allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C

    2012-04-01

    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy.

  6. House-dust mite allergy: mapping of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergens for dogs by two-dimensional immunoblotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Andreia Grilo; Pereira, Luísa Maria Dotti Silva; Goicoa, Ana; Semião-Santos, Saul José; Bento, Ofélia Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Specific immunotherapy has shown to be very useful for allergy control in dogs, with a common success rate ranging from 65% to 70%. However, this efficacy could probably be improved and the identification of individual allergomes, with the choice of more adequate molecular allergen pools for specific immunotherapy, being the strategy. Aim To map Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) allergens for mite-sensitized atopic dogs, for better understanding how individual allergograms may influence the response to house-dust mite immunotherapy. Material and methods To identify the Der p mite allergome for dogs, 20 individuals allergic to dust-mites and sensitized to Der p, were selected. The extract from Der p was submitted to isoelectric focusing (IEF), one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Separated proteins were blotted onto polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) membranes and immunoblottings were performed with patient sera. Allergen-bound specific IgE was detected. Results Eleven allergens were identified from isoelectric focusing (IEF), as well as from 1-D SDS PAGE. From 2-D SDS-PAGE, 24 spots were identified. Conclusions Several similarities were found between dog and human allergograms and no absolute correlation between sensitization and allergy was observed either. As in humans, different individual allergograms do not seem to implicate different clinical patterns, but may influence the response to specific immunotherapy. The molecular epidemiology approach in veterinary allergy management, by the characterization of individual patients’ allergoms and by choosing the best molecular allergen pool for each patient could also improve the efficacy of allergy immunotherapy. PMID:26015775

  7. Sero-prevalence study of IgE responses to allergens from Malaysian house dust (HDM) and storage mites (SM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, K T; Wong, S F; Mak, J W; Loh, L C; Ho, T M

    2015-09-01

    Allergens of Dermatophagoides and Blomia species are well-characterized but not for other species. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of allergic sensitization to house dust (HDM) and storage mites (SM). One hundred adult subjects (aged ≥ 18) were recruited. The mite specific IgE of all allergic subjects were higher compared with healthy subjetcs despite being not statistically significant except for D. farinae and G. malaysiensis. The mean serum IgE levels against HDM and SM for allergic subjects were significantly higher compared with those in healthy subjects. They were mainly sensitized to Dermatophagoides farinae (35%) and Glycycometus malaysiensis (37%). Immunoblots revealed not all allergic subjects showed positive immuno-reactivity against the mites tested. Single or multiple bands were observed for different species. The subjects were commonly sensitized to Group 2 (9-12 kDa), 10 (38 kDa) and 18 (40-48 kDa) allergens. Twenty-one out of 60 allergic subjects were sensitized to either one or more species. The majority of them (71%) were sensitized to single species. The allergic subjects were mainly sensitized to D. pteronyssinus, followed by Tyrophagus putrecentiae and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Seven were solely sensitized to HDM while 10 were solely sensitized to SM. Four subjects were sensitized to both. Pre-adsorption study revealed no cross-reactivity. There was difference between the prevalence and reactivity to allergens of HDM and SM in these subjects. Both ELISA and immunoblot did not correlate well but can complement each other in improving the detection of mite allergens to the species level.

  8. Effect of inhaled dust mite allergen on regional particle deposition and mucociliary clearance in allergic asthmatics**

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background Acute exacerbations in allergic asthmatics may lead to impaired ability to clear mucus from the airways, a key factor in asthma morbidity. Objective The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inhaled house dust mite challenge on the regional deposition of...

  9. Prevalence of sensitivity to cockroach allergens and IgE crossreactivity between cockroach and house dust mite allergens in Chinese patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bao-qing; LAI Xu-xin; Birgitte Gjesing; Michael Dho Spangfort; ZHONG Nan-shan

    2010-01-01

    Background Cockroaches are an important indoor allergen source causing allergic rhinitis and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the cockroach prevalence in mainland of China and the cross-reactivity of IgE between cockroach and house dust mite allergen in Chinese patients.Methods The cockroach sensitization pattern was based on a skin prick test (SPT) obtained from a national multicenter prevalence study, in which 6304 patients from 25 allergy centers across China participated. Factors, including different regions of China, age, gender and the correlations between the American and German cockroaches and house dust mite Der p were investigated. Eighteen out of 1236 clinical sera from south China were selected to perform the cross-inhibition assay between house dust mites and cockroaches.Results Totally 25.7% of patients were SPT positive to the American cockroach (Periplaneta Americana, Per a) and 18.7% SPT positive to the German cockroach (Blattella germanica, Bla g). The prevalence of positive cockroach SPT was higher in southern than in northern China, higher in adults than in children, and higher in males than in females.Patients had relatively low levels of cockroach SPT reactions, mainly class 1 or 2. Of the SPT positive cockroach patients,88% were also SPT positive to house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Der p). An IgE cross-inhibition study confirmed that Der P sensitization could cause false positive SPT reactions against cockroach.Conclusions A relatively high prevalence of cockroach sensitivity was found in mainland of China. However, a cross-inhibition study showed that only a small number of patients appear to have Bla g and/or Per a as primary sensitizing source. The importance of cockroaches as a risk factor for sensitization and triggers of allergic symptoms in mainland of China needs to be further investigated.

  10. Dust mite allergen, glutathione S-transferase, induces T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain-4 in dendritic cells to facilitate initiation of airway allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, L-H; Yang, L-T; Zeng, L; Xu, L-Z; Zhang, H-P; Li, L-J; Liu, J-Q; Xiao, X-J; Zheng, P-Y; Liu, Z-G; Yang, P-C

    2017-02-01

    Allergens from dust mites play a critical role in the pathogenesis of airway allergy. The mechanism by which dust mite allergens induce allergic diseases is not fully understood yet. This study tests a hypothesis that the eighth subtypes of Dermatophagoides farina allergen (Derf8) play an important role in the induction of airway allergy. The protein of Derf8 was synthesized via molecular cloning approach. Dendritic cells (DC) were stimulated with Derf8 in the culture, and then, the expression of T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain 4 (TIM4) in dendritic cells (DC) was analysed. The role of Derf8 in the induction of airway allergy was evaluated with a mouse model. Exposure to Derf8 markedly induced the TIM4 expression in DCs by modulating the chromatin at the TIM4 promoter locus. Derf8 played a critical role in the expansion of the T helper 2 response in the mouse airway via inducing DCs to produce TIM4. Administration with Derf8-depleted dust mite extracts (DME) inhibited the allergic inflammation and induced regulatory T cells in mice with airway allergy. Derf8 plays an important role in the initiation of dust mite allergy. Vaccination with Derf8-deficient DME is more efficient to inhibit the dust mite allergic inflammation than using wild DME. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Asthma, Airway Symptoms and Rhinitis in Office Workers in Malaysia: Associations with House Dust Mite (HDM) Allergy, Cat Allergy and Levels of House Dust Mite Allergens in Office Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Fang Lee; Hashim, Zailina; Than, Leslie Thian Lung; Md Said, Salmiah; Hisham Hashim, Jamal; Norbäck, Dan

    2015-01-01

    A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695). The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM) and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae) and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH) were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus) and Der f 1 (from D. farinae) allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035), any airway symptoms (p= 0.032), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005), current asthma (p= 0.007), current rhinitis (p= 0.021) and rhinoconjuctivitis (pallergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021), wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033), any airway symptoms (p= 0.034), doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010), current asthma (p= 0.020) and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042). Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033) especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (pallergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness.

  12. Detection of a novel 20 kDa shrimp allergen showing cross-reactivity to house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalta, D; Tonutti, E; Visentini, D; Bizzaro, N; Roncarolo, D; Amato, S; Mistrello, G

    2010-02-01

    Allergy to crustacean shellfish is one of the most common IgE-mediated food allergies, and tropomyosin has been identified as the major allergen. However, not all subjects affected by this allergy are IgE-positive to tropomyosin. To evaluate whether sera of patients with shrimp allergy but negative for tropomyosin react to other allergen(s); and to evaluate the role such allergen(s) may play in cross-reactivity between crustaceans and house dust mites (HDMs). Three different pools of sera-one from subjects with shellfish allergy and HDMs positivity, but negative for recombinant and native tropomyosin (rPen a 1 and nPen m 1) (Pool 2); a second from subjects with tropomyosin and HDMs positivity (Pool 1); and the last from subjects allergic only to HDMs (Pool 3) were submitted to immunoblotting. Subsequently, a 20 kDa protein- enriched fraction of shrimp extract was used at two different concentrations (10 and 100 microg/mL) to pre-absorb the Pool 2 serum and to evaluate, by ELISA assay, the level of inhibition on shrimp and HDMs-coated wells, respectively. The Pool 2 serum showed IgE reactivity against a 20 kDa component. Its pre-absorption with an enriched fraction of 20 kDa protein caused an inhibition of 56% in IgE binding to shrimp extract at a concentration of 100 microg/mL, and of 14% and 35% to HDMs extract at concentrations of 10 and 100 microg/mL, respectively, as measured by ELISA assay. The 20 kDa component seems to be a new crustacean allergen and it could play a role in cross-reactivity with HDMs.

  13. Dermatophagoides farinae house dust mite allergen challenges reduce stratum corneum ceramides in an experimental dog model of acute atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Jessica; Paps, Judy; Bäumer, Wolfgang; Olivry, Thierry

    2012-12-01

    Ceramides are essential stratum corneum (SC) lipids and they play a pivotal role in maintaining effective cutaneous barrier function. The present study aimed at determining the effect of a Dermatophagoides farinae house dust mite (Df-HDM) allergen challenge on SC ceramides of atopic dogs experimentally sensitized to these allergens. Six Df-HDM-sensitized atopic Maltese-beagle dogs were used. Prechallenge SC was obtained by cyanoacrylate stripping. One week later, the dogs were challenged topically with Df-HDM allergens, which resulted in mild to moderate inflammation 24 h later. Two weeks after challenge, SC of lesional and nonlesional skin was obtained. Finally, SC was collected from challenge sites 2 months after lesion resolution. The different SC lipids were quantified blindly by thin-layer chromatography. Significantly lower amounts of ceramides [AH], [AP], [AS], [NP], [EOP], [NS] and [EOS] were observed in lesional SC compared with prechallenge samples, while no significant effect was found on the amount of other lipids, including cholesterol and free fatty acids. The ceramide profile of nonlesional skin generally showed the same postchallenge reduction pattern. Ceramide amounts returned to normal within 2 months after lesion remission. These findings suggest that the allergic reactions caused by Df-HDM allergens lead to a selective reduction of SC ceramides, not only at sites of inflammation but also at sites away from those of allergen application. There is normalization of ceramide amounts after inflammation subsides. These observations suggest that the deficiency of ceramides observed in canine atopic skin occurs, at least in part, secondary to inflammation. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.

  14. Der f 35: An MD-2-like house dust mite allergen that cross-reacts with Der f 2 and Pso o 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimura, T; Aki, T; Isobe, T; Matsuoka, A; Hayashi, T; Ono, K; Kawamoto, S

    2017-04-25

    Dermatophagoides farinae is a source of airborne house dust mite (HDM) allergens. We elucidated IgE-reactive allergens from D. farinae by two-dimensional immunoblotting-based allergenome analysis, and identified one new allergen, named Der f 35, that possesses IgE-binding capacity comparable to that of Der f 2. The aim of this study was to clarify the allergenic capacity of new HDM allergen Der f 35. We cloned der f 35 from D. farinae mRNA and produced recombinant Der f 35 in Escherichia coli. The IgE-binding capacity of Der f 35 and its cross-reactivity with group 2 allergens from D. farinae and Psoroptes ovis were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and ELISA inhibition assays, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence for der f 35, which possesses the MD-2-related lipid-recognition domain, showed higher identity with group 2 allergens from P. ovis (61.5%) and Blomia tropicalis (50.7%) than with Der f 2 (40.8%). Der f 35 showed IgE-binding frequencies of 77.5% (31/40) for the native form upon allergenome analysis and 51.4% (18/35) for recombinant structure by ELISA. Der f 35 showed cross-reactivity with Der f 2 and Pso o 2 in reaction with HDM-allergic patients' IgE by ELISA inhibition assay. Der f 35 is a candidate major allergen from D. farinae, which is more similar to group 2 allergens from sheep scab mite and storage mites. Der f 35 could be responsible for the cross-reactivity among group 2 mite allergens. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  15. House dust mite allergen avoidance and self-management in allergic patients with asthma: randomised controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, M.P. de; Bemt, L. van den; Aretz, K.; Thoonen, B.P.A.; Muris, J.W.M.; Kester, A.D.; Cloosterman, S.G.M.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy of bed covers that are impermeable to house dust mites has been disputed. AIM: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the combination of 'house dust mite impermeable' covers and a self-management plan, based on peak flow values and symptoms, leads to reduced

  16. Allergy to house dust mites and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milián, Evelyn; Díaz, Ana María

    2004-03-01

    House dust mites have been shown to be important sources of indoor allergens associated with asthma and other allergic conditions. Asthma is a chronic respiratory disease that affects millions of people worldwide, and numerous scientific studies have shown that the prevalence of asthma is increasing. The most common dust mite species around the world include Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides farinae (Df), Euroglyphus maynei (Em) and Blomia tropicalis (Bt). Over the past three decades, many important allergens from these species have been identified and characterized at the molecular level. The biological function of several house dust mite allergens has been elucidated, with many of them showing enzymatic activity. However, Bt allergens remain the least studied, even though this mite is very common in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, including Puerto Rico. Therefore, it is very important to include Bt in diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for house dust mite induced allergy and asthma, particularly in areas where Bt exposure and sensitization is high. Recombinant DNA technology, as well as other molecular biology and immunological techniques, have played a fundamental role in advances towards a better understanding of the biology of house dust mites and their role in allergic diseases. This kind of study also contributes to the understanding of the complex immunologic mechanisms involved in allergic reactions. The development of effective diagnostic and therapeutic approaches depends on the continuity of research of house dust mite allergens. The objectives of this review are to describe the most important aspects of house dust mite allergy and to acquaint the scientific community with the latest findings pertaining to house dust mite allergens, particularly those derived from Bt.

  17. HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGY IN VIEW OF MOLECULAR ALLERGOLOGY

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    E. S. Korovkina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Incidence of allergic diseases is increased over last years. House dust is considered a major risk factor of allergic sensitization which plays an important role in development of allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma, atopic dermatitis. Dust mites in the home comprise a large part of domestic allergens. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Euroglyphus maynei, Lepidoglyphus destructor, Blomia tropicalis are most important in this respect. Der p 1 and Der p 2 are regarded as major house dust mite allergens. Recent studies concerned induction of IgE responses against mite tropomyosin (Der p 10, an allergen occurring in mites which exhibits high cross-reactivity with tropomyosins from a variety of sea foods (e.g. shrimps, as well as human tropomyosins. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT represents the only causative approach to allergy treatment in such cases. From this viewpoint, a quantitation of specific IgЕ against major house dust mite allergens would be necessary to predict ASIT efficiency. Treatment by house dust mites allergen extracts is effective in management of allergic rhinitis and mild asthma. A component-resolved diagnostic (CRD with purified house-dust mites allergens allows to discriminate patients who were mostly sensitized to the major house dust mites allergens (e.g. Der p 10, tropomyosin. The component-resolved diagnostics could be performed before starting the allergen-specific immunotherapy by mite allergens, in order to avoid unresponsiveness to this mode of therapy.

  18. Guideline recommendations on the use of allergen immunotherapy in house dust mite allergy: Time for a change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Bousquet, Jean; Canonica, G Walter; Cardell, Lars-Olaf; Fernandez de Rojas, Dolores Hernandez; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Demoly, Pascal

    2017-07-01

    Guidelines on the treatment of asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), and allergen immunotherapy (AIT) lack recommendations for house dust mite (HDM) allergy. An expert panel reviewed current guidelines in the light of new data to assess whether guidelines could be improved. Most guidelines and key position papers did not provide specific recommendations on treatment of allergic asthma (AA) caused by HDM allergy, although some included AIT as a treatment option for AA in general. Around half of the guidelines stated that AIT with HDM extract was an effective treatment for AR, with several indicating sublingual immunotherapy as an option. This heterogeneity is caused by quality issues affecting studies of AIT with perennial allergens in patients with AA and AR, including use of different diagnosis and severity criteria, lack of consistent scoring or grading systems for primary and safety outcomes, and lack of consensus on treatment parameters. There is a need for well-designed clinical trials to serve as a basis for guideline recommendations. Although results from recent studies strengthen the evidence base for the efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy in patients with HDM-induced AA and AR, their effect on subsequent guideline updates will depend on the methodology and evidence model used by each guideline. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. High-level expression and purification of the major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 in Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Tuo; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Gao; Dou, Xia; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Bo; Yu, Zhen-Dong; Wei, Zhun; Yu, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Der p 2, a major allergen derived from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, is one of the most clinically relevant allergens worldwide. Recombinant Der p 2 (rDer p 2) is useful in clinical diagnosis and disease-specific immunotherapy. However, previous studies showed that Der p 2 can only be expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells as inclusion bodies, thus protein refolding is required to obtain functional products. Here we report a new method to produce biologically active Der p 2 protein in E. coli. N-terminal hexahistidine- and trigger factor (TF)-tagged Der p 2 was expressed in soluble form in E. coli and purified using a combination of chromatography processes. This procedure produced milligram-level high purity Der p 2 per liter of bacterial culture. Moreover, far-UV region circular dichroism (CD) analysis and serum specific IgE reactivity test demonstrated that the secondary structure and IgE reactivity properties of rDer p 2 produced in our study were almost identical to those of natural Der p 2 (nDer p 2). In conclusion, the method developed in this work provides a useful tool for the production of immunologically active recombinant Der p 2 for clinical applications.

  20. Asthma, Airway Symptoms and Rhinitis in Office Workers in Malaysia: Associations with House Dust Mite (HDM Allergy, Cat Allergy and Levels of House Dust Mite Allergens in Office Dust.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Lee Lim

    Full Text Available A prevalence study was conducted among office workers in Malaysia (N= 695. The aim of this study was to examine associations between asthma, airway symptoms, rhinitis and house dust mites (HDM and cat allergy and HDM levels in office dust. Medical data was collected by a questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed for HDM allergens (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae and cat allergen Felis domesticus. Indoor temperature and relative air humidity (RH were measured in the offices and vacuumed dust samples were analyzed for HDM allergens. The prevalence of D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae and cat allergy were 50.3%, 49.0% and 25.5% respectively. Totally 9.6% had doctor-diagnosed asthma, 15.5% had current wheeze and 53.0% had current rhinitis. The Der p 1 (from D. pteronyssinus and Der f 1 (from D. farinae allergens levels in dust were 556 ng/g and 658 ng/g respectively. Statistical analysis was conducted by multilevel logistic regression, adjusting for age, gender, current smoking, HDM or cat allergy, home dampness and recent indoor painting at home. Office workers with HDM allergy had more wheeze (p= 0.035, any airway symptoms (p= 0.032, doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.005, current asthma (p= 0.007, current rhinitis (p= 0.021 and rhinoconjuctivitis (p< 0.001. Cat allergy was associated with wheeze (p= 0.021, wheeze when not having a cold (p= 0.033, any airway symptoms (p= 0.034, doctor-diagnosed asthma (p= 0.010, current asthma (p= 0.020 and nasal allergy medication (p= 0.042. Der f 1 level in dust was associated with daytime breathlessness (p= 0.033 especially among those with HDM allergy. Der f 1 levels were correlated with indoor temperature (p< 0.001 and inversely correlated with RH (p< 0.001. In conclusion, HDM and cat allergies were common and independently associated with asthma, airway symptoms and rhinitis. Der f 1 allergen can be a risk factor for daytime breathlessness.

  1. The wet method as one of the methods of investigation of house dust to identify the allergen mites

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    Людмила Вікторівна Газзаві-Рогозіна

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim. From the second half of the twentieth age there is gradual growth of distribution of allergic diseases. Approximately every fifth habitant has one or another displays of allergy. In addition, for the last decades displacement of beginning of allergic displays is marked on more early age, and increase of number of heavy clinical displays of disease.Methods. With the purpose of help specialists with unmedical education to the entomologists, parasitologists and to the assistants-parasitologists of regional (district and city laboratory centers of sanitary-epidemiology service, to the listeners of medical academies of post-graduate education this method of finding of allergen mites was developed.The wet method of dust selection, which is offered by us, is not only simple and accessible in the use, not requiring economic expenses but also allows to conduct the high-quality monitoring after the state of contamination of the different particles of environment.Result. Kharkov regional Sanitary & Epidemiological Service does more than 5 years of dust researches by this method. These researches were successfully conducted in the presence of dustborne mites. On the basis of these results the patent of Ukraine is got on an invention: Patent № 60763 UA, MPK A61V10 / 00 [9], this method is in detail described in a train aid, which was ratified scientific advice of the Kharkov medical academy of post-graduate education in 2012. «Mines of domestic dust. Distributions. Ways of discovery. Рrophylaxis»Conclusions. By the wet method of selection of domestic dust, even in barbershops, where a minimum of soft inventory, and the working tool of masters-hairdressers (masters of manicure washes and disinfected, positive finds come to light. As compared to a selection and research of dry tests of dust, a wet method is more effective and high-quality yet and because a wet brush does not enable dust, and to the present of mines in it, to fly away at a selection

  2. Domestic mite antigens in floor and airborne dust at workplaces in comparison to living areas: a new immunoassay to assess personal airborne allergen exposure.

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    Ingrid Sander

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Allergens produced by domestic mites (DM are among the most common allergic sensitizers and risk factors for asthma. To compare exposure levels between workplaces and living areas a new assay able to measure airborne DM antigen concentrations was developed. METHODS: At workplaces and in living areas, 213 floor dust samples and 92 personal inhalable dust samples were collected. For sensitive quantification of DM antigens, a new enzyme immunoassay (EIA based on polyclonal antibodies to Dermatophagoides farinae extract was developed. Reactivity of five house dust mite and four storage mite species was tested. All dust samples were tested with the new EIA and with the Der f 1 and Der p 1-EIAs (Indoor Biotechnologies, UK which detect major allergens from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus by monoclonal antibodies. Samples below the detection limit in the DM-EIA were retested in an assay variant with a fluorogenic substrate (DM-FEIA. RESULTS: The newly developed DM-EIA detects antigens from all nine tested domestic mite species. It has a lower detection limit of 200 pg/ml of D.farinae protein, compared to 50 pg/ml for the DM-FEIA. DM antigens were detected by DM-EIA/FEIA in all floor dust and 80 (87% of airborne samples. Der f 1 was found in 133 (62% floor dust and in only 6 airborne samples, Der p 1 was found in 70 (33% of floor samples and in one airborne sample. Der f 1 and DM concentrations were highly correlated. DM-antigens were significantly higher in inhalable airborne samples from textile recycling, bed feather filling, feed production, grain storage and cattle stables in comparison to living areas. CONCLUSIONS: A new sensitive EIA directed at DM antigens was developed. DM antigen quantities were well correlated to Der f 1 values and were measurable in the majority (87% of airborne dust samples. Some workplaces had significantly higher DM antigen concentrations than living areas.

  3. Mattress encasings and mite allergen levels in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, RT; Koopman, LP; Kerkhof, M; Oldenwening, M; de Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, HJ; Aalberse, RC; Smit, HA; Brunekreef, B

    2003-01-01

    Background Reduction of allergen exposure from birth may reduce sensitization and subsequent allergic disease. Objective To measure the influence of mite allergen-impermeable mattress encasings and cotton placebo encasings on the amount of dust and mite allergen in beds. Methods A total of 810 child

  4. Mattress encasings and mite allergen levels in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, RT; Koopman, LP; Kerkhof, M; Oldenwening, M; de Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, HJ; Aalberse, RC; Smit, HA; Brunekreef, B

    2003-01-01

    Background Reduction of allergen exposure from birth may reduce sensitization and subsequent allergic disease. Objective To measure the influence of mite allergen-impermeable mattress encasings and cotton placebo encasings on the amount of dust and mite allergen in beds. Methods A total of 810 child

  5. House dust mite control measures for asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    antigens in the homes of people with mite-sensitive asthma. SEARCH STRATEGY: PubMed and The Cochrane Library (last searches Nov 2007), reference lists. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised trials of mite control measures vs placebo or no treatment in people with asthma known to be sensitive to house dust mites.......07), or in medication usage (standardised mean difference -0.06, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.07). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Chemical and physical methods aimed at reducing exposure to house dust mite allergens cannot be recommended. It is doubtful whether further studies, similar to the ones in our review, are worthwhile. If other...

  6. House dust mites in Brazil - an annotated bibliography

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    Binotti Raquel S

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available House dust mites have been reported to be the most important allergen in human dwellings. Several articles had already shown the presence of different mite species at homes in Brazil, being Pyroglyphidae, Glycyphagidae and Cheyletidae the most important families found. This paper is an annotated bibliography that will lead to a better knowledge of house dust mite fauna in Brazil.

  7. The prevalence of indoor allergens in the Baltimore area: house dust-mite and animal-dander antigens measured by immunochemical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lind, P; Norman, P S; Newton, M; Løwenstein, H; Schwartz, B

    1987-10-01

    Mattress dust samples from 42 homes in Baltimore, Md., were analyzed by ELISA and rocket immunoelectrophoresis (RIE) for major excrement allergens (P1 [equal to Dp 42], Df 6, and Dm 6) of house dust mites, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, D. farinae, and D. microceras, by RIE for cat major epithelial allergen (cat Ag 1) and horse major epithelial antigen (horse Ag 11), and by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis (CCIE) for cat and dog antigens. Dp 42 was detected by ELISA in 24 samples (57%) and Df 6 in 39 samples (92%). All samples were negative to Dm 6. Recorded levels varied from 50 ng of allergen per gram of dust (detection limit) to 15,000 ng/gm. A combined content of Dp 42 and Df 6 greater than 700 ng/gm was associated with a positive reaction in RIE. Concentrations of Dp 42 and Df 6 did not correlate (rS = 0.21; p greater than 0.05). Cat and dog antigens were frequently detected by CCIE (77% and 63%, respectively). CCIE titer to cat correlated well with quantitation of cat Ag 1 by RIE (p less than 0.01). Horse antigen was detected in few homes (5%). None of the specific allergen determinations correlated with levels of human serum albumin determined by RIE.

  8. Effect of the house dust mite allergen Der p 1 on tryptase release from human mast cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, D Q; Shen, Y Y; Xu, J H; Tang, H

    2016-07-14

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of the house dust mite allergen Der p 1 on the secretion of tryptase from the human mast cell line HMC-1. Flow cytometry was used to determine the expression levels of protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) on the surface of HMC-1 cells. HMC-1 cells were treated with Der p 1, SLIGRL-NH2 (PAR2 agonist), LRGILS-NH2 (control peptide for PAR2), or Der p 1 + FSLLRY (PAR2 antagonist), and the tryptase levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The biological functions of PAR2 were determined using the calcium green indicator, and intracellular calcium fluorescence intensity in the different groups (Der p 1, SLIGRL-NH2, LRGILS- NH2, Der p 1 + FSLLRY, tryptase, tryptase + FSLLRY, or cell culture medium) was detected by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The mast cells expressed PAR2 receptor on their surfaces. Der p 1 alone induced a significant release of intracellular calcium and tryptase in HMC-1 cells compared with the SLIGRL- NH2 treatment group and the control group. The combination of Der p 1 and FSLLRY partly inhibited intracellular calcium and tryptase release in HMC-1 cells compared with the Der p 1 treatment group. Moreover, tryptase induced a significant release of intracellular calcium in the HMC-1 cells. Der p 1 induced HMC-1 cell degranulation and the release of tryptase by activating the PAR2 receptor on the cell surfaces. Tryptase activated the PAR2 receptor and induced intracellular calcium release from the HMC-1 cells in a positive feedback loop.

  9. High degree of overlap between responses to a virus and to the house dust mite allergen in airway epithelial cells.

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    Korneliusz Golebski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Airway epithelium is widely considered to play an active role in immune responses through its ability to detect changes in the environment and to generate a microenvironment for immune competent cells. Therefore, besides its role as a physical barrier, epithelium affects the outcome of the immune response by the production of various pro-inflammatory mediators. METHODS: We stimulated airway epithelial cells with viral double stranded RNA analogue poly(I:C or with house dust mite in a time course of 24 hours. In order to determine cytokines production by stimulated cells, we performed multiplex enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA. RESULTS: We demonstrate that the temporal pattern of the genes that respond to virus exposure in airway epithelium resembles to a significant degree their pattern of response to HDM. The gene expression pattern of EGR1, DUSP1, FOSL1, JUN, MYC, and IL6 is rather similar after viral (poly(I:C and HDM exposure. However, both triggers also induce a specific response (e.g. ATF3, FOS, and NFKB1. We confirmed these data by showing that epithelial cells produce a variety of similar mediators in response to both poly(I:C and HDM challenge (IL1-RA, IL-17, IFN-α and MIP1-α, sometimes with a quantitative difference in response (IL2-R, IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, MIG, and HGF. Interestingly, only four mediators (IL-12, IP-10, RANTES and VEGF where up-regulated specifically by poly(I:C and not by HDM. Additionally, we report that pre-exposure to HDM deregulates production of cytokines and mediators in response to poly(I:C. CONCLUSIONS: Epithelial cells responses to the HDM-allergen and a virus strongly resemble both in gene expression and in protein level explaining why these two responses may affect each other.

  10. [Screening of specific IgE-binding epitopes of dust mite allergens using short peptide array].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Feixiang; Sun, Jinxia; Wang, Nan; Yu, Lili; Cui, Yubao

    2017-08-01

    Objective To screen the possible linear epitopes of major and mid-potency allergens in Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f1, Der f2, Der f4, Der f5 and Der f7). Methods Short peptides were synthesized on the basis of the amino acid sequences in active fraction of Der f1, Der f2, Der f4, Der f5 and Der f7. Each peptide had eight amino acids in length and seven of them were overlapped with each other. Put these peptides to the chip to build microarrays that would have immunoreaction with human serum IgE. Then the chips were scanned to analyze the data. Results A total of 1128 short peptides from the above five groups of allergens were synthesized, and the microarray chips were constructed. Six serum samples from children who were allergic to Dermatophagoides farinae were mixed and added to the microarray chips. The chips were scanned and analyzed, and the results showed that Der f1 had four epitopes (46-53aa, 71-78aa, 99-110aa and 179-186aa), that Der f2 had three epitopes (15-22aa, 80-89aa and 106-113aa), that Der f 4 had six epitopes (69-82aa, 107-116aa, 225-232aa, 261-268aa, 355-365aa and 483-496aa), that Der f5 had one epitope (102-109aa), and Der f7 had three epitopes (32-39aa, 52-64aa and 100-107aa). Conclusion We identified the linear epitopes of Der f1, Der f2, Der f4, Der f5 and Der f7.

  11. Real-Life Study for the Diagnosis of House Dust Mite Allergy - The Value of Recombinant Allergen-Based IgE Serology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Sven; Schlederer, Thomas; Kramer, Matthias F; Haack, Mareike; Vrtala, Susanne; Resch, Yvonne; Lupinek, Christian; Valenta, Rudolf; Gröger, Moritz

    2016-01-01

    Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus is one of the most important perennial allergen sources worldwide. Molecular diagnostics using the commercially available major allergens (Der p 1 and Der p 2) in combination with Der p 10 do not detect house dust mite (HDM) sensitization in a number of cases when used alone. The objective was to evaluate the IgE reactivity profiles of these patients using an experimental immunoassay biochip. Sera of HDM-allergic patients (positive skin prick test, CAP class ≥1 for allergen extract, and positive intranasal provocation) were tested for IgE antibodies against Der p 1, Der p 2, and Der p 10 by ImmunoCAP fluorescence enzyme immunoassay. Negatively tested sera were examined by an experimental chip containing 13 microarrayed HDM allergens. Of 97 patients tested, 16 showed negative results to Der p 1, Der p 2, and Der p 10. MeDALL chip evaluation revealed 5 patients monosensitized to Der p 23, and 11 patients were negative for all HDM MeDALL chip components. Seven sera were available for further testing, and 3 of them showed IgE reactivity to dot-blotted nDer p 1, and 2 reacted with high-molecular weight components (>100 kDa) in nitrocellulose-blotted HDM extract when tested with 125I-labeled anti-IgE in a RAST-based assay. The HDM extract-specific IgE levels of the 11 patients were <3.9 kU/l. Recombinant allergen-based IgE serology is of great value when conventional IgE diagnostics fails. Der p 23 is an important HDM allergen, especially when major allergens are negative. Therefore, it would be desirable to have Der p 23 commercially available. Further research concerning the prevalence and clinical significance of different HDM allergens is needed. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Repetitive Immunoassay with a Surface Acoustic Wave Device and a Highly Stable Protein Monolayer for On-Site Monitoring of Airborne Dust Mite Allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Koji; Miki, Daisuke; Kishikawa, Chisato; Yoshimura, Naoyuki; Miyajima, Kumiko; Arakawa, Takahiro; Yatsuda, Hiromi; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2015-10-20

    This work describes a sensor to be incorporated into the on-site monitoring system of airborne house dust mite (HDM) allergens. A surface acoustic wave (SAW) device was combined with self-assembled monolayers of a highly stable antibody capture protein on the SAW surface that have high resistance to pH change. A sandwich assay was used to measure a HDM allergen, Der f 1 derived from Dermatophagoides farinae. Capture antibodies were cross-linked to a protein G based capture layer (ORLA85) on the sensor surface, thereby only Der f 1 and detection antibodies were regenerated by changing pH, resulting in fast repetition of the measurement. The sensor was characterized through 10 repetitive measurements of Der f 1, which demonstrated high reproducibility of the sensor with the coefficient of variation of 5.6%. The limit of detection (LOD) of the sensor was 6.1 ng·mL(-1), encompassing the standard (20 ng·mL(-1)) set by the World Health Organization. Negligible sensor outputs were observed for five different major allergens including other HDM allergens which tend to have cross-reactivity to Der f 1 and their mixtures with Der f 1. Finally, the sensor lifetime was evaluated by conducting three measurements per day, and the sensor output did not substantially change for 4 days. These characteristics make the SAW immunosensor a promising candidate for incorporation into on-site allergen monitoring systems.

  13. 159 Therapeutic Effect and Safety of the Sublingual Immunotherapy With Tropical House Dust Mite Allergen Vaccines in Asthmatic Cuban Adult Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Almarales, Raúl Lázaro; Ronquillo, Mercedes; Labrada, Alexis; Castello, Mirta Alvarez; González, Mayda; Rodríguez, José; Enriquez, Irene; Navarro Viltres, Bárbara I; DíazLic, Yunia Oliva; Mateo, Maytee

    2012-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous injection route (SCIT) is burdened with the risk of severe adverse events; therefore, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is being increasingly investigated. The efficacy of SLIT in asthma has been reviewed in a Cochrane meta-analysis. Allergic sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides siboney (Ds) and Blomia tropicalis (Bt) is strongly linked to respiratory allergy and asthma in Cuba (3). These last 2 species are relevant in tropical countries or even only in the Caribbean region (4). Nevertheless, well conducted clinical studies of immunotherapy with standardized allergen vaccines of these particular species are very scarce. Objective This study was conducted to assess the therapeutic effect and safety of allergen therapeutic vaccines of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides siboney and Blomia tropicalis House-Dust mites (VALERGEN, BIOCEN, Cuba) by sublingual route, in asthmatic patients. Methods Three Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled clinical trials were performed in 40 patients each, showing asthmatic symptoms and positive predominant Skin Prick Test (SPT) to each mite, respectively. Half of subjects were randomized to active group. Treatment consisted of sublingual drops with increasing daily doses for 3 weeks and maintenance doses (2000 BU) twice a week until 12 months. Results Therapeutic effect was assessed after 6 and 12 months using symptoms/medication diary cards, peak expiratory flow (PEF) measures and skin sensitivity to investigated mites. Adverse reactions were classified using the World Allergy Organization scale. The treatment reduced significantly (P < 0.01) clinical symptoms (38%, 95% CI, 33-44) and medication intake (26%, 95% CI, 21-32) with respect to placebo. The skin sensitivity to the allergens decreased also significantly (P < 0.01). The allergen amount needed to induce a positive SPT increased 52-fold. PEF variability decreased also significantly (P < 0.05). The treatment was

  14. THE MAIN CULPRIT IN ALLERGIC RHINITIS - HOUSE DUST OR HOUSE DUST MITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhey

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis especially perennial type makes life miserable for the patient. House dust mite is one of the major players causing it. This study is to compare the allergen i n city of house dust mite versus house dust and evaluate any cross - allergenicity between them. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective study in a tertiary referral hospital. MATERIALS & METHODS: Forty patients of allergic rhinitis and well matched controls were subjected to intradermal skin tests to house dust and house dust mite allergen. The skin tests were graded as per standard norms and the responses matched after correlating with different parameters. Statistical analysis was done and the results evaluated. RESULTS: House dust mite was the main allergen, as compared to house dust, responsible for causing allergic rhinitis. The allergen reactivity potential of house dust mite was significantly more as compared to house dust. And, as such there was no statistically significant cross - allergenicity between the two groups. CONCLUSION: House dust mite rather than house dust is the main culprit in causing allergic rhinitis. Hence, precautionary and preventive measures to control the exposure to house dust mite can be undertaken

  15. House dust mite control measures for asthma: systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Johansen, Helle Krogh

    2008-01-01

    The major allergen in house dust comes from mites. We performed a systematic review of the randomized trials that had assessed the effects of reducing exposure to house dust mite antigens in the homes of people with mite-sensitive asthma, and had compared active interventions with placebo...... improved (relative risk 1.01, 95% CI 0.80-1.27), asthma symptom scores (standardized mean difference -0.04, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.07) or in medication usage (standardized mean difference -0.06, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.07). Chemical and physical methods aimed at reducing exposure to house dust mite allergens cannot...

  16. Respiratory allergy caused by house dust mites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Linneberg, Allan; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) is a major perennial allergen source and a significant cause of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. However, awareness of the condition remains generally low. This review assesses the links between exposure to HDM, development of the allergic response, and pathologic ...

  17. Evaporative Cooler Use Influences Temporal Indoor Relative Humidity but Not Dust Mite Allergen Levels in Homes in a Semi-Arid Climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James D Johnston

    Full Text Available Concerns about energy consumption and climate change make residential evaporative coolers a popular alternative to central air conditioning in arid and semi-arid climates. However, evaporative coolers have been shown to significantly increase indoor relative humidity and dust mite allergen levels in some studies, while showing no association in other studies. Improved measurement of temporal fluctuations in indoor relative humidity may help identify factors that promote mite growth in homes in dry climates. Dust samples and continuous indoor relative humidity measurements were collected from homes with central air conditioning and homes with evaporative coolers in Utah. Samples were collected over two seasons, winter/spring (Jan-Apr and summer (July-Sept, 2014. Dust samples were analyzed for Der p 1 and Der f 1 using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA analysis. Housing characteristics including age of home, occupant density, and age of mattresses, furniture, and carpeting were also measured. Positive Der p 1 or Der f 1 samples were found in 25.0% of the homes and there was no difference in mean allergen levels by type of air conditioning. Indoor relative humidity was significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers compared to those with central air conditioning during the summer. Homes with evaporative coolers also spent significantly more time during summer above 55.0% and 65.0% relative humidity compared to central air homes, but not above 75.0%. Findings from this study suggest that increased humidity from evaporative coolers may not be sufficient to exceed the critical equilibrium humidity or maintain humidity excursions for sufficient duration in relatively larger single-family homes in semi-arid climates to support mite growth and reproduction.

  18. Prenatal exposure to mite and pet allergens and total serum IgE at birth in high-risk children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonberger, H.J.; Dompeling, E.C.; Knottnerus, J.A.; Kuiper, S.; Weel, C. van; Schayck, C.P. van

    2005-01-01

    To examine the relationship between prenatal exposure to mite, cat and dog allergens and total serum IgE at birth in newborns at high risk of asthma. In the homes of 221 newborns with at least one first-degree relative with asthma, concentrations (ng/g dust) of allergens of house dust mite (mite), c

  19. Induction of atopic dermatitis by inhalation of house dust mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupker, RA; DeMonchy, JGR; Coenraads, PJ; vanderMeer, JB

    Background: The pathogenetic role of house dust mite in atopic dermatitis remains controversial. Recent studies have shown that intensive epicutaneous contact of house dust mite allergen with premanipulated skin may induce dematitis. It is, however, uncertain whether such conditions are met during

  20. Induction of atopic dermatitis by inhalation of house dust mite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupker, RA; DeMonchy, JGR; Coenraads, PJ; vanderMeer, JB

    1996-01-01

    Background: The pathogenetic role of house dust mite in atopic dermatitis remains controversial. Recent studies have shown that intensive epicutaneous contact of house dust mite allergen with premanipulated skin may induce dematitis. It is, however, uncertain whether such conditions are met during n

  1. The different modes of binding of the dust mite allergens, Der f 7 and Der p 7, on a monoclonal antibody WH9 contribute to the differential reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Hsiao-Yun; Zhou, Jia-Kai; Yeh, Chang-Ching; Tam, Ming F; Sheu, Sheh-Yi; Shen, Horng-Der

    2017-06-28

    Der f 7 and Der p 7 are important house dust mite allergens. An IgE-binding inhibition monoclonal antibody WH9 reacts ten folds stronger against Der p 7 than to Der f 7. The purpose of this study is to identify the antigenic determinant(s) and the structural basis of Der f 7 recognize by WH9. WH9-reactive determinant(s) on Der f 7 was identified by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. The 3-D binary complex structures of WH9 and the group 7 allergens were simulated with homology modeling and docking methods. WH9 reacted with the Der f 7 f9 fragment. Among the five site-directed Der f 7 mutants, WH9 showed reduced immunoblot reactivity against Der f 7 S156A, D159A and P160A mutants. Only the wild-type protein and the Der f 7 I157A and L158A mutants can inhibit significantly the WH9-binding against Der f 7. The structural model of the Der f 7-WH9 complex suggests residues S156 and D159 of Der f 7 can bind to WH9 via potential hydrogen bonds. The structure models of Der f 7-WH9 and Der p 7-WH9 complexes revealed that the differential modes of binding of Der p 7 and Der f 7 allergens on WH9 contribute to the differential reactivity of WH9 against the Der f 7 and the Der p 7 mite allergens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Clinical effectiveness of a mite allergen-impermeable bed-covering system in asthmatic mite-sensitive patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemt, E.A.J.M. van den; Knapen, L. van; Vries, M.P. de; Jansen, M.; Cloosterman, S.G.M.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to allergens plays a role in the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and in the chronic inflammatory response seen in asthmatic patients. House dust mites (HDMs) are an important source of allergen. Reduction of these allergens might lead to better lung function and red

  3. Occupational exposure to allergenic mites in a Polish zoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarz, Krzysztof; Szilman, Piotr; Szilman, Ewa

    2004-01-01

    The study was carried out from April 2000-March 2001. During this period 49 samples of dust, litter, debris and residues from cages and run-offs of mammals, birds and reptiles in the Silesian Zoo, were examined for the presence of mites, especially the allergenic taxa. Mites were extracted using the Berlese method and preserved in 70 % ethanol. For identification, the mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium on microscope slides. Mites were found in 44 of 49 samples analyzed (89.8 %). A total of 5,097 mites were collected, from which 60.3 % were found in samples collected in spring, whereas only 13 % in summer and 24.1 % in autumn. The remaining 2.6 % of the total mite population was found in winter. Majority of mites (82.7 %) were collected from aviaries of macaws and cockatiels (Ara ararauna and Nymphicus hollandicus). A total of 10 species of astigmatid mites were identified that belong to 4 families--Acaridae, Glycyphagidae, Anoetidae and Pyroglyphidae. Generally, the allergenic mites of the order Astigmata constituted 49.5 % of the total count. Among them Acarus farris was predominant (34 % of the total count), followed by Tyrophagus putrescentiae (4.7 %), Caloglyphus sp. (4.35 %) and Acarus immobilis (4.31 %). Dermatophagoides farinae, the house-dust-mite species, was for the first time found in this environment. D. farinae (0.05 % of the total population) was associated with parrots, canids and artiodactyls. Summarizing, it should be stressed, that cages and run-offs of different mammals, aviaries of parrots and terrariums of snakes are important sources of some allergenic mites, especially A. farris and T. putrescentiae, that might cause allergies in workers.

  4. Do other components of bedding dust affect sensitisation to house dust mites?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire; Stanley, Thorsten; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Bedding dust is a mixture of many components, of which the house dust mite (HDM) allergen, Der p 1, is the most allergenic. There has been little work to investigate the effect of other bedding dust components on HDM sensitisation. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of endotoxin in bedding dust on the allergic response in HDM-sensitised individuals. Twenty-nine house dust mite-sensitised adults were skin prick and allergen patch tested against a sterile solution of their own bedding dust and against a solution containing the same concentration of Der p 1 as the bedding solution for comparison. There was no significant difference in wheal size between the diluted house dust mite solution and the bedding dust in spite of their high levels of endotoxin. Symptomatic subjects had larger, but not statistically significant, responses to commercial house dust mite solution than asymptomatic subjects. Allergen patch test responses were negative in 22/29 of subjects using either bedding dust solutions or comparable diluted house dust mite solutions. An individual's own bedding dust does not appear to contain factors that enhance skin prick test or atopy patch test responses to house dust mites.

  5. The determinants of dust mite allergen and its relationship to the prevalence of symptoms of asthma in the Asia-Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, Kristin; de Bruyne, Jessie; Calvo, Mario; Choon-Kook, Sam; Jayaraj, G; Lai, Christopher K W; Lane, Juliette; Maheshwari, Rameshchandra; Mallol, Javier; Nishima, Sankei; Purdie, Gordon; Siebers, Rob; Sukumaran, Thevaruparambil; Trakultivakorn, Muthita; Crane, Julian

    2004-02-01

    The role that house dust mites play in the primary causation of asthma is controversial. Approximately thirty-six 10-yr-old children in each of 10 centres in the Asia-Pacific region participated. Researchers collected dust from mattresses and living room floors using standardized procedures. Der p1 and Der f1 were analysed using a double monoclonal antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Geometric mean allergen levels were calculated for each centre. An ecological analysis was conducted to show the regression of the geometric mean allergen level, using the highest household level, against asthma symptom and severity prevalence data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, Phase I. Among children aged 13-14 yr, the change in asthma symptom prevalence was associated with per unit change in Der p1 microg/g (1.08, 95% CI 0.10-2.06) and Der 1 microg/g (Der p1 + Der f1) (0.64, 95% CI 0.02-1.26). The change in having four or more attacks of asthma in the last 12 months was associated with per unit change in Der p 1 microg/g (0.29, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.60) and Der 1 microg/g (0.20, 95% CI 0.01-0.38). There was no effect for total Der p1 or Der f1 (total or microg/g). Among children aged 6-7 yr, neither allergen was related to symptoms or severity prevalence. While our findings suggest that Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus may have a role in the primary causation of asthma, the complexity of this association reinforces the need for prospective studies.

  6. Evaluation of skin sensitivity in dogs bearing allergic dermatitis to standardized allergenic extract of house dust and storage mites Avaliação da sensibilidade de cães com dermatite alérgica a extratos padronizados de ácaros da poeira domiciliar

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Victor E.S. Cunha; Ruppert L. Hahnstadt; Ana Maria B. Soares; João Luiz H. Faccini

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether allergenic extracts of five house dust and storage mite species standardized for humans might be used for the diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD...

  7. Group 1 Allergen Genes in Two Species of House Dust Mites, Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae: Direct Sequencing, Characterization and Polymorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubaba Hamid Shafique

    Full Text Available Group 1 allergens of Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1 and D. pteronyssinus (Der p 1 dominate overall allergic responses in house dust mite allergy patients. The need for accurate identification and characterization of representative variants of group 1 allergens in any given geographic locality has been emphasized for development of appropriate allergen extracts. Regional amino acid sequence polymorphism has been described but the extent of this polymorphism is not well understood. Such data are completely absent for the USA and many other countries. Most previous studies used cDNA libraries generated by reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR and/or primers amplifying shorter fragments of this gene. Using novel species-specific primers and direct PCR, we document group 1 allergen gene sequence polymorphism in populations of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus from the USA and Pakistan. We report two novel introns (nt pos 87 and 291 in both species, and the absence of intron 3 in Der p 1. Thirteen silent and one novel non-synonymous mutation (Tryptophan W197 to Arginine R197 were detected in D. farinae. The potential medical significance of the latter mutation is discussed. Two haplotypes of the Der f 1 gene were identified, haplotype 1 (63% was more frequent than haplotype 2 (18%. Polymorphism in Der f 1 displayed geographical localization, since both haplotypes were present in mite populations from Pakistan whereas haplotype 1 was observed only in the USA. In Der p 1, a silent mutation at nt (aa position 1011(149 and four non-synonymous mutations at positions 589(50, 935(124, 971(136, 1268(215 were observed. These mutations were reported from many other geographic regions, suggesting that polymorphism in the Der p 1 gene is panmictic. The extent of polymorphism in both genes is substantially lower than that reported previously (0.10-0.16% vs 0.31-0.49%, indicating the need for careful evaluation of potential polymerase errors in studies utilizing RT-PCR.

  8. Airway inflammation and IgE production induced by dust mite allergen-specific memory/effector Th2 cell line can be effectively attenuated by IL-35.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-Hui; Loo, Evelyn Xiu-Ling; Kuo, I-Chun; Soh, Gim Hooi; Goh, Denise Li-Meng; Lee, Bee Wah; Chua, Kaw Yan

    2011-07-01

    CD4(+) memory/effector T cells play a central role in orchestrating the rapid and robust immune responses upon re-encounter with specific Ags. However, the immunologic mechanism(s) underlying these responses are still not fully understood. To investigate this, we generated an allergen (major house dust mite allergen, Blo t 5)-specific murine Th2 cell line that secreted IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and IL-13, but not IL-9 or TNF-α, upon activation by the cognate Ag. These cells also exhibited CD44(high)CD62L(-) and CD127(+) (IL-7Rα(+)) phenotypes, which are characteristics of memory/effector T cells. Experiments involving adoptive transfer of this Th2 cell line in mice, followed by three intranasal challenges with Blo t 5, induced a dexamethasone-sensitive eosinophilic airway inflammation. This was accompanied by elevation of Th2 cytokines and CC- and CXC-motif chemokines, as well as recruitment of lymphocytes and polymorphic mononuclear cells into the lungs. Moreover, Blo t 5-specific IgE was detected 4 d after the last intranasal challenge, whereas elevation of Blo t 5-specific IgG1 was found at week two. Finally, pulmonary delivery of the pVAX-IL-35 DNA construct effectively downregulated Blo t 5-specific allergic airway inflammation, and i.m. injection of pVAX-IL-35 led to long-lasting suppression of circulating Blo t 5-specific and total IgE. This model provides a robust research tool to elucidate the immunopathogenic role of memory/effector Th2 cells in allergic airway inflammation. Our results suggested that IL-35 could be a potential therapeutic target for allergic asthma through its attenuating effects on allergen-specific CD4(+) memory/effector Th2 cell-mediated airway inflammation.

  9. Innate immune response of alveolar macrophage to house dust mite allergen is mediated through TLR2/-4 co-activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Fang Liu

    Full Text Available House dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p, is one of the major allergens responsible for allergic asthma. However, the putative receptors involved in the signalization of Der p to the innate immune cells are still poorly defined as well as the impact of their activation on the outcome of the allergen-induced cell response. We previously reported that the HDM activation of mouse alveolar macrophages (AM involves the TLR4/CD14 cell surface receptor complex. Here using a TLR ligand screening essay, we demonstrate that HDM protein extract engages the TLR2, in addition to the TLR4, in engineered TLR-transfected HEK cells but also in the MH-S mouse alveolar macrophage cell line model. Moreover we found that the concomitant recruitment of the MH-S cell's TLR2 and TLR4 receptors by the HDM extract activates the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway and leads to the secretion of the NF-κB regulated pro-inflammatory factors NO and TNF-α. However unlike with the canonical TLR4 ligand (i.e. the bacterial LPS mobilization of TLR4 by the HDM extract induces a reduced production of the IL-12 pro-inflammatory cytokine and fails to trigger the expression of the T-bet transcription factor. Finally we demonstrated that HDM extract down-regulates LPS induced IL-12 and T-bet expression through a TLR2 dependent mechanism. Therefore, we propose that the simultaneous engagement of the TLR2 and TLR4 receptors by the HDM extract results in a cross regulated original activation pattern of the AM which may contribute to the Th2 polarization of the allergen-induced immune response. The deciphering of these cross-regulation networks is of prime importance to open the way for original therapeutic strategies taking advantage of these receptors and their associated signaling pathways to treat allergic asthma.

  10. Block copolymer/DNA vaccination induces a strong allergen-specific local response in a mouse model of house dust mite asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Rolland-Debord

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma is caused by abnormal immunoreactivity against allergens such as house dust mites among which Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f is a common species. Currently, immunotherapy is based on allergen administration, which has variable effect from patient to patient and may cause serious side effects, principally the sustained risk of anaphylaxis. DNA vaccination is a promising approach by triggering a specific immune response with reduced allergenicity. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of DNA immunization with Der f1 allergen specific DNA on allergic sensitization, inflammation and respiratory function in mice. METHODS: Mice were vaccinated 28 and 7 days before allergen exposure with a Der f1-encoding plasmid formulated with a block copolymer. Asthma was induced by skin sensitization followed by intra-nasal challenges with Der f extract. Total lung, broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL and spleen cells were analyzed by flow cytometry for their surface antigen and cytokine expression. Splenocytes and lung cell IFN-γ production by CD8+ cells in response to Der f CMH1-restricted peptides was assessed by ELISPOT. IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a were measured in serum by ELISA. Specific bronchial hyperresponsiveness was assessed by direct resistance measurements. RESULTS: Compared to animals vaccinated with an irrelevant plasmid, pVAX-Der f1 vaccination induced an increase of B cells in BAL, and an elevation of IL-10 and IFN-γ but also of IL-4, IL-13 and IL-17 producing CD4+ lymphocytes in lungs and of IL-4 and IL-5 in spleen. In response to CD8-restricted peptides an increase of IFN-γ was observed among lung cells. IgG2a levels non-specifically increased following block copolymer/DNA vaccination although IgE, IgG1 levels and airways resistances were not impacted. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: DNA vaccination using a plasmid coding for Der f1 formulated with the block copolymer 704 induces a specific immune response

  11. House dust mite major allergens Der p 1 promote the production of IL-8 and MUC5AC in human airway-derived epithelial cells by NF-kB mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renping Liu; Qi Hou; and Aiming Meng

    2012-01-01

    Backgroud: House dust mite allergens (HDM) is the most commonly encountered patho- gen of humans, predominantly causing bronchoconstriction in asthma patients and inducing an inflammatory response in the lungs dune to the release of cytokines, chemokines and other medi- ators. During the clinical course of treatment, dexamethasone has a limited effect on asthma pa- tients, especially for refractory asthma, because it is infective to block a large number of theneutrophils to invade the lung tissue.

  12. Long-term falls in antibodies to dust mite and pollen allergens in patients with asthma or hay fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawle, F C; Burr, M L; Platts-Mills, T A

    1983-09-01

    'Spontaneous' improvement in, or alteration of, allergic symptoms is a common occurrence, and the immunological basis is of interest in attempts to develop effective specific therapy. In the present study we measured levels of serum antibodies to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in patients diagnosed as having house-dust-allergic asthma up to 40 years previously. The results show a progressive fall in both IgG and IgE antibodies to antigen P1 and RAST binding to crude D. pteronyssinus extract. By contrast changes in total serum IgE were not marked. Within each of the groups of patients diagnosed 20, 30 and 40 years previously, 70% no longer suffered severe symptoms. However, the absence of detectable IgE antibody in serum was neither a necessary nor a sufficient condition for loss of symptoms. A group of patients who had spontaneously recovered from hay fever had significantly lower IgG and IgE antibody for the major grass pollen allergen Rye I and also lower total IgE than current hay fever sufferers. In neither hay fever nor asthma was there evidence to link spontaneous improvement in symptoms with an increase in IgG antibodies.

  13. Evaluation of the concentration of allergens from mites in fur and households dust of dogs with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dévaki L. de Assunção

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the concentration of Der p 1, Der f 1 and Blo t 5 in the fur and households of 20 dogs with atopic dermatitis (AD and 20 healthy dogs. The diagnosis of AD was clinical based on Favrot’s criteria. Dust samples were collected with a domestic vacuum cleaner. For each site, 1m2 was vacuumed for 2 min. The samples were collected in separate filters, transferred into plastic containers, sealed and kept frozen until ELISA analysis. In the fur of atopic dogs the average concentration of Der p 1 was 0.25μg/g compared to 0.03μg/g in healthy dogs. In households with atopic dogs the highest concentrations of Der p 1 were found in carpets (2.18μg/g, followed by couches (1.53μg/g, beds (1.14μg/g, dogs’ bed linen (0.64μg/g and floors (0.14μg/g. The concentrations of Der p 1 on carpets, couches and beds were significantly higher than in atopic dogs’ fur (p0.05. The concentrations of Der p 1, Der f 1 and Blo t 5 were equivalent in atopic and non-atopic dog’s households. Among the allergens studied, Der p 1 was the most commonly found, predominantly in carpets and couches.

  14. Ingestion of milk containing the Dp2 peptide, a dust mite allergen, protects mice from allergic airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hsu-Chung; Pai, Shun-Yuan; Cheng, Winston TK; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Tsai, Tung-Chou; Yang, Shang-Hsun; Chen, Chuan-Mu

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergen-specific immunotherapy has been demonstrated to have potential for the treatment of allergic diseases. Transgenic animals are currently the best available bioreactors to produce recombinant proteins, which can be secreted in milk. It has not been clearly demonstrated whether milk from transgenic animals expressing recombinant allergens has immunomodulatory effects on allergic asthma. Methods We aimed to determine whether the oral administration of milk containing a mite al...

  15. Effect of Activated Charcoal Fibers on the Survival of the House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hae-Seon; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Choi, Young-Jin; Park, Joon-Soo; Cho, Moon-Kyun; Lee, Sang-Han; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Robert

    2012-01-01

    House dust mites produce potent allergens that exacerbate asthma in sensitized patients, whom are recommended to practice allergen avoidance within their home environment. We tested the effect of activated charcoal impregnated fibers on house dust mite survival. One hundred live adult house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were added to eight culture dishes preequilibrated at room temperature (n = 4) and 70% humidity (n = 4) containing house dust mite food and active charcoal fibers. At 10 minute intervals, live and dead house dust mites were counted. All house dust mites instantly attached to the activated charcoal fibers and started to shrink almost immediately. There were no live house dust mites present as early as 40 minutes in some dishes while after 190 minutes all house dust mites were dead. In conclusion, activated charcoal fibers, if incorporated into bedding items, have the potential to control house dust mites in the indoor environment.

  16. Prominent IgE-binding and cytokine-inducing capacities of a newly cloned N-terminal region of Der f 14, an apolipophorin-like house dust mite allergen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ElRamlawy, Kareem Gamal; Fujimura, Takashi; Aki, Tsunehiro; Okada, Akiyasu; Suzuki, Takayuki; Abe, Takuya; Hayashi, Takaharu; Epton, Michael J; Thomas, Wayne R; Rafeet, Inas Hussein; Al-Azhary, Diaa Beshr; Ono, Kazuhisa; Kawamoto, Seiji

    2017-09-11

    We previously characterized a 177 kDa allergen, M-177, from Dermatophagoides farinae. Thereafter, a counterpart to M-177 for Euroglyphus maynei was cloned as Eur m 14, and its sequence revealed that two environmental allergens, Mag 1 and Mag 3, are digested fragments of M-177. The aims of this study were to clone the cDNA of Der f 14 corresponding to M-177 and to elucidate the allergenic capacities of the N-terminal fragment of Der f 14 (Der f 14-N). Recombinant allergens were produced as trigger-factor-fused proteins in Escherichia coli. Der f 14-N showed the highest IgE-binding frequency among Der f 14-derived fragments in patients allergic to house dust mite by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Der f 14-N showed the highest capacity to induce cell proliferation in murine lymphocyte and human peripheral mononuclear cells among Der f 14-derived fragments. Der f 14-N induced IL-13, IFN-γ, and IL-17 production more than Der f 1 and Der f 2 in mouse, and induced IL-5 and IFN-γ production at levels comparable to those of Der f 1 and Der f 2 in some patients. The high prevalence of IgE binding to the Der f 14-N indicates that it could be an important mite allergen. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  17. Control of exposure to mite allergen and allergen-impermeable bed covers for adults with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodcock, Ashley; Forster, Louise; Matthews, Edward; Martin, Jeannett; Letley, Louise; Vickers, Madge; Britton, John; Strachan, David; Howarth, Peter; Altmann, Daniel; Frost, Christopher; Custovic, Adnan

    2003-07-17

    The effectiveness of avoidance of house-dust-mite allergen (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 1 [Der p1]) in the management of asthma is uncertain. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study of allergen-impermeable bed covers involving 1122 adults with asthma. The primary outcomes were the mean morning peak expiratory flow rate over a four-week period during the run-in phase and at six months and the proportion of patients who discontinued inhaled corticosteroid therapy as part of a phased-reduction program during months 7 through 12. Der p1 was measured in mattress dust in a 10 percent random subsample of homes at entry and at 6 and 12 months. The prevalence of sensitivity to dust-mite allergen was 65.4 percent in the group supplied with allergen-impermeable bed covers (active-intervention group) and 65.1 percent in the control group supplied with non-impermeable bed covers. The concentration of Der p1 in mattress dust was significantly lower in the active-intervention group at 6 months (geometric mean, 0.58 microg per gram vs. 1.71 microg per gram in the control group; P=0.01) but not at 12 months (1.05 microg per gram vs. 1.64 microg per gram; P=0.74). The mean morning peak expiratory flow rate improved significantly in both groups (from 410.7 to 419.1 liters per minute in the active-intervention group, Pimpermeable covers, as a single intervention for the avoidance of exposure to dust-mite allergen, seem clinically ineffective in adults with asthma. Copyright 2003 Massachusetts Medical Society

  18. Japanese Society of Allergology task force report on standardization of house dust mite allergen vaccines – Secondary publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiro Takai

    2015-04-01

    Conclusions: The task force determined the in vivo allergenic potency (100,000 JAU/ml and Der 1 content (38.5 μg/ml of the JSA reference HDM extract, selected the measurement of Der 1 content as the surrogate in vitro assay, and decided that manufacturers can label a HDM allergen extract as having a titer of 100,000 JAU/ml if it contains 22.2–66.7 μg/ml of Der 1.

  19. Ingestion of milk containing the Dp2 peptide, a dust mite allergen, protects mice from allergic airway inflammation and hyper-responsiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Allergen-specific immunotherapy has been demonstrated to have potential for the treatment of allergic diseases. Transgenic animals are currently the best available bioreactors to produce recombinant proteins, which can be secreted in milk. It has not been clearly demonstrated whether milk from transgenic animals expressing recombinant allergens has immunomodulatory effects on allergic asthma. Methods We aimed to determine whether the oral administration of milk containing a mite allergen can down-regulate allergen-specific airway inflammation. Transgenic CD-1 mice that express a recombinant group 2 allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp2) in their milk were generated using an embryonic gene-microinjection technique. Mouse pups were fed transgenic Dp2-containing milk or wild-type milk. Subsequently, these mice were sensitized and challenged with Dp2 to induce allergic airway inflammation. Results Upon sensitization and challenge, mice fed transgenic Dp2 milk had decreased T-helper 2 (Th2) and increased T-helper 1 (Th1) responses in the airway compared with mice fed wild-type milk. Moreover, pre-treatment with transgenic Dp2 milk attenuated airway inflammation and decreased airway hyper-responsiveness. Conclusions This study provides new evidence that oral administration of transgenic milk containing the Dp2 allergen down-regulated and moderately protected against allergic airway inflammation. Milk from transgenic animals expressing allergens may have potential use in the prevention of allergic asthma. PMID:23763898

  20. House dust mite major allergens Der p 1 and Der p 5 activate human airway-derived epithelial cells by protease-dependent and protease-independent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timmerman J André B

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract House dust mite allergens (HDM cause bronchoconstriction in asthma patients and induce an inflammatory response in the lungs due to the release of cytokines, chemokines and additional mediators. The mechanism how HDM components achieve this is largely unknown. The objective of this study was to assess whether HDM components of Dermatophagoides pteronissinus with protease activity (Der p 1 and unknown enzymatic activity (Der p 2, Der p 5 induce biological responses in a human airway-derived epithelial cell line (A549, and if so, to elucidate the underlying mechanism(s of action. A549 cells were incubated with HDM extract, Der p 1, recombinant Der p 2 and recombinant Der p 5. Cell desquamation was assessed by microscopy. The proinflammatory cytokines, IL-6 and IL-8, were measured by ELISA. Intracellular Ca2+ levels were assessed in A549 cells and in mouse fibroblasts expressing the human protease activated receptor (PAR1, PAR2 or PAR4. HDM extract, Der p 1 and Der p 5 dose-dependently increased the production of IL-6 and IL-8. Added simultaneously, Der p 1 and Der p 5 further increased the production of IL-6 and IL-8. The action of Der p 1 was blocked by cysteine-protease inhibitors, while that of Der p 5 couldn't be blocked by either serine- or cysteine protease inhibitors. Der p 5 only induced cell shrinking, whereas HDM extract and Der p1 also induced cell desquamation. Der p 2 had no effect on A549 cells. Der p 1's protease activity causes desquamation and induced the release of IL6 and IL-8 by a mechanism independent of Ca2+ mobilisation and PAR activation. Der p 5 exerts a protease-independent activation of A549 that involves Ca2+ mobilisation and also leads to the production of these cytokines. Together, our data indicate that allergens present in HDM extracts can trigger protease-dependent and protease-independent signalling pathways in A549 cells.

  1. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the e...

  2. Domestic allergens in public places. II: Dog (Can f1) and cockroach (Bla g 2) allergens in dust and mite, cat, dog and cockroach allergens in the air in public buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custovic, A; Green, R; Taggart, S C; Smith, A; Pickering, C A; Chapman, M D; Woodcock, A

    1996-11-01

    Sensitization and exposure to indoor allergens are the major risk factors for asthma. It is possible that significant exposure to domestic allergens occurs outside the home. To investigate the levels of Can f 1 and Bla g 2 in the dust from carpeted floors and upholstered seats in public buildings and public transport and the airborne concentrations of Der p 1, Fel d 1, Can f 1 and Bla g 2 in schools and offices. Can f 1 and Bla g 2 were measured in the dust collected by vacuuming a 1 m2 area of carpet, as well as upholstered seats in five schools, six hotels, four cinemas, six pubs, three buses and two trains. Dust was also collected from the bedroom carpet, living room carpet, mattress and sofa in 20 homes with and 20 homes without a dog in the same area. Personal airborne sampling (2 L/min) was conducted for 8 h in offices (n = 16) and classrooms (n = 9). In addition, airborne samples in schools were collected using a high volume pump (60 L/min) for 1 h in three classrooms immediately after the children vacated the school. Can f 1, Bla g 2, Der p 1 and Fel d 1 were assayed using a two-site monoclonal antibody-based ELISA. Can f 1 was detected in all dust samples from public places, ranging from 0.2 to 52.5 micrograms/g. Significantly higher levels were found in upholstered seats (geometric mean--GM 9.4 micrograms/g) than in carpets (GM 1.5 micrograms/g; P 10 micrograms/g were found in 40% of upholstered seats in public places. Can f 1 was significantly higher in upholstered seats in public places than in sofas in homes without a dog (GM 1.8 micrograms/g; P < 0.001). Detectable levels of Bla g 2 were found in all of the schools (GM 2.4 U/g, range 0.8-4.4 U/g). Bla g 2 concentration greater than 2U/g (provisional threshold level representing risk of sensitization) was measured in 65% of the classrooms sampled. Der p 1 and Bla g 2 were below the detection limit in all airborne samples. However, airborne Fel d 1 and Can f 1 were detected in schools and offices

  3. Occurrence of Respiratory Symptoms Resulting from Exposure to House Dust Mites in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw; Maugeri, Umberto; Zembala, Marek; Hajto, Barbara; Flak, Elzbieta; Mroz, Elzbieta; Jacek, Ryszard; Sowa, Agata; Perera, Frederica P.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the distribution of house dust mite (HDM) allergens within homes of three-year-old children, to identify factors responsible for its variation and to test the hypothesis whether the content of HDM allergens exceeding 2 [mu]g/g dust may be regarded as a risk level of sensitization possibly affecting respiratory…

  4. House dust mites, our intimate associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadchatram, M

    2005-06-01

    House dust mites have lived in human contact from time immemorial. Human dander or dead skin constitutes the major organic component of the house dust ecosystem. Because the mites feed on dander, dust mites and human association will continue to co-exist as part of our environment. Efficient house-keeping practice is the best form of control to reduce infestation. However, special precautions are important when individuals are susceptible or sensitive to dust mites. House dust mites are responsible for causing asthma, rhinitis and contact dermatitis. The respiratory allergies are caused by the inhalation of dead or live mites, their faecal matter or other byproducts. Immune factors are of paramount importance in the development of dust related or mite induced respiratory diseases. House dust mites were found in some 1,000 samples of dust taken from approximately 330 dwellings in Peninsular Malaysia and Singapore. Mattresses, carpets, corners of a bedroom, and floor beneath the bed are favourable dust mite habitats. The incriminating species based on studies here and elsewhere, as well as many other species of dust mites of unknown etiological importance are widely distributed in Malaysian homes. Density of dust mites in Malaysia and Singapore is greater than in temperate countries. Prevention and control measures with reference to subjects sensitive to dust mite allergies, including chemical control described in studies conducted in Europe and America are discussed. However, a cost free and most practical way to remove mites, their faecal matter and other products is to resort to sunning the bedding and carpets to kill the living mites, and then beaten and brushed to remove the dust and other components.

  5. Stability evaluation of house dust mite vaccines for sublingual immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIJA GAVROVIĆ-JANKULOVIĆ

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Allergen-specific immunotherapy with house dust mite (HDM allergen extracts can effectively alleviate the symptoms of allergic rhinitis and asthma. The efficacy of the immunotherapeutic treatment is highly dependent on the quality of house dust mite vaccines. This study was performed to assess the stability of house dust mite allergen vaccines prepared for sublingual immunotherapy. Lyophilized Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt mite bodies were the starting material for the production of sublingual vaccines in four therapeutic concentrations. The stability of the extract for vaccine production, which was stored below 4 °C for one month, showed consistence in the protein profile in SDS PAGE. ELISA-inhibition showed that the potencies of Dpt vaccines during a 12 month period were to 65–80 % preserved at all analyzed therapeutic concentrations. This study showed that glycerinated Dpt vaccines stored at 4 °C preserved their IgE-binding potential during a 12 month period, implying their suitability for sublingual immunotherapeutic treatment of HDM allergy.

  6. Activated charcoal suppresses breeding of the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hae-Seon; Siebers, Robert; Lee, Sun-Hwa; Kim, Sung-Ho; Lee, Sang-Han; Crane, Julian

    2007-04-01

    House dust mite sensitized asthmatics are advised to practice allergen avoidance. Charcoal pillows are used in Korea with unsubstantiated claims regarding their efficacy in alleviating asthma symptoms. We tested the effects of activated charcoal on breeding of house dust mites in culture. Twenty live adult house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus) were inoculated, 10 replicates, on culture media containing 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 20% activated charcoal and incubated at 25 degrees C and a relative humidity of 75%. After four weeks, the mean numbers of live house dust mites were 286, 176, 46, 16, 7, and 0 for the 0%, 1%, 3%, 5%, 10%, and 20% charcoal-containing culture media, respectively. Thus, activated charcoal suppresses breeding of house dust mites and offers a new promising method for house dust mite control.

  7. Clinical effectiveness of a mite allergen-impermeable bed-covering system in asthmatic mite-sensitive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bemt, Lisette; van Knapen, Lieke; de Vries, Marjolein P; Jansen, Margreet; Cloosterman, Sonja; van Schayck, Constant P

    2004-10-01

    Exposure to allergens plays a role in the development of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and in the chronic inflammatory response seen in asthmatic patients. House dust mites (HDMs) are an important source of allergen. Reduction of these allergens might lead to better lung function and reduction of asthma symptoms. The effect of HDM-impermeable covers on HDM allergen levels, peak flow values, and asthma symptoms were measured. Therefore a randomized clinical trial was carried out. Fifty-two allergic asthmatic patients were randomly allocated to use the HDM-impermeable or placebo covers. During the study period, daily peak flow and asthma symptom scores were recorded. Dust samples were taken from the mattresses. We observed a significant reduction in HDM allergen levels on the mattresses after encasing them with HDM-impermeable covers (reduction of 87% of Der p 1 in micrograms per gram of dust; P impermeable covers significantly decreased the level of HDM allergens. Furthermore, morning peak flow was significantly increased during the intervention period. This study indicates that HDM allergen-avoidance measures might have beneficial effects on allergen reduction and asthma outcome.

  8. A study on indoor environment contaminants related to dust mite in dwellings of allergic asthma patients and of healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, M; Yang, B; Zhuang, Y J; Yanagi, U; Cheng, X J

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the pollution of dust mite allergens in the houses of 30 families and their infection to young allergic asthma patients in Shanghai. Medical records, family information, and dust samples were collected from the dwellings of 15 young allergic asthma patients and 15 healthy subjects. Der 1 allergen, which is a common allergen causing allergic asthma, was measured in collected dust samples using the Pharmacia Uni-CAP System. A significant correlation was found between the number of Der 1 allergens collected from floor surfaces and the number of Der 1 allergens collected from bed surfaces. Some factors influencing Der 1 allergen levels were found in this study. Relative humidity in dwellings was found to be most influential to the allergen levels. The findings suggested that traditional reduction methods for coarse particles, such as opening windows and periodic cleaning of beddings, may be effective in removing dust mite allergens.

  9. The Level of Mite Dermatophagoides’ Allergens (Der-p 1 and Der-f 1) in Birjand

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Fereidouni; Farkhondeh Fereidouni; Mehrasa Hadian; Zahra Asghari; S. Masood Zojaji

    2014-01-01

    Background: House dust mite allergens especially pyroglyphid species are among the most important indoor allergens and have an important role in development of asthma and allergies. Materials and Methods: In current study, the level of two main allergens from mites including Der-p1 and Der-f 1 in dust of 28 homes in Birjand city was measured by ELISA method. Results: All samples were negative for Der-p1. Low leverl of Der-f 1 was detected in one sample. Prevalence of asthma, rhinitis an...

  10. Comparisons of the allergenic mite prevalence in dwellings and certain outdoor environments of the Upper Silesia (southwest Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solarz, Krzysztof; Senczuk, Liliana; Maniurka, Hanna; Cichecka, Ewelina; Peszke, Magdalena

    2007-12-01

    The occurrence of allergenic mites (pyroglyphid house-dust mites, acarid and glycyphagid storage mites and others) in dwellings and in synanthropic outdoor sites in a densely populated urban area was investigated. A total of 335 house dust samples were collected from dwellings at 7 different locations in Upper Silesia (Poland), including 84 samples from dwellings of Katowice. Mites were found in 188 of the samples examined (56.1%). A total of 4410 mite specimens were isolated and identified, including 4212 members of the family Pyroglyphidae (95.51%). Among them, Dermatophagoides farinae was predominant (75.3%), followed by D. pteronyssinus (18.6%) and Euroglyphus maynei (1.5%). Moreover, litter soiled with communal wastes was sampled. All 86 samples contained mites. A total of 7547 mite specimens were isolated including 6050 mites known as allergenic (80.5%). Among the astigmatid mites two acarids were dominant: Tyrophagus silvester and T. longior (28.7% and 25.1% of all mites). It should be stressed that 6 of the acarid mite species or genera found in outdoor environments are typical domestic mites (T. putrescentiae), or they have been collected from house dust samples (T. longior, Tyrolichus casei, Thyreophagus entomophagus, Mycetoglyphus fungivorus and Rhizoglyphus robini). The litter of synanthropic sites can therefore form a substantial source of infestation.

  11. Diversity of House Dust Mite Species in Xishuangbanna Dai, a Tropical Rainforest Region in Southwest China

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    Jing-Miao Yu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To survey the species diversity of home dust mites (HDM in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China. Methods. From August 2010 to January 2011, mite-allergic patients and healthy controls were invited to participate. Dust samples from the patients’ homes were collected, and mites in the samples were isolated. Permanent slides were prepared for morphologically based species determination. Results. In total, 6316 mite specimens of morphologically identifiable species were found in 233 dust samples taken from 41 homes. The result shows that the mite family of Pyroglyphidae occupied the highest percentage of the total amount of mites collected, followed by Cheyletidae family. The most common adult Pyroglyphidae mites were Dermatophagoides (D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, and D. siboney. The most common mites found from other families were Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Aleuroglyphus ovatus. Four main allergenic dust mite species D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus, D. siboney, and Blomia tropicalis were found to be coinhabiting in 6/41 homes. Conclusion. The HDM population in homes in Xishuangbanna, a tropical rainforest region in Southwest China, has its own characteristics. It has rich dust mite species and the dust mite densities do not show significant variation across seasons.

  12. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression of cDNA coding for the major house dust mite allergen, Der f 1, in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Cui

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Our objective was to clone, express and characterize adult Dermatophagoides farinae group 1 (Der f 1 allergens to further produce recombinant allergens for future clinical applications in order to eliminate side reactions from crude extracts of mites. Based on GenBank data, we designed primers and amplified the cDNA fragment coding for Der f 1 by nested-PCR. After purification and recovery, the cDNA fragment was cloned into the pMD19-T vector. The fragment was then sequenced, subcloned into the plasmid pET28a(+, expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 and identified by Western blotting. The cDNA coding for Der f 1 was cloned, sequenced and expressed successfully. Sequence analysis showed the presence of an open reading frame containing 966 bp that encodes a protein of 321 amino acids. Interestingly, homology analysis showed that the Der p 1 shared more than 87% identity in amino acid sequence with Eur m 1 but only 80% with Der f 1. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses suggested that D. pteronyssinus was evolutionarily closer to Euroglyphus maynei than to D. farinae, even though D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae belong to the same Dermatophagoides genus. A total of three cysteine peptidase active sites were found in the predicted amino acid sequence, including 127-138 (QGGCGSCWAFSG, 267-277 (NYHAVNIVGYG and 284-303 (YWIVRNSWDTTWGDSGYGYF. Moreover, secondary structure analysis revealed that Der f 1 contained an a helix (33.96%, an extended strand (17.13%, a ß turn (5.61%, and a random coil (43.30%. A simple three-dimensional model of this protein was constructed using a Swiss-model server. The cDNA coding for Der f 1 was cloned, sequenced and expressed successfully. Alignment and phylogenetic analysis suggests that D. pteronyssinus is evolutionarily more similar to E. maynei than to D. farinae.

  13. SQ house dust mite (HDM) SLIT-tablet provides clinical improvement in HDM-induced allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klimek, Ludger; Mosbech, Holger; Zieglmayer, Petra

    2016-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergy represents a highly prevalent inhalant allergy, and exposure to HDM allergens results in allergic rhinitis with persistent symptoms that may not be adequately controlled with available allergy pharmacotherapy. Allergy immunotherapy constitutes a complementary treatme...

  14. The Level of Mite Dermatophagoides’ Allergens (Der-p 1 and Der-f 1 in Birjand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Fereidouni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: House dust mite allergens especially pyroglyphid species are among the most important indoor allergens and have an important role in development of asthma and allergies. Materials and Methods: In current study, the level of two main allergens from mites including Der-p1 and Der-f 1 in dust of 28 homes in Birjand city was measured by ELISA method. Results: All samples were negative for Der-p1. Low leverl of Der-f 1 was detected in one sample. Prevalence of asthma, rhinitis and rhinoconjunctivitis was 2%, 28% and 15% respectively. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that House dust mites could not grow in Birjand climate.

  15. Prokaryotic expression and purification of recombinant products of group 2 house dust mite allergen%重组粉尘螨Ⅱ类变应原的原核表达及纯化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常维佳; 姜玉新; 陈文魁; 周书林

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To express and purify the cDNA of the group 2 allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 2) and to determine the allergic activity of the resulting recombinant protein. Methods The Der f 2 gene was inserted into the expression vector pET-30a( + ) and transformed into competent E. Colt BL21 (DE3). The product induced by IPTG was analyzed with SDS-PAGE. The ability of Ig E to bind with sera from patients with an allergy to house dust mites was detected. Results SDSrPAGE testing showed that the amplified product with recombinant vector pET-30a-Der f 2 had a molecular mass of 15ku. This is consistent with the expected value. ELISA testing showed that the protein bound with the serum Ig E from patients with asthma. Conclusion Der f 2 has been successfully expressed in E. Colt and the purified recombinant protein has good allergenicity, providing a basis for animal testing of ASIT to treat allergy to house dust mites.%目的 表达并纯化粉尘螨2类变应原Der f 2蛋白,检测其变应原性. 方法 用1 mmol/L的IPTG诱导含重组质粒pET30a-Der f2的大肠埃希菌BL21( DE3),SDS-PAGE电泳检测并纯化目的蛋白,ELISA检测其与尘螨哮喘患者血清IgE的结合活性. 结果 SDS-PAGE电泳检测重组质粒pET30a-Der f 2表达产物,其分子质量单化为15 ku,与预期大小相符.ELISA检测纯化的Der f 2蛋白可与尘螨哮喘患者血清IgE反应. 结论 成功获得并纯化了Der f2重组蛋白,该蛋白具有变应原性,为进行尘螨过敏性疾病的变应原特异性免疫治疗的动物实验奠定了物质基础.

  16. Establishing health standards for indoor foreign proteins related to asthma: Dust mite, cat and cockroach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platts-Mills, T.A.E.; Chapman, M.D.; Pollart, S.M.; Heymann, P.W.; Luczynska, C.M. (Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville (United States))

    1990-01-01

    There is no doubt that a large number of individuals become allergic to foreign proteins that are predominantly or exclusively present indoors. In each case this immune response can be demonstrated either by immediate skin test responses or by measuring serum IgE antibodies. It has also been obvious for some time that patients presenting with asthma, perennial rhinitis and atopic dermatitis have an increased prevalence of IgE antibodies to these indoor allergens. More recently several epidemiological surveys have suggested that both mite exposure and IgE antibodies are important risk factors for asthma. The present situation is that assays have been developed capable of measuring the presence of mite, cockroach and cat allergens in house dust. Further clinical studies will be necessary to test the proposed standards for mite allergens and to define risk levels for other allergens.

  17. Mites and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Puerta, Leonardo; Caraballo, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases triggered by mite allergens include allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and other skin diseases. Since the early discovery of the allergenic role of mites of the genus Dermatophagoides in the mid 1960s, numerous species have been described as the source of allergens capable of sensitizing and inducing allergic symptoms in sensitized and genetically predisposed individuals. The main sources of allergens in house dust worldwide are the fecal pellets of the mite species D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, Euroglyphus maynei and the storage mites Blomia tropicalis, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyropahgus putrescentiae. Group 1 and 2 allergens are major house dust mite allergens. The main allergens in storage mites include fatty acid-binding proteins, tropomyosin and paramyosin homologues, apolipophorin-like proteins, α-tubulins and others, such as group 2, 5 and 7 allergens. Cross-reactivity is an important and common immunological feature among mites. Currently, purified native or recombinant allergens, epitope mapping, proteomic approaches and T cell proliferation techniques are being used to assess cross-reactivity. Mites contain potent enzymes capable of degrading a wide range of substrates. Most mite allergens are enzymes. Advances in genomics and molecular biology will improve our ability to understand the genetics of specific IgE responses to mites. Mite allergen avoidance and immunotherapy are the only two allergen-specific ways to treat mite-induced respiratory and cutaneous diseases. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Placebo-controlled trial of house dust mite-impermeable mattress covers - Effect on symptoms in early childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, LP; van Strien, RT; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; Smit, HA; de Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Aalberse, RC; Brunekreef, B; Neijens, HJ

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the effect of house dust mite (HDM)-allergen avoidance on the development of respiratory Symptoms, atopic dermatitis, and atopic sensitization by performing a double blind, placebo-controlled trial. In total, 1,282 allergic pregnant women were selected (416 received HDM allergen-impe

  19. Immunoinformatics and Similarity Analysis of House Dust Mite Tropomyosin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mehdi Ranjbar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus are house dust mites (HDM that they cause severe asthma and allergic symptoms. Tropomyosin protein plays an important role in mentioned immune and allergic reactions to HDMs. Here, tropomyosin protein from Dermatophagoides spp. was comprehensively screened in silico for its allergenicity, antigenicity and similarity/conservation.Materials and Methods: The amino acid sequences of D. farinae tropomyosin, D. pteronyssinus and other mites were retrieved. We included alignments and evaluated conserved/ variable regions along sequences, constructed their phylogenetic tree and estimated overall mean distances. Then, followed by with prediction of linear B-cell epitope based on different approaches, and besides in-silico evaluation of IgE epitopes allergenicity (by SVMc, IgE epitope, ARPs BLAST, MAST and hybrid method. Finally, comparative analysis of results by different approaches was made.Results: Alignment results revealed near complete identity between D. farina and D. pteronyssinus members, and also there was close similarity among Dermatophagoides spp. Most of the variations among mites' tropomyosin were approximately located at amino acids 23 to 80, 108 to 120, 142 to 153 and 220 to 230. Topology of tree showed close relationships among mites in tropomyosin protein sequence, although their sequences in D. farina, D. pteronyssinus and Psoroptes ovis are more similar to each other and clustered. Dermanyssus gallinae (AC: Q2WBI0 has less relationship to other mites, being located in a separate branch. Hydrophilicity and flexibility plots revealed that many parts of this protein have potential to be hydrophilic and flexible. Surface accessibility represented 7 different epitopes. Beta-turns in this protein are with high probability in the middle part and its two terminals. Kolaskar and Tongaonkar method analysis represented 11 immunogenic epitopes between amino acids 7-16. From

  20. House-dust mite hypersensitivity, eczema, and other nonpulmonary manifestations of allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tupker, RA; de Monchy, JGR; Coenraads, PJ

    1998-01-01

    The pathogenetic role of house-dust mites (HDM) in atopic dermatitis (AD) remains controversial, mainly because there is no common agreement on a provocation test that mimics ordinary exposure to HDM. This is related to the lack of knowledge of the mechanism of how HDM allergens enter the body.

  1. Epidermal growth factor receptor signalling contributes to house dust mite-induced epithelial barrier dysfunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, I H; van Oosterhout, A; Kapus, A

    2010-01-01

    Impaired airway epithelial barrier function has emerged as a key factor in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. We aimed to discern the involvement of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in allergen-induced epithelial barrier impairment, as we previously observed that house dust mite (HDM) s

  2. Enzymatic activity and immunoreactivity of Aca s 4, an alpha-amylase allergen from the storage mite Acarus siro

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    Pytelková Jana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enzymatic allergens of storage mites that contaminate stored food products are poorly characterized. We describe biochemical and immunological properties of the native alpha-amylase allergen Aca s 4 from Acarus siro, a medically important storage mite. Results A. siro produced a high level of alpha-amylase activity attributed to Aca s 4. This enzyme was purified and identified by protein sequencing and LC-MS/MS analysis. Aca s 4 showed a distinct inhibition pattern and an unusual alpha-amylolytic activity with low sensitivity to activation by chloride ions. Homology modeling of Aca s 4 revealed a structural change in the chloride-binding site that may account for this activation pattern. Aca s 4 was recognized by IgE from house dust mite-sensitive patients, and potential epitopes for cross-reactivity with house dust mite group 4 allergens were found. Conclusions We present the first protein-level characterization of a group 4 allergen from storage mites. Due to its high production and IgE reactivity, Aca s 4 is potentially relevant to allergic hypersensitivity.

  3. Rhinovirus exacerbates house-dust-mite induced lung disease in adult mice.

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    Jennifer A Phan

    Full Text Available Human rhinovirus is a key viral trigger for asthma exacerbations. To date, murine studies investigating rhinovirus-induced exacerbation of allergic airways disease have employed systemic sensitisation/intranasal challenge with ovalbumin. In this study, we combined human-rhinovirus infection with a clinically relevant mouse model of aero-allergen exposure using house-dust-mite in an attempt to more accurately understand the links between human-rhinovirus infection and exacerbations of asthma. Adult BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to low-dose house-dust-mite (or vehicle daily for 10 days. On day 9, mice were inoculated with human-rhinovirus-1B (or UV-inactivated human-rhinovirus-1B. Forty-eight hours after inoculation, we assessed bronchoalveolar cellular inflammation, levels of relevant cytokines/serum antibodies, lung function and responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. House-dust-mite exposure did not result in a classical TH2-driven response, but was more representative of noneosinophilic asthma. However, there were significant effects of house-dust-mite exposure on most of the parameters measured including increased cellular inflammation (primarily macrophages and neutrophils, increased total IgE and house-dust-mite-specific IgG1 and increased responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. There were limited effects of human-rhinovirus-1B infection alone, and the combination of the two insults resulted in additive increases in neutrophil levels and lung parenchymal responses to methacholine (tissue elastance. We conclude that acute rhinovirus infection exacerbates house-dust-mite-induced lung disease in adult mice. The similarity of our results using the naturally occurring allergen house-dust-mite, to previous studies using ovalbumin, suggests that the exacerbation of allergic airways disease by rhinovirus infection could act via multiple or conserved mechanisms.

  4. Rhinovirus exacerbates house-dust-mite induced lung disease in adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jennifer A; Kicic, Anthony; Berry, Luke J; Fernandes, Lynette B; Zosky, Graeme R; Sly, Peter D; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2014-01-01

    Human rhinovirus is a key viral trigger for asthma exacerbations. To date, murine studies investigating rhinovirus-induced exacerbation of allergic airways disease have employed systemic sensitisation/intranasal challenge with ovalbumin. In this study, we combined human-rhinovirus infection with a clinically relevant mouse model of aero-allergen exposure using house-dust-mite in an attempt to more accurately understand the links between human-rhinovirus infection and exacerbations of asthma. Adult BALB/c mice were intranasally exposed to low-dose house-dust-mite (or vehicle) daily for 10 days. On day 9, mice were inoculated with human-rhinovirus-1B (or UV-inactivated human-rhinovirus-1B). Forty-eight hours after inoculation, we assessed bronchoalveolar cellular inflammation, levels of relevant cytokines/serum antibodies, lung function and responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. House-dust-mite exposure did not result in a classical TH2-driven response, but was more representative of noneosinophilic asthma. However, there were significant effects of house-dust-mite exposure on most of the parameters measured including increased cellular inflammation (primarily macrophages and neutrophils), increased total IgE and house-dust-mite-specific IgG1 and increased responsiveness/sensitivity to methacholine. There were limited effects of human-rhinovirus-1B infection alone, and the combination of the two insults resulted in additive increases in neutrophil levels and lung parenchymal responses to methacholine (tissue elastance). We conclude that acute rhinovirus infection exacerbates house-dust-mite-induced lung disease in adult mice. The similarity of our results using the naturally occurring allergen house-dust-mite, to previous studies using ovalbumin, suggests that the exacerbation of allergic airways disease by rhinovirus infection could act via multiple or conserved mechanisms.

  5. House dust mite allergen Der p 1 elevates the release of inflammatory cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules in co-culture of human eosinophils and bronchial epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chun K; Li, Mandy L Y; Wang, Cheng B; Ip, Wai K; Tian, Ya P; Lam, Christopher W K

    2006-08-01

    House dust mite (HDM) is a common allergen of allergic asthma. Eosinophils are principal effector cells of allergic inflammation and their adhesion onto human bronchial epithelial cells is mediated by a CD18-intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1)-dependent interaction. We studied the effects of HDM Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) 1 on the activation of eosinophils and bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells. Cytokines and adhesion molecules were measured using flow cytometry. Transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) and signaling molecule p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were analyzed using electromobility shift assay and western blot, respectively. Der p 1 protein was found to potently induce the release of IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor from eosinophils. Such induction was further up-regulated for IL-6 and IL-10, and down-regulated for TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in eosinophil-BEAS-2B cells co-culture. Surface expression of CD18 and ICAM-1 on eosinophils was greatly increased by Der p 1; such inductive effect on ICAM-1 was also found to be more prominent on BEAS-2B cells from the co-culture than BEAS-2B cells alone. Der p 1 was found to activate NF-kappaB and AP-1 activity in eosinophils alone and in co-culture and BEAS-2B cells in co-culture. Moreover, Der p 1 could activate p38 MAPK in BEAS-2B cells and eosinophils alone and in co-culture. Selective inhibition of NF-kappaB, AP-1 and p38 MAPK resulted in differential suppression of the Der p 1-induced cytokine release and adhesion molecule expression. As an allergen, HDM could therefore induce the release of inflammatory cytokines and expression of adhesion molecules from the interaction of human eosinophils and bronchial epithelial cells.

  6. Dust mites in a routine clinical stool sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bushra Zia; Hassaan Bin Aftab; Mohammad Faizan Zahid; Joveria Farooqi; Feroze Uddin; Mohammad Asim Beg

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of dust mite carriage in a 56-year-old gentleman. Dust mites eggs and larvae were found in a stool sample which was taken for a routine clinical examination. He was completely asymptomatic with no history of rash, airway disease or other allergic manifestations associated with dust mites. We noticed that the oval structure of mite eggs resembled helminth eggs and therefore may be misidentified during routine clinical analysis. As the patient was otherwise healthy, it was concluded that no rigorous antiparasitic therapy was necessary to eliminate dust mites from his system.

  7. Stratum corneum removal facilitates experimental sensitization to mite allergens in atopic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivry, Thierry; Wofford, Jessica; Paps, Judy S; Dunston, Stanley M

    2011-04-01

    In humans with atopic dermatitis and in mouse models of IgE-mediated allergic diseases, evidence is mounting that the stratum corneum (SC) provides an important barrier against environmental allergens. At this time, it is not known whether the SC has a similar role in dogs, especially in those with atopic dermatitis. The objectives of this pilot study were to determine whether SC removal led to earlier and stronger sensitization of atopic dogs to Dermatophagoides farinae (Df) house dust mites. Five Maltese-beagle atopic (MBA) dogs were sensitized epicutaneously after the SC was removed with ten tape strips (TS group), while sensitization was done without tape strips in five other MBA dogs (nontape stripping; NTS group). During this 16 week study, sensitization was assessed with allergen-specific IgE serology, intradermal testing with Df allergens and determination of stimulation indices of blood mononuclear cells cultured with Df and stained for CD4 and the activation markers CD25 or CD30. Compared with dogs from the NTS group, those of the TS group exhibited earlier rises in Df-specific IgE serum levels, usually had higher allergen-specific IgE titres, showed higher intradermal test reactivity and had earlier increases and higher percentages of CD25- or CD30-positive activated allergen-specific peripheral CD4-positive T lymphocytes. These observations implicate a role of the SC as a barrier limiting sensitization to exogenous allergens in this experimental atopic dog model.

  8. Indoor mite allergens in patients with respiratory allergy living in Porto, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plácido, J L; Cuesta, C; Delgado, L; da Silva, J P; Miranda, M; Ventas, P; Vaz, M

    1996-09-01

    We investigated the levels of mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der 2, and Lep d 1) in dust samples from the homes of 59 patients with asthma, 36 sensitized to house-dust mites (HDM) and 23 to grass pollen (controls), living in Porto, northern Portugal. The relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM and the influence of housing conditions on mite-allergen levels were also evaluated. Der p 1 (median 9.2 micrograms/g) and Der 2 (4.6 micrograms/g) were the main allergens, while Der f 1 and Lep d 1 levels were always 2 micrograms/g and their homes contained significantly higher levels of Der p 1 (median 12.5 vs 6.4 micrograms/g; P = 0.008) and Der 2 (6.2 vs 3.0 micrograms/g; P = 0.004) when compared to the control group. A significant correlation was observed between the exposure to Der p 1 and the wheal area at skin testing with the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) extract (P = 0.01) as well as with serum specific IgE levels to Dp (P = 0.03). Patients with higher levels of serum specific IgE (> or = 17.5 HRU/ml) were also more frequently exposed to Der p 1 levels > or = 10 micrograms/g (P = 0.002). Old homes, presence of carpets, and signs of dampness were conditions associated with significantly higher levels of mite allergens. In conclusion, we found high levels of Der p 1 and Der 2 particularly in the homes of HDM-sensitized patients and we confirm the relationship between exposure and sensitization to HDM, assessed by both in vivo and in vitro methods. In additional to a favorable outdoor climate, we found in our region housing conditions propitious to mite growth, suggesting that specific geographic characteristics must also be taken into account for the correct planning of mite-avoidance measures.

  9. House dust mite barrier bedding for childhood asthma: randomised placebo controlled trial in primary care [ISRCTN63308372

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    Barnes Greta

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The house dust mite is the most important environmental allergen implicated in the aetiology of childhood asthma in the UK. Dust mite barrier bedding is relatively inexpensive, convenient to use, and of proven effectiveness in reducing mattress house dust mite load, but no studies have evaluated its clinical effectiveness in the control of childhood asthma when dispensed in primary care. We therefore aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of house dust mite barrier bedding in children with asthma treated in primary care. Methods Pragmatic, randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled trial conducted in eight family practices in England. Forty-seven children aged 5 to 14 years with confirmed house dust mite sensitive asthma were randomised to receive six months treatment with either house dust mite barrier or placebo bedding. Peak expiratory flow was the main outcome measure of interest; secondary outcome measures included asthma symptom scores and asthma medication usage. Results No difference was noted in mean monthly peak expiratory flow, asthma symptom score, medication usage or asthma consultations, between children who received active bedding and those who received placebo bedding. Conclusions Treating house dust mite sensitive asthmatic children in primary care with house dust mite barrier bedding for six months failed to improve peak expiratory flow. Results strongly suggest that the intervention made no impact upon other clinical features of asthma.

  10. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tovey, Euan R; Liu-Brennan, Damien; Garden, Frances L; Oliver, Brian G; Perzanowski, Matthew S; Marks, Guy B

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for future technical

  11. Time-Based Measurement of Personal Mite Allergen Bioaerosol Exposure over 24 Hour Periods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euan R Tovey

    Full Text Available Allergic diseases such as asthma and rhinitis are common in many countries. Globally the most common allergen associated with symptoms is produced by house dust mites. Although the bed has often been cited as the main site of exposure to mite allergens, surprisingly this has not yet been directly established by measurement due to a lack of suitable methods. Here we report on the development of novel methods to determine the pattern of personal exposure to mite allergen bioaerosols over 24-hour periods and applied this in a small field study using 10 normal adults. Air was sampled using a miniature time-based air-sampler of in-house design located close to the breathing zone of the participants, co-located with a miniature time-lapse camera. Airborne particles, drawn into the sampler at 2L/min via a narrow slot, were impacted onto the peripheral surface of a disk mounted on the hour-hand of either a 12 or 24 hour clock motor. The impaction surface was either an electret cloth, or an adhesive film; both novel for these purposes. Following a review of the time-lapse images, disks were post-hoc cut into subsamples corresponding to eight predetermined categories of indoor or outdoor location, extracted and analysed for mite allergen Der p 1 by an amplified ELISA. Allergen was detected in 57.2% of the total of 353 subsamples collected during 20 days of sampling. Exposure patterns varied over time. Higher concentrations of airborne mite allergen were typically measured in samples collected from domestic locations in the day and evening. Indoor domestic Der p 1 exposures accounted for 59.5% of total exposure, whereas total in-bed-asleep exposure, which varied 80 fold between individuals, accounted overall for 9.85% of total exposure, suggesting beds are not often the main site of exposure. This study establishes the feasibility of novel methods for determining the time-geography of personal exposure to many bioaerosols and identifies new areas for

  12. Respiratory allergy caused by house dust mites: What do we really know?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Linneberg, Allan; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; De Blay, Frédéric; Hernandez Fernandez de Rojas, Dolores; Virchow, Johann Christian; Demoly, Pascal

    2015-07-01

    The house dust mite (HDM) is a major perennial allergen source and a significant cause of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. However, awareness of the condition remains generally low. This review assesses the links between exposure to HDM, development of the allergic response, and pathologic consequences in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We investigate the epidemiology of HDM allergy to explore the interaction between mites and human subjects at the population, individual, and molecular levels. Core and recent publications were identified by using "house dust mite" as a key search term to evaluate the current knowledge of HDM epidemiology and pathophysiology. Prevalence data for HDM allergen sensitization vary from 65 to 130 million persons in the general population worldwide to as many as 50% among asthmatic patients. Heterogeneity of populations, terminology, and end points in the literature confound estimates, indicating the need for greater standardization in epidemiologic research. Exposure to allergens depends on multiple ecological strata, including climate and mite microhabitats within the domestic environment, with the latter providing opportunity for intervention measures to reduce allergen load. Inhaled mite aeroallergens are unusually virulent: they are able to activate both the adaptive and innate immune responses, potentially offering new avenues for intervention. The role of HDM allergens is crucial in the development of allergic rhinitis and asthma, but the translation of silent sensitization into symptomatic disease is still incompletely understood. Improved understanding of HDMs, their allergens, and their microhabitats will enable development of more effective outcomes for patients with HDM allergy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Acaroid mite allergens from the filters of air-conditioning system in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao-Pin; Guo, Wei; Zhan, Xiao-Dong; Zhao, Bei-Bei; Diao, Ji-Dong; Li, Na; He, Lian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of acaroid mites in the filters of air-conditioners is harmful to human health. It is important to clarify the allergen components of mites from the filters of local air-conditioning system. The present study was to detect the allergen types in the filters of air-conditioners and assesse their allergenicity by asthmatic models. Sixty aliquots of dust samples were collected from air conditioning filters in civil houses in Wuhu area. Total protein was extracted from the dust samples using PBS and quantified by Bradford method. Allergens I and II were also detected by Western blot using primary antibody (anti-Der f1/2, Der p1/Der f2/Der p2, respectively). Ten aliquots of the positive samples were randomly selected for homogenization and sensitized the mice for developing asthmatic animal models. Total serum IgE level and IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-5 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The allergenicity of the extraction was assessed using pathological sections developed from the mouse pulmonary tissues. The concentration of extract from the 60 samples was ranged from 4.37 μg/ml to 30.76 μg/ml. After analyzing with Western blot, 31 of 60 samples were positive for 4 allergens of acaroid mites, and yet 16 were negative. The levels of total IgE from serum IL-4 and IL-5 from the BALF in the experimental group were apparently higher than that of negative control and PBS group (P 0.05). However,the IFN-γ level in BALF was lower compared with the negative control and PBS group (P 0.05). The pathological changes were evidently emerged in pulmonary tissues, which were similar to those of OVA group, compared with the PBS ground and negative controls. The air-conditioner filters in human dwellings of Wuhu area potentially contain the major group allergen 1 and 2 from D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus, which may be associated with seasonal prevalence of allergic disorders in this area.

  14. Association of pediatric asthma severity with exposure to common household dust allergens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gent, Janneane F., E-mail: janneane.gent@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Belanger, Kathleen [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Triche, Elizabeth W. [Brown University, Department of Community Health/Epidemiology, Providence, RI (United States); Bracken, Michael B. [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Beckett, William S. [Mount Auburn Hospital, Department of Internal Medicine, Cambridge, MA (United States); Leaderer, Brian P. [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    Background: Reducing exposure to household dust inhalant allergens has been proposed as one strategy to reduce asthma. Objective: To examine the dose-response relationships and health impact of five common household dust allergens on disease severity, quantified using both symptom frequency and medication use, in atopic and non-atopic asthmatic children. Methods: Asthmatic children (N=300) aged 4-12 years were followed for 1 year. Household dust samples from two indoor locations were analyzed for allergens including dust mite (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1), cockroach (Bla g 1). Daily symptoms and medication use were collected in monthly telephone interviews. Annual disease severity was examined in models including allergens, specific IgE sensitivity and adjusted for age, gender, atopy, ethnicity, and mother's education. Results: Der p 1 house dust mite allergen concentration of 2.0 {mu}g/g or more from the main room and the child's bed was related to increased asthma severity independent of allergic status (respectively, OR 2.93, 95% CI 1.37, 6.30 for 2.0-10.0 {mu}g/g and OR 2.55 95% CI 1.13, 5.73 for {>=}10.0 {mu}g/g). Higher pet allergen levels were associated with greater asthma severity, but only for those sensitized (cat OR 2.41 95% CI 1.19, 4.89; dog OR 2.06 95% CI 1.01, 4.22). Conclusion: Higher levels of Der p 1 and pet allergens were associated with asthma severity, but Der p 1 remained an independent risk factor after accounting for pet allergens and regardless of Der p 1 specific IgE status.

  15. Indoor allergens in settled dust from kindergartens in city of Łódź, Poland

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    Marcin Cyprowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main objective of the study was to determine the levels of house dust mite (Der p1, dog (Can f1, cat (Fel d1 and cockroach (Bla g2 allergens in kindergartens localized in an urban agglomeration. Material and Methods: A quantitative analysis of allergens was carried out in settled dust samples collected by vacuuming the floor surface in three kindergartens (N = 84 and children's clothing (N = 36. The samples were collected in springsummer and autumn-winter periods as well as at the beginning and end of the week. The allergen dust concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunoenzymatic assay (ELISA. Results: The mean geometric concentrations (±geometric standard deviations of allergens Der p1, Can f1, Fel d1 and Bla g2 determined in kindergartens were: 0.02±3.21 μg/g of dust; 0.97±4.49 μg/g of dust; 0.30±4.43 μg/g of dust and 0.01±3.08 μg/g of dust, respectively. Younger classrooms (children aged from 3 to 4 years were characterized by almost twice higher mean concentration of allergen Fel d1, as compared to older classrooms (children aged from 5 to 6 years (p < 0.05. A significant impact of seasonality on the level of dog allergen Can f1 was found (p < 0.05. No significant weekly variation was found in average concentrations of the allergens. Children who had a dog and/or cat at home were characterized by high concentrations of allergens Can f1 and Fel d1 on their clothes (59.2±5.39 μg Can f1/g of dust; 3.63±1.47 μg Fel d1/g of dust, significantly higher than concentrations of allergens in children who did not have any pets (p < 0.001. Conclusions: Special attention should be paid to keeping the kindergarten rooms tidy and clean and to an appropriate choice of furnishings and fittings which would prevent the proliferation of the house dust mite and accumulation of allergens.

  16. A study on the prevalence of house dust mites in Al-Arish city, North Sinai Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sherbiny, Gihad T; El-Sherbini, Eman T; Saled, Nagla Mostafa K; Haridy, Fouad M; Morsy, Ayman T A

    2010-04-01

    Free living mites comprise a huge and various groups of tiny arthropods in the class Arachida, mainly of the Pyroglyphidae family. Exposure to allergens derived from house dust mite (HDM) feces is a postulated risk factor for allergic sensitization, asthma development and asthma morbidity. However, practical and effective method to mitigate these allergens in low-income, urban home environments remains elusive. It well known that (HDM) physiology is greatly affected by hydrothermal microclimatic condition. El Arish has subtropical climate and warm humid summer, such situation are favourable to proliferate house dust mites. As no valid data are available for house dust mites fauna of El Arish, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and contamination rates of homes in El Arish city. Samples of house dust collected in 2008 from 50 houses in El Arish city were subjected to acarological examination. Acri were found in (34.6 %) of the samples collected from these homes. Results indicated that dust mites were present in all humid environments. Also, hypersensitivity to dust mites was common among patients with asthma.

  17. Barnacle allergy: allergen characterization and cross-reactivity with mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinho, S; Morais-Almeida, M; Gaspar, A; Santa-Marta, C; Pires, G; Postigo, I; Guisantes, J; Martínez, J; Rosado-Pinto, J

    2006-01-01

    Barnacles are a type of seafood with worldwide distribution and abundant along the shores of temperate seas. They are particularly appreciated and regularly consumed in Portugal as well as in Spain, France and South America, but barnacle allergy is a rare condition of which there is only one reference in the indexed literature. The molecular allergens and possible cross-reactivity phenomena implicated (namely with mites) have not been established. To demonstrate the IgE-mediated allergy to barnacle and to identify the proteins implicated as well as possible cross-reactivity phenomena with mites. We report the clinical and laboratory data of five patients with documented IgE-mediated allergy to barnacle. The diagnosis was based on a suggestive clinical history combined with positive skin prick tests (SPT) to barnacle--prick to prick method. Two barnacle extracts were prepared (raw and cooked barnacle) and sodium dodecylsulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and IgE-immunoblotting were performed. An immunoblotting inhibition assay with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was also done in order to evaluate cross-reactivity. All patients had mite-related asthma and the allergic rhinoconjunctivitis; they all experienced mucocutaneous symptoms. All of them had positive SPT to barnacle, and the immunoblotting showed several allergenic fractions with a wide molecular weight range (19 - 94 kDa). The D. pteronyssinus extract inhibited several IgE-binding protein fractions in the barnacle extract. We describe five patients with IgE-mediated barnacle allergy. We also describe a group of IgE-binding+proteins between 30 and 75 kDa as the allergenic fractions of this type of Crustacea. Cross-reactivity with D. pteronyssinus was demonstrated in two cases.

  18. Analysis of efficacy and safety of standardized dust mites allergen vaccine in treatment of allergic rhinitis%标准化尘螨变应原治疗变应性鼻炎的疗效及安全性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂晓钟; 纪东; 程静; 赵军; 王林; 蒋传亚

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察分析标准化尘螨变应原皮下注射治疗常年性变应性鼻炎的疗效及安全性.方法 对175 例尘螨过敏的变应性鼻炎患者进行标准化尘螨变应原皮下注射治疗,比较接受免疫治疗前与剂量累加阶段、剂量维持阶段的鼻部症状评分、体征评分和不良反应情况,分析评价特异性免疫治疗的疗效及安全性.结果 175例尘螨过敏的变应性鼻炎患者的鼻部症状与治疗前相比有明显减轻,差异有统计学意义(P﹤0.05);剂量累加阶段和剂量维持阶段的总有效率分别为84.57%和95.43%,单一尘螨过敏较以尘螨过敏为主的多种过敏原病例疗效较好,单一尘螨过敏显效的占全部病例的78.38%;多种过敏原过敏显效的占全部病例的40.38%.本组病例均未出现严重不良反应.结论 对尘螨引起的常年性变应性鼻炎进行规范化标准化变应原特异性免疫皮下注射治疗,是一种有效、安全和持久的对因治疗方法,并可有效控制哮喘症状.%Objective To observe and analyse the therapeutic effects and the safety of standard subcutaneous immuno - theraphy on the patients with perennial allergic rhinitis. Methods One hundred and seventy - five patients with allergic rhinitis caused by house - dust mites were selected. Clinical efficacy was evaluated by symptom and sign score after two stages of specific immunotherapy and compared with pre - treatment scores. Results The main symptoms of allergic rhinitis were significantly alleviated in those treated with standardized dust mites compared with those untreated. The difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.05 ). The effective rates were 84. 57% after the first phases of the SIT and 95. 43% after the second phases. Clinical efficacy on the house - dust mite allergic rhinitis patients was better than multi - allergen rhinitis patients. No serious complications or bad reaction were found in the treatment process. The treatment efficacy

  19. Optimization of Enzymatic Hydrolysis Technology for Dust Mite Group 1 Allergen and Its Allergenic Detection%粉尘螨1类变应原的酶解工艺优化及其过敏原性检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李秋雨; 姜玉新; 李朝品

    2012-01-01

    目的:优化粉尘螨1类变应原proDer f 1的酶解条件及探讨酶解产物的变应原性.方法:以水解度为指标,采用正交试验考察木瓜蛋白酶和胰蛋白酶水解proDerf1蛋白的最佳工艺;采用间接酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测酶解产物的过敏原性.结果:温度是影响proDer f 1蛋白水解效果的主要因素,其中木瓜蛋白酶最佳水解条件为pH 6.5,温度60℃,水解时间4h,酶用量4 000 U·g-1;胰蛋白酶最佳水解条件为pH 8.0,温度45℃,水解时间4h,酶用量5 000 U·g-1;ELISA检测表明与proDer f 1变应原相比,木瓜蛋白酶水解产物和胰蛋白酶水解产物的过敏原性均显著减低,且胰蛋白酶水解产物的过敏原性较木瓜蛋白酶水解产物的过敏原性低.结论:优选的粉尘螨1类变应原proDer f 1蛋白的酶解工艺可行,且变应原酶解后,过敏原性有不同程度减低,尤以胰酶水解产物变化最为显著.%Objective: To optimize enzymatic hydrolysis conditions of proDer f 1, and investigate allergenicity of enzymatic hydrolysate. Method: With hydrolysis degree as index, optimum hydrolysis technology of proDer f 1 was investigated by orthogonal test using papain and trypsin; Allergenicity of enzymatic hydrolysate was tested by ELISA. Result: Temperature was main factor affecting hydrolysis effect of proDer f 1, optimal hydrolysis conditions of proDer f 1 digested by papain were as follows: pH 6. 5, temperature 60 ℃ , hydrolysis time 4 h, the amount of papain 4 000 U·g-1 ; Optimum hydrolysis conditions of trypsin was pH 8. 0, temperature 45 ℃ , hydrolysis time 4 h, the amount of enzyme 5 000 U·g-1. Compared with proDer f 1 allergen, ELISA analysis showed that allergens were reduced significantly of papain hydrolysate and trypsin hydrolysate, allergen of trypsin hydrolysate was lower than papain hydrolysate. Conclusion: Optimized enzymatic hydrolysis process of proDer f 1 protein was feasible, and after enzymatic hydrolysis of

  20. Exposure Assessment of Allergens and Metals in Settled Dust in French Nursery and Elementary Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Canha

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterise the contamination in settled dust in French classrooms and to provide an overview of the influencing factors of dust contamination. Cat, dog and dust mite allergens and metals were measured in 51 classrooms at 17 schools. The concentrations of pet allergens in settled dust were generally low (mean value of 0.1 µg·g−1, with carpeted and rug-covered floors presenting higher dust and cat allergen concentrations. The highest metal loadings in dust were observed for manganese (Mn and copper (Cu, while the lead (Pb loadings were lower (16 ± 19 µg·m−2 and fell below the French guideline. Higher metal leachability was found for cadmium (Cd, Cu, Pb and strontium (Sr at values of approximately 80%, which suggest that, in cases of dust ingestion by children, a large proportion should be assimilated through the gastro-intestinal tract. The intra-classroom and intra-school variabilities of the metal concentrations in settled dust were lower than the variability between schools. Classrooms with tiled floors had higher Pb loadings than classrooms with wood or vinyl floors. In addition, wet cleaning less than once a week resulted in greater loadings of Cu and Pb in the settled dust. Lastly, enrichment factors showed that metals in settled dust of classrooms were not only from the contribution of the natural background concentrations in soils.

  1. Cross‑reactivity between group-5 and -21 mite allergens from Dermatophagoides farinae, Tyrophagus putrescentiae and Blomia tropicalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chung-Ryul; Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Yi, Myung-Hee; Kim, Hyoung-Pyo; Shin, Ho-Joon; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2015-10-01

    Group-5 and group-21 allergens, produced by house dust mites and storage mites are 36.6-55.8% identical in their sequences and are recognized by at least 50% of immunoglobulin (Ig)E from the sera of individuals allergic to dust mites. In the present study, recombinant group-5 and ‑21 allergens from three mite species, Dermatophagoides farinae (rDer f 5 and 21), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (rTyr p 5 and 21), and Blomia tropicalis (rBlo t 5 and 21), were purified from Escherichia coli, and the IgE reactivities and cross‑reactivities of these allergen variants were assessed. The IgE binding frequencies of rDer f 5, rDer f 21, rTyr p 5, rTyr p 21, rBlo t and rBlo t 21 proteins were 64.95, 65.98, 30.41, 41.24, 30.93 and 21.65%, respectively. The IgE reactivity of rDer f 5 correlated highly with that of rDer f 21 (r=0.733). rTyr p 5 exhibited the highest level of correlation with rTyr p 21 (r=0.950), while the correlation of rBlo t 5 with rBlo t 21 was the lowest observed (r=0.104). The binding of IgE to rDer f 5 and rDer f 21 was not inhibited by any allergens but themselves. While rDer f 5 inhibited only 60.3% of IgE binding to rBlo t 5, rDer f 21 exhibited a high inhibitory effect against rTyr p 5 (93.01%), rTyr p 21 (92.12%), rBlo t 5 (86.97%) and rBlo t 21 (70.30%), implying cross‑reactivity among mite species. The results of the present study demonstrated that the majority of the IgE reactivity to group-5 and -21 storage mite allergens is due to cross‑reaction. It is therefore imperative to develop an accurate, component‑resolved diagnosis for dust mite allergies.

  2. Protease-Activated Receptor-2 Activation Contributes to House Dust Mite-Induced IgE Responses in Mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Sijranke; Heijink, Irene; Petersen, A H; de Bruin, Harold G.; van Oosterhout, Antoon J. M.; Nawijn, Martijn C.

    2014-01-01

    Aeroallergens such as house dust mite (HDM), cockroach, and grass or tree pollen are innocuous substances that can induce allergic sensitization upon inhalation. The serine proteases present in these allergens are thought to activate the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, on the airway epithelium,

  3. Protease-activated receptor-2 activation contributes to house dust mite-induced IgE responses in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Sijranke; Heijink, Irene H; Petersen, Arjen H; de Bruin, Harold G; van Oosterhout, Antoon J M; Nawijn, Martijn C

    2014-01-01

    Aeroallergens such as house dust mite (HDM), cockroach, and grass or tree pollen are innocuous substances that can induce allergic sensitization upon inhalation. The serine proteases present in these allergens are thought to activate the protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2, on the airway epithelium,

  4. Prevention of house dust mite induced allergic airways disease in mice through immune tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agua-Doce, Ana; Graca, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Allergic airways disease is a consequence of a Th2 response to an allergen leading to a series of manifestations such as production of allergen-specific IgE, inflammatory infiltrates in the airways, and airway hyper-reactivity (AHR). Several strategies have been reported for tolerance induction to allergens leading to protection from allergic airways disease. We now show that CD4 blockade at the time of house dust mite sensitization induces antigen-specific tolerance in mice. Tolerance induction is robust enough to be effective in pre-sensitized animals, even in those where AHR was pre-established. Tolerant mice are protected from airways eosinophilia, Th2 lung infiltration, and AHR. Furthermore, anti-CD4 treated mice remain immune competent to mount immune responses, including Th2, to unrelated antigens. Our findings, therefore, describe a strategy for tolerance induction potentially applicable to other immunogenic proteins besides allergens.

  5. Simulation of temperature and humidity in mattresses to evaluate risks on house dust mite allergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Ginkel, J.T. [OTB Research Inst. for Housing, Urban and Mobility Studies, Delft (Netherlands). Dept. of Sustainable and Healthy Housing

    2004-07-01

    Mattresses and carpets in bedrooms are the main habitats of house dust mites in thermally well-insulated homes. The major source of allergens are the feces of house mites which feed on human skin scales and which extract vapour from the air by hygroscopic secretion. The critical equilibrium humidity (CEH) is the relative humidity at which the rate of water loss is equal to the rate of water uptake. House dust mites live in human habitats where the relative humidity is greater than the CEH. This paper presents a newly developed simulation model which shows the transient and spatial distribution of temperature and humidity levels in a mattress influenced by skin scales and ambient conditions. It was developed in an attempt to reduce risks on house dust mite allergy from mattresses and carpets. Preliminary results indicate that transmission of water vapour occurs much faster than the transmission of heat. It was suggested that a spring mattress has a lower risk for growth of house mites than a foam mattress. 21 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  6. Is permanent parasitism reversible?--critical evidence from early evolution of house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, Pavel B; OConnor, Barry

    2013-05-01

    Long-term specialization may limit the ability of a species to respond to new environmental conditions and lead to a higher likelihood of extinction. For permanent parasites and other symbionts, the most intriguing question is whether these organisms can return to a free-living lifestyle and, thus, escape an evolutionary "dead end." This question is directly related to Dollo's law, which stipulates that a complex trait (such as being free living vs. parasitic) cannot re-evolve again in the same form. Here, we present conclusive evidence that house dust mites, a group of medically important free-living organisms, evolved from permanent parasites of warm-blooded vertebrates. A robust, multigene topology (315 taxa, 8942 nt), ancestral character state reconstruction, and a test for irreversible evolution (Dollo's law) demonstrate that house dust mites have abandoned a parasitic lifestyle, secondarily becoming free living, and then speciated in several habitats. Hence, as exemplified by this model system, highly specialized permanent parasites may drastically de-specialize to the extent of becoming free living and, thus escape from dead-end evolution. Our phylogenetic and historical ecological framework explains the limited cross-reactivity between allergens from the house dust mites and "storage" mites and the ability of the dust mites to inhibit host immune responses. It also provides insights into how ancestral features related to parasitism (frequent ancestral shifts to unrelated hosts, tolerance to lower humidity, and pre-existing enzymes targeting skin and keratinous materials) played a major role in reversal to the free-living state. We propose that parasitic ancestors of pyroglyphids shifted to nests of vertebrates. Later the nest-inhabiting pyroglyphids expanded into human dwellings to become a major source of allergens.

  7. Analysis of basophil activation by flow cytometry in pediatric house dust mite allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Muñoz, Miguel; Villota, Julian; Moneo, Ignacio

    2008-06-01

    Detection of allergen-induced basophil activation by flow cytometry has been shown to be a useful tool for allergy diagnosis. The aim of this study was to assess the potential of this technique for the diagnosis of pediatric house dust mite allergy. Quantification of total and specific IgE and basophil activation test were performed to evaluate mite allergic (n = 24), atopic (n = 23), and non-allergic children (n = 9). Allergen-induced basophil activation was detected as a CD63-upregulation. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to calculate the optimal cut-off value of activated basophils discriminating mite allergic and non-allergic children. ROC curve analysis yielded a threshold value of 18% activated basophils when mite-sensitized and atopic children were studied [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.97-1.01, p Analysis of the data obtained with 1.6 microg/ml mite extract defined a cut-off value of 8% activated basophils (AUC = 0.96, 95% CI = 0.91-1.01; p basophils (AUC = 1.0) with 16 microg/ml allergen extract and a sensitivity and specificity of 100%. The same threshold and specificity values were obtained with 1.6 microg/ml extract (AUC = 97%, 95% CI = 0.92-1.02; p basophil activation tests and high specific IgE (>43 kU/l) values for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus allergen. They also showed positive prick (wheal diameter >1.0 cm) and basophil activation (>87%) tests and high specific IgE (>100 kU/l) with shrimp allergen. Shrimp sensitization was demonstrated by high levels of Pen a 1-specific IgE (>100 kU/l). Cross-reactivity between mite and shrimp was confirmed by fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (FEIA-CAP) inhibition study in these two cases. This study demonstrated that the analysis of allergen-induced CD63 upregulation by flow cytometry is a reliable tool for diagnosis of mite allergy in pediatric patients, with sensitivity similar to routine diagnostic tests and a higher specificity

  8. Indoor mite allergen levels, specific IgE prevalence and IgE cross-inhibition pattern among asthmatic children in Haikou,southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yi-wu; CHEN Shi; LAI Xu-xin; Birgitte Gjesing; ZHONG Nan-shan; Michael D Spangfort

    2012-01-01

    Background Haikou locates in tropical island with unique mite propagation.The aim of this stuy is to determine mite allergens levels in Haikou,and to investigate the prevalence of mite specific IgE-sensitization and IgE cross-reactivity between house dust mites.Methods Allergen and antigen concentrations against six mite species were tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Specific IgE concentrations and cross-inhibitions were measured with ADVIA Centaur(R).Results Allergen or antigen Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p 1 ),Blomia tropicalis (Blo t ) and Tyrophagus putrescentia (Tyr p) were detected in dust samples.Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 1 ),Lepidoglyphus destructor (Lep d 2),and Acarus siro (Aca s ) were found in very few samples.Specific IgE tests showed high prevalence of sensitizations against all tested mites with high IgE levels to Der p,Der f,and Blo t.Storage mites,Blo t,Tyr p,Lep d,and Aca s,could inhibit Der p from 0 to 50%.Storage mites could inhibit Der f between 30% and 100%.Der p IgE could be inhibited by Der f with up to 90%,and vice versa.Der p could inhibit Blot from 40% to 80%.Blot was able to fully inhibit IgE binding to Lep d,Tyr p,and Aca s compared to partial inhibition by Der p.Conclusions Der p is the dominating mite and has the highest specific IgE prevalence among asthmatic children.Blo t represents an important source of storage mite sensitization and some patients may be independently sensitized to both Der p and Blo t.High prevalence of sensitization to Der f may be due to IgE-mediated cross-reactivity with Der p and Blo t.

  9. Selective allergy to lobster in a case of primary sensitization to house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iparraguirre, A; Rodríguez-Pérez, R; Juste, S; Ledesma, A; Moneo, I; Caballero, M L

    2009-01-01

    Allergy to only 1 kind of seafood is uncommon. We report a case of selective allergy to lobster. We studied a 30-year-old man who suffered generalized urticaria, facial erythema, and pharyngeal pruritus after eating lobster. He had a more than 10-year history of mild persistent asthma and sensitization to house dust mites. The study was performed by skin prick test, and prick-prick test, oral food challenge, specific immunoglobulin (Ig) E determinations by CAP (Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden) and ADVIA-Centaur (ALK-Abelló, Madrid, Spain), and IgE-immunoblotting. The patient's serum recognized 2 allergens of around 198 kDa and 2 allergens of around 65 kDa from the lobster extract, allergens of around 15, 90, and 120 kDa from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus extract, and allergens of around 15 and 65 kDa from Dermatophagoides farinae extract. Serum did not recognize purified shrimp tropomyosin. Immunoblot-inhibition assay results indicated cross-reactivity between lobster and mite allergens. This is the first report of selective allergy to lobster.

  10. FDA Approves New Treatment for Dust Mite Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163882.html FDA Approves New Treatment for Dust Mite Allergies Odactra ... life," said Dr. Peter Marks, director of the FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research. "The approval ...

  11. 485 Therapeutic Effect and Safety of Tropical Mite Allergen Vaccines by Subcutaneous Route in Allergic Asthmatics Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro Almarales, Raúl Lázaro; Ronquillo, Mercedes; Castello, Mirta Alvarez; Rodríguez, José; González, Mayda; Labrada, Alexis; Navarro Viltres, Bárbara I; Díaz, Yunia Oliva; Mateo, Maytee

    2012-01-01

    Background Allergen-specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is presently recognized as a biological response modifier, as it is the only available treatment able to influence the natural course of allergic disease. Extensive clinical evidence supports its efficacy. Safety concerns are related to the risks of anaphylactic reactions during treatment. Standardization of allergen vaccines in terms of allergenic activity allows a more precise control over the administered doses and can be, therefore, very relevant for both efficacy and safety of SCIT. House Dust Mites (HDM), particularly Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp), Dermatophagoides siboney (Ds) and Blomia tropicalis (Bt) have been described as very relevant allergen sources in Cuba, with a strong association to respiratory allergy symptoms. Objective To asses the efficacy and safety of standardized allergen vaccines of these 3 mite species (Valergen, Biocen, Cuba) in Cuban asthmatic patients. Methods Three Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled clinical trials were performed in 40 patients each, showing asthmatic symptoms and positive predominant Skin Prick Test (SPT) to each mite, respectively. Half of patients received the active treatment consisting of subcutaneous injections with increasing doses, up to 6000 BU. Results The total 1 year cumulative dose was 63035 BU, in an average of 20.5 injections. The treatment was effective in the reduction of clinical symptoms (up to 32%, 95%CI: 28-36%; P = 0.0006) and medication intake (23%, 95%CI:18-28%), as compared to control treatment. The skin sensitivity to the allergens decreased significantly (P = 0.0001), with regard to the beginning of the treatment. The allergen amount needed to induce a positive SPT increased 297-fold. An improvement of the lung function was observed, expressed in a modest Peak-Expiratory-Flow increase (P < 0.05) and reduction of PEF daily variability. SIT was considered effective in 71% of patients. The frequency of local adverse reactions was

  12. Dose of house dust mite antigen (P1) inhaled by infants aged one month

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carswell, F.; Clark, J.; Robinson, P.; Platts-Mills, T.A.

    1983-11-01

    A survey of the habitats occupied by 12 infants of one month of age revealed that approximately 10% of their day was spent in conditions of potential exposure to the major (P1) allergen of the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. A respiratory pump which reproduced the minute ventilation of an infant was placed in representative infant habitats. The P1 allergen trapped by the filter in this pump was measured as an estimate of infants' allergen intake. Detectable P1 intake was only present when there was active air disturbance (bed making and vacuuming). The average P1 intake was approximately 3 ng P1/24 hours. Comparison of this P1 intake with that which sensitizes in other situations suggests that it is usually inadequate to sensitize infants.

  13. Allergy to house dust mites in primary health care subjects with chronic or recurrent inflammatory states of respiratory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszkowski, Jacek; Łopatyński, Jerzy

    2002-01-01

    Chronic and recurrent respiratory tract disorders are a frequent problem in general practice. The purpose of the study was to investigate the role of hypersensitivity to house dust mites in respiratory tract diseases in general practice patients. We tried to assess the influence of determined risk factors exposure on development of respiratory tract allergy. Patients from family practitioners surgeries with chronic or recurrent respiratory tract symptoms who had no diagnosis of allergy were recruited to the study (n = 89). All patients responded to a questionnaire focused on history of symptoms, atopic conditions in family and exposure to determined environmental factors like dwelling conditions, obstetrician history, diet in the first year of life. All patients underwent skin prick test with common inhalant allergens. Families of the patients were asked to participate in the study. Families who agreed to take part also responded to the questionnaire and underwent skin tests. In patients and their families blood samples were taken to determine total IgE and specific IgE antibodies to mites allergens. Dust samples were collected by vacuuming of patients' bedroom carpets and mattresses to determine house dust mites allergens concentration. Data on 30 complete patients family sets of their brotherhood, mother and father were collected. Total and specific serum IgE antibodies were determined by disc enzyme-immunoassay (Analco). Mites allergens concentration in dust was measured by simple Acarex strip test (Nexter). The results of the assays (positive skin tests and/or elevated levels of specific IgE) showed allergy to house dust mites in 24 of 89 study patients from general practitioners surgeries (27%). The prevalence of chronic rhinitis, recurrent bronchitis, chronic or recurrent cough, wheezing, dyspnoea was higher in allergic than in nonallergic subjects. Patients with the diagnosis of allergy to house dust mites had usually worse dwelling conditions. Especially

  14. Involvement of the mannose receptor in the uptake of Der p 1, a major mite allergen, by human dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deslée, Gaëtan; Charbonnier, Anne-Sophie; Hammad, Hamida; Angyalosi, Gerhild; Tillie-Leblond, Isabelle; Mantovani, Alberto; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2002-11-01

    Immature dendritic cells (DCs) take up antigens in peripheral tissues and, after antigen processing, mature to efficiently stimulate T cells in secondary lymph nodes. In allergic airway diseases DCs have been shown to be involved in the induction and maintenance of a T(H)2-type profile. The present study was undertaken to determine pathways of Der p 1 (a house dust mite allergen) uptake by human DCs and to compare Der p 1 uptake between DCs from patients with house dust mite allergy and DCs from healthy donors. Monocyte-derived DCs (MD-DCs) were obtained from patients with house dust mite allergy (n = 13) and healthy donors (n = 11). Der p 1 was labeled with rhodamine. Der p 1 uptake by MD-DCs was analyzed by means of flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Rhodamine- labeled Der p 1 was demonstrated to be taken up by MD-DCs in a dose-, time-, and temperature- dependent manner. The involvement of the mannose receptor (MR) in the Der p 1 uptake was demonstrated by using (1) inhibitors of the MR- mediated endocytosis (mannan and blocking anti-MR mAb), which inhibited the Der p 1 uptake from 40 % to 50 %, and (2) confocal microscopy showing the colocalization of rhodamine-labeled Der p 1 with FITC-dextran. Interestingly, compared with DCs from healthy donors, DCs from allergic patients expressed more MR and were more efficient in Der p 1 uptake. These results suggest that the MR could play a key role in the Der p 1 allergen uptake by DCs and in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases in dust mite -sensitive patients.

  15. Pheromonal Communication in the European House Dust Mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes L.M. Steidle

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the sanitary importance of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897, the pheromonal communication in this species has not been sufficiently studied. Headspace analysis using solid phase micro extraction (SPME revealed that nerol, neryl formate, pentadecane, (6Z,9Z-6,9-heptadecadiene, and (Z-8-heptadecene are released by both sexes whereas neryl propionate was released by males only. Tritonymphs did not produce any detectable volatiles. In olfactometer experiments, pentadecane and neryl propionate were attractive to both sexes as well as to tritonymphs. (Z-8-heptadecene was only attractive to male mites. Therefore it is discussed that pentadecane and neryl propionate are aggregation pheromones and (Z-8-heptadecene is a sexual pheromone of the European house dust mite D. pteronyssinus. To study the potential use of pheromones in dust mite control, long-range olfactometer experiments were conducted showing that mites can be attracted to neryl propionate over distances of at least 50 cm. This indicates that mite pheromones might be useable to monitor the presence or absence of mites in the context of control strategies.

  16. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of HDM...... allergen levels, thereby reducing the need for asthma medication in children with asthma and HDM allergy. METHODS: In a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled study 60 children (age range, 6-15 years) with asthma and HDM allergy were randomized to active (allergy control) or placebo mattress...... children with asthma and HDM allergy....

  17. Digesting the role of specific pre- and synbiotics in the prevention of house dust mite asthma : Thinking out of the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijden, K.A.T.

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) asthma is a chronic disease affecting 235 million people worldwide. The disease is characterized by airway inflammation, airway hyperresponsiveness and airway narrowing. House dust mites (HDM) are common allergens that can induce allergic diseases lik

  18. Cloning,Expression, Purification and Immunogenicity of House Dust Mite Allergen Der f5%粉尘螨Der f5克隆表达、纯化和免疫原性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁小惠; 高安健; 邬玉兰; 刘志刚

    2013-01-01

    Objective To clone and express the antigen Der f5 from the dust mite dermatopha-goides farinae ,and to identify its immunogenicity. Methods A pair of primers were designed according to the known sequences of Der f 5 gene .Total RN A was extracted from dust mites and Der f5 gene fragments were amplified by RT-PCR .The PCR product was cloned into pMD18-T vector and transferred into E .coli Top10 .The clones were screened and identified by PCR and restriction enzyme digestion .The target gene obtained from the recombinant plasmid by digestion with Bam H Ⅰ and Hind Ⅲ was connected to the prokaryotic expression vector pET-32a.The expressed recombinant plasmid containing Der f5 gene was constructed by cloning target gene into pET-32a and transferred into E .coli Top10 .The recombinant plasmid was transfected into E .coli strain BL21 (DE3 ) and the transfected cells were grown in the presence of inducer IPTG .The expressed recombinant protein was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting and was purified by immo-bilized metal ion affinity chromatography. Results The two recombinant plasmids ,pMD18-T-Der f5 and pET32a-Der f5,were constructed successfully .SDS-PAGE showed a correct molecular weight of the recombinant Der f 5 protein .After purification by affinity chromatography ,the protein showed only one strip on SDS-PAGE gel and appropriate ability to bind to IgE in sera of allergic patients .Conclusion The Der f5 gene has been cloned,expressed and purified and the recombinant Der f5 protein shows appropriate IgE-combined ability . The study provides a basis for specific diagnosis and treatment of dust mite-induced allergic disease.%目的 克隆表达粉尘螨第5组变应原(dermatophagoides farinae,Der f5)基因,并鉴定纯化蛋白免疫原性.方法 根据Der f5 基因已知序列,设计出相应的引物,提取粉尘螨总RNA,采用RT-PCR 方法扩增出Der f5 基因片段,PCR 产物克隆入pMD18-T 载体,转化大肠埃希菌 Top10,经PCR和酶切鉴定

  19. Indoor Dust Allergen Levels in the Homes of Patients with Childhood Asthma: An Experience From Southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Moghtaderi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to indoor allergens plays an important role in the etiology of asthma. This study was designed to quantify indoor allergens from homes of families that had at least one case of childhood asthma at home in a southwestern city of Iran. The relationship between the indoor allergen levels and home characteristics was also investigated. Dust samples were collected from the bedrooms and the kitchens of 35 homes where children with persistent asthma were living. The levels of indoor allergens were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Detectable amounts of mite, mouse and cockroach allergens were found in all evaluated places. None of our patients were exposed to a threshold concentration of indoor allergen for sensitizing at home. Regarding of mite allergens, the levels of Der f1 were significantly higher than Der p1 and a direct correlation was observed between living in an apartment and Der f1 levels. Moreover, Fel d1 (cat and Bla g1 (cockroach allergens were found in the children’s bedrooms more frequently than those in the kitchens. In this study, direct associations were obtained between Bla g1 allergen and the duration of occupancy and between Fel d1 and average home size. A total of 34.2% of the patients showed positive skin reactions to at least one of the tested allergens as 17.1% of them showed reactivity to D. pteronyssinus. Proper controlling of cockroaches and mice by public health officials would be a practical approach to avoid inducing asthma or worsening the symptoms.

  20. Direct analysis of airborne mite allergen (Der f1) in the residential atmosphere by chemifluorescent immunoassay using bioaerosol sampler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyajima, Kumiko; Suzuki, Yurika; Miki, Daisuke; Arai, Moeka; Arakawa, Takahiro; Shimomura, Hiroji; Shiba, Kiyoko; Mitsubayashi, Kohji

    2014-06-01

    Dermatophagoides farinae allergen (Der f1) is one of the most important indoor allergens associated with allergic diseases in humans. Mite allergen Der f1 is usually associated with particles of high molecular weight; thus, Der f1 is generally present in settled dust. However, a small quantity of Der f1 can be aerosolized and become an airborne component. Until now, a reliable method of detecting airborne Der f1 has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a fiber-optic chemifluorescent immunoassay for the detection of airborne Der f1. In this method, the Der f1 concentration measured on the basis of the intensity of fluorescence amplified by an enzymatic reaction between the labeled enzyme by a detection antibody and a fluorescent substrate. The measured Der f1 concentration was in the range from 0.49 to 250 ng/ml and a similar range was found by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). This method was proved to be highly sensitive to Der f1 compared with other airborne allergens. For the implementation of airborne allergen measurement in a residential environment, a bioaerosol sampler was constructed. The airborne allergen generated by a nebulizer was conveyed to a newly sampler we developed for collecting airborne Der f1. The sampler was composed of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cells for gas/liquid phases and some porous membranes which were sandwiched in between the two phases. Der f1 in air was collected by the sampler and measured using the fiber-optic immunoassay system. The concentration of Der f1 in aerosolized standards was in the range from 0.125 to 2.0 mg/m(3) and the collection rate of the device was approximately 0.2%.

  1. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gent, Janneane F., E-mail: janneane.gent@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Kezik, Julie M., E-mail: julie.colburn@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Hill, Melissa E., E-mail: melissa.hill@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Tsai, Eling, E-mail: tsai.umiami@gmail.com [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Li, De-Wei, E-mail: DeWei.Li@ct.gov [Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Valley Laboratory, 153 Cook Hill Road, Windsor, CT 06095 (United States); Leaderer, Brian P., E-mail: brian.leaderer@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens

  2. The Effect of Indoor Environmental Characteristics on the Detection of House Dust Mite Der p2 and Der f2 in Asthmatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimet Demirtaş

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mites in house dust play a prominent role in the development of allergic sensitization and as a triggering factor that impairs disease control in asthma. The aim of the study was to determine whether the concentration of house dust mite allergens is associated with indoor conditions in stable asthmatics. Materials and Methods: During the study period, a total of 97 asthmatic patients were queried with a standard survey for their demographical characteristics and living environment. House dust samples from their houses were collected to quantitatively measure Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f2 and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p2 levels by using the Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method. Results: Using the quantitative ELISA method, measurable levels of mite allergens were found in 54.1% of the houses. Higher antigen detection rate was found in houses with visible mould and in those with moisture. The number of household was found to be significantly higher in houses with antigens than in those without antigens. When the indoor characteristics were evaluated by logistic regression analysis, larger number of household (≥4 was found to be a significant risk factor for the presence of mite allergens. The odds ratio for detecting Der p2 and Der f2 antigen was found to be 5.29 (confidence interval 2.18-12.86 (p<0.001. Conclusion: Mite allergen was detected in the house dusts of more than half of the cases by using quantitative ELISA method. Our results did not found any association between concentrations of allergens and indoor characteristics.

  3. Prokaryotic Expression of Chimeric Gene Derived from the Group 1 Allergens of Dust Mites and Bioactivity Identification%两种尘螨1类变应原嵌合基因的原核表达及生物活性鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟; 姜玉新; 李朝品

    2012-01-01

    .05或0.01). 结论 表达了具有低变应原性和高免疫原性的尘螨1类变应原嵌合基因R8.%Objective To express a chimeric gene R8 derived from the group 1 allergens of dust mites using prokaryotic expression system and detect their bioactivities. Methods PCR amplification was performed using specific primers of Derfl gene and the pUCm-T recombinant plasmid containing the R8 chimeric gene as a template. The PCR products were inserted into the pET28a(+) empty vector after double digestion using restriction endonuclease BamH I and Xho I , respectively. The recombinant plasmid was transferred into E. coli line BL21 and induced by 1 mmol/L isopropyl-β-D-l-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG). The expressed product was detected by SDS-PAGE and the target protein was purified. IgE binding assay of the purified protein R8 was detected by ELISA using dust mite allergic patient sera. For determining immunogenicity of R8 protein, 75 BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 5 groups, namely PBS (negative control), rDer f 1 group and rDer p 1 group (positive groups), R8 group and asthma group. The mice were treated with dust mite extract at 0, 7, 14 day by intraperitoneal injection of allergens (100 μ1, 0.1 μg/μl) and inhaled challenge as aerosol (0.5 μg/ml, 30 min/d) on day 21 for 7 days. Before inhalation in immunotherapy groups at 25-27 day, specific allergen immunotherapy was performed using rDer f 1, rDer p 1 and R8 allergens respectively. Mice in negative control group were treated with PBS all the time. Twenty-four hours after the last challenge, mice in every group were sacrificed. The bron-choalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected. ELISA was used to detect the level of interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 4 (IL-4) in BALF. Results SDS-PAGE analysis revealed that chimeric gene R8 was expressed with a band of approximately M, 35 000. Compared with groups of rDer f 1 and rDer p 1 [(80.44±15.50) and (90.79±10.38) μg/ml, respectively], IgE binding capacity

  4. Allergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common allergens include: Animal proteins and animal dander Dust Drugs (such as antibiotics or medicines you put on your skin) Foods (such as egg, peanut, milk, nuts, soy, fish, animal meat, and wheat) Fungal spores ...

  5. FasL基因和屋尘螨过敏原基因共表达质粒DNA疫苗对屋尘螨致敏/激发小鼠气道炎症的作用%Effects of DNA vaccine encoding both FasL and house dust mite allergen Der p2 on the airway inflammations in mice sensitized/challenged with house dust mite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彦; 林科雄; 王长征; 吴奎; 毕玉田

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察FasL基因和屋尘螨过敏原Der p2基因共表达质粒的DNA疫苗(DNA-FasL-Der p2)对屋尘螨致敏/激发小鼠气道炎症的作用.方法:DNA-FasL-Der p2肌注接种屋尘螨致敏/激发C57BL/6小鼠,再次激发后处死小鼠.观察肺组织病理变化,检测支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF)细胞总数和分类计数,以及IL-5、IFN-γ水平.并与仅编码Der p2基因的DNA疫苗(DNA-Der p2)比较.结果:接种DNA-FasL-Der p2和DNA-Der p2均能显著减轻屋尘螨致敏/激发小鼠气道炎症.减少BALF中细胞总数和嗜酸粒细胞比例.降低BALF中IL-5水平,以DNA-FasL-Der p2更显著.结论:DNA-FasL-Derp2可有效抑制屋尘螨致敏/激发小鼠气道炎症,而且比DNA-Der p2更有效.%Objective To investigate the effects of DNA vaccine encoding both FasL and house dust mite (HDM) allergen Der p2 (DNA-FasL-Der p2) on the airway inflammation in mice challenged with HDM.Methods HDM sensitized and challenged C57BL/6 mice were immunized with DNA-FasL-Der p2 or DNA-Der p2 (without FasL)DNA vaccine,then they were re-challenged with HDM.Two days after the last challenge, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected and lung histology was examined.The levels of IL-5 and IFN-γ in BALF supematants were analyzed by ELISA, total cell count and differential cell count in BALF sediment were determined.Results Both DNA-FasL-Der p2 and DNA-Der p2 relieved airway inflammation and decreased the level of IL-5, total cell count and the percentage of eosinophils in BALF.The improvement of DNA-FasL-Der p2 was more significant than that of DNA-Der p2.Conclusion DNA-FasL-Der p2 could reduce airway allergic inflammation in HDM-challenged mice.And DNA-FasL-Der p2 was more effective than that of DNA-Der p2.

  6. Improvement of shrimp allergy after sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mites: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortellini, G; Spadolini, I; Santucci, A; Cova, V; Conti, C; Corvetta, A; Passalacqua, G

    2011-10-01

    The appropriateness of house dust mite specific immunotherapy in patients allergic to shrimps still remains unclear We present a clinical case as an immunological model for the strong sensitization to tropomyosin with symptoms of anaphylaxis due to shrimps and coexisting asthma due to house dust mite. The improvement in respiratory symptoms for house dust mite and in the food challenge for shrimps during mite immunotherapy with a known and high dosage of tropomyosin suggests the hypothesis that efficacy of mite immunotherapy in food allergy to tropomyosin may be dose dependent.

  7. House dust and storage mite contamination of dry dog food stored in open bags and sealed boxes in 10 domestic households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Christina; McEwan, Neil; McGarry, John; Nuttall, Tim

    2011-04-01

    Dry pet food is a potential source of exposure to house dust and storage mite allergens in canine atopic dermatitis. This study evaluated contamination of house dust and dry dog food stored in paper bags, sealable plastic bags and sealable plastic boxes in 10 households for 90 days using Acarex(®) tests for guanine, a Der p 1 ELISA and mite flotation. Acarex(®) tests were negative in all the food samples but positive in all the house dust samples. The Der p 1 levels and mite numbers significantly increased in food from paper bags (P = 0.0073 and P = 0.02, respectively), but not plastic bags or boxes. Mite numbers and Der p 1 levels were 10-1000 times higher in house dust than the corresponding food samples (P food from the paper (P food from the paper bags (P = 0.0007). Bedding and carpets were significantly associated with Der p 1 levels in house dust (P = 0.015 and P = 0.01, respectively), and food from the paper (both P = 0.02) and plastic bags (P = 0.03 and P = 0.04, respectively). Mites were identified in six of 10 paper bag, three of 10 plastic bag, one of 10 plastic box and nine of 10 house dust samples. These comprised Dermatophagoides (54%), Tyrophagus (10%; all from food) and unidentified mites (36%). Storage of food in sealable plastic boxes largely prevented contamination for 3 months. Exposure to mites and mite proteins in all the stored food, however, appeared to be trivial compared with house dust. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 ESVD and ACVD.

  8. Mite allergen Der-p2 triggers human B lymphocyte activation and Toll-like receptor-4 induction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw Ji Tsai

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Allergic disease can be characterized as manifestations of an exaggerated inflammatory response to environmental allergens triggers. Mite allergen Der-p2 is one of the major allergens of the house dust mite, which contributes to TLR4 expression and function in B cells in allergic patients. However, the precise mechanisms of Der-p2 on B cells remain obscure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the effects of Der-p2 on proinflammatory cytokines responses and Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4-related signaling in human B cells activation. We demonstrated that Der-p2 activates pro-inflammatory cytokines, TLR4 and its co-receptor MD2. ERK inhibitor PD98059 significantly enhanced TLR4/MD2 expression in Der-p2-treated B cells. Der-p2 markedly activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK phosphatase-1 (MKP-1 and decreased p38 phosphorylation in B cells. MKP-1-siRNA downregulated TLR4/MD2 expression in Der-p2-treated B cells. In addition, Der-p2 significantly up-regulated expression of co-stimulatory molecules and increased B cell proliferation. Neutralizing Der-p2 antibody could effectively abrogate the Der-p2-induced B cell proliferation. Der-p2 could also markedly induce NF-κB activation in B cells, which could be counteracted by dexamethasone. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results strongly suggest that Der-p2 is capable of triggering B cell activation and MKP-1-activated p38/MAPK dephosphorylation-regulated TLR4 induction, which subsequently enhances host immune, defense responses and development of effective allergic disease therapeutics in B cells.

  9. House Dust Mite Respiratory Allergy: An Overview of Current Therapeutic Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón, Moisés A; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Linneberg, Allan; De Blay, Frédéric; Hernandez Fernandez de Rojas, Dolores; Virchow, Johann Christian; Demoly, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Although house dust mite (HDM) allergy is a major cause of respiratory allergic disease, specific diagnosis and effective treatment both present unresolved challenges. Guidelines for the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma are well supported in the literature, but specific evidence on the efficacy of pharmacotherapy treatment for known HDM-allergic patients is weaker. The standard diagnostic techniques--skin prick test and specific IgE testing--can be confounded by cross-reactivity. However, component-resolved diagnosis using purified and recombinant allergens can improve the accuracy of specific IgE testing, but availability is limited. Treatment options for HDM allergy are limited and include HDM avoidance, which is widely recommended as a strategy, although evidence for its efficacy is variable. Clinical efficacy of pharmacotherapy is well documented; however, symptom relief does not extend beyond the end of treatment. Finally, allergen immunotherapy has a poor but improving evidence base (notably on sublingual tablets) and its benefits last after treatment ends. This review identifies needs for deeper physician knowledge on the extent and impact of HDM allergy in respiratory disease, as well as further development and improved access to molecular allergy diagnosis. Furthermore, there is a need for the development of better-designed clinical trials to explore the utility of allergen-specific approaches, and uptake of data into guidance for physicians on more effective diagnosis and therapy of HDM respiratory allergy in practice. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hypersensitivity to house dust mite and cockroach is the most common allergy in north of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaffari, Javad; Khademloo, Mohammad; Saffar, Mohammad Jafar; Rafiei, Alireza; Masiha, Farzad

    2010-12-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis are among the most common diseases in the world. The aim of this study was to detect, by skin prick test, aeroallergens in allergic patients in Sari, Mazandaran in north of Iran. This is a prospective study of skin prick test of aeroallergens in asthma, allergic rhinitis and their combination with clinical diagnosis. Three hundred and seventy five cases aged between 5 to 50 years, were referred to Tooba and Boo-Ali allergic centers of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences between December 2006 and July 2009. The aeroallergens studied included house dust mites (Dermatophagoides farinae, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), cockroaches, feather, aspergillus, Alternaria, pigweed, nettle, oak and maple. Of the studied individuals, 175 cases were males (46.7%) and 200 were females (53.3%), of which 156 (n=41.5%) reacted to allergen extracts. In asthma, allergic rhinitis and their combination, the respective positive percentages were 26.6%, 22.9%, and 32.6% for Dermatophagoides farinae; 26.6%, 25.3%, and 23.3% for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; 12.7%, 17.4%, and 11.6% for cockroaches and 16.5%, 4.7%, and 7.0% for the feather. Other allergens were positive up to 5 percent. Total IgE levels were elevated in 56.4%, 53% and 60.5% of asthmatic, allergic rhinitis and the combination group, respectively. Eosinophils count was elevated in 40.5%, 33.2% and 37.2% of the same groups, respectively. The hypersensitivity to house dust mites is very common in north of Iran which may be attributed to the warm and humid weather of this area.

  11. Allergy to dust mites may contribute to early onset and severity of alopecia areata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S F; Zhang, X T; Qi, S L; Ye, Y T; Cao, H; Yang, Y Q; McElwee, K J; Zhang, X

    2015-03-01

    A higher risk of allergic diseases such as rhinitis, asthma and atopic eczema (atopic dermatitis) has been reported for patients with alopecia areata (AA) compared with the general population, but the significance of this is still largely unclear. To determine whether serum total or specific IgE play a role in the onset and severity of AA. We tested 461 serum samples from 351 patients with AA and 110 healthy controls (HC) for total IgE (tIgE) and specific IgE (sIgE) by ImmunoCAP-100 or in vitro test (IVT). The absolute value of tIgE was higher in patients with AA than in normal controls (P 120 IU/mL) detected in patients with AA (29.3%) was similar to that of HC (21.8%). Prevalences of raised sIgE against various allergens detected by ImmunoCAP-100 showed that Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p; 31.1%) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f; 29.0%) were the most common allergens. Similar results were found by IVT, with the most common response being against Der p/Der f (29.0%). However, the prevalences of tIgE and sIgE against dust mites (Der p and Der f) in patients with early-onset AA and severe AA were significantly higher than those with late-onset AA and mild AA (P = 0.02, P = 0.02 vs. P = 0.03 and P = 0.001, respectively). Notably, the increases in tIgE and sIgE were independent of atopy history. Allergy to dust mites may have an effect on the immune response in AA, and may contribute to its early onset and severity in patients of Chinese origin. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. 226 Analysis of an After-Care Questionnaire in Allergic People to Dust Mites Using Anti-Dust Mites Bed Covers

    OpenAIRE

    Boukhettala, Nabile; Bourgeon, Solveig

    2012-01-01

    Background The goal of the study was to assess in a declarative way, the symptoms felt by the patients and the impact of micro-woven cotton (MWC) and a non woven polyester polyamide (NWP) anti-dust mites bed covers on allergic volunteers to dust mites. Methods This study is a descriptive survey based on an after-care questionnaire handed out to a group of 419 volunteers allergic to dust mites. 109 questionnaires have been used. Regarding the allergy, we asked questions in order to assess the ...

  13. Laboratory evaluation of the effect of inert dust formulations on the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    In the EU-project SAFEHOUSE one objective is to develop alternative control methods against poultry red mites based on a combination of inert dusts and mite-pathogenic fungal isolates. Both components have some pathogenicity to the mites. However, the question is whether a combination of the two ...

  14. Allergy to mites : relation to lung function and airway hyperresponsiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S; Dubois, AEJ; Kauffman, HF; de Monchy, JGR

    1998-01-01

    Exposure to house-dust-mite allergens is an important cause of allergic reactions in sensitized patients. In community-based studies, sensitization to house-duct mites, as ascertained by a positive skin test or by an increased allergen-specific IgE level in serum, is associated with both diminished

  15. [The relationship between the skin allergy test and house dust mites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atambay, Metin; Aycan, Ozlem M; Yoloğlu, Saim; Karaman, Ulkü; Daldal, Nilgün

    2006-01-01

    Since 1960 it has been known that house dust mites are related to allergy and that they cause pulmonary tract diseases. There are various house dust mites and among these Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes, 1961) are best known with regard to their medical importance and morphological characteristics. Skin tests are used to determine the role of mites in allergic diseases. The tests are performed by using D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae antigens. In order to study, the concordance between the skin test results and the presence of house dust mites, dust samples from the houses of 49 patients diagnosed with allergic diseases who underwent skin tests were taken to investigate the presence of mites in dust. House dust mites were determined in 23 (46.3%) of the houses. Mites were found in the houses of 15 (50.0%) of 30 patients with positive skin test results and 8 (42.0%) of 19 patients with negative skin test results. There was no significant difference between the skin test positivity and negativity in the presence of house dust mites (P>0,005). In conclusion, we thought that it was necessary to evaluate the presence of mites in the houses of people who have allergic symptoms even if they had negative skin test results.

  16. Shifting of Immune Responsiveness to House Dust Mite by Influenza A Infection: Genomic Insights

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Garawi, A.

    2011-12-14

    Respiratory viral infections have been associated with an increased incidence of allergic asthma. However, the mechanisms by which respiratory infections facilitate allergic airway disease are incompletely understood.We previously showed that exposure to a low dose of house dust mite (HDM) resulted in enhanced HDM-mediated allergic airway inflammation, and, importantly, marked airway hyperreactivity only when allergen exposure occurred during an acute influenza A infection. In this study, we evaluated the impact of concurrent influenza infection and allergen exposure at the genomic level, using whole-genome micro-array. Our data showed that, in contrast to exposure to a low dose of HDM, influenza A infection led to a dramatic increase in gene expression, particularly of TLRs, C-type lectin receptors, several complement components, as well as FcεR1. Additionally, we observed increased expression of a number of genes encoding chemokines and cytokines associated with the recruitment of proinflammatory cells. Moreover, HDM exposure in the context of an influenza A infection resulted in the induction of unique genes, including calgranulin A (S100a8), an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern and TLR4 agonist. In addition, we observed significantly increased expression of serum amyloid A (Saa3) and serine protease inhibitor 3n (Serpina3n). This study showed that influenza infection markedly increased the expression of multiple gene classes capable of sensing allergens and amplifying the ensuing immune-inflammatory response. We propose that influenza A infection primes the lung environment in such a way as to lower the threshold of allergen responsiveness, thus facilitating the emergence of a clinically significant allergic phenotype. Copyright © 2012 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  17. Direct contact between dendritic cells and bronchial epithelial cells inhibits T cell recall responses towards mite and pollen allergen extracts in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papazian, D; Wagtmann, V R; Hansen, S; Würtzen, P A

    2015-08-01

    Airway epithelial cells (AECs) form a polarized barrier along the respiratory tract. They are the first point of contact with airborne antigens and are able to instruct resident immune cells to mount appropriate immune responses by either soluble or contact-dependent mechanisms. We hypothesize that a healthy, polarized epithelial cell layer inhibits inflammatory responses towards allergens to uphold homeostasis. Using an in-vitro co-culture model of the airway epithelium, where a polarized cell layer of bronchial epithelial cells can interact with dendritic cells (DCs), we have investigated recall T cell responses in allergic patients sensitized to house dust mite, grass and birch pollen. Using allergen extract-loaded DCs to stimulate autologous allergen-specific T cell lines, we show that AEC-imprinted DCs inhibit T cell proliferation significantly of Bet v 1-specific T cell lines as well as decrease interleukin (IL)-5 and IL-13 production, whereas inhibition of Phl p 5-specific T cells varied between different donors. Stimulating autologous CD4(+) T cells from allergic patients with AEC-imprinted DCs also inhibited proliferation significantly and decreased production of both T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cytokines upon rechallenge. The inhibitory effects of AECs' contact with DCs were absent when allergen extract-loaded DCs had been exposed only to AECs supernatants, but present after direct contact with AECs. We conclude that direct contact between DCs and AECs inhibits T cell recall responses towards birch, grass and house dust mite allergens in vitro, suggesting that AECs-DC contact in vivo constitute a key element in mucosal homeostasis in relation to allergic sensitisation.

  18. Immunization of rabbits with nematode Ascaris lumbricoides antigens induces antibodies cross-reactive to house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Takuya; Khan, Al Fazal; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Takai, Toshiro; Zaman, Khalequz; Yunus, Md; Takeuchi, Haruko; Iwata, Tsutomu; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    There are controversial reports on the relationship between helminthic infection and allergic diseases. Although IgE cross-reactivity between nematode Ascaris antigens and house dust-mite allergens in allergic patients have been reported, whether Ascaris or the mite is the primary sensitizer remains unknown. Here we found that immunization of naïve animals with Ascaris lumbricoides (Al) antigens induced production of antibodies cross-reactive to mite antigens from Dermatophagoides farinae (Df). Sera from Bangladeshi children showed IgE reactivity to Ascaris and mite extracts. IgG from rabbits immunized with Al extract exhibited reactivity to Df antigens. Treatment of the anti-Al antibody with Df antigen-coupled beads eliminated the reactivity to Df antigens. In immunoblot analysis, an approximately 100-kDa Df band was the most reactive to anti-Al IgG. The present study is the first step towards the establishment of animal models to study the relationship between Ascaris infection and mite-induced allergic diseases.

  19. Effect of Dust Mite Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy Combined with Standardized Management on Prognosis of Asthmatic Children%粉尘螨特异性免疫治疗联合规范化防治在哮喘控制中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭永强; 曹兰芳; 沈瑾; 陈柳; 叶桂云; 徐决平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of dust mite allergen - specific immunotherapy combined with standardized management on prevention and therapeutic effect in children with asthma. Methods Ninety - five children with established diagnosis of allergic asthma to dust mite were enrolled in this study from Apr. 2005 to Jun. 2010 ,of whom 54 children received treatment with specific immunotherapy(SIT)combined with standardized management (treatment group)for 2- 3 years,and the other 41 cases served as the control group, who received only standardized management( inhaled corticosteroids) at the same time. The clinical symptom and acute episode of the asthmatic children,peak expiratory flow(PEF) and children asthma control test (Ch -CACT), the frequency of respiratory tract infection were detected before and after the treatment,especially the season with high attack rate in 1 year afar the treatment. The data were analyzed by SPSS 15.0 software. Results Compared with control group, the frequency of acute episode, the degree of stable phase of asthma, the dose of inhaled corticosteroids in treatment group after treatment for 1 year were significantly decreased. The PEF and Ch - CACT in both groups were obviously improved and the frequency of respiratory tract infection in both groups after treatment for 1 year were obviously decreased. But the PEF and Ch - CACT in control group were obviously dropped in the season with high attack rate after treatment for 1 year and the average duration of respiratory tract infection in control group were obviously prolonged. Conclusions The dust mite allergen - specific immunotherapy combined with standar-dized management can obviously reduce the frequency and degree of acute episode of asthma, improve the pulmonary function of asthmatic children ,decrease the the frequency and the average duration of respiratory tract infection.%目的 评价粉尘螨特异性免疫治疗联合规范化防治在儿童支气管哮喘(

  20. How relevant are house dust mite-fungal interactions in laboratory culture to the natural dust system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, D B; Hart, B J; Pearce, R B; Kozakiewicz, Z; Douglas, A E

    1992-11-01

    Both house dust and house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus contained a wider range of fungi than laboratory mite cultures. In total, nine species of fungi were isolated from D. pteronyssinus in house dust, and these included three xerophilic species (Eurotium amstelodami, Aspergillus penicillioides and Wallemia sebi) commonly found in laboratory cultures of D. pteronyssinus. It is concluded that mites do interact with a similar range of fungi in natural dust and in laboratory culture, but that the diversity of fungal species in the laboratory is reduced and the density of individual fungal species in culture exceeds that of house dust. In a second experiment, dust samples were incubated at room temperature with 75% relative humidity. The diversity of fungi invariably declined from up to 13 genera to the few species recorded in laboratory culture. This suggests that the dominance of xerophilic fungi in laboratory mite rearings is mediated primarily by low relative humidity, and the exclusion of air-borne spores.

  1. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients.......House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients....

  2. Influenza A facilitates sensitization to house dust mite in infant mice leading to an asthma phenotype in adulthood

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Garawi, A

    2011-08-31

    The origins of allergic asthma, particularly in infancy, remain obscure. Respiratory viral infections and allergen sensitization in early life have been associated with asthma in young children. However, a causal link has not been established. We investigated whether an influenza A infection in early life alters immune responses to house dust mite (HDM) and promotes an asthmatic phenotype later in life. Neonatal (8-day-old) mice were infected with influenza virus and 7 days later, exposed to HDM for 3 weeks. Unlike adults, neonatal mice exposed to HDM exhibited negligible immune responsiveness to HDM, but not to influenza A. HDM responsiveness in adults was associated with distinct Ly6c + CD11b + inflammatory dendritic cell and CD8α + plasmacytoid (pDC) populations that were absent in HDM-exposed infant mice, suggesting an important role in HDM-mediated inflammation. Remarkably, HDM hyporesponsiveness was overcome when exposure occurred concurrently with an acute influenza infection; young mice now displayed robust allergen-specific immunity, allergic inflammation, and lung remodeling. Remodeling persisted into early adulthood, even after prolonged discontinuation of allergen exposure and was associated with marked impairment of lung function. Our data demonstrate that allergen exposure coincident with acute viral infection in early life subverts constitutive allergen hyporesponsiveness and imprints an asthmatic phenotype in adulthood.

  3. Hypoallergenic Der p 1/Der p 2 combination vaccines for immunotherapy of house dust mite allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kuan-Wei; Blatt, Katharina; Thomas, Wayne R; Swoboda, Ines; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2012-08-01

    More than 50% of allergic patients have house dust mite (HDM) allergy. Group 1 and 2 allergens are the major HDM allergens. We sought to produce and perform preclinical characterization of a recombinant hypoallergenic combination vaccine for specific immunotherapy of HDM allergy. Synthetic genes coding for 2 hybrid proteins consisting of reassembled Der p 1 and Der p 2 fragments with (recombinant Der p 2 [rDer p 2]/1C) and without (rDer p 2/1S) cysteines were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by means of affinity chromatography. Protein fold was determined by using circular dichroism analysis, allergenic activity was determined by testing IgE reactivity and using basophil activation assays, and the presence of T-cell epitopes was determined based on lymphoproliferation in allergic patients. Mice and rabbits were immunized to study the molecules' ability to induce an allergic response and whether they induce allergen-specific IgG capable of inhibiting allergic patients' IgE binding to the allergens, respectively. rDer p 2/1C and rDer p 2/1S were expressed in large amounts in E coli as soluble and folded proteins. Because of the lack of disulfide bonds, rDer p 2/1S did not form aggregates and was obtained as a monomeric protein, whereas rDer p 2/1C did form aggregates. Both hypoallergens lacked relevant IgE reactivity and had reduced ability to induce allergic inflammation and allergic responses but induced similar T-cell proliferation as the wild-type allergens. Immunization with the hypoallergens (rDer p 2/1S > rDer p 2/1C) induced IgG antibodies in rabbits that inhibited the IgE reactivity of patients with HDM allergy to Der p 1 and Der p 2. The preclinical characterization indicates that particularly rDer p 2/1S can be used as a safe hypoallergenic molecule for both tolerance and vaccination approaches to treat HDM allergy. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ready-to-use house dust mites atopy patch test (HDM-Diallertest), a new screening tool for detection of house dust mites allergy in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhamou, P H; Kalach, N; Soulaines, P; Donne, N; Dupont, C

    2009-10-01

    to assess the accuracy and safety of a ready-to-use atopy patch test (HDM-Diallertest, DBV Technologies, Paris) in the diagnosis of sensitization to house-dust mite (HDM) allergens in children with or without atopic dermatitis. prospective analysis of a systematic allergic work-up was carried out in 47 children, age 57.4+42 months (mean + SD, range 7 to 176 mo), presenting with isolated or combined atopic dermatitis (AD, n = 28) or other symptoms without AD (control group, n = 19). Children were routinely tested for specific HDM-IgE [against D. pteronyssinus (DPT) and D. farinae (DF)], and skin testing based on HDM (DPT & DF) skin prick test (SPT) and ready-to-use HDM-ATP (HDM-Diallertest), with a reading at 72 hours. 15 children (31.9%) exhibited specific IgE against both DPT and DF, 16 children (34.04%) exhibited positive SPT against DPT and 17 (36.1%) against DF. HDM-Diallertest was positive in 15 cases (31.9%). Among these, 9 exhibited with an eczematous reaction showed an excellent correlation with both SPT and specific IgE for DPT and DF, respectively 93.3%, 97.77%, 90.47%, and 90.47%. The different diagnostic techniques of HDM sensitization neither differ between groups, nor correlated specifically with the different clinical manifestations. No side effect was observed during and after patch testing, except for a local reaction without diffusion outside the local test area. The 3 diagnostic techniques exhibited a comparable level of accuracy for the diagnosis of HDM allergens sensitization. The excellent concordance of the highest class reactions of HDM-Diallertest with the other diagnostic techniques indicates a potential role as a screening tool for the detection of HDM sensitization in infancy.

  5. Genetically engineered Lactococcus lactis protect against house dust mite allergy in a BALB/c mouse model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunqing Ai

    Full Text Available Mucosal vaccine based on lactic acid bacteria is an attractive concept for the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, but their mechanisms of action in vivo are poorly understood. Therefore, we sought to investigate how recombinant major dust mite allergen Der p2-expressing Lactococcus lactis as a mucosal vaccine induced the immune tolerance against house dust mite allergy in a mouse model.Three strains of recombinant L. lactis producing Der p2 in different cell components (extracellular, intracellular and cell wall were firstly constructed. Their prophylactic potential was evaluated in a Der p2-sensitised mouse model, and immunomodulation properties at the cellular level were determined by measuring cytokine production in vitro.Der p2 expressed in the different recombinant L. lactis strains was recognized by a polyclonal anti-Der p2 antibody. Oral treatment with the recombinant L. lactis prior sensitization significantly prevented the development of airway inflammation in the Der p2-sensitized mice, as determined by the attenuation of inflammatory cells infiltration in the lung tissues and decrease of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 levels in bronchoalveolar lavage. In addition, the serum allergen-specific IgE levels were significantly reduced, and the levels of IL-4 in the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes cell cultures were also markedly decreased upon allergen stimulation in the mice fed with the recombinant L. lactis strains. These protective effects correlated with a significant up-regulation of regulatory T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes.Oral pretreatment with live recombinant L. lactis prevented the development of allergen-induced airway inflammation primarily by the induction of specific mucosal immune tolerance.

  6. Evaluation of skin sensitivity in dogs bearing allergic dermatitis to standardized allergenic extract of house dust and storage mites Avaliação da sensibilidade de cães com dermatite alérgica a extratos padronizados de ácaros da poeira domiciliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor E.S. Cunha

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to evaluate whether allergenic extracts of five house dust and storage mite species standardized for humans might be used for the diagnosis of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD. Extracts of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Pyroglyphidae, D. farinae (Pyroglyphidae, Blomia tropicalis (Glycyphagidae, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Glycyphagidae and Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acaridae were evaluated by intradermal testing in 20 healthy dogs (control and 25 dogs with allergic dermatitis. A significant difference in the response was observed between the two groups (pO presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar se extratos alergênicos de cinco espécies de ácaros da poeira domiciliar e produtos armazenados, padronizados para humanos, podem ser utilizados no diagnóstico da dermatite atópica canina. Extratos de Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Pyroglyphidae, D. farinae (Pyroglyphidae, Blomia tropicalis (Glycyphagidae, Lepidoglyphus destructor (Glycyphagidae e Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Acaridae foram avaliados através de testes intradérmicos em 45 cães, dos quais 20 normais e 25 com dermatite alérgica. Uma diferença significativa foi observada no padrão de respostas obtidas dos dois grupos (p<0.05. Apenas um animal (5% do grupo controle reagiu ao teste cutâneo, enquanto que no grupo dos alérgicos 14 cães (56% apresentaram pelo menos uma reação positiva (odds ratio = 24.2. As maiores freqüências de reações positivas observadas no grupo dos alérgicos foram aos extratos de T. putres-centiae ou L. destructor, cada um induzindo reações em 10(40% cães. Os extratos de D. farinae, D. pteronyssinus e B. tropicalis foram responsáveis por reações positivas em 7(28%, 3(12% e 3(12% cães, respectivamente. Os extratos padronizados para humanos avaliados no presente estudo podem ser utilizados como complemento no diagnóstico da doença, assim como na seleção de alérgenos para a imunoterapia alérgeno-específica.

  7. House-dust mites in our homes are a contamination from outdoor sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallas, Thorkil E.

    2010-01-01

    Avoidance advices for house-dust mite sensitized persons are currently based upon the idea, that the mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are part of the indoor fauna. A closer look at development stages in the house-dust samples shows, however, that only the mites' active stages are present there and t...... no effect of avoidance measures. The verification of the entire hypothesis or part of it may have great impact on the management of the disease house-dust mite allergy.......Avoidance advices for house-dust mite sensitized persons are currently based upon the idea, that the mites (Dermatophagoides spp.) are part of the indoor fauna. A closer look at development stages in the house-dust samples shows, however, that only the mites' active stages are present...... there and that the stages between them, the inactive moulting stages, are absent. Therefore the mites probably do not carry out their life cycles in our dwellings, but are more likely contaminations from the open. Findings of low level concentrations can be explained by mites coming from outdoors and sedimented...

  8. Suppression of dust mite allergy by mucosal delivery of a hypoallergenic derivative in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Chunqing; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Ding, Junrong; Ren, Chengcheng; Wang, Gang; Liu, Xiaoming; Tian, Fengwei; Zhao, Jianxin; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Chen, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Allergic asthma caused by house dust mite (HDM) is becoming a public health problem. Specific immunotherapy is considered to be the only curative treatment, but it is always associated with IgE-mediated side effects in the therapy process. A few studies showed that the disruption of allergen IgE epitopes could reduce IgE reactivity and thus reduce allergenic activity. In this study, a hypoallergenic derivative of the major HDM allergen Der p2 was constructed by genetic engineering. This derivative was confirmed to have a considerably reduced IgE reactivity compared with Der p2. For its application in vivo, recombinant Lactococcus lactis (LL-DM) was engineered to deliver the Der p2 derivative to the intestinal mucosal surface. Oral administration of LL-DM significantly alleviated Der p2-induced airway inflammation, as shown by reduced inflammatory infiltration and a reduction in Th2 cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage. This protective effect was associated with an up-regulation of specific IgG2a and a decrease in IL-4 level in the spleen which may affect specific IgE response. Moreover, the levels of regulatory T cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen were markedly increased in mice fed with LL-DM, suggesting that LL-DM can inhibit allergic responses via the induction of regulatory T cell. Our results indicate that the Der p2 derivative is a promising therapeutic molecule for specific immunotherapy and recombinant lactic acid bacteria could be developed as a promising treatment or prevention strategy for allergic diseases.

  9. Gene expression in the skin of dogs sensitized to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schamber, Paz; Schwab-Richards, Rachel; Bauersachs, Stefan; Mueller, Ralf S

    2014-10-01

    Atopic dermatitis is a multifactorial allergic skin disease in humans and dogs. Genetic predisposition, immunologic hyperreactivity, a defective skin barrier, and environmental factors play a role in its pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to analyze gene expression in the skin of dogs sensitized to house dust mite antigens. Skin biopsy samples were collected from six sensitized and six nonsensitized Beagle dogs before and 6 hr and 24 hr after challenge using skin patches with allergen or saline as a negative control. Transcriptome analysis was performed by the use of DNA microarrays and expression of selected genes was validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Expression data were compared between groups (unpaired design). After 24 hr, 597 differentially expressed genes were detected, 361 with higher and 226 with lower mRNA concentrations in allergen-treated skin of sensitized dogs compared with their saline-treated skin and compared with the control specimens. Functional annotation clustering and pathway- and co-citation analysis showed that the genes with increased expression were involved in inflammation, wound healing, and immune response. In contrast, genes with decreased expression in sensitized dogs were associated with differentiation and barrier function of the skin. Because the sensitized dogs did not show differences in the untreated skin compared with controls, inflammation after allergen patch test probably led to a decrease in the expression of genes important for barrier formation. Our results further confirm the similar pathophysiology of human and canine atopic dermatitis and revealed genes previously not known to be involved in canine atopic dermatitis.

  10. House dust mites as potential carriers for IgE sensitization to bacterial antigens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzoro, S; Mittermann, I; Resch-Marat, Y; Vrtala, S; Nehr, M; Hirschl, A M; Wikberg, G; Lundeberg, L; Johansson, C; Scheynius, A; Valenta, R

    2017-07-25

    IgE reactivity to antigens from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria is common in patients suffering from respiratory and skin manifestations of allergy, but the routes and mechanisms of sensitization are not fully understood. The analysis of the genome, transcriptome and microbiome of house dust mites (HDM) has shown that Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) species are abundant bacteria within the HDM microbiome. Therefore, our aim was to investigate whether HDM are carriers of bacterial antigens leading to IgE sensitization in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Plasma samples from patients with AD (n = 179) were analysed for IgE reactivity to a comprehensive panel of microarrayed HDM allergen molecules and to S. aureus and E. coli by IgE immunoblotting. Antibodies specific for S. aureus and E. coli antigens were tested for reactivity to nitrocellulose-blotted extract from purified HDM bodies, and the IgE-reactive antigens were detected by IgE immunoblot inhibition experiments. IgE antibodies directed to bacterial antigens in HDM were quantified by IgE ImmunoCAP™ inhibition experiments. IgE reactivity to bacterial antigens was significantly more frequent in patients with AD sensitized to HDM than in AD patients without HDM sensitization. S. aureus and E. coli antigens were detected in immune-blotted HDM extract, and the presence of IgE-reactive antigens in HDM was demonstrated by qualitative and quantitative IgE inhibition experiments. House dust mites (HDM) may serve as carriers of bacteria responsible for the induction of IgE sensitization to microbial antigens. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Characterization of Allergen Exposure in Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-17

    dust mixture.6 Dust mite allergens have been associated causatively with asthma, atopic dermatitis , and rhini- tis. 7 Studies from several countries...Asthma: A Controlled Trial. The Lancet 1976; ***:333-335. 10. Tuft L. Importance of Inhalant Allergens in Atopic Dermatitis . The Journal of Investigative...Monoclonal Antibodies to the Major Feline Allergen Fel d 1. 1I. Single Step Affinity Purification of Fel d 1, N-Terminal Sequence Analysis, and Development of

  12. Dermatophagoides farinae Allergens Diversity Identification by Proteomics*

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The most important indoor allergens for humans are house dust mites (HDM). Fourteen Dermatophagoides farinae allergens (Der f 1–3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13–18, and 22) are reported although more than 30 allergens have been estimated in D. farinae. Seventeen allergens belonging to 12 different groups were identified by a procedure of proteomics combined with two-dimensional immunoblotting from D. farina extracts. Their sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry analysis, and cDN...

  13. THE USE OF SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE IN ACCELERATING SYMPTOM RELIEF IN ASTHMATIC AND HOUSE DUST MITE ALLERGIC CHILDREN RECEIVING HOUSE DUST MITE IMMUNOTHERAPY: DOUBLE BLIND RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED CLINICAL TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anang Endaryanto

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of superoxide dismutase (SOD in lung function (FEV1 reversibility and respiratory symptoms (drug scores, symptoms scores in asthmatic and house dust mite allergic children receiving house dust mites immunotherapy. Methods: Forty subjects aged 6–17 years old with asthma, tested positive for house dust mite allergy on skin prick test, and received immunotherapy were enrolled in this study. All subjects completed clinical based assessments and diary-based assessments for drug and symptom scores. Following a four-week baseline assessment, all subjects were randomized to receive SOD or placebo. Respiratory symptoms (drug and symptoms score and FEV1 were evaluated at the end of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th weeks after randomization. Drug score, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test results were analyzed using a Paired t test and repeated measure of ANOVA. Results: There was a significant difference in drug scores, symptoms score, and FEV1 reversibility test outcomes between SOD and placebo. SOD group showed a significant decrease in all outcome measures compared to those in placebo group. Conclusions: The use of SOD as antioxidants is effective in accelerating symptom relief for children with asthma and house dust mite allergy receiving house dust mite immunotherapy.

  14. HOUSE DUST MITE CONTAMINATION IN HOTELS AND INNS IN BANDAR ABBAS, SOUTH OF IRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soleimani, J. Rafinejad

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available House dust mites have been shown to be strongly associated with allergic respiratory diseases such as, bronchial asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis in the world. The climatic conditions of Bandar-Abbas, which is located in a coastal area and has a humid subtropical climate, provide a suitable place to proliferate mites. The aim of this study was to determine the contamination rate and analyze the house dust mite fauna in hotels and inns in Bandar-Abbas that had not been investigated previously. In this study 6 hotels and 6 inns were selected randomly in six areas of Bandar-Abbas. Two dust samples were collected from each place with a vacuum cleaner. One square meter of carpets and mattresses were vacuumed for a period of 1 min. Then the samples were cleared in lactic acid and then mites were mounted in Hoyer's medium for study and identification. A total of 2644 mites were collected and identified. The major mite family was Pyroglyphidae (98%. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was the most frequent and most numerous species recorded, occurring in 91% of samples examined and forming 88% of the Pyroglyphidae and 86% of the total mite populations. The family Cheyletidae was less commonly found with Cheyletus malaccensis (2%. Most of the mites were isolated from the carpets (57.5%, and a smaller number from mattresses (42.5%. Mites were present in 96% of the dust samples. Results revealed that all inns and 83% of hotels were contaminated by more than one species of mite and 34% of them had a population of more than 100 mites /g dust. This rate of contamination can be a major risk factor in asthma and other respiratory allergic diseases

  15. Sensitization to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Blomia tropicalis extracts and recombinant mite allergens in atopic Thai patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trakultivakorn, Muthita; Nuglor, Tipaporn

    2002-12-01

    Mite surveys in Thailand indicated that Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) is predominant, but so far there were no data available on Blomia tropicalis (Bt), which is prevalent in the Asia Pacific region. Skin prick testing (SPT) was performed in 40 atopic children, 45 atopic adults and 17 non-atopic volunteers. Skin reactions to Dp were found in 25/40 (62.5%) and 23/45 (51.1%); skin reactions to Bt were found in 15/40 (37.5%) and 18/45 (40%) in atopic children and adults, respectively. SPT to the major sensitizing allergens Der p 1, Der p 2, Der p 5, and Blo t 5 showed positive results in 14/40 (35%), 12/40 (30%), 1/40 (2.5%) and 4/40 (10%) of atopic children, and in 12/45 (26.7%), 13/45 (28.9%), 5/45 (11.1%), 6/45 (13.3%) of atopic adults, respectively. The results indicate that Dp is one of the major sources of allergy, while Bt is a minor one and that Der p 1 and Der p 2 are important mite allergens in Chiang Mai, Thailand.

  16. [Sensitization to house dust and storage mites in allergic adults from the South of Mexico city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Heredia, Jennifer; Oífarrill-Romanillos, Patricia María; Guidos-Fogelbach, Guillermo; Miyagui-Nakamura, Roberto Ken; Segura-Méndez, Nora Hilda

    2013-01-01

    Mites are the most common cause of respiratory allergy. Sensitization to house dust mites is estimated at 30%. Families Euroglyphus and Dermatophagoides, are the most important. Recently, storage mites, from the families Acaridae and Glyciphagidae, have become more important as a cause of allergic respiratory diseases. The aim of this study was to identify sensitization to house dust and storage mites by skin tests in adult patients with allergic respiratory diseases. This is a descriptive study in patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis, with the approval of the local research committee 2009-3601-46. Patients underwent skin prick tests, with seven standardized extracts of mites (IPI ASACR). The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. A total of 150 patients, 109 women and 41 men, with an average age 31 years (±11) were studied. The more common allergic diseases in this group of patients were: asthma and rhinitis 72 and 26%, respectively, and asthma plus rhinitis 3.2%. Positive skin tests for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae were 82.1% 71.5%, respectively, and for storage mites: A. siro 51.7%, Tyrophagus 47.4%, Glycyphagus 47.7%, B. tropicalis 39.7% and Lepidoglyphus 39.1%. Storage mites produced greater sensitization than house dust mites, 32% vs 10%. The results show that adult patients with respiratory allergy, in southern Mexico City, have a higher rate of sensitization to storage mites than the one reported in the literature.

  17. Indoor pollutant hexabromocyclododecane enhances house dust mite-induced activation of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canbaz, Derya; Lebre, M Cristina; Logiantara, Adrian; van Ree, Ronald; van Rijt, Leonie S

    2016-11-01

    The indoor pollutant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) has been added as flame retardant to many consumer products but detaches and accumulates in house dust. Inhalation of house dust leads to exposure to house dust mite (HDM) allergens in the presence of HBCD. Activation of dendritic cells is crucial in the sensitization to HDM allergens. The current study examined whether exposure to HBCD affected activation/maturation of HDM-exposed human dendritic cells (DC). Human monocyte-derived DC (moDC) were exposed simultaneously to HDM and a concentration range of HBCD (0.1-20 μM) in vitro. HDM exposure of moDC induced expression of co-stimulatory molecule CD80 and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. However, simultaneous exposure of moDC to HBCD and HDM enhanced the expression of antigen presenting molecule HLA-DR, co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 depending on the dose of HBCD. Our results indicate that simultaneous exposure of HDM and HBCD can enhance the antigen presentation and maturation/activation of DC.

  18. New occupational allergen in citrus farmers: citrus red mite (Panonychus citri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y K; Son, J W; Kim, H Y; Park, H S; Lee, M H; Cho, S H; Min, K U; Kim, Y Y

    1999-02-01

    There have been several reports of occupational allergy to spider mites (Tetranychidae), but no published report has described citrus red mite (CRM, Panonychus citri)-induced occupational asthma confirmed by specific bronchial challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical and immunologic characteristics of CRM-induced occupational asthma. We encountered 16 cases of CRM-induced occupational asthma among farmers cultivating citrus fruits. Asthmatic attacks corresponded closely with their work on citrus farms. The mean duration of the latent period was 12.9 (range 7 to 20) years. During their first visit to our clinic, nine patients with FEV1 lower than 70% of predictive value showed reversible airway obstruction after inhalation of bronchodilator, and seven with FEV1 greater than 70% of predictive value showed airway hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Fifteen of the 16 also complained of recurrent nasal symptoms, which had developed at an earlier time than the asthmatic symptoms. They showed strong positive reactions to CRM extract on skin prick test (A/H ratio > or = 1.0) and had high serum specific IgE antibody against CRM which was detected by ELISA. Skin prick test with common inhalant allergens revealed that 10 had an isolated positive response to CRM with negative results to common inhalant allergens in their environment. The ELISA inhibition tests with CRM demonstrated significant inhibitions by CRM in a dose-dependent manner, while minimal inhibitions were noted by D. pteronyssinus and mugwort allergens. These findings suggest that CRM could induce IgE-mediated bronchoconstriction in exposed workers on citrus farm.

  19. Purification and characterization of Lep d I, a major allergen from the mite Lepidoglyphus destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventas, P; Carreira, J; Polo, F

    1992-04-01

    A major allergen of the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor (Lep d I) has been purified by affinity chromatography using an anti-Lep d I monoclonal antibody. The purity of the protein obtained by this procedure was assessed by reverse-phase HPLC. Lep d I displayed a molecular weight of 14 kD on SDS-PAGE under non-reducing conditions, and 16 kD in the presence of a reducing agent. Analytical IEF revealed a little charge microheterogeneity, showing three bands with pIs 7.6-7.8. Purified Lep d I retained IgE-binding ability, as proved by immunoblotting experiments after SDS-PAGE and RAST with individual sera from L. destructor-sensitive patients. Results from the latter technique demonstrated that 87% of L. destructor-allergic patients had specific IgE to Lep d I, and a good correlation between IgE reactivity with L. destructor extract and Lep d I was found. In addition, RAST inhibition experiments showed that IgE-binding sites on Lep d I are major L. destructor-allergenic determinants, since Lep d I could inhibit up to 75% the binding of specific IgE to L. destructor extract; on the other hand, Lep d I did not cross-react with D. pteronyssinus allergens.

  20. Mite and pet allergen levels in homes of children born to allergic and nonallergic parents : The PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, RT; Koopman, LP; Kerkhof, M; Spithoven, J; de Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, HJ; Aalberse, RC; Smit, HA; Brunekreef, B

    2002-01-01

    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) study is a birth cohort study that investigates the influence of allergen exposure on the development of allergy and asthma in the first several years of life. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between a

  1. Mite and pet allergen levels in homes of children born to allergic and nonallergic parents : The PIAMA study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, RT; Koopman, LP; Kerkhof, M; Spithoven, J; de Jongste, JC; Gerritsen, J; Neijens, HJ; Aalberse, RC; Smit, HA; Brunekreef, B

    2002-01-01

    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) study is a birth cohort study that investigates the influence of allergen exposure on the development of allergy and asthma in the first several years of life. The objectives of this study were to investigate the relationship between a

  2. Allergens in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S; Janda, J; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Rhyner, C; Marti, E

    2016-01-01

    Allergic diseases in animals are increasingly gaining importance in veterinary practice and as research models. For intradermal testing and allergen immunotherapy, a good knowledge of relevant allergens for the individual species is of great importance. Currently, the knowledge about relevant veterinary allergens is based on sensitization rates identified by intradermal testing or serum testing for allergen-specific IgE; crude extracts are the basis for most evaluations. Only a few studies provide evidence about the molecular structure of (particularly) dust mite, insect and mould allergens in dogs and horses, respectively. In those species, some major allergens differ from those in humans. This position paper summarizes the current knowledge about relevant allergens in dogs, cats and horses.

  3. Cell-penetrating peptide derived from human eosinophil cationic protein inhibits mite allergen Der p 2 induced inflammasome activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Jie Yu

    Full Text Available Newly discovered cell penetration peptides derived from human eosinophil cationic proteins (CPPecp have the characteristic of cell internalization, but the effect of CPPecp on immunomodulation has not been clarified. House dust mite (HDM major allergen, Der p 2, can induce proinflammatory cytokine production which contributes to airway inflammation and allergic asthma. However, the mechanism of Der p 2 on NLRP3 inflammasome activation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effect of CPPecp on inhibition of Der p 2 induced inflammasome activation. We showed that proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly upregulated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs derived from HDM allergic patients after Der p 2 stimulation. Expression of NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1, IL-1β and Caspase-1 activity was upregulated in THP-1 cells after Der p 2 stimulation. Proinflammatory cytokine production, NLRP3 inflammasome activation and caspase-1 activity were downregulated in THP-1 cells and CD14+ cells co-cultured with Der p 2 and CPPecp. The immunomodulatory effect of CPPecp was through upregulation of IFN-α production but not induction of autophagy. These results suggested Der p 2 plays an important role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation and CPPecp has the potential to be a novel anti-inflammatory agent for allergic inflammation treatment in the future.

  4. Endotoxin, ergosterol, fungal DNA and allergens in dust from schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia- associations with asthma and respiratory infections in pupils.

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    Dan Norbäck

    Full Text Available There are few studies on associations between respiratory health and allergens, fungal and bacterial compounds in schools in tropical countries. The aim was to study associations between respiratory symptoms in pupils and ethnicity, chemical microbial markers, allergens and fungal DNA in settled dust in schools in Malaysia. Totally 462 pupils (96% from 8 randomly selected secondary schools in Johor Bahru, Malaysia, participated. Dust was vacuumed from 32 classrooms and analysed for levels of different types of endotoxin as 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OH, muramic acid, ergosterol, allergens and five fungal DNA sequences. Multiple logistic regression was applied. Totally 13.1% pupils reported doctor's diagnosed asthma, 10.3% wheeze and 21.1% pollen or pet allergy. Indian and Chinese children had less atopy and asthma than Malay. Carbon dioxide levels were low (380-690 ppm. No cat (Fel d1, dog (Can f 1 or horse allergens (Ecu cx were detected. The levels of Bloomia tropicalis (Blo t, house dust mite allergens (Der p 1, Der f 1, Der m 1 and cockroach allergens (Per a 1 and Bla g 1 were low. There were positive associations between levels of Aspergillus versicolor DNA and daytime breathlessness, between C14 3-OH and respiratory infections and between ergosterol and doctors diagnosed asthma. There were negative (protective associations between levels of C10 3-OH and wheeze, between C16 3-OH and day time and night time breathlessness, between cockroach allergens and doctors diagnosed asthma. Moreover there were negative associations between amount of fine dust, total endotoxin (LPS and respiratory infections. In conclusion, endotoxin at school seems to be mainly protective for respiratory illness but different types of endotoxin could have different effects. Fungal contamination measured as ergosterol and Aspergillus versicolor DNA can be risk factors for respiratory illness. The ethnical differences for atopy and asthma deserve further attention.

  5. SQ house dust mite sublingually administered immunotherapy tablet (ALK) improves allergic rhinitis in patients with house dust mite allergic asthma and rhinitis symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosbech, Holger; Canonica, G Walter; Backer, Vibeke;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is associated with persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) and allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of a SQ HDM sublingually administered immunotherapy tablet (ALK, Hørsholm, Denmark) in adults and adolescents with HDM respiratory ...

  6. The hammock: a reservoir of allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca X. M. Rego

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Asthma affects approximately 10% of the world's population. Sensitization to allergens is an important risk factor, and exposure to allergens is associated with disease severity. METHODS: We performed skin tests to evaluate allergen sensitization to mites, cockroaches, cats, dogs, and molds in 73 asthmatic patients. Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay was used to assay the mite and cockroach allergens found in dust from the bedding, hammocks, bedroom floors, living rooms, and kitchens of 29 patients and 14 controls. RESULTS: Fifty patients (68.5% had positive skin test responses. There were positive responses to D. pteronyssinus (52.0%, B. tropicalis (53.4%, T. putrescentiae (15.0%, E. maynei (12.3%, L. destructor (8.2%, B. germanica (20.5%, P. americana (21.9%, Felis catus (10.9%, C. herbarium (2.7%, A. alternata (4.1%, and P. notatun (1.3%. The exposure to mite and cockroach allergens was similar in the patients and the controls. The Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Group 1 levels were highest in the beds and hammocks. The Blattella germanica Group 1 levels were highest in the kitchens, living rooms and hammocks. DISCUSSION: The positive skin tests to mites, cockroaches and cats were consistent with previous studies. D pteronyssinus was the most prevalent home dust mite, and hammocks were a source of allergens. To improve asthma prophylaxis, it is important to determine its association with mite allergen exposure in hammocks.

  7. Exposure to indoor allergens and association with allergy symptoms of employees in a work environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Brunetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to indoor allergens is an important risk factor for sensitisation and respiratory allergy. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the levels of mite, cat and latex allergens in dust collected from an indoor workplace and to assess whether the exposure to these allergens was associated with the allergy symptoms reported by employees. Sixty dust samples were collected. Allergen concentrations were measured with antibody based ELISAs. All 144 participants compiled a questionnaire exploring possible symptoms of allergy. No association between latex allergen exposure and symptoms was found in spite of the high frequency of latex allergens. Mite allergens were detected in a minority of rooms. Cat allergen was the most important indoor allergen in the sampled workplace and exposure to this allergen could represent a risk for employees.

  8. Influence of house dust mite impermeable covers on health-related quality of life of adult patients with asthma: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Bemt, Lisette; de Vries, Marjolein P; Cloosterman, Sonja; Thoonen, Bart; Muris, Jean W M; Goossens, Marielle; Wesseling, Geertjan; van Schayck, Constant P

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of house dust mite impermeable covers on asthma-specific health-related quality of life in adult asthmatic patients that were trained in guided self-management. In a 2-year randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, information on the quality of life was collected. The improvement of Mini Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (AQLQ) score in the allergens-avoidance group (0.26) was comparable to the improvement in the placebo group (0.30) and not significant. HDM-impermeable covers for pillows, duvets, and mattresses did not result in improved health-related quality of life.

  9. House Dust Mites Confer a Distinct Immunological Feature among Dermatitis

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    Safa Baris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a heterogeneous disease with regard to clinical phenotype and natural history. We investigated T cell subtypes and cytokine responses in peripheral blood and skin lesions of AD patients with various sensitivities. Immunological studies were performed in 27 subjects: 9 house dust mite (HDM-sensitized; 6 subjects with sensitizations other than HDM; 7 non-allergic AD patients and 5 healthy controls. Among those, skin biopsy samples of 13 subjects were evaluated for immunohistochemical analyses, as well. The mean age was 8.93±5.17 years. HDM-allergic AD emerged as a distinct immunologic phenotype, with higher production of interleukin (IL-4, -5, -2 both at rest and when stimulated by Der p1 or SEB along with higher Th17. As for TH17 cell percentage, it was increased in all AD groups compared to healthy controls, while HDM-allergic group was distinguished with a significantly lower production of IL-17. Patients with sensitizations other than HDM were mostly similar to non-allergic AD, with increased Th17 and CD4+CD69+interferon-gamma (IFN-γ+ T cells percentage. The biopsy of lesional skin showed that HDM-allergic AD had lower IFN-γ and IFN-γ co-expressing CD8+ T cells compared to patients with other sensitizations (p=0.03 and p=0.04, respectively. Among the HDM allergic patients, pairwise comparison of lesional versus non-lesional skin revealed higher CD4+ T cells numbers, expression of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3 and T-cell-specific transcription factor (T-bet (p=0.018, p=0.018, p=0.018, respectively. HDM-allergic AD is a distinct subtype with a predominant skewing in Th2 and higher Th17 cell percentage along with a blunted Th1 response in the skin, all of which may have therapeutic implications.

  10. Inert dusts and their effects on the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2009-06-01

    The haematophagous poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is the most important pest of egg laying hens in many parts of the world. Control has often relied on chemical pesticides, but inert dusts, which are thought to kill target hosts primarily by desiccation, have become one of the most commonly applied alternative control methods for poultry red mite in Europe. This development has occurred despite a lack of knowledge of the efficacy of the different types of inert dusts and how this is affected by environmental parameters, e.g. the high relative humidity found in poultry houses. In this laboratory study the efficacy of different commercial inert dust products against D. gallinae is compared. All tested compounds killed mites, but there was a clear ranking of efficacy (measured as weight loss after 24 h and as time until 50% mortality), particularly at 75% relative humidity (RH). At 85% RH the efficacy was significantly lower for all tested compounds (P gallinae.

  11. Inert dusts and their effects on the poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2009-01-01

    The haematophagous poultry red mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) is the most important pest of egg laying hens in many parts of the world. Control has often relied on chemical pesticides, but inert dusts, which are thought to kill target hosts primarily by desiccation, have become one of the most....... In this laboratory study the efficacy of different commercial inert dust products against D. gallinae is compared. All tested compounds killed mites, but there was a clear ranking of efficacy (measured as weight loss after 24 h and as time until 50% mortality), particularly at 75% relative humidity (RH). At 85% RH...... that 24 h exposure to surfaces treated with doses much lower than those recommended by the producers is sufficient to kill mites as fast as when they were dusted with massive doses. These data emphasise the need for thorough treatment of all surfaces in a poultry house in order to combat D. gallinae....

  12. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund

    2014-01-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a major pest in egg production, feeding on laying hens. Widely used non-chemical control methods include desiccant dusts, although their persistence under field conditions is often short. Entomopathogenic fungi may also hold potential for mite control...... weeks. Overall, combinations of desiccant dusts and fungus conidia seem to hold considerable promise for future non-chemical control of poultry red mites....

  13. IgE cross-reactivity between Ascaris lumbricoides and mite allergens: possible influences on allergic sensitization and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, N; Caraballo, L

    2011-06-01

    Nematode infections such as Ascariasis are important health problems in underdeveloped countries, most of them located in the tropics where environmental conditions also promote the perennial co-exposure to high concentrations of domestic mite allergens. Allergic diseases are common, and most of patients with asthma exhibit a predominant and strong IgE sensitization to mites. It is unknown whether co-exposure to Ascaris lumbricoides and the domestic mites Blomia tropicalis and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus potentiates Th2 responses and IgE sensitization, thereby modifying the natural history of allergy. Recently, we obtained experimental evidence of a high cross-reactivity between the allergenic extracts of these invertebrates, involving well-known allergens such as tropomyosin and glutathione transferases. There is indirect evidence suggesting that the clinical impact of these findings may be important. In this review, we discuss the potential role of this cross-reactivity on several aspects of allergy in the tropics that have been a focus of a number of investigations, some of them with controversial results.

  14. Indoor Allergen Levels and Household Distributions in Nine Cities Across China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yi Wu; NORBACK Dan; GJESING Birgitte; ZHONG Nan Shan; SPANGFORT DMichael; LAI Xu Xin; ZHAO De Yu; ZHANG Chun Qing; CHEN Jian Jun; ZHANG Luo; WEI Qing Yu; CHEN Shi; LIU En Mei

    2015-01-01

    Objective Chinese allergic subjects have high levels of sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) and other indoor allergens. This study quantifies common indoor allergen levels in Chinese households. Methods Dust samples were collected from nine cities. Major allergens Der p 1 and Der f 1 from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and D. farinae, and specific antigens of Blomia tropicalis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, and cockroach species Blattella germanica and Periplaneta americana were measured by ELISA. Results HDM allergens were found in dust samples from bedding in 95% of the Chinese households. The median levels varied from Conclusion HDM allergens are present in bedding dust samples from most Chinese households. Cities in southern and central China have relatively high levels of HDM major allergens compared to cities in northern and western China. Antigens of storage mites and cockroaches are not as common as HDM allergens.

  15. Effects of dust mite allergen-specific immunotherapy on prevention and cure in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis and the reasons of symptom exacerbation during specific immunotherapy.%粉尘螨特异性免疫治疗变应性哮喘合并鼻炎疗效评价及治疗期间病情反复原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭永强; 鲍一笑; 沈瑾; 叶桂云; 陈柳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of dust mite allergen-specific immunotherapy combined with standardized management on prevention and cure in children with asthma and allergic rhinitis and analyze the reasons of the asthma and allergic rhinitis symptom exacerbation during specific immunotherapy. Methods One hundred and two children with established diagnosis of allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis to dust mite were enrolled in this study from january 2006 to december 2010, of whom 78 children received the treatment with specific immunotherapy (SIT) combined with standardized management for 2 to 4 year (as the test group) and the other 24 served as the control group with inhaled corticosteroids according to Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) and Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) in the same time. At the beginning, 6 months, 1 year, 2 years of the treament and 1 year after the treament,the clinical symptom and acute episode, pulmonery function (Peak Expiratory Flow, PEF) and Chinese children asthma control test (Ch-CACT) of the asthmatic children, symptem scores and Visual Analogue Scale( VAS) of allergic rhinitis were analyzed, while respiratory tract infection of all the patients were recorded at the second year and after 1 year of the treatment. The reasons of the asthma and allergic rhinitis symptom exacerbation during dust mite allergen-specific immunotherapy were analyzed. The data were analyzed by SPSS15.0. Results Compared with control group, the frequency of acute episode, the frequency of respiratory tract infection in test group were significantly decreased at the 2 years of the treament and 1 year after the treament. The PEFof asthmasic children were obviously improved in the test group at the 2 years of the treament and 1 year after the treament and the Ch-CACT were more higher in the test group than the control group at 1 year after the treament. Compared with control group, the symptem scores and VAS of allergic rhinitis were

  16. Effect of freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil on house dust mites in soft toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Fu; Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Chen, Chi-Ying; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Rob

    2011-09-01

    Soft toys are a major source of house dust mites (HDM) and HDM allergens, and sleeping with soft toys is a significant risk factor for HDM sensitization. We studied three techniques to eliminate HDM from soft toys, namely freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil. Thirty-six toys (12 in each treatment group) were enumerated for live HDM by the heat escape method before and after freezing overnight, hot tumble drying for 1 h and washing in 0.2% to 0.4% eucalyptus oil. Freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil resulted in significant reductions in live HDM, an average reduction of 95.1%, 89.1% and 95.1%, respectively. Additionally, washing with eucalyptus oil resulted in a significant reduction in HDM allergens as well from a geometric mean of 9.12 μg/g to 0.37 μg/g (p = 0.033). These three HDM elimination techniques give parents of infants effective and acceptable methods of limiting HDM exposure.

  17. A GM-CSF/IL-33 pathway facilitates allergic airway responses to sub-threshold house dust mite exposure.

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    Alba Llop-Guevara

    Full Text Available Allergic asthma is a chronic immune-inflammatory disease of the airways. Despite aeroallergen exposure being universal, allergic asthma affects only a fraction of individuals. This is likely related, at least in part, to the extent of allergen exposure. Regarding house dust mite (HDM, we previously identified the threshold required to elicit allergic responses in BALB/c mice. Here, we investigated the impact of an initial immune perturbation on the response to sub-threshold HDM exposure. We show that transient GM-CSF expression in the lung facilitated robust eosinophilic inflammation, long-lasting antigen-specific Th2 responses, mucus production and airway hyperresponsiveness. This was associated with increased IL-33 levels and activated CD11b(+ DCs expressing OX40L. GM-CSF-driven allergic responses were significantly blunted in IL-33-deficient mice. IL-33 was localized on alveolar type II cells and in vitro stimulation of human epithelial cells with GM-CSF enhanced intracellular IL-33 independently of IL-1α. Likewise, GM-CSF administration in vivo resulted in increased levels of IL-33 but not IL-1α. These findings suggest that exposures to environmental agents associated with GM-CSF production, including airway infections and pollutants, may decrease the threshold of allergen responsiveness and, hence, increase the susceptibility to develop allergic asthma through a GM-CSF/IL-33/OX40L pathway.

  18. Proteolytic Activity Present in House-Dust-Mite Extracts Degrades ENA-78/CXCL5 and Reduces Neutrophil Migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keglowich, Laura; Tamm, Michael; Zhong, Jun; Miglino, Nicola; Borger, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMC) are a major source of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines and chemokines, including VEGF and CXC-chemokines. CXC-chemokines act primarily on neutrophils, mediating their recruitment to and activation at the site of inflammation. In humans, house-dust mite (HDM) allergens can cause asthmatic exacerbations and trigger an inflammatory response through protease-dependent mechanisms. Objective. We investigated the effect HDM extract on the release of pro-angiogenic and proinflammatory cytokines from BSMC. Methods. Human primary BSMC were stimulated with HDM extract in the absence or presence of fetal calf serum (FCS). Twenty angiogenic cytokines were detected by a specific antibody array and modified protein levels were confirmed by ELISA. Neutrophil migration was measured using a 96-well Boyden chamber. Results. ENA-78/CXCL5 protein levels in conditioned medium of BSMC stimulated with HDM extract were significantly reduced (n = 10, P ENA-78/CXCL5 mRNA levels. Recombinant ENA-78/CXCL5 was degraded after incubation with HDM extracts (n = 7, P ENA-78/CXCL5 was also reduced in the presence of HDM extract. Conclusion. HDM proteases degrade ENA-78/CXCL5. Thus exposure to HDM allergens may alter ENA-78/CXCL5 levels in the lungs and may affect angiogenesis and the inflammatory response in the airways of asthma patients.

  19. Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite Are Compared in a Mouse Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marsha D. W. Ward

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding allergenicity and asthma development is limited. We compared the ability of fungal biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae (MACA and house dust mite (HDM extracts to induce allergic responses in BALB/c mice. The extracts were administered by intratracheal aspiration at doubling doses (2.5–80 g protein 4X over a four-week period. Three days after the last exposure, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF were collected. The extracts' relative allergenicity was evaluated based on response robustness (lowest significant dose response compared to control (0 g. MACA induced a more robust serum total IgE response than HDM. However, in the antigen-specific IgE assay, a similar dose of both MACA and HDM was required to achieve the same response level. Our data suggest a threshold dose of MACA for allergy induction and that M. anisopliae may be similar to HDM in allergy induction potential.

  20. Protease-activated receptor-2 activation contributes to house dust mite-induced IgE responses in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijranke Post

    Full Text Available Aeroallergens such as house dust mite (HDM, cockroach, and grass or tree pollen are innocuous substances that can induce allergic sensitization upon inhalation. The serine proteases present in these allergens are thought to activate the protease-activated receptor (PAR-2, on the airway epithelium, thereby potentially inducing allergic sensitization at the expense of inhalation tolerance. We hypothesized that the proteolytic activity of allergens may play an important factor in the allergenicity to house dust mite and is essential to overcome airway tolerance. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of PAR-2 activation in allergic sensitization and HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation. In our study, Par-2 deficient mice were treated with two different HDM extracts containing high and low serine protease activities twice a week for a period of 5 weeks. We determined airway inflammation through quantification of percentages of mononuclear cells, eosinophils and neutrophils in the bronchial alveolar lavage fluid and measured total IgE and HDM-specific IgE and IgG1 levels in serum. Furthermore, Th2 and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-5, IL-13, Eotaxin-1, IL-17, KC, Chemokine (C-C motif ligand 17 (CCL17 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, were measured in lung tissue homogenates. We observed that independent of the serine protease content, HDM was able to induce elevated levels of eosinophils and neutrophils in the airways of both wild-type (WT and Par-2 deficient mice. Furthermore, we show that induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines by HDM exposure is independent of Par-2 activation. In contrast, serine protease activity of HDM does contribute to enhanced levels of total IgE, but not HDM-specific IgE. We conclude that, while Par-2 activation contributes to the development of IgE responses, it is largely dispensable for the HDM-induced induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and airway inflammation in an experimental mouse model of HDM

  1. Effect of house dust mite immunotherapy on interleukin-10-secreting regulatory T cells in asthmatic children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; XIANG Li; LIU Yong-ge; WANG Yong-hong; SHEN Kun-ling

    2010-01-01

    Background Subcutaneous specific immunotherapy has been demonstrated to be capable of inducing T-cell regulatory response.Interleukin-10 (IL-10) plays a crucial role in inducing allergen-specific tolerance.However the reports of the changes of IL-10 in house dust mite (HDM)-specific immunotherapy were varied.The aim of this study was to evaluate the function of IL-10-secreting regulatory T cells in asthma children successfully treated with HDM immunotherapy.Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from 27 patients following 1.5--2 years of HDM-specific immunotherapy (SIT, SIT group) and from 27 matched treated asthmatic children allergic to HDM (asthmagroup).After 48 hours of in vitro stimulation with HDM extracts, IL-10-secreting regulatory T cells were measured by four colour flow cytometry.Sera were tested for allergen-specific IgG4 and IgE using the Immuno CAP 100 assay.Results PBMCs from children undergoing immunotherapy following HDM extracts stimuli produced significantly more IL-10 compared with the asthma group.The frequency of iTreg cells and aTreg cells increased in SIT group after HDM stimulation, while it was not affected in the asthma group.Among the iTreg cells and aTreg cells, the frequency of CD4+CD25-Foxp3-IL-10+ Treg cells increased the most which was 2 times higher than that in unstimulated cultures in SIT group.The levels of HDM-specific IgG4 of SIT group was significiently higher compared with asthma group, but there was no correlation of the levels of HDM-specific IgG4 and IL-10 secreting Treg cells.Conclusions HDM-specific immunotherapy can successfully upregulate the frequency of IL-10-secreting Treg cells.CD4+CD25-Foxp3-IL-10+ Treg cells may play a key role in inducing the immune tolerance in HDM-specific immunotherapy.

  2. Poor sleep is highly associated with house dust mite allergic rhinitis in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leger, Damien; Bonnefoy, Bénédicte; Pigearias, Bernard; de La Giclais, Bertrand; Chartier, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Sleep disorders are often underreported to physicians by patients with allergies. This study aimed to characterize the sleep disorders associated with respiratory allergy to house dust mites (HDM) at the time of initiation of sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) in routine clinical practice. This prospective, cross-sectional, observational study was conducted between November 2014 and March 2015 at 189 French trial sites and included 1750 participants suffering from HDM allergy who were initiating SLIT. Participants aged less than 5 years old and those who had previously started an allergen immunotherapy (AIT) for HDM allergy were not enrolled in the study. Sleep disorders were assessed by self-administered questionnaires: the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI) and a modified version of the Hotel Dieu-42 (HD-42) sleep disorder questionnaire. Logistic regression models adjusted for obesity, smoking status, asthma control and nasal obstruction were used to study the relationship between allergic rhinitis (AR) classification and sleep disorders/complaints. Of the 1786 participants enrolled, 1750 (907 adults and 843 children) composed the analysis population. The majority of participants (73.5% of adults and 65.8% of children) reported that their sleep disorders had prompted them to consult their physician. The most commonly observed sleep complaints were poor-quality sleep (50.3% of adults and 37.3% of children), snoring (48.1 and 41.4%, respectively) and nocturnal awakening (37.6 and 28.2%, respectively). Difficulties falling asleep were reported by 27.0% of adults and 24.7% of children. Adults and children suffering from severe persistent AR experienced sleep complaints significantly more often than participants with intermittent or mild persistent AR. This study highlights the high frequency of sleep disorders and their significant impact on patients with AR induced by HDM, in particular when AR is persistent and severe

  3. Allergens in household dust and serological indicators of atopy and sensitization in Detroit children with history--based eivdence of asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Home exposure to allergens is an important factor in the development of sensitization and subsequent exacerbations of allergic asthma. We investigated linkages among allergen exposure, immunological measurements, and asthma by examining (1) reservoir dust allergen lev...

  4. Dust Mites Population in Indoor Houses of Suspected Allergic Patients of South Assam, India

    OpenAIRE

    Dhruba Sharma; Dutta, B. K.; Singh, A. B.

    2011-01-01

    Background. In the present study, quality and quantity of indoor dust mites was evaluated at the residence of 150 atopic allergic patients from four different districts of South Assam. Methods. Suspected patients with case history of allergic disease were selected for indoor survey. Dust samples (500 mg) were collected from the selected patient's house and were analyzed using standard methods. Results. About 60% of the selected patients were found suffering from respiratory disorders and rest...

  5. Science Letters: A synthetic Toll-like receptor 2 ligand decreases allergic immune responses in a mouse rhinitis model sensitized to mite allergen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng ZHOU; Xiao-dong KANG; Zhi CHEN

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed that activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) plays crucial roles in the polarization of adaptive immune responses. A synthetic Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) ligand, Pam3CSK4, has been reported to modulate the balance of Thl/Tn2 responses. We evaluated the modulation effect of Pam3CSK4 on allergic immune response in a mouse rhinitis model sensitized to house dust mite allergen (HDM). Mice were sensitized and challenged with Dermatophagoides farinae allergen (Der f), and then the allergic mice were treated by Pam3CSK4. Nasal allergic symptoms and eosinophils were scored. Der f-specific cytokine responses were examined in the splenocytes and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Serum level of total IgE was also detected. After establishing a mouse allergic rhinitis model with HDM, we have showed that Pam3CSK4 treatment not only ameliorated the nasal allergic symptoms remarkably but also decreased the eosinophils and total inflammation cells in BALF significantly. Analysis of cytokine profile found that' IFN-γ released from either BALF or stimulated splenocytes increased markedly in Pam3CSK4-treated mice, while IL-13 decreased significantly. Moreover, serum level of total IgE was significantly lower in Pam3CSK4-treated mice than in the untreated. Thus, in an allergic rhinitis mouse model developed with HDM, Pam3CSK4 was shown to exhibit an antiallergic effect, indicating its potential application in allergic diseases.

  6. Measurement of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for house dust mite antigens in normal cats and cats with allergic skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taglinger, K; Helps, C R; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cats with allergic skin disease have significant concentrations of serum Immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific for antigens derived from the house dust mites (HDM) Dermatophagoides farinae (DF) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were developed for this purpose. Binding of serum allergen-specific IgE was detected via the use of biotinylated Fc-epsilon receptor alpha chain protein (FcvarepsilonRIalpha). Following optimisation of the assay, serum samples from 59 cats with allergic skin disease and 54 clinically normal cats were screened. Results were expressed as ELISA units per ml (EU/ml) compared to a standard curve. Serological findings were correlated with the clinical presentation of affected cats. Cats with symptoms of feline allergic skin disease were grouped as follows: self-induced alopecia without lesions (group 1), papulocrusting dermatitis (group 2), eosinophilic granuloma complex (group 3), papular/ulcerative dermatitis of head and neck/facial dermatitis (group 4), and a combination of symptoms (group 5). Control normal cats comprised the final group (group 6). The Kruskal-Wallis test was used for statistical analysis. There was no significant difference between groups for DF- and DP-specific IgE concentrations with a p-value of 0.875 and 0.705, respectively. Although the FcvarepsilonRIalpha-based ELISA was able to detect house dust mite-specific feline IgE, the presence of this allergen-specific IgE correlates poorly with the presence of clinical manifestations of allergic skin disease. The results of this study question the clinical relevance of house dust mite-specific IgE in feline allergic skin disease.

  7. Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of sublingual immunotherapy in children with house dust mite allergy in primary care: study design and recruitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Jongste Johan C

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For respiratory allergic disorders in children, sublingual immunotherapy has been developed as an alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy. Sublingual immunotherapy is more convenient, has a good safety profile and might be an attractive option for use in primary care. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was designed to establish the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergen compared to placebo treatment in 6 to18-year-old children with allergic rhinitis and a proven house dust mite allergy in primary care. Described here are the methodology, recruitment phases, and main characteristics of the recruited children. Methods Recruitment took place in September to December of 2005 and 2006. General practitioners (in south-west Netherlands selected children who had ever been diagnosed with allergic rhinitis. Children and parents could respond to a postal invitation. Children who responded positively were screened by telephone using a nasal symptom score. After this screening, an inclusion visit took place during which a blood sample was taken for the RAST test. Results A total of 226 general practitioners invited almost 6000 children: of these, 51% was male and 40% Conclusion Our study was designed in accordance with recent recommendations for research on establishing the efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy; 98% of the target sample size was achieved. This study is expected to provide useful information on sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergen in primary care. The results on efficacy and safety are expected to be available by 2010. Trial registration the trial is registered as ISRCTN91141483 (Dutch Trial Register

  8. House Dust Mite Prevalence in the House of Patients with Atopic Dermatitis in Mashhad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toktam Ziyaei

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Being exposed to house dust mites intensifies atopic dermatitis. This study has investigated the con­tamination rate with Dermatophagoides mites in patient's residential home with atopic dermatitis.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 40 patients took part with atopic dermatitis (positive or negative for mites by prick Dermal Test. Samples were collected from 3 locations (living room, bedroom and bed by vacuum cleaner. Dust samples (transferred to freezer -20 ˚C were examined by direct method and flotation. The data were analyzed using statistical SPSS vr.20 software.Results: Twenty patients of positive prick test included 8 (40% male and 12 (60% female. The results of direct observation of mites: 7 cases (35% in bedding sheets, 6 cases (30% bedrooms' carpet, 3 cases (15% living room's carpet. Twenty patients of negative prick test included 8 (40% male and 12 (60% female. Only mites were found (5% in living room's carpets of negative prick test patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus was more frequent than Dermatophagoides farinae. (98% vs 83%.Conclusion: Fifty-five percent of residential homes of prick test positive patients and only 5% of residential homes of prick test negative patients were positive for mite. Sunshine provided home had fewer mites than home where sunshine is not provided. Prick test positive patients used handmade carpets more than machine made ones. In posi­tive prick test patients, mites were found in bed sheet and bedroom’s carpet more than negative prick test patient's sheets and carpets.

  9. Sublingual immunotherapy not effective in house dust mite-allergic children in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bot, Cindy M. A.; Moed, Heleen; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Roder, Esther; Hop, Wim C. J.; de Groot, Hans; de Jongste, Johan C.; van Wijk, Roy Gerth; Bindels, Patrick J. E.; van der Wouden, Johannes C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) as a therapy for the treatment of allergic rhinitis in children might be acceptable as an alternative for subcutaneous immunotherapy. However, the efficacy of SLIT with house dust mite extract is not well established. Objective: To investigate whether SLIT

  10. Effect of mattress and pillow encasings on children with asthma and house dust mite allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Høst, Arne; Niklassen, Ulla

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: House dust mite (HDM) allergy is a frequent cause of allergic asthma in children. Reduction of exposure seems to be the most logical way to treat these patients. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate whether mattress and pillow encasings resulted in an effective long-term control of H...

  11. Quantitation of major allergens in dust samples from urban populations collected in different seasons in two climatic areas of the Basque region (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echechipía, S; Ventas, P; Audícana, M; Urrutia, I; Gastaminza, G; Polo, F; Fernández de Corres, L

    1995-06-01

    We present the results of allergen content evaluation in 80 dust samples from 31 homes of atopic patients from two climatic areas (humid and subhumid), collected in two seasons of the year (autumn and winter). Monoclonal antibody-based immunoassays were used to quantify Der p 1, Der f 1, Der 2, Lep d 1, and Fel d 1. The results were compared according to climate, season, and the type of sensitization (Pyroglyphidae mites, storage mites, or grass pollens). We underline the predominance of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (89% of samples) over D. farinae (16% of samples) in our environment. Der p 1 rates were higher in the humid area (Mann-Whitney P < 0.001), especially in the autumn (Wilcoxon P < 0.05). Lep d 1 was detected in 23% of samples and Lep d 1 levels were higher in the homes of patients sensitized to storage mites (Mann-Whitney P < 0.05), whereas this allergen was not detected in the homes of pollen-allergic patients. Fel d 1 was detected in nine of the 31 homes (16% of samples) although there was a cat in only one home.

  12. Comparison of the skin-prick test and Phadia ImmunoCAP as tools to diagnose house-dust mite allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Yong Gi; Cho, Hyun-Jin; Park, Ga Young; Min, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyo Yeol; Dhong, Hun-Jong; Chung, Seung Kyu; Kim, Seon Woo

    2010-01-01

    When the skin-prick test (SPT) and in vitro test such as ImmunoCAP assay are performed simultaneously, results do not always coincide in some patients. Our objectives, therefore, were (1) to assess differences in allergic test results according to age group and (2) to establish appropriate guidelines for diagnosing mite allergy according to age. A total of 692 participants complaining of allergic rhinitis symptoms participated. Patients were divided according to age; the mean age was 32 years (range, 8-76 years). The SPT and ImmunoCAP assays were performed to detect allergies to house-dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae). The association between age and the result of each allergy test were examined, and a cutoff age for proper application of each test was than estimated. Three hundred thirty-six patients (48.6%) were allergic to D. pteronyssinus and 350 patients (50.6%) were allergic to D. farinae. In the case of D. pteronyssinus, SPT was proved to be more useful in detecting allergy for subjects 30 years old (p allergy tests according to age using true allergens. For patients >50 years of age, the ImmunoCAP was found to be the preferred method for detecting allergy to house-dust mites and for patients <30 years old, SPT is the recommended first choice.

  13. Enhanced Cysteinyl-Leukotriene Type 1 Receptor Expression in T Cells from House Dust Mite-Allergic Individuals following Stimulation with Der p

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryse Thivierge

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the potential for allergen to modulate T cell expression of the CysLT1 receptor and responsiveness to leukotrienes, peripheral blood mononuclear cells from house dust mite-allergic or nonallergic individuals were incubated with D. pteronyssinus allergen (Der p. Baseline CysLT1 expression was similar in both groups of donors, but Der p significantly enhanced CysLT1 expression in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells of only allergic individuals and induced enhanced responsiveness of CD4+ T cells to LTD4 in terms of calcium mobilisation. This effect was prevented by the CysLT1 antagonist MK571. Der p also induced IL-4 and IL-10 production, and neutralizing antibody to IL-4 prevented both the enhanced CysLT1 expression and the enhanced responsiveness of T cells to LTD4 induced by Der p. In allergic individuals, Der p also induced T cell proliferation and a Th2-biased phenotype. Our data suggest that, in allergen-sensitized individuals, exposure to allergen can enhance T cell expression of CysLT1 receptors through a mechanism involving IL-4 production. This, in turn, would induce CD4+ T cell responsiveness to cysteinyl-leukotrienes and Th2 cell activation.

  14. [Mites in mattress dust and relevant environmental factors in student dormitories in Shenzhen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Wu, Jie; Liu, Zhi-gang; Ran, Pi-xin; Gao, Qiao; Luo, Chun-hui; Ai, Mei

    2009-02-28

    Three hundred and eight mattress dust samples were collected from college dormitories in Shenzhen with a mite prevalence of 88% (271/308). From the samples, 6163 mites were isolated and identified. Dermatophagoides farinae, D. pteronyssinus and Blomia tropicalis were three most abundant species, occupying 29.7%, 21.7% and 17.9%, respectively. It was found that sex of the students, mattress cover (bamboo mat or bed sheet), with or without air conditioner installation, and daily using of air conditioner (8 h) had no significant influence on the mite prevalence (P>0.05). However, logistic regression analysis revealed that the risk of mite sensitization in male student dormitory was significantly lower than that in female dormitory (OR=0.55, P=0.038), and the risk of using bed sheets was significantly higher than using bamboo mats (OR=2.13, P=0.040). Both mite prevalence and the risk of mite sensitization significantly decreased with higher floor of the dormitory building.

  15. Enzymatic activity in extracts of allergy-causing astigmatid mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Marjorie S; Arlian, Larry G

    2006-11-01

    Many of the previously characterized allergens of house dust mites are known to be proteases, and this enzymatic activity is thought to contribute to their allergenicity. Other astigmatid mites, including stored-product mites and the ectoparasitic itch mite, Sarcoptes scabiei De Geer, are also known to be allergenic, but little or nothing is known about their enzymatic activities. The purpose of this study was to characterize the enzymatic activities present in extracts of the parasitic itch mite and from eight other species of free-living astigmatid mites. Extracts were prepared from one parasitic mite (S. scabiei), five stored-product mites (Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Troupeau), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Schrank), Blomia tropicalis Bronswijk, Cock, Oshima, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank), and Acarus siro L.), and three house dust mites [Dermatophagoidesfarinae Hughes, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Troussart), and Euroglyphus maynei (Cooreman) ]. ApiZym strips were used to screen for the presence of 19 individual enzyme activities. Digestion of nine other substrates was evaluated by spectrophotometric or electrophoretic methods. All mite extracts exhibited some form of phosphatase, esterase, aminopeptidase, and glycosidase activity, although their substrate specificities varied considerably. Itch mite extract did not possess detectable serine peptidase activity nor was it able to hydrolyze gelatin or casein, whereas all other mite extracts exhibited these activities. Storage mite extracts possessed enzymes capable of degrading the widest range of substrates, whereas itch mite extract had the most limited proteolytic capacity. Extracts of nine species of allergy-causing astigmatid mites contain wide and diverse repertoires of enzymatic activities. These catalytic activities may be important contributors to the induction and manifestation of inflammatory and immune responses to mites in patients.

  16. Gene silencing by RNA interference in the house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marr, Edward J; Sargison, Neil D; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Burgess, Stewart T G

    2015-12-01

    This is the first report of gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in the European house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Trouessart, 1897. Using a non-invasive immersion method first developed for the honey bee mite, Varroa destructor, a significant reduction in the expression of D. pteronyssinus glutathione-S-transferase mu-class 1 enzyme (DpGST-mu1) was achieved following overnight immersion in double stranded RNA encoding DpGST-mu1. Although no detrimental phenotypic changes were observed following silencing, this technique can now be used to address fundamental physiological questions and assess the potential therapeutic benefit in silencing D. pteronyssinus target genes in selected domestic situations of high human-mite interface.

  17. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Azima Laili Hanifah; Siti Hazar Awang; Ho Tze Ming; Suhaili Zainal Abidin; Maizatul Hashima Omar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the acaricidal effects of the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus leaf extract (lemongrass) and ethanolic Azadirachta indica leaf extract (neem) against house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus). Methods: Twenty-five adults mites were placed onto treated filter paper that is soaked with plant extract and been tested at different concentrations (50.00%, 25.00%, 12.50%, 6.25% and 3.13%) and exposure times (24hrs, 48hrs, 72hrs and 96 hrs). All treatments were replicated 7 times, and the experiment repeated once. The topical and contact activities of the two herbs were investigated.Results:Mortalities from lemongrass extract were higher than neem for both topical and contact activities. At 50 % concentration, both 24 hrs topical and contact exposures to lemongrass resulted in more than 91% mortalities for both species of mites. At the same concentration and exposure time, neem resulted in topical mortalities of 40.3% and 15.7% against D. pteronyssinus and D.farinae respectively; contact mortalities were 8.0% and 8.9% against the 2 mites, respectively. There was no difference in topical mortalities of D. pteronyssinus from exposure to concentrations of lemongrass and neem up to 12.50%; lemongrass was more effective than neem at the higher concentrations. Conclusions: Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  18. The efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mites respiratory allergy: results of a GA2LEN meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compalati, E; Passalacqua, G; Bonini, M; Canonica, G W

    2009-11-01

    Recent meta-analyses documented the efficacy and safety of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma (AA). Although SLIT appeared globally effective, the sub-analyses for single allergens provided uncertain results. This study is aimed to investigate the efficacy of SLIT with house dust mite (HDM) extracts in AR and AA through an updated reassessment of randomized controlled trials. Electronic databases were searched up to March 31, 2008, for randomized DBPC trials, assessing the efficacy of SLIT in AR and AA due to HDM sensitization. Outcomes were symptom scores and rescue medications use. For AR, eight studies fulfilled the selection criteria. A significant reduction in symptoms of AR (SMD -0.95; CI 95%-1.77 to -0.14 P = 0.02) was found in 194 patients (adults and children) receiving SLIT compared to 188 receiving placebo. For AA, with nine studies, similar results were found for symptoms (SMD -0.95; CI 95%-1.74 to -0.15 P = 0.02) in 243 patients (adults and children) receiving SLIT compared to 209 receiving placebo. A reduction in rescue medication use was found for AR (SMD -1.88; CI 95%-3.65 to -0.12 P = 0.04) in 89 patients, and AA (SMD -1.48; CI 95%-2.70 to -0.26 P = 0.02) in 202 patients. A relevant inter-study heterogeneity was detected. Promising evidence of efficacy for SLIT, using mite extract in allergic patients suffering from AR and AA, are herein shown. These findings suggest that more data are needed, derived from large-population-based high quality studies, and corroborated by objective outcomes, mainly for AA.

  19. The Roles of Malassezia Yeast and House Dust Mites in Atopic Dermatitis with Head and Neck Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Okan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the present study was to evaluate to the effects of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinea and Pityrosporum ovale allergens on atopic dermatitis and to compare the patients with and without head and neck involvement. Moreover, the effect of P. ovale on atopic dermatitis according to different geographic conditions was also determined. Methods: Thirty-one patients with atopic dermatitis, who were admitted to İstanbul Medical Faculty Dermatology Clinic, were enrolled. Skin prick tests were performed for P. ovale and house dust mites (D. pteronyssinus ve D. farinea Results: Ten patients (32.3% showed positive reaction to D. pteronyssinus, nine patients (29% to D. farinea, and nine patients (29% to P. ovale. Head and neck involvement was observed in 22 patients. Head and neck involvement was mostly seen in the patients in the first two decades of life (48%. Eczema was significantly more severe in the patients with head and neck involvement compared to that in those without (p500 IU/mL were significantly higher in the head and neck involvement group (p<0.05. Conclusion: Although the effect of P. ovale on atopic dermatitis in head and neck involvement could not be demonstrated in the present study, it should not be ignored. The results of skin prick test for P. ovale might change according to age and disease severity. Geographical variations of Malassezia species distribution should be kept in mind while evaluating test results. Moreover, it should be remembered that inhalan allergens are also triggering factor in some patients with atopic dermatitis with head and neck involvement.

  20. Proteolytic Activity Present in House-Dust-Mite Extracts Degrades ENA-78/CXCL5 and Reduces Neutrophil Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Keglowich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bronchial smooth muscle cells (BSMC are a major source of proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokines and chemokines, including VEGF and CXC-chemokines. CXC-chemokines act primarily on neutrophils, mediating their recruitment to and activation at the site of inflammation. In humans, house-dust mite (HDM allergens can cause asthmatic exacerbations and trigger an inflammatory response through protease-dependent mechanisms. Objective. We investigated the effect HDM extract on the release of pro-angiogenic and proinflammatory cytokines from BSMC. Methods. Human primary BSMC were stimulated with HDM extract in the absence or presence of fetal calf serum (FCS. Twenty angiogenic cytokines were detected by a specific antibody array and modified protein levels were confirmed by ELISA. Neutrophil migration was measured using a 96-well Boyden chamber. Results. ENA-78/CXCL5 protein levels in conditioned medium of BSMC stimulated with HDM extract were significantly reduced (n=10, P<0.05 but restored in the presence of 5% FCS. HDM extracts did not affect ENA-78/CXCL5 mRNA levels. Recombinant ENA-78/CXCL5 was degraded after incubation with HDM extracts (n=7, P<0.05 but restored after the addition of the serine protease AEBSF. Neutrophil migration towards recombinant ENA-78/CXCL5 was also reduced in the presence of HDM extract. Conclusion. HDM proteases degrade ENA-78/CXCL5. Thus exposure to HDM allergens may alter ENA-78/CXCL5 levels in the lungs and may affect angiogenesis and the inflammatory response in the airways of asthma patients.

  1. Mechanical ventilation and house-dust mites. Mekanisk ventilation og husstoevmider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsgaard, J. (Lungeklinikken, Aarhus Kommunehospital, Aarhus (DK))

    1991-01-01

    Nationally and internationally, it is recognised that the rational way to reduce inhabitant exposure to house-dust meters in a temperate climate is to reduce indoor absolute humidity to a level below 7.0 g/kg in the dry winter period. Consequently, it is medically recommended to install mechanical ventilation as environmental treatment of patients with chronic asthma caused by indoor exposure to house-dust mites. In this controlled investigation on the effect of mechanical ventilation on indoor climate conditions, it is documented that the establishment of a basic ventilation rate of 0.5 ach implies a significant reduction in the occurrence of house-dust mites in dwellings. Parallel with this effect, the rate of inside condensation on double-glazed windows was reduced, and the reported complaint rate of humid air, stuffy and dustry air and the indoor smelling sensation were reduced by a factor 2 to 7. No side effects relating to ventilation equipment were reported. It is conclued that the installation of mechanical ventilation in the treatment of mite allergy should be individualized with recommended air exchange rates adjusted to the actual size of dwelling and number of inhabitants. Furthermore care should be taken to avoid risk of condensation in the ventilation equipment. (author).

  2. A controlled intervention study concerning the effect of intended temperature rise on house dust mite load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidenius, Kirsten E; Hallas, Thorkil E; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2002-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, increased indoor temperature--producing a lower relative humidity--is associated with low house dust mite (HDM) load. Twenty-eight dwellings were allocated for either intervention (12/15 completed) or control (11/13 completed). In the intervention group, participants...... were asked to increase the bedroom temperature by at least 3 degrees C compared to the self-assessed temperature of the previous winter. Dust samples were repeatedly collected from mattress and floor, and bedroom temperature and relative humidity were recorded hourly throughout one year. Dust...... C). Groups turned out not to be comparable with respect to initial (self-assessed) bedroom temperature (lowest in the intervention group). There was a significant seasonal variation, with doubled Der 1 concentrations in dust collected in July-November compared to January-May samples. No effect...

  3. New house dust collection system and its use in a study of asthma in dust mite sensitive children in Raleigh, North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstrom, A.B.; Beck, M.A.; Henry, M.M.; Barnes, D.M.; Henderson, F.W.

    1993-01-01

    A prototype dust collection system, the House Dust Vacuum One (HDVI), was designed for use in a study to investigate the relationship between house dust mite antigen levels and the presence of asthma in dust mite sensitive children. The HDVI was designed for the collection of dust samples from all potentially relevant domestic substrates, with the primary sampling objective being the retrieval at least 100 mg of sample material. During the winter of 1991-92, dust samples were collected from six different microenvironments in the homes of 49 dust mite sensitive children living in the Raleigh, NC metropolitan area. In addition to the standard antigen immunoassay, the performance of the HDVI was assessed by conducting side by side comparison tests using two alternative antigen collection systems. Microenvironmental antigen concentrations were found to be lognormally distributed within the test homes and within each microenvironment. With the relatively large quantity of sample material collected and the ease with which the HDVI was able to collect samples from a wide variety of substrates, the new unit was determined to be well suited for surface dust and dust mite antigen collection studies.

  4. Vaccination against IL-33 Inhibits Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Inflammation in a House Dust Mite Model of Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lei

    Full Text Available In several clinical and experimental studies IL-33 and its receptor have been found to play important roles in the development of asthma and allergic airway inflammation. We evaluated the effects of vaccination against IL-33 in a mouse model of airway inflammation induced by house dust mite (HDM allergen. Balb/c mice received the IL-33 vaccine subcutaneously, followed by intranasal administration of HDM for up to six weeks. Vaccination against IL-33 induced high titers of specific anti-IL-33 IgG antibodies that inhibited HDM-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR in the conducting airways and tissue damping. The vaccination also attenuated the HDM-induced elevation in the numbers of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and suppressed the accumulation of inflammatory cells in the airways. Furthermore, the levels of IL-17A, IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP in lung tissue homogenates were reduced by vaccination against IL-33. These observations demonstrate that vaccination against IL-33 inhibits HDM-induced development of AHR, airway inflammation and production of inflammatory cytokines. The results also indicate an important role of IL-33 in the regulation of AHR of the distal lung compartments. Thus, administration of such a vaccine is potentially an effective therapeutic tool for treating allergic asthma.

  5. Dermatophagoides farinae allergens diversity identification by proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Su; Chen, Lingling; Long, Chengbo; Liu, Xiaoyu; Xu, Xuemei; Lu, Xingre; Rong, Mingqiang; Liu, Zhigang; Lai, Ren

    2013-07-01

    The most important indoor allergens for humans are house dust mites (HDM). Fourteen Dermatophagoides farinae allergens (Der f 1-3, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13-18, and 22) are reported although more than 30 allergens have been estimated in D. farinae. Seventeen allergens belonging to 12 different groups were identified by a procedure of proteomics combined with two-dimensional immunoblotting from D. farina extracts. Their sequences were determined by Edman degradation, mass spectrometry analysis, and cDNA cloning. Their allergenicities were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay inhibition tests, immunoblots, basophil activation test, and skin prick tests. Eight of them are the first report as D. farinae allergens. The procedure of using a proteomic approach combined with a purely discovery approach using sera of patients with broad IgE reactivity profiles to mite allergens was an effective method to investigate a more complete repertoire of D. farinae allergens. The identification of eight new D. farinae allergens will be helpful for HDM allergy diagnosis and therapy, especially for patients without response for HDM major allergens. In addition, the current work significantly extendedthe repertoire of D. farinae allergens.

  6. Allergens in indoor spaces; Allergene im Innenraumbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahn, U. [Universitaetskinderklinik, FU Berlin (Germany)

    1994-02-01

    Research into environmental factors and how they affect the health of children needs to address a number of questions: Does the environment play any part in this at all? What are the affecting environmental factors? What is the scope of specific environmental factors relative to an induction or an enhancement of a disease? The search for and identification of allergens has priority relative to allergic developments in children. The author describes major allergen sources, the pathogenesis of allergies, the analysis of allergens and a study conducted by several pediatric clinics on the development of allergies in infants and young children, while focussing on risk factor of house-dust mites and options to reduce the exposure to mite-associated allergens. (Uhe) [Deutsch] Bei der Erforschung von Umweltfaktoren und ihrem Einfluss auf die Gesundheit von Kindern interessieren mehrere Fragen: spielt die Umwelt ueberhaupt ein Rolle? Welche Umwelteinfluesse sind es, wie gross ist die krankheitsindzierende oder krankheitsverstaerkte Rolle bestimmter Umwelteinfluesse? Fuef die Allergieentwicklung bei Kindern stehen die Allergene an erster Stelle. Neben der Beschreibung der wichtigsten Allergiequellen und der Entstehung von Allergien und Analytik von Allergenen wird ausfuehrlich eine Studie verschiedener Kinderkliniken zur Allergieentwicklung im Kindesalter beschrieben. Dabei wird vor allem auf den Risikofaktor Hausstaubmilbe und die Moeglichkeiten der Reduzierung der Milbenallergenbelastung eingegangen. (Uhe)

  7. High rate of house dust mite sensitization in a shrimp allergic southern Ontario population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfield, Lana; Tsoulis, Michael William; Milio, Kirolos; Schnittke, Meghan; Kim, Harold

    2017-01-01

    Shrimp and house dust mite (HDM) allergies are common in Canadians. Often, both of these allergies occur in the same patient. This may be due to homology of tropomyosin or other potentially shared proteins. The aim of our study was to assess the frequency of house dust mite sensitization in a shrimp allergic Canadian population. We undertook a retrospective chart review of shrimp allergic patients at an outpatient allergy clinic in Kitchener, Ontario, Canada. Our primary endpoint was to assess for presence of HDM sensitization in this population. Patients were categorized into approximate quartiles. We assessed the severity of the shrimp reactions, correlated shrimp skin test size to HDM skin test size, and measured the proportion of patients with atopic symptoms. We identified 95 shrimp allergic patients who were tested for house dust mite. 86 (90.5%) of these patients had a positive skin test to HDM. Patients with a shrimp skin test ≥5 mm were 5.31 times (95% CI, 1.55-18.14; p = 0.008) more likely to exhibit a dust mite skin test ≥5 mm than patients with a shrimp skin test shrimp skin test between 10 and 18 mm having a larger HDM skin test were 3.93 times (95% CI 1.03-14.98, p = 0.045) the odds for a patient with a shrimp skin test size between 3 and 4 mm. We did not find a correlation between shrimp skin test size and shrimp reaction symptom grade (p = 0.301). In our Canadian patients, we found a large majority of shrimp allergic patients to be sensitized to HDM. We found that patients with a large skin test to shrimp were more likely to have a large skin test to HDM compared to those patients with a small skin test to shrimp. We did not find a correlation between shrimp skin test size and shrimp reaction symptom severity. Most of these patients had symptoms of rhinitis and/or asthma that may have been caused by house dust mite allergy.

  8. Innate immune responses to environmental allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, HF

    2006-01-01

    Aero-allergens, including plant pollens, house dust mite particles, fungal spores, and mycelium fragments, are continuously inhaled and deposited on the airway mucosa. These particles and their soluble components actively interact with innate recognition systems present in the mucosal layer (e.g., s

  9. A review on emerging frontiers of house dust mite and cockroach allergy research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S; Meher, B R

    Currently, mankind is afflicted with diversified health issues, allergies being a common, yet little understood malady. Allergies, the outcome of a baffled immune system encompasses myriad allergens and causes an array of health consequences, ranging from transient to recurrent and mild to fatal. Indoor allergy is a serious hypersensitivity in genetically-predisposed people, triggered by ingestion, inhalation or mere contact of allergens, of which mite and cockroaches are one of the most-represented constituents. Arduous to eliminate, these aeroallergens pose constant health challenges, mostly manifested as respiratory and dermatological inflammations, leading to further aggravations if unrestrained. Recent times have seen an unprecedented endeavour to understand the conformation of these allergens, their immune manipulative ploys and other underlying causes of pathogenesis, most importantly therapies. Yet a large section of vulnerable people is ignorant of these innocuous-looking immune irritants, prevailing around them, and continues to suffer. This review aims to expedite this field by a concise, informative account of seminal findings in the past few years, with particular emphasis on leading frontiers like genome-wide association studies (GWAS), epitope mapping, metabolomics etc. Drawbacks linked to current approaches and solutions to overcome them have been proposed. Copyright © 2016 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Mite-control activities of active constituents isolated from Pelargonium graveolens against house dust mites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2008-10-01

    The mite-control activities of materials obtained from Pelargonium graveolens oil against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus were examined using an impregnated fabric disk bioassay and were compared with those shown by commercial benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethylm- toluamide (DEET). Purification of the biologically active constituents from P. graveolens oil was done by silica gel chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The structures of the active components were analyzed by EI/MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(13)C COSYNMR, and DEPT-NMR spectra, and were identified as geraniol (C(10)H(18)O, MW 154.25, trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6- octadien-1-ol) and beta-citronellol (C(10)H(20)O, MW 156.27, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol). Based on the LD50 values, the most toxic compound was geraniol (0.26 microg/cm(2)), followed by beta-citronellol (0.28 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (10.03 microg/ cm(2)), and DEET (37.12 microg/cm(2)) against D. farinae. In the case of D. pteronyssinus, geraniol (0.28 microg/cm(2)) was the most toxic, followed by beta-citronellol (0.29 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (9.58 microg/cm(2)), and DEET (18.23 microg/cm(2)). These results suggest that D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus may be controlled more effectively by the application of geraniol and beta-citronellol than benzyl benzoate and DEET. Furthermore, geraniol and beta-citronellol isolated from P. graveolens could be useful for managing populations of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus.

  11. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole

    2014-04-01

    The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, is a major pest in egg production, feeding on laying hens. Widely used non-chemical control methods include desiccant dusts, although their persistence under field conditions is often short. Entomopathogenic fungi may also hold potential for mite control, but these fungi often take several days to kill mites. Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of 3 types of desiccant dusts, the fungus Beauveria bassiana and combinations of the two control agents against D. gallinae. There was significant synergistic interaction between each of the desiccant dusts and the fungus, with observed levels of mite mortality significantly higher than those expected for an additive effect (up to 38 % higher). Synergistic interaction between desiccant dust and fungus was found also when different application methods were used for the fungus and at different levels of relative humidity. Although increased levels of mortality were reached due to the synergistic interaction, the speed of lethal action was not influenced by combining the two components. The persistence of the control agents applied separately or in combination did not change over a period of 4 weeks. Overall, combinations of desiccant dusts and fungus conidia seem to hold considerable promise for future non-chemical control of poultry red mites.

  12. The 8-year follow-up of the PIAMA intervention study assessing the effect of mite-impermeable mattress covers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gehring, U.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304831344; de Jongste, J.C.; Kerkhof, M.; Oldewening, M.; Postma, D.; van Strien, R.T.; Wijga, A.H.; Willers, S.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304834696; Wolse, A.; Gerritsen, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/336510160; Smit, H.A.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exposure to high levels of house dust mite (HDM) allergens is associated with the development of allergic sensitization to HDM, a risk factor for the development of asthma, rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis. We studied the effect of an early intervention with mite-impermeable mattress co

  13. Occurrence of indoor allergens in Saudi Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, H.; Gravesen, S.; Lind, P.; Schwartz, B.; Ashoor, A.A.; Maglad, S.

    1985-06-01

    Investigations on indoor airborne allergens in Saudi Arabia were performed by mold cultures and dust analyses by counter-current immunoelectrophoresis. Twenty fungal genera were isolated, with Aspergillus as the most often encountered. Most of the dust-bound fungi found are ubiquitous and common. Antibodies against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, cat- cow- and rat dander, and Cynodon dactylon pollen were used in the dust analyses. Animal antigens were found in five of the ten dust samples. House dust mites were extraordinarily rare. Pollen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) was present in nearly all the samples, and in a concurrent clinical study this antigen was found to be the most common cause of perennial rhinitis.

  14. Skin reactivity to allergens in Rabigh Area, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohamad Salah M; Tayeb, Moufag; Amir, Elamir Mahmoud; Wali, Akram Mohammad; Mohamed, Fawaz Sidig

    2013-08-01

    This study determined the pattern of skin prick test reactivity to allergens in patients with airway allergy residing in Rabigh Area, based on data analysis of skin prick test results. Skin prick tests of 160 Saudi attended Al Nakheel Polyclinic between July, 2012 and April, 2013. Allergen extracts set was used to test them. Out 160 patients, 114 (71%) reacted to one or more allergens, who were 73 (64%) adults and 41(36 %) children. The majority of adults (17.8%) reacted to six allergens and children (19.5%) reacted to five ones. The most frequently reacting allergen was house dust mites followed by Candida albicans then Cladosporium spp. The maximum number of positive tests per patients was 13 in adults, compared to 10 in children. A significantly higher proportion of adults were reacting to house dust mites, Aspergillus and Penicillium. Sensitivity to allergens was common in patients with airway allergy residing in Rabigh area

  15. The prevalence of house dust mite (HDM) allergy and the use of HDM-impermeable bed covers in a primary care population of patients with persistent asthma in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, M P; van den Bemt, L; van der Mooren, F M; Muris, J W M; van Schayck, C P

    2005-08-01

    : House dust mite (HDM) allergen is one of the most common allergens to which asthma patients are sensitised. Prevalence of HDM allergy varies in the literature. Use of HDM-impermeable bed covers reduces exposure to HDM allergen. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HDM allergy in a primary care population of asthma patients, as well as the use of HDM-impermeable bed covers by these patients. : A random sample of asthma patients between 16 and 60 years old was taken from general practices. Allergy was assessed with a radio allegro sorbent test (RAST). A questionnaire was used to identify demographic characteristics and the actual use of bed covers. : 534 patients were invited and 160 patients participated. 53 patients not willing to participate were randomly selected to test the external validity of our findings. The sample was representative for the primary care asthma population. 48.8% of the asthma population was sensitised to HDM allergen. 25.6% of the HDM-allergic asthma patients were using HDM-impermeable bed covers. : Almost half of the patients with asthma were sensitised to HDM allergen. Only a minority of the patients used HDM-impermeable bed covers.

  16. Indoor determinants of dustborne allergens in Mexican homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Cadena, Leticia; Zeldin, Darryl C; Barraza-Villarreal, Albino; Sever, Michelle L; Sly, Peter D; London, Stephanie J; Escamilla-Nuñez, María Consuelo; Romieu, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens represents a significant risk factor for allergies and asthma in several parts of the world. In Mexico, few studies have evaluated indoor allergens, including cat, dog, and mouse allergens and the factors that predict their presence. This study evaluates the main environmental and household predictors of high prenatal allergen levels and multiple allergen exposures in a birth cohort from Mexico City. A cross-sectional study was conducted as part of a birth cohort study of 1094 infants recruited during pregnancy and followed until delivery. We collected dust samples in a subset of 264 homes and assessed environmental factors. Der p 1, Der f 1, dust mite group 2, Fel d 1, Can f 1, Rat n 1, Mus m 1, and Bla g 2 concentrations in dust samples were measured using immunoassays. To define detectable allergen levels, the lowest limits of detection for each allergen were taken as cutoff points. Overall allergen exposure was considered high when four or more allergens exceeded detectable levels in the same household. Logistic regression was used for predictive models. Eighty-five percent of homes had at least one allergen in dust over the detection limit, 52.1% had high exposure (four or more allergens above detectable limits), and 11.7% of homes had detectable levels for more than eight allergens. Der p 1, Der p 2, Mus m 1, and Fel d 1 were the most frequent allergens detected. Each allergen had both common and distinct predictors. The main predictors of a high multiple allergen index were the size of the home, pesticide use, mother's age, mother as homemaker, and season. Increased indoor environmental allergen exposure is mainly related to sociodemographic factors and household cleaning.

  17. The Effectiveness of Acupuncture Compared to Loratadine in Patients Allergic to House Dust Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bettina Hauswald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of acupuncture and its impact on the immune system in comparison to loratadine in the treatment of persistent allergic rhinitis caused by house dust mites. Methods. In this study, 24 patients suffering from persistent allergic rhinitis induced by house dust mites were treated either with acupuncture (n=15 or with loratadine (n=9. The evaluation of the data was based on the subjective and the objective rhinoconjunctivitis symptom scores, specific and total IgE, and interleukins (IL-4, IL-10, and IFN-γ as markers for the activity of Th1 or Th2 cells. Results. The treatments with acupuncture as well as with loratadine were considered effective in the patients’ subjective assessment, whereby the effect of the acupuncture tended to be assessed as more persistent after the end of treatment. A change in the specific or the total IgE was not detectable in either group. The interleukin profile showed the tendency of an increasing IL-10 value in the acupuncture group. The results of the study show that the effectiveness of acupuncture is comparable to that of loratadine. Conclusion. Acupuncture is a clinically effective form of therapy in the treatment of patients suffering from persistent allergic rhinitis. The results indicate the probability of an immunomodulatory effect.

  18. Neutralisation of interleukin-13 in mice prevents airway pathology caused by chronic exposure to house dust mite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate L Tomlinson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Repeated exposure to inhaled allergen can cause airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction that manifests as the symptoms of allergic asthma. We have investigated the role of the cytokine interleukin-13 (IL-13 in the generation and persistence of airway cellular inflammation, bronchial remodeling and deterioration in airway function in a model of allergic asthma caused by chronic exposure to the aeroallergen House Dust Mite (HDM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were exposed to HDM via the intranasal route for 4 consecutive days per week for up to 8 consecutive weeks. Mice were treated either prophylactically or therapeutically with a potent neutralising anti-IL-13 monoclonal antibody (mAb administered subcutaneously (s.c.. Airway cellular inflammation was assessed by flow cytometry, peribronchial collagen deposition by histocytochemistry and airway hyperreactivity (AHR by invasive measurement of lung resistance (R(L and dynamic compliance (C(dyn. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with an anti-IL-13 mAb significantly inhibited (P<0.05 the generation and maintenance of chronic HDM-induced airway cellular inflammation, peribronchial collagen deposition, epithelial goblet cell upregulation. AHR to inhaled methacholine was reversed by prophylactic but not therapeutic treatment with anti-IL-13 mAb. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with anti-IL-13 mAb significantly reversed (P<0.05 the increase in baseline R(L and the decrease in baseline C(dyn caused by chronic exposure to inhaled HDM. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data demonstrate that in a model of allergic lung disease driven by chronic exposure to a clinically relevant aeroallergen, IL-13 plays a significant role in the generation and persistence of airway inflammation, remodeling and dysfunction.

  19. [Analysis of adverse reactions induced by subcutaneous immunotherapy against dust mite allergy in 234 cases with allergic rhinitis and asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-rong; Wang, Xiao-ning; Jiang, Han-dan; Wang, Qiong-yan; Li, Ying-chun; Lin, Jian; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Hai-lin; Li, Chang-chong

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the incidence of local reactions (LRs) and systemic reactions (SRs) of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and to analyze the potential risk factors of such reactions in Chinese population. This is a retrospective study on 234 dust mite sensitized patients with allergic rhinitis and asthma who received allergen immunotherapy in our hospital from 2003 to 2010. Chart review was conducted to capture clinical data of reactions to immunotherapy. Parameters included signs and symptoms, the onset of reaction, and interventions in treating such reactions, particularly, the administration of epinephrine (EPI) and adjustment of vaccine dosage due to LRs and SRs. The 234 patients received a total of 7679 injections. Among them, 4973 LRs (64.8%) and 235 SRs (3.1%) were observed in 67 patients (28.6% of all patients). SRs included respiratory symptoms (205 events, 88.4%) and cutaneous symptoms (31.5%). Of the total of 235 SR events, 212 (90.2%) were presented as mild SRs and 23 (9.8%) were in severe SR category (grade III and grade IV, EAACI grading system). Overall, severe SRs accounted for 0.3% of total injections. Seventeen of the 23 SR events required epinephrine treatment (0.2% of total injections). Of the 67 patients, 61 completed the course of treatment after dose adjustment; 36 patients had their doses decreased prior to further advancing to target dose. Nineteen subjects tolerated splitting two injections at 30 minutes interval. Six patients advanced the dose based on protocol and another 6 had to stop immunotherapy. Most of the SRs (77.4%) occurred during the maintenance phase of immunotherapy. The levels of TIgE, SIgE D1 and SIgE D2 were found to be significantly higher in patients with SRs comparing to patients without SRs (P < 0.05). SRs more commonly occurred in patients with age less than 14 years than their older counterparts (95.5% vs. 85.6%, OR = 3.58, 95%CI = 1.040 - 12.322, P < 0.01). The incidence of SRs were significantly higher in asthma

  20. Mite allergy and mite exposure in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallas, Thorkil E; Gislason, Thorarinn; Gislason, David

    2011-01-01

    In this overview of investigations into mite allergy in Iceland and of the current understanding of the sources of exposure, 2 major categories of mite-induced allergies were encountered. The first was house dust mite allergy due to house dust mites from unknown sources, and the second was barn allergy caused by mites connected with the degradation of stored hay. Characteristics of these diseases have been obtained from surveys where skin prick tests were made with commercially available extracts of mites and from zoological investigations where mites had been found in different kinds of dusts relevant for the tested persons. The investigations uncovered a discrepancy between the capital Reykjavik and countryside farms. While the frequencies of sensitization to house dust mites and barn mites are rather similar in the capital area and in the rural area, the exposure to these mites is unexpectedly low in the capital area. Thus, sensitization appears to take place preferably in the rural area.

  1. Differences in the presence of allergens among several types of indoor environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Brunetto

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to indoor allergens can occur both at home and in public places such as schools and workplaces. To investigate and compare the presence of indoor allergens in different kind of environments (schools, offices and homes, dust samples were collected from furniture, desks, mattresses and floors with a standardized procedure. Samples were analyzed for Der p 1, Der f 1, Mite group 2 (mites and Fel d 1(cat by monoclonal antibody ELISA assay. Mite allergens were detected with low frequencies in schools and workplaces and with high frequency in homes. Fel d 1 was found with high frequency in every examined environment. Homes rather than public places can represent the environment where people can easier incur in mite allergy. All environments could be at risk for cat allergen exposure.

  2. Indoor allergens and respiratory tract diseases in children; Innenraumallergene und Atemwegserkrankungen bei Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahn, U. [FU Berlin, Universitaetsklinikum Rudolf Virchow, Kinderklinik und Poliklinik (Germany)

    1991-07-01

    The author focuses on the analyses of allergens associated with house-dust mites. Three analysis methods are discussed: immuno-chemical dust analyses, histamine release by basophilic leukocytes, determination of guanine content of dust as evidence of mite faeces. Different methods of mite control are discussed. (VHE) [Deutsch] Der Vortrag beschaeftigt sich vor allem mit der Analyse von Allergenen, die im Zusammenhang mit Hausstaubmilben stehen. Dabei stehen drei Analysemethoden im Mittelpunkt: immunchemische Staubanalysen, Histaminfreisetzung aus basophilen Leukozyten und die Bestimmung des Guaningehaltes des Staubes als Hinweis auf die Anwesenheit von Milbenkot. Daneben werden auch die verschiedenen Moeglichkeiten der Milbenvernichtung angesprochen. (VHE)

  3. Effects of the fungus Aspergillus penicillioides on the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus: an experimental re-evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, D B; Hart, B J; Douglas, A E

    1993-07-01

    In this report the widely-held view that house dust mites benefit from fungal contamination of the dietary substratum is re-examined. The performance of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) is documented over two successive generations in the presence or absence of the xerophilic fungus Aspergillus penicillioides (Hyphomycetales: Moniliaceae). This fungus reduced survival, development rate, adult length and fecundity of D. pteronyssinus. Detrimental effects of A. penicillioides were proportional to the fungal density. Despite the antagonistic effects of A. penicillioides, a requirement for the fungus was indicated by the poor performance of fungus-free mites in the second generation; sustained culture of D. pteronyssinus in the absence of fungi is probably not possible. It is suggested that fungi may alter the particulate nature of the substratum to the detriment of house dust mites, but also provide micronutrients deficient in the diet.

  4. Acaricidal activities of some essential oils and their monoterpenoidal constituents against house dust mite, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Acari: Pyroglyphidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SAAD El-Zemity; HUSSIEN Rezk; SAHER Farok; AHMED Zaitoon

    2006-01-01

    The acaricidal activities of fourteen essential oils and fourteen of their major monoterpenoids were tested against house dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus. Five concentrations were used over two different time intervals 24 and 48 h under laboratory conditions. In general, it was noticed that the acaricidal effect based on LC50 of either essential oils or monoterpenoids against the mite was time dependant. The LC50 values were decreased by increasing of exposure time. Clove,matrecary, chenopodium, rosemary, eucalyptus and caraway oils were shown to have high activity. As for the monoterpenoids,cinnamaldehyde and chlorothymol were found to be the most effective followed by citronellol. This study suggests the use of the essential oils and their major constituents as ecofriendly biodegradable agents for the control of house dust mite, D. pteronyssinus.

  5. Crystal Structures of Mite Allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1 Reveal Differences in Surface-Exposed Residues that May Influence Antibody Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Chapman, Martin D.; Vailes, Lisa D.; Stura, Enrico A.; Saint-Remy, Jean-Marie; Minor, Wladek; Pomés, Anna; (INDOOR Bio.); (CEAS); (Leuven); (UV)

    2009-12-01

    The Group 1 mite allergens, Der f 1 and Der p 1, are potent allergens excreted by Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, respectively. The human IgE antibody responses to the Group 1 allergens show more cross-reactivity than the murine IgG antibody responses which are largely species-specific. Here, we report the crystal structure of the mature form of Der f 1, which was isolated from its natural source, and a new, high-resolution structure of mature recombinant Der p 1. Unlike Der p 1, Der f 1 is monomeric both in the crystalline state and in solution. Moreover, no metal binding is observed in the structure of Der f 1, despite the fact that all amino acids involved in Ca{sup 2+} binding in Der p 1 are completely conserved in Der f 1. Although Der p 1 and Der f 1 share extensive sequence identity, comparison of the crystal structures of both allergens revealed structural features which could explain the differences in murine and human IgE antibody responses to these allergens. There are structural differences between Der f 1 and Der p 1 which are unevenly distributed on the allergens' surfaces. This uneven spatial arrangement of conserved versus altered residues could explain both the specificity and cross-reactivity of antibodies against Der f 1 and Der p 1.

  6. Feces Derived Allergens of Tyrophagus putrescentiae Reared on Dried Dog Food and Evidence of the Strong Nutritional Interaction between the Mite and Bacillus cereus Producing Protease Bacillolysins and Exo-chitinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erban, Tomas; Rybanska, Dagmar; Harant, Karel; Hortova, Bronislava; Hubert, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781) is an emerging source of allergens in stored products and homes. Feces proteases are the major allergens of astigmatid mites (Acari: Acaridida). In addition, the mites are carriers of microorganisms and microbial adjuvant compounds that stimulate innate signaling pathways. We sought to analyze the mite feces proteome, proteolytic activities, and mite-bacterial interaction in dry dog food (DDF). Proteomic methods comprising enzymatic and zymographic analysis of proteases and 2D-E-MS/MS were performed. The highest protease activity was assigned to trypsin-like proteases; lower activity was assigned to chymotrypsin-like proteases, and the cysteine protease cathepsin B-like had very low activity. The 2D-E-MS/MS proteomic analysis identified mite trypsin allergen Tyr p3, fatty acid-binding protein Tyr p13 and putative mite allergens ferritin (Grp 30) and (poly)ubiquitins. Tyr p3 was detected at different positions of the 2D-E. It indicates presence of zymogen at basic pI, and mature-enzyme form and enzyme fragment at acidic pI. Bacillolysins (neutral and alkaline proteases) of Bacillus cereus symbiont can contribute to the protease activity of the mite extract. The bacterial exo-chitinases likely contribute to degradation of mite exuviae, mite bodies or food boluses consisting of chitin, including the peritrophic membrane. Thus, the chitinases disrupt the feces and facilitate release of the allergens. B. cereus was isolated and identified based on amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA and motB genes. B. cereus was added into high-fat, high-protein (DDF) and low-fat, low-protein (flour) diets to 1 and 5% (w/w), and the diets palatability was evaluated in 21-day population growth test. The supplementation of diet with B. cereus significantly suppressed population growth and the suppressive effect was higher in the high-fat, high-protein diet than in the low-fat, low-protein food. Thus, B. cereus has to coexist with the mite in

  7. Feces derived allergens of Tyrophagus putrescentiae reared on dried dog food and evidence of the strong nutritional interaction between the mite and Bacillus cereus producing protease bacillolysins and exo-chitinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas eErban

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781 is an emerging source of allergens in stored products and homes. Feces proteases are the major allergens of astigmatid mites (Acari: Acaridida. In addition, the mites are carriers of microorganisms and microbial adjuvant compounds that stimulate innate signaling pathways. We sought to analyze the mite feces proteome, proteolytic activities and mite-bacterial interaction in dry dog food. Proteomic methods comprising enzymatic and zymographic analysis of proteases and 2D-E-MS/MS were performed. The highest protease activity was assigned to trypsin-like proteases; lower activity was assigned to chymotrypsin-like proteases, and the cysteine protease cathepsin B-like had very low activity. The 2D-E-MS/MS proteomic analysis identified mite trypsin allergen Tyr p3, fatty acid-binding protein Tyr p13 and putative mite allergens ferritin (Grp 30 and (polyubiquitins. Tyr p3 was detected at different positions of the 2D-E. It indicates presence of zymogen at basic pI, and mature-enzyme form and enzyme fragment at acidic pI. Bacillolysins (neutral and alkaline proteases of Bacillus cereus symbiont can contribute to the protease activity of the mite extract. The bacterial exo-chitinases likely contribute to degradation of mite exuviae, mite bodies or food boluses consisting of chitin, including the peritrophic membrane. Thus, the chitinases disrupt the feces and facilitate release of the allergens. B. cereus was isolated and identified based on amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA and motB genes. B. cereus was added into high-fat, high-protein (dry dog food and low-fat, low-protein (flour diets to 1% and 5% (w/w, and the diets palatability was evaluated in 21-day population growth test. The supplementation of diet with B. cereus significantly suppressed population growth and the suppressive effect was higher in the high-fat, high-protein diet than in the low-fat, low-protein food. Thus, B. cereus has to coexist

  8. Effective treatment of house dust mite-induced allergic rhinitis with 2 doses of the SQ HDM SLIT-tablet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demoly, Pascal; Emminger, Waltraud; Rehm, Dorte

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The SQ HDM SLIT-tablet (ALK) has been developed for treatment of house dust mite (HDM)-induced respiratory allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: This trial investigated the efficacy and safety of the SQ HDM SLIT-tablet in adults with moderate-to-severe HDM-induced allergic rhinitis (AR). METHODS...

  9. ADAM10 mediates the house dust mite-induced release of chemokine ligand CCL20 by airway epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, S.; Rozeveld, D.; Jonker, M. R.; Bischoff, R.; van Oosterhout, A. J.; Heijink, I. H.

    2015-01-01

    Background: House dust mite (HDM) acts on the airway epithelium to induce airway inflammation in asthma. We previously showed that the ability of HDM to induce allergic sensitization in mice is related to airway epithelial CCL20 secretion. Objective: As a disintegrin and metalloprotease (ADAM)s have

  10. Comparison of the Allergic Responses Induced by PeniciIlium chrysogenum and House Dust Mite Extracts in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    A report by the Institute of Medicine suggested that more research is needed to better understand mold effects on allergic disease, particularly asthma development. We compared the ability of the fungal Penicillium chrysogenum (PCE) and house dust mite (HDM) extracts to induce al...

  11. Synergistic interaction between the fungus Beauveria bassiana and desiccant dusts applied against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenberg, Tove; Kilpinen, Ole Østerlund

    2014-01-01

    , but these fungi often take several days to kill mites. Laboratory experiments were carried out to study the efficacy of 3 types of desiccant dusts, the fungus Beauveria bassiana and combinations of the two control agents against D. gallinae. There was significant synergistic interaction between each...

  12. Prevalence of sensitization to the storage mites Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Lepidoglyphus destructor in allergic patients with different degrees of sensitization to the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S; Niemeijer, NR; Hovenga, H; de Monchy, JGR; Dubois, AEJ; Kauffman, HF

    The prevalence of sensitization to the storage mites Acarus sire (AS), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (TP), and Lepidoglyphus destructor (LD) was studied in 250 sera of patients with different degrees of sensitization to the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) by measuring IgE binding to

  13. Prevalence of sensitization to the storage mites Acarus siro, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, and Lepidoglyphus destructor in allergic patients with different degrees of sensitization to the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heide, S; Niemeijer, NR; Hovenga, H; de Monchy, JGR; Dubois, AEJ; Kauffman, HF

    1998-01-01

    The prevalence of sensitization to the storage mites Acarus sire (AS), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (TP), and Lepidoglyphus destructor (LD) was studied in 250 sera of patients with different degrees of sensitization to the house-dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) by measuring IgE binding to e

  14. IgE Abs to Der p 1 and Der p 2 as diagnostic markers of house dust mite allergy as defined by a bronchoprovocation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Takafumi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Lidholm, Jonas; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Sekiya, Kiyoshi; Tsuburai, Takahiro; Maeda, Yuji; Mori, Akio; Taniguchi, Masami; Hasegawa, Maki; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the clinical usefulness of measuring the levels of IgE to allergen components from house dust mites (HDMs) in the diagnosis of genuine HDM allergy. To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of measuring levels of serum IgE antibodies (Abs) to allergen components from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) as a predictor of immediate asthmatic response (IAR) to bronchoprovocation, we studied 55 DP-sensitized asthmatic patients who underwent a bronchoprovocation test using crude DP extract. The levels of IgE Abs to crude DP, nDer p 1, rDer p 2, and rDer p 10 in patients who showed IAR (n = 41) were compared with those in patients who showed no IAR (n = 14). While the frequencies of positivity for IgE Abs to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 among the entire study population were 89 and 86%, respectively, all patients with IAR tested positive for both of them with high IgE concentrations. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 as predictors of IAR were 0.913 and 0.906, respectively. The specificity of IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 was higher than IgE to crude DP even at low cut-off points. IgE to nDer p 1 and/or rDer p 2 was highly predictive of allergen-induced IAR. These findings validate the clinical usefulness of measuring the levels of IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 as a diagnostic tool for genuine HDM allergy. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Repellent activity of desiccant dusts and conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana when tested against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) in laboratory experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2016-11-01

    Desiccant dusts and entomopathogenic fungi have previously been found to hold potential against the poultry red mite, which is an important pest in egg production and notoriously difficult to control. Both control agents may cause repellence in other arthropods and potentially also influence control levels adversely when used against the poultry red mite. Five desiccant dust products with good efficacy against the poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae caused avoidance behavior in mites when tested in bioassays. The repellent activity was correlated with efficacy, which was found to depend on both dose and relative humidity (RH). However, one desiccant dust was significantly less repellent compared to other dusts with similar levels of efficacy. Further, dry conidia of the fungus Beauveria bassiana were also shown to be repellent to poultry red mites, both when applied on its own and when admixed with a low dose of the desiccant dust Diamol. The pick-up of desiccant dust particles and fungus conidia from treated surfaces by mites did not differ depending on RH, whereas the overall efficacy of the two control agents were significantly higher at 75 than at 85 % RH. In addition, the combined effect of the two substances was synergistic when tested in a bioassay where mites could choose whether to cross a treated surface. This is the first time a member of Acari has been shown to be repelled by desiccant dusts and by conidia of an entomopathogenic fungus.

  16. Beneficial cross-protection of allergen-specific immunotherapy on airway eosinophilia using unrelated or a partial repertoire of allergen(s) implicated in experimental feline asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinero, Carol; Lee-Fowler, Tekla; Chang, Chee-Hoon; Cohn, Leah; Declue, Amy

    2012-06-01

    The study hypothesis was that in experimentally asthmatic cats rush immunotherapy (RIT) using allergens not completely matched with sensitizing allergen(s) would at least partially attenuate the asthmatic phenotype and modulate the aberrant immune response. In phase I, cats sensitized to Bermuda grass allergen (BGA), house dust mite allergen (HDMA) or placebo received BGA RIT. In phase II, cats dually sensitized to BGA and HDMA received RIT using BGA, HDMA or placebo. Efficacy of RIT was assessed using percentage bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) eosinophils. Additionally, a variety of immunologic assays were performed. Eosinophilic airway inflammation significantly decreased over time in asthmatic cats given RIT using sensitizing allergen or unrelated allergen (P<0.001). In dually sensitized cats, single allergen RIT but not placebo reduced airway eosinophilia (P=0.038). Differences in allergen-specific lymphocyte proliferation, in the number of IL-10 producing cells and in the percentage T regulatory cells were detected between asthmatic cats getting RIT and controls. Cross-protection manifested by reduced airway eosinophilia was noted in cats treated with RIT allergens which did not completely match allergen used in asthma induction. However, the mechanism of immunologic tolerance may differ when improperly matched allergens to the sensitizing allergens are used in RIT.

  17. Aero-allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia based on 1000 intradermal skin tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S; Bettenay, S V; Tideman, L

    2000-06-01

    To determine the most relevant aero-allergens involved in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia and provide information about these aero-allergens to the general practitioner. Dogs presented to the Animal Skin & Allergy Clinic with history and clinical signs of atopic dermatitis were injected intradermally with 38 different allergens and negative and positive control. Intradermal skin tests in 1000 dogs were retrospectively evaluated. One third of all patients reacted to the house dust mite Dermatophagoides farinae. Allergens reacting in more than 15% of the patients were wheat (Triticum aestivum), sweet vernal (Anthoxanthum odoratum), English couch (Agropyron repens), yellow dock (Rumex crispus), Mexican tea (Chenopodium ambrosioides), plantain (Plantago lanceolata), melaleuca (Melaleuca quinquenervia) and peppercorn (Schimus spp). House dust mites are the most common allergens in canine atopic dermatitis in southeastern Australia and D farinae is involved most frequently. However, a number of grass, weed and tree pollens also are involved regularly.

  18. Effect of a commercial air ionizer on dust mites Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae (Acari:Pyroglyphidae) in the laboratory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suhaili Zainal Abidin; Ho Tze Ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the short and long term efficacy of a commercial air ionizer in killing Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (D. pteronyssinus) and Dermatophagoides farinae (D. farinae) mites. Methods: The effect of a commercial ionizer on D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae was evaluated in the laboratory, using a specially designed test. Mortality was assessed after 6, 16 and 24 hours for direct exposure and after 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 hours for exposure in simulated mattress. New batches of mites were used for each exposure time. Results: LT50 for direct exposure of ionizer was 10 hours for D. pteronyssinus and 18 hours for D. farinae. The LT50 for exposure in simulated mattress was 132 hours or 5.5 days for D. pteronyssinus and 72 hours or 3 days for D. farinae. LT95 for direct exposure of ionizer was 36 hours for D. pteronyssinus and D. farinae. Meanwhile, the LT95 for exposure in simulated mattress was 956 hours or 39.8 days for D. pteronyssinus and 403 hours or 16.8 days for D. farinae. Conclusions:This study demonstrates the increasing mite mortalities with increasing exposure time of a commercial ionizer and suggests that negative ions produced by an ionizer kill dust mites and can be used to reduce natural mite populations on exposed surfaces such as floors, clothes, curtains, etc. However, there is reduced efficacy on mites inside stuffed materials as in mattresses and furniture.

  19. Allergen micro-array detection of specific IgE-reactivity in Chinese allergy patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yi-wu; ZHONG Nan-shan; Michael D Spangfort; LI Jing; LAI Xu-xin; ZHAO De-yu; LIU Xiao-fan; LIN Xiao-ping; Birgitte Gjesing; Paola Palazzo; Adriano Mari

    2011-01-01

    Background Allergen micro-arrays are powerful tools for screening of serum IgE-reactivity.In this study allergen micro-arrays were used to identify dominating IgE-binding allergens and cross-reactivity patterns among selected Chinese allergy patients.Methods The study was conducted using patient sera from the cities of Guangzhou,Nanjing,Chengdu and Shenyang.In total 100 sera with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p) specific IgE-levels higher than 50 kU/L were selected for testing against 103 individual allergens.Results Among 100 selected patients, 95% showed IgE-reactivity towards house-dust mite allergens Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f) 1,Der f 2 and Der p 2 and 94% were IgE positive against Der p 1,and 60% of sera contained IgE reacting against allergen Euroglyphus maynei (Eur m) 2.IgE against cat allergen,Felisdomesticus (Fel d)1,was seen in 20%.Only 2% showed specific IgE-reactivity to Der p 10,a panallergen belonging to the tropomyosin family.Serum IgE-reactivity towards other allergens was in general low.IgE-reactivity against pollen allergens showed geographic differences.Conclusions This study clearly confirms that group 1 and group 2 are major allergens of house dust mites.These selected house-dust mite allergy patients are close to being mono-sensitized.Der p 10 is not an important allergen for cross-reactivity.Specific IgE-sensitization towards pollen allergens is low in southern China compared to other regions.The prevalence of food and stinging insect allergens known to give rise to IgE-mediated cross-reactivity is 2% or less.

  20. Animal allergens and their presence in the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eZahradnik

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to animal allergens is a major risk factor for sensitization and allergic diseases. Besides mites and cockroaches, the most important animal allergens are derived from mammals. Cat and dog allergies affect the general population; whereas, allergies to rodents or cattle is an occupational problem. Exposure to animal allergens is not limited to direct contact to animals. Based on their aerodynamic properties, mammalian allergens easily become airborne, attach to clothing and hair, and can be spread from one environment to another. For example, the major cat allergen Fel d 1 was frequently found in homes without pets and in public buildings, including schools, day care centers and hospitals. Allergen concentrations in a particular environment showed high variability depending on numerous factors.Assessment of allergen exposure levels is a stepwise process that involves dust collection, allergen quantification and data analysis. Whereas a number of different dust sampling strategies are used, ELISA assays have prevailed in the last years as the standard technique for quantification of allergen concentrations. This review focuses on allergens arising from domestic, farm and laboratory animals and describes the ubiquity of mammalian allergens in the human environment. It includes an overview of exposure assessment studies carried out in different indoor settings (homes, schools, workplaces using numerous sampling and analytical methods and summarizes significant factors influencing exposure levels. However, methodological differences among studies have contributed to the variability of the findings and make comparisons between studies difficult. Therefore, a general standardization of methods is needed and recommended.

  1. Reduction of the number of major representative allergens: from clinical testing to 3-dimensional structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Liu, Xueting; Huang, Yuyi; Zou, Zehong; Chen, Huifang; Lai, He; Zhang, Lida; Wu, Qiurong; Zhang, Junyan; Wang, Shan; Zhang, Jianguo; Tao, Ailin; Sun, Baoqing

    2014-01-01

    Vast amounts of allergen sequence data have been accumulated, thus complicating the identification of specific allergenic proteins when performing diagnostic allergy tests and immunotherapy. This study aims to rank the importance/potency of the allergens so as to logically reduce the number of allergens and/or allergenic sources. Meta-analysis of 62 allergenic sources used for intradermal testing on 3,335 allergic patients demonstrated that in southern China, mite, sesame, spiny amaranth, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and house dust account for 88.0% to 100% of the observed positive reactions to the 62 types of allergenic sources tested. The Kolmogorov-Smironov Test results of the website-obtained allergen data and allergen family featured peptides suggested that allergen research in laboratories worldwide has been conducted in parallel on many of the same species. The major allergens were reduced to 21 representative allergens, which were further divided into seven structural classes, each of which contains similar structural components. This study therefore has condensed numerous allergenic sources and major allergens into fewer major representative ones, thus allowing for the use of a smaller number of allergens when conducting comprehensive allergen testing and immunotherapy treatments.

  2. Reduction of the Number of Major Representative Allergens: From Clinical Testing to 3-Dimensional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Vast amounts of allergen sequence data have been accumulated, thus complicating the identification of specific allergenic proteins when performing diagnostic allergy tests and immunotherapy. This study aims to rank the importance/potency of the allergens so as to logically reduce the number of allergens and/or allergenic sources. Meta-analysis of 62 allergenic sources used for intradermal testing on 3,335 allergic patients demonstrated that in southern China, mite, sesame, spiny amaranth, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and house dust account for 88.0% to 100% of the observed positive reactions to the 62 types of allergenic sources tested. The Kolmogorov-Smironov Test results of the website-obtained allergen data and allergen family featured peptides suggested that allergen research in laboratories worldwide has been conducted in parallel on many of the same species. The major allergens were reduced to 21 representative allergens, which were further divided into seven structural classes, each of which contains similar structural components. This study therefore has condensed numerous allergenic sources and major allergens into fewer major representative ones, thus allowing for the use of a smaller number of allergens when conducting comprehensive allergen testing and immunotherapy treatments.

  3. Distribution and abundance of house dust mites, Dermatophagoides spp., in different ecological localities in Esna City, Kena Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, M K; Rifaat, M M

    1997-08-01

    The distribution and abundance of house dust mites, Dermatophagoides spp. were studied in July, September and November, 1995 in three different localities in Esna City, Kena Governorate, Upper Egypt. During these months, 15 houses were sampled in each locality. 87% of riverside houses were infested with mites where D. pteronyssinus dominated (80%) over D. farinae. Sixty percent of the valley houses sampled were infested, where D. farinae was dominant (66%). Densities of both Dermatophagoides spp., were considerably higher in riverside than in valley houses. Live mites were not found in the lightly infested houses sampled in the desert area (54% positive). Relative humidity, which varied in houses located in different climatic localities in Esna City, was noted to be the principal limiting factor influencing the distribution and abundance of both species. Temperature did not appear to be an important factor influencing the distribution and abundance.

  4. HLA-DR polymorphism modulates response to house dust mites in a transgenic mouse model of airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, G; Tilahun, A Y; Iijima, K; David, C S; Kita, H; Juhn, Y J

    2011-06-01

    We and others have reported that HLA-DRB1*03 is associated with childhood asthma. To extend this observation and to prove this association, we sensitized and challenged either HLA-DR2 (HLA-DRB1*1502) or HLA-DR3 (HLA-DRB1*0301) transgenic mice with house-dust mite extract. Inflammatory cell counts and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid between HLA-DR3 and DR2 mice were compared. HLA-DR3 transgenic mice had significantly elevated eosinophil counts, Interleukin-4 and Interleukin-13 levels in the BAL fluid but not interferron gamma-γ. Thus, our study suggests that HLA-DRB1*0301 plays an important role in mounting a Th2-predominant immune response to house dust mite and Th2-type inflammation in the lung. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  5. Allergen extracts for immunotherapy: to mix or not to mix?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nony, Emmanuel; Martelet, Armelle; Jain, Karine; Moingeon, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is established as a curative treatment for allergic rhinitis, asthma, as well as insect venom allergy. AIT is based on the administration of natural allergen extracts via the subcutaneous or sublingual routes to reorient the immune system towards tolerogenic mechanisms. In this regard, since many patients are poly-allergic, mixtures of allergen extracts are often used with a potential risk to cause allergen degradation, thereby affecting treatment efficacy. Herein, we discuss the advantages and drawbacks of mixing homologous (i.e., related) or heterogeneous (i.e., unrelated) allergen extracts. We provide evidence for incompatibilities between mixes of grass pollen and house dust mite extracts containing bodies and feces, and summarize critical points to consider when mixing allergen extracts for AIT.

  6. [Ecological data on house dust mites in the city of Semipalatinsk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iagofarov, F F; Galikeev, Kh L

    1987-01-01

    Distribution of mites of the genus Dermatophagoides in flats of allergic patients depending on the type of the building structure, relative air humidity and season of the year was studied. The mites are most frequently encountered in houses of wood or adobe with high air humidity. Autumn is an optimum season for reproduction of mites.

  7. Lung-homing of endothelial progenitor cells and airway vascularization is only partially dependant on eosinophils in a house dust mite-exposed mouse model of allergic asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirooya Sivapalan

    Full Text Available Asthmatic responses involve a systemic component where activation of the bone marrow leads to mobilization and lung-homing of progenitor cells. This traffic may be driven by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1, a potent progenitor chemoattractant. We have previously shown that airway angiogenesis, an early remodeling event, can be inhibited by preventing the migration of endothelial progenitor cells (EPC to the lungs. Given intranasally, AMD3100, a CXCR4 antagonist that inhibits SDF-1 mediated effects, attenuated allergen-induced lung-homing of EPC, vascularization of pulmonary tissue, airway eosinophilia and development of airway hyperresponsiveness. Since SDF-1 is also an eosinophil chemoattractant, we investigated, using a transgenic eosinophil deficient mouse strain (PHIL whether EPC lung accumulation and lung vascularization in allergic airway responses is dependent on eosinophilic inflammation.Wild-type (WT BALB/c and eosinophil deficient (PHIL mice were sensitized to house dust mite (HDM using a chronic exposure protocol and treated with AMD3100 to modulate SDF-1 stimulated progenitor traffic. Following HDM challenge, lung-extracted EPCs were enumerated along with airway inflammation, microvessel density (MVD and airway methacholine responsiveness (AHR.Following Ag sensitization, both WT and PHIL mice exhibited HDM-induced increase in airway inflammation, EPC lung-accumulation, lung angiogenesis and AHR. Treatment with AMD3100 significantly attenuated outcome measures in both groups of mice. Significantly lower levels of EPC and a trend for lower vascularization were detected in PHIL versus WT mice.This study shows that while allergen-induced lung-homing of endothelial progenitor cells, increased tissue vascularization and development lung dysfunction can occur in the absence of eosinophils, the presence of these cells worsens the pathology of the allergic response.

  8. [Risk factors for recurrent wheezing in infants and young children suffering from dust mite allergy after their first wheezing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yan-Zhen; Cai, Meng-Yun; Zhang, Bao-Zhong; Zhou, Bing-Xin; Chen, Rou; Fang, Run-Tao

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the risk factors for recurrent wheezing in infants and young children suffering from dust mite allergy after their first wheezing. A total of 1 236 infants and young children who experienced a first wheezing episode and were hospitalized between August 2014 and February 2015 were enrolled, among whom 387 were allergic to dust mites. These infants and young children were followed up to 1 year after discharge. A total of 67 infants and young children who experienced 3 or more recurrent wheezing episodes within 1 year were enrolled as the recurrent wheezing group, while 84 infants and young children who did not experience recurrent wheezing during follow-up were enrolled as the control group. Univariate analysis and multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis were performed to investigate the risk factors for recurrent wheezing in these patients. The univariate analysis showed that the age on admission, wheezing time before admission, Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection rate, and influenza virus infection rate were associated with recurrent wheezing. The multivariate logistic stepwise regression analysis showed that the older age on admission (OR=2.21, P=0.04) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection (OR=3.54, P=0.001) were independent risk factors for recurrent wheezing. Infants and young children who are allergic to dust mites, especially young children, have a significantly increased risk of recurrent wheezing if they are complicated by Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection during the first wheezing episode.

  9. Nasal sodium cromoglycate (Lomusol) modulates the early phase reaction of mild to moderate persistent allergic rhinitis in patients mono-sensitized to house dust mite: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, Margaux; Lefebvre, Philipe P; Delvenne, Philippe; El-Shazly, Amr E

    2015-05-01

    We evaluated the clinical improvement of patients with mild to moderate persistent allergic rhinitis (AR) due to mono-sensitization to house dust mite (HDM) allergen, by sodium cromoglycate nasal spray (Lomusol 4%). Lomusol was used as a single agent treatment, and its anti-inflammatory effects, in the early phase reaction were evaluated. Herein we showed that Lomusol significantly improved the subjective nasal symptom scores especially nasal obstruction. This was associated with significant and specific reduction in neutrophils influx in nasal cytology but had no effect on other cell types. This selective anti-inflammatory effect on nasal cytology was associated with significant reduction in the levels of platelet activating factor (PAF) and histamine in nasal secretions but had no effect on PGD2, LTC4 or CysLt levels. Lomusol was also able to induce significant reduction in eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels in nasal secretions without altering the percentage of eosinophil influx in nasal cytology. Taken collectively, we showed the first evidence that nasal sodium cromoglycate possesses a selective inhibition on neutrophil recruitment into nasal cytology in the early phase reaction of AR patients mono-sensitized to HDM. This may be attributed to the ability of Lomusol to significantly reduce the amount of PAF recovered in nasal secretion. These results were associated with significant improvement in subjective symptom scores especially nasal obstruction that may in addition, be due to the ability of Lomusol to down-regulate eosinophil degranulation activity as well.

  10. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells induce a house dust mite-specific Th2 allergic inflammation in the lung of humanized SCID mice: involvement of CCR7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammad, Hamida; Lambrecht, Bart N; Pochard, Pierre; Gosset, Philippe; Marquillies, Philippe; Tonnel, André-Bernard; Pestel, Joël

    2002-08-01

    In rodents, airway dendritic cells (DCs) capture inhaled Ag, undergo maturation, and migrate to the draining mediastinal lymph nodes (MLN) to initiate the Ag-specific T cell response. However, the role of human DCs in the pathogenesis of the Th2 cell-mediated disease asthma remains to be clarified. Here, by using SCID mice engrafted with T cells from either house dust mite (HDM)-allergic patients or healthy donors, we show that DCs pulsed with Der p 1, one of the major allergens of HDM, and injected intratracheally into naive animals migrated into the MLN. In the MLN, Der p 1-pulsed DCs from allergic patients induced the proliferation of IL-4-producing CD4(+) T cells, whereas those from healthy donors induced IFN-gamma-secreting cells. In reconstituted human PBMC-reconstituted SCID mice primed with pulsed DCs from allergic patients, repeated exposure to aerosols of HDM induced 1) a strong pulmonary inflammatory reaction rich in T cells and eosinophils, 2) an increase in IL-4 and IL-5 production in the lung lavage fluid, and 3) increased IgE production compared with that in mice primed with unpulsed DCs. All these effects were reduced following in vivo neutralization of the CCR7 ligand secondary lymphoid tissue chemokine. These data in human PBMC-reconstituted SCID mice show that monocyte-derived DCs might play a key role in the pathogenesis of the pulmonary allergic response by inducing Th2 effector function following migration to the MLN.

  11. Sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mite allergy in Southeast Asian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Melissa; Lee, Bee Wah; Vichyanond, Pakit; Wang, Jiu-Yao; Bever, Hugo Van

    2013-09-01

    To determine the use and efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) for house dust mite (HDM) allergies in Southeast Asian children. Aliterature search was performed in Pubmed and the Asian Pacific Journal of Allergy and Immunology. We also evaluated the literature for similar studies performed in Asia. Clinical trials involving children that assess SLIT for HDM allergies in Southeast Asia and Asia. There are no published studies on the use of SLIT for HD Mallergies in Southeast Asian children. However, there are seven studies from Asia which show that there are discrepancies over the benefits of SLIT for HDM allergies in Asian children. Limitations in these studies include small sample sizes and short study periods. We cannot say with certainty what the impact of SLIT is on HDM allergies in Southeast Asian children due to the lack of data. The available studies performed in Asia have their limitations but are suggestive of the potential of SLIT for HDM allergies in Southeast Asian children. This review highlights that good quality clinical research in this area in the Southeast Asian setting is warranted.

  12. The Nottingham energy, health and housing study: reducing relative humidity, dust mites and asthma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pretlove, S.E.C. [South Bank University, London (United Kingdom); Critchley, R. [Health and Housing Group, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Howard, R. [NEA, Nottingham (United Kingdom); Oreszczyn, T. [University College, London (United Kingdom). The Bartlett

    2002-04-01

    This paper describes the Nottingham energy, health and housing study, a project where seven Nottingham City Council households subject to either fuel poverty or heat poverty have been refurbished to improve the internal environmental conditions and therefore the health of the occupants. The main aim was to provide improvements in ventilation, insulation, draughtproofing and heating control in the dwellings. An intervention study was carried out in the seven dwellings where temperature, relative humidity, health, dust mite numbers and ventilation were measured before the introduction of a range of heating, ventilation and insulation improvements. These were then monitored again a year later. The results of the study indicate that with a limited budget, significant improvements have been realized in the comfort levels of the occupants and in their health. Modelling of the environmental conditions and energy consumption in each dwelling has been carried out using the steady-state Condensation Targeter II model. Comparisons between the model predictions and the measured data show that Condensation Targeter II can be used as an effective tool for selecting the most appropriate design modifications for an individual dwelling and can assess the impact that these modifications will have on the energy efficiency of the dwelling and the health of the occupants. (author)

  13. Repellent activity of desiccant dusts and conidia of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana when tested against poultry red mites (Dermanyssus gallinae) in laboratory experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Steenberg, Tove

    2016-01-01

    on both dose and relative humidity (RH). However, one desiccant dust was significantly less repellent compared to other dusts with similar levels of efficacy. Further, dry conidia of the fungus Beauveria bassiana were also shown to be repellent to poultry red mites, both when applied on its own and when...

  14. [Dust mites as occupational allergens in two bakeries of La Habana, Cuba].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Duro, Bárbara I; Alvarez-Castelló, Mirta; Mateo-Morejón, Mayteé; Luis-Rodríguez, Bárbara; Labrada-Rosado, Alexis

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: las alergias ocupacionales son cada vez más frecuentes. Los alergenos del ambiente laboral de panaderías, como los ácaros, no están bien identificados a pesar de ser factores de riesgo conocidos de enfermedades respiratorias. Objetivos: aislar e identificarlas especies de ácaros en dos panaderías de La Habana, Cuba, con alta sensibilización a ácaros en sus trabajadores. Material y método: estudio descriptivo en el que se tomaron muestras por triplicado de las posibles fuentes de ácaros en las panaderías –como harina de trigo en uso, derrames de harina de trigo en los pisos, harina de trigo almacenada en sacos sellados, azúcar, levadura panadera granulada– que fueron procesadas, según el método de flotación de Hart and Fain (1987) para aislar, identificar y contar los ácaros presentes. Resultados: se encontraron ácaros en las muestras de harina de trigo en uso, en los derrames de ésta en los pisos y en la harina de trigo almacenada en sacos sellados. Las especies identificadas fueron Blomia tropicalis (70%), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (20%) y en mucho menor grado Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus y Dermatophagoides siboney. Conclusiones: existe elevada exposición a ácaros del polvo doméstico, particularmente a ácaros de almacén, en las panaderías analizadas, lo que constituye un factor de riesgo de alergia ocupacional a considerar.

  15. 东北地区10年螨变应原诱发的过敏性疾病调查分析%Investigation and analysis of ten years mite allergen-induced anaphylactic disease in the northeast of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柴若楠; 谢华; 林小平; 宋薇薇

    2012-01-01

    目的 了解东北地区十年螨变应原诱发的过敏性疾病病种及特征,为东北地区过敏性疾病的防治提供依据.方法 本研究采用我科信息系统数据库,统计自2001年1月-2010年12月共10年的过敏性疾病人数,并结合数据库中皮肤点刺试验(SPT)结果,对尘螨变应原诱发的过敏性疾病的病种、性别、年龄、职业、环境等进行统计及分析研究.结果 10年中来我科就诊的总人数为156 800人次,就诊病种主要为哮喘、鼻炎、荨麻疹、皮炎、湿疹、结膜炎、过敏性结肠炎等.由尘螨变应原引起的过敏性疾病最多的是过敏性哮喘,其次是变应性鼻炎、荨麻疹、皮炎.结论 东北地区尘螨孳生多见,易引起过敏,且患者四季均可发病.加强居室环境尘螨类控制,是减轻尘螨病症状和减少过敏发作的重要预防措施.%Objective To understand ten years mite allergen-induced disease and its characteristics in the northeast of China, provide scientific basis for the control and prevention of local allergic diseases. Methods The utilisation of the database of our information system, statistically from January 2001 to December 2010, a number of allergic diseases cases for 10 years period, combined with the skin prick test (SPT) result in our database, studied and analyzed allergic house dust mite allergen-induced diseases based on different species, sex, age, occupation, environment, statistics, etc. Results For the 10 years period our department have received a number of 156 800 patients, types mainly for retrospective asthma, rhinitis, urticaria, dermatitis, eczema, conjunctivitis and allergic colitis. Among those diseases the most cases caused by dust mite allergens is allergic asthma, followed by allergic rhinitis, urticaria and dermatitis. Conclusion Dust mite breed easily in the Northeast area of China, which can cause allergies in all four seasons. The improvement of the control of room environment is critical

  16. DISSIMILARITY IN METHACHOLINE AND ADENOSINE 5'-MONOPHOSPHATE RESPONSIVENESS 3-H AND 24-H AFTER ALLERGEN CHALLENGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AALBERS, R; KAUFFMAN, HF; KOETER, GH; POSTMA, DS; DEVRIES, K; DEMONCHY, JGR

    1991-01-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) was studied in 15 allergic asthmatic patients before and 3 and 24 h after allergen challenge with hose dust mite (HDM). Subjects attended the clinic on 3 consecutive days. On the first day a control solution was

  17. Allergen sensitization and allergen exposure in Greenlander Inuit residing in Denmark and Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porsbjerg, C; Linstow, M L; Nepper-christensen, S C; Rasmussen, A; Korsgaard, J; Nolte, H; Backer, V

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of allergic sensitization and possible risk factors in a genetically homogenous Inuit population living under widely differing climatic and cultural conditions. A written questionnaire and skin prick test for 10 aeroallergens were obtained from 1119 adult Greenlanders residing in Denmark, Nuuk (main city in Southern Greenland) and Uummannaq (rural settlement in Northern Greenland). Allergen exposure was assessed by pollen counts, questions on pet keeping and counts of house dust mites in dust samples. The overall prevalence of at least one positive skin prick test was 22.8% in Denmark, 10.6% in Nuuk, and 6.4% in Uummannaq. In Denmark, the total birch pollen counts were 40-1000 times higher compared to Nuuk, whereas the grass pollen count was 13-30 times higher in Denmark compared to Nuuk. Dogs were held indoor with a similar frequency in Denmark and Nuuk, but much less frequently in Uummannaq. In Denmark, house dust mites were found in 72% of house holds (>10/0.1 g dust). Less than 15% of households in Greenland had measurable levels of house dust mites. The prevalence of sensitization to aeroallergens in Inuit Greenlanders differed significantly between Denmark, Nuuk and Uummannaq. These findings correlated with the observed differences in population allergen exposure in the three regions. Furthermore, differences in lifestyle factors such as educational level, stress and ethnic self-identification seemed to be associated with the risk of allergic sensitization in Greenland.

  18. Sensitization Rates for Various Allergens in Children with Allergic Rhinitis in Qingdao, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hang Lin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to common allergens in children with allergic rhinitis (AR living in Qingdao, China. We conducted a retrospective analysis for AR cases, who underwent skin prick tests (SPT in Qingdao. A total of 2841 children with AR qualified for the inclusion criteria (Age 3–5 years: 1500 children; Age 6–12 years: 1341 children. The most common inhaled allergens to which the AR children were sensitive were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (69.3%, Dermatophagoides farinae (66.2% and mould 1 (Penicillium notatum 38.9%; while the corresponding ingested allergens were mussel (39.2%, shrimp (36.3% and carp (36.5%. The prevalence of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food allergens was higher in children >6 years of age as compared to that in children 3–5 years of age (all p < 0.05. Children >6 years old were more sensitive to dust mite as compared to children 3–5 years old (p < 0.05. Sensitization to dust mite was more common in males than in females (p = 0.05. In this study, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae were the most common allergens causing AR in children in Qingdao, China. Older children with AR, particularly males, were found to be more sensitive to dust mite.

  19. Neonatal exposure to pneumococcal phosphorylcholine modulates the development of house dust mite allergy during adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Preeyam S; Kearney, John F

    2015-06-15

    Currently, ∼20% of the global population suffers from an allergic disorder. Allergies and asthma occur at higher rates in developed and industrialized countries. It is clear that many human atopic diseases are initiated neonatally and herald more severe IgE-mediated disorders, including allergic asthma, which is driven by the priming of Th2 effector T cells. The hygiene hypothesis attempts to link the increased excessively sanitary conditions early in life to a default Th2 response and increasing allergic phenomena. Despite the substantial involvement of IgE Abs in such conditions, little attention has been paid to the effects of early microbial exposure on the B cell repertoire prior to the initiation of these diseases. In this study, we use Ab-binding assays to demonstrate that Streptococcus pneumoniae and house dust mite (HDM) bear similar phosphorylcholine (PC) epitopes. Neonatal C57BL/6 mice immunized with a PC-bearing pneumococcal vaccine expressed increased frequencies of PC-specific B cells in the lungs following sensitizing exposure to HDM as adults. Anti-PC IgM Abs in the lung decreased the interaction of HDM with pulmonary APCs and were affiliated with lowered allergy-associated cell infiltration into the lung, IgE production, development of airway hyperresponsiveness, and Th2 T cell priming. Thus, exposure of neonatal mice to PC-bearing pneumococci significantly reduced the development of HDM-induced allergic disease during adult life. Our findings demonstrate that B cells generated against conserved epitopes expressed by bacteria, encountered early in life, are also protective against the development of allergic disease during adult life. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Qualitative and quantitative assessment of mites (Acari in domiciliary dust in rural dwellings in the "Zona da Mata" region, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Aristeu José de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available From July to September, 2000 (winter, and from January to March, 2001 (summer, 30 dust samples were collected for each season, from beds of rural dwellings located in farms in the geographical area named "Zona da Mata", Minas Gerais, Brazil. After being sorted, the mites were identified and quantified. The prevalence of mites in the samples was 100%. 891 mites were found in winter (22.97%, and 2988 in summer (77.03%. In winter, Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart, 1897 was the most prevalent (55.00%, followed by Blomia tropicalis (Bronswijk, Cock & Oshima, 1973 (27.06%, Euroglyphus maynei (Cooreman, 1950 (8.85%, and predator mites from Cheyletidae family (8.07%. In summer, the most prevalent species was B. tropicalis (47.79%, followed by D. pteronyssinus (43.38%, Cheyletidae (6.87%, and E. maynei (1.28%. Few Dermatophagoides farinae (Hughes, 1961, Chortoglyphus arcuatus (Troupeau, 1879, and mites from Tarsonemidae and Cunaxidae families were found, the last two occurring only in summer. No mites from Acaridae family were found. The greatest number of immature forms found in summer suggested a greater breeding activity in this season. It was also noted that different building materials and varied cleaning routines may influence the population size of domiciliary dust mites.

  1. ROLE OF ENVIRONMENTAL ALLERGENS ON ATOPIC DERMATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wardhana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD is a chronic eczematous skin disease that develops in a patient with atopic diathesis, which is characterized by an increased liability to produce IgE antibodies for allergens mostly derived from environmental or inhalant allergens and food allergens. They are produced by cell-mediated allergic contact reactions, and recently contact sensitivity to various environmental allergens has been demonstrated in patients with AD. Atopic patients are recognized by their ability to produce large amounts of specific IgE antibodies to common substances as environmental allergens, i.e. house dust mites, grass pollens, animal danders, molds, food, etc. These antibodies can be detected by skin prick test. The aim of this study was to identify the sensitization against environmental or inhalants allergens through skin prick tests in the patients with atopic dermatitis. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective, descriptive study. We revised all medical records of patients with AD since January 2002 to December 2004 in the Out Patients Unit of Sanglah General Hospital, Bali-Indonesia. The variables studied were: gender, age, work related, diagnosis associates to AD, and prick test of environmental allergens. Results: In 3 years periods we had revised 46 of patients with AD that was done skin prick tests. The median age was 38 years (range 29-54 years, 34/46 (73.9 % of these were male and 12 (26.1 % female. Twenty nine patients presented pure AD, and 17 patients had AD with asthma and allergic rhinitis. Only 16 (34.7% of patients had no history of allergic disease. Thirsty six of 46 (78.20% of all tested AD patients had a positive skin prick tests against inhalant (aeroallergens 16 patients and food allergens 21 patients. Sixteen patients with positive of skin test include; dust mite in 12 patients, animal dander in 10 patients, grass pollen in 9 patients and cockroach in 6 patients. Conclusion: We concluded that

  2. Acaricidal activity of Cymbopogon citratus and Azadirachta indica against house dust mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azima Laili Hanifah

    2011-10-01

    Conclusions: Generally, topical mortalities of D. farinae due to lemongrass are higher than that due to neem. Contact mortalities of lemongrass are always higher that neem against both species of mites.

  3. 上海粉尘螨变应原及特异性免疫治疗%Dermatophagoides farinae Mite Allergen and Specific Immunotherapy in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温廷桓

    2009-01-01

    Studies on mite allergy had been launched by the Shanghai First Medical College since 1970's in this country.The preparations of SMU-Df from the local specimens of Dermatophagoides farinae(Df)in Shanghai have been shown the highest allergenic potency in comparison with that of the foreign ones,including the Df preparations from USFDA,VUS and ALK.Similar patterns of the protein curves were yielded by gel filtration,indicating almost similar allergenicities with both Df pure mite body and its spent culture medium.Around 80% of the allergic cases were sensitive to mite allergen and can be diagnosed by skin prick test,nasal provocation test and serum IgE level assay.Seasonal classic immunotherapy for allergic patients by Injectio Dermatophagoidei farinae,the first commercial allergen licensed by the Chinese government,achieved significant effect in relieving symptoms of allergic disorders in majority of cases,and long lasting effect of mite specific immunotherapy was also documented with minimal adverse reactions.Modifications of the Df crude extract and various modes of treatment have been studied.Studies on sublingual mite vaccine for mite allergic disorders developed synchronously with foreign trend since 1992.Sublingual drops were well acceptable by child cases almost without age restriction with higher efficacy.Rush schedule of mite immunotherapy led to a quick relief of allergic symptoms and long lasting curative effects.The Df allergen induced immunological regulation of human beings was established not only among the atopic patients,but also in healthy persons.%我国螨性变态反应的研究开始于1970年代上海第一医学院(现为复旦大学上海医学院).上海当地的粉尘螨螨种制备的变应原SMU-Df,其过敏活性与国外同种比较,超过许多倍属于最高的,包括美国食品药品管理局参考品、弗吉尼亚大学标准品、丹麦哥本哈根变态反应研究所标准质量品等.SMU-Df经凝胶层析所显示的蛋白

  4. Effect of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata on House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis in NC/Nga Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye-Sun Lim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata (AKH, Zingiberaceae extract on the production of nitric oxide (NO and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells, thymus- and-activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17 in HaCaT cells, and histamine level in HMC-1 cells. In an in vivo experiment, atopic dermatitis was induced by topical application of house dust mites for 4 weeks, and the protective effects of AKH was investigated by measuring the severity of the skin reaction on the back and ears, and plasma levels of immunoglobulin E (IgE and histamine. AKH extract suppressed the production of NO and PGE2 in RAW 264.7 cells, TARC in HaCaT cells, and histamine in HMC-1 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In in vivo experiments, the severity of dermatitis, including erythema/hemorrhage, edema, erosion and scaling, and plasma levels of IgE, and histamine were lower in NC/Nga mice with atopic dermatitis, treated with AKH extract than in untreated mice. AKH extract reduced the histological manifestations of atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions such as erosion, hyperplasia of the epidermis and dermis, and inflammatory cell infiltration on the skin of the back and ear. These results suggest that AKH inhibits the development of house dust mite-induced atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice.

  5. Neutralization of TSLP inhibits airway remodeling in a murine model of allergic asthma induced by chronic exposure to house dust mite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang-Gui Chen

    Full Text Available Chronic allergic asthma is characterized by Th2-typed inflammation, and contributes to airway remodeling and the deterioration of lung function. However, the initiating factor that links airway inflammation to remodeling is unknown. Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP, an epithelium-derived cytokine, can strongly activate lung dendritic cells (DCs through the TSLP-TSLPR and OX40L-OX40 signaling pathways to promote Th2 differentiation. To determine whether TSLP is the underlying trigger of airway remodeling in chronic allergen-induced asthma, we induced allergic airway inflammation in mice by intranasal administration of house dust mite (HDM extracts for up to 5 consecutive weeks. We showed that repeated respiratory exposure to HDM caused significant airway eosinophilic inflammation, peribronchial collagen deposition, goblet cell hyperplasia, and airway hyperreactivity (AHR to methacholine. These effects were accompanied with a salient Th2 response that was characterized by the upregulation of Th2-typed cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13, as well as the transcription factor GATA-3. Moreover, the levels of TSLP and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 were also increased in the airway. We further demonstrated, using the chronic HDM-induced asthma model, that the inhibition of Th2 responses via neutralization of TSLP with an anti-TSLP mAb reversed airway inflammation, prevented structural alterations, and decreased AHR to methacholine and TGF-β1 level. These results suggest that TSLP plays a pivotal role in the initiation and persistence of airway inflammation and remodeling in the context of chronic allergic asthma.

  6. Several distinct properties of the IgE repertoire determine effector cell degranulation in response to allergen challenge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lars Harder; Holm, Jens-Christian; Lund, Gitte

    2008-01-01

    for the manifestation and severity of allergic symptoms. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate how individual properties of an IgE repertoire affect effector cell degranulation. METHODS: A panel of recombinant IgE (rIgE) antibodies specific for the major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 was developed and characterized...

  7. Specific IgE, IgG and IgG4 antibodies against house dust mite in patients with bronchial asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okazaki,Morihiro

    1991-08-01

    Full Text Available Serum levels of total IgE, specific IgE, IgG and IgG4 against house dust mite were measured in mite-sensitive asthma patients receiving immunotherapy with house dust. Serum levels of total IgE, mite specific IgE and IgG did not significantly change during the course of hyposensitization. Increased levels of mite specific IgG4 were observed in patients during immunotherapy. The increase in specific IgG4 was dependent on the total dose of house dust administered in both children (r = 0.636, p less than 0.001 and adults (r = 0.629, p less than 0.01. However, the increase of specific IgG4 in adults was not as apparent as in children. These results might suggest that mite specific IgG4 is a useful immunological marker in the immunotherapy for allergic asthma, and that IgG4 antibody acts as a blocking antibody in atopic bronchial asthma.

  8. Influence of house dust mite impermeable covers on health-related quality of life of adult patients with asthma: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemt, L. van den; Vries, M.P. de; Cloosterman, S.G.M.; Thoonen, B.P.A.; Muris, J.W.M.; Goossens, M.; Wesseling, G.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of house dust mite impermeable covers on asthma-specific health-related quality of life in adult asthmatic patients that were trained in guided self-management. In a 2-year randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, information on the quality of li

  9. Influence of house dust mite impermeable covers on health-related quality of life of adult patients with asthma: results of a randomized clinical trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemt, L. van den; Vries, M.P. de; Cloosterman, S.G.M.; Thoonen, B.P.A.; Muris, J.W.M.; Goossens, M.; Wesseling, G.; Schayck, C.P. van

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of house dust mite impermeable covers on asthma-specific health-related quality of life in adult asthmatic patients that were trained in guided self-management. In a 2-year randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial, information on the quality of li

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMEDIATE AND LATE PHASE AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE CHALLENGE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS AND CORRELATIONS AMONG PHYSIOLOGICAL MEDIATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHARACTERIZATION OF IMMEDIATE AND LATE PHASE AIRWAY RESPONSES TO HOUSE DUST MITE CHALLENGE IN BROWN NORWAY RATS AND CORRELATIONS AMONG PATHOPHYSIOLOGICAL MEDIATORS (P.SinghI, D.W. Winsett2, M.J. Daniels2, J. Richards2, K. Crissman2, D.L. Doerfler2 and M.I. Gilmour2, 1NCSU, Ra...

  11. Effect of fluticasone propionate aqueous nasal spray treatment on platelet activating factor and eicosanoid production by nasal mucosa in patients with a house dust mite allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Garrelds (Ingrid); T. De Graaf-In 't Veld (T.); A.P.H. Jansen (A. P H); R. Gerth van Wijk (Roy); F.J. Zijlstra (Freek)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe relationship between the release of platelet activating factor (PAF), leukotriene C4/D4/EE (LTC4/D4/E4) and prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) from nasal mucosa in vivo was examined in 24 rhinitis patients allergic to the house dust mite (HDM). During a double blind placebo controlled cross-ove

  12. Cockroach, tick, storage mite and other arthropod allergies: Where do we stand with molecular allergy diagnostics?: Part 15 of the Series Molecular Allergology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilger, Christiane; Kuehn, Annette; Raulf, Monika; Jakob, Thilo

    Arthropods form a broad phylum within the animal kingdom, comprising widely varying members such as insects, arachnids, crabs and centipedes. In addition to common allergies to house dust mites or hymenoptera venom, there are also rarer allergies that can be attributed to three major sources of allergens: cockroaches, ticks and storage mites. Other less known allergen sources include spiders, mosquitos, horseflies, red chironomid larvae, silverfish and ladybugs, as well as a variety of storage pests. At present, only extract-based test systems are available for the majority of allergens in IgE-based diagnostics. Molecular characterisation of numerous individual allergens has already been carried out. However, these individual allergens are only available for a small number of allergen sources (e. g. cockroaches and storage mites) in routine diagnostics. Particularly in the case of allergen sources with known high cross-reactivity, the use of marker allergens is believed to improve diagnostics. The currently known individual allergens of the above-mentioned allergy triggers from the arthropod realm are summarized and their potential use in allergy diagnostics discussed.

  13. Impermeable dust mite covers in the primary and tertiary prevention of allergic disease: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyave, Whitney D; Rabito, Felicia A; Carlson, John C; Friedman, Eleanor E; Stinebaugh, Sarah J

    2014-03-01

    Up to 40% of the world's population has been diagnosed with an allergic disease. The most prevalent allergy is to house dust mites. Impermeable mattress covers are often the first treatment in the prevention and decrease of symptoms of allergic disease. To perform a meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of impermeable mattress covers in the primary prevention of allergic disease and as a single intervention in the tertiary prevention of allergic disease symptoms. MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and CINAHL were systematically searched for relevant publications. Seven primary prevention trials (n = 3,461) and 17 tertiary prevention trials (n = 1,671) met the inclusion criteria and were included in the review. All article reviews and abstractions were performed in duplicate. No significant pooled relative risks were found for the prevention of allergic disease. The pooled relative risks were 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62-1.51) for house dust mite sensitization, 0.92 (95% CI 0.81-1.05) for wheeze, 0.85 (95% CI 0.70-1.02) for asthma, 1.03 (95% CI 0.90-1.19) for allergic rhinitis, and 1.05 (95% CI 0.84-1.32) for allergic dermatitis. Likewise, no significant pooled standardized mean differences were found in the tertiary prevention of symptoms. The pooled standardized mean differences were -0.03 (95% CI -0.15 to 0.09) for peak flow, -0.06 (95% CI -0.32 to 0.20) for asthma symptom score, and -0.39 (95% CI -0.88 to 0.11) for nasal symptom score. A significant effect was seen in the decrease of house mite dust level in the mattress (-0.79, 95% CI -0.98 to -0.60). No evidence was found to support the use of impermeable mattress covers in the primary prevention of allergic disease or in the tertiary prevention of allergic disease symptoms. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of disodium cromoglycate, budesonide, and cyclosporin A on interleukin-4, interleukin-5, and interleukin-13 secretions in Der p I-stimulated T cells from house dust mite-sensitive atopic and nonatopic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Won; Lee, Ha-Baik; Chung, Yong-Hoon; Choi, Yong

    2002-01-01

    Disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), budesonide, and cyclosporin A (CsA) were the well-known immunomodulators for the allergic and immunologic diseases clinically. In this study, we evaluated the characteristics of inhibition on cytokine synthesis of Der p I-stimulated T cells by the same inhibiting concentrations of DSCG, budesonide, and CsA in house-dust mite antigen (Der p I)-specific atopic and nonatopic healthy individuals. Seven house dust mite allergen specific patients were recruited for this study. Seven healthy volunteers were included on the basis of negative allergic manifestations and low serum immunoglobulin E values. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in the presence of recombinant interleukin (rIL)-2 with or without budesonide, DSCG, CsA, and Der p I for 48 hours. Cells were stained with anti-CD4 fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated monoclonal antibody, and then anti-human IL-4 phycoerythrin, IL-5, or IL-13 monoclonal antibody, respectively, was added to both blocked and stained samples. Incubation of PBMC from atopics with each immunomodulator and Der p I resulted in the reduction of IL-4 secretion compared with Der p I alone stimulation. However, IL-4 secretion in PBMC from nonatopics was not reduced with DSCG and Der p I stimulation. IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 secretions of PBMC from atopics were significantly decreased after incubation with each immunomodulator and Der p I, compared with after incubation with Der p I alone. These results might be considered to show either that DSCG has a selective inhibiting effect on cytokine production in T cells from atopics or is a weak inhibitor of cytokine secretions compared with budesonide and CsA at even strength for the inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation in normal, healthy individuals.

  15. Allergenicity assay of allergen from Dermatophagoides farinae in transgenic tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Mingjuan; SHEN Ye; HU Yuanlei; CAO Lei; NI Ting; ZHANG Hongyu; LIN Zhongping

    2004-01-01

    Derf2 gene for one of mite allergens in Dermatophagoides farinae has been cloned and expressed under regulation of 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco. The transcriptional analysis showed that this mite complete gene structure in genomic sequence could be spliced at prediction site. Allergenicity assay with immunological sera indicated that the extracts from the transgenic tobacco gave obvious positive IgE binding reaction with specific serum pool. This work would be of potential use in allergenicity assessment of genetically modified food.

  16. Savings associated with high-dose hypoallergenic house dust mite immunotherapy in rhinitis and/or asthma patients in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Robaina, José Carlos; Polanco Sánchez, Carlos; Estella Pérez, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To quantify the cost difference between conventional symptomatic treatment of mite allergy and specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). Methods Observational, retrospective, and multicenter study was carried out in Spain in 2013. The medical records of 419 patients diagnosed with rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma for mite allergy were retrieved. Mean age was 24.9 years (standard deviation 14.4). The use of symptomatic medication (rescue and daily), diagnostic tests, unscheduled medical care, and sick leave days associated with SCIT treatment versus no-SCIT treatment was compared. Also measured was the SCIT treatment to no-SCIT treatment costs ratio: used resources (symptomatic medication, unscheduled medical care, diagnostic tests, and 3 years SCIT treatment and sick leave days) were quantified in euros. Efficacy (decreased resource usage) of first-year treatment was assumed during the remaining 2 years and also during the 3-year follow-up period. Results After a single year of SCIT, all quantified resources diminished significantly (P<0.05) from baseline. Estimated reduction in cost items included hospital resources (100% in hospitalizations, 82% in visits to the allergist, and 79% in emergency room visits), therapies (56% in rescue medication and 63% in daily medication), diagnostic tests (77%), and sick leave days (94%). Ratio of comparative calculation described as SCIT treatment versus non-SCIT treatment (or conventional symptomatic treatment) is 0.8. Conclusion Direct costs are reduced by 64% and indirect costs by 94%. SCIT of hypoallergenic preparation of dust mite (Acaroid®) allows cost savings versus conventional treatment. Estimated savings for the public National Health System are 5.7 times the cost of immunotherapy. PMID:27366098

  17. House dust mite induced allergic rhinitis in children in primary care : Epidemiology and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.A. de Bot (Cindy)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAllergic rhinitis (AR) is an allergen-induced, upper-airway inflammatory disease. The characteristic symptoms of allergic rhinitis are a runny nose, sneezing, congestion, redness of the eyes, watering eyes, and itching of the eyes, nose and throat. Previously, allergic rhinitis was

  18. House dust mite induced allergic rhinitis in children in primary care : Epidemiology and Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M.A. de Bot (Cindy)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractAllergic rhinitis (AR) is an allergen-induced, upper-airway inflammatory disease. The characteristic symptoms of allergic rhinitis are a runny nose, sneezing, congestion, redness of the eyes, watering eyes, and itching of the eyes, nose and throat. Previously, allergic rhinitis was subdi

  19. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies to an antigenic protein from Stachybotrys chartarum and its measurement in house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianping; Liang, Yinan; Belisle, Donald; Miller, J David

    2008-03-20

    Using sera from atopic patients we have isolated an extracellular protein, which is antigenic in humans, from Stachybotrys chartarum sesu lato. Here we report the production of monoclonal antibodies to the protein and the development of a sensitive and specific assay to the target protein as well as analyses in house dust samples spiked with spores. The detection limit for the target antigen in house dust was approximately 0.2 ng/g dry weight house dust. This detection limit is comparable to those for house dust mite allergen and the allergen of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus but lower than that for the fungus Alternaria alternata.

  20. 东莞地区2000例荨麻疹患者变应原分析%Analysis on Allergens of 2000 Cases of Urticaria in Dongguan Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海燕; 李红杏; 韩春雷

    2014-01-01

    To analyze and explore the distribution of allergens in 2000 patients with urticaria in Dongguan region .[Methods] A total of 2000 patients with urticaria were selected .Standard measurement method Allergopharm pricking needle stock solution was used for allergen test .The result of the allergens was analyzed .[Results]Among all the allergens of 2000 patients with urticaria ,dust mites ,cockroaches and house dust mites were the most commonly seen , and shrimp ,bee and mussels were the second .[Conclusion] Dust mites ,cockroaches and house dust mites are the fre-quent allergens of patients with urticaria in Dongguan region .%【目的】分析和研究东莞地区2000例荨麻疹患者变应原的分布情况。【方法】选取荨麻疹患者共2000例,采用标准测量方法“阿罗格”点刺原液进行变应原测试,分析其变应原结果。【结果】2000例荨麻疹患者变应原以粉尘螨、蟑螂、屋尘螨最高,其次为小虾、牛肉、蚌类。【结论】尘螨、蟑螂、屋尘螨等是东莞地区荨麻疹患者中最常见的变应原。

  1. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part II. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens – focus on grain dust, other agricultural dusts and wood dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available [i][/i][i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i], a Gram-negative bacterium developing in a variety of plants as epiphyte or endophyte is particularly common in grain and grain dust, and has been identified by an interdisciplinary group from Lublin, eastern Poland, as a causative agent of work-related diseases associated with exposure to grain dust and other agricultural dusts. The concentration of [i]P. agglomerans[/i] in grain as well as in the settled grain and flour dust was found to be high, ranging from 10[sup]4[/sup] –10[sup]8 [/sup] CFU/g, while in the air polluted with grain or flour dust it ranged from 10[sup]3[/sup] –10[sup]5[/sup] CFU/m[sup]3[/sup] and formed 73.2–96% of the total airborne Gram-negative bacteria. The concentration of [i]P. agglomerans[/i] was also relatively high in the air of the facilities processing herbs and other plant materials, while it was lower in animal farms and in wood processing facilities. [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] produces a biologically-potent endotoxin (cell wall lipopolysaccharide, LPS. The significant part of this endotoxin occurs in dusts in the form of virus-sized globular nanoparticles measuring 10–50 nm that could be described as the ‘endotoxin super-macromolecules’. A highly significant relationship was found (R=0.804, P=0.000927 between the concentration of the viable [i]P. agglomerans[/i] in the air of various agricultural and wood industry settings and the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in the air, as assessed by the Limulus test. Although this result may be interfered by the presence of endotoxin produced by other Gram-negative species, it unequivocally suggests the primary role of the [i]P. agglomerans[/i] endotoxin as an adverse agent in the agricultural working environment, causing toxic pneumonitis (ODTS. Numerous experiments by the inhalation exposure of animals to various extracts of [i]P. agglomerans[/i] strains isolated from grain dust, including endotoxin isolated with

  2. Pantoea agglomerans: a mysterious bacterium of evil and good. Part II--Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens--focus on grain dust, other agricultural dusts and wood dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Skórska, Czesława; Góra-Florek, Anna; Milanowski, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Pantoea agglomerans, a Gram-negative bacterium developing in a variety of plants as epiphyte or endophyte is particularly common in grain and grain dust, and has been identified by an interdisciplinary group from Lublin, eastern Poland, as a causative agent of work-related diseases associated with exposure to grain dust and other agricultural dusts. The concentration of P. agglomerans in grain as well as in the settled grain and flour dust was found to be high, ranging from 10(4)-10(8) CFU/g, while in the air polluted with grain or flour dust it ranged from 10(3)-10(5) CFU/m(3) and formed 73.2-96% of the total airborne Gram-negative bacteria. The concentration of P. agglomerans was also relatively high in the air of the facilities processing herbs and other plant materials, while it was lower in animal farms and in wood processing facilities. Pantoea agglomerans produces a biologically-potent endotoxin (cell wall lipopolysaccharide, LPS). The significant part of this endotoxin occurs in dusts in the form of virus-sized globular nanoparticles measuring 10-50 nm that could be described as the 'endotoxin super-macromolecules'. A highly significant relationship was found (R=0.804, P=0.000927) between the concentration of the viable P. agglomerans in the air of various agricultural and wood industry settings and the concentration of bacterial endotoxin in the air, as assessed by the Limulus test. Although this result may be interfered by the presence of endotoxin produced by other Gram-negative species, it unequivocally suggests the primary role of the P. agglomerans endotoxin as an adverse agent in the agricultural working environment, causing toxic pneumonitis (ODTS). Numerous experiments by the inhalation exposure of animals to various extracts of P. agglomerans strains isolated from grain dust, including endotoxin isolated with trichloroacetic acid (LPS-TCA), endotoxin nanoparticles isolated in sucrose gradient (VECN), and mixture of proteins and endotoxin obtained

  3. (Radio) rocket immunoelectrophoresis a useful screening method for house dust extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, R; Oliver, J D; Hauck, P R; Roig, J

    1989-08-01

    House dust (HD) extracts prepared from HD collected in households from West Germany, USA, and Spain were investigated by (radio) rocket immunoelectrophoresis. By pouring agarose gels containing different antisera side by side in strips onto a glass plate, the antigen/allergen components of HD extracts could be detected simultaneously in one electrophoretic separation. In addition to mite and animal dander, antigens/allergens of pollens, mold and food (ovalbumin and cow serum) could be detected in most of the extracts.

  4. Childhood asthma and indoor allergens in Native Americans in New York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarbell Alice

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to assess the correlation between childhood asthma and potential risk factors, especially exposure to indoor allergens, in a Native American population. Methods A case-control study of St. Regis Mohawk tribe children ages 2–14 years, 25 diagnosed with asthma and 25 controls was conducted. Exposure was assessed based on a personal interview and measurement of mite and cat allergens (Der p 1, Fel d 1 in indoor dust. Results A non-significant increased risk of childhood asthma was associated with self-reported family history of asthma, childhood environmental tobacco smoke exposure, and air pollution. There was a significant protective effect of breastfeeding against current asthma in children less than 14 years (5.2 fold lower risk. About 80% of dust mite and 15% of cat allergen samples were above the threshold values for sensitization of 2 and 1 μg/g, respectively. The association between current asthma and exposure to dust mite and cat allergens was positive but not statistically significant. Conclusion This research identified several potential indoor and outdoor risk factors for asthma in Mohawks homes, of which avoidance may reduce or delay the development of asthma in susceptible individuals.

  5. Dose-Dependent Immunological Responses after a 6-Month Course of Sublingual House Dust Mite Immunotherapy in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Didier, Alain; Campo, Paloma; Moreno, Francisco; Durand-Perdriel, François; Marin, Alicia; Chartier, Antoine

    2015-01-01

    House dust mite (HDM) immunotherapy has proven efficacy in treating allergic rhinitis (AR) symptoms. This trial evaluated the dose-response relationship of SLIToneULTRA® HDM mix based on immunological parameters and safety in subjects with moderate-to-severe HDM AR not controlled by symptomatic medication. A randomized, parallel-group, open-label, clinical trial compared 50/150/300 standard reactivity unit (SRU) doses of SLIToneULTRA® HDM mix for 6 months. Subjects had moderate-to-severe HDM AR, positive skin prick and IgE against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus/Dermatophagoides farinae (DP/DF). The primary end point was change from baseline in the IgE-blocking factor against DP after 6 months. Secondary end points measured changes in the IgE-blocking factor for DP at 3 months and for DF at 3 and 6 months, and in IgG4 and specific IgE to DP/DF after 3 and 6 months. Tolerability was assessed through the evaluation of all adverse events (AEs). A total of 219 subjects were randomized and 196 completed the trial. Dose effect was significant on DP IgE-BF after 6 months (p = 0.018). The change in the DP IgE-blocking factor at a 300-SRU dose was higher than at other doses after 3 (p = 0.008) and 6 (p = 0005) months of treatment. Similar changes were observed for IgG4 and allergen-specific IgE. The number of AEs increased with the dose and were mild-to-moderate, with no severe treatment-related AEs reported. The most frequent AEs were oral/tongue pruritus, mouth oedema and abdominal upper pain. Data showed a dose-response for immunological markers and safety with a better immunological response for 300 SRU. The highest dose (300 SRU daily) was considered as the optimal maintenance dose. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. The 8-year follow-up of the PIAMA intervention study assessing the effect of mite-impermeable mattress covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, U; de Jongste, J C; Kerkhof, M; Oldewening, M; Postma, D; van Strien, R T; Wijga, A H; Willers, S M; Wolse, A; Gerritsen, J; Smit, H A; Brunekreef, B

    2012-02-01

    Exposure to high levels of house dust mite (HDM) allergens is associated with the development of allergic sensitization to HDM, a risk factor for the development of asthma, rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis. We studied the effect of an early intervention with mite-impermeable mattress covers on HDM allergen levels and the development of asthma and mite allergy throughout the first 8 years of life. High-risk children (allergic mother) were prenatally recruited and randomly allocated to two groups receiving mite allergen-impermeable (n = 416) and placebo mattress covers (n = 394) or no intervention (n = 472). Asthma and allergies were assessed yearly by questionnaire. Specific immunoglobulin E and bronchial hyper-responsiveness were measured at the age of 8 years. Mattress dust samples collected at different time points were analyzed for HDM allergens. At the age of 8 years, levels of HDM allergen Der f1 but not Der p1 were lower in the active than the placebo mattress cover group. In repeated measures analyses, we found a temporary decreased risk of asthma symptoms at the age of 2 years in the intervention group compared to the placebo group and a temporary association between higher HDM allergen exposure at the age of 3 months and more asthma symptoms. Early intervention with mite-impermeable mattress covers is successful in reducing exposure to Der f1; it only temporarily reduces the risk of asthma symptoms and does not reduce the risk of hay fever, eczema, and allergic sensitization. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Increased ventilation rate as way to reduce the exposure to house dust mites and improve the health of asthmatic children - an intervention design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Kolarik, Barbara; Gunnarsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    International field studies have documented that indoor air quality is unsatisfactory in many buildings. The overall hypothesis of this project is that improving the indoor environment in dwellings can improve health and reduce suffering from indoor related diseases such as allergy and asthma...... that have shown a marked increase in incidence all around the world during last decades. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of increased ventilation and expected lower exposure to house dust mites on symptoms and medication intake among asthmatic children. This will be done by installing...... for the intervention are children with verified asthma and allergy to house dust mites. Children will be exposed to titration of medication prior to the study and randomly distributed to groups with fake or controlled ventilation system. The intervention will last for nine months in each house and will be blinded...

  8. Savings associated with high-dose hypoallergenic house dust mite immunotherapy in rhinitis and/or asthma patients in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Robaina JC

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available José Carlos García Robaina,1 Carlos Polanco Sánchez,2 Elvira Estella Pérez,2 1Allergy Department, University Hospital Nuestra Señora de Candelaria, Santa Cruz de Tenerife, 2Health Economics & Outcomes Research, Corporate Affairs, Merck S.L., Madrid, Spain Objectives: To quantify the cost difference between conventional symptomatic treatment of mite allergy and specific subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT. Methods: Observational, retrospective, and multicenter study was carried out in Spain in 2013. The medical records of 419 patients diagnosed with rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma for mite allergy were retrieved. Mean age was 24.9 years (standard deviation 14.4. The use of symptomatic medication (rescue and daily, diagnostic tests, unscheduled medical care, and sick leave days associated with SCIT treatment versus no-SCIT treatment was compared. Also measured was the SCIT treatment to no-SCIT treatment costs ratio: used resources (symptomatic medication, unscheduled medical care, diagnostic tests, and 3 years SCIT treatment and sick leave days were quantified in euros. Efficacy (decreased resource usage of first-year treatment was assumed during the remaining 2 years and also during the 3-year follow-up period. Results: After a single year of SCIT, all quantified resources diminished significantly (P<0.05 from baseline. Estimated reduction in cost items included hospital resources (100% in hospitalizations, 82% in visits to the allergist, and 79% in emergency room visits, therapies (56% in rescue medication and 63% in daily medication, diagnostic tests (77%, and sick leave days (94%. Ratio of comparative calculation described as SCIT treatment versus non-SCIT treatment (or conventional symptomatic treatment is 0.8. Conclusion: Direct costs are reduced by 64% and indirect costs by 94%. SCIT of hypoallergenic preparation of dust mite (Acaroid® allows cost savings versus conventional treatment. Estimated savings for the public National Health

  9. Sensitization Rates for Various Allergens in Children with Allergic Rhinitis in Qingdao, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hang; Lin, Rongjun; Li, Na

    2015-09-07

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to common allergens in children with allergic rhinitis (AR) living in Qingdao, China. We conducted a retrospective analysis for AR cases, who underwent skin prick tests (SPT) in Qingdao. A total of 2841 children with AR qualified for the inclusion criteria (Age 3-5 years: 1500 children; Age 6-12 years: 1341 children). The most common inhaled allergens to which the AR children were sensitive were Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (69.3%), Dermatophagoides farinae (66.2%) and mould 1 (Penicillium notatum 38.9%); while the corresponding ingested allergens were mussel (39.2%), shrimp (36.3%) and carp (36.5%). The prevalence of sensitization to inhaled allergens and food allergens was higher in children >6 years of age as compared to that in children 3-5 years of age (all p 6 years old were more sensitive to dust mite as compared to children 3-5 years old (p allergens causing AR in children in Qingdao, China. Older children with AR, particularly males, were found to be more sensitive to dust mite.

  10. Prevalencia de la sensibilización a tres ácaros domésticos en la población infantil alérgica de un consultorio médico Prevalence of sensitization to three house dust mites in the allergic infantile population of a family physician's office

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayda González León

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio con el objetivo de investigar si la sensibilización a estos ácaros ( Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [ Dp ], Dermatophagoides siboney [ Ds ] y Blomia tropicalis [ Bt ] constituye un problema de salud en nuestra población infantil, pues el estudio de los problemas alérgicos ha identificado a los ácaros domésticos como los principales agentes causales de asma y otras afecciones. Se seleccionaron 32 niños alérgicos de nuestro consultorio que se clasificaron según su grado de exposición al polvo doméstico. A todos se les realizó la prueba por punción cutánea en el brazo derecho, y se utilizaron 3 extractos alergénicos estandarizados Valergen Ò ( Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides siboney y Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus de producción nacional (BIOCEN. La prevalencia de la sensibilización fue mayor de forma significativa (pA study was conducted aimed at investigating if the sensitization to these dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [Dp], Dermatophagoides siboney [Ds] and Blomia tropicalis [Bt] is a health problem in our infantile population, since the study of the allergic problems has identified the house dust mites as the main agents causing asthma and other affections. 32 allergic children of our office were selected and classified according to their degree of exposure to house dust. All of them underwent the skin test in the right arm. 3 standardized allergenic extracts ValergenÒ (Blomia tropicalis, Dermatophagoides siboney y Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus of national production (BIOCEN were used. The prevalence of sensitization was significantly higher (p<0.05 for all the dust mites in patients with a greater exposure to house dust compared with those with lower exposure to it. A higher sensitization was attained for the dust mites of the genus Dermatophagoides. The extract of Dp produced a wheal with a mean size greater than the one caused by other products.

  11. [Sensitization to three species of mites in allergic patients from the coastal area of Havana city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarales, Raúl L Castro; Castelló, Mirta Alvarez; Díaz, Mercedes Ronquillo; Canosa, José S Rodríguez; Gómez, Iris García; León, Mayda González; Domínguez, Irene Enríquez; Rosado, Alexis Labrada; Viltre, Bárbara I Navarro; Díaz, Yunia Oliva; Morejón, Maytee Mateo

    2009-01-01

    Sensitization to three allergic mite species (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides siboney and Blomia tropicalis) from house dust in Cuba has been reported in different studies. To assess allergic sensitization to these mites in a north coast area of Havana city. A total of 210 allergic patients were selected, classified in two groups: from 1 to 14 years, and from 15 to 55 years. Skin Prick Test (SPT) was performed on all patients using standardized allergenic extracts VALERGEN-BT (B. tropicalis), VALERGEN-DS (D. siboney) and VALERGEN-DP (D. pteronyssinus) manufactured by BIOCEN, Cuba. The test was considered positive when the average wheal diameter was greater or equal to 3 mm. Both groups showed higher sensitization to D. pteronyssinus (>78%), while for the remaining mites it was below 60%. In patients older than 14 years, the sensitization was apparently higher, although not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Nevertheless, the skin reactivity in this group was significantly greater (p < 0.05) for the three allergens. Unusually, mean wheal size in both groups was significantly superior toward B. tropicalis (p < 0.05). In spite of being D. pteronyssinus the mite showing the highest sensitization, Blomia tropicalis showed to be also an important aeroallergen with more than 50% sensitization and greater skin reactivity. Therefore, in our population it would be advisable to perform SPT with the three mites extracts, simultaneously and to combine it in allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  12. Mite hypersensitivity in patients with rhinitis and rhinosinusitis living in a tropical environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Borges, M; Fernández-Caldas, E; Capriles-Hulett, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F

    2014-01-01

    Rhinitis and rhinosinusitis are major concerns in public health. Mites are important aetiological agents in the tropics. The present study investigated the in vivo response to mite allergens in patients with rhinitis and rhinosinusitis. All patients with presumptive nasal allergy were included. Skin tests were done with inhalants and mite extracts. Patients were classified as allergic or non-allergic according to skin tests and history. Out of 229 patients, 175 (76.4%) showed positive skin tests. Allergic patients showed positivity to mites in 97.1% of cases, 51.4% to dog dander; 40.5% to cat dander; 36.5% to German cockroach; 22.8% to moulds; and 21.1% to grass pollens. Dermatophagoides farinae induced responses in 90.8% of patients, D. pteronyssinus in 90.1%, Blomia tropicalis in 74.8%, Glycyphagus domesticus in 62.2%, Chortoglyphus arcuatus in 58.2%, Acarus siro in 46.2%, Lepidoglyphus destructor in 35.4%, and Tyrophagus putrescentiae in 35.0%. Higher correlations were found between skin test diameters induced by mites from the same family. Sensitisation to inhalant allergens is present in 76% of allergy clinics' patients with rhinitis or rhinosinusitis. Our results confirm previous observations showing that mites constitute the most important cause of respiratory allergy in tropical settings and suggest that mite allergen cross-reactivity is responsible for the positivity of skin tests to mites not present in the patient's environment since the species Glycyphagus, Chortoglyphus, Acarus, Lepidoglyphus and Tyrophagus have not been found in Caracas house dust. Copyright © 2012 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Bee Venom Phospholipase A2 Ameliorates House Dust Mite Extract Induced Atopic Dermatitis Like Skin Lesions in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Hwa Jung

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a biphasic inflammatory skin disease that is provoked by epidermal barrier defects, immune dysregulation, and increased skin infections. Previously, we have demonstrated that bvPLA2 evoked immune tolerance by inducing regulatory T cells (Treg, and thus alleviated Th2 dominant allergic asthma in mice. Here, we would like to determine whether treatment with bvPLA2 exacerbates the AD-like allergic inflammations induced by house dust mite extract (DFE in a murine model. Epidermal thickness, immune cell infiltration, serum immunoglobulin, and cytokines were measured. Ear swelling, skin lesions, and the levels of total serum IgE and Th1/Th2 cytokines were elevated in DFE/DNCB-induced AD mice. Topical application of bvPLA2 elicited significant suppression of the increased AD symptoms, including ear thickness, serum IgE concentration, inflammatory cytokines, and histological changes. Furthermore, bvPLA2 treatment inhibited mast cell infiltration into the ear. On the other hand, Treg cell depletion abolished the anti-atopic effects of bvPLA2, suggesting that the effects of bvPLA2 depend on the existence of Tregs. Taken together, the results revealed that topical exposure to bvPLA2 aggravated atopic skin inflammation, suggesting that bvPLA2 might be a candidate for the treatment of AD.

  14. p-Anisaldehyde: acaricidal component of Pimpinella anisum seed oil against the house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2004-03-01

    The acaricidal activity of anise seed oil-derived p-anisaldehyde and commercially available components of anise seed oil was examined against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus and compared with those of the synthetic acaricides, benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethyl- m-toluamide (DEET). On the basis of LD 50 values, the compound most toxic to D. farinae adults was p-anisaldehyde (1.11 microg/cm2) followed by benzyl benzoate (9.32 microg/cm2), DEET (36.84 microg/cm2), 3-carene (42.10 microg/cm2), and estragol (43.23 microg/cm2). Against D. pteronyssinus adults, p-anisaldehyde (0.98 microg/cm2) was much more effective than benzyl benzoate (6.54 microg/cm2), DEET (17.79 microg/cm2), 3-carene (39.84 microg/cm 2), and estragol (40.11 microg/cm2). p-Anisaldehyde was about 8.4 and 6.7 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate against D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus adults, respectively. The results suggested that p-anisaldehyde may be useful as a lead compound for the development of new agents for the selective control of house dust mites.

  15. A CCL24-dependent pathway augments eosinophilic airway inflammation in house dust mite-challenged Cd163(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, C; Yao, X; Gordon, E M; Barochia, A; Cuento, R A; Kaler, M; Meyer, K S; Keeran, K J; Nugent, G Z; Jeffries, K R; Qu, X; Yu, Z-X; Aponte, A; Gucek, M; Dagur, P K; McCoy, J P; Levine, S J

    2016-05-01

    CD163 is a macrophage scavenger receptor with anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory functions. Here, we report that alveolar macrophages (AMΦs) from asthmatic subjects had reduced cell-surface expression of CD163, which suggested that CD163 might modulate the pathogenesis of asthma. Consistent with this, house dust mite (HDM)-challenged Cd163(-/-) mice displayed increases in airway eosinophils and mucous cell metaplasia (MCM). The increased airway eosinophils and MCM in HDM-challenged Cd163(-/-) mice were mediated by augmented CCL24 production and could be reversed by administration of a neutralizing anti-CCL24 antibody. A proteomic analysis identified the calcium-dependent binding of CD163 to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus peptidase 1 (Der p1). Der p1-challenged Cd163(-/-) mice had the same phenotype as HDM-challenged Cd163(-/-) mice with increases in airway eosinophils, MCM and CCL24 production, while Der p1 induced CCL24 secretion by bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMΦs) from Cd163(-/-) mice, but not BMMΦs from wild-type (WT) mice. Finally, airway eosinophils and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid CCL24 levels were increased in Der p1-challenged WT mice that received adoptively transferred AMΦ's from Cd163(-/-) mice. Thus, we have identified CD163 as a macrophage receptor that binds Der p1. Furthermore, we have shown that HDM-challenged Cd163(-/-) mice have increased eosinophilic airway inflammation and MCM that are mediated by a CCL24-dependent mechanism.

  16. Association of asthma with serum IgE and skin test reactivity to allergens among children living at high altitude. Tickling the dragon's breath.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporik, R; Ingram, J M; Price, W; Sussman, J H; Honsinger, R W; Platts-Mills, T A

    1995-05-01

    Asthma in children and young adults is strongly associated with immediate hypersensitivity to indoor allergens, notably those derived from the house dust mite. In addition, outdoor air pollution is considered to aggravate existing asthma. We investigated the prevalence of asthma and the pattern of allergen sensitization in a mite-free environment with low levels of outdoor air pollution. A total of 567 children aged between 12 and 14 attending Los Alamos Middle School, NM (altitude 7,200 feet) were screened using a respiratory questionnaire; 120 children (53 control children) underwent allergen skin testing and serum IgE measurement, and their bronchial reactivity to histamine was measured. Dust was collected from 111 homes and the level of indoor mite and cat allergen measured. The prevalence of respiratory symptoms was high (13%), and from the detailed testing it was estimated that 6.3% of the children had asthma (defined as symptomatic bronchial reactivity). Children with asthma had elevated IgE, 367 (179 to 755) versus 38 (23 to 61), and predominant sensitization to cat, 68 versus 20% (p < 0.001). A high number of households (77%) had a pet cat or dog. The concentration of mite allergen was very low (mean 0.18 micrograms Der p milligrams sieved house dust), whereas that of cat allergen was high in homes with a cat (80.8 micrograms Fel d milligrams) but also in homes with no cat (3.2 micrograms Fel d milligrams). The results show that in a mite-free environment with low levels of outdoor air pollution, asthma was still a major cause of morbidity among schoolchildren.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Induction of allergen-specific tolerance via mucosal routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarell, Laurent; Zimmer, Aline; Van Overtvelt, Laurence; Tourdot, Sophie; Moingeon, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy is the only curative treatment of allergies against insect venom, house dust mites, tree/grass pollens, or cat dander. Subcutaneous immunotherapy is successful to reorient the immune system and re-establish long-term tolerance. However, major drawbacks for using this route include: repeated injections, as well as the risk of anaphylaxis. In this context, alternative mucosal routes of administration are being considered together with the combined use of adjuvants/vector systems and recombinant allergens or peptide fragments. Herein, we review the current status in the use of mucosal routes (i.e., sublingual, oral, intranasal) for allergen-specific immunotherapy, as well as the latest understanding with respect to underlying mechanisms of action.

  18. The Lys-Asp-Tyr Triad within the Mite Allergen Der p 1 Propeptide Is a Critical Structural Element for the pH-Dependent Initiation of the Protease Maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevigné, Andy; Campizi, Vincenzo; Szpakowska, Martyna; Bourry, David; Dumez, Marie-Eve; Martins, José C; Matagne, André; Galleni, Moreno; Jacquet, Alain

    2017-05-20

    The major house dust mite allergen, Der p 1, is a papain-like cysteine protease expressed as an inactive precursor, proDer p 1, carrying an N-terminal propeptide with a unique structure. The maturation of the zymogen into an enzymatically-active form of Der p 1 is a multistep autocatalytic process initiated under acidic conditions through conformational changes of the propeptide, leading to the loss of its inhibitory ability and its subsequent gradual cleavage. The aims of this study were to characterize the residues present in the Der p 1 propeptide involved in the initiation of the zymogen maturation process, but also to assess the impact of acidic pH on the propeptide structure, the activity of Der p 1 and the fate of the propeptide. Using various complementary enzymatic and structural approaches, we demonstrated that a structural triad K17p-D51p-Y19p within the N-terminal domain of the propeptide is essential for its stabilization and the sensing of pH changes. Particularly, the protonation of D51p under acidic conditions unfolds the propeptide through disruption of the K17p-D51p salt bridge, reduces its inhibition capacity and unmasks the buried residues K17p and Y19p constituting the first maturation cleavage site of the zymogen. Our results also evidenced that this triad acts in a cooperative manner with other propeptide pH-responsive elements, including residues E56p and E80p, to promote the propeptide unfolding and/or to facilitate its proteolysis. Furthermore, we showed that acidic conditions modify Der p 1 proteolytic specificity and confirmed that the formation of the first intermediate represents the limiting step of the in vitro Der p 1 maturation process. Altogether, our results provide new insights into the early events of the mechanism of proDer p 1 maturation and identify a unique structural triad acting as a stabilizing and a pH-sensing regulatory element.

  19. The Lys-Asp-Tyr Triad within the Mite Allergen Der p 1 Propeptide Is a Critical Structural Element for the pH-Dependent Initiation of the Protease Maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Chevigné

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The major house dust mite allergen, Der p 1, is a papain-like cysteine protease expressed as an inactive precursor, proDer p 1, carrying an N-terminal propeptide with a unique structure. The maturation of the zymogen into an enzymatically-active form of Der p 1 is a multistep autocatalytic process initiated under acidic conditions through conformational changes of the propeptide, leading to the loss of its inhibitory ability and its subsequent gradual cleavage. The aims of this study were to characterize the residues present in the Der p 1 propeptide involved in the initiation of the zymogen maturation process, but also to assess the impact of acidic pH on the propeptide structure, the activity of Der p 1 and the fate of the propeptide. Using various complementary enzymatic and structural approaches, we demonstrated that a structural triad K17p-D51p-Y19p within the N-terminal domain of the propeptide is essential for its stabilization and the sensing of pH changes. Particularly, the protonation of D51p under acidic conditions unfolds the propeptide through disruption of the K17p-D51p salt bridge, reduces its inhibition capacity and unmasks the buried residues K17p and Y19p constituting the first maturation cleavage site of the zymogen. Our results also evidenced that this triad acts in a cooperative manner with other propeptide pH-responsive elements, including residues E56p and E80p, to promote the propeptide unfolding and/or to facilitate its proteolysis. Furthermore, we showed that acidic conditions modify Der p 1 proteolytic specificity and confirmed that the formation of the first intermediate represents the limiting step of the in vitro Der p 1 maturation process. Altogether, our results provide new insights into the early events of the mechanism of proDer p 1 maturation and identify a unique structural triad acting as a stabilizing and a pH-sensing regulatory element.

  20. The complete mitochondrial genome of the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Trouessart: a novel gene arrangement among arthropods

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    Vanholme Bartel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The apparent scarcity of available sequence data has greatly impeded evolutionary studies in Acari (mites and ticks. This subclass encompasses over 48,000 species and forms the largest group within the Arachnida. Although mitochondrial genomes are widely utilised for phylogenetic and population genetic studies, only 20 mitochondrial genomes of Acari have been determined, of which only one belongs to the diverse order of the Sarcoptiformes. In this study, we describe the mitochondrial genome of the European house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, the most important member of this largely neglected group. Results The mitochondrial genome of D. pteronyssinus is a circular DNA molecule of 14,203 bp. It contains the complete set of 37 genes (13 protein coding genes, 2 rRNA genes and 22 tRNA genes, usually present in metazoan mitochondrial genomes. The mitochondrial gene order differs considerably from that of other Acari mitochondrial genomes. Compared to the mitochondrial genome of Limulus polyphemus, considered as the ancestral arthropod pattern, only 11 of the 38 gene boundaries are conserved. The majority strand has a 72.6% AT-content but a GC-skew of 0.194. This skew is the reverse of that normally observed for typical animal mitochondrial genomes. A microsatellite was detected in a large non-coding region (286 bp, which probably functions as the control region. Almost all tRNA genes lack a T-arm, provoking the formation of canonical cloverleaf tRNA-structures, and both rRNA genes are considerably reduced in size. Finally, the genomic sequence was used to perform a phylogenetic study. Both maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analysis clustered D. pteronyssinus with Steganacarus magnus, forming a sistergroup of the Trombidiformes. Conclusion Although the mitochondrial genome of D. pteronyssinus shares different features with previously characterised Acari mitochondrial genomes, it is unique in many ways. Gene

  1. Evaluation of house dust mite allergy in real life: patients' characteristics and satisfaction with treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, F; Scurati, S; Dell'Albani, I; Puccinelli, P; Incorvaia, C; Passalacqua, G

    2014-01-01

    HDMs are a ubiquitous allergen source, with a very well defined biology, but their role in clinical settings and in everyday clinical practice is not well characterized. Aim of this cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was to assess the clinical characteristics of HDM-related respiratory allergy in a large population of Italian patients. A structured questionnaire was sent to allergists randomly chosen among those of the Italian Federation of Immunology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology (IFIACI). They were asked to fill it with the clinical data of 10-12 consecutive patients referred for respiratory allergy, positive to HDM skin prick test. The questionnaire assessed type and severity of allergy, demographics, yearly distribution of symptoms, treatment, and satisfaction with the therapy. 45 allergists collected data from 499 patients. Within the evaluated population, 42% had rhinitis only, 45% asthma + rhinitis and 13% asthma alone. Rhinitis was moderate/severe in 51% of patients. Asthma was intermittent in 36% of patients, mild in 37% and moderate in 27%. Conjunctivitis was the most frequent comorbidity (36%), followed by rhinosinusitis (16%), adenoid hypertrophy (6%) and polyposis (5%). Out of the population, 56.2% of patients were not at all or partially not satisfied of their treatment for rhinitis, whereas the percentage of dissatisfied patients was about 53% for asthma therapy. 34% patients (n = 170) were monosensitized to HDM. It is confirmed that patients have more symptoms during the fall-winter periods. Patients with HDM allergy have frequently moderate-severe rhinitis, and about 50% of them are not satisfied with their treatment.

  2. Clinical efficacy of a standardized specific immunotherapy against house dust mite in 85 asthmatic children%尘螨标准化免疫治疗85例哮喘儿童疗效相关指标分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张璇; 李孟荣; 王超; 王晓宁; 张海邻; 林剑; 金可; 李迎春

    2010-01-01

    , total IgE, specific IgE, peak expiratory flow rate (PEF), etc. during a standardized SIT against house dust mite in allergic asthmatic children. Method Children (5-13 years old) with mild to moderate allergic asthma seen from February 2005 to June 2008 were enrolled into this study. A non- randomized retrospective study was performed. All children were diagnosed sensitive to dust mites, the treatment group accepted standardized dust mite allergen specific immunotherapy. Each fourth injections were defined as observation points, the study took 3.4 years. The investigators recorded the treatment, the cumulative allergen extract, changes of daffy doses of inhaled corticosteroid, peak expiratory flow (PEF), total IgE (TIgE), specific IgE (SIgE). The control group only received inhaled corticosteroids. The daily doses of inhaled corticosteroid and the number of asthma attacks,and the control rate were compared between the 2 groups. Result Totally 85 children were treated with SIT [(7.6 ± 1.4) years], 45 males and 40 females; 50 children received only drug treatment [(7.7 ± 1.5)years], 28 males and 22 females. The cumulative dose of allergen was up to (69.7 ± 4.8) μg after the 20 times injection, the dose of inhaled corticosteroids was significantly less than that in the control group ( t =2. 359, P < 0.05). PEF was significantly higher than that of pre-treatment level ( F = 7.874, P < 0.05 ).TIgE and SIgE had no significant change (t = 0.313, P > 0.05, tDerp = 0.517, tDerf = 0.717,P > 0.05 ). After the treatment, the control rate of the SIT group was 85.5%, that of the control group was 62.0% (X2 =10.150, P <0.01). Conclusion The standardized SIT against house dust mite could reduce steroid use in mild to moderate allergic asthmatic children. After ( 38.7± 2.3 ) weeks, the cumulative dose of allergen was up to (69.7 + 4.8) μg, inhaled corticosteroid was significantly reduced. At the end of SIT, 85% of patients obtained complete control of asthma. Total Ig

  3. Analysis of allergens in 531 patients with chronic urticaria%台州市531例慢性荨麻疹过敏原检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任小丽; 苏湘川; 孙灵芬

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To detect common allergens in 531 patients with chronic urticaria in Taizhou.Methods:The serum allergens were detected by immunoblotting method. Results:The positivity rate of inhalation allergens was 25.24% (134 patients) and the most common allergen of inhalation was dust mite (119 patients 22.41%). The positivity rate of edibility allergens was 29% (154 patients) of which most common edibility allergen was crab (73 patients 13.75%). Conclusion:The most common allergen in Taizhou is dust mite.%目的:筛选台州市531例慢性荨麻疹患者过敏原。方法:采用免疫印迹法对531例慢性荨麻疹患者进行过敏原测定。结果:吸入性过敏原阳性率为25.24%(134例),其中尘螨阳性率22.41%(119例);食入性过敏原阳性率为29.0%(154例),其中蟹抗体阳性率13.75%(73例)。结论:本地区常见过敏原为尘螨。

  4. Dual oxidase 2 is essential for house dust mite-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production in human keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Eunbi; Choi, Hyun; Park, Kkot-Nara; Park, Ju-Yearl; Lee, Tae Ryong; Shin, Dong Wook; Bae, Yun Soo

    2015-12-01

    House dust mites (HDMs) are known to trigger chronic inflammation through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and their signalling cascades. In this study, we found that TLR2 ligation by HDMs induced the activation of dual oxidase 2 (Duox2) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), leading to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in human keratinocytes. Stimulation of human keratinocytes with HDMs resulted in increases in interleukin-8 (IL-8) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 20 (CCL20) levels. However, pro-inflammatory cytokine production was abolished in keratinocytes transfected with TLR2 siRNA, indicating that HDM-induced cytokine production was mediated via TLR2 signalling. We also examined the function of Duox1/2 isozymes, which are primarily expressed in keratinocytes, in HDM-mediated pro-inflammatory cytokine production. Human keratinocytes transfected with control siRNA or Duox1 siRNA showed no inhibition of IL-8 or CCL20 production in response to HDMs, whereas the silencing of Duox2 expression resulted in a failure to induce cytokine production. Moreover, the phosphorylation and nuclear localization of RelA/p65, a component of NF-κB, were induced by HDMs in human keratinocytes. Transfection of human keratinocytes with TLR2 siRNA or Duox2 siRNA resulted in the complete abolishment of RelA/p65 nuclear localization in response to HDMs. Taken together, these results indicate that the HDM-dependent TLR2-Duox2 signalling axis indeed promotes NF-κB activation, which induces IL-8 and CCL20 production and mediates epidermal keratinocyte inflammation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Protective Roles for RGS2 in a Mouse Model of House Dust Mite-Induced Airway Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Tresa; Bell, Matthew; Chakraborty, Mainak; Siderovski, David P.; Giembycz, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    The GTPase-accelerating protein, regulator of G-protein signalling 2 (RGS2) reduces signalling from G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that signal via Gαq. In humans, RGS2 expression is up-regulated by inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) and long-acting β2-adrenoceptor agonists (LABAs) such that synergy is produced in combination. This may contribute to the superior clinical efficacy of ICS/LABA therapy in asthma relative to ICS alone. In a murine model of house dust mite (HDM)-induced airways inflammation, three weeks of intranasal HDM (25 μg, 3×/week) reduced lung function and induced granulocytic airways inflammation. Compared to wild type animals, Rgs2-/- mice showed airways hyperresponsiveness (increased airways resistance and reduced compliance). While HDM increased pulmonary inflammation observed on hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, there was no difference between wild type and Rgs2-/- animals. HDM-induced mucus hypersecretion was also unaffected by RGS2 deficiency. However, inflammatory cell counts in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of Rgs2-/- animals were significantly increased (57%) compared to wild type animals and this correlated with increased granulocyte (neutrophil and eosinophil) numbers. Likewise, cytokine and chemokine (IL4, IL17, IL5, LIF, IL6, CSF3, CXCLl, CXCL10 and CXCL11) release was increased by HDM exposure. Compared to wild type, Rgs2-/- animals showed a trend towards increased expression for many cytokines/chemokines, with CCL3, CCL11, CXCL9 and CXCL10 being significantly enhanced. As RGS2 expression was unaffected by HDM exposure, these data indicate that RGS2 exerts tonic bronchoprotection in HDM-induced airways inflammation. Modest anti-inflammatory and anti-remodelling roles for RGS2 are also suggested. If translatable to humans, therapies that maximize RGS2 expression may prove advantageous. PMID:28107494

  6. Skin Test Reactivity to Indoor Allergens Correlates with Asthma Severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

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    Koshak Emad A

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increased emphasis on the role of indoor allergens in asthma. Objective To examine the spectrum of skin test reactivity (sensitization to indoor allergens and its correlation with asthma severity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Methods Asthmatic patients referred to the allergy clinic at King Abdulaziz University Hospital (KAUH in Jeddah were studied. Measures of clinical severity were adopted from national and international asthma guidelines. The degree of sensitization was assessed by the wheal size (positive ≥ 3 mm from standard skin-prick tests for the following common indoor inhalant allergens: house dust mites (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus [Dp] and Dermatophagoides farinae [Df], cat, and cockroach. Results Skin test results from 113 of 151 (74.8% asthmatic patients were positive for one or more allergens. The patients' ages ranged between 9 and 63 years (mean, 30 ± 13 years, and females constituted 65.5%. The predominant asthma severity level was moderate persistent (55.8%, followed by mild persistent (33.6%. The prevalences of sensitization to indoor allergens were as follows: Dp, 87% (3-25 mm [mean, 7 mm]; Df, 84% (3-20 mm [mean, 7 mm]; cat, 44% (3-15 mm [mean, 6 mm]; and cockroach, 33% (3-12 mm [mean, 4 mm]. Higher asthma severity levels were significantly correlated with the number of allergens with positive sensitization (R = 0.3, p Dp [degrees of freedom {df} = 16, p Df [df = 17, p df = 10, p df = 8, p Conclusions Immunoglobulin E-mediated skin test reactivity to indoor allergens, particularly to house dust mites, was common in asthmatic patients from Jeddah at KAUH. Increased sensitization was associated with higher levels of asthma severity, which is compatible with the literature. This emphasizes the importance of identifying sensitization to relevant indoor allergens in the clinical evaluation of asthmatic persons.

  7. The effect of house dust mite sensitization on lung size and airway caliber in symptomatic and nonsymptomatic preadolescent children: A community-based study in Poland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrychowski, W.; Maugeri, U.; Jedrychowska-Bianchi, I.; Mroz, E. [Jagiellonian University, Krakow (Poland)

    2002-06-01

    There are conflicting reports on the effects of atopy on lung function. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of house mite (HM) atopy on lung function in subsamples of 12-year-old symptomatic and nonsymptomatic preadolescent children taken from the community sample. An additional objective of this study was to identify possible environmental determinants of HM skin reaction. HM sensitization was significantly associated with mother's atopy. It occurred predominantly in boys and was related to the use of coal or gas for house heating. The effect of allergen sensitization on lung size and air-way caliber confined to symptomatic subjects may reflect the inflammatory status of bronchial airways in the symptomatic subjects.

  8. Induction of allergic contact dermatitis by astigmatid mite-derived monoterpene, alpha-acaridial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Toshio; Hirano, Yunosuke; Maeda, Sayaka; Matsunaga, Isamu; Otsuka, Atsushi; Morita, Daisuke; Nishida, Ritsuo; Nakayama, Hideo; Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Sugita, Masahiko; Mori, Naoki

    2008-10-24

    alpha-Acaridial [2(E)-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)butenedial] is a novel monoterpene secreted from the house dust mites. Because of its molecular nature of a highly reactive, small lipidic compound, we addressed whether alpha-acaridial might function as a haptenic allergen that induced allergic contact dermatitis. Mice sensitized with alpha-acaridial were challenged by the same antigen on the ear skin. After 2 days, significant ear swelling with a prominent infiltration of CD4(+) T lymphocytes was observed. In vitro, alpha-acaridial exhibited an outstanding ability to quickly interact with and chemically modify a reference protein. Virtually all cysteine residues and a sizable fraction of lysine residues were found to be selectively modified, suggesting that alpha-acaridial could potentially interact with any proteins. Previously, numerous mite-derived proteinaceous allergens have been associated with contact dermatitis. Our study now emphasizes that small lipidic compounds released from mites comprise a new class of mite allergens, and therefore, is of significant medical implications.

  9. Der f 21, a novel allergen from dermatophagoides farina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yulan; Jiang, Congli; Li, Meng; Yu, Haiqiong; Xiao, Xiaojun; Fan, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jianli; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Min; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The Dermatophagoides farina (D. farina) allergens are an important factor contributing to allergic disease. To identify new allergens is important for diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. In this study, we sought to characterize the biological activity of Der f 21 of D. farina. The recombinant Der f 21 protein was characterized by western-blot, ELISA and Skin prick test using clinic patient's serum.An allergic asthma mouse model was established with the rDer f 21 as a specific antigen. The results showed that the sera from 28.9% in 38 dust mite allergic children displayed positive results in response to rDer f 21, and 42% in 98 dust mite allergic patients displayed positive response in skin prick test. In addition, Immune inhibition assays showed there was IgE cross-reactivity between rDer f 21 and rDer f 5. Moreover, an allergic asthma mouse model was established. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, IgG1, eosinophil infiltration in the allergic mice, interleukin-4(IL-4) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) from spleen cells were markedly increased in the allergic mice. The results demonstrate that Der f 21 is a novel allergen.

  10. PROKARYOTIC EXPRESSION AND BIOACTIVITY EVALUATION OF THE CHIMERIC GENE DERIVED FROM THE GROUP 1 ALLERGENS OF DUST MITES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Guo, Wei; Jiang, Yuxin

    2015-12-01

    Antecedentes: se reconstituyó con éxito el gen del grupo 1 alérgenos de los ácaros del polvo, y obtuvo un conjunto de genes barajadas. Con el fin de verificar la predicción en el gen quimérico, hemos clonado tentativamente R8 en el vector que se expresó prokaryoticly, purificó y se evaluó por sus actividades-bio. Métodos: el producto expresado se detectó por SDS-PAGE y la proteína diana se purificó. La proteína purificada R8 se detectó por ELISA. Setenta y cinco ratones BALB/ c se dividieron en 5 grupos, a saber: PBS, rDer f1, rDer p1, R8 y el grupo de asma. Los ratones fueron tratados con alérgenos de ácaros del polvo a los 0, 7, 14 días mediante inyección intraperitoneal y inhaladas desafío como aerosol en día 21 durante 7 días. La inmunoterapia específica para el alérgeno se realizó utilizando rDer f1, rDer p1 y alérgenos R8, respectivamente. El nivel de IFN e IL-4 en BALF se detectó por ELISA. Resultados: el gen quimérico R8 se expresó con una banda de aproximadamente Mr 35000. En comparación con los grupos de rDer f 1 y rDer p 1 [(80,44 ± 15,50) y (90,79 ± 10,38) μg/ml, respectivamente], la capacidad de unión a IgE de la proteína R8 (37,03 ± 12,46) μg/ml fue estadísticamente inferior (P.

  11. Effect of Age on Allergen Responses of Allergic Patients in Southern Taiwan

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    Wen Chiang

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available To survey airborne and food allergen patterns in southern Taiwan and to analyze the effect of age on response to different allergens, we tested samples from 4,411 allergic patients at Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital using the MAST-CLA test (new Taiwan panel. A total of 2,212 (50.1% samples showed a positive response. We grouped allergic patients into five age groups. Milk and egg white were the main food allergens in the younger groups (< 3 years old and 3-6 years old. Shrimp, crab, and shellfish were the main allergens in the groups aged 7-12, 13-18, and more than 18 years. Among airborne allergens, house dust and mites Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus were the main allergens in all age groups, whereas the frequency of response to cockroach allergen was low in the group aged less than 3 years, but increased in the other age groups. There was a sharp increase in the frequency of response to airborne allergens after 3 years old and a sharp decrease in response to food allergens. Among subjects allergic to both airborne and food allergens, there was a positive MAST-CLA rate of 19.9% to 26% (all five age groups, no significant difference. When we compared our results with those from Taipei Veterans General Hospital in northern Taiwan, there were significant differences for yeast, peanut, feather mix, dog dander, cockroach, D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus allergens (p < 0.01. These differences were probably caused by differences in patient location, patient age, disease patterns and allergen panels.

  12. Development of a cDNA microarray for the measurement of gene expression in the sheep scab mite Psoroptes ovis

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    Burgess Stewart TG

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sheep scab is caused by the ectoparasitic mite Psoroptes ovis which initiates a profound cutaneous inflammatory response, leading to the development of the skin lesions which are characteristic of the disease. Existing control strategies rely upon injectable endectocides and acaricidal dips but concerns over residues, eco-toxicity and the development of acaricide resistance limit the sustainability of this approach. In order to identify alternative means of disease control, a deeper understanding of both the parasite and its interaction with the host are required. Methods Herein we describe the development and utilisation of an annotated P. ovis cDNA microarray containing 3,456 elements for the measurement of gene expression in this economically important ectoparasite. The array consists of 981 P. ovis EST sequences printed in triplicate along with 513 control elements. Array performance was validated through the analysis of gene expression differences between fed and starved P. ovis mites. Results Sequences represented on the array include homologues of major house dust mite allergens and tick salivary proteins, along with factors potentially involved in mite reproduction and xenobiotic metabolism. In order to validate the performance of this unique resource under biological conditions we used the array to analyse gene expression differences between fed and starved P. ovis mites. These analyses identified a number of house dust mite allergen homologues up-regulated in fed mites and P. ovis transcripts involved in stress responses, autophagy and chemosensory perception up-regulated in starved mites. Conclusion The P. ovis cDNA microarray described here has been shown to be both robust and reproducible and will enable future studies to analyse gene expression in this important ectoparasite.

  13. Allergic Responses Induced by a Fungal Biopesticide Metarhizium anisopliae and House Dust Mite are Compared in a Mouse Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biopesticides can be effective in controlling their target pest. However, research regarding mammalian health impacts of these agents has focused on toxicity and pathogenicity, with limited research regarding allergenicity and asthma development. We compared the ability of funga...

  14. Seasonal changes in nasal cytology in mite-allergic patients

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    Gelardi M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Diego G Peroni,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Nicola Quaranta,1 Concetta De Luca,1 Salvatore Barberi,4 Ilaria Dell'Albani,5 Massimo Landi,6 Franco Frati,5 Olivier de Beaumont7 1Otolaryngology Unit, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, Bari, Italy; 2Department of Pediatrics, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation, ICP Hospital, Milan, Italy; 4Department of Pediatrics, San Paolo Hospital, Milan, Italy; 5Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes, Milan, Italy; 6Department of Pediatrics, National Healthcare System, ASL TO1, Turin, Italy; 7Medical Affairs Department, Stallergenes, Antony, France Background: House dust mites (HDMs are a major cause of allergic rhinitis (AR and asthma worldwide. Recent studies suggested that the allergen load presents seasonal modifications, giving rise to seasonal variation in nasal inflammation and symptoms. The aim of this study was to evaluate by nasal cytology whether nasal inflammation in mite-allergic patients changes with the seasons of the year. Methods: The study included 16 patients (seven males and nine females, mean age 38.1 years with persistent AR caused by monosensitization to HDMs. Nasal cytology was performed in all patients once monthly for 1 year. Results: Nasal cytology showed that the cells most commonly detected in the nasal mucosa were neutrophils. During the period from October to April, a peak in the number of neutrophils and also the presence of significant numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and lymphocytes/plasma cells were found, which shows the occurrence of more intense inflammation during these months. Conclusion: Nasal cytology provides useful data in detecting nasal inflammation and its association with the clinical stage of AR. The seasonal variations in nasal cytology are likely to be induced by the fluctuations in the HDM allergen that have been uncovered in recent investigations. Keywords: allergens

  15. Alternaria alternata allergens: Markers of exposure, phylogeny and risk of fungi-induced respiratory allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Marta F; Postigo, Idoia; Tomaz, Cândida T; Martínez, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria alternata spores are considered a well-known biological contaminant and a very common potent aeroallergen source that is found in environmental samples. The most intense exposure to A. alternata allergens is likely to occur outdoors; however, Alternaria and other allergenic fungi can colonize in indoor environments and thereby increase the fungal aeroallergen exposure levels. A consequence of human exposure to fungal aeroallergens, sensitization to A. alternata, has been unequivocally associated with increased asthma severity. Among allergenic proteins described in this fungal specie, the major allergen, Alt a 1, has been reported as the main elicitor of airborne allergies in patients affected by a mold allergy and considered a marker of primary sensitization to A. alternata. Moreover, A. alternata sensitization seems to be a triggering factor in the development of poly-sensitization, most likely because of the capability of A. alternata to produce, in addition to Alt a 1, a broad and complex array of cross-reactive allergens that present homologs in several other allergenic sources. The study and understanding of A. alternata allergen information may be the key to explaining why sensitization to A. alternata is a risk factor for asthma and also why the severity of asthma is associated to this mold. Compared to other common environmental allergenic sources, such as pollens and dust mites, fungi are reported to be neglected and underestimated. The rise of the A. alternata allergy has enabled more research into the role of this fungal specie and its allergenic components in the induction of IgE-mediated respiratory diseases. Indeed, recent research on the identification and characterization of A. alternata allergens has allowed for the consideration of new perspectives in the categorization of allergenic molds, assessment of exposure and diagnosis of fungi-induced allergies.

  16. Evaluating the in vivo Th2 priming potential among common allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camberis, Mali; Prout, Melanie; Tang, Shiau-Choot; Forbes-Blom, Elizabeth; Robinson, Marcus; Kyle, Ryan; Belkaid, Yasmine; Paul, William; Le Gros, Graham

    2013-08-30

    Exposure to allergens, both man-made and from our environment is increasingly associated with the development of significant human health issues such as allergy and asthma. Allergen induced production of the cytokine interleukin (IL-)4 by Th2 cells is central to the pathogenesis of allergic disease (Gavett et al., 1994). The development of the G4 mouse, that expresses green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a surrogate for IL-4 protein expression has made it possible to directly track the immune cells that produce IL-4. By combining a reliable intradermal immunisation technique with the transgenic G4 mouse we have been able to develop a novel & unique in vivo primary Th2 immune response model (PTh2). When allergens relevant to human disease are evaluated using the PTh2 assay a dose dependent hierarchy of allergenicity is revealed with environmental allergens (cockroach, house dust mite) the most potent and food allergens being the least. In addition, the PTh2 assay is extremely sensitive to the immunoregulatory effects of Mycobacterial extracts and immunosuppressive drugs on primary Th2 cell development. Taken together, this assay provides a standardised method for the identification of the structural and functional properties of proteins relevant to allergenicity, and is a powerful screening tool for novel lead compounds that are effective at inhibiting the primary Th2 response in allergic diseases.

  17. Glycoproteomic Analysis of Seven Major Allergenic Proteins Reveals Novel Post-translational Modifications*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Adnan; Carlsson, Michael C.; Madsen, Caroline Benedicte; Brand, Stephanie; Møller, Svenning Rune; Olsen, Carl Erik; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y.; Brimnes, Jens; Wurtzen, Peter Adler; Ipsen, Henrik; Petersen, Bent L.; Wandall, Hans H.

    2015-01-01

    Allergenic proteins such as grass pollen and house dust mite (HDM) proteins are known to trigger hypersensitivity reactions of the immune system, leading to what is commonly known as allergy. Key allergenic proteins including sequence variants have been identified but characterization of their post-translational modifications (PTMs) is still limited. Here, we present a detailed PTM1 characterization of a series of the main and clinically relevant allergens used in allergy tests and vaccines. We employ Orbitrap-based mass spectrometry with complementary fragmentation techniques (HCD/ETD) for site-specific PTM characterization by bottom-up analysis. In addition, top-down mass spectrometry is utilized for targeted analysis of individual proteins, revealing hitherto unknown PTMs of HDM allergens. We demonstrate the presence of lysine-linked polyhexose glycans and asparagine-linked N-acetylhexosamine glycans on HDM allergens. Moreover, we identified more complex glycan structures than previously reported on the major grass pollen group 1 and 5 allergens, implicating important roles for carbohydrates in allergen recognition and response by the immune system. The new findings are important for understanding basic disease-causing mechanisms at the cellular level, which ultimately may pave the way for instigating novel approaches for targeted desensitization strategies and improved allergy vaccines. PMID:25389185

  18. Glycoproteomic analysis of seven major allergenic proteins reveals novel post-translational modifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Adnan; Carlsson, Michael C; Madsen, Caroline Benedicte; Brand, Stephanie; Møller, Svenning Rune; Olsen, Carl Erik; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y; Brimnes, Jens; Wurtzen, Peter Adler; Ipsen, Henrik; Petersen, Bent L; Wandall, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    Allergenic proteins such as grass pollen and house dust mite (HDM) proteins are known to trigger hypersensitivity reactions of the immune system, leading to what is commonly known as allergy. Key allergenic proteins including sequence variants have been identified but characterization of their post-translational modifications (PTMs) is still limited. Here, we present a detailed PTM(1) characterization of a series of the main and clinically relevant allergens used in allergy tests and vaccines. We employ Orbitrap-based mass spectrometry with complementary fragmentation techniques (HCD/ETD) for site-specific PTM characterization by bottom-up analysis. In addition, top-down mass spectrometry is utilized for targeted analysis of individual proteins, revealing hitherto unknown PTMs of HDM allergens. We demonstrate the presence of lysine-linked polyhexose glycans and asparagine-linked N-acetylhexosamine glycans on HDM allergens. Moreover, we identified more complex glycan structures than previously reported on the major grass pollen group 1 and 5 allergens, implicating important roles for carbohydrates in allergen recognition and response by the immune system. The new findings are important for understanding basic disease-causing mechanisms at the cellular level, which ultimately may pave the way for instigating novel approaches for targeted desensitization strategies and improved allergy vaccines.

  19. Effects of sublingual immunotherapy in a murine asthma model sensitized by intranasal administration of house dust mite extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenjiro Shima

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: These data suggest that earlier induction of SLIT in HDM-sensitized mice provides superior suppression of AHR and goblet cell metaplasia. The modulation of allergen specific IgG2a and local IgA might play a role in the amelioration of AHR and airway inflammation.

  20. Allergen exposure modifies the relation of sensitization to fraction of exhaled nitric oxide levels in children at risk for allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sordillo, Joanne E; Webb, Tara; Kwan, Doris; Kamel, Jimmy; Hoffman, Elaine; Milton, Donald K; Gold, Diane R

    2011-05-01

    Studies on airway inflammation, measured as fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FENO), have focused on its relation to control of asthma, but the contribution of allergen exposure to the increase in FENO levels is unknown. We evaluated (1) whether FENO levels were increased in children with allergic sensitization or asthma; (2) whether specific allergen exposure increased FENO levels in sensitized, but not unsensitized, children; and (3) whether sedentary behavior increased FENO levels independent of allergen exposures. At age 12 years, in a birth cohort of children with a parental history of allergy or asthma, we measured bed dust allergen (dust mite, cat, and cockroach) by means of ELISA, specific allergic sensitization primarily based on specific IgE levels, and respiratory disease (current asthma, rhinitis, and wheeze) and hours of television viewing/video game playing by means of questionnaire. Children performed spirometric maneuvers before and after bronchodilator responses and had FENO levels measured by using electrochemical detection methods (NIOX MINO). FENO levels were increased in children with current asthma (32.2 ppb), wheeze (27.0 ppb), or rhinitis (23.2 ppb) compared with subjects without these respective symptoms/diagnoses (16.4-16.6 ppb, P mite) predicted higher FENO levels and explained one third of the variability in FENO levels. FENO levels were highest in children both sensitized and exposed to dust mite. Greater than 10 hours of weekday television viewing was associated with a 0.64-log increase in FENO levels after controlling for indoor allergen exposure, body mass index, and allergic sensitization. Allergen exposures and sedentary behavior (television viewing/video game playing) might increase airway inflammation, which was measured as the FENO. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased ventilation rate as way to reduce the exposure to house dust mites and improve the health of asthmatic children - an intervention design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Kolarik, Barbara; Gunnarsen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    International field studies have documented that indoor air quality is unsatisfactory in many buildings. The overall hypothesis of this project is that improving the indoor environment in dwellings can improve health and reduce suffering from indoor related diseases such as allergy and asthma...... that have shown a marked increase in incidence all around the world during last decades. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of increased ventilation and expected lower exposure to house dust mites on symptoms and medication intake among asthmatic children. This will be done by installing...... balanced mechanical ventilation systems in 80 single-family houses. Half of the houses will be equipped with an effective ventilation system increasing air change rates from normal to approximately 3 h-1. A fake ventilation system will be installed in the other half of the houses. Primary subjects...

  2. Helminth infection alters IgE responses to allergens structurally related to parasite proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Helton da Costa; Ribeiro-Gomes, Flávia L; Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Nutman, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Immunological cross-reactivity between environmental allergens and helminth proteins has been demonstrated, although the clinically related implications of this cross-reactivity have not been addressed. To investigate the impact of molecular similarity among allergens and cross-reactive homologous helminth proteins in IgE-based serologic assessment of allergic disorders in a helminth-infected population, we performed ImmunoCAP tests in filarial-infected and noninfected individuals for IgE measurements to allergen extracts that contained proteins with high levels of homology with helminth proteins as well as IgE against representative recombinant allergens with and without helminth homologs. The impact of helminth infection on the levels and function of the IgE to these specific homologous and nonhomologous allergens was corroborated in an animal model. We found that having a tissue-invasive filarial infection increased the serological prevalence of ImmunoCAP-identified IgE directed against house dust mite and cockroach, but not against timothy grass, the latter with few allergens with homologs in helminth infection. IgE ELISA confirmed that filaria-infected individuals had higher IgE prevalences to those recombinant allergens that had homologs in helminths. Mice infected with the helminth Heligmosomoides polygyrus displayed increased levels of IgE and positive skin tests to allergens with homologs in the parasite. These results show that cross-reactivity among allergens and helminth proteins can have practical implications, altering serologic approaches to allergen testing and bringing a new perspective to the "hygiene hypothesis."

  3. Aluminum sulfate significantly reduces the skin test response to common allergens in sensitized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grier Thomas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avoidance of allergens is still recommended as the first and best way to prevent allergic illnesses and their comorbid diseases. Despite a variety of attempts there has been very limited success in the area of environmental control of allergic disease. Our objective was to identify a non-invasive, non-pharmacological method to reduce indoor allergen loads in atopic persons' homes and public environments. We employed a novel in vivo approach to examine the possibility of using aluminum sulfate to control environmental allergens. Methods Fifty skin test reactive patients were simultaneously skin tested with conventional test materials and the actions of the protein/glycoprotein modifier, aluminum sulfate. Common allergens, dog, cat, dust mite, Alternaria, and cockroach were used in the study. Results Skin test reactivity was significantly reduced by the modifier aluminum sulfate. Our studies demonstrate that the effects of histamine were not affected by the presence of aluminum sulfate. In fact, skin test reactivity was reduced independent of whether aluminum sulfate was present in the allergen test material or removed prior to testing, indicating that the allergens had in some way been inactivated. Conclusion Aluminum sulfate was found to reduce the in vivo allergic reaction cascade induced by skin testing with common allergens. The exact mechanism is not clear but appears to involve the alteration of IgE-binding epitopes on the allergen. Our results indicate that it may be possible to diminish the allergenicity of an environment by application of the active agent aluminum sulfate, thus producing environmental control without complete removal of the allergen.

  4. Molecular Diagnosis of Shrimp Allergy: Efficiency of Several Allergens to Predict Clinical Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascal, Mariona; Grishina, Galina; Yang, Ariana C; Sánchez-García, Silvia; Lin, Jing; Towle, David; Ibañez, Maria Dolores; Sastre, Joaquín; Sampson, Hugh A; Ayuso, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    The diagnosis of shellfish allergy remains a challenge for clinicians. Several shellfish allergens have been characterized and their IgE epitopes identified. However, the clinical relevance of this sensitization is still not clear. The objective of this study was to identify allergens and epitopes associated with clinical reactivity to shrimp. Shrimp-sensitized subjects were recruited and grouped based on the history of shrimp-allergic reactions and challenge outcome. IgE reactivity to recombinant crustacean allergens, and IgE and IgG4 reactivity to peptides were determined. Subjects sensitized to dust mites and/or cockroach without shrimp sensitization or reported allergic reactions, as well as nonatopic individuals, were used as controls. A total of 86 subjects were recruited with a skin prick test to shrimp; 74 reported shrimp-allergic reactions, 58 were allergic (38 positive double-blind placebo-controlled food challenge and 20 recent anaphylaxis), and 16 were tolerant. All subjects without a history of reactions had negative challenges. The individuals with a positive challenge more frequently recognized tropomyosin and sarcoplasmic calcium-binding proteins than those found tolerant by the challenge. Especially a sarcoplasmic-calcium-binding-protein positive test is very likely to result in a positive challenge, though the frequency of recognition is low. Subjects with dust mite and/or cockroach allergy not sensitized to shrimp recognized arginine kinase and hemocyanin. Several epitopes of these allergens may be important in predicting clinical reactivity. Tropomyosin and sarcoplasmic-calcium-binding-protein sensitization is associated with clinical reactivity to shrimp. Myosin light chain testing may help in the diagnosis of clinical reactivity. Arginine kinase and hemocyanin appear to be cross-reacting allergens between shrimp and arthropods. Detection of IgE to these allergens and some of their epitopes may be better diagnostic tools in the routine workup

  5. Allergens and β-glucans in dutch homes and schools: characterizing airborne levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmeralda J M Krop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Indoor air quality has an effect on respiratory health. Children are more vulnerable to a decreased indoor air quality as their lungs are still developing. We measured levels of allergens and β-(1,3-glucans in 19 school buildings and determined whether measured levels could be reproduced. School levels were compared to those in 169 homes and the effect of building characteristics on both home and school exposure was explored. METHODS: Electrostatic Dust fall Collectors were placed in school buildings for 8 weeks and in homes for 2 weeks to collect settled airborne dust. Cat, dog, and mouse allergen levels, domestic mite antigen levels and β-(1,3-glucans were measured in the extracts from the collectors. Results were corrected for sampling duration. Using questionnaire data, relations between measured levels and building and classroom characteristics were explored. RESULTS: In schools, exposure levels were highest in classrooms and were influenced by the socioeconomic status of the children, the season measurements were performed, moisture status of the building and pet ownership. Repeated measurements in different seasons and over the years showed significantly different levels. Home exposure was influenced by socioeconomic status, occupancy and pet ownership. Domestic mite antigen was found in higher levels in extracts from homes compared to schools while pet allergen levels were 13 times higher in schools compared to homes without pets. For mouse allergen overall levels of exposure were low but still two times higher in schools compared to homes. Levels of β-(1,3-glucans were also approximately two times higher in schools than in homes. CONCLUSION: Exposure levels of several allergens and β-(1,3-glucans in schools differ over time and are higher than in homes. For children, exposure levels measured at school could contribute to their total exposure as especially animal allergen levels can be much higher in schools compared to

  6. Children’s residential exposure to selected allergens and microbial indicators: endotoxins and (1→3)-β-D-glucans

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The study was aimed at assessment of exposure to endotoxins, (1→3)-β-D-glucans and mite, cockroach, cat, dog allergens present in settled dust in premises of children as agents which may be significantly correlated with the occurrence of allergic symptoms and diseases in children. Materials and Methods: The study covered 50 homes of one- or two-year-old children in Poland. Samples of settled dust were taken from the floor and the child's bed. The levels of (1→3)-β-D-glucans (floor...

  7. Dissecting the Causes of Atopic Dermatitis in Children: Less Foods, More Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Fuiano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Atopic dermatitis (AD is a common, chronic or chronically relapsing, multifactorial skin disease that mainly occurs in children but affects also adults. AD usually begins early in life and often concerns people with a personal or family history of asthma and allergic rhinitis. AD is characterized by eczematous changes in the epidermis and originates from a late, T-cell mediated reaction associated to the formation and production of memory T-cell of TH2 type, occurrence of homing receptor at skin level and cutaneous lymphocyte-associated (CLA antigens. Extrinsic or allergic AD, but not intrinsic AD, shows high total serum IgE levels and the presence of specific IgE for environmental and food allergens. A pivotal role in the pathogenesis of AD is played by filaggrin, a protein contained in the granular layer of the epidermis regulating the aggregation of keratin filaments. Mutation in the filaggrin gene causes decreased barrier function of the corny layers of the epidermis. This favours the enter through the skin of environmental allergens, especially the house dust mite, that further facilitates such entering by the proteolytic activity of its major allergen Der p 1. In fact, recent advances suggest that the dust mite, more than foods, is the major cause of allergic AD. As far as the causal diagnosis of AD is concerned, there is notable evidence supporting the capacity of the atopy patch test (APT to reproduce the pathophysiologic events of AD. This makes APT a valuable diagnostic tool for AD.

  8. Cloning,expression and purification of dust mite ferritin and its molecular characteristics%粉尘螨铁蛋白的克隆、表达及蛋白特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林建立; 詹政科; 刘玉琳; 范小琴; 耿晓瑞; 刘晓宇

    2015-01-01

    expressed recombinant plasmid containing ferritin gene was constructed by cloning target gene into pET‐32a and transferred into E .coli Bl21 (DE3) .The ex‐pressed recombinant protein was analyzed by SDS‐PAGE ,and was purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) .The ferritin expressed by dust mite was analyzed by the method of bioinformatics .The recombinant plasmid pET32a‐ferritin was constructed .SDS‐PAGE showed a correct molecular weight of the recombinant ferritin protein .After purification by affinity chromatography ,the protein showed only one strip on SDS‐PAGE gel .SDS‐PAGE showed a band at 20 kD .Dust mite ferritin contains 8 serine kinase ,7 threonine kinase ,7 tyrosine kinase ,and 0 histidine kinase phosphorylation sites .Hy‐drophilic region is larger than the hydrophobic region and it is an unstable protein .In conclusion ,the ferritin gene has been cloned and expressed .The purified ferritin has high purity . The study provides a basis for further study of composition and physicochemical properties of house dust mite allergen .

  9. Limiting factors for growth and development of domestic mites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lynden, A.M.T. van; Kort, H.S.M.; Koren, L.G.H.; Pernot, C.E.E.; Bronswijk, J.E.M.H. van

    1996-01-01

    A quarter to half of European households are at risk of health damage due to mites in their home. House dust mites (family Pyroglyphidae) and storage mites (families Acaridae and Gly-cyphagidae) are present; both groups being specific for different ecosystems: house-dust ecosystem of textiles (house

  10. Comparing Proteolytic Fingerprints of Antigen-Presenting Cells during Allergen Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Hofer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Endolysosomal processing has a critical influence on immunogenicity as well as immune polarization of protein antigens. In industrialized countries, allergies affect around 25% of the population. For the rational design of protein-based allergy therapeutics for immunotherapy, a good knowledge of T cell-reactive regions on allergens is required. Thus, we sought to analyze endolysosomal degradation patterns of inhalant allergens. Four major allergens from ragweed, birch, as well as house dust mites were produced as recombinant proteins. Endolysosomal proteases were purified by differential centrifugation from dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells, and combined with allergens for proteolytic processing. Thereafter, endolysosomal proteolysis was monitored by protein gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. We found that the overall proteolytic activity of specific endolysosomal fractions differed substantially, whereas the degradation patterns of the four model allergens obtained with the different proteases were extremely similar. Moreover, previously identified T cell epitopes were assigned to endolysosomal peptides and indeed showed a good overlap with known T cell epitopes for all four candidate allergens. Thus, we propose that the degradome assay can be used as a predictor to determine antigenic peptides as potential T cell epitopes, which will help in the rational design of protein-based allergy vaccine candidates.

  11. Sensitization to Mites and Total IgE in Allergic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia López Ramírez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Incidence and prevalence of allergic diseases during childhood have significantly increased in developed countries over the last 20 to 30 years. The role of the inhalant allergens in exacerbating respiratory allergies has been demonstrated. House dust mites are the main causative agents. Environmental pollution and climate changes, along with other factors, have contributed to the increase of these diseases. Among such conditions the most frequent in children are respiratory allergies, particularly allergic rhinitis and bronchial asthma. The current article presents a review on allergic rhinitis, bronchial asthma and IgE levels in children, emphasizing on epidemiology and trigger factors.

  12. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Mohr, Jens; Zakzuk, Josefina; Samonig, Martin; Briza, Peter; Erler, Anja; Pomés, Anna; Huber, Christian G; Ferreira, Fatima; Caraballo, Luis

    2013-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs) from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA) are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA), house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8), and cockroach (rBla g 5) was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  13. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Acevedo

    Full Text Available Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA, house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8, and cockroach (rBla g 5 was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  14. [Ecological study of Pyroglyphides mites in house dust in the Grenoble area. A qualitative approach and incidence of various parameters: seasons, altitude, temperature and relative dampness in their multiplication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascaud, D

    1978-01-01

    This study concerns the analysis of 70 samples of dust mites taken periodically from 13 sample areas or mattresses at different altitudes. It shows the presence of Pyroglyphid mites in all the mattresses studied. Four species were found: Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae, Euroglyphus maynei and Dermatophagoides evansi. From a quantitative point of view, the statistical analysis of the results obtained allows the following conclusions to be drawn: -- All the Pyroglyphids (adults and young) undergo seasonal fluctuations at low, middle and high altitude. In the plains and at middle altitude these mites have a seasonal maximum and minimum. At high altitude only the seasonal maximum can be determined. -- The number of Pyroglyphids found is much higher in the plaine than at middle altitude and at middle altitude than at high altitude. The influence of altitude can be demonstrated with certitude. -- The conditions of temperature and relative dampness most favourable to the multiplication of mites are found in the plaine. At middle and high altitude these conditions are only met in summer. In flat country the statistical analysis allows us to show the existance of a correlation between the rate of dampness and the number of Pyroglyphids, and more specially, between the dampness rate and Dermatophagoides farinae, a predominant species at this sampling area. At middle and high altitude such a correlation cannot be shown clearly. At the three altitudes considered, no correlation can be established between the temperature and the number of Pyroglyphid mites found.

  15. Airway Microbial Diversity is Inversely Associated with Mite-Sensitized Rhinitis and Asthma in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Chih-Yung; Chan, Yi-Ling; Tsai, Yu-Shuen; Chen, Ssu-An; Wang, Chia-Jung; Chen, Kuan-Fu; Chung, I-Fang

    2017-05-12

    Microbiota plays an important role in regulating immune responses associated with atopic diseases. We sought to evaluate relationships among airway microbiota, serum IgE levels, allergic sensitization and their relevance to rhinitis and asthma. Microbial characterization was performed using Illumina-based 16S rRNA gene sequencing of 87 throat swabs collected from children with asthma (n = 32) and rhinitis (n = 23), and from healthy controls (n = 32). Data analysis was performed using QIIME (Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology) v1.8. Significantly higher abundance of Proteobacteria was found in children with rhinitis than in the healthy controls (20.1% vs. 16.1%, P = 0.009). Bacterial species richness (Chao1 index) and diversity (Shannon index) were significantly reduced in children with mite sensitization but not in those with food or IgE sensitization. Compared with healthy children without mite sensitization, the mite-sensitized children with rhinitis and asthma showed significantly lower Chao1 and Shannon indices. Moraxella and Leptotrichia species were significantly found in the interaction of mite sensitization with rhinitis and asthma respectively. Airway microbial diversity appears to be inversely associated with sensitization to house dust mites. A modulation between airway dysbiosis and responses to allergens may potentially cause susceptibility to rhinitis and asthma in early childhood.

  16. Airway wall thickness of allergic asthma caused by weed pollen or house dust mite assessed by computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liping; Li, Guangrun; Sun, Yuemei; Li, Jian; Tang, Ningbo; Dong, Liang

    2015-03-01

    Little was known about Airway wall thickness of asthma patients with different allergen allergy. So we explored the possible difference of Airway wall thickness of asthma patients mono-sensitized to weed pollen or HDM using high-resolution computed tomography. 85 severe asthma patients were divided into weed pollen group and HDM group according to relevant allergen. 20 healthy donors served as controls. Airway wall area, percentage wall area and luminal area at the trunk of the apical bronchus of the right upper lobe were quantified using HRCT and compared. The values of pulmonary function were assessed as well. There were differences between HDM group and weed pollen group in WA/BSA,WA% and FEF25-75% pred, and no significant difference in FEV1%pred, FEV1/FVC and LA/BSA. In weed pollen group, WA/BSA was observed to correlate with the duration of rhinitis, whereas in HDM group, WA/BSA and LA/BSA was observed to correlate with the duration of asthma. In weed pollen group, FEV1/FVC showed a weak but significant negative correlation with WA%, but in HDM group FEV1/FVC showed a significant positive correlation with WA% and a statistical negative correlation with LA/BSA. FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75% pred were higher and WA/BSA and LA/BSA were lower in healthy control group than asthma group. FEV1%pred and WA% was no significant difference between asthma patients and healthy subjects. There are differences between HDM mono-sensitized subjects and weed pollen mono-sensitized subjects, not only in airway wall thickness, but also small airway obstruction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Structural Mechanisms of Inactivation in Scabies Mite Serine Protease Paralogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Katja; Langendorf, Christopher G.; Irving, James A.; Reynolds, Simone; Willis, Charlene; Beckham, Simone; Law, Ruby H.P.; Yang, Sundy; Bashtannyk-Puhalovich, Tanya A.; McGowan, Sheena; Whisstock, James C.; Pike, Robert N.; Kemp, David J.; Buckle, Ashley M.; (Monash); (Queensland Inst. of Med. Rsrch.)

    2009-08-07

    The scabies mite (Sarcoptes scabiei) is a parasite responsible for major morbidity in disadvantaged communities and immuno-compromised patients worldwide. In addition to the physical discomfort caused by the disease, scabies infestations facilitate infection by Streptococcal species via skin lesions, resulting in a high prevalence of rheumatic fever/heart disease in affected communities. The scabies mite produces 33 proteins that are closely related to those in the dust mite group 3 allergen and belong to the S1-like protease family (chymotrypsin-like). However, all but one of these molecules contain mutations in the conserved active-site catalytic triad that are predicted to render them catalytically inactive. These molecules are thus termed scabies mite inactivated protease paralogues (SMIPPs). The precise function of SMIPPs is unclear; however, it has been suggested that these proteins might function by binding and protecting target substrates from cleavage by host immune proteases, thus preventing the host from mounting an effective immune challenge. In order to begin to understand the structural basis for SMIPP function, we solved the crystal structures of SMIPP-S-I1 and SMIPP-S-D1 at 1.85 {angstrom} and 2.0 {angstrom} resolution, respectively. Both structures adopt the characteristic serine protease fold, albeit with large structural variations over much of the molecule. In both structures, mutations in the catalytic triad together with occlusion of the S1 subsite by a conserved Tyr200 residue is predicted to block substrate ingress. Accordingly, we show that both proteases lack catalytic function. Attempts to restore function (via site-directed mutagenesis of catalytic residues as well as Tyr200) were unsuccessful. Taken together, these data suggest that SMIPPs have lost the ability to bind substrates in a classical 'canonical' fashion, and instead have evolved alternative functions in the lifecycle of the scabies mite.

  18. Detection of allergen sources in the homes of sensitized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Chávez, Clara R; Flores-Bernal, José L; Esquer-Peralta, Javier; Munguía-Vega, Nora E; Corella-Madueño, María A G; Rascón-Careaga, Antonio; Turcotte, David; Velázquez-Contreras, Luis E

    2016-11-01

    To identify the presence of environmental factors linked to the onset of allergies and asthma in the homes of children participating in an early detection program that were identified with sensitivity to common allergens in the region of Sonora, Mexico. A walkthrough assessment was carried out in the homes of sensitized children; the research tools were the questionnaire and environmental checklist proposed by the Lowell Healthy Homes Program of the University of Massachusetts-Lowell. The results showed the presence of environmental allergen sources, to which most of the children in the study are sensitized, as well as the environmental conditions and habits that determine the quality of the indoor air of the households, were both related to triggering allergies and asthma in this population. A statistically significant association was found between the visual observation of dust inside homes and the sensitivity of children to dust mites. Dust found inside the home was the most relevant environmental factor related to positive cases of IgE in children. Early detection of allergies in children in the study and the methodology used in this investigation provided a useful framework for the design of plans and intervention alternatives in these homes to prevent the development of allergies and asthma panorama. These plans should be designed with a multidisciplinary approach to impact social, environmental and economic benefits in the family, improving the living conditions of the study population and contributing to the sustainable development goals of the United Nations for 2030.

  19. The Hot-Water Extract of Smilacis Chinae Rhizome Suppresses 2,4-Dinitrochlorobenzene and House Dust Mite-Induced Atopic Dermatitis-Like Skin Lesions in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Nam Yong; Park, Eun-Ji; Sung, In sung; Ju, Seul A; Kim, Kyoung Un; Kim, Mi Rae; Song, Do Yeon; Lee, Min-Ju; Kim, Hak-Soo; Kang, Boo-Hyon; Chung, Hun-Jong; Choi, Eun-Ju; Yoon, Ki-Hun; Lee, Min Won; Yun, Seongho; Min, Bokkee; Kwon, Suk Hyung; Shin, Hwa-Sup

    2016-04-01

    Smilacis Chinae Rhizome (SCR) has been used as an oriental folk medicine for various biological activities. However, its effect on atopic dermatitis (AD) remains undetermined to date. We assessed the effect of orally administered hot-water extract of SCR on AD-like skin lesions in mice and its underlying mechanisms. AD-like murine model was prepared by repeated alternate application of house dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae) extract (DFE) and 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) for 4 weeks, topically to the ears. Daily oral administration of SCR for 3 and 4 weeks significantly reduced inflammatory ear thickening, with the effect being enhanced at the earlier start and longer period of administration. This effect was accompanied by a significant decrease in both Th2 and Th1 serum antibodies (total IgE, DFE-specific IgE, and IgG2a). Histological analysis showed that SCR markedly decreased the epidermal/dermal ear thickening and the dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, SCR suppressed DFE/DNCB-induced expression of IL-4, IL-13, IL-17, IL-18, TSLP, and IFN-γ genes in the ear tissue. Taken together, our observations demonstrate that chronic oral administration of SCR exerts beneficial effect in mouse AD model, suggesting that SCR has the therapeutic potential as an orally active treatment of AD by modulating both Th1 and Th2 responses.

  20. Indoor air quality in two urban elementary schools--measurements of airborne fungi, carpet allergens, CO2, temperature, and relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Gurumurthy; Adgate, John L; Banerjee, Sudipto; Church, Timothy R; Jones, David; Fredrickson, Ann; Sexton, Ken

    2005-11-01

    This article presents measurements of biological contaminants in two elementary schools that serve inner city minority populations. One of the schools is an older building; the other is newer and was designed to minimize indoor air quality problems. Measurements were obtained for airborne fungi, carpet loadings of dust mite allergens, cockroach allergens, cat allergens, and carpet fungi. Carbon dioxide concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity were also measured. Each of these measurements was made in five classrooms in each school over three seasons--fall, winter, and spring. We compared the indoor environments at the two schools and examined the variability in measured parameters between and within schools and across seasons. A fixed-effects, nested analysis was performed to determine the effect of school, season, and room-within-school, as well as CO2, temperature and relative humidity. The levels of all measured parameters were comparable for the two schools. Carpet culturable fungal concentrations and cat allergen levels in the newer school started and remained higher than in the older school over the study period. Cockroach allergen levels in some areas were very high in the newer school and declined over the study period to levels lower than the older school. Dust mite allergen and culturable fungal concentrations in both schools were relatively low compared with benchmark values. The daily averages for temperature and relative humidity frequently did not meet ASHRAE guidelines in either school, which suggests that proper HVAC and general building operation and maintenance procedures are at least as important as proper design and construction for adequate indoor air quality. The results show that for fungi and cat allergens, the school environment can be an important exposure source for children.

  1. The Effect of Antibiotics on Associated Bacterial Community of Stored Product Mites

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacteria are associated with the gut, fat bodies and reproductive organs of stored product mites (Acari: Astigmata). The mites are pests due to the production of allergens. Addition of antibiotics to diets can help to characterize the association between mites and bacteria. Methodology and Principal Findings Ampicillin, neomycin and streptomycin were added to the diets of mites and the effects on mite population growth (Acarus siro, Lepidoglyphus destructor and Tyrophagus putrescen...

  2. Few Associations Found between Mold and Other Allergen Concentrations in the Home versus Skin Sensitivity from Children with Asthma after Hurricane Katrina in the Head-Off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. F. Grimsley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mold and other allergen exposures exacerbate asthma symptoms in sensitized individuals. We evaluated allergen concentrations, skin test sensitivities, and asthma morbidity for 182 children, aged 4–12 years, with moderate to severe asthma, enrolled 18 months after Katrina, from the city of New Orleans and the surrounding parishes that were impacted by the storm, into the Head-off Environmental Asthma in Louisiana (HEAL observational study. Dust (indoor and air (indoor and outdoor samples were collected at baseline of 6 and 12 months. Dust samples were evaluated for dust mite, cockroach, mouse, and Alternaria by immunoassay. Air samples were evaluated for airborne mold spore concentrations. Overall, 89% of the children tested positive to ≥1 indoor allergen, with allergen-specific sensitivities ranging from 18% to 67%. Allergen concentration was associated with skin sensitivity for 1 of 10 environmental triggers analyzed (cat. Asthma symptom days did not differ with skin test sensitivity, and surprisingly, increased symptoms were observed in children whose baseline indoor airborne mold concentrations were below median levels. This association was not observed in follow-up assessments. The lack of relationship among allergen levels (including mold, sensitivities, and asthma symptoms points to the complexity of attempting to assess these associations during rapidly changing social and environmental conditions.

  3. [Placebo effect in clinical trials with allergen-specific immunotherapy with inhalant allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedi, B; Wieczorek, D; Kapp, A

    2017-04-01

    Placebo effects play an important role in the treatment of allergic diseases. Therefore, in this study, we analysed the described effects of placebo in all double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials of allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) with inhalant allergens (birch, grass, house dust mites) listed in the tables (updated July 2016) attached to the German S2k guideline on allergen-specific immunotherapy in IgE-mediated allergic diseases. The most common placebo consisted of verum without allergen, but when the subcutaneous route was used, histamine was sometimes added. From the 33 studies analysed no conclusions could be drawn regarding the pure placebo effect. The symptom medication score (SMS) from an adequate baseline period was described in one single study. An untreated population was not included in any study. Indirect evidence points to substantial placebo effects in up to 77% of the subjects with respect to retrospective, subjective parameters. Well-known factors influencing the placebo effect such as age, gender, application route/composition of the placebo, individual and cultural differences, severity of symptoms at the beginning and the probability of receiving verum have not been addressed regarding ASIT and could not be estimated from available data. Taken together regarding ASIT the placebo effect has been investigated inadequately. In spite of significant expenditure of time and costs future ASIT studies should include assessment of the SMS in an adequate baseline period and preferably include an untreated trial arm. A better understanding of placebo effects in ASIT trials will improve the design of clinical trials and the assessment of therapeutic effects.

  4. Correlations Between Allergen-Specific IgE Serum Levels in Patients With Ocular Allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polido, Júlia Gomes Fernandes; Cabral, Thiago; Perini, Paula de Resende Campos; Fernandes, Maria de Fátima Marcelos; de Freitas, Denise; dos Santos Araújo, Maria Emília Xavier; Serracarbassa, Pedro Durães

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate ocular allergies in patients at the Hospital do Servidor Publico Estadual de Sao Paulo (HSPE) and the correlations with serum allergen-specific immunoglobulin E levels. We performed a longitudinal study of patients with ocular allergies who were treated at the Cornea and Immunology and Allergy Department. Patients underwent an ophthalmologic examination to identify their primary presenting signs and symptoms. The allergy types were divided into 4 groups. We conducted the following laboratory tests and measurements: blood count, eosinophil count, total serum IgE, and specific IgE. Among 61 patients, 16 (26.2%) had a clinical diagnosis of seasonal allergic conjunctivitis, 23 (37.7%) had perennial allergic conjunctivitis, 19 (31.1%) had vernal keratoconjunctivitis, and 3 (4.9%) had atopic keratoconjunctivitis. Mixed dust mites were positive in 94.9% of patients. Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (dp) and Dermatophagoides farinae (df) antigens were positive in 93.2% of patients followed by Blattella germanica, Blomia tropicalis, and mixed animal epithelia (81%, 75.9%, and 25.8%, respectively). Perennial allergic conjunctivitis was the most prevalent disorder and demonstrated higher positivity in class V/VI for specific antigens (mixed dust mites, dp, and df), indicating high antigenicity. Dust mites, D. pteronyssinus, D. farinae, B. germanica, and B. tropicalis were the primary triggers of the studied ocular allergies.

  5. 不同方法提取粉尘螨变应原致敏效果的优化研究%Comparison of the sensitizing effect of crude extracts of house dust mites obtained using 4 types of extraction solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭伟; 刘志明; 姜玉新; 李朝品

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较常用4种提取液提取的粉尘螨变应原致敏效果. 方法 分别用磷酸盐缓冲液(PBS,pH7.2)、PBST(含0.05%Tween 20的PBS)、Coca's液、0.125 mol/L NH4HCO3按料液比1∶20(W/V)的比例提取粉尘螨变应原并进行12.5% SDS-PAGE电泳,Bradford法检测提取物蛋白浓度,Western blot检测抗原性.以上述各组提取液分别致敏BALB/c小鼠,制备哮喘模型(分为PBS组,PBST组,Coca's液、NH4HCO3组,PBS阴性组,OVA组).采集小鼠血和支气管肺泡灌洗液(BALF),ELISA法检测血清IgE和BALF中的IFN-γ、IL-4水平,对BALF中嗜酸性粒细胞数进行统计分析.制备肺组织病理切片,观察病理变化. 结果 与其他各组相比,Coca's液提取变应原蛋白浓度最高[(274±23.6)μg/ml](P<0.05);SDS PAGE电泳检测各组提取蛋白分子质量单位均在35 ku~14 ku之间.ELISA检测Coca,s液组血清IgE含量显著高于其他组(OVA组除外)(P<0.05);BALF中IFN-γ、IL-4含量Coca’s液组与PBS阴性组、PBS组、PBST组和NH4HCO3组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05). 结论 在4种提取液中,以Coca's液提取的粉尘螨变应原致敏效果最佳.%Objective To compare the sensitizing effect of crude extracts of house dust mites obtained using 4 types of extraction solutions. Methods Crude extracts were obtained at a ratio of material: solution of 1 : 20 (W/V) using phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, pH7. 2), PBST (0. 05% Tween-20 in PBS), Coca's solution, and 0. 125 mol/L NH4 HCO3 solution. The crude extracts were tested with SDS-PAGE electrophoresis, detected using the Bradford method, and confirmed using Western blotting. Murine asthmatic models were prepared using the crude extracts mentioned as an allergen; mice were divided into a PBS-negative group, PBS group, PBST group, Coca's solution group, and NH, HCO3 group. Sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were collected from animals. The level of IgE in serum was detected with ELISA, and levels of IFN-γ and IL-4

  6. Cytokine and chemokine responses to helminth and protozoan parasites and to fungus and mite allergens in neonates, children, adults, and the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Christian J; Komander, Karl; Hegewald, Jana; Huang, Xiangsheng; Gantin, Richard G; Soboslay, Peter T; Agossou, Abram; Banla, Meba; Köhler, Carsten

    2013-07-15

    In rural sub-Saharan Africa, endemic populations are often infected concurrently with several intestinal and intravascular helminth and protozoan parasites. A specific, balanced and, to an extent, protective immunity will develop over time in response to repeated parasite encounters, with immune responses initially being poorly adapted and non-protective. The cellular production of pro-inflammatory and regulatory cytokines and chemokines in response to helminth, protozoan antigens and ubiquitous allergens were studied in neonates, children, adults and the elderly. In children schistosomiasis prevailed (33%) while hookworm and Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar was found in up to half of adults and the elderly. Mansonella perstans filariasis was only present in adults (24%) and the elderly (25%). Two or more parasite infections were diagnosed in 41% of children, while such polyparasitism was present in 34% and 38% of adults and the elderly. Cytokine and chemokine production was distinctively inducible by parasite antigens; pro-inflammatory Th2-type cytokine IL-19 was activated by Entamoeba and Ascaris antigens, being low in neonates and children while IL-19 production enhanced "stepwise" in adults and elderly. In contrast, highest production of MIP-1delta/CCL15 was present in neonates and children and inducible by Entamoeba-specific antigens only. Adults and the elderly had enhanced regulatory IL-27 cytokine responses, with Th2-type chemokines (MCP-4/CCL13, Eotaxin-2/CCL24) and cytokines (IL-33) being notably inducible by helminth- and Entamoeba-specific antigens and fungus-derived allergens. The lower cellular responsiveness in neonates and children highlighted the development of a parasite-specific cellular response profile in response to repeated episodes of exposure and re-infection. Following repeated exposure to parasites, and as a consequence of host inability to prevent or eliminate intestinal helminth or protozoa infections, a repertoire of immune responses

  7. Immunomodulatory properties of Lactobacillus plantarum and its use as a recombinant vaccine against mite allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigaux, P; Daniel, C; Hisbergues, M; Muraille, E; Hols, P; Pot, B; Pestel, J; Jacquet, A

    2009-03-01

    Selected lactic acid bacteria were reported to prevent atopic dermatitis and experimental asthma but the mechanisms of their immunomodulatory effects are not fully elucidated. In this study, the signaling pathways triggered by Lactobacillus plantarum NCIMB8826 were investigated and the potential use of this strain producing a variant of the mite allergen Der p 1 as live vaccine vehicle was evaluated. Mouse bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were stimulated with wild-type or a L. plantarum teichoic acid mutant to evaluate the secretion of cytokines. A recombinant L. plantarum expressing Der p 1 was engineered, its in vitro immunomodulatory properties were characterized and its prophylactic potential was evaluated in a Der p 1-sensitization murine model. Mouse dendritic cells stimulated by L. plantarum triggered the release of interleukin-10 (IL-10), IL-12 p40, IL-12 p70 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). IL-12 p40 secretion was dependent on nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB), mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR9 and on the bacterial teichoic acid composition. Recombinant L. plantarum producing Der p 1 exhibited similar immunostimulatory properties as wild-type. Prophylactic intranasal pretreatment of mice with this recombinant strain prevented the development of the typical Th2-biased allergic response by a drastic reduction of specific IgE and the induction of protective allergen-specific IgG2a antibodies. Moreover, both wild-type or recombinant L. plantarum reduced airway eosinophilia following aerosolized allergen exposure and IL-5 secretion upon allergen restimulation. By combining both Th1-type immunostimulatory properties and an efficient allergen delivery capacity, recombinant L. plantarum producing Der p 1 represents a promising vaccine against house dust mite allergy.

  8. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens – focus on cotton dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Dutkiewicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor

  9. Pantoea agglomerans: a marvelous bacterium of evil and good.Part I. Deleterious effects: Dust-borne endotoxins and allergens - focus on cotton dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous Gram-negative bacterium Pantoea agglomerans (synonyms: Enterobacter agglomerans, Erwinia herbicola) is known both as an epiphytic microbe developing on the surface of plants and as an endophytic organism living inside the plants. The bacterium occurs also abundantly in plant and animal products, in the body of arthropods and other animals, in water, soil, dust and air, and occasionally in humans. From the human viewpoint, the role of this organism is ambiguous, both deleterious and beneficial: on one side it causes disorders in people exposed to inhalation of organic dusts and diseases of crops, and on the other side it produces substances effective in the treatment of cancer and other diseases of humans and animals, suppresses the development of various plant pathogens, promotes plant growth, and appears as a potentially efficient biofertilizer and bioremediator. P. agglomerans was identified as a predominant bacterium on cotton plant grown all over the world, usually as an epiphyte, rarely as pathogen. It is particularly numerous on cotton bract after senescence. During processing of cotton in mills, bacteria and their products are released with cotton dust into air and are inhaled by workers, causing respiratory and general disorders, usually defined as byssinosis. The most adverse substance is endotoxin, a heteropolymer macromolecule present in the outermost part of the cell wall, consisting of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as a major constituent, phospholipids and protein. The numerous experiments carried out in last quarter of XXth century on laboratory animals and human volunteers supported a convincing evidence that the inhaled endotoxin produced by P. agglomerans causes numerous pathologic effects similar to those elicited by cotton dust, such as influx of free lung cells into airways and activation of alveolar macrophages which secrete mediators (prostaglandins, platelet-activating factor, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor) that cause

  10. Sensitization patterns to food and inhalant allergens in childhood: a comparison of non-sensitized, monosensitized, and polysensitized children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Adriana Baatenburg; Dikkeschei, Lambert D; Brand, Paul L P

    2011-03-01

    The clinical interpretation of children sensitized to numerous allergens is challenging. We examined differences between children sensitized to zero, one, or more allergens. This was a retrospective analysis of all specific IgE tests in children 0-18 yrs of age sent to our laboratory by general practitioners and hospital-based specialists for allergy testing between 1990 and 2003. Of all 9044 children tested, 5439 (60.1%) were not sensitized to any of the aeroallergens or food allergens tested. Three thousand six hundred and five children (39.9%) had one or more positive specific IgE tests, 1120 of which (31.1%) were monosensitized (73% to aeroallergens and 27% to food allergens), 1709 (47.4%) were sensitized to two to four allergens, and 776 (21.5%) to five or more allergens (polysensitization). Polysensitization was more common in children 4-11 yrs of age (24.8%) than in younger (18.7%) or older children (18.3%, p food allergens (hen's egg 9.7%, peanut 4.6%, wheat 0.8%, soy 0.7%). Between 55.7% (cow's milk) and 87.9% (soy) of children sensitized to food were cosensitized to aeroallergens, while only 25.4% (house dust mite) to 39.5% (dog) of children sensitized to aeroallergens were cosensitized to food. Polysensitization is common in children, in particular in boys. It is most common in school-aged children. The strong association with total serum IgE values and the striking cosensitization between biologically unrelated allergens suggest that polysensitization is the expression of a distinct clinical, more severe, atopic phenotype, and not of biologic cross-reactivity to similar allergens.

  11. Perilla frutescens leaf extract inhibits mite major allergen Der p 2-induced gene expression of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in human bronchial epithelial cell BEAS-2B.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jer-Yuh Liu

    Full Text Available Perilla frutescens has been used in traditional medicine for respiratory diseases due to its anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed to investigate effects of Perilla frutescens leaf extract (PFE on expression of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in airway epithelial cells exposed to mite major allergen Der p 2 (DP2 and the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that PFE up to 100 µg/mL had no cytotoxic effect on human bronchial epithelial cell BEAS-2B. Further investigations revealed that PFE dose-dependently diminished mRNA expression of pro-allergic cytokine IL-4, IL-5, IL-13 and GM-CSF, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6, IL-8 and MCP-1 in BEAS-2B cells treated with DP2. In parallel to mRNA, the DP-2-elevated levels of the tested cytokines were decreased. Further investigation showed that DP2-indued phosphorylation of p38 MAPK (P38 and JNK, but not Erk1/2, was also suppressed by PFE. In addition, PFE elevated cytosolic IκBα level and decreased nuclear NF-κB level in DP2-stimulated BEAS-2B cells. Taken together, these findings revealed that PFE significantly diminished both mRNA expression and protein levels of pro-allergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to DP2 through inhibition of P38/JNK and NK-κB activation. These findings suggest that PFE should be beneficial to alleviate both allergic and inflammatory responses on airway epithelium in response to aeroallergens.

  12. Sequential allergen desensitization of basophils is non-specific and may involve p38 MAPK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witting Christensen, S K; Kortekaas Krohn, I; Thuraiaiyah, J; Skjold, T; Schmid, J M; Hoffmann, H J H

    2014-10-01

    Sequential allergen desensitization provides temporary tolerance for allergic patients. We adapted a clinical protocol to desensitize human blood basophils ex vivo and investigated the mechanism and allergen specificity. We included 28 adult, grass allergic subjects. The optimal, activating allergen concentration was determined by measuring activated CD63(+) CD193(+) SS(Low) basophils in a basophil activation test with 8 log-dilutions of grass allergen. Basophils in whole blood were desensitized by incubation with twofold to 2.5-fold increasing allergen doses in 10 steps starting at 1 : 1000 of the optimal dose. Involvement of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was assessed after 3 min of allergen stimulation (n = 7). Allergen specificity was investigated by desensitizing cells from multi-allergic subjects with grass allergen and challenging with optimal doses of grass, birch, recombinant house dust mite (rDer p2) allergen or anti-IgE (n = 10). Desensitization reduced the fraction of blood basophils responding to challenge with an optimal allergen dose from a median (IQR) 81.0% (66.3-88.8) to 35.4% (19.8-47.1, P desensitized with grass allergen. Challenge with grass allergen resulted in 39.6% activation (15.8-58.3). An unrelated challenge (birch, rDer p2 or anti-IgE) resulted in 53.4% activation (30.8-66.8, P = 0.16 compared with grass). Desensitization reduced p38 MAPK phosphorylation from a median 48.1% (15.6-92.8) to 26.1% (7.4-71.2, P = 0.047) and correlated with decrease in CD63 upregulation (n = 7, r > 0.79, P Desensitization attenuated basophil response rapidly and non-specifically at a stage before p38 MAPK phosphorylation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. 哮喘儿童过敏原调查分析%Investigation and analysis on allergen in serum of children with Asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪群琴

    2012-01-01

    目的:对湖州地区哮喘儿童过敏状况进行分析,以协助临床诊断治疗.方法:采用MEDIWISS Analytic Gmbh检测仪检测血清总IgE水平及过敏原.结果:300例患儿中总IgE抗体阳性率88.6%,其中吸入性过敏原阳性率为60.00%,食入性过敏原阳性率为47.00%.吸入性过敏原阳性以对屋尘螨/粉尘螨过敏者最多占48.33%,食物性过敏原中对牛奶过敏者最多,占19.33%,其次是鸡蛋白过敏者为12.00%.结论:引起湖州地区儿童支气管哮喘的过敏原以吸入性过敏原为主,其阳性率随年龄增长而升高;尘螨是最重要的过敏原,同时亦需重视食物性过敏原对哮喘的影响.%Objective: To analyze the allergic status of the children with asthama in Huzhou, so as to help clinical diagnosis and treatment. Methods: Total serum IgE levels and allergens were detected by MEDIWISS Analytic Gmbh detector. Results: Total IgE antibody positive rate was 88. 6% in the 300 samples, the positive rate of inhaled allergens was 60. 00% , and the positive rate of food allergens was 47.00% . Dust mite positive rate was up to 48.33% , it was the most commonly inhalation allergen. In the food allergens, the milk allergens accounted for 19.33% , and the egg white allergen positve rate was 12.00%. Conclusion: Bronchial asthma was mainly caused by the inhalant allergens in Huzhou, and the positive rate of the allergens increased with age, and dust mite was the most commonly allergen. And more attention should be paid to the asthma related food allergens.

  14. Allergen source materials: state-of-the-art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Robert E

    2009-01-01

    A variety of positive outcomes can be realized from validation and risk management activities (see Table 4). They are dependent on the participation of multiple functional groups including the quality unit, regulatory and legal affairs, engineering and production operations, research and development, and sales and marketing. Quality risk management is receiving increased attention in the area of public health, pharmacovigilance, and pharmaceutical manufacturing. Recent examples of its regulatory use in our industry include the assessment of the potential risks of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) agents through contaminated products], the risks of precipitates in allergenic extracts, and the revision of the potency limits for standardized dust mite and grass allergen vaccines. Its application to allergen source material process validation activities allowed for a practical strategy, especially in a complex manufacturing environment involving hundreds of products with multiple intended uses. In addition, the use of tools such as FMEA was useful in evaluating proposed changes made to manufacturing procedures and product specifications, new regulatory actions, and customer feedback or complaints. The success of such a quality assurance programs will ultimately be reflected in the elimination or reduction of product failures, improvement in the detection and prediction of potential product failures, and increased confidence in product quality.

  15. Children’s residential exposure to selected allergens and microbial indicators: endotoxins and (1→3-β-D-glucans

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    Anna Kozajda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The study was aimed at assessment of exposure to endotoxins, (1→3-β-D-glucans and mite, cockroach, cat, dog allergens present in settled dust in premises of children as agents which may be significantly correlated with the occurrence of allergic symptoms and diseases in children. Materials and Methods: The study covered 50 homes of one- or two-year-old children in Poland. Samples of settled dust were taken from the floor and the child's bed. The levels of (1→3-β-D-glucans (floor, endotoxins (floor and allergens of mite, cat, dog and cockroach (floor and bed were analyzed. Results: Average geometric concentrations (geometric standard deviation of endotoxins, (1→3-β-D-glucans, Der p1, Fel d1, Can f1 and Bla g1 in children homes were on the floor 42 166.0 EU/g (3.2, 20 478.4 ng/g (2.38, 93.9 ng/g (6.58, 119.8 ng/g (13.0, 288.9 ng/g (3.4, 0.72 U/g (4.4 and in their beds (only allergens 597.8 ng/g (14.2, 54.1 ng/g (4.4, 158.6 ng/g (3.1 0.6 U/g (2.9, respectively. When the floor was covered with the carpet, higher concentrations of endotoxins, (1→3-β-D-glucans and allergens (each type were found in the settled dust (p < 0.05. The trend was opposite in case of allergens (except dog analyzed from bed dust and significantly higher concentrations were found in the rooms with smooth floor (p < 0.05. Conclusions: Among the analyzed factors only the type of floor significantly modified both the level of biological indicators and allergens. The results of this study could be the base for verifying a hypothesis that carpeting may have a protective role against high levels of cockroach, dog and cat allergens.

  16. Early life exposure to allergen and ozone results in altered development in adolescent rhesus macaque lungs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, M.J.; Putney, L.F.; St George, J.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Avdalovic, M.V. [Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of California, Davis, CA (United States); Schelegle, E.S.; Miller, L.A. [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States); Hyde, D.M., E-mail: dmhyde@ucdavis.edu [California National Primate Research Center, Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-02-15

    In rhesus macaques, previous studies have shown that episodic exposure to allergen alone or combined with ozone inhalation during the first 6 months of life results in a condition with many of the hallmarks of asthma. This exposure regimen results in altered development of the distal airways and parenchyma (Avdalovic et al., 2012). We hypothesized that the observed alterations in the lung parenchyma would be permanent following a long-term recovery in filtered air (FA) housing. Forty-eight infant rhesus macaques (30 days old) sensitized to house dust mite (HDM) were treated with two week cycles of FA, house dust mite allergen (HDMA), ozone (O{sub 3}) or HDMA/ozone (HDMA + O{sub 3}) for five months. At the end of the five months, six animals from each group were necropsied. The other six animals in each group were allowed to recover in FA for 30 more months at which time they were necropsied. Design-based stereology was used to estimate volumes of lung components, number of alveoli, size of alveoli, distribution of alveolar volumes, interalveolar capillary density. After 30 months of recovery, monkeys exposed to HDMA, in either group, had significantly more alveoli than filtered air. These alveoli also had higher capillary densities as compared with FA controls. These results indicate that early life exposure to HDMA alone or HDMA + O{sub 3} alters the development process in the lung alveoli. - Highlights: • Abnormal lung development after postnatal exposure to ozone and allergen • This remodeling is shown as smaller, more numerous alveoli and narrower airways. • Allergen appears to have more of an effect than ozone during recovery. • These animals also have continued airway hyperresponsiveness (Moore et al. 2014)

  17. An intranasal selective antisense oligonucleotide impairs lung cyclooxygenase-2 production and improves inflammation, but worsens airway function, in house dust mite sensitive mice

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    Pujols Laura

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its reported pro-inflammatory activity, cyclooxygenase (COX-2 has been proposed to play a protective role in asthma. Accordingly, COX-2 might be down-regulated in the airway cells of asthmatics. This, together with results of experiments to assess the impact of COX-2 blockade in ovalbumin (OVA-sensitized mice in vivo, led us to propose a novel experimental approach using house dust mite (HDM-sensitized mice in which we mimicked altered regulation of COX-2. Methods Allergic inflammation was induced in BALBc mice by intranasal exposure to HDM for 10 consecutive days. This model reproduces spontaneous exposure to aeroallergens by asthmatic patients. In order to impair, but not fully block, COX-2 production in the airways, some of the animals received an intranasal antisense oligonucleotide. Lung COX-2 expression and activity were measured along with bronchovascular inflammation, airway reactivity, and prostaglandin production. Results We observed impaired COX-2 mRNA and protein expression in the lung tissue of selective oligonucleotide-treated sensitized mice. This was accompanied by diminished production of mPGE synthase and PGE2 in the airways. In sensitized mice, the oligonucleotide induced increased airway hyperreactivity (AHR to methacholine, but a substantially reduced bronchovascular inflammation. Finally, mRNA levels of hPGD synthase remained unchanged. Conclusion Intranasal antisense therapy against COX-2 in vivo mimicked the reported impairment of COX-2 regulation in the airway cells of asthmatic patients. This strategy revealed an unexpected novel dual effect: inflammation was improved but AHR worsened. This approach will provide insights into the differential regulation of inflammation and lung function in asthma, and will help identify pharmacological targets within the COX-2/PG system.

  18. The correlation between intradermal testing and serum specific IgE to house dust mite in negative skin prick test allergic rhinitis adult patients.

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    Tantilipikorn, Pongsakorn; Danpornprasert, Piyanart; Ngaotepprutaram, Premyot; Assanasen, Paraya; Bunnag, Chaweewan; Thinkhamrop, Bandit

    2015-12-01

    Diagnosis of allergic rhinitis (AR) is based on history, physical examination, and skin prick test (SPT) while intradermal (ID) test can be performed to confirm the diagnosis in case of negative result of SPT. However, the ID test is not recommended for cat and timothy grass allergy because of its high false positive rate. As a result, the "quantitative" technique of serum specific IgE (sIgE) measurement might be helpful to diagnose AR with more confidence. To evaluate the correlation between ID tests and sIgE in the diagnosis of house dust mite (HDM)-sensitive AR patients. Patients with chronic rhinitis (CR) were recruited and SPT was performed. If SPT was negative, ID test and sIgE to HDM [Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp)] measurement were performed. Eighty-two patients with chronic rhinitis (CR), whose SPTs were negative for Dp, were included. There were 39 males (47.6%) and 43 females (52.4%) aged between 18 and 76 years old (mean age = 43.3 years). The ID test was positive in 13 patients (15.9%), and was negative in 69 patients (84.1 %). sIgE to HDM was positive ( ≥ 0.35 kUA/l) in 2 patients (2.4%). There was a fair to moderate correlation between the size of wheal of ID test and sIgE to HDM (r = 0.44, 95% confidence interval: 0.19 to 0.67, p correlation with sIgE Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and it can be used in CR patients with negative SPT where sIgE is not feasible.

  19. In vivo and in vitro studies of Th17 response to specific immunotherapy in house dust mite-induced allergic rhinitis patients.

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    Chun Wei Li

    Full Text Available T helper (Th17 cells have been implicated in the development of allergic rhinitis (AR, but their response to specific immunotherapy (SIT remains unclear. We investigated the impact of SIT on Th17 response and Th1/Th2 changes in AR patients. Blood samples from AR patients (n = 20 who were monosensitized to house dust mite (HDM were collected before the initiation of SIT (SIT-untreated and after the end of 2-year SIT (SIT-treated treatment. Twenty healthy volunteers were recruited as controls. In vitro HDM stimulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was also performed. Expression levels of Th17 associated genes were determined in both PBMCs and plasma by PCR and ELISA, while Th17/Th1/Th2/IL10 producing cell proportions were evaluated in PBMCs by flow cytometry. The SIT effect was evaluated by assessing clinical symptoms. mRNA levels of Th17 specific genes (IL17 and RORC were increased in SIT-untreated AR versus controls, and decreased following SIT treatment. SIT can change the production of Th17 associated genes (reduction of IL17, IL6, and IL23, but increase of IL27 in plasma from AR patients. Th2/Th1 ratio and proportions of Th17 cells were suppressed while IL10 producing CD4+ T cells were elevated after SIT. In vitro HDM challenge presents concordant patterns with in vivo findings: 1 increase of Th2 and Th17 response in AR patients; 2 suppression of IL10 producing CD4+ T cells in SIT-untreated AR but elevation in SIT-treated AR patients. Most importantly, a positive correlation between IL17 mRNA/protein levels and clinical symptom scores was observed. SIT significantly inhibits Th17 mediated inflammation in AR and IL17 may be a useful biomarker for both AR severity and SIT therapeutic effect.Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR ACTRN12613000445774.

  20. A CCL24-dependent Pathway Augments Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation in House Dust Mite-challenged Cd163−/− Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Cuilian; Yao, Xianglan; Gordon, Elizabeth M.; Barochia, Amisha; Cuento, Rosemarie A.; Kaler, Maryann; Meyer, Katharine S.; Keeran, Karen J.; Nugent, Gayle Z.; Jeffries, Kenneth R.; Qu, Xuan; Yu, Zu-Xi; Aponte, Angel; Gucek, Marjan; Dagur, Pradeep K.; McCoy, J. Philip; Levine, Stewart J.

    2015-01-01

    CD163 is a macrophage scavenger receptor with anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory functions. Here, we report that alveolar macrophages (AMΦs) from asthmatic subjects had reduced cell surface expression of CD163, which suggested that CD163 might modulate the pathogenesis of asthma. Consistent with this, house dust mite (HDM)-challenged Cd163−/− mice displayed increases in airway eosinophils and mucous cell metaplasia (MCM). The increased airway eosinophils and MCM in HDM-challenged Cd163−/− mice were mediated by augmented CCL24 production and could be reversed by administration of a neutralizing anti-CCL24 antibody. A proteomic analysis identified the calcium-dependent binding of CD163 to Dermatophagoides ptyeronyssinus peptidase 1 (Der p1). Der p1-challenged Cd163−/− mice had the same phenotype as HDM-challenged Cd163−/− mice with increases in airway eosinophils, MCM and CCL24 production, while Der p1 induced CCL24 secretion by bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMΦs) from Cd163−/− mice, but not BMMΦs from WT mice. Lastly, airway eosinophils and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid CCL24 levels were increased in Der p1-challenged WT mice that received adoptively transferred AMΦ’s from Cd163−/− mice. Thus, we have identified CD163 as a macrophage receptor that binds Der p1. Furthermore, we have shown that HDM-challenged Cd163−/− mice have increased eosinophilic airway inflammation and MCM that are mediated by a CCL24-dependent mechanism. PMID:26376364

  1. Evaluation of autologous serum skin test and skin prick test reactivity to house dust mite in patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria.

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    Zhiqiang Song

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU is a common skin disorder with etiology that is not well understood. METHODS: In this study, we evaluated the prevalence of autologous serum skin test (ASST and skin prick testing (SPT to house dust mite (HDM in 862 CSU cases in China. Clinical features, courses and treatment responses were also recorded. RESULTS: The prevalence of positive ASST was 46.3%, and patients aged 30-39 years had the highest positive rate (52.1%. Positive SPT to HDM was seen in 153 patients (17.7% with the highest positive rate (34.2% in patients aged 20 or less. Patients with positive ASST had higher urticaria activity scores (UAS (4.18±0.65 vs. 3.67±0.53 but lower positive rates of HDM (24.6% vs. 37.6%, as compared with those with negative ASST (odds ratio (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.38-2.47. Patients could be categorized into four groups based on the results of ASST and SPT to HDM and patients with positive ASST and positive SPT to HDM had the highest disease activity scores, experienced higher frequencies of angioedema, diseases duration, and required higher dosage of loratadine every month, compared with other subgroups (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with CSU showed varied responses of positive ASST and varied sensitivity to HDM, Patients with positive ASST and/or positive SPT had more disease activity compared with patients with negative ASST and/or negative SPT. Further classification can be made based on the result of SPT and ASST.

  2. Monthly variation of Dermatophagoides allergens and its influence on respiratory allergy in a high altitude environment (Quito, 2800 m a.s.l. in Andean Ecuador).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, R; Iraloa, V

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal variation of Dermatophagoides allergens and its influence in allergic respiratory airway diseases has not been investigated in Andean cities. The objective of this study was to evaluate those parameters in a city located in the Andean mountains. Der p1 and Der f1 were measured in dust samples from mattresses in 13 houses in Quito (2800 m above sea level). Samples were collected monthly from August 2004 to July 2005. Patients presenting to a local outpatient allergy clinic with asthma and rhinitis and isolated allergy to Dermatophagoides were analysed to determine if a correlation existed between seasonal Der allergen levels and the number of patients presenting with allergies. High levels of dust mites and humidity were observed throughout the year. The highest geometrical mean values of allergens were detected in April (Der p1, 10.15 μg/g) and May (Der f1, 13.03 μg/g), whilst the lowest levels were detected in August (Der p1, 4.26 μg/g), and September (Der f1, 1.4 μg/g). Of the 361 patients examined, 182 were allergic to Dermatophagoides, (45.6% asthmatics, 97.8% rhinitics, and 43.4% with both diseases). Patient presentation spiked in August, and from February to May. However, there was not a significant correlation between mite allergen concentrations and humidity or the number of patients presenting with allergies. Dust samples from mattresses in Quito revealed high concentrations of Der p1 and Der f1. We observed a trend towards increased presentation of asthmatic and rhinitic patients in the months with highest levels of allergens. Copyright © 2009 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Association study on ADAM33 polymorphisms in mite-sensitized persistent allergic rhinitis in a Chinese population.

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    Ruo-Xi Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ADAM33 gene has been identified as a potentially important asthma candidate gene and polymorphisms in this gene have been shown to be associated with asthma and seasonal allergic rhinitis. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the ADAM33 polymorphisms are associated with persistent allergic rhinitis (PER due to house dust mites in a Chinese population. METHODS: In a hospital-based case-control study of 515 patients with mite-sensitized PER and 495 healthy controls, we genotyped seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in ADAM33. Serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein, total IgE and allergen-specific IgE against Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus and Dermatophagoides farinae were measured by the ImmunoCAP assays. RESULTS: In the single-locus analysis, three polymorphisms, rs3918392 (F1, rs528557 (S2 and rs2787093, were significantly associated with mite-sensitized PER. SNP S2 was associated with significantly increased risk both of asthmatic and nonasthmatic mite-sensitized PER. In the combined genotypes analysis, individuals with 2-4 risk alleles had a significantly higher risk of mite-sensitized PER (adjusted OR = 1.99, 95% CI = 1.50-2.62 than those with 0-1 risk alleles. Haplotype-based association analysis revealed that the ACAGCCT haplotype might have potential to protect against mite-sensitized PER (adjusted OR = 0.67; 95% CI = 0.49-0.90. CONCLUSIONS: Polymorphisms in the ADAM33 gene may contribute to susceptibility of mite-sensitized PER in this Chinese population.

  4. Anti-angiogenic Nanotherapy Inhibits Airway Remodeling and Hyper-responsiveness of Dust Mite Triggered Asthma in the Brown Norway Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Gregory M.; Jenkins, John; Schmieder, Anne H.; Moldobaeva, Aigul; Cui, Grace; Zhang, Huiying; Yang, Xiaoxia; Zhong, Qiong; Keupp, Jochen; Sergin, Ismail; Paranandi, Krishna S.; Eldridge, Lindsey; Allen, John S.; Williams, Todd; Scott, Michael J.; Razani, Babak; Wagner, Elizabeth M.

    2017-01-01

    Although angiogenesis is a hallmark feature of asthmatic inflammatory responses, therapeutic anti-angiogenesis interventions have received little attention. Objective: Assess the effectiveness of anti-angiogenic Sn2 lipase-labile prodrugs delivered via αvβ3-micellar nanotherapy to suppress microvascular expansion, bronchial remodeling, and airway hyper-responsiveness in Brown Norway rats exposed to serial house dust mite (HDM) inhalation challenges. Results: Anti-neovascular effectiveness of αvβ3-mixed micelles incorporating docetaxel-prodrug (Dxtl-PD) or fumagillin-prodrug (Fum-PD) were shown to robustly suppress neovascular expansion (p<0.01) in the upper airways/bronchi of HDM rats using simultaneous 19F/1H MR neovascular imaging, which was corroborated by adjunctive fluorescent microscopy. Micelles without a drug payload (αvβ3-No-Drug) served as a carrier-only control. Morphometric measurements of HDM rat airway size (perimeter) and vessel number at 21d revealed classic vascular expansion in control rats but less vascularity (p<0.001) after the anti-angiogenic nanotherapies. CD31 RNA expression independently corroborated the decrease in airway microvasculature. Methacholine (MCh) induced respiratory system resistance (Rrs) was high in the HDM rats receiving αvβ3-No-Drug micelles while αvβ3-Dxtl-PD or αvβ3-Fum-PD micelles markedly and equivalently attenuated airway hyper-responsiveness and improved airway compliance. Total inflammatory BAL cells among HDM challenged rats did not differ with treatment, but αvβ3+ macrophages/monocytes were significantly reduced by both nanotherapies (p<0.001), most notably by the αvβ3-Dxtl-PD micelles. Additionally, αvβ3-Dxtl-PD decreased BAL eosinophil and αvβ3+ CD45+ leukocytes relative to αvβ3-No-Drug micelles, whereas αvβ3-Fum-PD micelles did not. Conclusion: These results demonstrate the potential of targeted anti-angiogenesis nanotherapy to ameliorate the inflammatory hallmarks of asthma in a

  5. Activation of the Prostaglandin E2 receptor EP2 prevents house dust mite-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation by restraining mast cells' activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Pages, M; Torres, R; Plaza, J; Herrerias, A; Costa-Farré, C; Marco, A; Jiménez, M; Maurer, M; Picado, C; de Mora, F

    2015-10-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) has been proposed to exert antiasthmatic effects in patients, to prevent antigen-induced airway pathology in murine models, and to inhibit mast cells (MC) activity in vitro. To assess in a murine model whether the protective effect of PGE2 may be a consequence of its ability to activate the E-prostanoid (EP)2 receptor on airway MC. Either BALB/c or C57BL/6 mice were exposed intranasally (i.n.) to house dust mite (HDM) aeroallergens. Both strains were given PGE2 locally (0.3 mg/kg), but only BALB/c mice were administered butaprost (EP2 agonist: 0.3 mg/kg), or AH6809 (EP2 antagonist; 2.5 mg/kg) combined with the MC stabilizer sodium cromoglycate (SCG: 25 mg/kg). Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and inflammation, along with lung MC activity, were evaluated. In addition, butaprost's effect was assessed in MC-mediated passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) in mice challenged with 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). Selective EP2 agonism attenuated aeroallergen-caused AHR and inflammation in HDM-exposed BALB/c mice, and this correlated with a reduced lung MC activity. Accordingly, the blockade of endogenous PGE2 by means of AH6809 worsened airway responsiveness in sensitive BALB/c mice, and such worsening was reversed by SCG. The relevance of MC to PGE2 -EP2 driven protection was further highlighted in MC-dependent PCA, where butaprost fully prevented MC-induced ear swelling. Unlike in BALB/c mice, PGE2 did not protect the airways of HDM-sensitized C57BL/6 animals, a strain in which we showed MC to be irrelevant to aeroallergen-driven AHR and inflammation. The beneficial effect of both exogenous and endogenous PGE2 in aeroallergen-sensitized mice may be attributable to the activation of the EP2 receptor, which in turn acts as a restrainer of airway MC activity. This opens a path towards the identification of therapeutic targets against asthma along the 'EP2 -MC-airway' axis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. House dust in seven Danish offices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mølhave, L.; Schneider, T.; Kjærgaard, S. K.; Larsen, L.; Norn, S.; Jørgensen, O.

    Floor dust from Danish offices was collected and analyzed. The dust was to be used in an exposure experiment. The dust was analyzed to show the composition of the dust which can be a source of airborne dust indoors. About 11 kg of dust from vacuum cleaner bags from seven Danish office buildings with about 1047 occupants (12 751 m 2) was processed according to a standardized procedure yielding 5.5 kg of processed bulk dust. The bulk dust contained 130.000-160.000 CFU g -1 microorganisms and 71.000-90.000 CFU g -1 microfungi. The content of culturable microfungi was 65-123 CFU 30 g -1 dust. The content of endotoxins ranged from 5.06-7.24 EU g -1 (1.45 ng g -1 to 1.01 ng g -1). Allergens (ng g -1) were from 147-159 (Mite), 395-746 (dog) and 103-330 (cat). The macro molecular organic compounds (the MOD-content) varied from 7.8-9.8 mg g -1. The threshold of release of histamine from basophil leukocytes provoked by the bulk dust was between 0.3 and 1.0 mg ml -1. The water content was 2% (WGT) and the organic fraction 33%. 6.5-5.9% (dry) was water soluble. The fiber content was less than 0.2-1.5% (WGT) and the desorbable VOCs was 176-319 μg g -1. Most of the VOC were aldehydes. However, softeners for plastic (DBP and DEHP) were present. The chemical composition includes human and animal skin fragments, paper fibers, glass wool, wood and textilefibers and inorganic and metal particles. The sizes ranged from 0.001-1 mm and the average specific density was 1.0 g m -3. The bulk dust was resuspended and injected into an exposure chamber. The airborne dust was sampled and analyzed to illustrate the exposures that can result from sedimented dirt and dust. The airborne dust resulting from the bulk dust reached concentrations ranging from 0.26-0.75 mg m -3 in average contained 300-170 CFU m -3. The organic fraction was from 55-70% and the water content about 2.5% (WGT). The content of the dust was compared to the similar results reported in the literature and its toxic potency is

  7. Immunochemical approach to indoor aeroallergen quantitation with a new volumetric air sampler: studies with mite, roach, cat, mouse, and guinea pig antigens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, M.C.; Agarwal, M.K.; Reed, C.E.

    1985-11-01

    We describe a new high-volume air sampler for determining antigen concentrations in homes and illustrate its use for quantitating airborne house dust mite, cat, cockroach, mouse, and guinea pig antigens. The concentration of house dust-mite antigen was similar from houses in Rochester, Minn. and tenement apartments in Harlem, N. Y., but cockroach and mouse urinary proteins were present only in Harlem. The amount of cat or guinea pig antigen varied as expected with the number of pets in the home. In calm air the airborne concentration of mite and cat antigen was similar throughout the house but increased greatly in a bedroom when bedding was changed. In calm air most of the cat and mite antigens were associated with respirable particles less than 5 microns mean aerodynamic mass diameter, but in air sampled after the bedding was changed, more cat antigen was found in particles greater than 5 microns. The apparatus and technique described can provide objective data concerning the magnitude and the relative distribution and duration of suspended particles of defined sizes, which contain allergen activity.

  8. Induction of Th1-Type Immune Response by Chitosan Nanoparticles Containing Plasmid DNA Encoding House Dust Mite Allergen Der p 2 for Oral Vaccination in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoping Li; Zhigang Liu; Bin Liao; Nanshan Zhong

    2009-01-01

    This study was to prepare the chitosan-pDer p 2 nanoparticles and to investigate the effect of chitosan-DNA nanoparticles on immune response in mice by oral delivery of chitosan-DNA nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were synthesized by complexing chitosan with plasmid DNA. The DNA was fully complexed into chitosan-DNA nanoparticles, suggesting a 100% encapsulation efficiency. Chitosan-DNA complex renders a significant protection of the plasmid. No effect on cell viability was observed in both cell types and average cell viability over 100% was obtained. Oral gene delivery with chitosan-DNA nanoparticles can generate a higher level expression of gene in vivo. Oral chitosan-pDer p 2 nanoparticles in BALB/c mice can induce IFN-γ in serum and prevent subsequent sensitization of Th2 cell-regulated specific IgE responses. The data indicate that the oral administration of chitosan-pDer p 2 nanoparticles results in the expression of Der p 2 in the epithelial cells of both stomach and small intestine and the induction of Th1-type immune response.

  9. Activity of allergenic proteins from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahn, U.; Mueller-Krampe, B.; Lind, P.

    1985-01-01

    Two purified allergens from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dp 42 (identical to P1) and Dp X were studied for their ability to induce histamine release from washed leukocytes and to bind to IgE antibodies from the serum of 27 mite-sensitive children. Almost all patients were demonstrated to be sensitive to both proteins by both assays. Dp 42 was found to have the highest allergenic activity, releasing histamine from leukocytes at a median concentration 10 times lower than for Dp X. There was a positive correlation between basophil sensitivity to both proteins and allergen specific serum IgE concentrations.

  10. Allergen component specific ige measurement with the Immulite™ 2000 system: diagnostic accuracy and intermethod comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalta, Danilo; Da Re, Mirella; Conte, Mariaelisabetta; Martelli, Paola; Uasuf, Carina Gabriela; Barrale, Maria; La Chiusa, Stella Maria; Brusca, Ignazio

    2015-03-01

    The identification of the allergenic molecules, associated to the advances in the field of recombinant allergens, led to the development of a new concept in allergy diagnosis called component-resolved diagnosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different allergen components using the full automatic singleplex quantitative platform Immulite™ 2000. One hundred ninety-five allergic outpatients (35 to olive pollen, 35 to birch pollen, 35 to profilin, 35 to house dust mites, 35 to peach, and 20 to shrimp) and 20 negative controls were enrolled for the study. Bet v 1, Bet v 2, Ole e 1, Der p 1, Der p 2, Der f 1, Der f 2, Pru p 3, tropomyosin were tested both with Immulite™ 2000 and ImmunoCAP™ (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Uppsala, Sweden). Sensitivity of allergen-specific Immunoglobulin E (sIgE) to Ole e 1, Bet v 1, Der p 1, Der p 2, Der f 1, Der f 2, Pen m 1, and Pru p 3 with Immulite™ 2000 was 100%, 100%, 77.1%, 94.3%, 71.4%, 94%, 75%, and 97.1%, respectively, and the specificity was 100% for all the allergens. The overall agreement between Immulite™ 2000 and ImmunoCAP™ (Thermo Fisher Scientific) platforms was 98.6% (Cohen's kappa = 0.979; confidence interval [CI] 95%: 0.960-0.997). From moderate to strong, positive linear correlations between the assays (r(2) from 0.322 to 0.860, and Spearman's rho from 0.824 to 0.971) were showed. A high diagnostic accuracy of the sIgE to allergen components measurement with Immulite™ 2000 and a high agreement with ImmunoCAP™ platforms were shown in this study. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Analysis of Allergens in 5473 Patients with Allergic Diseases in Harbin, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Man Li; SHAO Bing; LIU Yan Hong; LI Lu Lu; PEI Li Chun; WANG Bin You

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analyze the allergic status to common inhalant allergens and food allergens in clinical patients in Harbin in northeastern China and provide evidence to develop the prevention strategy of allergic disease. Methods The data were collected from 5 473 patients with clinical suspected allergic diseases seeking medical care in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University. Among these patients, 2 530 (46.2%) were males aged 0-86 years, the youngest was only 1 month old and 2 579 (47.1%) were young children and teenagers. The serum specific Immunoglobulin E (sIgE) to 14 kinds of common allergens and serum total IgE were detected by using AllergyScreen test (Mediwiss Analytic GmbH, Moers, Germany). Results In 5 473 subjects the positive rate of sIgE was 33.1%(n=1 813). Cow milk (6.9%) and wheat (3.1%) were the most common food allergens, followed by house dust mite mix (12.5%) and mould mix (9.4%) and the age and gender specific differences in the positive rate were significant. For the children aged Conclusion The results from this study showed that the food allergens in Harbin had geographic characteristics, which support the viewpoint that the environment factors play an important role in the incidence of allergic diseases. Also, the detection of sIgE and total IgE are essential to identify relevant allergens for the purpose of early diagnosis, management and prevention of allergic disease.

  12. International consensus (ICON) on: clinical consequences of mite hypersensitivity, a global problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Borges, Mario; Fernandez-Caldas, Enrique; Thomas, Wayne R; Chapman, Martin D; Lee, Bee Wah; Caraballo, Luis; Acevedo, Nathalie; Chew, Fook Tim; Ansotegui, Ignacio J; Behrooz, Leili; Phipatanakul, Wanda; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Pascal, Demoly; Rosario, Nelson; Ebisawa, Motohiro; Geller, Mario; Quirce, Santiago; Vrtala, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Ollert, Markus; Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Calderón, Moises A; Barnes, Charles S; Custovic, Adnan; Benjaponpitak, Suwat; Capriles-Hulett, Arnaldo

    2017-01-01

    Since mite allergens are the most relevant inducers of allergic diseases worldwide, resulting in significant morbidity and increased burden on health services, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), formed by the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (AAAAI), the American College of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology (ACAAI), the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), and the World Allergy Organization (WAO), has proposed to issue an International Consensus (ICON) on the clinical consequences of mite hypersensitivity. The objectives of this document are to highlight aspects of mite biology that are clinically relevant, to update the current knowledge on mite allergens, routes of sensitization, the genetics of IgE responses to mites, the epidemiologic aspects of mite hypersensitivity, the clinical pictures induced by mites, the diagnosis, specific immunotherapeutic approaches, and prevention.

  13. The analysis of serum specific allergen test results among 333 cases of children’s with allergic diseases%333例儿童血清特异性过敏原检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈铮铮; 吴潇; 虞国其

    2014-01-01

    To determine the allergen of the children in different age groups with allergic diseases in Tongxiang re-gion .[Method] 20 allergen specific IgE (10 kinds of common inhalation allergens and common food allergens ) and total IgE were determined in 333 children with allergic diseases .[Result] The positive rate of total IgE was 65 .2% .The highest positive rate of slgE tested inhalation allergens was dust mites group (47 .6% ) .The highest positive rate of slgE tested food allergens was egg white (30 .5% ) .The highest positive rate of inhalation allergens was 7 14 years old age group (46 .2% ) .[Conclu-sion] Dust mites group was the main inhalant allergens ,and egg white was the main food allergens .Positive rate of allergen was different in different age group of allergic diseases children .%目的:了解本地区不同年龄段过敏性疾病儿童过敏原的致敏情况。方法:对333例患儿进行10种常见吸入性和10种常见食入性过敏原特异性IgE (slgE )和总IgE抗体检测。结果:333例过敏性疾病儿童总IgE检出率为65.2%。吸入性过敏原最高为尘螨组合,占阳性例数的47.6%。食入组最高为鸡蛋白,占阳性例数的30.5%。吸入性过敏原阳性率7~14岁组最高,为46.2%。结论:吸入性过敏原以尘螨组合为主,食入性过敏原以鸡蛋白为主。不同年龄组患儿对过敏原的阳性率存在差异。

  14. IgE Abs to Der p 1 and Der p 2 as diagnostic markers of house dust mite allergy as defined by a bronchoprovocation test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takafumi Minami

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: IgE to nDer p 1 and/or rDer p 2 was highly predictive of allergen-induced IAR. These findings validate the clinical usefulness of measuring the levels of IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 as a diagnostic tool for genuine HDM allergy.

  15. Advances of nanoparticle-DNA vaccine of house dust mite%纳米粒子-DNA疫苗治疗屋尘螨抗原过敏的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔运勇; 杨慧

    2011-01-01

    Der p 1 and Der p 2 are the most characteristic allergic antigen during the research of house dust mite desensitization therapy, Der p 2 is substituting the former because of its stability and resistance to degradation. The traditional specific immunotherapy is limited because of long cure cycle,side effect and the lack of patients' compliance. Though oral DNA vaccine don't have these drawbacks, it's difficult to overcome the substance during GI tract. Nanoparticles-DNA vaccine is widely used in recent years,the main advantage of nanoparticles embed with DNA vaccines is it can effectively protect the DNA vaccine. This article is a review of the research of using nanoparticles in curing house dust mite allergy.%在屋尘螨多种变应原中,Der p1和Der p2是研制屋尘螨变应原疫苗主要的特异性抗原,而Der p2由于较Der p1更稳定和耐降解正逐渐取代后者.传统的过敏原特异性治疗的周期长、易产生不良反应、患者依从性差,口服DNA疫苗可以消除上述困难,但又难以克服消化道中的各种屏障,利用纳米粒子包被DNA疫苗可以有效保护DNA疫苗不被降解,因此得到了广泛认可.本文就纳米粒子-DNA疫苗治疗屋尘螨抗原过敏的研究进展作一综述.

  16. 屋尘螨在诱导BALB/c小鼠混合型气道炎症中的作用及致病机制探讨%House dust mite induces mixed allergic airway inflammation in a murine asthma model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏; 李智; 于永春

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨屋尘螨(HDM)抗原在小鼠模型中诱导混合型气道炎症中的作用及其机理,为支气管哮喘的临床诊断和治疗提供理论依据.方法 BALB/c小鼠于实验第0天、7天、14天、21天、28天和35天进行PBS或HDM提取液(50μg或100 μg)滴鼻.采用头体积描记法测量小鼠的气道反应性;对支气管肺泡灌洗液(BAL)进行细胞计数和分类;酶联免疫法(ELISA)检测BAL中CXCL1、CXCL2、CCL11 (eotaxin)、IL-5、IFNγ、IL-10和IL-17的含量及血清总IgE,HDM特异性IgG1、IgG2a;采用实时荧光定量PCR检测肺组织中相关基因mRNA表达;并对肺组织PAS染色后进行病理学观察.结果 HDM抗原引起了以中性粒细胞和嗜酸性粒细胞为主的混合型气道炎症、血清HDM特异性IgG1的升高及高脚杯细胞增生(GCH)等组织学变化,其混合型气道炎症可能与CXCL1和IL-5等细胞因子的分泌增多有关,是固有免疫和适应性免疫共同活化的结果.这种炎症表型在经高浓度HDM(100 μg)致敏的小鼠中表现得更为显著.结论 HDM过敏原在小鼠模型中诱导了中性粒细胞和嗜酸性粒细胞的共同活化.%Objective To explore the potential role of house dust mite (HDM) allergen in the pathogenesis of mixed airway inflammation and provide evidence for the diagnosis and treatment of asthma.Methods BALB/c mice received an intranasal instillation of PBS or HDM extract (50 μg or 100 μg) on days 0,7,14,21,28,35.After the final challenge,airway responsiveness (AR),histological changes in the airways and immunological status were examined.Results HDM allergen elicited a mixed airway inflammation of neutrophils and eosinophils which were accompanied by an increased production of serum HDM-IgG1 and subsequent histological changes including goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH).The mixed airway inflammation was associated with the upregulation of chemokines and cytokines including CXCL1 and IL-5,representing the activation of innate

  17. A clinic study on desensitization treatment of bronchial asthma with positive specific IgE to dust mite in children%尘螨特异性IgE阳性儿童支气管哮喘脱敏治疗临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡幸生; 朱勇斌; 林丽爱; 黄育涛; 陈素华; 王金燕; 林彤彤

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy and the course of desensitization treatment in bronchial asthma with positive specific IgE to dust mite in children. Methods A total of 105 children with bronchial asthma with positive specific IgE to dermatophagoides farinae allergens were randomized into the observation group and the control group. Children in the control group were treated to continue anti-asthma according to the routine of prevention and treatment children with asthma. Chinldren in the observation group were treated by dermatophagoides farinae drops in addition to the treatment of children in the control group. The recurrence of asthma was compared between two groups at 25 weeks post-treatment. At 25 weeks post-treatment , children in the observation group was randomly divided into the observation groupⅠand group Ⅱ. Children in the observation groupⅠreceived continuous treatment except for desensitization treatment. Children in the observation group II received the sublingual immunotherapy with dermatophagoides farinae drops (No.4) for 1 year in addition to the treatment in the observation groupⅠ. The recurrence of asthma was also compared between the two sub-groups. Results The rate and times of recurrence of asthma were lower in the observation group than those in the control group(P 0.05). Conclusion The recurrent rate and frequency of asthma could be reduced by the sublingual immunotherapy with dermatophagoides farinae drops in children with asthma of positive specific IgE to dust mite. The course of treatment may be half year long.%目的:探讨尘螨特异性IgE阳性儿童支气管哮喘脱敏治疗的临床疗效及疗程。方法:105例血清粉尘螨抗原阳性的支气管哮喘患儿在临床缓解后被随机分成观察组和对照组,对照组继续按哮喘诊疗常规进行治疗,观察组在对照组治疗基础上,予粉尘螨滴剂1~4号舌下含服脱敏治疗,治疗满25周时,比较两组哮喘复发情况。25

  18. Indoor viable dust-bound microfungi in relation to residential characteristics, living habits, and symptoms in atopic and control children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickman, M; Gravesen, S; Nordvall, S L; Pershagen, G; Sundell, J

    1992-03-01

    Floor dust was collected in the wintertime from the homes of 61 children sensitized to house dust mites, 57 children with sensitization to other aeroallergens, and 57 nonatopic control children. The dust was cultivated and microfungal growth was identified microscopically. Indoor humidity was measured, and condensation on windowpanes was registered during 1 winter week. Housing and sociodemographic and symptom data were obtained by a questionnaire. Penicillium, Alternaria, and Cladosporium were the three most common microfungi. The mean total number of colony-forming units per 30 mg of dust was significantly lower in the homes of the two atopic groups than in homes of the control group, which may be a result of allergen-sanitation measures. High colony-forming unit counts appeared to be related to damp housing. Weak associations were found between the occurrence of viable fungi in dust and allergic symptoms among the house dust mite-sensitized children. However, no consistent association between viable mold growth and sensitization to molds was observed. The health implications of indoor fungal exposure still remain unclear.

  19. Safety of specific immunotherapy with standardized house-dust mite vaccine in asthmatic children%标准化屋尘螨提取液治疗儿童支气管哮喘的安全性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝创利; 陶慧; 沈美菊; 侯政

    2008-01-01

    目的 通过观察进行标准化屋尘螨特异性免疫治疗(脱敏治疗)的支气管哮喘(简称哮喘)患儿,在脱敏治疗过程中出现的不良反应,评价脱敏治疗的安全性.方法 对在苏州大学附属儿童医院哮喘专科门诊临床确诊的110例哮喘患儿,应用(丹麦ALK-Abell(o)公司安脱达)标准化屋尘螨提取液进行皮下注射脱敏治疗.观察每次注射后不良反应发生情况,统计脱敏治疗的不良反应发生率.结果 在110例患儿共接受免疫注射2332人次,发生局部不良反应291人次(发生率12.48%),其中速发型局部不良反应146人次(6.26%),迟发型局部不良反应145人次(6.22%).局部不良反应在20~800SQU、2000~80 000SQU、100 000 SQU阶段的发生率分别是:1.05%(6/569)、12.05%(97/805)和19.62%(188/958),差异有统计学意义.发生全身不良反应79人次(3.39%),1例次为3级非致命性全身反应,其余均为轻度全身反应(包括哮喘、过敏性鼻炎,过敏性结膜炎、过敏性皮炎),其中速发型全身不良反应49人次(2.10%).迟发型全身不良反应为30人次(1.29%).全身不良反应在20~800 SQU、2 000~80 000 SQU、100 000 SQU阶段的发生率分别是:0.35%(2/569)、6.71%(54/805)和2.51%(24/958),差异有统计学意义.结论 哮喘患儿对标准化屋尘螨提取液特异性免疫治疗耐受性良好.绝大多数局部不良反应为轻度,其发生率随注射提取物浓度增高而增高.全身不良反应绝大多数为轻度,以发生在2 000~80 000 SQU剂量明显上升阶段为最多,在此阶段多加注意.全身不良反应以注射浓度2 000~80 000 SQU为最高.而局部不良反应以100 000 SQU组为最高,提示局部不良反应和全身不良反应不平行.局部不良反应发生不提示全身不良反应发生.%Objective To evaluate the safety of specific immunotherapy(SIT)with standardized house dust mite(HDM)vaccine on allergic asthmatic children.Methods 110 patients with mild to moderate

  20. RAST studies : IgE antibodies to Dermatogoides pteronyssinus (house dust mite), Aspergillus fumigatus and beta-lactoglobulin in sudden death in infancy syndrome (SDIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, K J; Baldo, B A; Hilton, J M

    1975-01-01

    The incidence of 2.5 SDIS cases per 1,000 live births found in Western Australia is in agreement with figures reported for other centres. While the age range of SDIS victims extended from two weeks to 15 months, 57 per cent of deaths occurred in children of two to four months of age. Boys outnumbered girls 1.6:1. Environmental factors are implicated in that the majority of deaths occurred in a biphasic distribution - autumn and late winter months. No significant differences were observed in total IgE levels in serum from SDIS victims, post mortem children who died in trauma of known aetiology and live control children of the same age range. Serum IgE antibodies to D.pteronyssinus were found in 37% of SDIS victims compared with 7% of matched controls (post mortem plus live groups). IgE antibodies to beta-lactoglobulin, the major allergen of cow's milk, appeared with twice the frequency in SDIS vs. control group but both groups showed a similar incidence of antibodies to the allergens of Aspergillus fumigatus. The prevalence of IgE antibodies to D.pteronyssinus in SDIS victims who died in the late winter -- early spring period was double that found in the group who died in the autumn period. Sixtyfour percent of the SDIS victims had antibodies to two or more of the three allergens tested while the control sera were positive to only one allergen. These results support the hypothesis that anaphylaxis induced by immediate hypersensitivity to D.pteronyssinus in particular may be one of the causative factors in SDIS in Western Australia.

  1. Indoor allergen sensitization and the risk of asthma and eczema in children in Pittsburgh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Brook M; MacGinnitie, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sensitization to cockroach and mouse allergens is correlated with presence and severity of asthma, especially among children living in inner cities. This study evaluated the prevalence of positive skin testing to indoor allergens in the Pittsburgh area and the association with asthma and eczema. A retrospective analysis was performed of 540 children from the Pittsburgh area who underwent skin testing to indoor allergens. Presence of asthma and eczema were determined by parent and/or physician report. Asthma and eczema are not significantly more frequent among children who had positive skin testing to cockroaches or mice. However, asthma was more common among children who had positive skin testing to dogs (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% CI, 1.23-1.65), cats (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.21-1.58), and dust mites (OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.03-1.37). Eczema was more common in children who had positive skin testing to cats (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.14-2.02). Both asthma (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.18-1.58) and eczema (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.07-1.92) were more prevalent among children with any positive skin test. We did not find that sensitization to cockroaches or mice was correlated with the diagnosis or asthma or eczema in the Pittsburgh area. However, sensitization to any allergen, and to cats and/or dogs specifically, was associated with diagnosis of both asthma and eczema. Our result suggests that allergic sensitization is associated with these diseases, but the implicated allergens may vary.

  2. Allergen detection and clinical analysis of 280 children with asthma%280儿童哮喘的过敏原检测临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莲; 赵腾飞

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解280儿童哮喘的过敏原。方法:对280例哮喘患儿(年龄≥3岁至≤14岁),进行皮肤点刺试验,对检测结果进行分析比较。结果:随年龄增加吸入性过敏原粉屋尘螨阳性率逐渐升高。结论:280儿童哮喘的发作与过敏原关系密切,尘螨是最常见的过敏原。%Objective: To investigate allergens in 280 children with asthma.Methods: To analysis and compare Results of skin prick test in 280 asthmatic children (age ≥ 3 years old to ≤ 14 years). Results:The positive rate of inhaled allergens powder mites increased gradually with increasing age.Conclusion: 280 children with asthma and allergy close relationship, dust mites are the most common allergens.

  3. Surface, Water and Air Biocharacterization - A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Ott, C. Mark; Cruz, Patricia; Buttner, Mark P.

    2009-01-01

    A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft (SWAB) will use advanced molecular techniques to comprehensively evaluate microbes on board the space station, including pathogens (organisms that may cause disease). It also will track changes in the microbial community as spacecraft visit the station and new station modules are added. This study will allow an assessment of the risk of microbes to the crew and the spacecraft. Research Summary: Previous microbial analysis of spacecraft only identify microorganisms that will grow in culture, omitting greater than 90% of all microorganisms including pathogens such as Legionella (the bacterium which causes Legionnaires' disease) and Cryptosporidium (a parasite common in contaminated water) The incidence of potent allergens, such as dust mites, has never been systematically studied in spacecraft environments and microbial toxins have not been previously monitored. This study will use modern molecular techniques to identify microorganisms and allergens. Direct sampling of the ISS allows identification of the microbial communities present, and determination of whether these change or mutate over time. SWAB complements the nominal ISS environmental monitoring by providing a comparison of analyses from current media-based and advanced molecular-based technologies.

  4. Characterization of recombinant shrimp allergen Pen a 1 (tropomyosin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, G; Jeoung, B J; Daul, C B; Lehrer, S B

    1997-01-01

    Tropomyosin (Pen a 1) from brown shrimp, Penaeus aztecus, has been identified as the only major shrimp allergen. Since beef, pork and chicken are other tropomyosin-containing foods that are not very allergenic, tropomyosins can serve to investigate the contribution of the structural properties of a protein to its allergenicity. The aim of this study was to determine the primary structure of Pen a 1 and to identify IgE-binding epitopes. The screening of a unidirectional expression cDNA library from shrimp tail muscle with the Pen-a-1-specific monoclonal antibody 4.9.5 resulted in 4 positive Escherichia coli clones. Immunoblot analysis with human sera from shrimp-allergic subjects demonstrated IgE binding of all 4 recombinant shrimp proteins. Three of 4 expressed recombinant proteins have a molecular weight of approximately 36 kD, consistent with the molecular weight of natural Pen a 1. The DNA sequence analysis identified these recombinant shrimp proteins as tropomyosin and could be aligned with the sequence of greasyback shrimp (Metapenaeus ensis) tropomyosin (Met e 1). In order to characterize contiguous IgE-binding epitopes of Pen a 1, a peptide library (Novagen epitope mapping system) expressing 10-30 amino-acid-residue-long recombinant Pen a 1 peptides was constructed and screened with human IgE. Four recombinant, IgE-reactive Pen a 1 peptides were selected and sequenced. They show various degrees of sequence identity with tropomyosins of other arthropods, such as fruitfly and house dust mite, helminths and vertebrates.

  5. B cells play key roles in th2-type airway immune responses in mice exposed to natural airborne allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Li Yin; Iijima, Koji; Hara, Kenichiro; Kobayashi, Takao; Kephart, Gail M; Kita, Hirohito

    2015-01-01

    Humans are frequently exposed to various airborne allergens. In addition to producing antibodies, B cells participate in immune responses via various mechanisms. The roles of B cells in allergic airway inflammation and asthma have been controversial. We examined the functional importance of B cells in a mouse model of asthma, in which mice were exposed repeatedly to common airborne allergens. Naïve wild-type BALB/c mice or B cell-deficient JH-/- mice were exposed intranasally to a cocktail of allergen extracts, including Alternaria, Aspergillus, and house dust mite, every other day for two weeks. Ovalbumin was included in the cocktail to monitor the T cell immune response. Airway inflammation, lung pathology, and airway reactivity were analyzed. The airway exposure of naïve wild type mice to airborne allergens induced robust eosinophilic airway inflammation, increased the levels of Th2 cytokines and chemokines in the lung, and increased the reactivity to inhaled methacholine. These pathological changes and immune responses were attenuated in B cell-deficient JH-/- mice. The allergen-induced expansion of CD4+ T cells was impaired in the lungs and draining lymph nodes of JH-/- mice. Furthermore, lymphocytes from JH-/- mice failed to produce Th2 cytokines in response to ovalbumin re-stimulation in vitro. Our results suggest that B cells are required for the optimal development of Th2-type immune responses and airway inflammation when exposed to common airborne allergens. The therapeutic targeting of B cells may be beneficial to treat asthma in certain patients.

  6. B cells play key roles in th2-type airway immune responses in mice exposed to natural airborne allergens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yin Drake

    Full Text Available Humans are frequently exposed to various airborne allergens. In addition to producing antibodies, B cells participate in immune responses via various mechanisms. The roles of B cells in allergic airway inflammation and asthma have been controversial. We examined the functional importance of B cells in a mouse model of asthma, in which mice were exposed repeatedly to common airborne allergens. Naïve wild-type BALB/c mice or B cell-deficient JH-/- mice were exposed intranasally to a cocktail of allergen extracts, including Alternaria, Aspergillus, and house dust mite, every other day for two weeks. Ovalbumin was included in the cocktail to monitor the T cell immune response. Airway inflammation, lung pathology, and airway reactivity were analyzed. The airway exposure of naïve wild type mice to airborne allergens induced robust eosinophilic airway inflammation, increased the levels of Th2 cytokines and chemokines in the lung, and increased the reactivity to inhaled methacholine. These pathological changes and immune responses were attenuated in B cell-deficient JH-/- mice. The allergen-induced expansion of CD4+ T cells was impaired in the lungs and draining lymph nodes of JH-/- mice. Furthermore, lymphocytes from JH-/- mice failed to produce Th2 cytokines in response to ovalbumin re-stimulation in vitro. Our results suggest that B cells are required for the optimal development of Th2-type immune responses and airway inflammation when exposed to common airborne allergens. The therapeutic targeting of B cells may be beneficial to treat asthma in certain patients.

  7. 常州地区过敏性鼻炎儿童吸入性过敏原分析%Analysis of inhaled allergens in children with allergic rhinitis in Changzhou area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许小朋; 史梅; 史伟峰

    2014-01-01

    different age groups.Re-sults Among 473 children cases of allergic rhinitis,340 cases(71.9%)were positive.The top three allergens were house dust mite (55.6%),mixed fungi(25.8%)and house dust(18.8%).The positive rate of allergen showed the upward trend with the age in-crease.The distribution of house dust mite(χ2 =21.061,P =0.000),house dust (χ2 =15.111,P =0.000)and the cat and dog dan-der(χ2 = 7.597,P = 0.022 )was statistically significant among the three groups.Single allergen positive rate was the highest (38.5%)and the secand was double allergens(23.7%).The top three positive in single allergens was consistent with sort of total allergen positive rate.The most common double allergen was the combination of house dust mites and house dust.The multiple al-lergen positive rate had statistical significance in the distribution among groups(χ2 =13.399,P =0.001).Conclusion The inhaled allergens of AR children in Changzhou area are dominated by house dust mite,mixed fungi and house dust.The positive rate shows the increasing trend with age increase.The allergen constituents are different in different age groups.The positive single allergen is most common,followed by positive double allergens.

  8. Indoor allergen assessment quantified by a thin-layer electrochemical cell and magnetic beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Ryoji; Yanagisawa, Hiroyuki; Niwa, Osamu

    2013-10-15

    We report the electrochemical determination of mite allergen in real house dust by using a thin layer electrochemical flow cell and magnetic beads. Der p1, which is an allergen from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, was immunochemically sandwiched between two dispersed monoclonal antibodies; one was modified on the surface of magnetic beads and the other was modified with alkaline phosphatase. After washing the beads, a small volume of p-aminophenol phosphate (p-APP) was added to produce p-aminophenol (p-AP). And then the p-AP concentration was measured electrochemically with a homemade electrochemical cell. The Der p1 assay was completed within 30 min and a low detection limit of 0.3 ng/mL was achieved. This is because the diffusion distance of Der p1 and the detection antibody was reduced to 22.3 μm by using dispersed magnetic beads. Only 10 min was required to complete the entire immunoreaction, and 54% of the Der p1 was confirmed to have immunoreacted in only 1 min of mixing. Furthermore, the p-APP volume could be reduced using the thin-layer electrochemical flow cell. This is advantageous in terms of concentrating p-AP, and provides a high signal-to-noise ratio measurement in a short time. We achieved a high correlation (r=0.967, p<0.001) between our assay and a conventional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for real house dust measurements.

  9. Persistence of IgE-associated allergy and allergen-specific IgE despite CD4+ T cell loss in AIDS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Marth

    Full Text Available The infection of CD4+ cells by HIV leads to the progressive destruction of CD4+ T lymphocytes and, after a severe reduction of CD4+ cells, to AIDS. The aim of the study was to investigate whether HIV-infected patients with CD4 cell counts <200 cells/µl can suffer from symptoms of IgE-mediated allergy, produce allergen-specific IgE antibody responses and show boosts of allergen-specific IgE production. HIV-infected patients with CD4 counts ≤ 200 cells/µl suffering from AIDS and from IgE-mediated allergy were studied. Allergy was diagnosed according to case history, physical examination, skin prick testing (SPT, and serological analyses including allergen microarrays. HIV infection was confirmed serologically and the disease was staged clinically. The predominant allergic symptoms in the studied patients were acute allergic rhinitis (73% followed by asthma (27% due to IgE-mediated mast cell activation whereas no late phase allergic symptoms such as atopic dermatitis, a mainly T cell-mediated skin manifestation, were found in patients suffering from AIDS. According to IgE serology allergies to house dust mites and grass pollen were most common besides IgE sensitizations to various food allergens. Interestingly, pollen allergen-specific IgE antibody levels in the patients with AIDS and in additional ten IgE-sensitized patients with HIV infections and low CD4 counts appeared to be boosted by seasonal allergen exposure and were not associated with CD4 counts. Our results indicate that secondary allergen-specific IgE production and IgE-mediated allergic inflammation do not require a fully functional CD4+ T lymphocyte repertoire.

  10. The analysis of asthmatic bronchitis allergen skin prick test%喘息性支气管炎患儿皮肤过敏原点刺检测结果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜君

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the allergen skin prick test for 12g patients with asthmatoid bronchitis to proceed early intervening treatment.Methods The dust mite allergen,dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 14 kinds of common allergen were detected in the 128 patients with pediatric asthmatoid bronchitis with the allergen skin prick test.According to age,the children were divided into two groups(more than 7 years old age group and under the age of seven group).Inhaled allergens (dust mites,household dust mites,the pollen of humulus scandens,dog hair,phoenix tree,etc.) and food allergens (eggs,milk,sea crab,scallops,etc.) were given in two groups.Afterwards the positive rate was analyzed.Results Among these 128 patients with pediatric asthmatoid bronchitis,the positive rate of allergen prick test result was 85.0% ; the inhaled allergens mid-point sting test result was 74.1% ; the food allergens was 10.8%.Conclusions The allergens can be found quickly and easily in the patients of pediatric asthmatoid bronchitis and the symptom severity of the patients of pediatric asthmatoid bronchitis can be effectively indicated with the allergen skin prick test.The skin prick test should be used widely in checking the allergens of pediatric asthmatoid bronchitis.%目的 探讨皮肤过敏原点刺试验检测喘息性支气管炎患儿临床效果.方法 对2012年1月1日至12月31日于我院就诊并确诊为喘息性支气管炎的128例患儿进行皮肤过敏原点刺试验,总点数为1792点,选取的过敏原为粉尘螨、户尘螨等14种常见的过敏原,给予患儿皮肤过敏原点刺,对吸入性过敏原(粉尘螨、户尘螨、葎草花粉、狗毛、梧桐等)及食物性过敏原(鸡蛋清、牛奶、海蟹、扇贝等)相关情况进行观察和过敏原阳性率等数据进行分析.结果 128例喘息性支气管炎患者过敏原点刺检测结果为阳性占85.0%(1523/1792),其中在吸入性过敏原中点刺检测结果阳性占74.1%(1328/1792),而食

  11. Investigations on Allergens of Allergic Diseases in Children from Tongling%铜陵地区儿童过敏性疾病过敏原的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋文辉; 刘萍; 周云霞; 朱应玉; 胡春玖; 王万平; 王华峰; 江文胜; 张丽新

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the characteristic of allergens in children's hypersensitivity disease of Tongling, so as to provide scientific basis for the prevention of hypersensitivity disease among children in Tongling. Methods Fifty cases suffered from bronchial asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and(or) atopic dermatitis were selected. In 50 cases, 31 were males and 19 were females. The average age was 6.32 β. 13 years old. All the patients underwent skin prick tests(SPT) with 20 allergens, with histamine as positive control. Normal saline was used for negative control. Results Of the inhalant allergens in the Tongling, dust mite was positive in 84% , followed by house dust mite(82% ) ,feather of dogs and cats(54% ) , cockroach(48% ) , wormwood and hamulus pollen and weed pollen(46% ) . Compared with those of food allergens, the positive rite were in order of sea shrimp(62% ) , beef and yolk(58% ) , peanut(56% ) , egg white and mango and milk(54% ) , rice field eel and ribbonfish( 52% ) , soybean(46% ) , apple and peach(42% ). Conclusion It is concluded that dust mite and house dust mite allergen are the most common allergens in Tongling. In preschoolers, the main food allergen is yolk and peanut; in school - age children, sea shrimp and beef. Therefore, SPT is one of the safest and most effective methods to detect hypersensitivity diseases among children.%目的 探讨铜陵地区儿童过敏性疾病过敏原的分布特点,为本地区儿童常见过敏性疾病的防治提供科学依据.方法 选择患有儿童哮喘、过敏性鼻炎和特异性皮炎等的患儿50例,男性31例,女性19例,平均年龄6.32±3.13岁.所有对象均选用20种过敏原进行皮肤点刺试验,以组胺作阳性对照,生理盐水作阴性对照.结果 铜陵地区吸入性过敏原以粉尘螨阳性率最高为84%,其次是户尘螨阳性率82%、猫毛和狗上皮阳性率54%、蟑螂阳性率48%、艾蒿和葎草、玉米花粉阳性率46%.食物性过

  12. Cloning,sequence analysis and expression in E.coli of the group 3 allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI Yu-bao; CAI Hong-xing; LI Li; ZHOU Ying; GAO Cui-xiang; SHI Wei-hong; YU Ming

    2009-01-01

    Background The dust mites,which are mostly represented by Dermatophagoides spp.(Acari:Pyroglyphidae),are the major sources of indoor allergens.Identification and characterization of these mite allergen molecules are an important step in the development of new effective diagnostic procedures and possible therapeutic strategies for allergic disorders associated with dust mites.Methods Total RNA was extracted from Derrnatophagoides farinae.The gene coding for Der f 3 was amplified by RT-PCR with the primers designed based on previous sequence published in GenBank.The target gene was cloned intermediately into pMD19-T plasmid and finally into plasmid pET28a(+),expressed in E.coli BL21 at the aid of the inducer isopropyI-D-thiogalactopyranoside(IPTG).The physicochemical properties,spatial structure of the allergen were analyzed with bioinformatics software.Results The cDNA coding for group 3 allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae from China was cloned and expressed successfully.Sequencing analysis showed that there were nineteen mismatched nucleotides in five Der f 3 cDNA clones in comparison with the reference(GenBank Accession No.AY283291),which resulted in deduced amino acid sequence incompatibility in eleven residues.Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the Der f 3 pro-protein was an extracellular hydrophobic protein,consisting of 259 amino acids with a 16 amino acid signal peptide.The protein was deduced to have three chymotrypsin active sites(53-68 AA,108-122 AA and 205-217 hA),one N-glycosylation site,one cAMP-and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation site,four protein kinase C phosphorylation sites,two casein kinase Ⅱ phosphorylation sites,and five N-myristoylation sites.Conclusions Der f 3 is an extracellular hydrophobic protein which possesses multiple activation and phosphorylation sites.Polymorphism may exist in the Der f3 gene but this needs to be further confirmed in the future.

  13. 77例药物性肝损害患者过敏原检测结果分析%Allergen analysis of 77 patients with drug-induced liver injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林健梅; 杨仁国; 耿晓霞; 江南

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the allergic factors of drug-induced liver injury( DILI). Methods 77 cases with DILI were given test serum allergens, and 77 cases were compared with normal. Results The positive rate of serum allergens in 77 DILI was 84. 42% (65/77) ;There were no statistically significant differences between inhaled allergens and food allergen(P > 0. 05). The higher positive allergens were dust mites/powder mite,ordinary ragweed/from plants,crab/shrimp/lobster and beef/lamb. And normal serum specific allergen positive rate was only 18. 18 % ( 14/77 ) , there was statistically significant difference between DILI and normals ( P < 0.01). Conclusions DILI patients had higher allergens tested positive rate,it can help know about allergen situation through serum allergens detection, and there are some certain significance for patients to avoid or reduce exposure to the allergen.%目的 对药物性肝损害(drug induced liver injury,DILI)患者血清过敏原检测进行讨论分析.方法 选择77例临床诊断为DILI的住院患者进行血清过敏原检测,并与77例正常人进行对照.结果 77例患者血清过敏原检测阳性率84.42%(65/77);吸入性过敏原与食入性过敏原阳性率比较差异无统计学意义(P > 0.05).阳性率较高的为尘螨/粉螨、普通豚草/蒿属植物、蟹/虾/龙虾、牛肉/羊肉.而正常人血清特异性过敏原阳性率为18.18%(14/77),差异有统计学意义(P < 0.01).结论 DILI患者具有较高的过敏原检测阳性率,过敏原检测可以了解DILI患者的过敏原状况,对指导患者避免或减少接触过敏原具有一定的意义.

  14. 儿童变应性鼻炎吸入性和食入性变应原比较%Inhalation versus food allergens in children with allergic rhinitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卡凡; 邝立

    2014-01-01

    目的 探讨佛山地区儿童变应性鼻炎(AR)患者吸入性和食入性变应原的种类和分布情况.方法 选取300例近2年门诊儿童AR患者进行吸入性和食入性变应原皮肤点刺试验,分析比较佛山地区AR患者变应原分布特点.结果 300例儿童患者中,吸入组变应原SPT阳性反应243例(81.00%),变应原排列前位的为屋尘螨、粉尘螨、热带螨、德国小蠊、狗毛;食入组中SPT阳性反应105例(35.00%),变应原排列依次为螃蟹、虾、花生、桃子.结论 佛山地区AR患者的主要变应原是尘螨、蟑螂及海鲜类食入性变应原.%Objective To investigate the distribution of inhalation and food allergens in children with allergic rhinitis in Fosha.Methods 300 children were detected by skin prick test in the past two years and then analyzed the distribution of allergens.Results In the inhalation group,243 of 300 cases (81.00%) got positive reaction; the top allergens were house dust mite,farina mite,tropical mite,blattella germanica,and dog hair.In the food group,the ratio of positive reaction was 35.00% (105/300); the top common allergens were crab,shrimp,peanut,and peach.Conclusions The main allergens of children with allergic rhinitis in Foshan include dust mites,cockroaches,and seafood.

  15. Allergen exposure in infancy and the development of sensitization, wheeze, and asthma at 4 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussee, JE; Smit, HA; van Strien, RT; Corver, K; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, AH; Aalberse, RC; Postma, D; Gerritsen, J; Grobbee, DE; de Jongste, JC; Brunekreef, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: The relationship between mite and pet allergen exposure in infancy and the subsequent development of sensitization and asthma is complex. Objective: We prospectively investigated the effect of allergen exposure at 3 months of age on the development of sensitization, wheeze, and physician

  16. Allergen exposure in infancy and the development of sensitization, wheeze, and asthma at 4 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brussee, JE; Smit, HA; van Strien, RT; Corver, K; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, AH; Aalberse, RC; Postma, D; Gerritsen, J; Grobbee, DE; de Jongste, JC; Brunekreef, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: The relationship between mite and pet allergen exposure in infancy and the subsequent development of sensitization and asthma is complex. Objective: We prospectively investigated the effect of allergen exposure at 3 months of age on the development of sensitization, wheeze, and physician

  17. Immunoproteomic characterization of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen allergens in canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ognjenovic, Jana; Milcic-Matic, Natalija; Smiljanic, Katarina; Vuckovic, Olga; Burazer, Lidija; Popovic, Nikola; Stanic-Vucinic, Dragana; Velickovic, Tanja Cirkovic

    2013-09-01

    Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) is an immune system disorder that affects 10-15% of the canine population. Short ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) pollen represents one of the major seasonal sources of allergenic pollen proteins in Europe, particularly in the Pannonian valley of the Balkan region. In Serbia, about 66% of atopic dogs showed a positive intradermal skin test with its pollen extract, which is second to house dust mites. Therefore, characterization of Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen components, in terms of defining major and minor allergens that induce clinically manifested allergic reaction in dogs, is important for valid diagnosis and efficient therapy. This study has, for the first time, characterized and identified major Ambrosia artemisiifolia allergens in CAD, using an immunoproteomic approach. To assess the prevalence of specific IgE in electrophoretically separated ragweed pollen proteins, individual reactivity of sera from dogs with CAD was analyzed and compared to the reactivity of sera from healthy dogs in the non-reducing conditions, which were found optimal for specific canine IgE detection. A specific IgE band (38 kDa) was recognized as the most dominant allergen in CAD, occurring in 81% of positive dog's sera. 2-D immunoblotting followed by a mass spectrometry peptide fingerprint analyses with pooled canine and human atopic sera, revealed that 38 kDa major Ambrosia atremisiifolia allergens in CAD were all five isoallergens of the Amb a 1 group (antigen E), including the previously named Amb a 2 (antigen K). In contrast to canine sera, human atopic sera also recognized lower mass allergens such as the β fragment of Amb a 1 and profilins (Amb a 8 variants). The most prominent ragweed proteins in CAD, represent, as in humans, variants of all five isoallergens of the Amb a 1 group (pectate lyase): Amb a 1.0101 and its natural variant E1XUL2, Amb a 1.0202, 1.0304, 1.0402 and the natural variant of Amb a 1.0501, E1XUM0, as well as the

  18. Preventing Severe Asthma Exacerbations in Children. A Randomized Trial of Mite-Impermeable Bedcovers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Clare S; Foden, Philip; Sumner, Helen; Shepley, Elizabeth; Custovic, Adnan; Simpson, Angela

    2017-07-15

    Allergen exposure in sensitized individuals with asthma interacts with viruses to increase the risk of asthma exacerbation. To evaluate the use of house dust mite-impermeable bedding and its impact on severe asthma exacerbations in children. We randomized mite-sensitized children with asthma (ages 3-17 yr) after an emergency hospital attendance with an asthma exacerbation to receive mite-impermeable (active group) or control (placebo group) bed encasings. Over a 12-month intervention period, the occurrence of severe asthma exacerbations was investigated. Of 434 children with asthma who consented, 286 (mean age, 7.7 yr; male sex, 65.8%) were mite sensitized, and 284 were randomized (146 to the active group and 138 to the placebo group). At 12 months, significantly fewer children in the active group than in the placebo group had attended the hospital with an exacerbation (36 [29.3%] of 123 vs. 49 [41.5%] of 118; P = 0.047). In the multivariable analysis, the risk of emergency hospital attendance was 45% lower in the active group (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.36-0.85; P = 0.006) than in the placebo group. The annual rate of emergency hospital attendance with exacerbations was 27% lower in the active group than in the placebo group, but this did not reach significance (estimated marginal mean [95% CI], active, 0.38 [0.26-0.56] vs. placebo, 0.52 [0.35-0.76]; P = 0.18). No difference between the groups in the risk of prednisolone use for exacerbation was found (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.58-1.17; P = 0.28). Mite-impermeable encasings are effective in reducing the number of mite-sensitized children with asthma attending the hospital with asthma exacerbations but not the number requiring oral prednisolone. This simple measure may reduce the health care burden of asthma exacerbations in children. Clinical trial registered with www.isrctn.com (ISRCTN 69543196).

  19. Helminth allergens, parasite-specific IgE and its protective role in human immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Matthew Fitzsimmons

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths. Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g. EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins.During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However some infections (especially Ascaris are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins and highly similar molecules in dust mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s3 and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin.In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy.

  20. Eczema and sensitization to common allergens in the United States: a multiethnic, population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Teresa; Keiser, Elizabeth; Linos, Eleni; Rotatori, Robert M; Sainani, Kristin; Lingala, Bharathi; Lane, Alfred T; Schneider, Lynda; Tang, Jean Y

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between food and environmental allergens in contributing to eczema risk is unclear on a multiethnic population level. Our purpose was to determine whether sensitization to specific dietary and environmental allergens as measured according to higher specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels is associated with eczema risk in children. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants ages 1 to 17 years were asked whether they had ever received a diagnosis of eczema from a physician (n = 538). Total and specific serum IgE levels for four dietary allergens (egg, cow's milk, peanut, and shrimp) and five environmental allergens (dust mite, cat, dog, Aspergillus, and Alternaria) were measured. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between eczema and IgE levels. In the United States, 10.4 million children (15.6%) have a history of eczema. Eczema was more common in black children (p eczema than in those without (66.4 vs 50.6 kU/L, p = 0.004). In multivariate analysis adjusted for age, race, sex, family income, household education, and physician-diagnosed asthma, eczema was significantly associated with sensitization to cat dander (odds ratio [OR] = 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05, 1.4, p = 0.009) and dog dander (OR = 1.5, 95% CI, 1.2, 1.7, p dog dander remained significant. U.S. children with eczema are most likely to be sensitized to dog dander. Future prospective studies should further explore this relationship.

  1. Helminth Allergens, Parasite-Specific IgE, and Its Protective Role in Human Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Colin Matthew; Falcone, Franco Harald; Dunne, David William

    2014-01-01

    The Th2 immune response, culminating in eosinophilia and IgE production, is not only characteristic of allergy but also of infection by parasitic worms (helminths). Anti-parasite IgE has been associated with immunity against a range of helminth infections and many believe that IgE and its receptors evolved to help counter metazoan parasites. Allergens (IgE-antigens) are present in only a small minority of protein families and known IgE targets in helminths belong to these same families (e.g., EF-hand proteins, tropomyosin, and PR-1 proteins). During some helminth infection, especially with the well adapted hookworm, the Th2 response is moderated by parasite-expressed molecules. This has been associated with reduced allergy in helminth endemic areas and worm infection or products have been proposed as treatments for allergic conditions. However, some infections (especially Ascaris) are associated with increased allergy and this has been linked to cross-reactivity between worm proteins (e.g., tropomyosins) and highly similar molecules in dust-mites and insects. The overlap between allergy and helminth infection is best illustrated in Anisakis simplex, a nematode that when consumed in under-cooked fish can be both an infective helminth and a food allergen. Nearly 20 molecular allergens have been isolated from this species, including tropomyosin (Ani s 3) and the EF-hand protein, Ani s troponin. In this review, we highlight aspects of the biology and biochemistry of helminths that may have influenced the evolution of the IgE response. We compare dominant IgE-antigens in worms with clinically important environmental allergens and suggest that arrays of such molecules will provide important information on anti-worm immunity as well as allergy.

  2. Occupational allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwoert, J.

    2014-01-01

    Allergens are substances that may cause a hypersensitivity (allergy) of the immune system. After acquiring this hypersensitivity, further exposure to the same substance may result in allergic skin disease such as allergic contact dermatitis, or allergic airway disease such as allergic rhinitis or as

  3. Airway responses and inflammation in subjects with asthma after four days of repeated high-single-dose allergen challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schulze Johannes

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Both standard and low-dose allergen provocations are an established tool in asthma research to improve our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanism of allergic asthma. However, clinical symptoms are less likely to be induced. Therefore, we designed a protocol for repetitive high-dose bronchial allergen challenges to generate clinical symptoms and airway inflammation. Methods A total of 27 patients aged 18 to 40 years with positive skin-prick tests and mild asthma underwent repetitive high-dose allergen challenges with household dust mites for four consecutive days. Pulmonary function and exhaled NO were measured at every visit. Induced sputum was analysed before and after the allergen challenges for cell counts, ECP, IL-5, INF-γ, IL-8, and the transcription factor Foxp3. Results We found a significant decrease in pulmonary function, an increased use of salbutamol and the development of a late asthmatic response and bronchial hyperresponsiveness, as well as a significant induction of eNO, eosinophils, and Th-2 cytokines. Repeated provocation was feasible in the majority of patients. Two subjects had severe adverse events requiring prednisolone to cope with nocturnal asthma symptoms. Conclusions Repeated high-dose bronchial allergen challenges resulted in severe asthma symptoms and marked Th-2-mediated allergic airway inflammation. The high-dose challenge model is suitable only in an attenuated form in diseased volunteers for proof-of-concept studies and in clinical settings to reduce the risk of severe asthma exacerbations. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.govNCT00677209

  4. Greater risk of incident asthma cases in adults with Allergic Rhinitis and Effect of Allergen Immunotherapy: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piccillo Giovita

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Asthma and rhinitis are often co-morbid conditions. As rhinitis often precedes asthma it is possible that effective treatment of allergic rhinitis may reduce asthma progression. The aim of our study is to investigate history of allergic rhinitis as a risk factor for asthma and the potential effect of allergen immunotherapy in attenuating the incidence of asthma. Hospital-referred non-asthmatic adults, aged 18–40 years between 1990 and 1991, were retrospectively followed up until January and April 2000. At the end of follow up, available subjects were clinically examined for asthma diagnosis and history of allergen specific immunotherapy, second-hand smoking and the presence of pets in the household. A total of 436 non-asthmatic adults (332 subjects with allergic rhinitis and 104 with no allergic rhinitis nor history of atopy were available for final analyses. The highest OR (odds ratio associated with a diagnosis of asthma at the end of follow-up was for the diagnosis of allergic rhinitis at baseline (OR, 7.8; 95%CI, 3.1–20.0 in the model containing the covariates of rhinitis diagnosis, sex, second-hand smoke exposure, presence of pets at home, family history of allergic disorders, sensitization to Parietaria judaica; grass pollen; house dust mites; Olea europea: orchard; perennial rye; and cat allergens. Female sex, sensitization to Parietaria judaica and the presence of pets in the home were also significantly predictive of new onset asthma in the same model. Treatment with allergen immunotherapy was significantly and inversely related to the development of new onset asthma (OR, 0.53; 95%CI, 0.32–0.86. In the present study we found that allergic rhinitis is an important independent risk factor for asthma. Moreover, treatment with allergen immunotherapy lowers the risk of the development of new asthma cases in adults with allergic rhinitis.

  5. Comparison of intradermal skin testing (IDST) and serum allergen-specific IgE determination in an experimental model of feline asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Fowler, Tekla M; Cohn, Leah A; DeClue, Amy E; Spinka, Christine M; Ellebracht, Ryan D; Reinero, Carol R

    2009-11-15

    Intradermal skin testing (IDST) and allergen-specific IgE determination are used to determine allergen sensitization. In cats, studies have found poor correlation between the two tests. However, these studies were mainly conducted in pet cats sensitized to unknown allergens with unknown dose and duration of exposure. We hypothesized that in an experimental model of allergic sensitization where these variables are controlled, IDST would demonstrate greater sensitivity and specificity than would serum allergen-specific IgE determination. A model of feline asthma employing Bermuda grass allergen (BGA) or house dust mite allergen (HDMA) was used to test the hypothesis. Thirteen cats were assigned to undergo sensitization to BGA, HDMA or saline (placebo). Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid confirmed development of an asthmatic phenotype. Serum collection and IDST were performed on D0, D28 and D50. A portion of serum was pooled, and an aliquot heat inactivated (HI) to destroy IgE. Individual, pooled, and pooled HI samples were used for allergen-specific IgE determination using an Fc epsilon R1 alpha-based ELISA; pooled samples were also analyzed using an enzymoimmunometric assay. Sensitivity (SE), specificity (SP), and positive and negative predictive values (PP