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Sample records for dust based modular

  1. Measuring Modularity in Open Source Code Bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Milev

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Modularity of an open source software code base has been associated with growth of the software development community, the incentives for voluntary code contribution, and a reduction in the number of users who take code without contributing back to the community. As a theoretical construct, modularity links OSS to other domains of research, including organization theory, the economics of industry structure, and new product development. However, measuring the modularity of an OSS design has proven difficult, especially for large and complex systems. In this article, we describe some preliminary results of recent research at Carleton University that examines the evolving modularity of large-scale software systems. We describe a measurement method and a new modularity metric for comparing code bases of different size, introduce an open source toolkit that implements this method and metric, and provide an analysis of the evolution of the Apache Tomcat application server as an illustrative example of the insights gained from this approach. Although these results are preliminary, they open the door to further cross-discipline research that quantitatively links the concerns of business managers, entrepreneurs, policy-makers, and open source software developers.

  2. A New Modular Control Board for Pulse-Jet Cleaning of Dust Collector Filter Bags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Carosso

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a timing system modular control board to be used for pulse-jet cleaning of dust collector filter bags or pneumatic conveying systems. Many systems of this kind are already available on the market but only some of them have the ability to operate in full range alternating current power supplies. The presented versatile and innovative control board can control the electro valves, either the ones operating with alternating current and those in direct current (since they are both used in the industrial plants. For the same reason, the designed prototype system can be powered with different voltages, widening the number of potential industrial applications. The electronic board has as main advantage the ability to fully automate the cleaning cycle. It can drive many electro valves simultaneously since it is possible to connect more control boards together if needed. It also allows the user to separate the control section of the system from the section dedicated to the actuation of the electro valves. The electro valves can be controlled from a PC terminal via ethernet. The work describes the adopted solutions and the steps made for the design of the entire prototypal modular board, with particular focus on the innovative timing system.

  3. Anatomy-Based Organization of Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Campbell, Jason

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel biologically inspired hierarchical approach to organizing and controlling modular robots. The purpose of our approach is to decompose the complexity of assembling and commanding a functional robot made of numerous simple modules (thousands to millions) by introducing...... a hierarchy of structure and control. The robots we describe incorporate anatomically inspired parts such as muscles, bones and joints, and these parts in turn are assembled from modules. Each of those parts encapsulates one or more functions, e.g. a muscle can contract. Control of the robot can then be cast...... as a problem of controlling its anatomical parts rather than each discrete module. We show simulation results from experiments using gradient-based primitives to control parts of increasingly complex robots, including snake, crawler, cilia-surface, arm-joint-muscle and grasping robots. We conclude...

  4. A Modularity Degree Based Heuristic Community Detection Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongming Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A community in a complex network can be seen as a subgroup of nodes that are densely connected. Discovery of community structures is a basic problem of research and can be used in various areas, such as biology, computer science, and sociology. Existing community detection methods usually try to expand or collapse the nodes partitions in order to optimize a given quality function. These optimization function based methods share the same drawback of inefficiency. Here we propose a heuristic algorithm (MDBH algorithm based on network structure which employs modularity degree as a measure function. Experiments on both synthetic benchmarks and real-world networks show that our algorithm gives competitive accuracy with previous modularity optimization methods, even though it has less computational complexity. Furthermore, due to the use of modularity degree, our algorithm naturally improves the resolution limit in community detection.

  5. Competency Based Modular Experiments in Polymer Science and Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Eli M; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Describes a competency-based, modular laboratory course emphasizing the synthesis and characterization of polymers and directed toward senior undergraduate and/or first-year graduate students in science and engineering. One module, free-radical polymerization kinetics by dilatometry, is included as a sample. (CS)

  6. A large stellarator based on modular coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamberger, S.M.; Sharp, L.E.; Petersen, L.F.

    1979-06-01

    Although stellarators offer some considerable advantages over tokamaks, difficulties arise in designing large devices due, for instance, to poor plasma access as well as to constructional electromechanical and maintenance problems associated with continous helical windings. This paper describes a design for a fairly large device (major radius 2.1m), based on a set of discrete coil modules arranged in a toroidal configuration to provide the required closed magnetic surfaces, having gaps for unobstructed access to the plasma for diagnostics, etc, and allowing for easy removal for maintenance

  7. ADVANCED SEISMIC BASE ISOLATION METHODS FOR MODULAR REACTORS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    E. Blanford; E. Keldrauk; M. Laufer; M. Mieler; J. Wei; B. Stojadinovic; P.F. Peterson

    2010-09-20

    Advanced technologies for structural design and construction have the potential for major impact not only on nuclear power plant construction time and cost, but also on the design process and on the safety, security and reliability of next generation of nuclear power plants. In future Generation IV (Gen IV) reactors, structural and seismic design should be much more closely integrated with the design of nuclear and industrial safety systems, physical security systems, and international safeguards systems. Overall reliability will be increased, through the use of replaceable and modular equipment, and through design to facilitate on-line monitoring, in-service inspection, maintenance, replacement, and decommissioning. Economics will also receive high design priority, through integrated engineering efforts to optimize building arrangements to minimize building heights and footprints. Finally, the licensing approach will be transformed by becoming increasingly performance based and technology neutral, using best-estimate simulation methods with uncertainty and margin quantification. In this context, two structural engineering technologies, seismic base isolation and modular steel-plate/concrete composite structural walls, are investigated. These technologies have major potential to (1) enable standardized reactor designs to be deployed across a wider range of sites, (2) reduce the impact of uncertainties related to site-specific seismic conditions, and (3) alleviate reactor equipment qualification requirements. For Gen IV reactors the potential for deliberate crashes of large aircraft must also be considered in design. This report concludes that base-isolated structures should be decoupled from the reactor external event exclusion system. As an example, a scoping analysis is performed for a rectangular, decoupled external event shell designed as a grillage. This report also reviews modular construction technology, particularly steel-plate/concrete construction using

  8. ADVANCED SEISMIC BASE ISOLATION METHODS FOR MODULAR REACTORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanford, E.; Keldrauk, E.; Laufer, M.; Mieler, M.; Wei, J.; Stojadinovic, B.; Peterson, P.F.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced technologies for structural design and construction have the potential for major impact not only on nuclear power plant construction time and cost, but also on the design process and on the safety, security and reliability of next generation of nuclear power plants. In future Generation IV (Gen IV) reactors, structural and seismic design should be much more closely integrated with the design of nuclear and industrial safety systems, physical security systems, and international safeguards systems. Overall reliability will be increased, through the use of replaceable and modular equipment, and through design to facilitate on-line monitoring, in-service inspection, maintenance, replacement, and decommissioning. Economics will also receive high design priority, through integrated engineering efforts to optimize building arrangements to minimize building heights and footprints. Finally, the licensing approach will be transformed by becoming increasingly performance based and technology neutral, using best-estimate simulation methods with uncertainty and margin quantification. In this context, two structural engineering technologies, seismic base isolation and modular steel-plate/concrete composite structural walls, are investigated. These technologies have major potential to (1) enable standardized reactor designs to be deployed across a wider range of sites, (2) reduce the impact of uncertainties related to site-specific seismic conditions, and (3) alleviate reactor equipment qualification requirements. For Gen IV reactors the potential for deliberate crashes of large aircraft must also be considered in design. This report concludes that base-isolated structures should be decoupled from the reactor external event exclusion system. As an example, a scoping analysis is performed for a rectangular, decoupled external event shell designed as a grillage. This report also reviews modular construction technology, particularly steel-plate/concrete construction using

  9. Environmental sciences and computations: a modular data based systems approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, T.V.; Bailey, C.E.

    1975-07-01

    A major computer code for environmental calculations is under development at the Savannah River Laboratory. The primary aim is to develop a flexible, efficient capability to calculate, for all significant pathways, the dose to man resulting from releases of radionuclides from the Savannah River Plant and from other existing and potential radioactive sources in the southeastern United States. The environmental sciences programs at SRP are described, with emphasis on the development of the calculational system. It is being developed as a modular data-based system within the framework of the larger JOSHUA Computer System, which provides data management, terminal, and job execution facilities. (U.S.)

  10. Understanding Project Based Production through Socio-technical Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff

    This paper develops an approach for understanding Project Based Production. This form of production is characterized by unique deliverables, high complexity, high value, high risk, profound uncertainty and many stakeholders and is increasingly important the postmodern society. Common to the pract......This paper develops an approach for understanding Project Based Production. This form of production is characterized by unique deliverables, high complexity, high value, high risk, profound uncertainty and many stakeholders and is increasingly important the postmodern society. Common...... to the practices of PBP and other production practices is the goal of balancing the dilemma between creativity and productivity. In response to industrialized production, the concept of modularity gained popularity for addressing this dilemma by exploring product, process and organization structures. However...... with the starting point in system theory and a strong bias towards industrial production, the predominant understanding of modularity faces difficulty in explaining practices of Project Based Production in both social – technical and dynamic – stable aspects. Illustrated by a case the paper addresses this gap...

  11. Flexible, fpga-based electronics for modular robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, David; Larsen, Jørgen Christian; Christensen, David Johan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we introduce electronics for the ATRON self-reconfigurable robot based on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs). The immediate advantage of using FPGAs is that some of the module’s electronics can be moved into the FPGA, thereby the number of components can be reduced. In the case...... the FPGA and therefore integrate task-specific electronics without physically changing the electronics or we can reconfigure the electronics for specific tasks. The disadvantages of an FPGA-based design include the cost of FPGAs, the extra layer of complexity in programming, and a limited increase in power...... consumption compared to micro-controllers. However, overall FPGAs make the electronics of modular robots more flexible and therefore may make them more suitable for real applications. AB - In this paper we introduce electronics for the ATRON self-reconfigurable robot based on field programmable gate arrays...

  12. A modular positive feedback-based gene amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalerao Kaustubh D

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Positive feedback is a common mechanism used in the regulation of many gene circuits as it can amplify the response to inducers and also generate binary outputs and hysteresis. In the context of electrical circuit design, positive feedback is often considered in the design of amplifiers. Similar approaches, therefore, may be used for the design of amplifiers in synthetic gene circuits with applications, for example, in cell-based sensors. Results We developed a modular positive feedback circuit that can function as a genetic signal amplifier, heightening the sensitivity to inducer signals as well as increasing maximum expression levels without the need for an external cofactor. The design utilizes a constitutively active, autoinducer-independent variant of the quorum-sensing regulator LuxR. We experimentally tested the ability of the positive feedback module to separately amplify the output of a one-component tetracycline sensor and a two-component aspartate sensor. In each case, the positive feedback module amplified the response to the respective inducers, both with regards to the dynamic range and sensitivity. Conclusions The advantage of our design is that the actual feedback mechanism depends only on a single gene and does not require any other modulation. Furthermore, this circuit can amplify any transcriptional signal, not just one encoded within the circuit or tuned by an external inducer. As our design is modular, it can potentially be used as a component in the design of more complex synthetic gene circuits.

  13. Evaluation of Rule-based Modularization in Model Transformation Languages illustrated with ATL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, Ivan; van den Berg, Klaas; Jouault, Frédéric

    This paper studies ways for modularizing transformation definitions in current rule-based model transformation languages. Two scenarios are shown in which the modular units are identified on the base of the relations between source and target metamodels and on the base of generic transformation

  14. Modular implicits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo White

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We present modular implicits, an extension to the OCaml language for ad-hoc polymorphism inspired by Scala implicits and modular type classes. Modular implicits are based on type-directed implicit module parameters, and elaborate straightforwardly into OCaml's first-class functors. Basing the design on OCaml's modules leads to a system that naturally supports many features from other languages with systematic ad-hoc overloading, including inheritance, instance constraints, constructor classes and associated types.

  15. Modular Architecture for Integrated Model-Based Decision Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaebel, Jan; Schreiber, Erik; Oeser, Alexander; Oeltze-Jafra, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    Model-based decision support systems promise to be a valuable addition to oncological treatments and the implementation of personalized therapies. For the integration and sharing of decision models, the involved systems must be able to communicate with each other. In this paper, we propose a modularized architecture of dedicated systems for the integration of probabilistic decision models into existing hospital environments. These systems interconnect via web services and provide model sharing and processing capabilities for clinical information systems. Along the lines of IHE integration profiles from other disciplines and the meaningful reuse of routinely recorded patient data, our approach aims for the seamless integration of decision models into hospital infrastructure and the physicians' daily work.

  16. Modular uncooled video engines based on a DSP processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schapiro, F.; Milstain, Y.; Aharon, A.; Neboshchik, A.; Ben-Simon, Y.; Kogan, I.; Lerman, I.; Mizrahi, U.; Maayani, S.; Amsterdam, A.; Vaserman, I.; Duman, O.; Gazit, R.

    2011-06-01

    The market demand for low SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) uncooled engines keeps growing. Low SWaP is especially critical in battery-operated applications such as goggles and Thermal Weapon Sights. A new approach for the design of the engines was implemented by SCD to optimize size and power consumption at system level. The new approach described in the paper, consists of: 1. A modular hardware design that allows the user to define the exact level of integration needed for his system 2. An "open architecture" based on the OMAPTM530 DSP that allows the integrator to take advantage of unused hardware (FPGA) and software (DSP) resources, for implementation of additional algorithms or functionality. The approach was successfully implemented on the first generation of 25μm pitch BIRD detectors, and more recently on the new, 640 x480, 17 μm pitch detector.

  17. The Potential for Computer Based Systems in Modular Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    The paper elaborates on knowledge management and the possibility for computer support of the design process of pharmaceutical production plants in relation to the ph.d. project modular engineering.......The paper elaborates on knowledge management and the possibility for computer support of the design process of pharmaceutical production plants in relation to the ph.d. project modular engineering....

  18. Rule-based modularization in model transformation languages illustrated with ATL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ivanov, Ivan; van den Berg, Klaas; Jouault, Frédéric

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies ways for modularizing transformation definitions in current rule-based model transformation languages. Two scenarios are shown in which the modular units are identified on the basis of relations between source and target metamodels and on the base of generic transformation

  19. Lossless Authentication Watermarking Based on Adaptive Modular Arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Reversible watermarking schemes based on modulo-256 addition may cause annoying salt-and-pepper noise. To avoid the salt-and-pepper noise, a reversible watermarking scheme using human visual perception characteristics and adaptive modular arithmetic is proposed. First, a high-bit residual image is obtained by extracting the most significant bits (MSB of the original image, and a new spatial visual perception model is built according to the high-bit residual image features. Second, the watermark strength and the adaptive divisor of modulo operation for each pixel are determined by the visual perception model. Finally, the watermark is embedded into different least significant bits (LSB of original image with adaptive modulo addition. The original image can be losslessly recovered if the stego-image has not been altered. Extensive experiments show that the proposed algorithm eliminates the salt-and-pepper noise effectively, and the visual quality of the stego-image with the proposed algorithm has been dramatically improved over some existing reversible watermarking algorithms. Especially, the stegoimage of this algorithm has about 9.9864 dB higher PSNR value than that of modulo-256 addition based reversible watermarking scheme.

  20. Activity-based costing as a method for assessing the economics of modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jesper; Israelsen, Poul; Jørgensen, Brian

    2006-01-01

    The paper accounts for an Activity-Based Costing (ABC) analysis supporting decision-making concerning product modularity. The ABC analysis carried out is communicated to decision-makers by telling how much higher the variable cost of the multi-purpose module can be compared to the average variable...... cost for the product-unique modules that it substitutes to break even in total cost. The analysis provides the platform for stating three general rules of cost efficiency of modularization, which in combination identify the highest profit potential of product modularization. Finally the analysis points...... to problems of using ABC in costing modularity, i.e. handling of R&D costs and identification of product profitability upon an enhanced modularization....

  1. Modular Infrastructure for Rapid Flight Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Craig

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of modular infrastructure to assist in the development of flight software. A feature of this program is the use of model based approach for application unique software. A review of two programs that this approach was use on are: the development of software for Hover Test Vehicle (HTV), and Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Experiment (LADEE).

  2. Model-based Kinematics Generation for Modular Mechatronic Toolkits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh; Støy, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    Modular robots are mechatronic devices that enable the construction of highly versatile and flexible robotic systems whose mechanical structure can be dynamically modified. The key feature that enables this dynamic modification is the capability of the individual modules to connect to each other...... in multiple ways and thus generate a number of different mechanical systems, in contrast with the monolithic, fixed structure of conventional robots. The mechatronic flexibility, however, complicates the development of models and programming abstractions for modular robots, since manually describing...... the Modular Mechatronics Modelling Language (M3L). M3L is a domain-specific language, which can model the kinematic structure of individual robot modules and declaratively describe their possible interconnections, rather than requiring the user to enumerate them in their entirety. From this description, the M...

  3. Modular finger and hand motion capturing system based on inertial and magnetic sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtin Markus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of hand posture and kinematics is increasingly important in various fields. This includes the rehabilitation of stroke survivors with restricted hand function. This paper presents a modular, ambulatory measurement system for the assement of the remaining hand function and for closed-loop controlled therapy. The device is based on inertial sensors and utilizes up to five interchangeable sensor strips to achieve modularity and to simplify the sensor attachment. We introduce the modular hardware design and describe algorithms used to calculate the joint angles. Measurements with two experimental setups demonstrate the feasibility and the potential of such a tracking device.

  4. Segment LLL Reduction of Lattice Bases Using Modular Arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Mehrotra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm of Lenstra, Lenstra, and Lovász (LLL transforms a given integer lattice basis into a reduced basis. Storjohann improved the worst case complexity of LLL algorithms by a factor of O(n using modular arithmetic. Koy and Schnorr developed a segment-LLL basis reduction algorithm that generates lattice basis satisfying a weaker condition than the LLL reduced basis with O(n improvement than the LLL algorithm. In this paper we combine Storjohann’s modular arithmetic approach with the segment-LLL approach to further improve the worst case complexity of the segment-LLL algorithms by a factor of n0.5.

  5. Phenomena identification ranking table and knowledge base gaps and needs for the modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Potirniche, Gabriel; Rink, Karl

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. is developing a modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (MHTGR) under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP); also known as the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). The generic MHTGR is a graphite-moderated, gas-cooled reactor (GCR) of either a prismatic modular (block-type, PMR) or pebble-bed (PBR) core configuration. The pebble-bed design requires new attention with respect to neutronics, materials, thermal hydraulic, safety and licensing relative to the set of phenomena and engineering analyses associated with the current fleet of legacy LWRs. In fact, the relative knowledge and experiential base on gas reactors is small in comparison to the LWR. There is a dated body of knowledge from some 25+ years ago on GCRs; recently there is a renewed interest. Thus in the present design and development phase of the NGNP/VHTR, there are relevant thermohydraulic safety issues surrounding the MHTGR with issues impacting foremost the design review process. A common phenomena with respect to PMR and PBR core design, is that concerning 'graphite dust' and its interaction and transport with potential fission products (FP) that may be present within the graphite and subsequently in the primary system. The nature of the graphite and FPs, when circulated or transported in the primary, and possibly beyond, is of concern as potentially an relevant 'source term' (radionuclide inventory) of the MHTGR. Based on NUREG/CR-6944, Volumes 1-5, the author briefly describes the state-of-the art knowledge base on graphite dust and FP transport with respect to the anticipated design of the MHTGR. In addition, from the Phenomena Identification and Ranking Tables (PIRTs) developed in these reports we concurrently identify and describe 'gaps and needs' of the knowledge base. That is, we also present the knowledge base gaps and needs with respect to the following: 1) R and D needs relative to PIRTs, 2) (experimental) database needs relative to PIRTs, and 3) simulation and modeling

  6. Ontology Alignment Repair through Modularization and Confidence-Based Heuristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Santos

    Full Text Available Ontology Matching aims at identifying a set of semantic correspondences, called an alignment, between related ontologies. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in efficient and effective matching methods for large ontologies. However, alignments produced for large ontologies are often logically incoherent. It was only recently that the use of repair techniques to improve the coherence of ontology alignments began to be explored. This paper presents a novel modularization technique for ontology alignment repair which extracts fragments of the input ontologies that only contain the necessary classes and relations to resolve all detectable incoherences. The paper presents also an alignment repair algorithm that uses a global repair strategy to minimize both the degree of incoherence and the number of mappings removed from the alignment, while overcoming the scalability problem by employing the proposed modularization technique. Our evaluation shows that our modularization technique produces significantly small fragments of the ontologies and that our repair algorithm produces more complete alignments than other current alignment repair systems, while obtaining an equivalent degree of incoherence. Additionally, we also present a variant of our repair algorithm that makes use of the confidence values of the mappings to improve alignment repair. Our repair algorithm was implemented as part of AgreementMakerLight, a free and open-source ontology matching system.

  7. Ontology Alignment Repair through Modularization and Confidence-Based Heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Emanuel; Faria, Daniel; Pesquita, Catia; Couto, Francisco M

    2015-01-01

    Ontology Matching aims at identifying a set of semantic correspondences, called an alignment, between related ontologies. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in efficient and effective matching methods for large ontologies. However, alignments produced for large ontologies are often logically incoherent. It was only recently that the use of repair techniques to improve the coherence of ontology alignments began to be explored. This paper presents a novel modularization technique for ontology alignment repair which extracts fragments of the input ontologies that only contain the necessary classes and relations to resolve all detectable incoherences. The paper presents also an alignment repair algorithm that uses a global repair strategy to minimize both the degree of incoherence and the number of mappings removed from the alignment, while overcoming the scalability problem by employing the proposed modularization technique. Our evaluation shows that our modularization technique produces significantly small fragments of the ontologies and that our repair algorithm produces more complete alignments than other current alignment repair systems, while obtaining an equivalent degree of incoherence. Additionally, we also present a variant of our repair algorithm that makes use of the confidence values of the mappings to improve alignment repair. Our repair algorithm was implemented as part of AgreementMakerLight, a free and open-source ontology matching system.

  8. Different micromanipulation applications based on common modular control architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipola, Risto; Vallius, Tero; Pudas, Marko; Röning, Juha

    2010-01-01

    This paper validates a previously introduced scalable modular control architecture and shows how it can be used to implement research equipment. The validation is conducted by presenting different kinds of micromanipulation applications that use the architecture. Conditions of the micro-world are very different from those of the macro-world. Adhesive forces are significant compared to gravitational forces when micro-scale objects are manipulated. Manipulation is mainly conducted by automatic control relying on haptic feedback provided by force sensors. The validated architecture is a hierarchical layered hybrid architecture, including a reactive layer and a planner layer. The implementation of the architecture is modular, and the architecture has a lot in common with open architectures. Further, the architecture is extensible, scalable, portable and it enables reuse of modules. These are the qualities that we validate in this paper. To demonstrate the claimed features, we present different applications that require special control in micrometer, millimeter and centimeter scales. These applications include a device that measures cell adhesion, a device that examines properties of thin films, a device that measures adhesion of micro fibers and a device that examines properties of submerged gel produced by bacteria. Finally, we analyze how the architecture is used in these applications.

  9. Modular reservoir concept for MEMS-based transdermal drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantwell, Cara T; Wei, Pinghung; Ziaie, Babak; Rao, Masaru P

    2014-01-01

    While MEMS-based transdermal drug delivery device development efforts have typically focused on tightly-integrated solutions, we propose an alternate conception based upon a novel, modular drug reservoir approach. By decoupling the drug storage functionality from the rest of the delivery system, this approach seeks to minimize cold chain storage volume, enhance compatibility with conventional pharmaceutical practices, and allow independent optimization of reservoir device design, materials, and fabrication. Herein, we report the design, fabrication, and preliminary characterization of modular reservoirs that demonstrate the virtue of this approach within the application context of transdermal insulin administration for diabetes management. (technical note)

  10. Modular reservoir concept for MEMS-based transdermal drug delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantwell, Cara T.; Wei, Pinghung; Ziaie, Babak; Rao, Masaru P.

    2014-11-01

    While MEMS-based transdermal drug delivery device development efforts have typically focused on tightly-integrated solutions, we propose an alternate conception based upon a novel, modular drug reservoir approach. By decoupling the drug storage functionality from the rest of the delivery system, this approach seeks to minimize cold chain storage volume, enhance compatibility with conventional pharmaceutical practices, and allow independent optimization of reservoir device design, materials, and fabrication. Herein, we report the design, fabrication, and preliminary characterization of modular reservoirs that demonstrate the virtue of this approach within the application context of transdermal insulin administration for diabetes management.

  11. Modular Multilevel Converters Based Variable Speed Wind Turbines for Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Liu, Dong; Wang, Yanbo

    2016-01-01

    in the dc-link of the power converter to improve system performance, but also ensure the grid-side current balancing to increase the generated power of the wind turbine under the unbalanced grid fault, in comparison with the conventional VSWT based on BTB three-level NPC converters. The simulation studies......The modular multilevel converter (MMC) becomes attractive in the medium- and high-power application with high modularity. In this paper, the MMC is proposed to be applied in the variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) based on the full-scale back-to-back (BTB) power converter, where the generator...

  12. Neutron transport study based on assembly modular ray tracing MOC method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Chao; Zheng Youqi; Li Yunzhao; Li Shuo; Chai Xiaoming

    2015-01-01

    It is difficulty for the MOC method based on Cell Modular Ray Tracing to deal with the irregular geometry such as the water gap between the PWR lattices. Hence, the neutron transport code NECP-Medlar based on Assembly Modular Ray Tracing is developed. CMFD method is used to accelerate the transport calculation. The numerical results of the 2D C5G7 benchmark and typical PWR lattice prove that NECP-Medlar has an excellent performance in terms of accuracy and efficiency. Besides, NECP-Medlar can describe clearly the flux distribution of the lattice with water gap. (authors)

  13. Integrating Streaming Media to Web-based Learning: A Modular Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miltenoff, Plamen

    2000-01-01

    Explains streaming technology and discusses how to integrate it into Web-based instruction based on experiences at St. Cloud State University (Minnesota). Topics include a modular approach, including editing, copyright concerns, digitizing, maintenance, and continuing education needs; the role of the library; and how streaming can enhance…

  14. The Continuous Monitoring of Desert Dust using an Infrared-based Dust Detection and Retrieval Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, David P.; Minnis, Patrick; Trepte, Qing; Sun-Mack, Sunny

    2006-01-01

    Airborne dust and sand are significant aerosol sources that can impact the atmospheric and surface radiation budgets. Because airborne dust affects visibility and air quality, it is desirable to monitor the location and concentrations of this aerosol for transportation and public health. Although aerosol retrievals have been derived for many years using visible and near-infrared reflectance measurements from satellites, the detection and quantification of dust from these channels is problematic over bright surfaces, or when dust concentrations are large. In addition, aerosol retrievals from polar orbiting satellites lack the ability to monitor the progression and sources of dust storms. As a complement to current aerosol dust retrieval algorithms, multi-spectral thermal infrared (8-12 micron) data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Meteosat-8 Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) are used in the development of a prototype dust detection method and dust property retrieval that can monitor the progress of Saharan dust fields continuously, both night and day. The dust detection method is incorporated into the processing of CERES (Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy System) aerosol retrievals to produce dust property retrievals. Both MODIS (from Terra and Aqua) and SEVERI data are used to develop the method.

  15. Complexity in Managing Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2011-01-01

    In general, the phenomenon of managing modularization is not well known. The cause-effect relationships between modularization and realized benefits are complex and comprehensive. Though a number of research works have contributed to the study of the phenomenon of efficient and effective...... modularization management it is far from clarified. Recognizing the need for further empirical research, we have studied 40 modularity cases in various companies. The studies have been designed as long-term studies leaving time for various types of modularization benefits to emerge. Based on these studies we...... have developed a framework to support the heuristic and iterative process of planning and realizing modularization benefits....

  16. Defining Modules, Modularity and Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth; Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård

    The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization.......The paper describes the evolution of the concept of modularity in a historical perspective. The main reasons for modularity are: create variety, utilize similarities, and reduce complexity. The paper defines the terms: Module, modularity, and modularization....

  17. Early warning monitoring system of modular expansion joints based on dynamic behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Vervuurt, A.H.J.M.; Zuada Coelho, B.E.; Leendertz, H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the existing modular expansion joints of the Martinus Nijhoff Bridge in the Netherlands was monitored with the purpose of extending its service life for on year until replacement in 2011. Based on an analysis of the failure mechanisms of this (type of) joint, strain gauges were used as

  18. Dust storm detection using random forests and physical-based ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    arid areas of the Middle. East. Due to the influences of dust aerosols on climate and human daily activities, dust detection plays a crucial role in environmental and climatic studies. Detection of dust storms is critical to accurately under- stand dust ...

  19. Modularizing development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel; Doucette, Jamie

    a deeper and wider understanding of Korea’s development experience with the hope that Korea’s past can offer lessons for developing countries in search of sustainable and broad‐based development" (KSP 2011). To do so, the KSP provides users with a modularized set of policy narratives that represent Korea...

  20. Improving long-term care provision: towards demand-based care by means of modularity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meijboom Bert

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As in most fields of health care, societal and political changes encourage suppliers of long-term care to put their clients at the center of care and service provision and become more responsive towards client needs and requirements. However, the diverse, multiple and dynamic nature of demand for long-term care complicates the movement towards demand-based care provision. This paper aims to advance long-term care practice and, to that end, examines the application of modularity. This concept is recognized in a wide range of product and service settings for its ability to design demand-based products and processes. Methods Starting from the basic dimensions of modularity, we use qualitative research to explore the use and application of modularity principles in the current working practices and processes of four organizations in the field of long-term care for the elderly. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 key informants and triangulated with document research and observation. Data was analyzed thematically by means of coding and subsequent exploration of patterns. Data analysis was facilitated by qualitative analysis software. Results Our data suggest that a modular setup of supply is employed in the arrangement of care and service supply and assists providers of long-term care in providing their clients with choice options and variation. In addition, modularization of the needs assessment and package specification process allows the case organizations to manage client involvement but still provide customized packages of care and services. Conclusion The adequate setup of an organization's supply and its specification phase activities are indispensible for long-term care providers who aim to do better in terms of quality and efficiency. Moreover, long-term care providers could benefit from joint provision of care and services by means of modular working teams. Based upon our findings, we are able to

  1. Improving long-term care provision: towards demand-based care by means of modularity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background As in most fields of health care, societal and political changes encourage suppliers of long-term care to put their clients at the center of care and service provision and become more responsive towards client needs and requirements. However, the diverse, multiple and dynamic nature of demand for long-term care complicates the movement towards demand-based care provision. This paper aims to advance long-term care practice and, to that end, examines the application of modularity. This concept is recognized in a wide range of product and service settings for its ability to design demand-based products and processes. Methods Starting from the basic dimensions of modularity, we use qualitative research to explore the use and application of modularity principles in the current working practices and processes of four organizations in the field of long-term care for the elderly. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 38 key informants and triangulated with document research and observation. Data was analyzed thematically by means of coding and subsequent exploration of patterns. Data analysis was facilitated by qualitative analysis software. Results Our data suggest that a modular setup of supply is employed in the arrangement of care and service supply and assists providers of long-term care in providing their clients with choice options and variation. In addition, modularization of the needs assessment and package specification process allows the case organizations to manage client involvement but still provide customized packages of care and services. Conclusion The adequate setup of an organization's supply and its specification phase activities are indispensible for long-term care providers who aim to do better in terms of quality and efficiency. Moreover, long-term care providers could benefit from joint provision of care and services by means of modular working teams. Based upon our findings, we are able to elaborate on how to further

  2. A modularized operator interface framework for Tokamak based on MVC design pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Xuan; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Jing; Zhuang, G.; Ding, T.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Our framework is based on MVC design pattern. • XML is used to cope with minor difference between different applications. • Functions dealing with EPICS and MDSplus have been modularized into reusable modules. • The modularized framework will shorten J-TEXT's software development cycle. - Abstract: Facing various and continually changing experimental needs, the J-TEXT Tokamak experiment requires home-made software applications developed for different sub-systems. Though dealing with different specific problems, these software applications usually share a lot of functionalities in common. With the goal of improving the productivity of research groups, J-TEXT has designed a C# desktop application framework which is mainly focused on operator interface development. Following the Model–View–Controller (MVC) design pattern, the main functionality dealing with Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) or MDSplus has been modularized into reusable modules. Minor difference among applications can be coped with XML configuration files. In this case, developers are able to implement various kinds of operator interface without knowing the implementation details of the bottom functions in Models, mainly focusing on Views and Controllers. This paper presents J-TEXT C# desktop application framework, introducing the technology of fast development of the modularized operator interface. Some experimental applications designed in this framework have been already deployed in J-TEXT, and will be introduced in this paper

  3. Inertial measurement unit–based iterative pose compensation algorithm for low-cost modular manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhan Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a necessary mean to realize the accurate motion control of the manipulator which uses end-effector pose correction method and compensation method. In this article, first, we established the kinematic model and error model of the modular manipulator (WUST-ARM, and then we discussed the measurement methods and precision of the inertial measurement unit sensor. The inertial measurement unit sensor is mounted on the end-effector of modular manipulator, to get the real-time pose of the end-effector. At last, a new inertial measurement unit–based iterative pose compensation algorithm is proposed. By applying this algorithm in the pose compensation experiment of modular manipulator which is composed of low-cost rotation joints, the results show that the inertial measurement unit can obtain a higher precision when in static state; it will accurately feedback to the control system with an accurate error compensation angle after a brief delay when the end-effector moves to the target point, and after compensation, the precision errors of roll angle, pitch angle, and yaw angle are reached at 0.05°, 0.01°, and 0.27° respectively. It proves that this low-cost method provides a new solution to improve the end-effector pose of low-cost modular manipulator.

  4. Maintaining the Background Dust Opacity During Northern Hemisphere Summer Mars Using Wind Stress Based Dust Lifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, V.; Kahre, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Mars atmosphere has low levels of dust during Northern Hemisphere (NH) spring and summer (the non-dusty season) and increased levels during NH autumn and winter (the dusty season). In the absence of regional or global storms, dust devils and local storms maintain a background minimum dust loading during the non-dusty season. While observational surveys and Global Climate Model (GCM) studies suggest that dust devils are likely to be major contributors to the background haze during NH spring and summer, a complete understanding of the relative contribution of dust devils and local dust storms has not yet been achieved. We present preliminary results from an investigation that focuses on the effects of radiatively active water ice clouds on dust lifting processes during these seasons. Water ice clouds are known to affect atmospheric temperatures directly by absorption and emission of thermal infrared radiation and indirectly through dynamical feedbacks. Our goal is to understand how clouds affect the contribution by local (wind stress) dust storms to the background dust haze during NH spring and summer. The primary tool for this work is the NASA Ames Mars GCM, which contains physical parameterizations for a fully interactive dust cycle. Three simulations that included wind stress dust lifting were executed for a period of 5 Martian years: a case that included no cloud formation, a case that included radiatively inert cloud formation and a case that included radiatively active cloud (RAC) formation. Results show that when radiatively active clouds are included, the clouds in the aphelion cloud belt radiatively heat the atmosphere aloft in the tropics (Figure 1). This heating produces a stronger overturning circulation, which in turn produces an enhanced low-level flow in the Hadley cell return branch. The stronger low-level flow drives higher surface stresses and increased dust lifting in those locations. We examine how realistic these simulated results are by

  5. β Absorption dust concentration monitor system based on the PLC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian Dexing; Zhou Xiuliang; Liu Liyan; Li Zonglun; Cao Guanghui; Mao Wanchong

    2011-01-01

    To provide an on-line automatic system for dust concentration monitor is the purpose of this design.The system based on β-ray-absorption-method,employing PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) control technology, is presented. The user input parameter setup,the data acquisition and processing, and the communication with computer can be effectively regulated using the advanced PLC control technology. It has the features of high reliability, easy operation and easy maintenance, and the ability to monitor remotely. Measurement range: 0.1-1500 mg/m 3 , Accuracy: ±9%. The structure,working principle, electric circuit and software development of the system are introduced in detail. (authors)

  6. A Distributed Control Strategy Based on DC Bus Signaling for Modular Photovoltaic Generation Systems With Battery Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Kai; Zhang, Li; Xing, Yan

    2011-01-01

    on improved dc bus signaling is proposed for a modular photovoltaic (PV) generation system with battery energy storage elements. In this paper, the modular PV generation system is composed of three modular dc/dc converters for PV arrays, two grid-connected dc/ac converters, and one dc/dc converter for battery......, grid-connected inversion, and islanding with constant voltage (CV) generation.The power balance of the system under extreme conditions such as the islanding operation with a full-charged battery is taken into account in this control strategy. The dc bus voltage level is employed as an information......Modular generation system, which consists of modular power conditioning converters, is an effective solution to integrate renewable energy sources with conventional utility grid to improve reliability and efficiency, especially for photovoltaic generation. A distributed control strategy based...

  7. Pixel-based dust-extinction mapping in nearby galaxies: A new approach to lifting the veil of dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Kazuyuki

    In the first part of this dissertation, I explore a new approach to mapping dust extinction in galaxies, using the observed and estimated dust-free flux- ratios of optical V -band and mid-IR 3.6 micro-meter emission. Inferred missing V -band flux is then converted into an estimate of dust extinction. While dust features are not clearly evident in the observed ground-based images of NGC 0959, the target of my pilot study, the dust-map created with this method clearly traces the distribution of dust seen in higher resolution Hubble images. Stellar populations are then analyzed through various pixel Color- Magnitude Diagrams and pixel Color-Color Diagrams (pCCDs), both before and after extinction correction. The ( B - 3.6 microns) versus (far-UV - U ) pCCD proves particularly powerful to distinguish pixels that are dominated by different types of or mixtures of stellar populations. Mapping these pixel- groups onto a pixel-coordinate map shows that they are not distributed randomly, but follow genuine galactic structures, such as a previously unrecognized bar. I show that selecting pixel-groups is not meaningful when using uncorrected colors, and that pixel-based extinction correction is crucial to reveal the true spatial variations in stellar populations. This method is then applied to a sample of late-type galaxies to study the distribution of dust and stellar population as a function of their morphological type and absolute magnitude. In each galaxy, I find that dust extinction is not simply decreasing radially, but that is concentrated in localized clumps throughout a galaxy. I also find some cases where star-formation regions are not associated with dust. In the second part, I describe the application of astronomical image analysis tools for medical purposes. In particular, Source Extractor is used to detect nerve fibers in the basement membrane images of human skin-biopsies of obese subjects. While more development and testing is necessary for this kind of work

  8. Product Architecture Modularity Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to integrate various perspectives on product architecture modularity into a general framework, and also to propose a way to measure the degree of modularization embedded in product architectures. Various trade-offs between modular and integral product architectures...... and how components and interfaces influence the degree of modularization are considered. In order to gain a better understanding of product architecture modularity as a strategy, a theoretical framework and propositions are drawn from various academic literature sources. Based on the literature review......, the following key elements of product architecture are identified: components (standard and new-to-the-firm), interfaces (standardization and specification), degree of coupling, and substitutability. A mathematical function, termed modularization function, is introduced to measure the degree of modularization...

  9. An Educational Kit Based On a Modular Silicon Photomultiplier System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caccia, Massimo; Chmill, Valery; Ebolese, Amedeo; Martemyanov, Alexander; Risigo, Fabio; Santoro, Romualdo; Locatelli, Marco; Pieracci, Maura; Tintori, Carlo

    2013-06-01

    Silicon Photo-Multipliers (SiPM) are state of the art light detectors with unprecedented single photon sensitivity and photon number resolving capability, representing a breakthrough in several fundamental and applied Science domains. An educational experiment based on a SiPM set-up is proposed in this article, guiding the student towards a comprehensive knowledge of this sensor technology while experiencing the quantum nature of light and exploring the statistical properties of the light pulses emitted by a LED. (authors)

  10. Development of an Efficient Steel Beam Section for Modular Construction Based on Six-Sigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Hyu Ha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a systematic approach for the development of an efficient steel beam section for modular construction based on Six-Sigma. Although the Six-Sigma is frequently implemented in manufacturing and other service industries, it is a relatively new concept in the area of building design and construction. As a first step in this approach, market studies and surveys are conducted to obtain the opinions of potential customers. Then the opinions of customers are converted into quality characteristics for the steel beam using the quality function deployment methodology. A steel hollow flanged channel is chosen as the main modular beam shape, and the design concept is derived and developed by applying the Pugh matrix methodology. A pilot test was performed to validate the effectiveness of the developed beam section. The results indicated that the developed channel beam section showed excellent performance and retained high accuracy in fabrication, thus resulting in a significant reduction of steel consumption.

  11. The Design and Simulation of the Modular Vehicle Air Suspension Height Control System Based on ECAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Peigang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Based on ECAS, this paper intended to develop a modular air suspension height control system with WABCO4728800010 two-position three way solenoid valves and Free scale MC9S12D64 microprocessor as its core components. And a simulation test was conducted in MATLAB/Simulink environment. The air suspension height control strategy of this system was divided into four modules: start control module, dynamic adjustment module, manual adjustment module and errors adjustment module, which were controlled by module select switch. Simulation tests indicated that the air suspension height control strategy is featured by its logical control accuracy and debug convenience, and the modular design greatly reduced the system complexity and software development cycle and costs as well.

  12. Space vector-based modeling and control of a modular multilevel converter in HVDC applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonavoglia, M.; Casadei, G.; Zarri, L.

    2013-01-01

    Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is an emerging multilevel topology for high-voltage applications that has been developed in recent years. In this paper, the modeling and the control of MMCs are restated in terms of space vectors, which may allow a deeper understanding of the converter behavior....... As a result, a control scheme for three-phase MMCs based on the previous theoretical analysis is presented. Numerical simulations are used to test its feasibility.......Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is an emerging multilevel topology for high-voltage applications that has been developed in recent years. In this paper, the modeling and the control of MMCs are restated in terms of space vectors, which may allow a deeper understanding of the converter behavior...

  13. Thorium-Based Fuel Cycles in the Modular High Temperature Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Hong; YANG Yongwei; JING Xingqing; XU Yunlin

    2006-01-01

    Large stockpiles of civil-grade as well as weapons-grade plutonium have been accumulated in the world from nuclear power or other programs of different countries. One alternative for the management of the plutonium is to incinerate it in the high temperature reactor (HTR). The thorium-based fuel cycle was studied in the modular HTR to reduce weapons-grade plutonium stockpiles, while producing no additional plutonium or other transuranic elements. Three thorium-uranium fuel cycles were also investigated. The thorium absorption cross sections of the resolved and unresolved resonances were generated using the ZUT-DGL code based on existing resonance data. The equilibrium core of the modular HTR was calculated and analyzed by means of the code VSOP'94. The results show that the modular HTR can incinerate most of the initially loaded plutonium amounting to about 95.3% net 239Pu for weapons-grade plutonium and can effectively utilize the uranium and thorium in the thorium-uranium fuel cycles.

  14. Concept of modular flexure-based mechanisms for ultra-high precision robot design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Richard

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new concept of modular flexure-based mechanisms to design industrial ultra-high precision robots, which aims at significantly reducing both the complexity of their design and their development time. This modular concept can be considered as a robotic Lego, where a finite number of building bricks is used to quickly build a high-precision robot. The core of the concept is the transformation of a 3-D design problem into several 2-D ones, which are simpler and well-mastered. This paper will first briefly present the theoretical bases of this methodology and the requirements of both types of building bricks: the active and the passive bricks. The section dedicated to the design of the active bricks will detail the current research directions, mainly the maximisation of the strokes and the development of an actuation sub-brick. As for the passive bricks, some examples will be presented, and a discussion regarding the establishment of a mechanical solution catalogue will conclude the section. Last, this modular concept will be illustrated with a practical example, consisting in the design of a 5-degree of freedom ultra-high precision robot.

  15. Tile-Based Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping for Digital Holography Using a Modular Framework.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios C Antonopoulos

    Full Text Available A variety of physical and biomedical imaging techniques, such as digital holography, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI enable measurement of the phase of a physical quantity additionally to its amplitude. However, the phase can commonly only be measured modulo 2π, as a so called wrapped phase map. Phase unwrapping is the process of obtaining the underlying physical phase map from the wrapped phase. Tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms operate by first tessellating the phase map, then unwrapping individual tiles, and finally merging them to a continuous phase map. They can be implemented computationally efficiently and are robust to noise. However, they are prone to failure in the presence of phase residues or erroneous unwraps of single tiles. We tried to overcome these shortcomings by creating novel tile unwrapping and merging algorithms as well as creating a framework that allows to combine them in modular fashion. To increase the robustness of the tile unwrapping step, we implemented a model-based algorithm that makes efficient use of linear algebra to unwrap individual tiles. Furthermore, we adapted an established pixel-based unwrapping algorithm to create a quality guided tile merger. These original algorithms as well as previously existing ones were implemented in a modular phase unwrapping C++ framework. By examining different combinations of unwrapping and merging algorithms we compared our method to existing approaches. We could show that the appropriate choice of unwrapping and merging algorithms can significantly improve the unwrapped result in the presence of phase residues and noise. Beyond that, our modular framework allows for efficient design and test of new tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms. The software developed in this study is freely available.

  16. Fuzzy OLAP association rules mining-based modular reinforcement learning approach for multiagent systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mehmet; Alhajj, Reda

    2005-04-01

    Multiagent systems and data mining have recently attracted considerable attention in the field of computing. Reinforcement learning is the most commonly used learning process for multiagent systems. However, it still has some drawbacks, including modeling other learning agents present in the domain as part of the state of the environment, and some states are experienced much less than others, or some state-action pairs are never visited during the learning phase. Further, before completing the learning process, an agent cannot exhibit a certain behavior in some states that may be experienced sufficiently. In this study, we propose a novel multiagent learning approach to handle these problems. Our approach is based on utilizing the mining process for modular cooperative learning systems. It incorporates fuzziness and online analytical processing (OLAP) based mining to effectively process the information reported by agents. First, we describe a fuzzy data cube OLAP architecture which facilitates effective storage and processing of the state information reported by agents. This way, the action of the other agent, not even in the visual environment. of the agent under consideration, can simply be predicted by extracting online association rules, a well-known data mining technique, from the constructed data cube. Second, we present a new action selection model, which is also based on association rules mining. Finally, we generalize not sufficiently experienced states, by mining multilevel association rules from the proposed fuzzy data cube. Experimental results obtained on two different versions of a well-known pursuit domain show the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy OLAP mining based modular learning approach. Finally, we tested the scalability of the approach presented in this paper and compared it with our previous work on modular-fuzzy Q-learning and ordinary Q-learning.

  17. Tile-Based Two-Dimensional Phase Unwrapping for Digital Holography Using a Modular Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonopoulos, Georgios C; Steltner, Benjamin; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo; Meyer, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    A variety of physical and biomedical imaging techniques, such as digital holography, interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enable measurement of the phase of a physical quantity additionally to its amplitude. However, the phase can commonly only be measured modulo 2π, as a so called wrapped phase map. Phase unwrapping is the process of obtaining the underlying physical phase map from the wrapped phase. Tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms operate by first tessellating the phase map, then unwrapping individual tiles, and finally merging them to a continuous phase map. They can be implemented computationally efficiently and are robust to noise. However, they are prone to failure in the presence of phase residues or erroneous unwraps of single tiles. We tried to overcome these shortcomings by creating novel tile unwrapping and merging algorithms as well as creating a framework that allows to combine them in modular fashion. To increase the robustness of the tile unwrapping step, we implemented a model-based algorithm that makes efficient use of linear algebra to unwrap individual tiles. Furthermore, we adapted an established pixel-based unwrapping algorithm to create a quality guided tile merger. These original algorithms as well as previously existing ones were implemented in a modular phase unwrapping C++ framework. By examining different combinations of unwrapping and merging algorithms we compared our method to existing approaches. We could show that the appropriate choice of unwrapping and merging algorithms can significantly improve the unwrapped result in the presence of phase residues and noise. Beyond that, our modular framework allows for efficient design and test of new tile-based phase unwrapping algorithms. The software developed in this study is freely available.

  18. Activity Based Costing as a method for assessing the economics of modularization - a case study and beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Peter; Israelsen, Poul; Jørgensen, Brian

    The paper accounts for an Activity Based Costing (ABC) analysis supporting decision-making concerning product modularity. The ABC analysis carried out is communicated to decision-makers by telling how much higher the variable cost of the multi-purpose module can be compared to the average variable...... cost for the product-unique modules that it substitutes to break even in total cost. The analysis provides the platform for stating three general rules of cost efficiency of modularization, which in combination identify the highest profit potential of product modularisation. Finally the analysis points...... to problems of using ABC in costing modularity, i.e. handling of R&D costs and identification of product-profitability upon an enhanced modularization....

  19. Development of processing procedure preparing for digital computer controlled equipment on modular design base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starosel'tsev, O.P.; Khrundin, V.I.

    1982-01-01

    In order to reduce labour consumption of technological preparation of production for digital computer controlled machines during the treatment of steam turbines articles created is a system of modular design of technological processes and controlling programs. A set of typical modulas-transitions, being a number of surfaces of an articles treated with one cutting tool in optimum sequence, and a library of cutting tools are the base of the system. Introduction of such a system sharply enhaneces the efficiency of the equipment utilization [ru

  20. Study on method of characteristics based on cell modular ray tracing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Chuntao; Zhang Shaohong

    2009-01-01

    To address the issue of accurately solving neutron transport problem in complex geometry, method of characteristics (MOC) is studied in this paper, and a quite effective and memory saving cell modular ray tracing (CMRT) method is developed and related angle discretization and boundary condition handling issues are discussed. A CMRT based MOC code-PEACH is developed and tested against C5G7 MOX benchmark problem. Numerical results demonstrate that PEACH can give excellent accuracy for both k eff and pin power distribution for neutron transport problem. (authors)

  1. Service Modularity and Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brax, Saara A.; Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    , platform-based and mass-customized service business models, comparative research designs, customer perspectives and service experience, performance in context of modular services, empirical evidence of benefits and challenges, architectural innovation in services, modularization in multi-provider contexts......Purpose: Services are highly important in a world economy which has increasingly become service driven. There is a growing need to better understand the possibilities for, and requirements of, designing modular service architectures. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate on the roots...... of the emerging research stream on service modularity, provide a concise overview of existing work on the subject, and outline an agenda for future research on service modularity and architecture. The articles in the special issue offer four diverse sets of research on service modularity and architecture. Design...

  2. Sparse estimation of model-based diffuse thermal dust emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Melis O.; Bobin, Jérôme

    2018-03-01

    Component separation for the Planck High Frequency Instrument (HFI) data is primarily concerned with the estimation of thermal dust emission, which requires the separation of thermal dust from the cosmic infrared background (CIB). For that purpose, current estimation methods rely on filtering techniques to decouple thermal dust emission from CIB anisotropies, which tend to yield a smooth, low-resolution, estimation of the dust emission. In this paper, we present a new parameter estimation method, premise: Parameter Recovery Exploiting Model Informed Sparse Estimates. This method exploits the sparse nature of thermal dust emission to calculate all-sky maps of thermal dust temperature, spectral index, and optical depth at 353 GHz. premise is evaluated and validated on full-sky simulated data. We find the percentage difference between the premise results and the true values to be 2.8, 5.7, and 7.2 per cent at the 1σ level across the full sky for thermal dust temperature, spectral index, and optical depth at 353 GHz, respectively. A comparison between premise and a GNILC-like method over selected regions of our sky simulation reveals that both methods perform comparably within high signal-to-noise regions. However, outside of the Galactic plane, premise is seen to outperform the GNILC-like method with increasing success as the signal-to-noise ratio worsens.

  3. Modular Hybrid Energy Concept Employing a Novel Control Structure Based on a Simple Analog System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETREUS, D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel control topology which enables the setup of a low cost analog system leading to the implementation of a modular energy conversion system. The modular concept is based on hybrid renewable energy (solar and wind and uses high voltage inverters already available on the market. An important feature of the proposed topology is a permanently active current loop, which assures short circuit protection and simplifies the control loops compensation. The innovative analogue solution of the control structure is based on a dedicated integrated circuit (IC for power factor correction (PFC circuits, used in a new configuration, to assure an efficient inverter start-up. The energy conversion system (control structure and maximum power point tracking algorithm is simulated using a new macromodel-based concept, which reduces the usual computational burden of the simulator and achieves high processing speed. The proposed novel system is presented in this article from concept, through the design and implementation stages, is verified through simulation and is validated by experimental results.

  4. Laboratory-based grain-shape models for simulating dust infrared spectra

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutschke, H.; Min, M.; Tamanai, A.

    2009-01-01

    Context. Analysis of thermal dust emission spectra for dust mineralogy and physical grain properties depends on comparison spectra, which are either laboratory-measured infrared extinction spectra or calculated extinction cross sections based on certain grain models. Often, the agreement between

  5. Essential protein discovery based on a combination of modularity and conservatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bihai; Wang, Jianxin; Li, Xueyong; Wu, Fang-Xiang

    2016-11-01

    Essential proteins are indispensable for the survival of a living organism and play important roles in the emerging field of synthetic biology. Many computational methods have been proposed to identify essential proteins by using the topological features of interactome networks. However, most of these methods ignored intrinsic biological meaning of proteins. Researches show that essentiality is tied not only to the protein or gene itself, but also to the molecular modules to which that protein belongs. The results of this study reveal the modularity of essential proteins. On the other hand, essential proteins are more evolutionarily conserved than nonessential proteins and frequently bind each other. That is to say, conservatism is another important feature of essential proteins. Multiple networks are constructed by integrating protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks, time course gene expression data and protein domain information. Based on these networks, a new essential protein identification method is proposed based on a combination of modularity and conservatism of proteins. Experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms other essential protein identification methods in terms of a number essential protein out of top ranked candidates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Knowledge-based modularization and global optimization of artificial neural network models in hydrological forecasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, Gerald; Solomatine, Dimitri

    2007-05-01

    Natural phenomena are multistationary and are composed of a number of interacting processes, so one single model handling all processes often suffers from inaccuracies. A solution is to partition data in relation to such processes using the available domain knowledge or expert judgment, to train separate models for each of the processes, and to merge them in a modular model (committee). In this paper a problem of water flow forecast in watershed hydrology is considered where the flow process can be presented as consisting of two subprocesses -- base flow and excess flow, so that these two processes can be separated. Several approaches to data separation techniques are studied. Two case studies with different forecast horizons are considered. Parameters of the algorithms responsible for data partitioning are optimized using genetic algorithms and global pattern search. It was found that modularization of ANN models using domain knowledge makes models more accurate, if compared with a global model trained on the whole data set, especially when forecast horizon (and hence the complexity of the modelled processes) is increased.

  7. Kinetic-Monte-Carlo-Based Parallel Evolution Simulation Algorithm of Dust Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaomei Hu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution simulation of dust particles provides an important way to analyze the impact of dust on the environment. KMC-based parallel algorithm is proposed to simulate the evolution of dust particles. In the parallel evolution simulation algorithm of dust particles, data distribution way and communication optimizing strategy are raised to balance the load of every process and reduce the communication expense among processes. The experimental results show that the simulation of diffusion, sediment, and resuspension of dust particles in virtual campus is realized and the simulation time is shortened by parallel algorithm, which makes up for the shortage of serial computing and makes the simulation of large-scale virtual environment possible.

  8. Control Strategy of Active Power Filter Based on Modular Multilevel Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xifeng

    2018-03-01

    To improve the capacity, pressure resistance and the equivalent switching frequency of active power filter (APF), a control strategy of APF based on Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC) is presented. In this Control Strategy, the indirect current control method is used to achieve active current and reactive current decoupling control; Voltage Balance Control Strategy is to stabilize sub-module capacitor voltage, the predictive current control method is used to Track and control of harmonic currents. As a result, the harmonic current is restrained, and power quality is improved. Finally, the simulation model of active power filter controller based on MMC is established in Matlab/Simulink, the simulation proves that the proposed strategy is feasible and correct.

  9. Comprehensive benefits analysis of steel structure modular residence based on the entropy evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Li; Jiang, Pengming

    2017-04-01

    Steel structure modular residence is the outstanding residential industrialization. It has many advantages, such as the low whole cost, high resource recovery, a high degree of industrialization. This paper compares the comprehensive benefits of steel structural in modular buildings with prefabricated reinforced concrete residential from economic benefits, environmental benefits, social benefits and technical benefits by the method of entropy evaluation. Finally, it is concluded that the comprehensive benefits of steel structural in modular buildings is better than that of prefabricated reinforced concrete residential. The conclusion of this study will provide certain reference significance to the development of steel structural in modular buildings in China.

  10. An automated and integrated framework for dust storm detection based on ogc web processing services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, F.; Shea, G. Y. K.; Wong, M. S.; Campbell, J.

    2014-11-01

    Dust storms are known to have adverse effects on public health. Atmospheric dust loading is also one of the major uncertainties in global climatic modelling as it is known to have a significant impact on the radiation budget and atmospheric stability. The complexity of building scientific dust storm models is coupled with the scientific computation advancement, ongoing computing platform development, and the development of heterogeneous Earth Observation (EO) networks. It is a challenging task to develop an integrated and automated scheme for dust storm detection that combines Geo-Processing frameworks, scientific models and EO data together to enable the dust storm detection and tracking processes in a dynamic and timely manner. This study develops an automated and integrated framework for dust storm detection and tracking based on the Web Processing Services (WPS) initiated by Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The presented WPS framework consists of EO data retrieval components, dust storm detecting and tracking component, and service chain orchestration engine. The EO data processing component is implemented based on OPeNDAP standard. The dust storm detecting and tracking component combines three earth scientific models, which are SBDART model (for computing aerosol optical depth (AOT) of dust particles), WRF model (for simulating meteorological parameters) and HYSPLIT model (for simulating the dust storm transport processes). The service chain orchestration engine is implemented based on Business Process Execution Language for Web Service (BPEL4WS) using open-source software. The output results, including horizontal and vertical AOT distribution of dust particles as well as their transport paths, were represented using KML/XML and displayed in Google Earth. A serious dust storm, which occurred over East Asia from 26 to 28 Apr 2012, is used to test the applicability of the proposed WPS framework. Our aim here is to solve a specific instance of a complex EO data

  11. Evolution of Modularity Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper is to review and analyze the modularity literature to identify the established and emerging perspectives. Design/methodology/approach A systematic literature search and review was conducted through the use of bibliometrics and network analysis. The analysis...... identified structure within the literature, which revealed how the research area evolved between 1990 and 2015. Based on this search, the paper establishes the basis for analyzing the structure of modularity literature. Findings Factors were identified within the literature, demonstrating how it has evolved...... from a primary focus on the modularity of products to a broader view of the applicability of modularity. Within the last decade, numerous research areas have emerged within the broader area of modularity. Through core-periphery analysis, eight emerging sub-research areas are identified, of which one...

  12. Cost-based optimizations of power density and target-blanket modularity for 232Th/233U-based ADEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    A cost-based parametric systems model is developed for an Accelerator-Driven Energy Production (ADEP) system based on a 232 Th/ 233 U fuel cycle and a molten-salt (LiF/BeF 2 /ThF 3 ) fluid-fuel primary system. Simplified neutron-balance, accelerator, reactor-core, chemical-processing, and balance-of-plant models are combined parametrically with a simplified costing model. The main focus of this model is to examine trade offs related to fission power density, reactor-core modularity, 233 U breeding rate, and fission product transmutation capacity

  13. Service Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate the studies on service modularity with a goal of informing service science and advancing contemporary service systems research. Modularity, a general systems property, can add theoretical underpinnings to the conceptual development of service science...... in general and service systems in particular. Our research is guided by the following question: how can modularity theory inform service system design? We present a review of the modularity literature and associated concepts. We then introduce the contemporary service science and service system discourse...

  14. Study on modular technology based on the reference nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qinwu; Zhao Shuyu; Li Yi; Han Xiaoping; Chai Weidong; Zhang Shuxia

    2014-01-01

    As an important technology for shortening the construction period and reducing the cost of nuclear power project, modular technology has become one of the development orientations of the third generation nuclear power plant. Taking CPR1000 nuclear power reactor as reference plant and drawing on advanced foreign technology of modularization, the overall concept design has been completed with the help of the self-developed 3D modular design system. On this basis, a typical detailed design work has been carried out so as to verify the feasibility of technology. Besides, an analysis on implementation of modular technology has been made from two aspects (procurement and construction), and the feasibility of research results in actual project has been evaluated. It provides references for the promotion of self-reliant modular technology in nuclear power project in China. (authors)

  15. Theoretical Interpretation of Modular Artistic Forms Based on the Example of Contemporarylithuanian Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aušra Černauskienė

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses modular artistic forms that emerge in all scale structures of contemporary architecture. Module, as a standard unit of measure has been in use since antiquity. It gained even more significance amid innovative building and computing technologies of the 20th and 21st centuries. Static and fixed perceptions of a module were supplemented with concepts of dynamic and adaptable modular units, such as fractals, parameters and algorithms. Various expressions and trends of modular design appear in contemporary architecture of Lithuania, where modular forms consist of repetitive spatial and planar elements. Spatial modules as blocks or flats and planar modular wall elements are a characteristic expression of the contemporary architecture in Lithuania.

  16. An Exploratory Investigation on Modularity Adoption in Design and Production Through a Case-Based Research in a Brazilian Automaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cauchick Miguel, Paulo Augusto; Hsuan, Juliana

    2010-01-01

    to what extent the adoption of modularity varies according to such tradeoffs. Case-based research is employed as the methodological approach. The unit of analysis is a business unit of an international leading manufacturer of trucks and buses, being the latter within the scope of the present investigation....... Potential gaps in the literature are also proposed for further research....

  17. Modular VSC converter based HVDC power transmission from offshore wind power plant: Compared to the conventional HVAC system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Ranjan; Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Jensen, Kim Høj

    2010-01-01

    power transmission options with HVDC systems are under consideration. In this paper, a comparison between a conventional HVAC transmission system and a HVDC system equipped with modular voltage source converters is provided. The comparison is based on the total energy transmission capability...

  18. A modular optical sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conklin, John Albert

    This dissertation presents the design of a modular, fiber-optic sensor and the results obtained from testing the modular sensor. The modular fiber-optic sensor is constructed in such manner that the sensor diaphragm can be replaced with different configurations to detect numerous physical phenomena. Additionally, different fiber-optic detection systems can be attached to the sensor. Initially, the modular sensor was developed to be used by university of students to investigate realistic optical sensors and detection systems to prepare for advance studies of micro-optical mechanical systems (MOMS). The design accomplishes this by doing two things. First, the design significantly lowers the costs associated with studying optical sensors by modularizing the sensor design. Second, the sensor broadens the number of physical phenomena that students can apply optical sensing techniques to in a fiber optics sensor course. The dissertation is divided into seven chapters covering the historical development of fiber-optic sensors, a theoretical overview of fiber-optic sensors, the design, fabrication, and the testing of the modular sensor developed in the course of this work. Chapter 1 discusses, in detail, how this dissertation is organized and states the purpose of the dissertation. Chapter 2 presents an historical overview of the development of optical fibers, optical pressure sensors, and fibers, optical pressure sensors, and optical microphones. Chapter 3 reviews the theory of multi-fiber optic detection systems, optical microphones, and pressure sensors. Chapter 4 presents the design details of the modular, optical sensor. Chapter 5 delves into how the modular sensor is fabricated and how the detection systems are constructed. Chapter 6 presents the data collected from the microphone and pressure sensor configurations of the modular sensor. Finally, Chapter 7 discusses the data collected and draws conclusions about the design based on the data collected. Chapter 7 also

  19. Performance of Modular Prefabricated Architecture: Case Study-Based Review and Future Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Edmond Boafo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Even though tightened building energy efficiency standards are implemented periodically in many countries, existing buildings continually consume a momentous quota of the total primary energy. Energy efficiency solutions range from material components to bulk systems. A technique of building construction, referred to as prefabricated architecture (prefab, is increasing in reputation. Prefab encompasses the offsite fabrication of building components to a greater degree of finish as bulk building structures and systems, and their assembly on-site. In this context, prefab improves the speed of construction, quality of architecture, efficiency of materials, and worker safety, while limiting environmental impacts of construction, as compared to conventional site-built construction practices. Quite recently, a 57 story skyscraper was built in 19 days using prefabricated modules. From the building physics point of view, the bulk systems and tighter integration method of prefab minimizes thermal bridges. This study seeks to clearly characterize the levels of prefab and to investigate the performance of modular prefab; considering acoustic constrain, seismic resistance, thermal behavior, energy consumption, and life cycle analysis of existing prefab cases and, thus, provides a dynamic case study-based review. Generally, prefab can be categorized into components, panels (2D, modules (3D, hybrids, and unitized whole buildings. On average, greenhouse gas emissions from conventional construction were higher than for modular construction, not discounting some individual discrepancies. Few studies have focused on monitored data on prefab and occupants’ comfort but additional studies are required to understand the public’s perception of the technology. The scope of the work examined will be of interest to building engineers, manufacturers, and energy experts, as well as serve as a foundational reference for future study.

  20. An efficient modularized sample-based method to estimate the first-order Sobol' index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chenzhao; Mahadevan, Sankaran

    2016-01-01

    Sobol' index is a prominent methodology in global sensitivity analysis. This paper aims to directly estimate the Sobol' index based only on available input–output samples, even if the underlying model is unavailable. For this purpose, a new method to calculate the first-order Sobol' index is proposed. The innovation is that the conditional variance and mean in the formula of the first-order index are calculated at an unknown but existing location of model inputs, instead of an explicit user-defined location. The proposed method is modularized in two aspects: 1) index calculations for different model inputs are separate and use the same set of samples; and 2) model input sampling, model evaluation, and index calculation are separate. Due to this modularization, the proposed method is capable to compute the first-order index if only input–output samples are available but the underlying model is unavailable, and its computational cost is not proportional to the dimension of the model inputs. In addition, the proposed method can also estimate the first-order index with correlated model inputs. Considering that the first-order index is a desired metric to rank model inputs but current methods can only handle independent model inputs, the proposed method contributes to fill this gap. - Highlights: • An efficient method to estimate the first-order Sobol' index. • Estimate the index from input–output samples directly. • Computational cost is not proportional to the number of model inputs. • Handle both uncorrelated and correlated model inputs.

  1. Modular Lego-Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh, Sohail F.; Ghoneim, Mohamed T.; Bahabry, Rabab R.; Khan, Sherjeel M.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    . Here, a generic manufacturable method of converting state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based ICs into modular Lego-electronics is shown with unique geometry that is physically identifiable to ease manufacturing and enhance

  2. A modular control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, B.; Drexler, J.; Olcese, G.; Santome, D.

    1990-01-01

    The main objective of the modular control system is to provide the requirements to most of the processes supervision and control applications within the industrial automatization area. The design is based on distribution, modulation and expansion concepts. (Author) [es

  3. Modular forms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.; Edixhoven, B.; van der Geer, G.; Moonen, B.

    2008-01-01

    Modular forms are functions with an enormous amount of symmetry that play a central role in number theory, connecting it with analysis and geometry. They have played a prominent role in mathematics since the 19th century and their study continues to flourish today. Modular forms formed the

  4. The evolution of cranial base and face in Cercopithecoidea and Hominoidea: Modularity and morphological integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profico, Antonio; Piras, Paolo; Buzi, Costantino; Di Vincenzo, Fabio; Lattarini, Flavio; Melchionna, Marina; Veneziano, Alessio; Raia, Pasquale; Manzi, Giorgio

    2017-12-01

    The evolutionary relationship between the base and face of the cranium is a major topic of interest in primatology. Such areas of the skull possibly respond to different selective pressures. Yet, they are often said to be tightly integrated. In this paper, we analyzed shape variability in the cranial base and the facial complex in Cercopithecoidea and Hominoidea. We used a landmark-based approach to single out the effects of size (evolutionary allometry), morphological integration, modularity, and phylogeny (under Brownian motion) on skull shape variability. Our results demonstrate that the cranial base and the facial complex exhibit different responses to different factors, which produces a little degree of morphological integration between them. Facial shape variation appears primarily influenced by body size and sexual dimorphism, whereas the cranial base is mostly influenced by functional factors. The different adaptations affecting the two modules suggest they are best studied as separate and independent units, and that-at least when dealing with Catarrhines-caution must be posed with the notion of strong cranial integration that is commonly invoked for the evolution of their skull shape. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Toward modular biological models: defining analog modules based on referent physiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Brenden K; Ropella, Glen E P; Hunt, C Anthony

    2014-08-16

    Currently, most biomedical models exist in isolation. It is often difficult to reuse or integrate models or their components, in part because they are not modular. Modular components allow the modeler to think more deeply about the role of the model and to more completely address a modeling project's requirements. In particular, modularity facilitates component reuse and model integration for models with different use cases, including the ability to exchange modules during or between simulations. The heterogeneous nature of biology and vast range of wet-lab experimental platforms call for modular models designed to satisfy a variety of use cases. We argue that software analogs of biological mechanisms are reasonable candidates for modularization. Biomimetic software mechanisms comprised of physiomimetic mechanism modules offer benefits that are unique or especially important to multi-scale, biomedical modeling and simulation. We present a general, scientific method of modularizing mechanisms into reusable software components that we call physiomimetic mechanism modules (PMMs). PMMs utilize parametric containers that partition and expose state information into physiologically meaningful groupings. To demonstrate, we modularize four pharmacodynamic response mechanisms adapted from an in silico liver (ISL). We verified the modularization process by showing that drug clearance results from in silico experiments are identical before and after modularization. The modularized ISL achieves validation targets drawn from propranolol outflow profile data. In addition, an in silico hepatocyte culture (ISHC) is created. The ISHC uses the same PMMs and required no refactoring. The ISHC achieves validation targets drawn from propranolol intrinsic clearance data exhibiting considerable between-lab variability. The data used as validation targets for PMMs originate from both in vitro to in vivo experiments exhibiting large fold differences in time scale. This report demonstrates

  6. Modular entanglement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualdi, Giulia; Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2011-02-04

    We introduce and discuss the concept of modular entanglement. This is the entanglement that is established between the end points of modular systems composed by sets of interacting moduli of arbitrarily fixed size. We show that end-to-end modular entanglement scales in the thermodynamic limit and rapidly saturates with the number of constituent moduli. We clarify the mechanisms underlying the onset of entanglement between distant and noninteracting quantum systems and its optimization for applications to quantum repeaters and entanglement distribution and sharing.

  7. Development of Integrated Modular Avionics Application Based on Simulink and XtratuM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fons-Albert, Borja; Usach-Molina, Hector; Vila-Carbo, Joan; Crespo-Lorente, Alfons

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents an integral approach for designing avionics applications that meets the requirements for software development and execution of this application domain. Software design follows the Model-Based design process and is performed in Simulink. This approach allows easy and quick testbench development and helps satisfying DO-178B requirements through the use of proper tools. The software execution platform is based on XtratuM, a minimal bare-metal hypervisor designed in our research group. XtratuM provides support for IMA-SP (Integrated Modular Avionics for Space) architectures. This approach allows the code generation of a Simulink model to be executed on top of Lithos as XtratuM partition. Lithos is a ARINC-653 compliant RTOS for XtratuM. The paper concentrates in how to smoothly port Simulink designs to XtratuM solving problems like application partitioning, automatic code generation, real-time tasking, interfacing, and others. This process is illustrated with an autopilot design test using a flight simulator.

  8. Stardust@home: An Interactive Internet-based Search for Interstellar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, B. J.; Westphal, A. J.; Butterworth, A. L.; Craig, N.

    2006-12-01

    On January 15, 2006, NASA's Stardust mission returned to Earth after nearly seven years in interplanetary space. During its journey, Stardust encountered comet Wild 2, collecting dust particles from it in a special material called aerogel. At two other times in the mission, aerogel collectors were also opened to collect interstellar dust. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector is being scanned by an automated microscope at the Johnson Space Center. There are approximately 700,000 fields of view needed to cover the entire collector, but we expect only a few dozen total grains of interstellar dust were captured within it. Finding these particles is a daunting task. We have recruited many thousands of volunteers from the public to aid in the search for these precious pieces of space dust trapped in the collectors. We call the project Stardust@home. Through Stardust@home, volunteers from the public search fields of view from the Stardust aerogel collector using a web-based Virtual Microscope. Volunteers who discover interstellar dust particles have the privilege of naming them. The interest and response to this project has been extraordinary. Many people from all walks of life are very excited about space science and eager to volunteer their time to contribute to a real research project such as this. We will discuss the progress of the project and the education and outreach activities being carried out for it.

  9. Modular correction method of bending elastic modulus based on sliding behavior of contact point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Zhichao; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhang, Qixun; Liu, Changyi

    2015-01-01

    During the three-point bending test, the sliding behavior of the contact point between the specimen and supports was observed, the sliding behavior was verified to affect the measurements of both deflection and span length, which directly affect the calculation of the bending elastic modulus. Based on the Hertz formula to calculate the elastic contact deformation and the theoretical calculation of the sliding behavior of the contact point, a theoretical model to precisely describe the deflection and span length as a function of bending load was established. Moreover, a modular correction method of bending elastic modulus was proposed, via the comparison between the corrected elastic modulus of three materials (H63 copper–zinc alloy, AZ31B magnesium alloy and 2026 aluminum alloy) and the standard modulus obtained from standard uniaxial tensile tests, the universal feasibility of the proposed correction method was verified. Also, the ratio of corrected to raw elastic modulus presented a monotonically decreasing tendency as the raw elastic modulus of materials increased. (technical note)

  10. Craniux: a LabVIEW-based modular software framework for brain-machine interface research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhart, Alan D; Kelly, John W; Ashmore, Robin C; Collinger, Jennifer L; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Weber, Douglas J; Wang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents "Craniux," an open-access, open-source software framework for brain-machine interface (BMI) research. Developed in LabVIEW, a high-level graphical programming environment, Craniux offers both out-of-the-box functionality and a modular BMI software framework that is easily extendable. Specifically, it allows researchers to take advantage of multiple features inherent to the LabVIEW environment for on-the-fly data visualization, parallel processing, multithreading, and data saving. This paper introduces the basic features and system architecture of Craniux and describes the validation of the system under real-time BMI operation using simulated and real electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals. Our results indicate that Craniux is able to operate consistently in real time, enabling a seamless work flow to achieve brain control of cursor movement. The Craniux software framework is made available to the scientific research community to provide a LabVIEW-based BMI software platform for future BMI research and development.

  11. Craniux: A LabVIEW-Based Modular Software Framework for Brain-Machine Interface Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan D. Degenhart

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents “Craniux,” an open-access, open-source software framework for brain-machine interface (BMI research. Developed in LabVIEW, a high-level graphical programming environment, Craniux offers both out-of-the-box functionality and a modular BMI software framework that is easily extendable. Specifically, it allows researchers to take advantage of multiple features inherent to the LabVIEW environment for on-the-fly data visualization, parallel processing, multithreading, and data saving. This paper introduces the basic features and system architecture of Craniux and describes the validation of the system under real-time BMI operation using simulated and real electrocorticographic (ECoG signals. Our results indicate that Craniux is able to operate consistently in real time, enabling a seamless work flow to achieve brain control of cursor movement. The Craniux software framework is made available to the scientific research community to provide a LabVIEW-based BMI software platform for future BMI research and development.

  12. 3D printed Lego®-like modular microfluidic devices based on capillary driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jing; Gao, Qing; Qiu, Jing-Jiang; Sun, Miao; Liu, An; Shao, Lei; Fu, Jian-Zhong; Zhao, Peng; He, Yong

    2018-03-12

    The field of how to rapidly assemble microfluidics with modular components continuously attracts researchers' attention, however, extra efforts must be devoted to solving the problems of leaking and aligning between individual modules. This paper presents a novel type of modular microfluidic device, driven by capillary force. There is no necessity for a strict seal or special alignment, and its open structures make it easy to integrate various stents and reactants. The key rationale for this method is to print different functional modules with a low-cost three-dimensional (3D) printer, then fill the channels with capillary materials and assemble them with plugs like Lego ® bricks. This rapidly reconstructed modular microfluidic device consists of a variety of common functional modules and other personalized modules, each module having a unified standard interface for easy assembly. As it can be printed by a desktop 3D printer, the manufacturing process is simple and efficient, with controllable regulation of the flow channel scale. Through diverse combinations of different modules, a variety of different functions can be achieved, without duplicating the manufacturing process. A single module can also be taken out for testing and analysis. What's more, combined with basic circuit components, it can serve as a low-cost Lego ® -like modular microfluidic circuits. As a proof of concept, the modular microfluidic device has been successfully demonstrated and used for stent degradation and cell cultures, revealing the potential use of this method in both chemical and biological research.

  13. Dualisme Modular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natas Setiabudhi Daryono Putra

    2017-09-01

    and night, body and soul, health and sickness, rich and poor, good and evil, halal and haram, pro and con, active and passive, static and dynamic, good and bad looking, big and small, long and short, bitter and sweet, expensive and cheap, strong and weak, and so on. In the context of art, dualism is the representation of human beings as basically having two personalities, good and evil. Both were translated into a modular concept for creating a work configuration. The message that the artist wanted to deliver is that an individual cannot be judged from the ‘clothes or uniform’ s/he wears. In addition, a balance between good and evil represented by positive and negative modules is ambiguous in relation to the concept of reward and punishment in Islam. This final project draws upon the famous vase/goblet picture by Danish gestalt psychologist Edgar Rubin, which was transformed into a three-dimensional ceramic artwork [1]. Rubin’s vase/goblet perceptually contains two meanings, namely the image of a vase/goblet and a facial silhouette facing each other (alternatingly appearing as object or background. The creative process comes from personal-empirical experience linked to the supporting theory. The combination of both resulted in an artwork that represents reality. Generally, in the creation of visual artworks there is no formal method as in scientific research. The creative process is sometimes based on intuition, a dominant personal experience and contains a very subjective narration. All of these are related to other disciplines (social, economical, cultural and political, in order to create a representation.

  14. A multi-ontology approach to annotate scientific documents based on a modularization technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Priscilla Corrêa E Castro; Moura, Ana Maria de Carvalho; Cavalcanti, Maria Cláudia

    2015-12-01

    Scientific text annotation has become an important task for biomedical scientists. Nowadays, there is an increasing need for the development of intelligent systems to support new scientific findings. Public databases available on the Web provide useful data, but much more useful information is only accessible in scientific texts. Text annotation may help as it relies on the use of ontologies to maintain annotations based on a uniform vocabulary. However, it is difficult to use an ontology, especially those that cover a large domain. In addition, since scientific texts explore multiple domains, which are covered by distinct ontologies, it becomes even more difficult to deal with such task. Moreover, there are dozens of ontologies in the biomedical area, and they are usually big in terms of the number of concepts. It is in this context that ontology modularization can be useful. This work presents an approach to annotate scientific documents using modules of different ontologies, which are built according to a module extraction technique. The main idea is to analyze a set of single-ontology annotations on a text to find out the user interests. Based on these annotations a set of modules are extracted from a set of distinct ontologies, and are made available for the user, for complementary annotation. The reduced size and focus of the extracted modules tend to facilitate the annotation task. An experiment was conducted to evaluate this approach, with the participation of a bioinformatician specialist of the Laboratory of Peptides and Proteins of the IOC/Fiocruz, who was interested in discovering new drug targets aiming at the combat of tropical diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. On sub-modularization and morphological heterogeneity in modular robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyder, A. H.; Stoy, K.; Garciá, R. F. M.

    2012-01-01

    Modular robots are a kind of robots built from mechatronic modules, which can be assembled in many different ways allowing the modular robot to assume a wide range of morphologies and functions. An important question in modular robotics is to which degree modules should be heterogeneous....... In this paper we introduce two contributing factors to heterogeneity namely morphological heterogeneity and sub-functional modularization. Respectively, the ideas are to create modules with significantly different morphologies and to spread sub-functionality across modules. Based on these principles we design...... and implement the Thor robot and evaluate it by participating in the ICRA Planetary Robotic Contingency Challenge. The Thor robot demonstrates that sub-functional modularity and morphological heterogeneity may increase the versatility of modular robots while reducing the complexity of individual modules, which...

  16. Ground and satellite-based remote sensing of mineral dust using AERI spectra and MODIS thermal infrared window brightness temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansell, Richard Allen, Jr.

    The radiative effects of dust aerosol on our climate system have yet to be fully understood and remain a topic of contemporary research. To investigate these effects, detection/retrieval methods for dust events over major dust outbreak and transport areas have been developed using satellite and ground-based approaches. To this end, both the shortwave and longwave surface radiative forcing of dust aerosol were investigated. The ground-based remote sensing approach uses the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer brightness temperature spectra to detect mineral dust events and to retrieve their properties. Taking advantage of the high spectral resolution of the AERI instrument, absorptive differences in prescribed thermal IR window sub-band channels were exploited to differentiate dust from cirrus clouds. AERI data collected during the UAE2 at Al-Ain UAE was employed for dust retrieval. Assuming a specified dust composition model a priori and using the light scattering programs of T-matrix and the finite difference time domain methods for oblate spheroids and hexagonal plates, respectively, dust optical depths have been retrieved and compared to those inferred from a collocated and coincident AERONET sun-photometer dataset. The retrieved optical depths were then used to determine the dust longwave surface forcing during the UAE2. Likewise, dust shortwave surface forcing is investigated employing a differential technique from previous field studies. The satellite-based approach uses MODIS thermal infrared brightness temperature window data for the simultaneous detection/separation of mineral dust and cirrus clouds. Based on the spectral variability of dust emissivity at the 3.75, 8.6, 11 and 12 mum wavelengths, the D*-parameter, BTD-slope and BTD3-11 tests are combined to identify dust and cirrus. MODIS data for the three dust-laden scenes have been analyzed to demonstrate the effectiveness of this detection/separation method. Detected daytime dust and cloud

  17. A new small modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor plant concept based on proven technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, C.F.; Goodjohn, A.J.

    1982-01-01

    Based on the established and proven high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technologies from the Peach Bottom 1 and Fort St. Vrain utility-operated units, a new small modular HTGR reactor is currently being evaluated. The basic nuclear reactor heat source, with a prismatic core, is being designed so that the decay heat can be removed by passive means (i.e., natural circulation). Although this concept is still in the preconceptual design stage, emphasis is being placed on establishing an inherently safe or benign concept which, when engineered, will have acceptable capital cost and power generation economics. The proposed new HTGR concept has a variety of applications, including electrical power generation, cogeneration, and high-temperature process heat. This paper discusses the simplest application, i.e., a steam Rankine cycle electrical power generating version. The gas-cooled modular reactor concepts presented are based on a graphite moderated prismatic core of low-power density (i.e., 4.1 W/cm 3 ) with a thermal rating of 250 MW(t). With the potential for inherently safe characteristics, a new small reactor could be sited close to industrial and urban areas to provide electrical power and thermal heating needs (i.e., district and space heating). Incorporating a multiplicity of small modular units to provide a larger power output is also discussed. The potential for a small, inherently safe HTGR reactor concept is highlighted

  18. Developing Subdomain Allocation Algorithms Based on Spatial and Communicational Constraints to Accelerate Dust Storm Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Zhipeng; Yu, Manzhu; Yang, Chaowei; Jiang, Yunfeng; Chen, Songqing; Xia, Jizhe; Huang, Qunying; Liu, Kai; Li, Zhenlong; Hassan, Mohammed Anowarul; Jin, Baoxuan

    2016-01-01

    Dust storm has serious disastrous impacts on environment, human health, and assets. The developments and applications of dust storm models have contributed significantly to better understand and predict the distribution, intensity and structure of dust storms. However, dust storm simulation is a data and computing intensive process. To improve the computing performance, high performance computing has been widely adopted by dividing the entire study area into multiple subdomains and allocating each subdomain on different computing nodes in a parallel fashion. Inappropriate allocation may introduce imbalanced task loads and unnecessary communications among computing nodes. Therefore, allocation is a key factor that may impact the efficiency of parallel process. An allocation algorithm is expected to consider the computing cost and communication cost for each computing node to minimize total execution time and reduce overall communication cost for the entire simulation. This research introduces three algorithms to optimize the allocation by considering the spatial and communicational constraints: 1) an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) based algorithm from combinational optimization perspective; 2) a K-Means and Kernighan-Lin combined heuristic algorithm (K&K) integrating geometric and coordinate-free methods by merging local and global partitioning; 3) an automatic seeded region growing based geometric and local partitioning algorithm (ASRG). The performance and effectiveness of the three algorithms are compared based on different factors. Further, we adopt the K&K algorithm as the demonstrated algorithm for the experiment of dust model simulation with the non-hydrostatic mesoscale model (NMM-dust) and compared the performance with the MPI default sequential allocation. The results demonstrate that K&K method significantly improves the simulation performance with better subdomain allocation. This method can also be adopted for other relevant atmospheric and numerical

  19. L-Cysteine Production in Escherichia coli Based on Rational Metabolic Engineering and Modular Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Han; Fang, Guochen; Wu, Hui; Li, Zhimin; Ye, Qin

    2018-05-01

    L-cysteine is an amino acid with important physiological functions and has a wide range of applications in medicine, food, animal feed, and cosmetics industry. In this study, the L-cysteine synthesis in Escherichia coliEscherichia coli is divided into four modules: the transport module, sulfur module, precursor module, and degradation module. The engineered strain LH03 (overexpression of the feedback-insensitive cysE and the exporter ydeD in JM109) accumulated 45.8 mg L -1 of L-cysteine in 48 hr with yield of 0.4% g/g glucose. Further modifications of strains and culture conditions which based on the rational metabolic engineering and modular strategy improved the L-cysteine biosynthesis significantly. The engineered strain LH06 (with additional overexpression of serA, serC, and serB and double mutant of tnaA and sdaA in LH03) produced 620.9 mg L -1 of L-cysteine with yield of 6.0% g/g glucose, which increased the production by 12 times and the yield by 14 times more than those of LH03 in the original condition. In fed-batch fermentation performed in a 5-L reactor, the concentration of L-cysteine achieved 5.1 g L -1 in 32 hr. This work demonstrates that the combination of rational metabolic engineering and module strategy is a promising approach for increasing the L-cysteine production in E. coli. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Development of a conception of the stellarator based on torsatron and modular systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgiyevskiy, A.V.; Rudakov, V.A.; Tolok, V.T.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents the historical review of the stellarator conception development on the example of thermonuclear research at the Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology. The given material covers a period from the time of the large-scale stellarator 'Ukraine' offered by I.V.Kurchatov up to the present. The main attention put to torsatron and modular systems

  1. Towards Python-based Domain-specific Languages for Self-reconfigurable Modular Robotics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghadam, Mikael; Christensen, David Johan; Brandt, David

    2011-01-01

    communication, module identification, easy software transfer and reliable module-to-module communication. The end result is a software platform for modular robots that where appropriate builds on existing work in operating systems, virtual machines, middleware and high-level languages....

  2. Windows pollution problems of the dust concentration measurement based on scattering method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yanjun; Zhang Yongtao; Shi Xinyue; Xu Chuanlong; Wang Shimin

    2009-01-01

    The windows are separated the measurement system from the dust space in the light Scattering dust concentration measurement system. The windows are polluted unavoidably by the dust and the measurement error is produced. Based on the Mie Scattering theory, the measurement error is researched in this paper. The numerical simulation results show that the measurement error is related to the particles diameter distribution and the refractive index, but is independent of the particles average diameter. A novel photoelectricity sensor is developed in this paper in order to solve the measurement error by the windows pollution. The calculated method is brought out which can amend the measurement errors by the windows pollution and improve the measurement accuracy.

  3. Modular analysis of biological networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbach, Hans-Michael; Stelling, Jörg

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of complex biological networks has traditionally relied on decomposition into smaller, semi-autonomous units such as individual signaling pathways. With the increased scope of systems biology (models), rational approaches to modularization have become an important topic. With increasing acceptance of de facto modularity in biology, widely different definitions of what constitutes a module have sparked controversies. Here, we therefore review prominent classes of modular approaches based on formal network representations. Despite some promising research directions, several important theoretical challenges remain open on the way to formal, function-centered modular decompositions for dynamic biological networks.

  4. Coal-tar-based parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of PAH to settled house dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Wilson, J.T.; Musgrove, M.; Burbank, T.L.; Ennis, T.E.; Bashara, T.J.

    2010-01-01

    Despite much speculation, the principal factors controlling concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in settled house dust (SHD) have not yet been identified. In response to recent reports that dust from pavement with coaltar-based sealcoat contains extremely high concentrations of PAH, we measured PAH in SHD from 23 apartments and in dust from their associated parking lots, one-half of which had coal-tar-based sealcoat (CT). The median concentration of total PAH (T-PAH) in dust from CT parking lots (4760 ??g/g, n = 11) was 530 times higher than that from parking lots with other pavement surface types (asphalt-based sealcoat, unsealed asphalt, concrete [median 9.0 ??g/g, n = 12]). T-PAH in SHD from apartments with CT parking lots (median 129 ??g/g) was 25 times higher than that in SHD from apartments with parking lots with other pavement surface types (median 5.1 ??g/g). Presence or absence of CT on a parking lot explained 48% of the variance in log-transformed T-PAH in SHD. Urban land-use intensity near the residence also had a significant but weaker relation to T-PAH. No other variables tested, including carpeting, frequency of vacuuming, and indoor burning, were significant. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  5. An empirical model to predict road dust emissions based on pavement and traffic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoan, Elio; Ajmone-Marsan, Franco; Querol, Xavier; Amato, Fulvio

    2018-06-01

    The relative impact of non-exhaust sources (i.e. road dust, tire wear, road wear and brake wear particles) on urban air quality is increasing. Among them, road dust resuspension has generally the highest impact on PM concentrations but its spatio-temporal variability has been rarely studied and modeled. Some recent studies attempted to observe and describe the time-variability but, as it is driven by traffic and meteorology, uncertainty remains on the seasonality of emissions. The knowledge gap on spatial variability is much wider, as several factors have been pointed out as responsible for road dust build-up: pavement characteristics, traffic intensity and speed, fleet composition, proximity to traffic lights, but also the presence of external sources. However, no parameterization is available as a function of these variables. We investigated mobile road dust smaller than 10 μm (MF10) in two cities with different climatic and traffic conditions (Barcelona and Turin), to explore MF10 seasonal variability and the relationship between MF10 and site characteristics (pavement macrotexture, traffic intensity and proximity to braking zone). Moreover, we provide the first estimates of emission factors in the Po Valley both in summer and winter conditions. Our results showed a good inverse relationship between MF10 and macro-texture, traffic intensity and distance from the nearest braking zone. We also found a clear seasonal effect of road dust emissions, with higher emission in summer, likely due to the lower pavement moisture. These results allowed building a simple empirical mode, predicting maximal dust loadings and, consequently, emission potential, based on the aforementioned data. This model will need to be scaled for meteorological effect, using methods accounting for weather and pavement moisture. This can significantly improve bottom-up emission inventory for spatial allocation of emissions and air quality management, to select those roads with higher emissions

  6. MrTADFinder: A network modularity based approach to identify topologically associating domains in multiple resolutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koon-Kiu Yan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Genome-wide proximity ligation based assays such as Hi-C have revealed that eukaryotic genomes are organized into structural units called topologically associating domains (TADs. From a visual examination of the chromosomal contact map, however, it is clear that the organization of the domains is not simple or obvious. Instead, TADs exhibit various length scales and, in many cases, a nested arrangement. Here, by exploiting the resemblance between TADs in a chromosomal contact map and densely connected modules in a network, we formulate TAD identification as a network optimization problem and propose an algorithm, MrTADFinder, to identify TADs from intra-chromosomal contact maps. MrTADFinder is based on the network-science concept of modularity. A key component of it is deriving an appropriate background model for contacts in a random chain, by numerically solving a set of matrix equations. The background model preserves the observed coverage of each genomic bin as well as the distance dependence of the contact frequency for any pair of bins exhibited by the empirical map. Also, by introducing a tunable resolution parameter, MrTADFinder provides a self-consistent approach for identifying TADs at different length scales, hence the acronym "Mr" standing for Multiple Resolutions. We then apply MrTADFinder to various Hi-C datasets. The identified domain boundaries are marked by characteristic signatures in chromatin marks and transcription factors (TF that are consistent with earlier work. Moreover, by calling TADs at different length scales, we observe that boundary signatures change with resolution, with different chromatin features having different characteristic length scales. Furthermore, we report an enrichment of HOT (high-occupancy target regions near TAD boundaries and investigate the role of different TFs in determining boundaries at various resolutions. To further explore the interplay between TADs and epigenetic marks, as tumor mutational

  7. Web-based execution of graphical work-flows: a modular platform for multifunctional scientific process automation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Ley, E.; Jacobs, D.; Ounsy, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Passerelle process automation suite offers a fundamentally modular solution platform, based on a layered integration of several best-of-breed technologies. It has been successfully applied by Synchrotron Soleil as the sequencer for data acquisition and control processes on its beamlines, integrated with TANGO as a control bus and GlobalScreen TM ) as the SCADA package. Since last year it is being used as the graphical work-flow component for the development of an eclipse-based Data Analysis Work Bench, at ESRF. The top layer of Passerelle exposes an actor-based development paradigm, based on the Ptolemy framework (UC Berkeley). Actors provide explicit reusability and strong decoupling, combined with an inherently concurrent execution model. Actor libraries exist for TANGO integration, web-services, database operations, flow control, rules-based analysis, mathematical calculations, launching external scripts etc. Passerelle's internal architecture is based on OSGi, the major Java framework for modular service-based applications. A large set of modules exist that can be recombined as desired to obtain different features and deployment models. Besides desktop versions of the Passerelle work-flow workbench, there is also the Passerelle Manager. It is a secured web application including a graphical editor, for centralized design, execution, management and monitoring of process flows, integrating standard Java Enterprise services with OSGi. We will present the internal technical architecture, some interesting application cases and the lessons learnt. (authors)

  8. A mathematical formulation for interface-based modular product design with geometric and weight constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung-Woon Yoo, John

    2016-06-01

    Since customer preferences change rapidly, there is a need for design processes with shorter product development cycles. Modularization plays a key role in achieving mass customization, which is crucial in today's competitive global market environments. Standardized interfaces among modularized parts have facilitated computational product design. To incorporate product size and weight constraints during computational design procedures, a mixed integer programming formulation is presented in this article. Product size and weight are two of the most important design parameters, as evidenced by recent smart-phone products. This article focuses on the integration of geometric, weight and interface constraints into the proposed mathematical formulation. The formulation generates the optimal selection of components for a target product, which satisfies geometric, weight and interface constraints. The formulation is verified through a case study and experiments are performed to demonstrate the performance of the formulation.

  9. Collaborative Assembly Operation between Two Modular Robots Based on the Optical Position Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Su

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the cooperation between two master-slave modular robots. A cooperative robot system is set up with two modular robots and a dynamic optical meter-Optotrak. With Optotrak, the positions of the end effectors are measured as the optical position feedback, which is used to adjust the robots' end positions. A tri-layered motion controller is designed for the two cooperative robots. The RMRC control method is adopted to adjust the master robot to the desired position. With the kinematics constraints of the two robots including position and pose, joint velocity, and acceleration constraints, the two robots can cooperate well. A bolt and nut assembly experiment is executed to verify the methods.

  10. Microprocessor- and LSI-based CAMAC RAM controllers in a modular multiparameter instrumentation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skarda, V.

    1982-01-01

    This contribution deals with the main features and with the hardware modifications of RAM controllers in the dual-port accessed CAMAC memory modules that have been applied in a modular multichannel analyzer instrumentation system. The modules described in this paper are fully compatible with the CAMAC standard EUR 4100 and with the COMPEX draft proposal of the ESONE Study Group, as well. Special attention is paid to the possible application of modern LSI bipolar circuits. (orig.)

  11. Growth rules based on the modularity of the Canarian Aeonium (Crassulaceae) and their phylogenetic value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, T.H.; Olesen, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    Growth forms of 22 species of Aeonium (Crassulaceae) were quantified. Since all species are simple in their modular construction, models were developed to predict module length, branching mode and flowering probability using linear and logistic regression. When combined, the parameters...... of these models are species specific. A discriminant analysis generates a statistically significant separation of species at the level of phylogenetic sections. The results therefore demonstrate the phylogenetic value of growth rules in plants. This dynamic approach strongly contrasts with the traditional static...

  12. Label-based routing for a family of scale-free, modular, planar and unclustered graphs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comellas, Francesc; Miralles, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    We give an optimal labeling and routing algorithm for a family of scale-free, modular and planar graphs with zero clustering. The relevant properties of this family match those of some networks associated with technological and biological systems with a low clustering, including some electronic circuits and protein networks. The existence of an efficient routing protocol for this graph model should help when designing communication algorithms in real networks and also in the understanding of their dynamic processes.

  13. Global Scale Attribution of Anthropogenic and Natural Dust Sources and their Emission Rates Based on MODIS Deep Blue Aerosol Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginoux, Paul; Prospero, Joseph M.; Gill, Thomas E.; Hsu, N. Christina; Zhao, Ming

    2012-01-01

    Our understanding of the global dust cycle is limited by a dearth of information about dust sources, especially small-scale features which could account for a large fraction of global emissions. Here we present a global-scale high-resolution (0.1 deg) mapping of sources based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue estimates of dust optical depth in conjunction with other data sets including land use. We ascribe dust sources to natural and anthropogenic (primarily agricultural) origins, calculate their respective contributions to emissions, and extensively compare these products against literature. Natural dust sources globally account for 75% of emissions; anthropogenic sources account for 25%. North Africa accounts for 55% of global dust emissions with only 8% being anthropogenic, mostly from the Sahel. Elsewhere, anthropogenic dust emissions can be much higher (75% in Australia). Hydrologic dust sources (e.g., ephemeral water bodies) account for 31% worldwide; 15% of them are natural while 85% are anthropogenic. Globally, 20% of emissions are from vegetated surfaces, primarily desert shrublands and agricultural lands. Since anthropogenic dust sources are associated with land use and ephemeral water bodies, both in turn linked to the hydrological cycle, their emissions are affected by climate variability. Such changes in dust emissions can impact climate, air quality, and human health. Improved dust emission estimates will require a better mapping of threshold wind velocities, vegetation dynamics, and surface conditions (soil moisture and land use) especially in the sensitive regions identified here, as well as improved ability to address small-scale convective processes producing dust via cold pool (haboob) events frequent in monsoon regimes.

  14. Modular Engineering of Production Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    Based on a case-study on design of pharmaceutical production plants, this paper suggests that modularity may support business efficiency for companies with one-of-a-kind production and without in-house manufacturing. Modularity may support efficient management of design knowledge and may facilitate...

  15. Development and comparison in uncertainty assessment based Bayesian modularization method in hydrological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lu; Xu, Chong-Yu; Engeland, Kolbjørn

    2013-04-01

    SummaryWith respect to model calibration, parameter estimation and analysis of uncertainty sources, various regression and probabilistic approaches are used in hydrological modeling. A family of Bayesian methods, which incorporates different sources of information into a single analysis through Bayes' theorem, is widely used for uncertainty assessment. However, none of these approaches can well treat the impact of high flows in hydrological modeling. This study proposes a Bayesian modularization uncertainty assessment approach in which the highest streamflow observations are treated as suspect information that should not influence the inference of the main bulk of the model parameters. This study includes a comprehensive comparison and evaluation of uncertainty assessments by our new Bayesian modularization method and standard Bayesian methods using the Metropolis-Hastings (MH) algorithm with the daily hydrological model WASMOD. Three likelihood functions were used in combination with standard Bayesian method: the AR(1) plus Normal model independent of time (Model 1), the AR(1) plus Normal model dependent on time (Model 2) and the AR(1) plus Multi-normal model (Model 3). The results reveal that the Bayesian modularization method provides the most accurate streamflow estimates measured by the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and provide the best in uncertainty estimates for low, medium and entire flows compared to standard Bayesian methods. The study thus provides a new approach for reducing the impact of high flows on the discharge uncertainty assessment of hydrological models via Bayesian method.

  16. Mediterranean intense desert dust outbreaks and their vertical structure based on remote sensing data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gkikas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present study is to describe the vertical structure of the intense Mediterranean dust outbreaks, based on the use of satellite and surface-based retrievals/measurements. Strong and extreme desert dust (DD episodes are identified at 1°  ×  1° spatial resolution, over the period March 2000–February 2013, through the implementation of an updated objective and dynamic algorithm. According to the algorithm, strong DD episodes occurring at a specific place correspond to cases in which the daily aerosol optical depth at 550 nm (AOD550 nm exceeds or equals the long-term mean AOD550 nm (Mean plus two standard deviations (SD, which is also smaller than Mean+4 × SD. Extreme DD episodes correspond to cases in which the daily AOD550 nm value equals or exceeds Mean+4 × SD. For the identification of DD episodes, additional optical properties (Ångström exponent, fine fraction, effective radius and aerosol index derived by the MODIS-Terra & Aqua (also AOD retrievals, OMI-Aura and EP-TOMS databases are used as inputs. According to the algorithm using MODIS-Terra data, over the period March 2000–February 2013, strong DD episodes occur more frequently (up to 9.9 episodes year−1 over the western Mediterranean, while the corresponding frequencies for the extreme ones are smaller (up to 3.3 episodes year−1, central Mediterranean Sea. In contrast to their frequency, dust episodes are more intense (AODs up to 4.1, over the central and eastern Mediterranean Sea, off the northern African coasts. Slightly lower frequencies and higher intensities are found when the satellite algorithm operates based on MODIS-Aqua retrievals, for the period 2003–2012. The consistency of the algorithm is successfully tested through the application of an alternative methodology for the determination of DD episodes, which produced similar features of the episodes' frequency and intensity, with just slightly higher

  17. Simulating the dust effect on the energy performance of photovoltaic generators based on experimental measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldellis, J.K.; Kapsali, M.

    2011-01-01

    One of the least analyzed side effects of atmospheric air pollution is the degradation of PV-panels' performance due to the deposition of solid particles varying in composition, size and type. In the current study, the experimental data concerning the effect of three representative air pollutants (i.e. red soil, limestone and carbonaceous fly-ash particles) on the energy performance of PV installations are analyzed. According to the results obtained, a considerable reduction of PVs' energy performance is recorded, depending strongly on particles' composition and source. Subsequently, a theoretical model has been developed in order to be used as an analytical tool for obtaining reliable results concerning the expected effect of regional air pollution on PVs' performance. Furthermore, experimental results concerning the dust effect on PVs' energy yield in an aggravated - from air pollution - urban environment are used to validate the proposed theoretical model. -- Highlights: → The effect of dust deposition on PVs energy efficiency is experimentally examined. → Based on the results, a considerable reduction of PVs energy performance is recorded. → The effect strongly depends on the dust composition and on the type of the pollutant. → A theoretical model is developed for predicting the dust deposition effect on PVs energy yield. → The model is validated on the basis of experiments conducted in urban environment.

  18. The cost of respirable coal mine dust: an analysis based on new black lung claims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Page, S.J.; Organiscak, J.A.; Lichtman, K. [US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of the Interior

    1997-12-01

    The article provides summation of the monetary costs of new compensation claims associated with levels of unmitigated respirable coal mine dust and the resultant lung disease known as black lung and compares these compensation costs to the cost of dust control technology research by the US Bureau of Mines. It presents an analysis of these expenditures and projects these costs over the period from 1991 to 2010, based on projected future new claims which are assumed to be approved for federal and state benefit payment. Since current and future dust control research efforts cannot change past claim histories, a valid comparison of future research spending with other incurred costs must examine only the cost of future new claims. The bias of old claim costs was eliminated in this analysis by examining only claims since 1980. The results estimate that for an expected 339 new approved claims annually from 1991 to 2010, the Federal Trust Fund costs will be 985 million dollars. During this same period, state black lung compensation is estimated to be 18.2 billion dollars. The Bureau of Mines dust control research expenditures are estimated as 0.44% of the projected future black lung-related costs. 9 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Field trials of an electret based passive dust sampler in coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemingway, M.A.; Brown, R.C.; Arthur, J. [Health and Safety Laboratory, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    An electret-based passive dust sampler has been developed by the Health and Safety Laboratory, UK. The device consists of a small disc of electret (polymer holding a permanent electric charge) held between earthen plates, and it acts by attaching charged dust particles to itself. The device does not require a pump and its rate of sampling is independent of external air velocity, provided that the velocity exceeds a low limiting value. Experiments have been carried out in two coal mines. In each experiment two passive sampler were mounted alongside an MRE sampler at the statutory sampling point in the return roadway. Both passive samplers were mounted vertically but in one the plane of the electret was parallel to the air flow and in the other it was perpendicular. The result obtained from the first mine showed a good correlation between gravimetric estimates of dust concentration obtained with the passive samplers and respirable dust concentrations obtained with MRE. The correlation between the two sets of results at the second mine was not quite as good as those of the first, but was reasonable. In no instance was any significant difference observed between samples obtained from pairs of passive samples in different orientations. 8 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Criteria for software modularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Card, David N.; Page, Gerald T.; Mcgarry, Frank E.

    1985-01-01

    A central issue in programming practice involves determining the appropriate size and information content of a software module. This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of two widely used criteria for software modularization, strength and size, in reducing fault rate and development cost. Data from 453 FORTRAN modules developed by professional programmers were analyzed. The results indicated that module strength is a good criterion with respect to fault rate, whereas arbitrary module size limitations inhibit programmer productivity. This analysis is a first step toward defining empirically based standards for software modularization.

  1. A Modularized Counselor-Education Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas V.; Dimattia, Dominic J.

    1978-01-01

    Counselor-education programs may be enriched through the use of modularized learning experiences. This article notes several recent articles on competency-based counselor education, the concepts of simulation and modularization, and describes the process of developing a modularized master's program at the University of Bridgeport in Connecticut.…

  2. Modular Cure Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther-Hansen, Casper; Frandsen, Thomas

    facilitate co-creation through open platforms and service modularity. Based on data from two pharmaceuticals we explore issues of governance related to the relative openness of platforms and their completeness. Whereas some pharmaceuticals should cater to sophisticated needs of competent users through open...

  3. The Challenges of Modularization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sally; Saunders, Danny

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the movement towards credit accumulation and transfer in higher education institutions based on experiences at two universities in the United Kingdom, the University of Northumbria and the University of Glamorgan. Modularization, or unitization, and semesterization are considered, and three key areas are addressed: management, student…

  4. Modular Multi-level converter based HVDC System for Grid Connection of Offshore Wind Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnanarathna, U.N.; Chaudhary, Sanjay Kumar; Gole, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the application of modular multi-level converters (MMC) as a means for harnessing the power from off-shore wind power plants. The MMC consists of a large number of simple voltage sourced converter (VSC) submodules that can be easily assembled into a converter for high......-voltage and high power. The paper shows that the MMC converter has a fast response and low harmonic content in comparison with a two-level VSC option. The paper discusses the modeling approach used, including a solution to the modeling challenge imposed by the very large number of switching devices in the MMC....

  5. A spectral method to detect community structure based on distance modularity matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jin-Xuan; Zhang, Xiao-Dong

    2017-08-01

    There are many community organizations in social and biological networks. How to identify these community structure in complex networks has become a hot issue. In this paper, an algorithm to detect community structure of networks is proposed by using spectra of distance modularity matrix. The proposed algorithm focuses on the distance of vertices within communities, rather than the most weakly connected vertex pairs or number of edges between communities. The experimental results show that our method achieves better effectiveness to identify community structure for a variety of real-world networks and computer generated networks with a little more time-consumption.

  6. Manufacturing of wollastonite-based glass from cement dust: Physical and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Francis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available By-pass cement dust is considered as a source of environmental pollution. Wollastonite-based glass foams are made by adding glass waste and SiC to the cement dust. XRD on samples indicated that the main crystalline phase after heat treatment at 850–1,000°C is wollastonite. Empirical models were developed to derive conclusion on the impact of SiC and temperature on the physical and mechanical properties of the products. The optimum sintering temperature was found to be at 900°C for 60 min, at which crushing strength was about 15 MPa and was the best uniform. Such wollastonite-based glass foam could be very attractive for thermal and acoustic applications.

  7. Metric modular spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Chistyakov, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    Aimed toward researchers and graduate students familiar with elements of functional analysis, linear algebra, and general topology; this book contains a general study of modulars, modular spaces, and metric modular spaces. Modulars may be thought of as generalized velocity fields and serve two important purposes: generate metric spaces in a unified manner and provide a weaker convergence, the modular convergence, whose topology is non-metrizable in general. Metric modular spaces are extensions of metric spaces, metric linear spaces, and classical modular linear spaces. The topics covered include the classification of modulars, metrizability of modular spaces, modular transforms and duality between modular spaces, metric  and modular topologies. Applications illustrated in this book include: the description of superposition operators acting in modular spaces, the existence of regular selections of set-valued mappings, new interpretations of spaces of Lipschitzian and absolutely continuous mappings, the existe...

  8. Rational Modular RNA Engineering Based on In Vivo Profiling of Structural Accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leistra, Abigail N; Amador, Paul; Buvanendiran, Aishwarya; Moon-Walker, Alex; Contreras, Lydia M

    2017-12-15

    Bacterial small RNAs (sRNAs) have been established as powerful parts for controlling gene expression. However, development and application of engineered sRNAs has primarily focused on regulating novel synthetic targets. In this work, we demonstrate a rational modular RNA engineering approach that uses in vivo structural accessibility measurements to tune the regulatory activity of a multisubstrate sRNA for differential control of its native target network. Employing the CsrB global sRNA regulator as a model system, we use published in vivo structural accessibility data to infer the contribution of its local structures (substructures) to function and select a subset for engineering. We then modularly recombine the selected substructures, differentially representing those of presumed high or low functional contribution, to build a library of 21 CsrB variants. Using fluorescent translational reporter assays, we demonstrate that the CsrB variants achieve a 5-fold gradient of control of well-characterized Csr network targets. Interestingly, results suggest that less conserved local structures within long, multisubstrate sRNAs may represent better targets for rational engineering than their well-conserved counterparts. Lastly, mapping the impact of sRNA variants on a signature Csr network phenotype indicates the potential of this approach for tuning the activity of global sRNA regulators in the context of metabolic engineering applications.

  9. Towards Python-based Domain-specific Languages for Self-reconfigurable Modular Robotics Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghadam, Mikael; Johan Christensen, David; Brandt, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the role of operating system and high-level languages in the development of software and domain-specific languages (DSLs) for self-reconfigurable robotics. We review some of the current trends in self-reconfigurable robotics and describe the development of a software system...... for ATRON II which utilizes Linux and Python to significantly improve software abstraction and portability while providing some basic features which could prove useful when using Python, either stand-alone or via a DSL, on a self-reconfigurable robot system. These features include transparent socket...... communication, module identification, easy software transfer and reliable module-to-module communication. The end result is a software platform for modular robots that where appropriate builds on existing work in operating systems, virtual machines, middleware and high-level languages....

  10. A novel modular multilevel converter modelling technique based on semi-analytical models for HVDC application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Zama

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Thanks to scalability, performance and efficiency, the Modular Multilevel Converter (MMC, since its invention, becomes an attractive topology in industrial applications such as high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission system. However, modelling challenges related to the high number of switching elements in the MMC are highlighted when such systems are integrated into large simulated networks for stability or protection algorithms testing. In this work, a novel dynamic models for MMC is proposed. The proposed models are intended to simplify modeling challenges related to the high number of switching elements in the MMC. The models can be easily used to simulate the converter for stability analysis or protection algorithms for HVDC grids.

  11. Control of modular multilevel converters based on time-scale analysis and orthogonal functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zarri, L.; Tani, A.; Mengoni, M.

    2014-01-01

    current is still a complex task and cannot be fully tackled with traditional linear control techniques. In this paper a multiple time-scale analysis is proposed to determine an approximated model of the MMC that can be used to solve the control problem of the capacitor voltages. In addition, it is shown...... that the reference signal of the circulating current can be built by combining orthogonal functions of the measured voltages and currents. Numerical simulations are used to test the feasibility of the developed approach.......Modular multilevel converter (MMC) is a promising multilevel topology for high-voltage applications that has been developed in recent years. The control of MMCs has been analyzed in detail in many papers, showing that the converter capacitors can be kept charged and balanced by controlling...

  12. Incorporation of cement bypass flue dust in fly ash and blast furnace slag-based geopolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. Sultan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This work utilizes cement kiln dust in fly ash and blast furnace slag-based geopolymer. Geopolymer cement was produced using different compositions of ground, granulated blast furnace slag with fly ash and cement bypass flue dust. Crystalline sodium metasilicate pentahydrate was used as an activator at 10, 15 and 20% (by weight of the geopolymer source materials. The geopolymer is formed in the solid state like ordinary Portland cement. The mechanical and chemical properties of the geopolymeric materials were examined. Measuring of mechanical properties by compressive strength of the hardened geopolymer pastes at different curing ages; microstructure was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscope (SEM; thermal properties were estimated by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA and derivative thermogravimetric analysis (DTG. The results indicate that the compressive strength of the geopolymer pastes is increased with higher Na2SiO3.5H2O content. The geopolymeric properties were enhanced by higher pH, which helps in the dissolution of geopolymer source materials during geopolymerization. SEM showed that mixes containing 15 and 20% sodium metasilicate had more compact and dense structures. On the other hand, GGBFS mix (G-20 exhibits more hydration and geopolymeric products during TGA/DTG compared with other mixes which contain FA with/without GGBFS. Keywords: Cement bypass flue dust, Geopolymer, Ground granulated blast furnace, Fly ash

  13. RoboMusic with modular playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkenberg, Kasper; Bærendsen, Niels Kristian; Nielsen, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    Based on the concepts of RoboMusic and modular playware, we developed a system composed of modular playware devices which allow any user to perform music in a simple, interactive manner. The key features exploited in the modular playware approach are modularity, fl exibility, construction......, immediate feedback to stimulate engagement, creative exploration of play activities, and in some cases activity design by end-users (e.g., DJs). We exemplify the approach with the development of 11 rock genres and 6 pop music pieces for modular I-BLOCKS, which are exhibited and in daily use at the Rock Me...

  14. RoboMusic with Modular Playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Bærendsen, Niels Kristian; Nielsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    Based on the concepts of RoboMusic and Modular Playware, we developed a system composed of modular playware devices, which allow any user to perform music in a simple, interactive manner. The key features exploited from the Modular Playware approach are modularity, flexibility, and construction......, immediate feedback to stimulate engagement, creative exploration of play activities, and in some cases activity design by end-users (e.g. DJ’s). We exemplify the approach with the development of 11 rock genres and 6 pop music pieces for modular I-BLOCKS, which are exhibited and in daily use at the Rock Me...

  15. AES Modular Power Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The AES Modular Power Systems (AMPS) project will demonstrate and infuse modular power electronics, batteries, fuel cells, and autonomous control for exploration...

  16. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simon, Edina; Braun, Mihaly; Vidic, Andreas; Bogyo, David; Fabian, Istvan; Tothmeresz, Bela

    2011-01-01

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Highlights: → We studied the elements in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient, Austria. → We analysed 19 elements: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Pb, S, Sr and Zn. → Elemental concentrations were higher in urban area than in the rural area. → Studied areas were separated by CDA based on the elemental concentrations. → Dust and leaves can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Studying the elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Sr, Zn) in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient in Wien, Austria we found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for Al, Ba, Fe, Pb, P and Se, and concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for Mn and Sr.

  17. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon, Edina, E-mail: edina.simon@gmail.com [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Braun, Mihaly [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Vidic, Andreas [Department fuer Naturschutzbiologie, Vegetations- und Landschaftsoekologie, Universitat Wien, Althanstrasse 14, 1090 Wien (Austria); Bogyo, David [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary); Fabian, Istvan [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 21 (Hungary); Tothmeresz, Bela [Department of Ecology, University of Debrecen, H-4010 Debrecen, P.O. Box 71 (Hungary)

    2011-05-15

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Highlights: > We studied the elements in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient, Austria. > We analysed 19 elements: Al, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, Pb, S, Sr and Zn. > Elemental concentrations were higher in urban area than in the rural area. > Studied areas were separated by CDA based on the elemental concentrations. > Dust and leaves can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. - Studying the elements (Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Na, P, S, Sr, Zn) in dust and leaves along an urbanization gradient in Wien, Austria we found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for Al, Ba, Fe, Pb, P and Se, and concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for Mn and Sr.

  18. Analysis of PROTEUS phase II experiments performed using the AARE modular system and JEF-based libraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelloni, S.; Stepanek, J.; Vontobel, P.

    1989-01-01

    The capability of the advanced analysis of reactor engineering (AARE) modular code system and JEF-1-based nuclear data libraries to analyze light water high converter reactor (LWHCR) lattices is investigated by calculating the wet and dry cells of the PROTEUS-LWHCR phase II experiment. The results are compared to those obtained using several cell codes. Main features of the AARE code system, such as the self-shielding of resonance cross sections in the whole energy range, the generation of adequate fission source spectra, and the efficiency of the elastic removal correction,are investigated. In particular, it is shown that AARE results for the k ∞ void coefficient agree very well with the experiment, whereas other codes give larger deviations

  19. Development and integration of a LabVIEW-based modular architecture for automated execution of electrochemical catalyst testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topalov, Angel A; Katsounaros, Ioannis; Meier, Josef C; Klemm, Sebastian O; Mayrhofer, Karl J J

    2011-11-01

    This paper describes a system for performing electrochemical catalyst testing where all hardware components are controlled simultaneously using a single LabVIEW-based software application. The software that we developed can be operated in both manual mode for exploratory investigations and automatic mode for routine measurements, by using predefined execution procedures. The latter enables the execution of high-throughput or combinatorial investigations, which decrease substantially the time and cost for catalyst testing. The software was constructed using a modular architecture which simplifies the modification or extension of the system, depending on future needs. The system was tested by performing stability tests of commercial fuel cell electrocatalysts, and the advantages of the developed system are discussed. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  20. Research on the Reliability Analysis of the Integrated Modular Avionics System Based on the AADL Error Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the integrated modular avionics (IMA concept has been introduced to replace the traditional federated avionics. Different avionics functions are hosted in a shared IMA platform, and IMA adopts partition technologies to provide a logical isolation among different functions. The IMA architecture can provide more sophisticated and powerful avionics functionality; meanwhile, the failure propagation patterns in IMA are more complex. The feature of resource sharing introduces some unintended interconnections among different functions, which makes the failure propagation modes more complex. Therefore, this paper proposes an architecture analysis and design language- (AADL- based method to establish the reliability model of IMA platform. The single software and hardware error behavior in IMA system is modeled. The corresponding AADL error model of failure propagation among components, between software and hardware, is given. Finally, the display function of IMA platform is taken as an example to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  1. The Fertilizing Role of African Dust in the Amazon Rainforest: A First Multiyear Assessment Based on CALIPSO Lidar Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin; Chin, Mian; Yuan, Tianle; Bian, Huisheng; Remer, Lorraine A.; Prospero, Joseph M.; Omar, Ali; Winker, David; Yang, Yuekui; Zhang, Yan; hide

    2015-01-01

    The productivity of the Amazon rainforest is constrained by the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P). Deposition of long-range transported African dust is recognized as a potentially important but poorly quantified source of phosphorus. This study provides a first multiyear satellite-based estimate of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin using three dimensional (3D) aerosol measurements over 2007-2013 from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8 to approximately 48) Tg a(exp -1) or 29 (8 to approximately 50) kg ha(exp -1) a(exp -1). The dust deposition shows significant interannual variation that is negatively correlated with the prior-year rainfall in the Sahel. The CALIOP-based multi-year mean estimate of dust deposition matches better with estimates from in-situ measurements and model simulations than a previous satellite-based estimate does. The closer agreement benefits from a more realistic geographic definition of the Amazon Basin and inclusion of meridional dust transport calculation in addition to the 3D nature of CALIOP aerosol measurements. The imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.0060.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7 to approximately 39) g P ha(exp -1) a(exp -1) to fertilize the Amazon rainforest. This out-of-Basin P input largely compensates the hydrological loss of P from the Basin, suggesting an important role of African dust in preventing phosphorus depletion on time scales of decades to centuries.

  2. Development of synthetic selfish elements based on modular nucleases in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoni, Alekos; Siniscalchi, Carla; Chan, Yuk-Sang; Huen, David S; Russell, Steven; Windbichler, Nikolai; Crisanti, Andrea

    2014-06-01

    Selfish genes are DNA elements that increase their rate of genetic transmission at the expense of other genes in the genome and can therefore quickly spread within a population. It has been suggested that selfish elements could be exploited to modify the genome of entire populations for medical and ecological applications. Here we report that transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) and zinc finger nuclease (ZFN) can be engineered into site-specific synthetic selfish elements (SSEs) and demonstrate their transmission of up to 70% in the Drosophila germline. We show here that SSEs can spread via DNA break-induced homologous recombination, a process known as 'homing' similar to that observed for homing endonuclease genes (HEGs), despite their fundamentally different modes of DNA binding and cleavage. We observed that TALEN and ZFN have a reduced capability of secondary homing compared to HEG as their repetitive structure had a negative effect on their genetic stability. The modular architecture of ZFNs and TALENs allows for the rapid design of novel SSEs against specific genomic sequences making them potentially suitable for the genetic engineering of wild-type populations of animals and plants, in applications such as gene replacement or population suppression of pest species. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  3. Modular Assembly of Cell-targeting Devices Based on an Uncommon G-quadruplex Aptamer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Opazo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aptamers are valuable tools that provide great potential to develop cost-effective diagnostics and therapies in the biomedical field. Here, we report a novel DNA aptamer that folds into an unconventional G-quadruplex structure able to recognize and enter specifically into human Burkitt's lymphoma cells. We further optimized this aptamer to a highly versatile and stable minimized version. The minimized aptamer can be easily equipped with different functionalities like quantum dots, organic dyes, or even a second different aptamer domain yielding a bi-paratopic aptamer. Although the target molecule of the aptamer remains unknown, our microscopy and pharmacological studies revealed that the aptamer hijacks the clathrin-mediated endocytosis pathway for its cellular internalization. We conclude that this novel class of aptamers can be used as a modular tool to specifically deliver different cargoes into malignant cells. This work provides a thorough characterization of the aptamer and we expect that our strategy will pave the path for future therapeutic applications.

  4. A modular CUDA-based framework for scale-space feature detection in video streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsner, M; Capson, D; Spence, A

    2010-01-01

    Multi-scale image processing techniques enable extraction of features where the size of a feature is either unknown or changing, but the requirement to process image data at multiple scale levels imposes a substantial computational load. This paper describes the architecture and emerging results from the implementation of a GPGPU-accelerated scale-space feature detection framework for video processing. A discrete scale-space representation is generated for image frames within a video stream, and multi-scale feature detection metrics are applied to detect ridges and Gaussian blobs at video frame rates. A modular structure is adopted, in which common feature extraction tasks such as non-maximum suppression and local extrema search may be reused across a variety of feature detectors. Extraction of ridge and blob features is achieved at faster than 15 frames per second on video sequences from a machine vision system, utilizing an NVIDIA GTX 480 graphics card. By design, the framework is easily extended to additional feature classes through the inclusion of feature metrics to be applied to the scale-space representation, and using common post-processing modules to reduce the required CPU workload. The framework is scalable across multiple and more capable GPUs, and enables previously intractable image processing at video frame rates using commodity computational hardware.

  5. Voltage-Balancing Method for Modular Multilevel Converters Under Phase-Shifted Carrier-Based Pulsewidth Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    The modular multilevel converter (MMC) becomes attractive for medium- or high-power applications because of the advantages of high modularity, availability, and power quality. One of the technical challenges associated with an MMC is the balancing of the capacitors' voltages. In this paper...

  6. A flexible, extendable, modular and computationally efficient approach to scattering-integral-based seismic full waveform inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, F.; Friederich, W.; Lamara, S.

    2016-02-01

    We present a new conceptual approach to scattering-integral-based seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) that allows a flexible, extendable, modular and both computationally and storage-efficient numerical implementation. To achieve maximum modularity and extendability, interactions between the three fundamental steps carried out sequentially in each iteration of the inversion procedure, namely, solving the forward problem, computing waveform sensitivity kernels and deriving a model update, are kept at an absolute minimum and are implemented by dedicated interfaces. To realize storage efficiency and maximum flexibility, the spatial discretization of the inverted earth model is allowed to be completely independent of the spatial discretization employed by the forward solver. For computational efficiency reasons, the inversion is done in the frequency domain. The benefits of our approach are as follows: (1) Each of the three stages of an iteration is realized by a stand-alone software program. In this way, we avoid the monolithic, unflexible and hard-to-modify codes that have often been written for solving inverse problems. (2) The solution of the forward problem, required for kernel computation, can be obtained by any wave propagation modelling code giving users maximum flexibility in choosing the forward modelling method. Both time-domain and frequency-domain approaches can be used. (3) Forward solvers typically demand spatial discretizations that are significantly denser than actually desired for the inverted model. Exploiting this fact by pre-integrating the kernels allows a dramatic reduction of disk space and makes kernel storage feasible. No assumptions are made on the spatial discretization scheme employed by the forward solver. (4) In addition, working in the frequency domain effectively reduces the amount of data, the number of kernels to be computed and the number of equations to be solved. (5) Updating the model by solving a large equation system can be

  7. Environmental Degradation of Nickel-Based Superalloys Due to Gypsiferous Desert Dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-17

    salt. In addition, the study noted that the dust collected from vehicles was most likely to be clay (ɛ µm) or silt (3-15 µm) sized. As discussed above...The onset of fusion for each sample also has an operational significance. At this temperature, depending on the viscosity of the melt, a deposit based...presence of mullite formations in several images for .1CMAS, .5CMAS, AFRL02, GB1, and the Oxide Mix. Mullite has been shown to form from kaolinite clay

  8. Dust events in Beijing, China (2004–2006: comparison of ground-based measurements with columnar integrated observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Wu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambient particle number size distributions spanning three years were used to characterize the frequency and intensity of atmospheric dust events in the urban areas of Beijing, China in combination with AERONET sun/sky radiometer data. Dust events were classified into two types based on the differences in particle number and volume size distributions and local weather conditions. This categorization was confirmed by aerosol index images, columnar aerosol optical properties, and vertical potential temperature profiles. During the type-1 events, dust particles dominated the total particle volume concentration (<10 μm, with a relative share over 70%. Anthropogenic particles in the Aitken and accumulation mode played a subordinate role here because of high wind speeds (>4 m s−1. The type-2 events occurred in rather stagnant air masses and were characterized by a lower volume fraction of coarse mode particles (on average, 55%. Columnar optical properties showed that the superposition of dust and anthropogenic aerosols in type-2 events resulted in a much higher AOD (average: 1.51 than for the rather pure dust aerosols in type-1 events (average AOD: 0.36. A discrepancy was found between the ground-based and column integrated particle volume size distributions, especially for the coarse mode particles. This discrepancy likely originates from both the limited comparability of particle volume size distributions derived from Sun photometer and in situ number size distributions, and the inhomogeneous vertical distribution of particles during dust events.

  9. Characterization of the Temporal-Spatial Variability of Trans-Atlantic Dust Transport Based on CALIPSO Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    The trans-Atlantic dust transport has important implications for human and ecosystem health, the terrestrial and oceanic biogeochemical cycle, weather systems, and climate. A reliable assessment of these influences requires the characterization of dust distributions in three dimensions and over long time periods. We provide an observation-based multiyear estimate of trans-Atlantic dust transport by using a 7-year (2007 - 2013) lidar record from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) in both cloud-free and above-cloud conditions. We estimate that on a basis of the 7-year average and integration over 10S - 30N, 182 Tg a-1 dust leaves the coast of North Africa at 15W, of which 132 Tg a-1 and 43 Tg a-1 reaches 35W and 75W, respectively. These flux estimates have an overall known uncertainty of (45 - 70). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8 - 48) Tg a-1 or 29 (8 - 50) kg ha-1 a-1. This imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.006 - 0.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7 - 39) g P ha-1 a-1 to fertilize the Amazon rainforest, which is comparable to the loss of phosphorus to rainfall. Significant seasonal variations are observed in both the magnitude of total dust transport and its meridional and vertical distributions. The observed large interannual variability of annual dust transport is highly anti-correlated with the prior-year Sahel Precipitation Index. Comparisons of CALIPSO measurements with surface-based observations and model simulations will also be discussed.

  10. Community vs. Clinic-Based Modular Treatment of Children with Early-Onset ODD or CD: A Clinical Trial with 3-Year Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, David J.; Dorn, Lorah D.; Bukstein, Oscar G.; Pardini, Dustin; Holden, Elizabeth A.; Hart, Jonathan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the treatment outcomes of 139, 6-11 year-old, clinically referred boys and girls diagnosed with Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) or Conduct Disorder (CD) who were randomly assigned to a modular-based treatment protocol that was applied by research study clinicians either in the community (COMM) or a clinic office (CLINIC).…

  11. A REST-ful interpretation for embedded modular systems based on open architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyke, James

    2016-05-01

    The much-anticipated revolution of the "Internet of things" (IoT) is expected to generate one trillion internet devices within the next 15 years, mostly in the form of simple wireless sensor devices. While this revolution promises to transform silicon markets and drive a number of disruptive changes in society, it is also the case that the protocols, complexity, and security issues of extremely large dynamic, co-mingled networks is still poorly understood. Furthermore, embedded system developers, to include military and aerospace users, have largely ignored the potential (good and bound) of the cloudlike, possibly intermingling networks having variable structure to how future systems might be engineered. In this paper, we consider a new interpretation of IoT inspired modular architecture strategies involving the representational state transfer (REST) model, in which dynamic networks with variable structure employ stateless application programming interface (API) concepts. The power of the method, which extends concepts originally developed for space plug-and-play avionics, is that it allows for the fluid co-mingling of hardware and software in networks whose structure can overlap and evolve. Paradoxically, these systems may have the most stringent determinism and fault-tolerant needs. In this paper we review how RESTful APIs can potentially be used to design, create, test, and deploy systems rapidly while addressing security and referential integrity even when the nodes of many systems might physically co-mingle. We will also explore ways to take advantage of the RESTful paradigm for fault tolerance and what extensions might be necessary to deal with high-performance and determinism.

  12. Exploring Modularity in Services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlonitis, Viktor; Hsuan, Juliana

    2017-01-01

    the effects of modularity and integrality on a range of different analytical levels in service architectures. Taking a holistic approach, the authors synthesize and empirically deploy a framework comprised of the three most prevalent themes in modularity and service design literature: Offering (service...... insights on the mirroring hypothesis of modularity theory to services. Originality/value The paper provides a conceptualization of service architectures drawing on service design, modularity, and market relationships. The study enriches service design literature with elements from modularity theory...

  13. The universal modular platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    North, R.B.

    1995-01-01

    A new and patented design for offshore wellhead platforms has been developed to meet a 'fast track' requirement for increased offshore production, from field locations not yet identified. The new design uses modular construction to allow for radical changes in the water depth of the final location and assembly line efficiency in fabrication. By utilizing high strength steels and structural support from the well conductors the new design accommodates all planned production requirements on a support structure significantly lighter and less expensive than the conventional design it replaces. Twenty two platforms based on the new design were ready for installation within 18 months of the project start. Installation of the new platforms began in 1992 for drilling support and 1993 for production support. The new design has become the Company standard for all future production platforms. Large saving and construction costs have been realized through its light weight, flexibility in both positioning and water depth, and its modular construction

  14. Modular robot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrante, T.A.

    1997-01-01

    A modular robot may comprise a main body having a structure defined by a plurality of stackable modules. The stackable modules may comprise a manifold, a valve module, and a control module. The manifold may comprise a top surface and a bottom surface having a plurality of fluid passages contained therein, at least one of the plurality of fluid passages terminating in a valve port located on the bottom surface of the manifold. The valve module is removably connected to the manifold and selectively fluidically connects the plurality of fluid passages contained in the manifold to a supply of pressurized fluid and to a vent. The control module is removably connected to the valve module and actuates the valve module to selectively control a flow of pressurized fluid through different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. The manifold, valve module, and control module are mounted together in a sandwich-like manner and comprise a main body. A plurality of leg assemblies are removably connected to the main body and are removably fluidically connected to the fluid passages in the manifold so that each of the leg assemblies can be selectively actuated by the flow of pressurized fluid in different ones of the plurality of fluid passages in the manifold. 12 figs

  15. Modular remote radiation monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacerda, Fabio; Farias, Marcos S.; Aghina, Mauricio A.C.; Oliveira, Mauro V.

    2013-01-01

    The Modular Remote Radiation Monitor (MRRM) is a novel radiation monitor suitable for monitoring environmental exposure to ionizing radiation. It is a portable compact-size low-power microprocessor-based electronic device which provides its monitoring data to other electronic systems, physically distant from it, by means of an electronic communication channel, which can be wired or wireless according to the requirements of each application. Besides its low-power highly-integrated circuit design, the Modular Remote Radiation Monitor is presented in a modular architecture, which promotes full compliance to the technical requirements of different applications while minimizing cost, size and power consumption. Its communication capability also supports the implementation of a network of multiple radiation monitors connected to a supervisory system, capable of remotely controlling each monitor independently as well as visualizing the radiation levels from all monitors. A prototype of the MRRM, functionally equivalent to the MRA-7027 radiation monitor, was implemented and connected to a wired MODBUS network of MRA-7027 monitors, responsible for monitoring ionizing radiation inside Argonauta reactor room at Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear. Based on the highly positive experimental results obtained, further design is currently underway in order to produce a consumer version of the MRRM. (author)

  16. Education and Public Outreach for Stardust@home: An Interactive Internet-based Search for Interstellar Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Bryan J.; Westphal, A. J.; Butterworth, A. L.; Craig, N.

    2006-12-01

    On January 15, 2006, NASA’s Stardust mission returned to Earth after nearly seven years in interplanetary space. During its journey, Stardust encountered comet Wild 2, collecting dust particles from it in a special material called aerogel. At two other times in the mission, aerogel collectors were also opened to collect interstellar dust. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector is being scanned by an automated microscope at the Johnson Space Center. There are approximately 700,000 fields of view needed to cover the entire collector, but we expect only a few dozen total grains of interstellar dust were captured within it. Finding these particles is a daunting task. We have recruited many thousands of volunteers from the public to aid in the search for these precious pieces of space dust trapped in the collectors. We call the project Stardust@home. Through Stardust@home, volunteers from the public search fields of view from the Stardust aerogel collector using a web-based Virtual Microscope. Volunteers who discover interstellar dust particles have the privilege of naming them. The interest and response to this project has been extraordinary. Many people from all walks of life are very excited about space science and eager to volunteer their time to contribute to a real research project such as this. We will discuss the progress of the project and the education and outreach activities being carried out for it.

  17. Vehicle-based road dust emission measurement (III):. effect of speed, traffic volume, location, and season on PM 10 road dust emissions in the Treasure Valley, ID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etyemezian, V.; Kuhns, H.; Gillies, J.; Chow, J.; Hendrickson, K.; McGown, M.; Pitchford, M.

    The testing re-entrained aerosol kinetic emissions from roads (TRAKER) road dust measurement system was used to survey more than 400 km of paved roads in southwestern Idaho during 3-week sampling campaigns in winter and summer, 2001. Each data point, consisting of a 1-s measurement of particle light scattering sampled behind the front tire, was associated with a link (section of road) in the traffic demand model network for the Treasure Valley, ID. Each link was in turn associated with a number of characteristics including posted speed limit, vehicle kilometers traveled (vkt), road class (local/residential, collector, arterial, and interstate), county, and land use (urban vs. rural). Overall, the TRAKER-based emission factors based on location, setting, season, and speed spanned a narrow range from 3.6 to 8.0 g/vkt. Emission factors were higher in winter compared to summer, higher in urban areas compared to rural, and lower for roads with fast travel speeds compared to slower roads. The inherent covariance between traffic volume and traffic speed obscured the assessment of the effect of traffic volume on emission potentials. Distance-based emission factors expressed in grams per kilometer traveled (g/vkt) for roads with low travel speeds (˜11 m/s residential roads) compared to those with high travel speeds (˜25 m/s interstates) were higher (5.2 vs. 3.0 g/vkt in summer and 5.9 vs. 4.9 g/vkt in winter). However, emission potentials which characterize the amount of suspendable material on a road were substantially higher on roads with low travel speeds (0.71 vs. 0.13 g/vkt/(m/s) in summer and 0.78 vs. 0.21 g/vkt/(m/s) in winter). This suggested that while high speed roads are much cleaner (factor of 5.4 in summer), on a vehicle kilometer traveled basis, emissions from high and low speed roads are of the same order. Emission inventories based on the TRAKER method, silt loadings obtained during the field study, and US EPA's AP-42 default values of silt loading were

  18. Determining the infrared radiative effects of Saharan dust: a radiative transfer modelling study based on vertically resolved measurements at Lampedusa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Daniela; di Sarra, Alcide; Brogniez, Gérard; Denjean, Cyrielle; De Silvestri, Lorenzo; Di Iorio, Tatiana; Formenti, Paola; Gómez-Amo, José L.; Gröbner, Julian; Kouremeti, Natalia; Liuzzi, Giuliano; Mallet, Marc; Pace, Giandomenico; Sferlazzo, Damiano M.

    2018-03-01

    Detailed measurements of radiation, atmospheric and aerosol properties were carried out in summer 2013 during the Aerosol Direct Radiative Impact on the regional climate in the MEDiterranean region (ADRIMED) campaign in the framework of the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment (ChArMEx) experiment. This study focusses on the characterization of infrared (IR) optical properties and direct radiative effects of mineral dust, based on three vertical profiles of atmospheric and aerosol properties and IR broadband and narrowband radiation from airborne measurements, made in conjunction with radiosonde and ground-based observations at Lampedusa, in the central Mediterranean. Satellite IR spectra from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounder Interferometer (IASI) are also included in the analysis. The atmospheric and aerosol properties are used as input to a radiative transfer model, and various IR radiation parameters (upward and downward irradiance, nadir and zenith brightness temperature at different altitudes) are calculated and compared with observations. The model calculations are made for different sets of dust particle size distribution (PSD) and refractive index (RI), derived from observations and from the literature. The main results of the analysis are that the IR dust radiative forcing is non-negligible and strongly depends on PSD and RI. When calculations are made using the in situ measured size distribution, it is possible to identify the refractive index that produces the best match with observed IR irradiances and brightness temperatures (BTs). The most appropriate refractive indices correspond to those determined from independent measurements of mineral dust aerosols from the source regions (Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco) of dust transported over Lampedusa, suggesting that differences in the source properties should be taken into account. With the in situ size distribution and the most appropriate refractive index the estimated dust IR radiative forcing

  19. Trichocyanines: a Red-Hair-Inspired Modular Platform for Dye-Based One-Time-Pad Molecular Cryptography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Loredana; Pezzella, Alessandro; Crescenzi, Orlando; Napolitano, Alessandra; Barone, Vincenzo; d'Ischia, Marco

    2015-06-01

    Current molecular cryptography (MoCryp) systems are almost exclusively based on DNA chemistry and reports of cryptography technologies based on other less complex chemical systems are lacking. We describe herein, as proof of concept, the prototype of the first asymmetric MoCryp system, based on an 8-compound set of a novel bioinspired class of cyanine-type dyes called trichocyanines. These novel acidichromic cyanine-type dyes inspired by red hair pigments were synthesized and characterized with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Trichocyanines consist of a modular scaffold easily accessible via an expedient condensation of 3-phenyl- or 3-methyl-2H-1,4-benzothiazines with N-dimethyl- or o-methoxyhydroxy-substituted benzaldehyde or cinnamaldehyde derivatives. The eight representative members synthesized herein can be classified as belonging to two three-state systems tunable through four different control points. This versatile dye platform can generate an expandable palette of colors and appears to be specifically suited to implement an unprecedented single-use asymmetric molecular cryptography system. With this system, we intend to pioneer the translation of digital public-key cryptography into a chemical-coding one-time-pad-like system.

  20. Modelling heterogeneous ice nucleation on mineral dust and soot with parameterizations based on laboratory experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoose, C.; Hande, L. B.; Mohler, O.; Niemand, M.; Paukert, M.; Reichardt, I.; Ullrich, R.

    2016-12-01

    Between 0 and -37°C, ice formation in clouds is triggered by aerosol particles acting as heterogeneous ice nuclei. At lower temperatures, heterogeneous ice nucleation on aerosols can occur at lower supersaturations than homogeneous freezing of solutes. In laboratory experiments, the ability of different aerosol species (e.g. desert dusts, soot, biological particles) has been studied in detail and quantified via various theoretical or empirical parameterization approaches. For experiments in the AIDA cloud chamber, we have quantified the ice nucleation efficiency via a temperature- and supersaturation dependent ice nucleation active site density. Here we present a new empirical parameterization scheme for immersion and deposition ice nucleation on desert dust and soot based on these experimental data. The application of this parameterization to the simulation of cirrus clouds, deep convective clouds and orographic clouds will be shown, including the extension of the scheme to the treatment of freezing of rain drops. The results are compared to other heterogeneous ice nucleation schemes. Furthermore, an aerosol-dependent parameterization of contact ice nucleation is presented.

  1. An Open-Book Modular Watershed Modeling Framework for Rapid Prototyping of GPM- based Flood Forecasting in International River Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, N.; Hossain, F.

    2006-05-01

    Floods have always been disastrous for human life. It accounts for about 15 % of the total death related to natural disasters. There are around 263 transboundary river basins listed by UNESCO, wherein at least 30 countries have more than 95% of their territory locked in one or more such transboundary basins. For flood forecasting in the lower riparian nations of these International River Basins (IRBs), real-time rainfall data from upstream nations is naturally the most critical factor governing the forecasting effectiveness. However, many upstream nations fail to provide data to the lower riparian nations due to a lack of in-situ rainfall measurement infrastructure or a lack of a treaty for real-time sharing of rainfall data. A potential solution is therefore to use satellites that inherently measure rainfall across political boundaries. NASA's proposed Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission appears very promising in providing this vital rainfall information under the data- limited scenario that will continue to prevail in most IRBs. However, satellite rainfall is associated with uncertainty and hence, proper characterization of the satellite rainfall error propagation in hydrologic models for flood forecasting is a critical priority that should be resolved in the coming years in anticipation of GPM. In this study, we assess an open book modular watershed modeling approach for estimating the expected error in flood forecasting related to GPM rainfall data. Our motivation stems from the critical challenge in identifying the specific IRBs that would benefit from a pre-programmed satellite-based forecasting system in anticipation of GPM. As the number of flood-prone IRBs is large, conventional data-intensive implementation of existing physically-based distributed hydrologic models on case-by-case IRBs is considered time-consuming for completing such a global assessment. A more parsimonious approach is justified at the expense of a tolerable loss of detail and

  2. Modular nuclear reactor for a land-based power plant and method for the fabrication installation and operation thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, E. R.; Blumberg, B. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A self-contained modular nuclear reactor which can be prefabricated at a factory location, nuclear-certified at the factory, transported to a field location for final assembly and connection to a large-scale electric-power generating facility. The modular reactor includes a prefabricated nuclear heat supply module and a plurality of shell segments which can be assembled about the heat supply module and which provide a form for the pouring and curing of a cementatious biological shield about the heat supply module. The modular reactor includes passive shutdown heat removal systems sufficient to render the reactor safe in an emergency. A large-scale power plant arrangement is disclosed which incorporates a plurality of the modular reactors

  3. Estimate of safe human exposure levels for lunar dust based on comparative benchmark dose modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, John T; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Santana, Patricia A; Scully, Robert R

    2013-04-01

    Brief exposures of Apollo astronauts to lunar dust occasionally elicited upper respiratory irritation; however, no limits were ever set for prolonged exposure to lunar dust. The United States and other space faring nations intend to return to the moon for extensive exploration within a few decades. In the meantime, habitats for that exploration, whether mobile or fixed, must be designed to limit human exposure to lunar dust to safe levels. Herein we estimate safe exposure limits for lunar dust collected during the Apollo 14 mission. We instilled three respirable-sized (∼2 μ mass median diameter) lunar dusts (two ground and one unground) and two standard dusts of widely different toxicities (quartz and TiO₂) into the respiratory system of rats. Rats in groups of six were given 0, 1, 2.5 or 7.5 mg of the test dust in a saline-Survanta® vehicle, and biochemical and cellular biomarkers of toxicity in lung lavage fluid were assayed 1 week and one month after instillation. By comparing the dose--response curves of sensitive biomarkers, we estimated safe exposure levels for astronauts and concluded that unground lunar dust and dust ground by two different methods were not toxicologically distinguishable. The safe exposure estimates were 1.3 ± 0.4 mg/m³ (jet-milled dust), 1.0 ± 0.5 mg/m³ (ball-milled dust) and 0.9 ± 0.3 mg/m³ (unground, natural dust). We estimate that 0.5-1 mg/m³ of lunar dust is safe for periodic human exposures during long stays in habitats on the lunar surface.

  4. Modularity and Architecture of PLC-based Software for Automated Production Systems: An analysis in industrial companies

    OpenAIRE

    B. Vogel-Heuser, J. Fischer, S. Feldmann, S. Ulewicz, S. Rösch

    2018-01-01

    Adaptive and flexible production systems require modular and reusable software especially considering their long-term life cycle of up to 50 years. SWMAT4aPS, an approach to measure Software Maturity for automated Production Systems is introduced. The approach identifies weaknesses and strengths of various companies’ solutions for modularity of software in the design of automated Production Systems (aPS). At first, a self-assessed questionnaire is used to evaluate a large number of companies ...

  5. KWU's modular approach to HTR commercialization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frewer, H.; Weisbrodt, I.

    1983-01-01

    As a way of avoiding the uncertainties, delays and unacceptable commercial risks which have plagued advanced reactor projects in Germany, KWU is advocating a modular approach to commercialization of the high-temperature reactor (HTR), using small size standard reactor units. KWU has received a contract for the study of a co-generation plant based on this modular system. Features of the KWU modular HTR, process heat, gasification, costs and future development are discussed. (UK)

  6. Self-organized modularization in evolutionary algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauscher, Peter; Uthmann, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    The principle of modularization has proven to be extremely successful in the field of technical applications and particularly for Software Engineering purposes. The question to be answered within the present article is whether mechanisms can also be identified within the framework of Evolutionary Computation that cause a modularization of solutions. We will concentrate on processes, where modularization results only from the typical evolutionary operators, i.e. selection and variation by recombination and mutation (and not, e.g., from special modularization operators). This is what we call Self-Organized Modularization. Based on a combination of two formalizations by Radcliffe and Altenberg, some quantitative measures of modularity are introduced. Particularly, we distinguish Built-in Modularity as an inherent property of a genotype and Effective Modularity, which depends on the rest of the population. These measures can easily be applied to a wide range of present Evolutionary Computation models. It will be shown, both theoretically and by simulation, that under certain conditions, Effective Modularity (as defined within this paper) can be a selection factor. This causes Self-Organized Modularization to take place. The experimental observations emphasize the importance of Effective Modularity in comparison with Built-in Modularity. Although the experimental results have been obtained using a minimalist toy model, they can lead to a number of consequences for existing models as well as for future approaches. Furthermore, the results suggest a complex self-amplification of highly modular equivalence classes in the case of respected relations. Since the well-known Holland schemata are just the equivalence classes of respected relations in most Simple Genetic Algorithms, this observation emphasizes the role of schemata as Building Blocks (in comparison with arbitrary subsets of the search space).

  7. An Accelerated Development, Reduced Cost Approach to Lunar/Mars Exploration Using a Modular NTR-Based Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, S.; Clark, J.; Sefcik, R.; Corban, R.; Alexander, S.

    1995-01-01

    The results of integrated systems and mission studies are presented which quantify the benefits and rationale for developing a common, modular lunar/Mars space transportation system (STS) based on nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) technology. At present NASA's Exploration Program Office (ExPO) is considering chemical propulsion for an 'early return to the Moon' and NTR propulsion for the more demanding Mars missions to follow. The time and cost to develop these multiple systems are expected to be significant. The Nuclear Propulsion Office (NPO) has examined a variety of lunar and Mars missions and heavy lift launch vehicle (HLLV) options in an effort to determine a 'standardized' set of engine and stage components capable of satisfying a wide range of Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions. By using these components in a 'building block' fashion, a variety of single and multi-engine lunar and Mars vehicles can be configured. For NASA's 'First Lunar Outpost' (FLO) mission, an expendable NTR stage powered by two 50 klbf engines can deliver approximately 96 metric tons (t) to translunar injection (TLI) conditions for an initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) of approximately 198 t compared to 250 t for a cryogenic chemical TLI stage. The NTR stage liquid hydrogen (LH2) tank has a 10 m diameter, 14.5 m length, and 66 t LH2 capacity. The NTR utilizes a UC-ZrC-graphite 'composite' fuel with a specific impulse (Isp) capability of approximately 900 s and an engine thrust-to-weight ratio of approximately 4.3. By extending the size and LH2 capacity of the lunar NTR stage to approximately 20 m and 96 t, respectively, a single launch Mars cargo vehicle capable of delivering approximately 50 t of surface payload is possible. Three 50 klbf NTR engines and the two standardized LH2 tank sizes developed for lunar and Mars cargo vehicle applications would be used to configure the Mars piloted vehicle for a mission as early as 2010. The paper describes the features of the 'common

  8. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S.; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-01

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  9. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S.; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively. PMID:27271840

  10. Virtual Planning, Control, and Machining for a Modular-Based Automated Factory Operation in an Augmented Reality Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Yun Suen; Yap, Hwa Jen; Md Dawal, Siti Zawiah; Ramesh, S; Phoon, Sin Ye

    2016-06-07

    This study presents a modular-based implementation of augmented reality to provide an immersive experience in learning or teaching the planning phase, control system, and machining parameters of a fully automated work cell. The architecture of the system consists of three code modules that can operate independently or combined to create a complete system that is able to guide engineers from the layout planning phase to the prototyping of the final product. The layout planning module determines the best possible arrangement in a layout for the placement of various machines, in this case a conveyor belt for transportation, a robot arm for pick-and-place operations, and a computer numerical control milling machine to generate the final prototype. The robotic arm module simulates the pick-and-place operation offline from the conveyor belt to a computer numerical control (CNC) machine utilising collision detection and inverse kinematics. Finally, the CNC module performs virtual machining based on the Uniform Space Decomposition method and axis aligned bounding box collision detection. The conducted case study revealed that given the situation, a semi-circle shaped arrangement is desirable, whereas the pick-and-place system and the final generated G-code produced the highest deviation of 3.83 mm and 5.8 mm respectively.

  11. Resource optimised reconfigurable modular parallel pipelined stochastic approximation-based self-tuning regulator architecture with reduced latency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varghese Mathew Vaidyan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Present self-tuning regulator architectures based on recursive least-square estimation are computationally expensive and require large amount of resources and time in generating the first control signal due to computational bottlenecks imposed by the calculations involved in estimation stage, different stages of matrix multiplications and the number of intermediate variables at each iteration and precludes its use in applications that have fast required response times and those which run on embedded computing platforms with low-power or low-cost requirements with constraints on resource usage. A salient feature of this study is that a new modular parallel pipelined stochastic approximation-based self-tuning regulator architecture which reduces the time required to generate the first control signal, reduces resource usage and reduces the number of intermediate variables is proposed. Fast matrix multiplication, pipelining and high-speed arithmetic function implementations were used for improving the performance. Results of implementation demonstrate that the proposed architecture has an improvement in control signal generation time by 38% and reduction in resource usage by 41% in terms of multipliers and 44.4% in terms of adders compared with the best existing related work, opening up new possibilities for the application of online embedded self-tuning regulators.

  12. SMITHERS: An object-oriented modular mapping methodology for MCNP-based neutronic–thermal hydraulic multiphysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richard, Joshua; Galloway, Jack; Fensin, Michael; Trellue, Holly

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A modular mapping methodogy for neutronic-thermal hydraulic nuclear reactor multiphysics, SMITHERS, has been developed. • Written in Python, SMITHERS takes a novel object-oriented approach for facilitating data transitions between solvers. This approach enables near-instant compatibility with existing MCNP/MONTEBURNS input decks. • It also allows for coupling with thermal-hydraulic solvers of various levels of fidelity. • Two BWR and PWR test problems are presented for verifying correct functionality of the SMITHERS code routines. - Abstract: A novel object-oriented modular mapping methodology for externally coupled neutronics–thermal hydraulics multiphysics simulations was developed. The Simulator using MCNP with Integrated Thermal-Hydraulics for Exploratory Reactor Studies (SMITHERS) code performs on-the-fly mapping of material-wise power distribution tallies implemented by MCNP-based neutron transport/depletion solvers for use in estimating coolant temperature and density distributions with a separate thermal-hydraulic solver. The key development of SMITHERS is that it reconstructs the hierarchical geometry structure of the material-wise power generation tallies from the depletion solver automatically, with only a modicum of additional information required from the user. Additionally, it performs the basis mapping from the combinatorial geometry of the depletion solver to the required geometry of the thermal-hydraulic solver in a generalizable manner, such that it can transparently accommodate varying levels of thermal-hydraulic solver geometric fidelity, from the nodal geometry of multi-channel analysis solvers to the pin-cell level of discretization for sub-channel analysis solvers. The mapping methodology was specifically developed to be flexible enough such that it could successfully integrate preexisting depletion solver case files with different thermal-hydraulic solvers. This approach allows the user to tailor the selection of a

  13. Metal contamination in campus dust of Xi'an, China: A study based on multivariate statistics and spatial distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Hao [School of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Lu, Xinwei, E-mail: luxinwei@snnu.edu.cn [School of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China); Li, Loretta Y., E-mail: lli@civil.ubc.ca [Department of Civil Engineering, University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Gao, Tianning; Chang, Yuyu [School of Tourism and Environment, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi' an 710062 (China)

    2014-06-01

    The concentrations of As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in campus dust from kindergartens, elementary schools, middle schools and universities of Xi'an, China were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Correlation coefficient analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze the data and to identify possible sources of these metals in the dust. The spatial distributions of metals in urban dust of Xi'an were analyzed based on the metal concentrations in campus dusts using the geostatistics method. The results indicate that dust samples from campuses have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Pb, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr and Ba, with the mean values of 7.1, 5.6, 3.7, 2.9, 2.5 and 1.9 times the background values for Shaanxi soil, respectively. The enrichment factor results indicate that Mn, Ni, V, As and Ba in the campus dust were deficiently to minimally enriched, mainly affected by nature and partly by anthropogenic sources, while Co, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in the campus dust and especially Pb and Zn were mostly affected by human activities. As and Cu, Mn and Ni, Ba and V, and Pb and Zn had similar distribution patterns. The southwest high-tech industrial area and south commercial and residential areas have relatively high levels of most metals. Three main sources were identified based on correlation coefficient analysis, PCA, CA, as well as spatial distribution characteristics. As, Ni, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cr have mixed sources — nature, traffic, as well as fossil fuel combustion and weathering of materials. Ba and V are mainly derived from nature, but partly also from industrial emissions, as well as construction sources, while Co principally originates from construction. - Highlights: • Metal content in dust from schools was determined by XRF. • Spatial distribution of metals in urban dust was focused on campus samples. • Multivariate statistic and spatial distribution were used to identify metal

  14. Metal contamination in campus dust of Xi'an, China: A study based on multivariate statistics and spatial distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hao; Lu, Xinwei; Li, Loretta Y.; Gao, Tianning; Chang, Yuyu

    2014-01-01

    The concentrations of As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in campus dust from kindergartens, elementary schools, middle schools and universities of Xi'an, China were determined by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. Correlation coefficient analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze the data and to identify possible sources of these metals in the dust. The spatial distributions of metals in urban dust of Xi'an were analyzed based on the metal concentrations in campus dusts using the geostatistics method. The results indicate that dust samples from campuses have elevated metal concentrations, especially for Pb, Zn, Co, Cu, Cr and Ba, with the mean values of 7.1, 5.6, 3.7, 2.9, 2.5 and 1.9 times the background values for Shaanxi soil, respectively. The enrichment factor results indicate that Mn, Ni, V, As and Ba in the campus dust were deficiently to minimally enriched, mainly affected by nature and partly by anthropogenic sources, while Co, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn in the campus dust and especially Pb and Zn were mostly affected by human activities. As and Cu, Mn and Ni, Ba and V, and Pb and Zn had similar distribution patterns. The southwest high-tech industrial area and south commercial and residential areas have relatively high levels of most metals. Three main sources were identified based on correlation coefficient analysis, PCA, CA, as well as spatial distribution characteristics. As, Ni, Cu, Mn, Pb, Zn and Cr have mixed sources — nature, traffic, as well as fossil fuel combustion and weathering of materials. Ba and V are mainly derived from nature, but partly also from industrial emissions, as well as construction sources, while Co principally originates from construction. - Highlights: • Metal content in dust from schools was determined by XRF. • Spatial distribution of metals in urban dust was focused on campus samples. • Multivariate statistic and spatial distribution were used to identify metal sources.

  15. A Novel Modulation Function-Based Control of Modular Multilevel Converters for High Voltage Direct Current Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mehrasa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel modulation function-based method including analyses of the modulation index and phase is proposed for operation of modular multilevel converters (MMCs in high voltage direct current (HVDC transmission systems. The proposed modulation function-based control technique is developed based on thorough and precise analyses of all MMC voltages and currents in the a-b-c reference frame in which the alternating current (AC-side voltage is the first target to be obtained. Using the AC-side voltage, the combination of the MMC upper and lower arm voltages is achieved as the main structure of the proposed modulation function. The main contribution of this paper is to obtain two very simple new modulation functions to control MMC performance in different operating conditions. The features of the modulation function-based control technique are as follows: (1 this control technique is very simple and can be easily achieved in a-b-c reference frame without the need of using Park transformation; and (2 in addition, the inherent properties of the MMC model are considered in the proposed control technique. Considering these properties leads to constructing a control technique that is robust against MMC parameters changes and also is a very good tracking method for the components of MMC input currents. These features lead to improving the operation of MMC significantly, which can act as a rectifier in the HVDC structure. The simulation studies are conducted through MATLAB/SIMULINK software, and the results obtained verify the effectiveness of the proposed modulation function-based control technique.

  16. Towards a Standard for Modular Petri Nets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kindler, Ekkart; Petrucci, Laure

    2009-01-01

    concepts could or should be subject to import and export in high-level Petri nets. In this paper, we formalise a minimal version of modular high-level Petri nets, which is based on the concepts of modular PNML. This shows that modular PNML can be formalised once a specific version of Petri net is fixed....... Moreover, we present and discuss some more advanced features of modular Petri nets that could be included in the standard. This way, we provide a formal foundation and a basis for a discussion of features to be included in the upcoming standard of a module concept for Petri nets in general and for high-level...

  17. Understanding Socio Technical Modularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Kudsk, Anders; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Modularity has gained an increasing popularity as a central concept for exploring product structure, process structure, organization structure and supply chain structure. With the offset in system theory the predominant understanding of modularity however faces difficulties in explaining the social...... dimension of modularity like irrational behaviors, cultural differences, learning processes, social organization and institutional influences on modularity. The paper addresses this gab offering a reinterpretation of the modularity concept from a socio-technical perspective in general and Actor Network...... Theory in particular. By formulating modularity from an ANT perspective covering social, material and process aspects, the modularity of a socio-technical system can be understood as an entanglement of product, process, organizational and institutional modularity. The theoretical framework is illustrated...

  18. Modularized and water-cooled photo-catalyst cleaning devices for aquaponics based on ultraviolet light-emitting diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Henglong; Lung, Louis; Wei, Yu-Chien; Huang, Yi-Bo; Chen, Zi-Yu; Chou, Yu-Yang; Lin, Anne-Chin

    2017-08-01

    The feasibility of applying ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LED's) as triggering sources of photo-catalyst based on titanium dioxide (TiO2) nano-coating specifically for water-cleaning process in an aquaponics system was designed and proposed. The aquaponics system is a modern farming system to integrate aquaculture and hydroponics into a single system to establish an environmental-friendly and lower-cost method for farming fish and vegetable all together in urban area. Water treatment in an aquaponics system is crucial to avoid mutual contamination. we proposed a modularized watercleaning device composed of all commercially available components and parts to eliminate organic contaminants by using UV-LED's for TiO2 photo-catalyst reaction. This water-cleaning module consisted of two coaxial hollowed cylindrical pipes can be submerged completely in water for water treatment and cooling UV-LED's. The temperature of the UV-LED after proper thermal management can be reduced about 16% to maintain the optimal operation condition. Our preliminary experimental result by using Methylene Blue solution to simulate organic contaminants indicated that TiO2 photo-catalyst triggered by UV-LED's can effectively decompose organic compound and decolor Methylene Blue solution.

  19. Modularity in New Market Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron; Hang, Chang Chieh

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we appraise the ways in which use of closed-system proprietary product architectures versus open-system modular product architectures is likely to influence the dynamics and trajectory of new product market formation. We compare the evolutions of new markets in China for gas......-powered two-wheeled vehicles (G2WVs) based (initially) on closed-system proprietary architectures and for electric-powered two-wheeled vehicles (E2WVs) based on open-system modular architectures. We draw on this comparison to suggest ways in which the use of the two different kinds of architectures...... as the basis for new kinds of products may result in very different patterns and speeds of new market formation. We then suggest some key implications of the different dynamics of market formation associated with open-system modular architectures for both the competence-based strategic management (CBSM...

  20. Modular system design and evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Mark Sh

    2015-01-01

    This book examines seven key combinatorial engineering frameworks (composite schemes consisting of algorithms and/or interactive procedures) for hierarchical modular (composite) systems. These frameworks are based on combinatorial optimization problems (e.g., knapsack problem, multiple choice problem, assignment problem, morphological clique problem), with the author’s version of morphological design approach – Hierarchical Morphological Multicritieria Design (HMMD) – providing a conceptual lens with which to elucidate the examples discussed. This approach is based on ordinal estimates of design alternatives for systems parts/components, however, the book also puts forward an original version of HMMD that is based on new interval multiset estimates for the design alternatives with special attention paid to the aggregation of modular solutions (system versions). The second part of ‘Modular System Design and Evaluation’ provides ten information technology case studies that enriches understanding of th...

  1. A Dynamic Enhancement With Background Reduction Algorithm: Overview and Application to Satellite-Based Dust Storm Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven D.; Bankert, Richard L.; Solbrig, Jeremy E.; Forsythe, John M.; Noh, Yoo-Jeong; Grasso, Lewis D.

    2017-12-01

    This paper describes a Dynamic Enhancement Background Reduction Algorithm (DEBRA) applicable to multispectral satellite imaging radiometers. DEBRA uses ancillary information about the clear-sky background to reduce false detections of atmospheric parameters in complex scenes. Applied here to the detection of lofted dust, DEBRA enlists a surface emissivity database coupled with a climatological database of surface temperature to approximate the clear-sky equivalent signal for selected infrared-based multispectral dust detection tests. This background allows for suppression of false alarms caused by land surface features while retaining some ability to detect dust above those problematic surfaces. The algorithm is applicable to both day and nighttime observations and enables weighted combinations of dust detection tests. The results are provided quantitatively, as a detection confidence factor [0, 1], but are also readily visualized as enhanced imagery. Utilizing the DEBRA confidence factor as a scaling factor in false color red/green/blue imagery enables depiction of the targeted parameter in the context of the local meteorology and topography. In this way, the method holds utility to both automated clients and human analysts alike. Examples of DEBRA performance from notable dust storms and comparisons against other detection methods and independent observations are presented.

  2. The evaluation and quantification of respirable coal and silica dust concentrations: a task-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grové, T; Van Dyk, T; Franken, A; Du Plessis, J

    2014-01-01

    Silicosis and coal worker's pneumoconiosis are serious occupational respiratory diseases associated with the coal mining industry and the inhalation of respirable dusts containing crystalline silica. The purpose of this study (funded by the Mine Health and Safety Council of South Africa) was to evaluate the individual contributions of underground coal mining tasks to the respirable dust and respirable silica dust concentrations in an underground section by sampling the respirable dust concentrations at the intake and return of each task. The identified tasks were continuous miner (CM) cutting, construction, transfer of coal, tipping, and roof bolting. The respirable dust-generating hierarchy of the tasks from highest to lowest was: transfer of coal > CM right cutting > CM left cutting > CM face cutting > construction > roof bolting > tipping; and for respirable silica dust: CM left cutting > construction > transfer of coal > CM right cutting. Personal exposure levels were determined by sampling the exposures of workers performing tasks in the section. Respirable dust concentrations and low concentrations of respirable silica dust were found at the intake air side of the section, indicating that air entering the section is already contaminated. The hierarchy for personal respirable dust exposures was as follows, from highest to lowest: CM operator > cable handler > miner > roof bolt operator > shuttle car operator, and for respirable silica dust: shuttle car operator > CM operator > cable handler > roof bolt operator > miner. Dust control methods to lower exposures should include revision of the position of workers with regard to the task performed, positioning of the tasks with regard to the CM cutting, and proper use of the line curtains to direct ventilation appropriately. The correct use of respiratory protection should also be encouraged.

  3. Portable modular detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, James S [Rodeo, CA; Singh, Anup [Danville, CA; Throckmorton, Daniel J [Tracy, CA; Stamps, James F [Livermore, CA

    2009-10-13

    Disclosed herein are portable and modular detection devices and systems for detecting electromagnetic radiation, such as fluorescence, from an analyte which comprises at least one optical element removably attached to at least one alignment rail. Also disclosed are modular detection devices and systems having an integrated lock-in amplifier and spatial filter and assay methods using the portable and modular detection devices.

  4. Use of Monte Carlo analysis in a risk-based prioritization of toxic constituents in house dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, Gary L; Belleggia, Giuliana

    2017-12-01

    Many chemicals have been detected in house dust with exposures to the general public and particularly young children of potential health concern. House dust is also an indicator of chemicals present in consumer products and the built environment that may constitute a health risk. The current analysis compiles a database of recent house dust concentrations from the United States and Canada, focusing upon semi-volatile constituents. Seven constituents from the phthalate and flame retardant categories were selected for risk-based screening and prioritization: diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBzP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), a pentabrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-99), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP). Monte Carlo analysis was used to represent the variability in house dust concentration as well as the uncertainty in the toxicology database in the estimation of children's exposure and risk. Constituents were prioritized based upon the percentage of the distribution of risk results for cancer and non-cancer endpoints that exceeded a hazard quotient (HQ) of 1. The greatest percent HQ exceedances were for DEHP (cancer and non-cancer), BDE-99 (non-cancer) and TDCIPP (cancer). Current uses and the potential for reducing levels of these constituents in house dust are discussed. Exposure and risk for other phthalates and flame retardants in house dust may increase if they are used to substitute for these prioritized constituents. Therefore, alternative assessment and green chemistry solutions are important elements in decreasing children's exposure to chemicals of concern in the indoor environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Model-based Vestibular Afferent Stimulation: Modular Workflow for Analyzing Stimulation Scenarios in Patient Specific and Statistical Vestibular Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Handler

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Our sense of balance and spatial orientation strongly depends on the correct functionality of our vestibular system. Vestibular dysfunction can lead to blurred vision and impaired balance and spatial orientation, causing a significant decrease in quality of life. Recent studies have shown that vestibular implants offer a possible treatment for patients with vestibular dysfunction. The close proximity of the vestibular nerve bundles, the facial nerve and the cochlear nerve poses a major challenge to targeted stimulation of the vestibular system. Modeling the electrical stimulation of the vestibular system allows for an efficient analysis of stimulation scenarios previous to time and cost intensive in vivo experiments. Current models are based on animal data or CAD models of human anatomy. In this work, a (semi-automatic modular workflow is presented for the stepwise transformation of segmented vestibular anatomy data of human vestibular specimens to an electrical model and subsequently analyzed. The steps of this workflow include (i the transformation of labeled datasets to a tetrahedra mesh, (ii nerve fiber anisotropy and fiber computation as a basis for neuron models, (iii inclusion of arbitrary electrode designs, (iv simulation of quasistationary potential distributions, and (v analysis of stimulus waveforms on the stimulation outcome. Results obtained by the workflow based on human datasets and the average shape of a statistical model revealed a high qualitative agreement and a quantitatively comparable range compared to data from literature, respectively. Based on our workflow, a detailed analysis of intra- and extra-labyrinthine electrode configurations with various stimulation waveforms and electrode designs can be performed on patient specific anatomy, making this framework a valuable tool for current optimization questions concerning vestibular implants in humans.

  6. A clinical pilot study of a modular video-CT augmentation system for image-guided skull base surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen P.; Mirota, Daniel J.; Uneri, Ali; Otake, Yoshito; Hager, Gregory; Reh, Douglas D.; Ishii, Masaru; Gallia, Gary L.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2012-02-01

    Augmentation of endoscopic video with preoperative or intraoperative image data [e.g., planning data and/or anatomical segmentations defined in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR)], can improve navigation, spatial orientation, confidence, and tissue resection in skull base surgery, especially with respect to critical neurovascular structures that may be difficult to visualize in the video scene. This paper presents the engineering and evaluation of a video augmentation system for endoscopic skull base surgery translated to use in a clinical study. Extension of previous research yielded a practical system with a modular design that can be applied to other endoscopic surgeries, including orthopedic, abdominal, and thoracic procedures. A clinical pilot study is underway to assess feasibility and benefit to surgical performance by overlaying CT or MR planning data in realtime, high-definition endoscopic video. Preoperative planning included segmentation of the carotid arteries, optic nerves, and surgical target volume (e.g., tumor). An automated camera calibration process was developed that demonstrates mean re-projection accuracy (0.7+/-0.3) pixels and mean target registration error of (2.3+/-1.5) mm. An IRB-approved clinical study involving fifteen patients undergoing skull base tumor surgery is underway in which each surgery includes the experimental video-CT system deployed in parallel to the standard-of-care (unaugmented) video display. Questionnaires distributed to one neurosurgeon and two otolaryngologists are used to assess primary outcome measures regarding the benefit to surgical confidence in localizing critical structures and targets by means of video overlay during surgical approach, resection, and reconstruction.

  7. Development and evaluation of a physics-based windblown dust emission scheme implemented in the CMAQ modeling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new windblown dust emission treatment was incorporated in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. This new model treatment has been built upon previously developed physics-based parameterization schemes from the literature. A distinct and novel feature of t...

  8. MODELING DUST EMISSION OF HL TAU DISK BASED ON PLANET–DISK INTERACTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sheng; Ji, Jianghui; Li, Shengtai; Li, Hui; Isella, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We use extensive global two-dimensional hydrodynamic disk gas+dust simulations with embedded planets, coupled with three-dimensional radiative transfer calculations, to model the dust ring and gap structures in the HL Tau protoplanetary disk observed with the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA). We include the self-gravity of disk gas and dust components and make reasonable choices of disk parameters, assuming an already settled dust distribution and no planet migration. We can obtain quite adequate fits to the observed dust emission using three planets with masses of 0.35, 0.17, and 0.26 M Jup at 13.1, 33.0, and 68.6 AU, respectively. Implications for the planet formation as well as the limitations of this scenario are discussed

  9. Growth of lowland broccoli coconut coir dust and peat based growing media using fertigation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Asiah; Abdul Rahman, Shyful Azizi; Nordin, Latiffah; Abdullah, Hazlina; Ruslan, Abdul Razak [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research MINT, Bangi (Malaysia). Agrotechnology and Bioscineces Div.; Taib, Mohd Idris [Malaysian Inst. for Nuclear Technology Research MINT, Bangi (Malaysia). Intelligent Group

    2004-07-01

    A study was carried out inside the greenhouse to determine the response of lowland broccoli (Brassica oleracea) plants grown in five mixtures of coconut coir dust and peat as the growing media. The growing mixes were prepared in the following ratios (% by vol): 100% coconut coir dust, 75% coconut coir dust + 25% peat, 50% coconut coir dust + 50% peat, 25% coconut coir dust + 75% peat and 100% peat. The plants were supplied with 200 mg 1-1 nitrogen using a computerized fertigation system developed at MINT Plants grown on 100% peat exhibited reduced plant growth and yield compared to plants grown on mixes containing coconut coir dust. Plants growth and yield were increased on growing media contained > 50% coconut coir dust; however, the highest total plant dry weight, plant height and yield were obtained from plants grown on 100% coconut coir dust. Total nitrogen concentration in the leaves and stems was not significantly different in all mixture of the growing media regardless of whether coconut coir dust or peat was used. In general, nitrate -nitrogen concentrations were lowest in the floret than in the leaves and stem tissues of plants grown on all growing media used in the study. However, nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the leaves, stems and florets were lowest in the plants grown on 100% peat compared to the plants grown on growing media containing coconut coir dust. The concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in the florets, which ranged from 290 to 450 mg N kg-l/dry weight, are considered to be under permissible levels by European standards. (Author)

  10. Growth of lowland broccoli coconut coir dust and peat based growing media using fertigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asiah Ahmad; Shyful Azizi Abdul Rahman; Latiffah Nordin; Hazlina Abdullah; Abdul Razak Ruslan; Mohd Idris Taib

    2004-01-01

    A study was carried out inside the greenhouse to determine the response of lowland broccoli (Brassica oleracea) plants grown in five mixtures of coconut coir dust and peat as the growing media. The growing mixes were prepared in the following ratios (% by vol): 100% coconut coir dust, 75% coconut coir dust + 25% peat, 50% coconut coir dust + 50% peat, 25% coconut coir dust + 75% peat and 100% peat. The plants were supplied with 200 mg 1-1 nitrogen using a computerized fertigation system developed at MINT Plants grown on 100% peat exhibited reduced plant growth and yield compared to plants grown on mixes containing coconut coir dust. Plants growth and yield were increased on growing media contained > 50% coconut coir dust; however, the highest total plant dry weight, plant height and yield were obtained from plants grown on 100% coconut coir dust. Total nitrogen concentration in the leaves and stems was not significantly different in all mixture of the growing media regardless of whether coconut coir dust or peat was used. In general, nitrate -nitrogen concentrations were lowest in the floret than in the leaves and stem tissues of plants grown on all growing media used in the study. However, nitrate-nitrogen concentrations in the leaves, stems and florets were lowest in the plants grown on 100% peat compared to the plants grown on growing media containing coconut coir dust. The concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen in the florets, which ranged from 290 to 450 mg N kg-l/dry weight, are considered to be under permissible levels by European standards. (Author)

  11. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  12. Reflective electroabsorption modular for compact base station radio-over-fiber systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yang; Chang, Wei-Xi; Yu, Paul K. L.

    2003-07-01

    A Radio-over-Fiber system with simplified Base Station (BS) is proposed in which a single chip DBR Reflective Electro-absorption Modulator (REAM) serves both as an optical transceiver and as a mixer at the BS. It enables full duplex optical transmission for base band and RF band services simultaneously due to good isolation between uplink and downlink at the same chip. Grating structure is incorporated into the EA modulator for the sake of system design. It also improves yield and efficiency of high-speed devices.

  13. Experience with a modular application system with central data base for scientific-technical calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruehle, R.; Wohland, H.; Reyer, G.

    1976-01-01

    The basic principles of the application system RSYST are presented. This programme system is developed and used in the Institut fuer Kernenergetik (IKE). Data base, structure, and connection of data, and the application language are described. The process of problem formulation typical for RSYST is discussed. Just now the system is being extended to dialogue and remote data processing. (orig.) [de

  14. Reliability of space-grade vs. COTS SRAM-based FPGA in N-modular redundancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glein, Robert; Rittner, Florian; Becher, Andreas; Ziener, Daniel; Frickel, Jürgen; Teich, Jürgen; Heuberger, Albert

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we evaluate the suitability of different SRAM-based FPGAs for harsh radiation environments (e.g., space). In particular, we compare the space-grade and radiation-hardened by design Virtex-5QV (XQR5VFX130) with the commercial off-the-shelf Kintex-7 (KC7K325T) from Xilinx. The

  15. Curriculum Development through YTS Modular Credit Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Further Education Unit, London (England).

    This document reports the evaluation of the collaborately developed Modular Training Framework (MainFrame), a British curriculum development project, built around a commitment to a competency-based, modular credit accumulation program. The collaborators were three local education authorities (LEAs), those of Bedfordshire, Haringey, and Sheffield,…

  16. ASKI: A modular toolbox for scattering-integral-based seismic full waveform inversion and sensitivity analysis utilizing external forward codes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Schumacher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to increasing computational resources, the development of new numerically demanding methods and software for imaging Earth’s interior remains of high interest in Earth sciences. Here, we give a description from a user’s and programmer’s perspective of the highly modular, flexible and extendable software package ASKI–Analysis of Sensitivity and Kernel Inversion–recently developed for iterative scattering-integral-based seismic full waveform inversion. In ASKI, the three fundamental steps of solving the seismic forward problem, computing waveform sensitivity kernels and deriving a model update are solved by independent software programs that interact via file output/input only. Furthermore, the spatial discretizations of the model space used for solving the seismic forward problem and for deriving model updates, respectively, are kept completely independent. For this reason, ASKI does not contain a specific forward solver but instead provides a general interface to established community wave propagation codes. Moreover, the third fundamental step of deriving a model update can be repeated at relatively low costs applying different kinds of model regularization or re-selecting/weighting the inverted dataset without need to re-solve the forward problem or re-compute the kernels. Additionally, ASKI offers the user sensitivity and resolution analysis tools based on the full sensitivity matrix and allows to compose customized workflows in a consistent computational environment. ASKI is written in modern Fortran and Python, it is well documented and freely available under terms of the GNU General Public License (http://www.rub.de/aski.

  17. Modularity and Economic Organization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron; Mahoney, Joseph T.

    This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance to the organ......This paper addresses modularity as a basis for organizing economic activity. We first define the key concepts of architecture and of modularity as a special form of architecture. We then suggest how modular systems of all types may exhibit several properties of fundamental importance...... to the organization of economic activities, including greater adaptability and evolvability than systems that lack modular properties. We draw extensively on our original 1996 paper on modularity and subsequent research to suggest broad theoretical implications of modularity for (i) firms' product strategies...... markets. We also discuss an evolutionary perspective on modularity as an emergent phenomenon in firms and industries. We explain how modularity as a relatively new field of strategy and economic research may provide a new theoretical perspective on economic organizing that has significant potential...

  18. A new model for Mars atmospheric dust based upon analysis of ultraviolet through infrared observations from Mariner 9, Viking, and Phobos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clancy, R. T.; Lee, S. W.; Gladstone, G. R.; McMillan, W. W.; Rousch, T.

    1995-01-01

    We propose key modifications to the Toon et al. (1977) model of the particle size distribution and composition of Mars atmospheric dust, based on a variety of spacecraft and wavelength observations of the dust. A much broader (r(sub eff)variance-0.8 micron), smaller particle size (r(sub mode)-0.02 microns) distribution coupled with a "palagonite-like" composition is argued to fit the complete ultraviolet-to-30-micron absorption properties of the dust better than the montmorillonite-basalt r(sub eff)variance= 0.4 micron, r(sub mode)= 0.40 micron dust model of Toon et al. Mariner 9 (infrared interferometer spectrometer) IRIS spectra of high atmospheric dust opacities during the 1971 - 1972 Mars global dust storm are analyzed in terms of the Toon et al. dust model, and a Hawaiian palagonite sample with two different size distribution models incorporating smaller dust particle sizes. Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) emission-phase-function (EPF) observations at 9 microns are analyzed to retrieve 9-micron dust opacities coincident with solar band dust opacities obtained from the same EPF sequences. These EPF dust opacities provide an independent measurement of the visible/9-microns extinction opacity ratio (> or equal to 2) for Mars atmospheric dust, which is consistent with a previous measurement by Martin (1986). Model values for the visible/9-microns opacity ratio and the ultraviolet and visible single-scattering albedos are calculated for the palagonite model with the smaller particle size distributions and compared to the same properties for the Toon et al. model of dust. The montmorillonite model of the dust is found to fit the detailed shape of the dust 9-micron absorption well. However, it predicts structured, deep absorptions at 20 microns which are not observed and requires a separate ultraviolet-visible absorbing component to match the observed behavior of the dust in this wavelength region. The modeled palagonite does not match the 8- to 9-micron

  19. Modular biometric system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Charles; Viazanko, Michael; O'Looney, Jimmy; Szu, Harold

    2009-04-01

    Modularity Biometric System (MBS) is an approach to support AiTR of the cooperated and/or non-cooperated standoff biometric in an area persistent surveillance. Advanced active and passive EOIR and RF sensor suite is not considered here. Neither will we consider the ROC, PD vs. FAR, versus the standoff POT in this paper. Our goal is to catch the "most wanted (MW)" two dozens, separately furthermore ad hoc woman MW class from man MW class, given their archrivals sparse front face data basis, by means of various new instantaneous input called probing faces. We present an advanced algorithm: mini-Max classifier, a sparse sample realization of Cramer-Rao Fisher bound of the Maximum Likelihood classifier that minimize the dispersions among the same woman classes and maximize the separation among different man-woman classes, based on the simple feature space of MIT Petland eigen-faces. The original aspect consists of a modular structured design approach at the system-level with multi-level architectures, multiple computing paradigms, and adaptable/evolvable techniques to allow for achieving a scalable structure in terms of biometric algorithms, identification quality, sensors, database complexity, database integration, and component heterogenity. MBS consist of a number of biometric technologies including fingerprints, vein maps, voice and face recognitions with innovative DSP algorithm, and their hardware implementations such as using Field Programmable Gate arrays (FPGAs). Biometric technologies and the composed modularity biometric system are significant for governmental agencies, enterprises, banks and all other organizations to protect people or control access to critical resources.

  20. Study of a PEFC power generator modular architecture based on a multi-stack association

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garnier, James; Pera, Marie-Cecile; Hissel, Daniel; Kauffmann, Jean-Marie [Laboratoire d' Electronique, Electrotechnique et Systemes, Unite Mixte de Recherche UTBM et UFC, L2ES-UTBM Batiment F-Technopole, Rue Thierry Mieg, 90010 Belfort (France); De Bernardinis, Alexandre; Candusso, Denis; Coquery, Gerard [Institut National de Recherche Sur Les Transports et Leur Securite (INRETS LTN), 2 Avenue Du General Malleret-Joinville, 94114 Arcueil (France)

    2006-05-19

    This paper presents a study of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) power generator based on a multi-stack association dedicated to transportation applications. First, a dynamic model of the fuel cell for high frequencies, which can be used in association with the power converter is presented. In a second hand, an original power converter architecture has been studied which authorizes the electrical association of two fuel cell stacks. Such a configuration is well adapted for the testing of fuel cell in normal or degraded mode which corresponds to real operating conditions encountered on-board a vehicle. Finally, simulation results of the complete twin-stacks power system are presented and discussed. (author)

  1. A modular Space Station/Base electrical power system - Requirements and design study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliason, J. T.; Adkisson, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements and procedures necessary for definition and specification of an electrical power system (EPS) for the future space station are discussed herein. The considered space station EPS consists of a replaceable main power module with self-contained auxiliary power, guidance, control, and communication subsystems. This independent power source may 'plug into' a space station module which has its own electrical distribution, control, power conditioning, and auxiliary power subsystems. Integration problems are discussed, and a transmission system selected with local floor-by-floor power conditioning and distribution in the station module. This technique eliminates the need for an immediate long range decision on the ultimate space base power sources by providing capability for almost any currently considered option.

  2. A model of gene expression based on random dynamical systems reveals modularity properties of gene regulatory networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoneli, Fernando; Ferreira, Renata C; Briones, Marcelo R S

    2016-06-01

    Here we propose a new approach to modeling gene expression based on the theory of random dynamical systems (RDS) that provides a general coupling prescription between the nodes of any given regulatory network given the dynamics of each node is modeled by a RDS. The main virtues of this approach are the following: (i) it provides a natural way to obtain arbitrarily large networks by coupling together simple basic pieces, thus revealing the modularity of regulatory networks; (ii) the assumptions about the stochastic processes used in the modeling are fairly general, in the sense that the only requirement is stationarity; (iii) there is a well developed mathematical theory, which is a blend of smooth dynamical systems theory, ergodic theory and stochastic analysis that allows one to extract relevant dynamical and statistical information without solving the system; (iv) one may obtain the classical rate equations form the corresponding stochastic version by averaging the dynamic random variables (small noise limit). It is important to emphasize that unlike the deterministic case, where coupling two equations is a trivial matter, coupling two RDS is non-trivial, specially in our case, where the coupling is performed between a state variable of one gene and the switching stochastic process of another gene and, hence, it is not a priori true that the resulting coupled system will satisfy the definition of a random dynamical system. We shall provide the necessary arguments that ensure that our coupling prescription does indeed furnish a coupled regulatory network of random dynamical systems. Finally, the fact that classical rate equations are the small noise limit of our stochastic model ensures that any validation or prediction made on the basis of the classical theory is also a validation or prediction of our model. We illustrate our framework with some simple examples of single-gene system and network motifs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. M3BA: A Mobile, Modular, Multimodal Biosignal Acquisition Architecture for Miniaturized EEG-NIRS-Based Hybrid BCI and Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Luhmann, Alexander; Wabnitz, Heidrun; Sander, Tilmann; Muller, Klaus-Robert

    2017-06-01

    For the further development of the fields of telemedicine, neurotechnology, and brain-computer interfaces, advances in hybrid multimodal signal acquisition and processing technology are invaluable. Currently, there are no commonly available hybrid devices combining bioelectrical and biooptical neurophysiological measurements [here electroencephalography (EEG) and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS)]. Our objective was to design such an instrument in a miniaturized, customizable, and wireless form. We present here the design and evaluation of a mobile, modular, multimodal biosignal acquisition architecture (M3BA) based on a high-performance analog front-end optimized for biopotential acquisition, a microcontroller, and our openNIRS technology. The designed M3BA modules are very small configurable high-precision and low-noise modules (EEG input referred noise @ 500 SPS 1.39 μV pp , NIRS noise equivalent power NEP 750 nm = 5.92 pW pp , and NEP 850 nm = 4.77 pW pp ) with full input linearity, Bluetooth, 3-D accelerometer, and low power consumption. They support flexible user-specified biopotential reference setups and wireless body area/sensor network scenarios. Performance characterization and in-vivo experiments confirmed functionality and quality of the designed architecture. Telemedicine and assistive neurotechnology scenarios will increasingly include wearable multimodal sensors in the future. The M3BA architecture can significantly facilitate future designs for research in these and other fields that rely on customized mobile hybrid biosignal modal biosignal acquisition architecture (M3BA), multimodal, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), wireless body area network (WBAN), wireless body sensor network (WBSN).

  4. The Modularized Software Package ASKI - Full Waveform Inversion Based on Waveform Sensitivity Kernels Utilizing External Seismic Wave Propagation Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, F.; Friederich, W.

    2015-12-01

    We present the modularized software package ASKI which is a flexible and extendable toolbox for seismic full waveform inversion (FWI) as well as sensitivity or resolution analysis operating on the sensitivity matrix. It utilizes established wave propagation codes for solving the forward problem and offers an alternative to the monolithic, unflexible and hard-to-modify codes that have typically been written for solving inverse problems. It is available under the GPL at www.rub.de/aski. The Gauss-Newton FWI method for 3D-heterogeneous elastic earth models is based on waveform sensitivity kernels and can be applied to inverse problems at various spatial scales in both Cartesian and spherical geometries. The kernels are derived in the frequency domain from Born scattering theory as the Fréchet derivatives of linearized full waveform data functionals, quantifying the influence of elastic earth model parameters on the particular waveform data values. As an important innovation, we keep two independent spatial descriptions of the earth model - one for solving the forward problem and one representing the inverted model updates. Thereby we account for the independent needs of spatial model resolution of forward and inverse problem, respectively. Due to pre-integration of the kernels over the (in general much coarser) inversion grid, storage requirements for the sensitivity kernels are dramatically reduced.ASKI can be flexibly extended to other forward codes by providing it with specific interface routines that contain knowledge about forward code-specific file formats and auxiliary information provided by the new forward code. In order to sustain flexibility, the ASKI tools must communicate via file output/input, thus large storage capacities need to be accessible in a convenient way. Storing the complete sensitivity matrix to file, however, permits the scientist full manual control over each step in a customized procedure of sensitivity/resolution analysis and full

  5. A Modular GIS-Based Software Architecture for Model Parameter Estimation using the Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, D. P.; Osorio-Murillo, C.; Over, M. W.; Rubin, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The Method of Anchored Distributions (MAD) is an inverse modeling technique that is well-suited for estimation of spatially varying parameter fields using limited observations and Bayesian methods. This presentation will discuss the design, development, and testing of a free software implementation of the MAD technique using the open source DotSpatial geographic information system (GIS) framework, R statistical software, and the MODFLOW groundwater model. This new tool, dubbed MAD-GIS, is built using a modular architecture that supports the integration of external analytical tools and models for key computational processes including a forward model (e.g. MODFLOW, HYDRUS) and geostatistical analysis (e.g. R, GSLIB). The GIS-based graphical user interface provides a relatively simple way for new users of the technique to prepare the spatial domain, to identify observation and anchor points, to perform the MAD analysis using a selected forward model, and to view results. MAD-GIS uses the Managed Extensibility Framework (MEF) provided by the Microsoft .NET programming platform to support integration of different modeling and analytical tools at run-time through a custom "driver." Each driver establishes a connection with external programs through a programming interface, which provides the elements for communicating with core MAD software. This presentation gives an example of adapting the MODFLOW to serve as the external forward model in MAD-GIS for inferring the distribution functions of key MODFLOW parameters. Additional drivers for other models are being developed and it is expected that the open source nature of the project will engender the development of additional model drivers by 3rd party scientists.

  6. Window of opportunity : potential of increase in profitability using modular compact plants and micro-reactor based flow processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vural - Gursel, I.; Hessel, V.; Wang, Q.; Noel, T.; Lang, J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, much focus has been given to a new type of chemical production plant, with the aim of a much faster time-to-market ("50% idea") and better cash-flow revenue. The main enabling technology is to have the plants pre-manufactured and assembled by a modular construction and to use innovative,

  7. Global-scale attribution of anthropogenic and natural dust sources and their emission rates based on MODIS Deep Blue aerosol products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginoux, Paul; Prospero, Joseph M.; Gill, Thomas E.; Hsu, N. Christina; Zhao, Ming

    2012-09-01

    Our understanding of the global dust cycle is limited by a dearth of information about dust sources, especially small-scale features which could account for a large fraction of global emissions. Here we present a global-scale high-resolution (0.1°) mapping of sources based on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue estimates of dust optical depth in conjunction with other data sets including land use. We ascribe dust sources to natural and anthropogenic (primarily agricultural) origins, calculate their respective contributions to emissions, and extensively compare these products against literature. Natural dust sources globally account for 75% of emissions; anthropogenic sources account for 25%. North Africa accounts for 55% of global dust emissions with only 8% being anthropogenic, mostly from the Sahel. Elsewhere, anthropogenic dust emissions can be much higher (75% in Australia). Hydrologic dust sources (e.g., ephemeral water bodies) account for 31% worldwide; 15% of them are natural while 85% are anthropogenic. Globally, 20% of emissions are from vegetated surfaces, primarily desert shrublands and agricultural lands. Since anthropogenic dust sources are associated with land use and ephemeral water bodies, both in turn linked to the hydrological cycle, their emissions are affected by climate variability. Such changes in dust emissions can impact climate, air quality, and human health. Improved dust emission estimates will require a better mapping of threshold wind velocities, vegetation dynamics, and surface conditions (soil moisture and land use) especially in the sensitive regions identified here, as well as improved ability to address small-scale convective processes producing dust via cold pool (haboob) events frequent in monsoon regimes.

  8. Modularization of biochemical networks based on classification of Petri net t-invariants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafahrend-Belau, Eva; Schreiber, Falk; Heiner, Monika; Sackmann, Andrea; Junker, Björn H; Grunwald, Stefanie; Speer, Astrid; Winder, Katja; Koch, Ina

    2008-02-08

    Structural analysis of biochemical networks is a growing field in bioinformatics and systems biology. The availability of an increasing amount of biological data from molecular biological networks promises a deeper understanding but confronts researchers with the problem of combinatorial explosion. The amount of qualitative network data is growing much faster than the amount of quantitative data, such as enzyme kinetics. In many cases it is even impossible to measure quantitative data because of limitations of experimental methods, or for ethical reasons. Thus, a huge amount of qualitative data, such as interaction data, is available, but it was not sufficiently used for modeling purposes, until now. New approaches have been developed, but the complexity of data often limits the application of many of the methods. Biochemical Petri nets make it possible to explore static and dynamic qualitative system properties. One Petri net approach is model validation based on the computation of the system's invariant properties, focusing on t-invariants. T-invariants correspond to subnetworks, which describe the basic system behavior.With increasing system complexity, the basic behavior can only be expressed by a huge number of t-invariants. According to our validation criteria for biochemical Petri nets, the necessary verification of the biological meaning, by interpreting each subnetwork (t-invariant) manually, is not possible anymore. Thus, an automated, biologically meaningful classification would be helpful in analyzing t-invariants, and supporting the understanding of the basic behavior of the considered biological system. Here, we introduce a new approach to automatically classify t-invariants to cope with network complexity. We apply clustering techniques such as UPGMA, Complete Linkage, Single Linkage, and Neighbor Joining in combination with different distance measures to get biologically meaningful clusters (t-clusters), which can be interpreted as modules. To find

  9. Modularization of biochemical networks based on classification of Petri net t-invariants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grunwald Stefanie

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural analysis of biochemical networks is a growing field in bioinformatics and systems biology. The availability of an increasing amount of biological data from molecular biological networks promises a deeper understanding but confronts researchers with the problem of combinatorial explosion. The amount of qualitative network data is growing much faster than the amount of quantitative data, such as enzyme kinetics. In many cases it is even impossible to measure quantitative data because of limitations of experimental methods, or for ethical reasons. Thus, a huge amount of qualitative data, such as interaction data, is available, but it was not sufficiently used for modeling purposes, until now. New approaches have been developed, but the complexity of data often limits the application of many of the methods. Biochemical Petri nets make it possible to explore static and dynamic qualitative system properties. One Petri net approach is model validation based on the computation of the system's invariant properties, focusing on t-invariants. T-invariants correspond to subnetworks, which describe the basic system behavior. With increasing system complexity, the basic behavior can only be expressed by a huge number of t-invariants. According to our validation criteria for biochemical Petri nets, the necessary verification of the biological meaning, by interpreting each subnetwork (t-invariant manually, is not possible anymore. Thus, an automated, biologically meaningful classification would be helpful in analyzing t-invariants, and supporting the understanding of the basic behavior of the considered biological system. Methods Here, we introduce a new approach to automatically classify t-invariants to cope with network complexity. We apply clustering techniques such as UPGMA, Complete Linkage, Single Linkage, and Neighbor Joining in combination with different distance measures to get biologically meaningful clusters (t

  10. The Dockstore: enabling modular, community-focused sharing of Docker-based genomics tools and workflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Brian D; Yuen, Denis; Chung, Vincent; Duncan, Andrew G; Liu, Xiang Kun; Patricia, Janice; Paten, Benedict; Stein, Lincoln; Ferretti, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    As genomic datasets continue to grow, the feasibility of downloading data to a local organization and running analysis on a traditional compute environment is becoming increasingly problematic. Current large-scale projects, such as the ICGC PanCancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PCAWG), the Data Platform for the U.S. Precision Medicine Initiative, and the NIH Big Data to Knowledge Center for Translational Genomics, are using cloud-based infrastructure to both host and perform analysis across large data sets. In PCAWG, over 5,800 whole human genomes were aligned and variant called across 14 cloud and HPC environments; the processed data was then made available on the cloud for further analysis and sharing. If run locally, an operation at this scale would have monopolized a typical academic data centre for many months, and would have presented major challenges for data storage and distribution. However, this scale is increasingly typical for genomics projects and necessitates a rethink of how analytical tools are packaged and moved to the data. For PCAWG, we embraced the use of highly portable Docker images for encapsulating and sharing complex alignment and variant calling workflows across highly variable environments. While successful, this endeavor revealed a limitation in Docker containers, namely the lack of a standardized way to describe and execute the tools encapsulated inside the container. As a result, we created the Dockstore ( https://dockstore.org), a project that brings together Docker images with standardized, machine-readable ways of describing and running the tools contained within. This service greatly improves the sharing and reuse of genomics tools and promotes interoperability with similar projects through emerging web service standards developed by the Global Alliance for Genomics and Health (GA4GH).

  11. Modular ICT-based patient empowerment framework for self-management of diabetes: Design perspectives and validation results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamprinos, Ilias; Demski, Hans; Mantwill, Sarah; Kabak, Yildiray; Hildebrand, Claudia; Ploessnig, Manuela

    2016-07-01

    It is estimated that more than 382 million people suffer from diabetes across the globe, most of which are between the age of 40 and 59 years. ICT can play a key role in better management of diabetes and in patient empowerment. Patient empowerment involves patients to a greater extent in their own healthcare process and disease management becomes an integrated part of their daily life. Self-management opens the possibility for patients to contribute to their own healthcare as well as to be more in control of their disease. The objective of our study was to explore the impact of an ICT-based patient empowerment framework in diabetes self-management. A modular patient empowerment framework that fosters diabetes self-management was designed and implemented. The framework incorporates expert knowledge in the form of clinical guidelines, and it supports patients in the specification of personalized activities that are based on medical recommendations and personal goals, and in the collection of observations of daily living. The usability and usefulness of the proposed framework were assessed in a pilot study with the participation of 60 patients and 12 health professionals. The study revealed that a patient empowerment approach based on self-management ICT tools is useful and accepted by both the patients and the physicians. For those patients who were already disciplined in their disease management the piloted solution served as a facilitator for data logging. For the rest, it served as an incentive for better adherence to disease management principles. The ICT tools prompted many patients into becoming more physically active and into making dietary habits' adjustments. However, this impact proved to be tightly correlated with the sociocultural background of the subjects. The study also demonstrated that even in patient-centric self-management interventions the physicians still have a key role to play. However, the acceptance of such interventions by the healthcare

  12. Physical Modeling Modular Boxes: PHOXES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelineck, Steven; Serafin, Stefania

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a set of musical instruments, which are based on known physical modeling sound synthesis techniques. The instruments are modular, meaning that they can be combined in various ways. This makes it possible to experiment with physical interaction and sonic...

  13. Rare earth elements in street dust and associated health risk in a municipal industrial base of central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guangyi; Li, Zhonggen; Liu, Ting; Chen, Ji; Wu, Tingting; Feng, Xinbin

    2017-12-01

    The content levels, distribution characteristics, and health risks associated with 15 rare earth elements (REEs) in urban street dust from an industrial city, Zhuzhou, in central China were investigated. The total REE content (∑REE) ranged from 66.1 to 237.4 mg kg -1 , with an average of 115.9 mg kg -1 , which is lower than that of Chinese background soil and Yangtze river sediment. Average content of the individual REE in street dust decreased in the order Ce > La > Nd > Y > Pr > Sm > Gd > Dy > Er > Yb > Eu > Ho > Tb > Tm > Lu. The chondrite-normalized REE pattern indicated light REE (LREE) enrichment, a relatively steep LREE trend, heavy REE (HREE) depletion, a flat HREE trend, a Eu-negative anomaly and a Ce-positive anomaly. Foremost heavy local soil and to less degree anthropogenic pollution are the main sources of REE present in street dust. Health risk associated with the exposure of REE in street dust was assessed based on the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effect and lifetime average daily dose. The obtained cancer and non-cancer risk values prompt for no augmented health hazard. However, children had greater health risks than that of adults.

  14. Metal-dusting resistance of uncoated and coated iron and nickel base materials against metal-dusting in heat treatment furnaces with carbonaceous atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleingries, Mirko; Ackermann, Helen; Lucka, Klaus; Hoja, Timo; Mehner, Andeas; Zoch, Hans-Werner; Altena, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    Metal-Dusting is a well-known corrosion problem that occurs in carburizing atmospheres in industrial thermal processing plants. In literature almost no quantitative data on the metal dusting resistance of typical alloys employed in industrial furnaces are available. Therefore, a series of experiments with uncoated and sol gel ZrO 2 coated high temperature materials was conducted in order to quantify their metal dusting behaviour under conditions close to those in case hardening furnaces. The experimental results show a strong influence of the surface conditions on the alloys resistance and a noticeable enhancement of the resistance by sol gel coatings. (orig.)

  15. Synthesizing Modular Invariants for Synchronous Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Loic Garoche

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we explore different techniques to synthesize modular invariants for synchronous code encoded as Horn clauses. Modular invariants are a set of formulas that characterizes the validity of predicates. They are very useful for different aspects of analysis, synthesis, testing and program transformation. We describe two techniques to generate modular invariants for code written in the synchronous dataflow language Lustre. The first technique directly encodes the synchronous code in a modular fashion. While in the second technique, we synthesize modular invariants starting from a monolithic invariant. Both techniques, take advantage of analysis techniques based on property-directed reachability. We also describe a technique to minimize the synthesized invariants.

  16. Modular Robotic Wearable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Pagliarini, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    In this concept paper we trace the contours and define a new approach to robotic systems, composed of interactive robotic modules which are somehow worn on the body. We label such a field as Modular Robotic Wearable (MRW). We describe how, by using modular robotics for creating wearable....... Finally, by focusing on the intersection of the combination modular robotic systems, wearability, and bodymind we attempt to explore the theoretical characteristics of such approach and exploit the possible playware application fields....

  17. Impact Assessment of Atmospheric Dust on Foliage Pigments and Pollution Resistances of Plants Grown Nearby Coal Based Thermal Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariram, Manisha; Sahu, Ravi; Elumalai, Suresh Pandian

    2018-01-01

    Plant species grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants (TPP) are one of the immobile substrates to sink most of the pollutants emitted from their stacks. The continuous exposure of toxic pollutants to these plants may affect their resistances and essential biochemical's concentrations. In the present study, we estimated the impact of dust load generated by a TPPs to plant's dust retention capacity and pollution resistances (APTI and API). The observed ambient air quality index (AQI) showed that the surroundings of TPPs are in the severe air pollution category. Observed AQI was greater than 100 in the surrounding area of TPP. The mean dust load on plant foliage was significantly greater in the polluted site compared with the control site: 4.45 ± 1.96 versus 1.38 ± 0.41 mg cm -2 . Nearby, TPP highest and lowest dust load were founded in F. benghalensis (7.58 ± 0.74) and F. religiosa (2.25 ± 0.12 mg cm -2 ) respectively. Analysis revealed the strong negative correlation between dust load and essential pigments of foliage, such as chlorophyll content, carotenoids, pH of foliage extract, and relative water content. Conversely, strong positive correlation was observed with the ascorbic acid content of plant species. Correlation and percentage change analysis in ascorbic acid content for the polluted site against the control site showed the adverse impact on plants due to dust load. Based on their responses to dust pollution, A. scholaris, P. longifolia, and M. indica were observed as most suitable plant species. Estimation of DRC, chlorophyll a/b ratio, APTI and API revealed the A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica as the most suitable plant species for green belt formation. The high gradation was obtained in A. scholaris, F. benghalensis, P. longifolia, and M. indica for opted parameters and showed their most suitability for green belt formation. Salient features of the present study provide useful evidences to estimate the

  18. Optimizing Safety Stock Levels in Modular Production Systems Using Component Commonality and Group Technology Philosophy: A Study Based on Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Edgar Hernandez-Ruiz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modular production and component commonality are two widely used strategies in the manufacturing industry to meet customers growing needs for customized products. Using these strategies, companies can enhance their performance to achieve optimal safety stock levels. Despite the importance of safety stocks in business competition, little attention has been paid to the way to reduce them without affecting the customer service levels. This paper develops a mathematical model to reduce safety stock levels in organizations that employ modular production. To construct the model, we take advantage of the benefits of aggregate inventories, standardization of components, component commonality, and Group Technology philosophy in regard to stock levels. The model is tested through the simulation of three years of operation of two modular product systems. For each system, we calculated and compared the safety stock levels for two cases: (1 under the only presence of component commonality and (2 under the presence of both component commonality and Group Technology philosophy. The results show a reduction in safety stock levels when we linked the component commonality with the Group Technology philosophy. The paper presents a discussion of the implications of each case, features of the model, and suggestions for future research.

  19. Introduction of an agent-based multi-scale modular architecture for dynamic knowledge representation of acute inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Gary

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the greatest challenges facing biomedical research is the integration and sharing of vast amounts of information, not only for individual researchers, but also for the community at large. Agent Based Modeling (ABM can provide a means of addressing this challenge via a unifying translational architecture for dynamic knowledge representation. This paper presents a series of linked ABMs representing multiple levels of biological organization. They are intended to translate the knowledge derived from in vitro models of acute inflammation to clinically relevant phenomenon such as multiple organ failure. Results and Discussion ABM development followed a sequence starting with relatively direct translation from in-vitro derived rules into a cell-as-agent level ABM, leading on to concatenated ABMs into multi-tissue models, eventually resulting in topologically linked aggregate multi-tissue ABMs modeling organ-organ crosstalk. As an underlying design principle organs were considered to be functionally composed of an epithelial surface, which determined organ integrity, and an endothelial/blood interface, representing the reaction surface for the initiation and propagation of inflammation. The development of the epithelial ABM derived from an in-vitro model of gut epithelial permeability is described. Next, the epithelial ABM was concatenated with the endothelial/inflammatory cell ABM to produce an organ model of the gut. This model was validated against in-vivo models of the inflammatory response of the gut to ischemia. Finally, the gut ABM was linked to a similarly constructed pulmonary ABM to simulate the gut-pulmonary axis in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure. The behavior of this model was validated against in-vivo and clinical observations on the cross-talk between these two organ systems Conclusion A series of ABMs are presented extending from the level of intracellular mechanism to clinically observed behavior

  20. Introduction of an agent-based multi-scale modular architecture for dynamic knowledge representation of acute inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Gary

    2008-05-27

    One of the greatest challenges facing biomedical research is the integration and sharing of vast amounts of information, not only for individual researchers, but also for the community at large. Agent Based Modeling (ABM) can provide a means of addressing this challenge via a unifying translational architecture for dynamic knowledge representation. This paper presents a series of linked ABMs representing multiple levels of biological organization. They are intended to translate the knowledge derived from in vitro models of acute inflammation to clinically relevant phenomenon such as multiple organ failure. ABM development followed a sequence starting with relatively direct translation from in-vitro derived rules into a cell-as-agent level ABM, leading on to concatenated ABMs into multi-tissue models, eventually resulting in topologically linked aggregate multi-tissue ABMs modeling organ-organ crosstalk. As an underlying design principle organs were considered to be functionally composed of an epithelial surface, which determined organ integrity, and an endothelial/blood interface, representing the reaction surface for the initiation and propagation of inflammation. The development of the epithelial ABM derived from an in-vitro model of gut epithelial permeability is described. Next, the epithelial ABM was concatenated with the endothelial/inflammatory cell ABM to produce an organ model of the gut. This model was validated against in-vivo models of the inflammatory response of the gut to ischemia. Finally, the gut ABM was linked to a similarly constructed pulmonary ABM to simulate the gut-pulmonary axis in the pathogenesis of multiple organ failure. The behavior of this model was validated against in-vivo and clinical observations on the cross-talk between these two organ systems. A series of ABMs are presented extending from the level of intracellular mechanism to clinically observed behavior in the intensive care setting. The ABMs all utilize cell-level agents

  1. Cometary Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Agarwal, Jessica; Cottin, Hervé; Engrand, Cécile; Flynn, George; Fulle, Marco; Gombosi, Tamas; Langevin, Yves; Lasue, Jérémie; Mannel, Thurid; Merouane, Sihane; Poch, Olivier; Thomas, Nicolas; Westphal, Andrew

    2018-04-01

    This review presents our understanding of cometary dust at the end of 2017. For decades, insight about the dust ejected by nuclei of comets had stemmed from remote observations from Earth or Earth's orbit, and from flybys, including the samples of dust returned to Earth for laboratory studies by the Stardust return capsule. The long-duration Rosetta mission has recently provided a huge and unique amount of data, obtained using numerous instruments, including innovative dust instruments, over a wide range of distances from the Sun and from the nucleus. The diverse approaches available to study dust in comets, together with the related theoretical and experimental studies, provide evidence of the composition and physical properties of dust particles, e.g., the presence of a large fraction of carbon in macromolecules, and of aggregates on a wide range of scales. The results have opened vivid discussions on the variety of dust-release processes and on the diversity of dust properties in comets, as well as on the formation of cometary dust, and on its presence in the near-Earth interplanetary medium. These discussions stress the significance of future explorations as a way to decipher the formation and evolution of our Solar System.

  2. Paleo-dust insights onto dust-climate interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, S.; Mahowald, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Mineral dust emissions are affected by changing climate conditions, and in turn dust impacts the atmospheric radiation budget, clouds and biogeochemical cycles. Climate and public health dust-related issues call for attention on the fate of the dust cycle in the future, and the representation of the dust cycle is now part of the strategy of the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project phase 4 and the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (PMIP4-CMIP6). Since mineral aerosols are one of the most important natural aerosols, understanding past dust responses to climate in the paleoclimate will allow us to better understand mineral aerosol feedbacks with climate and biogeochemistry in the Anthropocene. Modern observations and paleoclimate records offer the possibility of multiple, complementary views on the global dust cycle, and allow to validate and/or constrain the numerical representation of dust in climate and Earth system models. We present our results from a set of simulations with the Community Earth System Model for different climate states, including present and past climates such as the pre-industrial, the mid-Holocene and the Last Glacial Maximum. A set of simulations including a prognostic dust cycle was thoroughly compared with a wide set of present day observations from different platforms and regions, in order to realistically constrain the magnitude of dust load, surface concentration, deposition, optical properties, and particle size distributions. The magnitude of emissions for past climate regimes was constrained based on compilations of paleodust mass accumulation rates and size distributions, as well as based on information on dust provenance. The comparison with a parallel set of simulations without dust allows estimating the impacts of dust on surface climate. We analyze impacts of dust on the mean and variability of surface temperature and precipitation in each climate state, as well as the impacts that changing dust emissions had

  3. Modularization and Flexibilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meel, R. M.

    Publications in the fields of educational science, organization theory, and project management were analyzed to identify the possibilities that modularization offers to institutions of higher professional education and to obtain background information for use in developing a method for modularization in higher professional education. It was…

  4. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...

  5. Implementing Modular A Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holding, Gordon

    This document, which is designed for curriculum managers at British further education (FE) colleges, presents basic information on the implementation and perceived benefits of the General Certificate of Education (GCE) modular A (Advanced) levels. The information was synthesized from a survey of 12 FE colleges that introduced the modular A levels…

  6. Proposal of 'Modular Heliotron'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Kozo

    1994-01-01

    A new modular helical system named 'Modular Heliotron' with clean and efficient helical magnetic divertor is proposed as an extension of the present conventional design of the continuous helical coil system. The sectored helical coils on one plane of the torus and the sectored returning vertical field coils on the other plane are combined. This coil system produces magnetic surfaces nearly equivalent to those of the l=2 helical system with one-pair poloidal coils, and overcomes the defects of construction and maintenance difficulties of the continuous coil systems. This concept satisfies the compatibility between the coil modularity and the sufficient divertor-space utilization, different from previous modular coil designs. The allowable length of the gap between each modular coil is clarified to keep good magnetic surfaces. Typical examples of the reactor coil configuration are described as an extension of the LHD (Large Helical Device) configuration. (author)

  7. Designing Modular Robotic Playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Marti, Patrizia

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the design of modular robotic objects that may enhance playful experiences. The approach builds upon the development of modular robotics to create a kind of playware, which is flexible in both set-up and activity building for the end-user to allow easy creation of games....... Key features of this design approach are modularity, flexibility, and construction, immediate feedback to stimulate engagement, activity design by end-users, and creative exploration of play activities. These features permit the use of such modular playware by a vast array of users, including disabled...... children who often could be prevented from using and taking benefits from modern technologies. The objective is to get any children moving, exchanging, experimenting and having fun, regardless of their cognitive or physical ability levels. The paper describes two prototype systems developed as modular...

  8. Proposal of 'modular heliotron'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Kozo.

    1993-11-01

    A new modular helical configuration named 'Modular Heliotron' with clean and efficient helical magnetic divertor is proposed as an extension of the present conventional design of the continuous helical coil system. The sectored helical coils on one plane of the torus and the sectored returning vertical field coils on the other plane are combined. This coil system produces magnetic surfaces nearly equivalent to those of the l=2 helical system with one-pair poloidal coils, and overcomes the defects of construction and maintenance difficulties of the continuous coil systems. This concept satisfies the compatibility between the coil modularity and the sufficient divertor-space utilization, different from previous modular coil designs. The allowable length of the gap between each modular coil is clarified to keep good magnetic surfaces. Typical examples of the reactor coil configuration are described as an extension of the LHD (Large Helical Device) configuration. (author)

  9. Occupational dust exposure and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk in a population-based case–control study conducted in the greater Boston area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langevin, Scott M; McClean, Michael D; Michaud, Dominique S; Eliot, Melissa; Nelson, Heather H; Kelsey, Karl T

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck cancers account for an estimated 549,000 global cancer diagnoses each year. While tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and HPV16 infection are considered to be the major risk factors for this disease, occupational risk factors, including exposure to asbestos, have also been described, although dust exposures other than asbestos have been historically understudied. We have investigated the relationship between occupational exposures to five types of dusts, including sawdust, concrete dust, leather dust, metal dust, and chimney soot, and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in the greater Boston area. We report findings from a population-based case–control study involving 951 incident HNSCC cases and 1193 controls, frequency matched on age (±3 years), sex, and town/neighborhood of residence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between occupational exposure to each type of dust and HNSCC, overall and by primary tumor site. After adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and HPV16 serology, laryngeal carcinoma risk increased for each decade of occupational exposure to sawdust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.3) and metal dust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.4); and HNSCC risk increased for each decade of occupational leather dust exposure (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.9). We have provided evidence for an association between occupational sawdust and metal dust and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and leather dust and HNSCC, with increasing risk with longer duration at the exposed occupation

  10. Occupational dust exposure and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk in a population-based case-control study conducted in the greater Boston area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langevin, Scott M; McClean, Michael D; Michaud, Dominique S; Eliot, Melissa; Nelson, Heather H; Kelsey, Karl T

    2013-12-01

    Head and neck cancers account for an estimated 549,000 global cancer diagnoses each year. While tobacco use, alcohol consumption, and HPV16 infection are considered to be the major risk factors for this disease, occupational risk factors, including exposure to asbestos, have also been described, although dust exposures other than asbestos have been historically understudied. We have investigated the relationship between occupational exposures to five types of dusts, including sawdust, concrete dust, leather dust, metal dust, and chimney soot, and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) in the greater Boston area. We report findings from a population-based case-control study involving 951 incident HNSCC cases and 1193 controls, frequency matched on age (±3 years), sex, and town/neighborhood of residence. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association between occupational exposure to each type of dust and HNSCC, overall and by primary tumor site. After adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, and HPV16 serology, laryngeal carcinoma risk increased for each decade of occupational exposure to sawdust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.3) and metal dust (OR = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0, 1.4); and HNSCC risk increased for each decade of occupational leather dust exposure (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.9). We have provided evidence for an association between occupational sawdust and metal dust and laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and leather dust and HNSCC, with increasing risk with longer duration at the exposed occupation. © 2013 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Test of Mie-based single-scattering properties of non-spherical dust aerosols in radiative flux calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Q.; Thorsen, T.J.; Su, J.; Ge, J.M.; Huang, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    We simulate the single-scattering properties (SSPs) of dust aerosols with both spheroidal and spherical shapes at a wavelength of 0.55 μm for two refractive indices and four effective radii. Herein spheres are defined by preserving both projected area and volume of a non-spherical particle. It is shown that the relative errors of the spheres to approximate the spheroids are less than 1% in the extinction efficiency and single-scattering albedo, and less than 2% in the asymmetry factor. It is found that the scattering phase function of spheres agrees with spheroids better than the Henyey-Greenstein (HG) function for the scattering angle range of 0-90 o . In the range of ∼90-180 o , the HG function is systematically smaller than the spheroidal scattering phase function while the spherical scattering phase function is smaller from ∼90 o to 145 o but larger from ∼145 o to 180 o . We examine the errors in reflectivity and absorptivity due to the use of SSPs of equivalent spheres and HG functions for dust aerosols. The reference calculation is based on the delta-DISORT-256-stream scheme using the SSPs of the spheroids. It is found that the errors are mainly caused by the use of the HG function instead of the SSPs for spheres. By examining the errors associated with the delta-four- and delta-two-stream schemes using various approximate SSPs of dust aerosols, we find that the errors related to the HG function dominate in the delta-four-stream results, while the errors related to the radiative transfer scheme dominate in the delta-two-stream calculations. We show that the relative errors in the global reflectivity due to the use of sphere SSPs are always less than 5%. We conclude that Mie-based SSPs of non-spherical dust aerosols are well suited in radiative flux calculations.

  12. Generalized epidemic process on modular networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kihong; Baek, Yongjoo; Kim, Daniel; Ha, Meesoon; Jeong, Hawoong

    2014-05-01

    Social reinforcement and modular structure are two salient features observed in the spreading of behavior through social contacts. In order to investigate the interplay between these two features, we study the generalized epidemic process on modular networks with equal-sized finite communities and adjustable modularity. Using the analytical approach originally applied to clique-based random networks, we show that the system exhibits a bond-percolation type continuous phase transition for weak social reinforcement, whereas a discontinuous phase transition occurs for sufficiently strong social reinforcement. Our findings are numerically verified using the finite-size scaling analysis and the crossings of the bimodality coefficient.

  13. Rapid data processing for ultrafast X-ray computed tomography using scalable and modular CUDA based pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frust, Tobias; Wagner, Michael; Stephan, Jan; Juckeland, Guido; Bieberle, André

    2017-10-01

    Ultrafast X-ray tomography is an advanced imaging technique for the study of dynamic processes basing on the principles of electron beam scanning. A typical application case for this technique is e.g. the study of multiphase flows, that is, flows of mixtures of substances such as gas-liquidflows in pipelines or chemical reactors. At Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) a number of such tomography scanners are operated. Currently, there are two main points limiting their application in some fields. First, after each CT scan sequence the data of the radiation detector must be downloaded from the scanner to a data processing machine. Second, the current data processing is comparably time-consuming compared to the CT scan sequence interval. To enable online observations or use this technique to control actuators in real-time, a modular and scalable data processing tool has been developed, consisting of user-definable stages working independently together in a so called data processing pipeline, that keeps up with the CT scanner's maximal frame rate of up to 8 kHz. The newly developed data processing stages are freely programmable and combinable. In order to achieve the highest processing performance all relevant data processing steps, which are required for a standard slice image reconstruction, were individually implemented in separate stages using Graphics Processing Units (GPUs) and NVIDIA's CUDA programming language. Data processing performance tests on different high-end GPUs (Tesla K20c, GeForce GTX 1080, Tesla P100) showed excellent performance. Program Files doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.17632/65sx747rvm.1 Licensing provisions: LGPLv3 Programming language: C++/CUDA Supplementary material: Test data set, used for the performance analysis. Nature of problem: Ultrafast computed tomography is performed with a scan rate of up to 8 kHz. To obtain cross-sectional images from projection data computer-based image reconstruction algorithms must be applied. The

  14. A predictive model of muscle excitations based on muscle modularity for a large repertoire of human locomotion conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose eGonzalez-Vargas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Humans can efficiently walk across a large variety of terrains and locomotion conditions with little or no mental effort. It has been hypothesized that the nervous system simplifies neuromuscular control by using muscle synergies, thus organizing multi-muscle activity into a small number of coordinative co-activation modules. In the present study we investigated how muscle modularity is structured across a large repertoire of locomotion conditions including five different speeds and five different ground elevations. For this we have used the non-negative matrix factorization technique in order to explain EMG experimental data with a low-dimensional set of four motor components. In this context each motor components is composed of a non-negative factor and the associated muscle weightings. Furthermore, we have investigated if the proposed descriptive analysis of muscle modularity could be translated into a predictive model that could: 1 Estimate how motor components modulate across locomotion speeds and ground elevations. This implies not only estimating the non-negative factors temporal characteristics, but also the associated muscle weighting variations. 2 Estimate how the resulting muscle excitations modulate across novel locomotion conditions and subjects.The results showed three major distinctive features of muscle modularity: 1 the number of motor components was preserved across all locomotion conditions, 2 the non-negative factors were consistent in shape and timing across all locomotion conditions, and 3 the muscle weightings were modulated as distinctive functions of locomotion speed and ground elevation. Results also showed that the developed predictive model was able to reproduce well the muscle modularity of un-modeled data, i.e. novel subjects and conditions. Muscle weightings were reconstructed with a cross-correlation factor greater than 70% and a root mean square error less than 0.10. Furthermore, the generated muscle excitations

  15. Allergies, asthma, and dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway disease - dust; Bronchial asthma - dust; Triggers - dust ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. Dust is a common trigger. When your asthma or allergies become worse due to dust, you are ...

  16. Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernandez, A.; Gomez, S.

    2008-12-24

    The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is being the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the NP-hard class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining invariant its modularity. This size reduction allows the heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the Extremal Optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.

  17. Efficient radiative transfer in dust grain mixtures

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, S.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of a dust grain mixture consisting of spherical dust grains with different radii and/or chemical composition on the resulting temperature structure and spectral energy distribution of a circumstellar shell is investigated. The comparison with the results based on an approximation of dust grain parameters representing the mean optical properties of the corresponding dust grain mixture reveal that (1) the temperature dispersion of a real dust grain mixture decreases substantially ...

  18. Modularity in Sensory Auditory Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, Sylvain; Moroni, Christine; Samson, Séverine

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this paper was to review various experimental and neuropsychological studies that support the modular conception of auditory sensory memory or auditory short-term memory. Based on initial findings demonstrating that verbal sensory memory system can be dissociated from a general auditory memory store at the functional and anatomical levels. we reported a series of studies that provided evidence in favor of multiple auditory sensory stores specialized in retaining eit...

  19. Procedimento para seleção de interfaces para produtos modulares baseado no ciclo de projeto de produtos Procedure for interface selection for modular products based on the product design cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Régis Kovacs Scalice

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo aborda a definição de alternativas de interfaces durante desenvolvimento de produtos modulares. Entende-se por interfaces a fronteira entre os módulos que compõem o produto, bem como as interações existentes entre o meio-ambiente em que o produto está inserido e com seus possíveis usuários. Para realizar o projeto de interfaces é proposto um procedimento que auxilia na concepção de alternativas e em sua priorização, de forma a facilitar a tomada de decisão por parte da equipe de projeto. O procedimento proposto foi validado por sua aplicação no desenvolvimento de produtos modulares para o cultivo e beneficiamento de mexilhões em Santa Catarina. Os resultados obtidos demonstram o potencial da ferramenta.This paper deals with the definition of interface alternatives during the development of modular products. Interfaces could be seen as the boundary between modules, as well the existing interactions with the surrounding environment and possible users. In order to carry out interface design, a procedure to aid in the conception of interface alternatives and their ranking is proposed, assisting the design team on decision-making. The procedure proposed was validated during the design of modular products for mussel farming and processing in the State of Santa Catarina. The results achieved show the potential of this design tool.

  20. Modular version of SIMCON, FPGA based, DSP integrated, LLRF control system for TESLA FEL part II: measurement of SIMCON 3.0 DSP daughterboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giergusiewicz, Wojciech; Koprek, Waldemar; Jalmuzna, Wojciech; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Romaniuk, Ryszard S.

    2006-02-01

    The paper describes design, construction and initial measurements of an eight channel electronic LLRF device predicted for building of the control system for the W-FEL accelerator at DESY (Hamburg). The device, referred in the paper to as the SIMCON 3.0 (from the SC cavity simulator and controller) consists of a 16 layer, VME size, PCB, a large FPGA chip (VirtexII-4000 by Xilinx), eight fast ADCs and four DACs (by Analog Devices). To our knowledge, the proposed device is the first of this kind for the accelerator technology in which there was achieved (the FPGA based) DSP latency below 200 ns. With the optimized data transmission system, the overall LLRF system latency can be as low as 500 ns. The SIMCON 3.0 sub-system was applied for initial tests with the ACCl module of the VUV FEL accelerator (eight channels) and with the CHECHIA test stand (single channel), both at the DESY. The promising results with the SIMCON 3.0. encouraged us to enter the design of SIMCON 3.1. possessing 10 measurement and control channels and some additional features to be reported in the next technical note. SIMCON 3.0. is a modular solution, while SIMCON 3.1. will be an integrated board of the all-in-one type. Two design approaches - modular and all-in-one - after branching off in this version of the Simcon, will be continued.

  1. Time management in radiation oncology. Development and evaluation of a modular system based on the example of rectal cancer treatment. The DEGRO-QUIRO trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fietkau, R. [Erlangen Univ. Hospital, Erlangen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Budach, W. [Univ. of Duesseldorf (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Zamboglou, N. [Klinikum Offenbach GmbH, Offenbach (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Thiel, H.J. [Sozialstiftung Bamberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Sack, H. [German Association for Radiooncology, Berlin (Germany); Popp, W. [Prime Networks AG, Basel (Switzerland)

    2012-01-15

    The goal was to develop and evaluate a modular system for measurement of the work times required by the various professional groups involved in radiation oncology before, during, and after serial radiation treatment (long-term irradiation with 25-28 fractions of 1.8 Gy) based on the example of rectal cancer treatment. Materials and methods A panel of experts divided the work associated with providing radiation oncology treatment into modules (from the preparation of radiotherapy, RT planning and administration to the final examination and follow-up). The time required for completion of each module was measured by independent observers at four centers (Rostock, Bamberg, Duesseldorf, and Offenbach, Germany). Results A total of 1,769 data sets were collected from 63 patients with 10-489 data sets per module. Some modules (informed consent procedure, routine treatments, CT planning) exhibited little deviation between centers, whereas others (especially medical and physical irradiation planning) exhibited a wide range of variation (e.g., 1 h 49 min to 6 h 56 min for physical irradiation planning). The mean work time per patient was 12 h 11 min for technicians, 2 h 59 min for physicists, and 7 h 6 min for physicians. Conclusion The modular system of time measurement proved to be reliable and produced comparable data at the different centers. Therefore, the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) decided that it can be extended to other types of cancer (head and neck, prostate, and breast cancer) with appropriate modifications. (orig.)

  2. The Fertilizing Role of African Dust in the Amazon Rainforest. A First Multiyear Assessment Based on Data from Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hongbin [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Chin, Mian [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Yuan, Tianle [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Bian, Huisheng [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Remer, L. A. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Prospero, J. [Univ. of Miami, FL (United States); Omar, Ali [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Winker, D. [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Yang, Yuekui [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (United States); Zhang, Yan [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), Greenbelt, MD (United States); Universities Space Research Association, Columbia, MD (United States); Zhang, Zhibo [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States); Zhao, Chun [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-03-18

    The productivity of the Amazon rainforest is constrained by the availability of nutrients, in particular phosphorus (P). Deposition of long-range transported African dust is recognized as a potentially important but poorly quantified source of phosphorus. This study provides a first multiyear satellite-based estimate of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin using three dimensional (3D) aerosol measurements over 2007-2013 from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP). The 7-year average of dust deposition into the Amazon Basin is estimated to be 28 (8~48) Tg a-1 or 29 (8~50) kg ha-1 a-1. The dust deposition shows significant interannual variation that is negatively correlated with the prior-year rainfall in the Sahel. The CALIOP-based multi-year mean estimate of dust deposition matches better with estimates from in-situ measurements and model simulations than a previous satellite-based estimate does. The closer agreement benefits from a more realistic geographic definition of the Amazon Basin and inclusion of meridional dust transport calculation in addition to the 3D nature of CALIOP aerosol measurements. The imported dust could provide about 0.022 (0.006~0.037) Tg P of phosphorus per year, equivalent to 23 (7~39) g P ha-1 a-1 to fertilize the Amazon rainforest. This out-of-Basin P input is comparable to the hydrological loss of P from the Basin, suggesting an important role of African dust in preventing phosphorus depletion on time scales of decades to centuries.

  3. Duality ensures modular covariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Miao; Yu Ming

    1989-11-01

    We show that the modular transformations for one point functions on the torus, S(n), satisfy the polynomial equations derived by Moore and Seiberg, provided the duality property of the model is ensured. The formula for S(n) is derived by us previously and should be valid for any conformal field theory. As a consequence, the full consistency conditions for modular invariance at higher genus are completely guaranteed by duality of the theory on the sphere. (orig.)

  4. Reversible logic gates based on enzyme-biocatalyzed reactions and realized in flow cells: a modular approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratto, Brian E; Katz, Evgeny

    2015-05-18

    Reversible logic gates, such as the double Feynman gate, Toffoli gate and Peres gate, with 3-input/3-output channels are realized using reactions biocatalyzed with enzymes and performed in flow systems. The flow devices are constructed using a modular approach, where each flow cell is modified with one enzyme that biocatalyzes one chemical reaction. The multi-step processes mimicking the reversible logic gates are organized by combining the biocatalytic cells in different networks. This work emphasizes logical but not physical reversibility of the constructed systems. Their advantages and disadvantages are discussed and potential use in biosensing systems, rather than in computing devices, is suggested. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Automatic Modeling and Simulation of Modular Robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C.; Wei, H.; Zhang, Y.

    2018-03-01

    The ability of reconfiguration makes modular robots have the ability of adaptable, low-cost, self-healing and fault-tolerant. It can also be applied to a variety of mission situations. In this manuscript, a robot platform which relied on the module library was designed, based on the screw theory and module theory. Then, the configuration design method of the modular robot was proposed. And the different configurations of modular robot system have been built, including industrial mechanical arms, the mobile platform, six-legged robot and 3D exoskeleton manipulator. Finally, the simulation and verification of one system among them have been made, using the analyses of screw kinematics and polynomial planning. The results of experiments demonstrate the feasibility and superiority of this modular system.

  6. Modular Stellarator Fusion Reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1981-08-01

    A preliminary conceptual study is made of the Modular Stellarator Reactor (MSR). A steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, magnetic fusion reactor is proposed for use as a central electric-power station. The MSR concept combines the physics of the classic stellarator confinement topology with an innovative, modular-coil design. Parametric tradeoff calculations are described, leading to the selection of an interim design point for a 4-GWt plant based on Alcator transport scaling and an average beta value of 0.04 in an l = 2 system with a plasma aspect ratio of 11. The physics basis of the design point is described together with supporting magnetics, coil-force, and stress computations. The approach and results presented herein will be modified in the course of ongoing work to form a firmer basis for a detailed conceptual design of the MSR

  7. LIFTING THE VEIL OF DUST FROM NGC 0959: THE IMPORTANCE OF A PIXEL-BASED TWO-DIMENSIONAL EXTINCTION CORRECTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, K.; Jansen, R. A.; Windhorst, R. A.; Eskridge, P. B.; Cohen, S. H.

    2010-01-01

    We present the results of a study of the late-type spiral galaxy NGC 0959, before and after application of the pixel-based dust extinction correction described in Tamura et al. (Paper I). Galaxy Evolution Explorer far-UV, and near-UV, ground-based Vatican Advanced Technology Telescope, UBVR, and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm images are studied through pixel color-magnitude diagrams and pixel color-color diagrams (pCCDs). We define groups of pixels based on their distribution in a pCCD of (B - 3.6 μm) versus (FUV - U) colors after extinction correction. In the same pCCD, we trace their locations before the extinction correction was applied. This shows that selecting pixel groups is not meaningful when using colors uncorrected for dust. We also trace the distribution of the pixel groups on a pixel coordinate map of the galaxy. We find that the pixel-based (two-dimensional) extinction correction is crucial for revealing the spatial variations in the dominant stellar population, averaged over each resolution element. Different types and mixtures of stellar populations, and galaxy structures such as a previously unrecognized bar, become readily discernible in the extinction-corrected pCCD and as coherent spatial structures in the pixel coordinate map.

  8. Habidite: viviendas modulares industrializadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Jáuregui, V.

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an introduction to one of the most relevant constructive systems of the last years: The integral industrialized construction. This method, based on three-dimensional modules, produces buildings made mainly from spatial cells of big dimensions; these three-dimensional modules are fabricated entirely in factory and, once they are finished, they are carried out to the site, where they are assembled in an easy manner. Even though it’s not a totally new system (in fact, the precedents will also be mentioned in this essay, Habidite is very confident in backing this tendency and doing its part in order to obtain modular reinforced concrete buildings of extraordinary quality, with domotic implements totally integrated in the dwellings and a high degree of sustainability, eco-technology and energetic efficiency. Many advantages are exposed and explained, dealing with the optimization of the productive processes in construction by means of the most advanced technologies.En este artículo se realiza una breve introducción a uno de los sistemas constructivos que más auge está teniendo en los últimos años: la edificación industrializada integral. Realizado a base de módulos tridimensionales, es éste un método de construcción en el cual los edificios se conforman básicamente por medio de células espaciales de grandes dimensiones; estos módulos tridimensionales se elaboran íntegramente en fábrica y, una vez están totalmente terminados, se transportan a obra, donde son montados de forma sencilla y rápida. Aunque no es un sistema totalmente novedoso (de hecho sus antecedentes también serán tratados brevemente en este texto, Habidite apuesta fuertemente por esta tendencia y aporta su grano de arena para conseguir edificios modulares de hormigón armado de extraordinaria calidad, con implementos domóticos totalmente integrados en la vivienda y un alto grado de sostenibilidad, eco-tecnología y eficiencia energética. Se abordan

  9. Computationally efficient and flexible modular modelling approach for river and urban drainage systems based on surrogate conceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfs, Vincent; Willems, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Water managers rely increasingly on mathematical simulation models that represent individual parts of the water system, such as the river, sewer system or waste water treatment plant. The current evolution towards integral water management requires the integration of these distinct components, leading to an increased model scale and scope. Besides this growing model complexity, certain applications gained interest and importance, such as uncertainty and sensitivity analyses, auto-calibration of models and real time control. All these applications share the need for models with a very limited calculation time, either for performing a large number of simulations, or a long term simulation followed by a statistical post-processing of the results. The use of the commonly applied detailed models that solve (part of) the de Saint-Venant equations is infeasible for these applications or such integrated modelling due to several reasons, of which a too long simulation time and the inability to couple submodels made in different software environments are the main ones. Instead, practitioners must use simplified models for these purposes. These models are characterized by empirical relationships and sacrifice model detail and accuracy for increased computational efficiency. The presented research discusses the development of a flexible integral modelling platform that complies with the following three key requirements: (1) Include a modelling approach for water quantity predictions for rivers, floodplains, sewer systems and rainfall runoff routing that require a minimal calculation time; (2) A fast and semi-automatic model configuration, thereby making maximum use of data of existing detailed models and measurements; (3) Have a calculation scheme based on open source code to allow for future extensions or the coupling with other models. First, a novel and flexible modular modelling approach based on the storage cell concept was developed. This approach divides each

  10. GPU-BASED MONTE CARLO DUST RADIATIVE TRANSFER SCHEME APPLIED TO ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymann, Frank; Siebenmorgen, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    A three-dimensional parallel Monte Carlo (MC) dust radiative transfer code is presented. To overcome the huge computing-time requirements of MC treatments, the computational power of vectorized hardware is used, utilizing either multi-core computer power or graphics processing units. The approach is a self-consistent way to solve the radiative transfer equation in arbitrary dust configurations. The code calculates the equilibrium temperatures of two populations of large grains and stochastic heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Anisotropic scattering is treated applying the Heney-Greenstein phase function. The spectral energy distribution (SED) of the object is derived at low spatial resolution by a photon counting procedure and at high spatial resolution by a vectorized ray tracer. The latter allows computation of high signal-to-noise images of the objects at any frequencies and arbitrary viewing angles. We test the robustness of our approach against other radiative transfer codes. The SED and dust temperatures of one- and two-dimensional benchmarks are reproduced at high precision. The parallelization capability of various MC algorithms is analyzed and included in our treatment. We utilize the Lucy algorithm for the optical thin case where the Poisson noise is high, the iteration-free Bjorkman and Wood method to reduce the calculation time, and the Fleck and Canfield diffusion approximation for extreme optical thick cells. The code is applied to model the appearance of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at optical and infrared wavelengths. The AGN torus is clumpy and includes fluffy composite grains of various sizes made up of silicates and carbon. The dependence of the SED on the number of clumps in the torus and the viewing angle is studied. The appearance of the 10 μm silicate features in absorption or emission is discussed. The SED of the radio-loud quasar 3C 249.1 is fit by the AGN model and a cirrus component to account for the far-infrared emission.

  11. Modular Lego-Electronics

    KAUST Repository

    Shaikh, Sohail F.

    2017-10-24

    Electronic system components have thousands of individual field effect transistors (FETs) interconnected executing dedicated functions. Assembly yield of >80% will guarantee system failure since a single interconnect failure will result in undesired performance. Hence, a paradigm shift is needed in the self-assembly or integration of state-of-the-art integrated circuits (ICs) for a physically compliant system. Traditionally, most ICs share same geometry with only variations in dimensions and packaging. Here, a generic manufacturable method of converting state-of-the-art complementary metal oxide semiconductor-based ICs into modular Lego-electronics is shown with unique geometry that is physically identifiable to ease manufacturing and enhance throughput. Various geometries at the backside of the silicon die and on the destination site having the same geometry with relaxed dimension (up to 50 µm extra) allow targeted site binding like DNA assembly. Different geometries, angles, and heights for different modules provide a unique identity to each of the ICs. A two-level geometric combination presented here helps in maintaining the uniqueness of individual module to assemble at exact matching site like a perfect lock-and-key model. The assembled ICs offer uncompromised electrical performance, higher yield, and fabrication ease. In future, this method can further be expanded for fluidic assisted self-assembly.

  12. Large Aperture Electrostatic Dust Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Hensley, R.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2007-01-01

    Diagnosis and management of dust inventories generated in next-step magnetic fusion devices is necessary for their safe operation. A novel electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces biased to 30 or 50 v has been developed for the detection of dust particles on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Impinging dust particles create a temporary short circuit and the resulting current pulse is recorded by counting electronics. Up to 90% of the particles are ejected from the grid or vaporized suggesting the device may be useful for controlling dust inventories. We report measurements of the sensitivity of a large area (5x5 cm) detector to microgram quantities of dust particles and review its applications to contemporary tokamaks and ITER.

  13. Towards a Formal Basis for Modular Safety Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denney, Ewen; Pai, Ganesh

    2015-01-01

    Safety assurance using argument-based safety cases is an accepted best-practice in many safety-critical sectors. Goal Structuring Notation (GSN), which is widely used for presenting safety arguments graphically, provides a notion of modular arguments to support the goal of incremental certification. Despite the efforts at standardization, GSN remains an informal notation whereas the GSN standard contains appreciable ambiguity especially concerning modular extensions. This, in turn, presents challenges when developing tools and methods to intelligently manipulate modular GSN arguments. This paper develops the elements of a theory of modular safety cases, leveraging our previous work on formalizing GSN arguments. Using example argument structures we highlight some ambiguities arising through the existing guidance, present the intuition underlying the theory, clarify syntax, and address modular arguments, contracts, well-formedness and well-scopedness of modules. Based on this theory, we have a preliminary implementation of modular arguments in our toolset, AdvoCATE.

  14. The Impact of Product and Service Modularity on Business Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsuan, Juliana; Frandsen, Thomas; Raja, Jawwad

    Modularity has been proposed as a powerful way of managing complexity. The emerging literature points to the importance of modularity of service architecture, with case based studies in logistics and healthcare. Little is known about the relationship between product and service modularity...... and their effects on business performance, both empirically and theoretically. This paper explores the relationship between product and service modularity and their effects on business performance based on a survey of Danish manufacturers. We provide empirical and theoretical insights into the emerging fields...

  15. A Modular Cascaded Multilevel Inverter Based Shunt Hybrid Active Power Filter for Selective Harmonic and Reactive Power Compensation Under Distorted/Unbalanced Grid Voltage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Demirdelen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, shunt hybrid active power filters are being increasingly considered as a viable alternative to both passive filters and active power filters for compensating harmonics. In literature, their applications are restricted to balanced systems and low voltage applications and therefore not for industrial applications. This paper investigates the performance of a modular cascaded multilevel inverter based Shunt Hybrid Active Power Filter (SHAPF for reactive power compensation and selective harmonics elimination under distorted/unbalanced grid voltage conditions in medium voltage levels. In the proposed control method, reactive power compensation is achieved successfully with a perceptible amount and the performance results of harmonic compensation are satisfactory. Theoretical analysis and simulation results are obtained from an actual industrial network model in PSCAD. The simulation results are presented for a proposed system in order to demonstrate that the harmonic compensation performance meets the IEEE-519 standard.

  16. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory performance in workers exposed to grain and grain based food dusts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S P; Paddle, G M

    1998-05-01

    A health surveillance study of male grain food manufacturing workers used a respiratory health questionnaire and spirometry to assess the prevalence of work-related respiratory symptoms and impaired ventilatory performance. The prevalence of cough, breathlessness, wheeze and chest tightness was between 8-13% but was 20% for rhinitis. Rhinitis was the most common symptom with 37% of those reporting rhinitis describing this as work-related. A case-control analysis of workers reporting rhinitis did not identify any specific occupational activities associated with increased risk of rhinitis. Smoking habit and all respiratory symptoms apart from rhinitis had a significant effect upon ventilatory performance. Occupational exposure to raw grains, flour, ingredients and finished food was categorized as high, medium or low in either continuous or intermediate patterns. Multiple regression analysis confirmed the effects of height, age and smoking upon ventilatory performance. However, occupational exposure to grain, flour, food ingredients and cooked food dusts had no effect upon ventilatory performance. It is concluded that smoking habit is the major determinant of respiratory symptoms and impaired ventilatory function. The excess complaints of rhinitis warrant further study but it would appear that the current occupational exposure limits for grain, flour, food ingredients and cooked food dusts are adequate to protect workers against impairment of ventilatory performance.

  17. Experimental Investigation of Coal Dust Wettability Based on Surface Contact Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wettability is one of the key chemical properties of coal dust, which is very important to dedusting. In this paper, the theory of liquid wetting solid was presented firstly; then, taking the gas coal of Xinglongzhuang coal mine in China as an example, by determination of critical surface tension of coal piece, it can be concluded that only when the surface tension of surfactant solution is less than 45 mN/m can the coal sample be fully wetted. Due to the effect of particle dispersity, compared with the contact angle of milled coal particle, not all the contact angles of screened coal powder with different sizes have a tendency to increase. Furthermore, by the experiments of coal samples’ specific surface areas and porosities, it can be achieved that the volume of single-point total pore decreases with the gradual decreasing of coal’s porosity, while the ultramicropores’ dispersities and multipoint BET specific surface areas increase. Besides, by a series of contact angle experiments with different surfactants, it can be found that with the increasing of porosity and the decreasing of volume percentage of ultramicropore, the contact angle tends to reduce gradually and the coal dust is much easier to get wetted.

  18. Battery Management System—Balancing Modularization Based on a Single Switched Capacitor and Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter with the Auxiliary Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Daowd

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-based batteries are considered as the most advanced batteries technology, which can be designed for high energy or high power storage systems. However, the battery cells are never fully identical due to the fabrication process, surrounding environment factors and differences between the cells tend to grow if no measures are taken. In order to have a high performance battery system, the battery cells should be continuously balanced for maintain the variation between the cells as small as possible. Without an appropriate balancing system, the individual cell voltages will differ over time and battery system capacity will decrease quickly. These issues will limit the electric range of the electric vehicle (EV and some cells will undergo higher stress, whereby the cycle life of these cells will be shorter. Quite a lot of cell balancing/equalization topologies have been previously proposed. These balancing topologies can be categorized into passive and active balancing. Active topologies are categorized according to the active element used for storing the energy such as capacitor and/or inductive component as well as controlling switches or converters. This paper proposes an intelligent battery management system (BMS including a battery pack charging and discharging control with a battery pack thermal management system. The BMS user input/output interfacing. The battery balancing system is based on battery pack modularization architecture. The proposed modularized balancing system has different equalization systems that operate inside and outside the modules. Innovative single switched capacitor (SSC control strategy is proposed to balance between the battery cells in the module (inside module balancing, IMB. Novel utilization of isolated bidirectional DC/DC converter (IBC is proposed to balance between the modules with the aid of the EV auxiliary battery (AB. Finally an experimental step-up has been implemented for the validation of the

  19. Modular design in fahion industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Chen

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available "Modular design" is a kind of design mode that not only can made clothing more interesting, makes the wearer can participate in choices, increase the possibility of clothing style .but also can extend the service cycle of clothing. In this "fast fashion" run market, the design idea of modular design can be a breakthrough point, help us find the way to balance the low-carbon and environmentally-friendly need and fashion. The article will combine the existing examples put the modular design summarized into three categories: component modular design and geometric modular design and compounded modular design.

  20. Deficits and Solutions in the Development of Modular Factory Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Achim Kampker; Peter Burggräf; Moritz Krunke; Hanno Voet

    2017-01-01

    As a reaction to current challenges in factory planning, many companies think about introducing factory standards to lower planning times and decrease planning costs. If these factory standards are set-up with a high level of modularity, they are defined as modular factory systems. This paper deals with the main current problems in the application of modular factory systems in practice and presents a solution approach with its basic models. The methodology is based on methods from factory pla...

  1. [Simulator-based modular human factor training in anesthesiology. Concept and results of the module "Communication and Team Cooperation"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Pierre, M; Hofinger, G; Buerschaper, C; Grapengeter, M; Harms, H; Breuer, G; Schüttler, J

    2004-02-01

    Human factors (HF) play a major role in crisis development and management and simulator training can help to train HF aspects. We developed a modular training concept with psychological intensive briefing. The aim of the study was to see whether learning and transfer in the treatment group (TG) with the module "communication and team-cooperation" differed from that in the control group (CG) without psychological briefing ("anaesthesia crisis resource management type course"). A total of 34 residents (TG: n=20, CG: n=14) managed 1 out of 3 scenarios and communication patterns and management were evaluated using video recordings. A questionnaire was answered at the end of the course and 2 months later participants were asked for lessons learnt and behavioral changes. Good communication and medical management showed a significant correlation (r=0.57, p=0.001). The TG showed greater initiative ( p=0.001) and came more often in conflict with the surgeon ( p=0.06). The TG also reported more behavioral changes than the CG 2 months later. The reported benefit of the simulation was training for rare events in the CG, whereas in the TG it was issues of communication and cooperation ( p=0.001). A training concept with psychological intensive briefing may enhance the transfer of HF aspects more than classical ACRM.

  2. Symmetric modular torsatron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rome, J.A.; Harris, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    A fusion reactor device is provided in which the magnetic fields for plasma confinement in a toroidal configuration is produced by a plurality of symmetrical modular coils arranged to form a symmetric modular torsatron referred to as a symmotron. Each of the identical modular coils is helically deformed and comprise one field period of the torsatron. Helical segments of each coil are connected by means of toroidally directed windbacks which may also provide part of the vertical field required for positioning the plasma. The stray fields of the windback segments may be compensated by toroidal coils. A variety of magnetic confinement flux surface configurations may be produced by proper modulation of the winding pitch of the helical segments of the coils, as in a conventional torsatron, winding the helix on a noncircular cross section and varying the poloidal and radial location of the windbacks and the compensating toroidal ring coils.

  3. Assessment of ecological and human health risks of metals in urban road dust based on geochemical fractionation and potential bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayarathne, Ayomi; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Ayoko, Godwin A; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2018-09-01

    Metals are one of the primary pollutants in the urban environment that pose adverse ecological and human health impacts. Therefore, the accurate quantification of the risk posed by metals is essential for developing effective risk management strategies to safeguard the urban environment. This study assessed the ecological and human health risks of six metals, commonly present in road dust by improving the original risk indices based on their potential bioavailability characteristics. The bioavailability of metals was determined by considering their distribution between the different geochemical phases of exchangeable, reducible, oxidisable and residual. The results of the modified risk analysis indicated that the road dust poses a low ecological risk in most of the study sites. According to the present situation, the non-cancer risk of individual metals for both, children and adults followed the decreasing trend of Pb > Cu > Cr > Zn > Ni > Cd. This study also found that depending on the particle size ranges, the potential of multiple metals being able to cause non-cancer health risk was low at most study sites. In terms of cancer health risk, Cr present at most of the study sites was found to be within the cancer threshold limit, even though the Cr content and the bioavailable fractions were relatively low. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A Comprehensive View On Benefits From Product Modularization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Sun, Hongyi

    2010-01-01

    In many cases the phenomenon of product modularization is presented in an inherently positive way. Based on the frequency of these positive cases it might be expected that product modularization is a universal cure for any competitive weaknesses experienced by manufacturing or service companies....... Definitely, the many various aspects of product modularization have demonstrated substantial potentials regarding improved and enhanced competitiveness, but our empirical studies illustrate that the efforts in regards to realizing specific product modularization benefits need to be managed carefully. Our...... studies illustrates that the expected and the realized benefits from a product modularization effort rarely match. In most cases the companies have only weak estimations about both the type and the magnitude of the potential benefits when planning the modularization project. This indicates a serious need...

  5. Modular robotic tiles: experiments for children with autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Dam Pedersen, Martin; Beck, Richard

    2009-01-01

    rehabilitation), and with the proper radio communication mechanism they may give unique possibilities for documentation of the physical activity (e.g., therapeutic treatment). A major point of concern in modular robotics is the connection mechanism, so we investigated different solutions for the connection......We developed a modular robotic tile and a system composed of a number of these modular robotic tiles. The system composed of the modular robotic tiles engages the user in physical activities, e.g., physiotherapy, sports, fitness, and entertainment. The modular robotic tiles motivate the user...... to perform physical activities by providing immediate feedback based upon their physical interaction with the system. With the modular robotic tiles, the user is able to make new physical set-ups within less than a minute. The tiles are applicable for different forms of physical activities (e.g., therapeutic...

  6. An analytically solvable model for rapid evolution of modular structure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadav Kashtan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological systems often display modularity, in the sense that they can be decomposed into nearly independent subsystems. Recent studies have suggested that modular structure can spontaneously emerge if goals (environments change over time, such that each new goal shares the same set of sub-problems with previous goals. Such modularly varying goals can also dramatically speed up evolution, relative to evolution under a constant goal. These studies were based on simulations of model systems, such as logic circuits and RNA structure, which are generally not easy to treat analytically. We present, here, a simple model for evolution under modularly varying goals that can be solved analytically. This model helps to understand some of the fundamental mechanisms that lead to rapid emergence of modular structure under modularly varying goals. In particular, the model suggests a mechanism for the dramatic speedup in evolution observed under such temporally varying goals.

  7. Plant systems/components modularization study. Final report. [PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-07-01

    The final results are summarized of a Plant Systems/Components Modularization Study based on Stone and Webster's Pressurized Water Reactor Reference Design. The program has been modified to include evaluation of the most promising areas for modular consideration based on the level of the Sundesert Project engineering design completion and the feasibility of their incorporation into the plant construction effort.

  8. Plant systems/components modularization study. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-07-01

    The final results are summarized of a Plant Systems/Components Modularization Study based on Stone and Webster's Pressurized Water Reactor Reference Design. The program has been modified to include evaluation of the most promising areas for modular consideration based on the level of the Sundesert Project engineering design completion and the feasibility of their incorporation into the plant construction effort

  9. Dust forecasting system in JMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, M; Tanaka, T Y; Maki, T

    2009-01-01

    JMAs dust forecasting information, which is based on a GCM dust model, is presented through the JMA website coupled with nowcast information. The website was updated recently and JMA and MOE joint 'KOSA' website was open from April 2008. Data assimilation technique will be introduced for improvement of the 'KOSA' information.

  10. Time management in radiation oncology: development and evaluation of a modular system based on the example of rectal cancer treatment. The DEGRO-QUIRO trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fietkau, R; Budach, W; Zamboglou, N; Thiel, H-J; Sack, H; Popp, W

    2012-01-01

    The goal was to develop and evaluate a modular system for measurement of the work times required by the various professional groups involved in radiation oncology before, during, and after serial radiation treatment (long-term irradiation with 25-28 fractions of 1.8 Gy) based on the example of rectal cancer treatment. A panel of experts divided the work associated with providing radiation oncology treatment into modules (from the preparation of radiotherapy, RT planning and administration to the final examination and follow-up). The time required for completion of each module was measured by independent observers at four centers (Rostock, Bamberg, Düsseldorf, and Offenbach, Germany). A total of 1,769 data sets were collected from 63 patients with 10-489 data sets per module. Some modules (informed consent procedure, routine treatments, CT planning) exhibited little deviation between centers, whereas others (especially medical and physical irradiation planning) exhibited a wide range of variation (e.g., 1 h 49 min to 6 h 56 min for physical irradiation planning). The mean work time per patient was 12 h 11 min for technicians, 2 h 59 min for physicists, and 7 h 6 min for physicians. The modular system of time measurement proved to be reliable and produced comparable data at the different centers. Therefore, the German Society of Radiation Oncology (DEGRO) decided that it can be extended to other types of cancer (head and neck, prostate, and breast cancer) with appropriate modifications.

  11. Design and operation of dust measuring instrumentation based on the beta-radiation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilienfeld, P.

    1975-01-01

    The theory, instrument design aspects and applications of beta-radiation attenuation for the measurement of the mass concentration of airborne particulates are reviewed. Applicable methods of particle collection, beta sensing configurations, source ( 63 Ni, 14 C, 147 Pr, 85 Kr) and detector design criteria, electronic signal processing, digital control and instrument programming techniques are treated. Advantages, limitations and error sources of beta-attenuation instrumentation are analyzed. Applications to industrial dust measurements, source testing, ambient monitoring, and particle size analysis are the major areas of practical utilization of this technique, and its inherent capability for automated and unattended operation provides compatibility with process control synchronization and alarm, telemetry, and incorporation into pollution monitoring network sensing stations. (orig.) [de

  12. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  13. Patterns of North African dust transport over the Atlantic: winter vs. summer, based on CALIPSO first year data

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Ben-Ami; I. Koren; O. Altaratz

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important factors that determine the transported dust effect on the atmosphere is its vertical distribution. In this study the vertical structure of North African dust and stratiform low clouds is analyzed over the Atlantic Ocean for the 2006–2007 boreal winter (December–February) and boreal summer of 2006 (June–August). By using the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) backscatter measurements over the dust routes, we describe the differ...

  14. [Occupational exposure to silica dust by selected sectors of national economy in Poland based on electronic database].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak-Pietrek, Stella; Mikołajczyk, Urszula; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena; Stroszejn-Mrowca, Grazyna

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate occupational exposure to dusts, the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine in Łódź, in collaboration with the Chief Sanitary Inspectorate, has developed the national database to store the results of routine dust exposure measurements performed by occupational hygiene and environmental protection laboratories in Poland in the years 2001-2005. It was assumed that the collected information will be useful in analyzing workers' exposure to free crystalline silica (WKK)-containing dusts in Poland, identyfing exceeded hygiene standards and showing relevant trends, which illustrate the dynamics of exposure in the years under study. Inhalable and respirable dust measurement using personal dosimetry were done according to polish standard PN-91/Z-04030/05 and PN-91/Z-04030/06. In total, 148 638 measurement records, provided by sanitary inspection services from all over Poland, were entered into the database. The database enables the estimation of occupational exposure to dust by the sectors of national economy, according to the Polish Classification of Activity (PKD) and by kinds of dust. The highest exposure level of inhalable and respirable dusts was found in coal mining. Also in this sector, almost 60% of surveys demonstrated exceeded current hygiene standards. High concentrations of both dust fractions (inhalable and respirable) and a considerable percentage of measurements exceeding hygiene standards were found in the manufacture of transport equipment (except for cars), as well as in the chemical, mining (rock, sand, gravel, clay mines) and construction industries. The highest percentage of surveys (inhalable and respirable dust) showing exceeded hygiene standards were observed for coal dust with different content of crystalline silica, organic dust containing more than 10% of SiO2, and highly fibrosis dust containing more than 50% of SiO2.

  15. Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Paul C.; Mason, Lee S.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2016-01-01

    High-efficiency radioisotope power generators will play an important role in future NASA space exploration missions. Stirling Radioisotope Generators (SRGs) have been identified as a candidate generator technology capable of providing mission designers with an efficient, high-specific-power electrical generator. SRGs high conversion efficiency has the potential to extend the limited Pu-238 supply when compared with current Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs). Due to budgetary constraints, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) was canceled in the fall of 2013. Over the past year a joint study by NASA and the Department of Energy (DOE) called the Nuclear Power Assessment Study (NPAS) recommended that Stirling technologies continue to be explored. During the mission studies of the NPAS, spare SRGs were sometimes required to meet mission power system reliability requirements. This led to an additional mass penalty and increased isotope consumption levied on certain SRG-based missions. In an attempt to remove the spare power system, a new generator architecture is considered, which could increase the reliability of a Stirling generator and provide a more fault-tolerant power system. This new generator called the Modular Stirling Radioisotope Generator (MSRG) employs multiple parallel Stirling convertor/controller strings, all of which share the heat from the General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules. For this design, generators utilizing one to eight GPHS modules were analyzed, which provided about 50 to 450 W of direct current (DC) to the spacecraft, respectively. Four Stirling convertors are arranged around each GPHS module resulting in from 4 to 32 Stirling/controller strings. The convertors are balanced either individually or in pairs, and are radiatively coupled to the GPHS modules. Heat is rejected through the housing/radiator, which is similar in construction to the ASRG. Mass and power analysis for these systems indicate that specific

  16. Adaptive Modular Playware

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Þorsteinsson, Arnar Tumi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the concept of adaptive modular playware, where the playware adapts to the interaction of the individual user. We hypothesize that there are individual differences in user interaction capabilities and styles, and that adaptive playware may adapt to the individual user...

  17. Modularization of Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastern Arizona Coll., Thatcher.

    Eastern Arizona College has developed a modularized system of instruction for five vocational and vocationally related courses--Introduction to Business, Business Mathematics, English, Drafting, and Electronics. Each course is divided into independent segments of instruction and students have open-entry and exit options. This document reviews the…

  18. Modular co-ordination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blach, K.

    Notatet er på engelsk, idet det er lavet som et oplæg til den internationale standardiseringsorganisations (ISO) arbejde med målkoordinering i byggeriet. Materialet har også været forelagt ekspertgrupperne i CIB W24 og i International Modular Group. Det i notatet præsenterede materiale er blevet...

  19. MRV - Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridley, Justin; Bluethmann, Bill

    2015-01-01

    The Modular Robotic Vehicle, or MRV, completed in 2013, was developed at the Johnson Space Center in order to advance technologies which have applications for future vehicles both in space and on Earth. With seating for two people, MRV is a fully electric vehicle modeled as a "city car", suited for busy urban environments.

  20. Electrodynamic Dust Shield Demonstrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankie, Charles G.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the project was to design and manufacture a device to demonstrate a new technology developed by NASA's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory. The technology itself is a system which uses magnetic principles to remove regolith dust from its surface. This project was to create an enclosure that will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the invention to The Office of the Chief Technologist. ONE of the most important challenges of space exploration is actually caused by something very small and seemingly insignificant. Dust in space, most notably on the moon and Mars, has caused many unforeseen issues. Dirt and dust on Earth, while a nuisance, can be easily cleaned and kept at bay. However, there is considerably less weathering and erosion in space. As a result, the microscopic particles are extremely rough and abrasive. They are also electrostatically charged, so they cling to everything they make contact with. This was first noted to be a major problem during the Apollo missions. Dust would stick to the spacesuits, and could not be wiped off as predicted. Dust was brought back into the spacecraft, and was even inhaled by astronauts. This is a major health hazard. Atmospheric storms and other events can also cause dust to coat surfaces of spacecraft. This can cause abrasive damage to the craft. The coating can also reduce the effectiveness of thermal insulation and solar panels.' A group of engineers at Kennedy Space Center's Electrostatics and Surface Physics Laboratory have developed a new technology, called the Electrodynamic Dust Shield, to help alleviate these problems. It is based off of the electric curtain concept developed at NASA in 1967. "The EDS is an active dust mitigation technology that uses traveling electric fields to transport electrostatically charged dust particles along surfaces. To generate the traveling electric fields, the EDS consists of a multilayer dielectric coating with an embedded thin electrode grid

  1. A versatile and modular quasi optics-based 200 GHz dual dynamic nuclear polarization and electron paramagnetic resonance instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Ting Ann; Leavesley, Alisa; Lund, Alicia; Kaminker, Ilia; Han, Songi

    2016-03-01

    bridge will provide an efficient means to collect DNP data that is crucial for understanding the relationship between experimental and sample conditions, and the DNP performance. The modularity of this instrumental platform is suitable for future upgrades and extensions to include new experimental capabilities to meet contemporary DNP needs, including the simultaneous operation of two or more MW sources, time domain DNP, electron double resonance measurements, pulsed EPR operation, or simply the implementation of higher power MW amplifiers.

  2. A versatile and modular quasi optics-based 200GHz dual dynamic nuclear polarization and electron paramagnetic resonance instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Ting Ann; Leavesley, Alisa; Lund, Alicia; Kaminker, Ilia; Han, Songi

    2016-03-01

    bridge will provide an efficient means to collect DNP data that is crucial for understanding the relationship between experimental and sample conditions, and the DNP performance. The modularity of this instrumental platform is suitable for future upgrades and extensions to include new experimental capabilities to meet contemporary DNP needs, including the simultaneous operation of two or more MW sources, time domain DNP, electron double resonance measurements, pulsed EPR operation, or simply the implementation of higher power MW amplifiers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Modularization of Industrial Service Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Thomas; Hsuan, Juliana

    In this paper we examine how complex service processes can be dealt with through the lenses of modularization strategies. Through an illustrative case study of a manufacturer of industrial equipment for process industries we propose the use of the service modularity function to conceptualize...... and assess the service modularity of service offerings. The measured degree of modularity would allow us to sharpen our understanding of modularity in the context of industrial services, such as the role of standardization and component reuse on architecture flexibility. It would also provide a foundation...

  4. Electrostatic Dust Detector with Improved Sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyle, D.P.; Skinner, C.H.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2008-01-01

    Methods to measure the inventory of dust particles and to remove dust if it approaches safety limits will be required in next-step tokamaks such as ITER. An electrostatic dust detector, based on a fine grid of interlocking circuit traces, biased to 30 or 50 V, has been developed for the detection of dust on remote surfaces in air and vacuum environments. Gaining operational experience of dust detection on surfaces in tokamaks is important, however the level of dust generated in contemporary short-pulse tokamaks is comparatively low and high sensitivity is necessary to measure dust on a shot-by-shot basis. We report on modifications in the detection electronics that have increased the sensitivity of the electrostatic dust detector by a factor of up to 120, - a level suitable for measurements on contemporary tokamaks.

  5. Long-range transport of dust aerosols over the Arabian Sea and Indian region – A case study using satellite data and ground-based measurements

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Badarinath, K.V.S.; Kharol, S.K.; Kaskaoutis, D.G.; Sharma, A; Ramaswamy, V.; Kambezidis, H.D.

    The present study addresses an intense dust storm event over the Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea (AS) region and its transport over the Indian subcontinent using multi-satellite observations and ground-based measurements. A time series of Indian...

  6. Air pollution assessment based on elemental concentration of leaves tissue and foliage dust along an urbanization gradient in Vienna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Vidic, Andreas; Bogyó, Dávid; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2011-05-01

    Foliage dust contains heavy metal that may have harmful effects on human health. The elemental contents of tree leaves and foliage dust are especially useful to assess air environmental pollution. We studied the elemental concentrations in foliage dust and leaves of Acer pseudoplatanus along an urbanization gradient in Vienna, Austria. Samples were collected from urban, suburban and rural areas. We analysed 19 elements in both kind of samples: aluminium, barium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphor, sulphur, strontium and zinc. We found that the elemental concentrations of foliage dust were significantly higher in the urban area than in the rural area for aluminium, barium, iron, lead, phosphor and selenium. Elemental concentrations of leaves were significantly higher in urban than in rural area for manganese and strontium. Urbanization changed significantly the elemental concentrations of foliage dust and leaves and the applied method can be useful for monitoring the environmental load. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Paleoclimatic scales in the past 800ka based on the high resolution EDC dust record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Fabrice; Lovejoy, Shaun

    2017-04-01

    Dust fluxes from the East Antarctic EPICA Dome C ice-core with unprecedented near complete 25 year resolution over more than 800 kyrs are systematically analyzed over 8 glacial-interglacial cycles and within each cycle over 8 "phases", each "phase" a successive segments of a cycle. This is the first scaling analysis that has documented systematic changes within the ice age cycle while confirming the relative robustness of the cycle itself over 8 cycles. We find that whereas there is relatively little systematic variation from one ice age to another, there is a strong dependency of the scale by scale variability (as revealed by scaling fluctuation analysis) on the phase of the ice age. The analysis reveales that the transition scale from macroweather to climate (from fluctuations decreasing with scale to fluctuation increasing with scale) starts off in the range 1 - 2kyrs in the first two phases (i.e. at the end of a cycle), but then decreases to ca. 300 years over the last 6 phases (the long glacial inception). A long transition scale means that fluctuations at a fixed scale (e.g. 10 kyr) will be small since they have not had much of a range of time scales over which to develop. We also consider the intermittency, the tendency for the series to be "spiky", non Gaussian. We find a similar transition for medium intermittency - comparable to turbulence - to high intermittency over the middle phases (intermediate glacial conditions). Finally, we examine the probability distributions of concentration changes at the 25 year scale. This shows that the fluctuations are of the extreme power law, "fat tailed" type associated with "black swan" events.

  8. A Steady-State Analysis Method for Modular Multilevel Converters Connected to Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator-Based Wind Energy Conversion Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Modular multilevel converters (MMCs have shown great potential in the area of multi-megawatt wind energy conversion system (WECS based on permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs. However, the studies in this area are few, and most of them refer to the MMC used in high-voltage direct current (HVDC systems, and hence the characteristics of the PMSG are not considered. This paper proposes a steady-state analysis method for MMCs connected to a PMSG-based WECS. In the proposed method, only the wind speed (operating condition is required as input, and all the electrical quantities in the MMC, including the amplitudes, phase angles and their harmonics, can be calculated step by step. The analysis method is built on the proposed d-q frame mathematical model. Interactions of electrical quantities between the MMC and PMSG are comprehensively considered. Moreover, a new way to calculate the average switching functions are adopted in order to improve the accuracy of the analysis method. Applications of the proposed method are also presented, which includes the characteristic analysis of capacitor voltage ripples and the capacitor sizing. Finally, the accuracy of the method and the correctness of the analysis are verified by simulations and experiments.

  9. PLM system support for modular product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Hans Peter Lomholt; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Harlou, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    A modular design strategy both enables, but also demands, parallelism in design activities and collaboration between a diversity of disciplines in companies, which often involves supporting computer-based tools for enhancing interaction, design management, and communication. Product data management...... (PDM) and product lifecycle management (PLM) systems offer support by automating and managing some of the operational complexity of modular design activities. PLM system tools are used for handling a variety of product definitions, to manage workflow of development activities, and to measure relational...... properties such as cost and performance. Companies often use a PLM tool for management of CAD files, documents, and drawings, but they do not take advantage of the full potential of the PLM system to support the development activities of modular product designs. The key result of this paper...

  10. Decentralized and Modular Electrical Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elisabelar, Christian; Lebaratoux, Laurence

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents the studies made on the definition and design of a decentralized and modular electrical architecture that can be used for power distribution, active thermal control (ATC), standard inputs-outputs electrical interfaces.Traditionally implemented inside central unit like OBC or RTU, these interfaces can be dispatched in the satellite by using MicroRTU.CNES propose a similar approach of MicroRTU. The system is based on a bus called BRIO (Bus Réparti des IO), which is composed, by a power bus and a RS485 digital bus. BRIO architecture is made with several miniature terminals called BTCU (BRIO Terminal Control Unit) distributed in the spacecraft.The challenge was to design and develop the BTCU with very little volume, low consumption and low cost. The standard BTCU models are developed and qualified with a configuration dedicated to ATC, while the first flight model will fly on MICROSCOPE for PYRO actuations and analogue acquisitions. The design of the BTCU is made in order to be easily adaptable for all type of electric interface needs.Extension of this concept is envisaged for power conditioning and distribution unit, and a Modular PCDU based on BRIO concept is proposed.

  11. Aspects and modular reasoning in nonmonotonic logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostermann, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    Nonmonotonic logic is a branch of logic that has been developed to model situations with incomplete information. We argue that there is a connection between AOP and nonmonotonic logic which deserves further study. As a concrete technical contribution and "appetizer", we outline an AO semantics de...... defined in default logic (a form of nonmonotonic logic), propose a definition of modular reasoning, and show that the default logic version of the language semantics admits modular reasoning whereas a conventional language semantics based on weaving does not....

  12. Modular radwaste volume reduction and solidification systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, E.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes both the modular transportable and the modular mobile liquid radwaste volume reduction and solidification units based on a General Electric Company developed and patented process called AZTECH (a trademark of GE). An AZTECH system removes all water by azeotropic distillation and encapsulates the remaining solids in a polyester compound. The resulting monolith is suitable for either long term above ground storage or shallow land burial. Pilot and demonstration plant testing has confirmed the design parameters. The three processing modules are covered together with data which resulted in Nuclear Regulatory Commission approval on Dec. 30, 1985

  13. Modular chemiresistive sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Maksudul M.; Sampathkumaran, Uma

    2018-02-20

    The present invention relates to a modular chemiresistive sensor. In particular, a modular chemiresistive sensor for hypergolic fuel and oxidizer leak detection, carbon dioxide monitoring and detection of disease biomarkers. The sensor preferably has two gold or platinum electrodes mounted on a silicon substrate where the electrodes are connected to a power source and are separated by a gap of 0.5 to 4.0 .mu.M. A polymer nanowire or carbon nanotube spans the gap between the electrodes and connects the electrodes electrically. The electrodes are further connected to a circuit board having a processor and data storage, where the processor can measure current and voltage values between the electrodes and compare the current and voltage values with current and voltage values stored in the data storage and assigned to particular concentrations of a pre-determined substance such as those listed above or a variety of other substances.

  14. Fast quantum modular exponentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meter, Rodney van; Itoh, Kohei M.

    2005-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the impact on quantum modular exponentiation of architectural features and possible concurrent gate execution. Various arithmetic algorithms are evaluated for execution time, potential concurrency, and space trade-offs. We find that to exponentiate an n-bit number, for storage space 100n (20 times the minimum 5n), we can execute modular exponentiation 200-700 times faster than optimized versions of the basic algorithms, depending on architecture, for n=128. Addition on a neighbor-only architecture is limited to O(n) time, whereas non-neighbor architectures can reach O(log n), demonstrating that physical characteristics of a computing device have an important impact on both real-world running time and asymptotic behavior. Our results will help guide experimental implementations of quantum algorithms and devices

  15. Modular Mobile Application Design

    OpenAIRE

    Jim Hahn; Nathaniel Ryckman

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the development of the Minrva library app for Android phones. The decisions to build a native application with Java and use a modular design are discussed. The application includes five modules: catalog search, in-building navigation, a barcode scanning feature, and up to date notifications of circulating technology availability. A sixth module, Amazon recommendations, that is not included in the version of the app that was released is also discussed. The article also r...

  16. MUSIC, MODULARITY AND SYNTAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Valenzuela

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available First generation cognitive science has always maintained that the mind/brain is a modular system. This has been especially apparent in linguistics, where the modularity thesis goes largely unquestioned by the linguistic mainstream. Cognitive linguists have long disputed the reality of modular architectures of grammar. Instead of conceiving syntax as a computational system of a relatively small set of formal principles and parameters, cognitive linguists take the notion of grammatical construction to be the basic unit of syntax: syntax is simply our repertoire of form-meaning pairings. On such a view, there is no a-priori reason to believe that semantics and phonology cannot affect syntax. In the present paper, we want to take things a step further and suggest, more generally, that language is not a module of cognition in any strict sense. We present preliminary results from research in progress concerning the effect of music on grammatical constructions. More specifically, our experiment compares reaction times between two grammatical constructions that differ in semantics and intonational curves but share lexical material. Our data so far suggests that subjects take less time reading the construction when the semantic bias and intonation match than in non-matching cases. This, we argue, suggests not only that semantics, phonology and syntax form an information bundle (i.e. a construction in the cognitive linguistic sense, but that perceived similarity of music can influence linguistic cognition.

  17. OFF, Open source Finite volume Fluid dynamics code: A free, high-order solver based on parallel, modular, object-oriented Fortran API

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaghi, S.

    2014-07-01

    OFF, an open source (free software) code for performing fluid dynamics simulations, is presented. The aim of OFF is to solve, numerically, the unsteady (and steady) compressible Navier-Stokes equations of fluid dynamics by means of finite volume techniques: the research background is mainly focused on high-order (WENO) schemes for multi-fluids, multi-phase flows over complex geometries. To this purpose a highly modular, object-oriented application program interface (API) has been developed. In particular, the concepts of data encapsulation and inheritance available within Fortran language (from standard 2003) have been stressed in order to represent each fluid dynamics "entity" (e.g. the conservative variables of a finite volume, its geometry, etc…) by a single object so that a large variety of computational libraries can be easily (and efficiently) developed upon these objects. The main features of OFF can be summarized as follows: Programming LanguageOFF is written in standard (compliant) Fortran 2003; its design is highly modular in order to enhance simplicity of use and maintenance without compromising the efficiency; Parallel Frameworks Supported the development of OFF has been also targeted to maximize the computational efficiency: the code is designed to run on shared-memory multi-cores workstations and distributed-memory clusters of shared-memory nodes (supercomputers); the code's parallelization is based on Open Multiprocessing (OpenMP) and Message Passing Interface (MPI) paradigms; Usability, Maintenance and Enhancement in order to improve the usability, maintenance and enhancement of the code also the documentation has been carefully taken into account; the documentation is built upon comprehensive comments placed directly into the source files (no external documentation files needed): these comments are parsed by means of doxygen free software producing high quality html and latex documentation pages; the distributed versioning system referred as git

  18. [Modular enteral nutrition in pediatrics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Sanchís, S; Prenafeta Ferré, M T; Sempere Luque, M D

    1991-01-01

    Modular Enteral Nutrition may be a substitute for Parenteral Nutrition in children with different pathologies. Study of 4 children with different pathologies selected from a group of 40 admitted to the Maternal-Childrens Hospital "Valle de Hebrón" in Barcelona, who received modular enteral nutrition. They were monitored on a daily basis by the Dietician Service. Modular enteral nutrition consists of modules of proteins, peptides, lipids, glucids and mineral salts-vitamins. 1.--Craneo-encephalic traumatisms with loss of consciousness, Feeding with a combination of parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition for 7 days. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended and modular enteral nutrition alone used up to a total of 43 days. 2.--55% burns with 36 days of hyperproteic modular enteral nutrition together with normal feeding. A more rapid recovery was achieved with an increase in total proteins and albumin. 3.--Persistent diarrhoea with 31 days of modular enteral nutrition, 5 days on parenteral nutrition alone and 8 days on combined parenteral nutrition and modular enteral nutrition. In view of the tolerance and good results of the modular enteral nutrition, the parenteral nutrition was suspended. 4.--Mucoviscidosis with a total of 19 days on modular enteral nutrition, 12 of which were exclusively on modular enteral nutrition and 7 as a night supplement to normal feeding. We administered proteic intakes of up to 20% of the total calorific intake and in concentrations of up to 1.2 calories/ml of the final preparation, always with a good tolerance. Modular enteral nutrition can and should be used as a substitute for parenteral nutrition in children with different pathologies, thus preventing the complications inherent in parenteral nutrition.

  19. Modular Regiospecific Synthesis of Nitrated Fatty Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hock, Katharina J.; Grimmer, Jennifer; Göbel, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous nitrated fatty acids are an important class of signaling molecules. Herein a modular route for the efficient and regiospecific preparation of nitrooleic acids as well as various analogues is described. The approach is based on a simple set of alkyl halides as common building blocks...

  20. Building blocks for modular data acquisition systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, B

    1996-12-31

    The principles of building blocks for modular data acquisition systems by means of the VIC bus are discussed. Real time operating systems based on the VME environment for program development drastically reducing the time needed to develop a working system. 4 figs.

  1. Modular sequent calculi for classical modal logics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gilbert, David; Maffezioli, Paolo

    This paper develops sequent calculi for several classical modal logics. Utilizing a polymodal translation of the standard modal language, we are able to establish a base system for the minimal classical modal logic E from which we generate extensions (to include M, C, and N) in a modular manner. Our

  2. Modularity, Working Memory and Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baddeley, Alan D.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of modularity is used to contrast the approach to working memory proposed by Truscott with the Baddeley and Hitch multicomponent model. This proposes four sub components comprising the "central executive," an executive control system of limited attentional capacity that utilises storage based on separate but interlinked…

  3. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  4. Modular interpreters with implicit context propagation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Inostroza Valdera (Pablo); T. van der Storm (Tijs)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractModular interpreters are a crucial first step towards component-based language development: instead of writing language interpreters from scratch, they can be assembled from reusable, semantic building blocks. Unfortunately, traditional language interpreters can be hard to extend because

  5. NMOS-Based Integrated Modular Bypass for Use in Solar Systems (NIMBUS: Intelligent Bypass for Reducing Partial Shading Power Loss in Solar Panel Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Bauwens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available NMOS-based Integrated Modular Bypass for Use in Solar systems (NIMBUS is designed as a replacement for the traditional bypass diode, used in common solar panels. Because of the series connection between the individual solar cells, the power output of a photovoltaic (PV panel will drop disproportionally under partial shading. Currently, this is solved by dividing the PV panel into substrings, each with a diode bypass placed in parallel. This allows an alternative current path. However, the diodes still have a significant voltage drop (about 350 mV, and due to the fairly large currents in a panel, the diodes are dissipating power that we would rather see at the output of the panel. The NIMBUS chip, being a low-voltage-drop switch, aims to replace these diodes and, thus, reduce that power loss. NIMBUS is a smart bypass: a completely stand-alone system that detects the failing of one or more cells and activates when necessary. It is designed for a 100-mV voltage drop under a 5-A load current. When two or more NIMBUS chips are placed in parallel, an internal synchronization circuit ensures proper operation to provide for larger load currents. This paper will elaborate on the operation, design and implementation of the NIMBUS chip, as well as on the first measurements.

  6. Representing and Reasoning with the Internet of Things: a Modular Rule-Based Model for Ensembles of Context-Aware Smart Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. Loke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Context-aware smart things are capable of computational behaviour based on sensing the physical world, inferring context from the sensed data, and acting on the sensed context. A collection of such things can form what we call a thing-ensemble, when they have the ability to communicate with one another (over a short range network such as Bluetooth, or the Internet, i.e. the Internet of Things (IoT concept, sense each other, and when each of them might play certain roles with respect to each other. Each smart thing in a thing-ensemble might have its own context-aware behaviours which when integrated with other smart things yield behaviours that are not straightforward to reason with. We present Sigma, a language of operators, inspired from modular logic programming, for specifying and reasoning with combined behaviours among smart things in a thing-ensemble. We show numerous examples of the use of Sigma for describing a range of behaviours over a diverse range of thing-ensembles, from sensor networks to smart digital frames, demonstrating the versatility of our approach. We contend that our operator approach abstracts away low-level communication and protocol details, and allows systems of context-aware things to be designed and built in a compositional and incremental manner.

  7. Characterization of east Asian dust outbreaks in the spring of 2001 using ground-based and satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darmenova, Kremena; Sokolik, Irina N.; Darmenov, Anton

    2005-01-01

    This study presents a detailed examination of east Asian dust events during March-April of 2001, by combining satellite multisensor observation (Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS)) meteorological data from weather stations in China and Mongolia and the Pennsylania State University/National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Modeling System (MM5) driven by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Reanalysis data. The main goal is to determine the extent to which the routine surface meteorological observations (including visibility) and satellite data can be used to characterize the spatiotemporal distribution of dust plumes at a range of scales. We also examine the potential of meteorological time series for constraining the dust emission schemes used in aerosol transport models. Thirty-five dust events were identified in the source region during March and April of 2001 and characterized on a case-by-case basis. The midrange transport routes were reconstructed on the basis of visibility observations and observed and MM5-predicted winds with further validation against satellite data. We demonstrate that the combination of visibility data, TOMS aerosol index, MODIS aerosol optical depth over the land, and a qualitative analysis of MODIS and SeaWiFS imagery enables us to constrain the regions of origin of dust outbreaks and midrange transport, though various limitations of individual data sets were revealed in detecting dust over the land. Only two long-range transport episodes were found. The transport routes and coverage of these dust episodes were reconstructed by using MODIS aerosol optical depth and TOMS aerosol index. Our analysis reveals that over the oceans the presence of persistent clouds poses a main problem in identifying the regions affected by dust transport, so only partial reconstruction of dust transport routes reaching the

  8. Dust analysis on board the Destiny+ mission to 3200 Phaethon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, H.; Kobayashi, M.; Arai, T.; Srama, R.; Sarli, B. V.; Kimura, H.; Moragas-Klostermeyer, G.; Soja, R.; Altobelli, N.; Grün, E.

    2017-09-01

    The Japanese Destiny+ spacecraft will be launched to the active asteroid 3200 Phaethon in 2022. Among the proposed core payload is an in-situ dust instrument based on the Cassini Cosmic Dust Analyzer. We use the ESA Interplanetary Meteoroid Engineering Model (IMEM), to study detection conditions and fluences of interplanetary and interstellar dust with a dust analyzer on board Destiny+.

  9. Novel diagnostics for dust in space, Laboratory and fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castaldo, C.

    2011-01-01

    In situ diagnostics for mobile dust, based on dust impact ionization phenomena, as well as silica aerogel dust collectors are discussed for applications to space and fusion plasmas. The feasibility of an electro-optical probe to detect hypervelocity (>1 km/s) dust particles in tokamaks is evaluated. For quiescent plasmas, a diagnostic of submicron dust based on measurements of plasma fluctuation spectra can be used (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  10. Hierarchical functional modularity in the resting-state human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrarini, Luca; Veer, Ilya M; Baerends, Evelinda; van Tol, Marie-José; Renken, Remco J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Veltman, Dirk J; Aleman, André; Zitman, Frans G; Penninx, Brenda W J H; van Buchem, Mark A; Reiber, Johan H C; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Milles, Julien

    2009-07-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have shown that anatomically distinct brain regions are functionally connected during the resting state. Basic topological properties in the brain functional connectivity (BFC) map have highlighted the BFC's small-world topology. Modularity, a more advanced topological property, has been hypothesized to be evolutionary advantageous, contributing to adaptive aspects of anatomical and functional brain connectivity. However, current definitions of modularity for complex networks focus on nonoverlapping clusters, and are seriously limited by disregarding inclusive relationships. Therefore, BFC's modularity has been mainly qualitatively investigated. Here, we introduce a new definition of modularity, based on a recently improved clustering measurement, which overcomes limitations of previous definitions, and apply it to the study of BFC in resting state fMRI of 53 healthy subjects. Results show hierarchical functional modularity in the brain. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  11. Towards Versatile Robots Through Open Heterogeneous Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyder, Andreas

    arises, a new robot can be assembled rapidly from the existing modules, in contrast to conventional robots, which require a time consuming and expensive development process. In this thesis we define a modular robot to be a robot consisting of dynamically reconfigurable modules. The goal of this thesis......Robots are important tools in our everyday life. Both in industry and at the consumer level they serve the purpose of increasing our scope and extending our capabilities. Modular robots take the next step, allowing us to easily create and build various robots from a set of modules. If a problem...... is to increase the versatility and practical usability of modular robots by introducing new conceptual designs. Until now modular robots have been based on a pre-specified set of modules, and thus, their functionality is limited. We propose an open heterogeneous design concept, which allows a modular robot...

  12. Adopting Product Modularity in House Building to Support Mass Customisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília G. da Rocha

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Product modularity is a concept that can contribute to the improvement of product quality and production efficiency in house-building. However, there is a lack of consensus in the literature on the concepts that define product modularity. Furthermore, little attention has been given to the differences between building construction and manufacturing, for which product modularity was originally developed. This research aims to address that gap by adapting the conceptualization of product modularity so that it can effectively be used in the house-building industry. The methodological approach adopted in this study was Design Science Research, and two empirical studies were carried out on construction companies based in Brazil and in the U.K. Those studies are used to illustrate the applicability and utility of the proposed concepts and tools. Research findings indicate that the adoption of product modularity concepts results in benefits to both traditional construction technologies and pre-fabricated building systems.

  13. [Estimation of the effect derived from wind erosion of soil and dust emission in Tianjin suburbs on the central district based on WEPS model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li; Han, Ting-Ting; Li, Tao; Ji, Ya-Qin; Bai, Zhi-Peng; Wang, Bin

    2012-07-01

    Due to the lack of a prediction model for current wind erosion in China and the slow development for such models, this study aims to predict the wind erosion of soil and the dust emission and develop a prediction model for wind erosion in Tianjin by investigating the structure, parameter systems and the relationships among the parameter systems of the prediction models for wind erosion in typical areas, using the U.S. wind erosion prediction system (WEPS) as reference. Based on the remote sensing technique and the test data, a parameter system was established for the prediction model of wind erosion and dust emission, and a model was developed that was suitable for the prediction of wind erosion and dust emission in Tianjin. Tianjin was divided into 11 080 blocks with a resolution of 1 x 1 km2, among which 7 778 dust emitting blocks were selected. The parameters of the blocks were localized, including longitude, latitude, elevation and direction, etc.. The database files of blocks were localized, including wind file, climate file, soil file and management file. The weps. run file was edited. Based on Microsoft Visualstudio 2008, secondary development was done using C + + language, and the dust fluxes of 7 778 blocks were estimated, including creep and saltation fluxes, suspension fluxes and PM10 fluxes. Based on the parameters of wind tunnel experiments in Inner Mongolia, the soil measurement data and climate data in suburbs of Tianjin, the wind erosion module, wind erosion fluxes, dust emission release modulus and dust release fluxes were calculated for the four seasons and the whole year in suburbs of Tianjin. In 2009, the total creep and saltation fluxes, suspension fluxes and PM10 fluxes in the suburbs of Tianjin were 2.54 x 10(6) t, 1.25 x 10(7) t and 9.04 x 10(5) t, respectively, among which, the parts pointing to the central district were 5.61 x 10(5) t, 2.89 x 10(6) t and 2.03 x 10(5) t, respectively.

  14. Evaluation of Application Methods and Products for Mitigating Dust for Lines-of-Communication and Base Camp Operations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rushing, John F; Harrison, J. A; Tingle, Jeb S

    2005-01-01

    ...) and one for Sustainment use on roads and other large area applications. The project consisted of evaluating various dust palliatives and application equipment under controlled laboratory conditions and during field tests...

  15. Model engineering in a modular PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedlhuber, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    developed at EDF R and D to test and evaluate the concepts around a modular PSA. Andromeda is based on a modular and extensible architecture that can be customized to specific needs of customers. Apart from research interest, it has recently gained industrial interest. Andromeda has potential to complete existing PSA tools by specific functionality and to enforce the international PSA community around common modeling standards and techniques. (author)

  16. Patterns of Saharan dust transport over the Atlantic: winter vs. summer, based on CALIPSO first year data

    OpenAIRE

    Y. Ben-Ami; I. Koren; O. Altaratz

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important factors that determines the transported dust effect is its vertical distribution in the atmosphere. Until the launch of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO), the vertical distribution was studied mostly by in-situ measurements and models. CALIPSO, as a part of the A-Train constellation has opened an opportunity to study the transported dust vertical structure in a large number of events (sufficient statistics).
    <...

  17. Modular organization and hospital performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Ludwig; Vera, Antonio

    2007-02-01

    The concept of modularization represents a modern form of organization, which contains the vertical disaggregation of the firm and the use of market mechanisms within hierarchies. The objective of this paper is to examine whether the use of modular structures has a positive effect on hospital performance. The empirical section makes use of multiple regression analyses and leads to the main result that modularization does not have a positive effect on hospital performance. However, the analysis also finds out positive efficiency effects of two central ideas of modularization, namely process orientation and internal market mechanisms.

  18. Robotic hand with modular extensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Quigley, Morgan

    2015-01-20

    A robotic device is described herein. The robotic device includes a frame that comprises a plurality of receiving regions that are configured to receive a respective plurality of modular robotic extensions. The modular robotic extensions are removably attachable to the frame at the respective receiving regions by way of respective mechanical fuses. Each mechanical fuse is configured to trip when a respective modular robotic extension experiences a predefined load condition, such that the respective modular robotic extension detaches from the frame when the load condition is met.

  19. Valorization of GaN based metal-organic chemical vapor deposition dust a semiconductor power device industry waste through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching: A sustainable green process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, Basudev; Mishra, Chinmayee; Lee, Chan Gi; Park, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Kun-Jae

    2015-07-01

    Dust generated during metal organic vapor deposition (MOCVD) process of GaN based semiconductor power device industry contains significant amounts of gallium and indium. These semiconductor power device industry wastes contain gallium as GaN and Ga0.97N0.9O0.09 is a concern for the environment which can add value through recycling. In the present study, this waste is recycled through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching. For quantitative recovery of gallium, two different mechanochemical oxidation leaching process flow sheets are proposed. In one process, first the Ga0.97N0.9O0.09 of the MOCVD dust is leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally re-leached. In the second process, the MOCVD waste dust is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally leached. Both of these treatment processes are competitive with each other, appropriate for gallium leaching and treatment of the waste MOCVD dust. Without mechanochemical oxidation, 40.11 and 1.86 w/w% of gallium and Indium are leached using 4M HCl, 100°C and pulp density of 100 kg/m(3,) respectively. After mechanochemical oxidation, both these processes achieved 90 w/w% of gallium and 1.86 w/w% of indium leaching at their optimum condition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Patterns of North African dust transport over the Atlantic: winter vs. summer, based on CALIPSO first year data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Ben-Ami

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important factors that determine the transported dust effect on the atmosphere is its vertical distribution. In this study the vertical structure of North African dust and stratiform low clouds is analyzed over the Atlantic Ocean for the 2006–2007 boreal winter (December–February and boreal summer of 2006 (June–August. By using the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO backscatter measurements over the dust routes, we describe the differences in dust transport between the seasons. We show a bi-modal distribution of the average dust plumes height in both seasons (it is less clear in the winter. The higher plume top height is 5.1±0.4 km, near the African coast line in the summer and 3.7±0.4 km in the winter. The lower plume merges with the marine boundary layer, in both seasons. Our study suggests that a significant part of the dust is transported near and within the marine boundary layer and interacts with low stratiform clouds.

  1. A new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis for major, trace and ultra-trace element determination in atmospheric mineral dust from polar ice cores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baccolo, Giovanni, E-mail: giovanni.baccolo@mib.infn.it [Graduate School in Polar Sciences, University of Siena, Via Laterina 8, 53100, Siena (Italy); Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milano (Italy); INFN, Section of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Clemenza, Massimiliano [INFN, Section of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Delmonte, Barbara [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milano (Italy); Maffezzoli, Niccolò [Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Institute, Juliane Maries Vej, 30, 2100, Copenhagen (Denmark); Nastasi, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio [INFN, Section of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy); Prata, Michele; Salvini, Andrea [LENA, University of Pavia, Pavia (Italy); Maggi, Valter [Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 1, 20126, Milano (Italy); INFN, Section of Milano-Bicocca, P.zza della Scienza 3, 20126, Milano (Italy)

    2016-05-30

    Dust found in polar ice core samples present extremely low concentrations, in addition the availability of such samples is usually strictly limited. For these reasons the chemical and physical analysis of polar ice cores is an analytical challenge. In this work a new method based on low background instrumental neutron activation analysis (LB-INAA) for the multi-elemental characterization of the insoluble fraction of dust from polar ice cores is presented. Thanks to an accurate selection of the most proper materials and procedures it was possible to reach unprecedented analytical performances, suitable for ice core analyses. The method was applied to Antarctic ice core samples. Five samples of atmospheric dust (μg size) from ice sections of the Antarctic Talos Dome ice core were prepared and analyzed. A set of 37 elements was quantified, spanning from all the major elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Mn and Fe) to trace ones, including 10 (La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Ho, Tm, Yb and Lu) of the 14 natural occurring lanthanides. The detection limits are in the range of 10{sup −13}–10{sup −6} g, improving previous results of 1–3 orders of magnitude depending on the element; uncertainties lies between 4% and 60%. - Highlights: • A new method based on neutron activation for the multi-elemental characterization of atmospheric dust entrapped in polar ice cores is proposed. • 37 elements were quantified in μg size dust samples with detection limits ranging from 10{sup −13} to 10{sup −6} g. • A low background approach and a clean analytical protocol improved INAA performances to unprecedented levels for multi-elemental analyses.

  2. Development of a composite large-size SiPM (assembled matrix) based modular detector cluster for MAGIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, A.; Mazin, D.; Bangale, P.; Dettlaff, A.; Fink, D.; Grundner, F.; Haberer, W.; Maier, R.; Mirzoyan, R.; Podkladkin, S.; Teshima, M.; Wetteskind, H.

    2017-02-01

    The MAGIC collaboration operates two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) on the Canary Island of La Palma. Each of the two telescopes is currently equipped with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) based imaging camera. Due to the advances in the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), they are becoming a widely used alternative to PMTs in many research fields including gamma-ray astronomy. Within the Otto-Hahn group at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, we are developing a SiPM based detector module for a possible upgrade of the MAGIC cameras and also for future experiments as, e.g., the Large Size Telescopes (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Because of the small size of individual SiPM sensors (6 mm×6 mm) with respect to the 1-inch diameter PMTs currently used in MAGIC, we use a custom-made matrix of SiPMs to cover the same detection area. We developed an electronic circuit to actively sum up and amplify the SiPM signals. Existing non-imaging hexagonal light concentrators (Winston cones) used in MAGIC have been modified for the angular acceptance of the SiPMs by using C++ based ray tracing simulations. The first prototype based detector module includes seven channels and was installed into the MAGIC camera in May 2015. We present the results of the first prototype and its performance as well as the status of the project and discuss its challenges.

  3. Development and Assessment of the Sand Dust Prediction Model by Utilizing Microwave-Based Satellite Soil Moisture and Reanalysis Datasets in East Asian Desert Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunglok Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For several decades, satellite-based microwave sensors have provided valuable soil moisture monitoring in various surface conditions. We have first developed a modeled aerosol optical depth (AOD dataset by utilizing Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS, Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2, and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS soil moisture datasets in order to estimate dust outbreaks over desert areas of East Asia. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer- (MODIS- based AOD products were used as reference datasets to validate the modeled AOD (MA. The SMOS-based MA (SMOS-MA dataset showed good correspondence with observed AOD (R-value: 0.56 compared to AMSR2- and GLDAS-based MA datasets, and it overestimated AOD compared to observed AOD. The AMSR2-based MA dataset was found to underestimate AOD, and it showed a relatively low R-value (0.35 with respect to observed AOD. Furthermore, SMOS-MA products were able to simulate the short-term AOD trends, having a high R-value (0.65. The results of this study may allow us to acknowledge the utilization of microwave-based soil moisture datasets for investigation of near-real time dust outbreak predictions and short-term dust outbreak trend analysis.

  4. Bio-based production of fuels and industrial chemicals by repurposing antibiotic-producing type I modular polyketide synthases: opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Keasling, Jay D; Katz, Leonard

    2017-04-01

    Complex polyketides comprise a large number of natural products that have broad application in medicine and agriculture. They are produced in bacteria and fungi from large enzyme complexes named type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) that are composed of multifunctional polypeptides containing discrete enzymatic domains organized into modules. The modular nature of PKSs has enabled a multitude of efforts to engineer the PKS genes to produce novel polyketides of predicted structure. We have repurposed PKSs to produce a number of short-chain mono- and di-carboxylic acids and ketones that could have applications as fuels or industrial chemicals.

  5. Bio-based production of fuels and industrial chemicals by repurposing antibiotic-producing type I modular polyketide synthases: opportunities and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Keasling, Jay D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Biological Systems and Engineering Division; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.; Joint BioEnergy Inst. (JBEI), Emeryville, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Bioengineering; Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering; Technical Univ. of Denmark, Horsholm (Denmark). Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability; Katz, Leonard [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). QB3 Inst.

    2016-11-16

    Complex polyketides comprise a large number of natural products that have broad application in medicine and agriculture. They are produced in bacteria and fungi from large enzyme complexes named type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) that are composed of multifunctional polypeptides containing discrete enzymatic domains organized into modules. The modular nature of PKSs has enabled a multitude of efforts to engineer the PKS genes to produce novel polyketides of predicted structure. Finally, we have repurposed PKSs to produce a number of short-chain mono- and di-carboxylic acids and ketones that could have applications as fuels or industrial chemicals.

  6. Modular gamma systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millegan, D.R.; Nixon, K.V.

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear safeguards requires sensitive, easily operated instruments for rapid inspection of personnel and vehicles to ensure that no uranium or plutonium is being diverted. Two portable gamma-ray detection systems have been developed. The Modular Gamma System (MGS) is very sensitive and two or more systems can be connected for even better performance. The multiunit configuration can be deployed by motor vehicle for search of large areas too extensive to search on foot. The Programmable Rate Monitor (PRM) is less sensitive but much smaller and therefore is more suitable for search of vehicles, personnel, or smaller areas. The PRM is programmable, which implements measurement and alarm algorithms for individual applications

  7. Emotion, Modularity and Rationalaction

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Manrique, Fernando; Universidad de Granada

    2009-01-01

    Contemporary theories of emotion view it as related to rational action. This paper begins stating two ways in which a system could be deemed rational, which I call the contributive and constitutive way. I assess the possibility whether emotion can be rational in both ways, as a system capable of producing rational action by itself. To this end I analyze the modular view of emotion, especially in a version of dual-system theory. I will argue that this view has at least two problems –the proble...

  8. Modular Mobile Application Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Hahn

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the development of the Minrva library app for Android phones. The decisions to build a native application with Java and use a modular design are discussed. The application includes five modules: catalog search, in-building navigation, a barcode scanning feature, and up to date notifications of circulating technology availability. A sixth module, Amazon recommendations, that is not included in the version of the app that was released is also discussed. The article also reports on the findings of two rounds of usability testing and the plans for future development of the app.

  9. Modular power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, T; Kanazawa, T

    1979-03-19

    In order to shorten the construction period of powerstations, to reduce the number of specialists at site and to prevent technical breakdowns, it was proposed that considerable parts of the powerstation should be assembled on a floating platform and then be towed to site by water, where they are set on foundations and then connected. It is now proposed that the necessary additional equipment (such as water supply plant, storage plant, Diesel generator and service buildings etc.) should be assembled on a second platform, and also transported by water on this. This modular construction will also reduce costs.

  10. Modular Biometric Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Alan J. (Inventor); Humphreys, Bradley T. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A modular system for acquiring biometric data includes a plurality of data acquisition modules configured to sample biometric data from at least one respective input channel at a data acquisition rate. A representation of the sampled biometric data is stored in memory of each of the plurality of data acquisition modules. A central control system is in communication with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules through a bus. The central control system is configured to control communication of data, via the bus, with each of the plurality of data acquisition modules.

  11. Development of a composite large-size SiPM (assembled matrix) based modular detector cluster for MAGIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, A., E-mail: ahahn@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Mazin, D., E-mail: mazin@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-Ha, Kashiwa City, Chiba 277–8582 (Japan); Bangale, P., E-mail: priya@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Dettlaff, A., E-mail: todettl@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Fink, D., E-mail: fink@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Grundner, F., E-mail: grundner@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Haberer, W., E-mail: haberer@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Maier, R., E-mail: rma@mpp.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Physics (Werner-Heisenberg-Institut), Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); and others

    2017-02-11

    The MAGIC collaboration operates two 17 m diameter Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) on the Canary Island of La Palma. Each of the two telescopes is currently equipped with a photomultiplier tube (PMT) based imaging camera. Due to the advances in the development of Silicon Photomultipliers (SiPMs), they are becoming a widely used alternative to PMTs in many research fields including gamma-ray astronomy. Within the Otto-Hahn group at the Max Planck Institute for Physics, Munich, we are developing a SiPM based detector module for a possible upgrade of the MAGIC cameras and also for future experiments as, e.g., the Large Size Telescopes (LST) of the Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA). Because of the small size of individual SiPM sensors (6 mm×6 mm) with respect to the 1-inch diameter PMTs currently used in MAGIC, we use a custom-made matrix of SiPMs to cover the same detection area. We developed an electronic circuit to actively sum up and amplify the SiPM signals. Existing non-imaging hexagonal light concentrators (Winston cones) used in MAGIC have been modified for the angular acceptance of the SiPMs by using C++ based ray tracing simulations. The first prototype based detector module includes seven channels and was installed into the MAGIC camera in May 2015. We present the results of the first prototype and its performance as well as the status of the project and discuss its challenges. - Highlights: • The design of the first SiPM large-size IACT pixel is described. • The simulation of the light concentrators is presented. • The temperature stability of the detector module is demonstrated. • The calibration procedure of SiPM device in the field is described.

  12. Dust collector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahourin, H.

    1988-03-22

    This invention relates to a dust collector or filter which may be used for large volume cleaning air for gases or for separating out industrial byproducts such as wood chips, sawdust, and shavings. It relies on filtration or separation using only a uniquely configured medium. A primary, but not exclusive, purpose of the invention is to enable very large throughput, capable of separating or filtering of gases containing up to three or more tons of byproduct with a minimum pressure-drop across the device. No preliminary cycloning, to remove major particulates is necessary. The collector generally comprises a continuous and integral filter medium which is suspended from a plurality of downwardly extending frames forming a series of separate elements having a triangular cross-section, each element being relatively wide at the top and narrow at the bottom to define, between adjacent elements, a divergent collecting space which is wide at the bottom. 11 figs.

  13. Dust Measurements in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, D; Yu, J; Boedo, J; Hollmann, E; Krasheninnikov, S; Moyer, R; Muller, S; Yu, A; Rosenberg, M; Smirnov, R; West, W; Boivin, R; Bray, B; Brooks, N; Hyatt, A; Wong, C; Fenstermacher, M; Groth, M; Lasnier, C; McLean, A; Stangeby, P; Ratynskaia, S; Roquemore, A; Skinner, C; Solomon, W M

    2008-01-01

    Dust production and accumulation impose safety and operational concerns for ITER. Diagnostics to monitor dust levels in the plasma as well as in-vessel dust inventory are currently being tested in a few tokamaks. Dust accumulation in ITER is likely to occur in hidden areas, e.g. between tiles and under divertor baffles. A novel electrostatic dust detector for monitoring dust in these regions has been developed and tested at PPPL. In DIII-D tokamak dust diagnostics include Mie scattering from Nd:YAG lasers, visible imaging, and spectroscopy. Laser scattering resolves size of particles between 0.16-1.6 (micro)m in diameter; the total dust content in the edge plasmas and trends in the dust production rates within this size range have been established. Individual dust particles are observed by visible imaging using fast-framing cameras, detecting dust particles of a few microns in diameter and larger. Dust velocities and trajectories can be determined in 2D with a single camera or 3D using multiple cameras, but determination of particle size is problematic. In order to calibrate diagnostics and benchmark dust dynamics modeling, pre-characterized carbon dust has been injected into the lower divertor of DIII-D. Injected dust is seen by cameras, and spectroscopic diagnostics observe an increase of carbon atomic, C2 dimer, and thermal continuum emissions from the injected dust. The latter observation can be used in the design of novel dust survey diagnostics

  14. A Chado case study: an ontology-based modular schema for representing genome-associated biological information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mungall, Christopher J; Emmert, David B

    2007-07-01

    A few years ago, FlyBase undertook to design a new database schema to store Drosophila data. It would fully integrate genomic sequence and annotation data with bibliographic, genetic, phenotypic and molecular data from the literature representing a distillation of the first 100 years of research on this major animal model system. In developing this new integrated schema, FlyBase also made a commitment to ensure that its design was generic, extensible and available as open source, so that it could be employed as the core schema of any model organism data repository, thereby avoiding redundant software development and potentially increasing interoperability. Our question was whether we could create a relational database schema that would be successfully reused. Chado is a relational database schema now being used to manage biological knowledge for a wide variety of organisms, from human to pathogens, especially the classes of information that directly or indirectly can be associated with genome sequences or the primary RNA and protein products encoded by a genome. Biological databases that conform to this schema can interoperate with one another, and with application software from the Generic Model Organism Database (GMOD) toolkit. Chado is distinctive because its design is driven by ontologies. The use of ontologies (or controlled vocabularies) is ubiquitous across the schema, as they are used as a means of typing entities. The Chado schema is partitioned into integrated subschemas (modules), each encapsulating a different biological domain, and each described using representations in appropriate ontologies. To illustrate this methodology, we describe here the Chado modules used for describing genomic sequences. GMOD is a collaboration of several model organism database groups, including FlyBase, to develop a set of open-source software for managing model organism data. The Chado schema is freely distributed under the terms of the Artistic License (http

  15. Modular and reconfigurable common PCB-platform of FPGA based LLRF control system for TESLA test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S. [Institute of Electronic Systems, Warsaw (Poland); Kierzkowski, K. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw (Poland)

    2005-07-01

    The paper includes a description of predicted functionalities to be implemented in a universal motherboard (MB) for the next generation of LLRF control system for TESLA. The motherboard bases on a number of quasi-autonomous embedded executive modules. The modules are implemented in a few FPGA chips featured by the MB. The paper presents a practical design of the MB. The initial (basic) solution of the MB has the Cyclone as the chip where the board management is embedded. The board features communication modules - VME and micro, single chip PC with Ethernet. The board provides power supply for the FPGA chips. The board has fast internal communication between particular modules. (orig.)

  16. Modular and reconfigurable common PCB-platform of FPGA based LLRF control system for TESLA test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozniak, K.T.; Romaniuk, R.S.; Kierzkowski, K.

    2005-01-01

    The paper includes a description of predicted functionalities to be implemented in a universal motherboard (MB) for the next generation of LLRF control system for TESLA. The motherboard bases on a number of quasi-autonomous embedded executive modules. The modules are implemented in a few FPGA chips featured by the MB. The paper presents a practical design of the MB. The initial (basic) solution of the MB has the Cyclone as the chip where the board management is embedded. The board features communication modules - VME and micro, single chip PC with Ethernet. The board provides power supply for the FPGA chips. The board has fast internal communication between particular modules. (orig.)

  17. A Climatology of Dust-Emission Events over North Africa Based on 27 Years of Surface Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowie, S.; Knippertz, P.; Schepanski, K.

    2012-04-01

    The huge quantity of mineral dust emitted annually from North Africa makes this area crucial to the global dust cycle. Once in the atmosphere, dust aerosols have a significant impact on the global radiation budget, clouds, the carbon cycle and can even act as a fertilizer to rain forests in South America. Current model estimates of dust production from North Africa are uncertain. At the heart of this problem is insufficient understanding of key dust emitting processes such as haboobs (cold pools generated through evaporation of convective precipitation), low-level jets (LLJs), and dry convection (dust devils and dust plumes). Scarce observations in this region, in particular in the Sahara, make model evaluation difficult. This work uses long-term surface observations from the MIDAS data set (~120 stations in the arid part of North Africa) to explore the diurnal, seasonal, decadal and geographical variations in dust emission events and their associated wind thresholds. The threshold values are determined from probability density functions of observed 10-minute anemomenter wind speeds. Emission events are defined using the present weather codes (WW) of SYNOP reports. These codes represent events of smaller intensity such as "Dust or sand raised by wind" to severe dust storms. During the 27-year study period (1984-2011) stations are required to have a minimum of 1000 dust observations to be included in the analysis. Dust emission frequency (DEF) is calculated for different time intervals (e.g. monthly, 3-hourly) taking into account the different number of measurements available at each station. North of 25°N a maximum during March-May is evident and relatively consistent over the whole North African region. Wind-speed thresholds for dust emission north of 25°N are higher than south of 25°N in the Sahel, where station-to-station variability is larger, and enhanced DEF activity during February-March is observed. The variability in this region is closely linked to the

  18. Modular Robotic Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni-Bird, Christopher E. (Inventor); Vitale, Robert L. (Inventor); Lee, Chunhao J. (Inventor); Ambrose, Robert O. (Inventor); Bluethmann, William J. (Inventor); Junkin, Lucien Q. (Inventor); Lutz, Jonathan J. (Inventor); Guo, Raymond (Inventor); Lapp, Anthony Joseph (Inventor); Ridley, Justin S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A modular robotic vehicle includes a chassis, driver input devices, an energy storage system (ESS), a power electronics module (PEM), modular electronic assemblies (eModules) connected to the ESS via the PEM, one or more master controllers, and various embedded controllers. Each eModule includes a drive wheel containing a propulsion-braking module, and a housing containing propulsion and braking control assemblies with respective embedded propulsion and brake controllers, and a mounting bracket covering a steering control assembly with embedded steering controllers. The master controller, which is in communication with each eModule and with the driver input devices, communicates with and independently controls each eModule, by-wire, via the embedded controllers to establish a desired operating mode. Modes may include a two-wheel, four-wheel, diamond, and omni-directional steering modes as well as a park mode. A bumper may enable docking with another vehicle, with shared control over the eModules of the vehicles.

  19. AC Voltage Control of DC/DC Converters Based on Modular Multilevel Converters in Multi-Terminal High-Voltage Direct Current Transmission Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Li

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The AC voltage control of a DC/DC converter based on the modular multilevel converter (MMC is considered under normal operation and during a local DC fault. By actively setting the AC voltage according to the two DC voltages of the DC/DC converter, the modulation index can be near unity, and the DC voltage is effectively utilized to output higher AC voltage. This significantly decreases submodule (SM capacitance and conduction losses of the DC/DC converter, yielding reduced capital cost, volume, and higher efficiency. Additionally, the AC voltage is limited in the controllable range of both the MMCs in the DC/DC converter; thus, over-modulation and uncontrolled currents are actively avoided. The AC voltage control of the DC/DC converter during local DC faults, i.e., standby operation, is also proposed, where only the MMC connected on the faulty cable is blocked, while the other MMC remains operational with zero AC voltage output. Thus, the capacitor voltages can be regulated at the rated value and the decrease of the SM capacitor voltages after the blocking of the DC/DC converter is avoided. Moreover, the fault can still be isolated as quickly as the conventional approach, where both MMCs are blocked and the DC/DC converter is not exposed to the risk of overcurrent. The proposed AC voltage control strategy is assessed in a three-terminal high-voltage direct current (HVDC system incorporating a DC/DC converter, and the simulation results confirm its feasibility.

  20. Bio-based production of fuels and industrial chemicals by repurposing antibiotic-producing type I modular polyketide synthases: opportunities and challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuzawa, Satoshi; Keasling, Jay D.; Katz, Leonard

    2017-01-01

    Complex polyketides comprise a large number of natural products that have broad application in medicine and agriculture. They are produced in bacteria and fungi from large enzyme complexes named type I modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) that are composed of multifunctional polypeptides containin...... have applications as fuels or industrial chemicals....

  1. Sub-module Short Circuit Fault Diagnosis in Modular Multilevel Converter Based on Wavelet Transform and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Hui; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    for continuous operation and post-fault maintenance. In this article, a fault diagnosis technique is proposed for the short circuit fault in a modular multi-level converter sub-module using the wavelet transform and adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system. The fault features are extracted from output phase voltage...

  2. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph W. Geisinger, Ph.D.

    2001-07-31

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a framework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator from these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC{trademark}s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost.

  3. MODULAR MANIPULATOR FOR ROBOTICS APPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geisinger, Joseph W. Ph.D.

    2001-01-01

    ARM Automation, Inc. is developing a FR-amework of modular actuators that can address the DOE's wide range of robotics needs. The objective of this effort is to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technology by constructing a manipulator FR-om these actuators within a glovebox for Automated Plutonium Processing (APP). At the end of the project, the system of actuators was used to construct several different manipulator configurations, which accommodate common glovebox tasks such as repackaging. The modular nature and quickconnects of this system simplify installation into ''hot'' boxes and any potential modifications or repair therein. This work focused on the development of self-contained robotic actuator modules including the embedded electronic controls for the purpose of building a manipulator system. Both of the actuators developed under this project contain the control electronics, sensors, motor, gear train, wiring, system communications and mechanical interfaces of a complete robotics servo device. Test actuators and accompanying DISC(trademark)s underwent validation testing at The University of Texas at Austin and ARM Automation, Inc. following final design and fabrication. The system also included custom links, an umbilical cord, an open architecture PC-based system controller, and operational software that permitted integration into a completely functional robotic manipulator system. The open architecture on which this system is based avoids proprietary interfaces and communication protocols which only serve to limit the capabilities and flexibility of automation equipment. The system was integrated and tested in the contractor's facility for intended performance and operations. The manipulator was tested using the full-scale equipment and process mock-ups. The project produced a practical and operational system including a quantitative evaluation of its performance and cost

  4. Modular Ultra-High Power Solar Array Architecture, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Deployable Space Systems (DSS) will focus the proposed Phase 2 SBIR program on the hardware-based development and TRL advance of a highly-modularized and...

  5. Fable: Socially Interactive Modular Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnússon, Arnþór; Pacheco, Moises; Moghadam, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Modular robots have a significant potential as user-reconfigurable robotic playware, but often lack sufficient sensing for social interaction. We address this issue with the Fable modular robotic system by exploring the use of smart sensor modules that has a better ability to sense the behavior...

  6. Adsorption Kinetics of Cd(ll and Pb(ll Ions from Aqueous Solutions by Bamboo-Based Activated Charcoal and Bamboo Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevens Azubuike Odoemelam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of bamboo dust (BD and bamboo-based activated charcoal for adsorption of Pb(ll and Cd(ll ions from aqueous solutions were assessed in this work. The effect of contact time on the uptake of these metal ions was studied in batch process. The adsorption data were correlated with pseudo first-order, pseudo second-order and diffusivity kinetic models. Results show that pseudo second-order kinetic model gave the best description for the adsorption process. Kinetic studies further showed that the adsorption transport mechanism was particle-diffusion controlled for the adsorption process. Results obtained generally showed that lead(ll ions were better adsorbed onto both adsorbents as compared to cadmium(ll. Comparison of sorption capacity for the two adsorbents shows that bamboo-based activated charcoal exhibited better removal for the metal ions than the bamboo dust.

  7. The Modular Design and Production of an Intelligent Robot Based on a Closed-Loop Control Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Libo; Zhu, Junjie; Ren, Hao; Liu, Dongdong; Meng, Dan; Wu, Yanjun; Luo, Tiejian

    2017-10-14

    Intelligent robots are part of a new generation of robots that are able to sense the surrounding environment, plan their own actions and eventually reach their targets. In recent years, reliance upon robots in both daily life and industry has increased. The protocol proposed in this paper describes the design and production of a handling robot with an intelligent search algorithm and an autonomous identification function. First, the various working modules are mechanically assembled to complete the construction of the work platform and the installation of the robotic manipulator. Then, we design a closed-loop control system and a four-quadrant motor control strategy, with the aid of debugging software, as well as set steering gear identity (ID), baud rate and other working parameters to ensure that the robot achieves the desired dynamic performance and low energy consumption. Next, we debug the sensor to achieve multi-sensor fusion to accurately acquire environmental information. Finally, we implement the relevant algorithm, which can recognize the success of the robot's function for a given application. The advantage of this approach is its reliability and flexibility, as the users can develop a variety of hardware construction programs and utilize the comprehensive debugger to implement an intelligent control strategy. This allows users to set personalized requirements based on their needs with high efficiency and robustness.

  8. Saharan Dust Deposition Effects on the Microbial Food Web in the Eastern Mediterranean: A Study Based on a Mesocosm Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevi Pitta

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of episodicity of Saharan dust deposition on the pelagic microbial food web was studied in the oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean by means of a mesocosm experiment in May 2014. Two different treatments in triplicates (addition of natural Saharan dust in a single-strong pulse or in three smaller consecutive doses of the same total quantity, and three unamended controls were employed; chemical and biological parameters were measured during a 10-day experiment. Temporal changes in primary (PP and bacterial (BP production, chlorophyll a (Chl a concentration and heterotrophic bacteria, Synechococcus and mesozooplankton abundance were studied. The results suggested that the auto- and hetero-trophic components of the food web (at least the prokaryotes were enhanced by the dust addition (and by the nitrogen and phosphorus added through dust. Furthermore, a 1-day delay was observed for PP, BP, and Chl a increases when dust was added in three daily doses; however, the maximal values attained were similar in the two treatments. Although, the effect was evident in the first osmotrophic level (phytoplankton and bacteria, it was lost further up the food web, masked under the impact of grazing exerted by predators such as heterotrophic flagellates, ciliates and dinoflagellates. This was partly proved by two dilution experiments. This study demonstrates the important role of atmospheric deposition and protist grazing when evaluating the effect on oligotrophic systems characterized by increased numbers of trophic levels.

  9. An Enhanced Satellite-Based Algorithm for Detecting and Tracking Dust Outbreaks by Means of SEVIRI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Marchese

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dust outbreaks are meteorological phenomena of great interest for scientists and authorities (because of their impact on the climate, environment, and human activities, which may be detected, monitored, and characterized from space using different methods and procedures. Among the recent dust detection algorithms, the RSTDUST multi-temporal technique has provided good results in different geographic areas (e.g., Mediterranean basin; Arabian Peninsula, exhibiting a better performance than traditional split window methods, in spite of some limitations. In this study, we present an optimized configuration of this technique, which better exploits data provided by Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI aboard Meteosat Second Generation (MSG satellites to address those issues (e.g., sensitivity reduction over arid and semi-arid regions; dependence on some meteorological clouds. Three massive dust events affecting Europe and the Mediterranean basin in May 2008/2010 are analysed in this work, using information provided by some independent and well-established aerosol products to assess the achieved results. The study shows that the proposed algorithm, christened eRSTDUST (i.e., enhanced RSTDUST, which provides qualitative information about dust outbreaks, is capable of increasing the trade-off between reliability and sensitivity. The results encourage further experimentations of this method in other periods of the year, also exploiting data provided by different satellite sensors, for better evaluating the advantages arising from the use of this dust detection technique in operational scenarios.

  10. Application and development analysis of nuclear power plant modular construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Modular Construction is currently one of the major development trends for the nuclear power plant construction technology worldwide. In the first-of-a-kind AP1000 Nuclear Power Project practiced in China, the large-scale structural modules and mechanical modules have been successfully fabricated, assembled and installed. However, in the construction practice of the project, some quality issues are identified with the assembly and installation process of large-scale structural modules in addition to the issue of incomplete supply of mechanical modules, which has failed to fully demonstrate the features and merits of modular construction. This paper collects and consolidates the issues of modular construction of AP1000 first of a kind reactor, providing root cause analysis in the aspects of process design, quality control, site construction logic, interface management in the process of module fabrication, assembly and installation; modular construction feasibility assessment index is proved based on the quantification and qualitative analysis of the impact element. Based on the modular construction feasibility, NPP modular construction improvement suggestions are provided in the aspect of modular assembly optimization definition, tolerance control during the fitting process and the construction logic adjustment. (author)

  11. A solar receiver-storage modular cascade based on porous ceramic structures for hybrid sensible/thermochemical solar energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrafiotis, Christos; de Oliveira, Lamark; Roeb, Martin; Sattler, Christian

    2016-05-01

    The current state-of-the-art solar heat storage concept in air-operated Solar Tower Power Plants is to store the solar energy provided during on-sun operation as sensible heat in porous solid materials that operate as recuperators during off-sun operation. The technology is operationally simple; however its storage capacity is limited to 1.5 hours. An idea for extending this capacity is to render this storage concept from "purely" sensible to "hybrid" sensible/ thermochemical one, via coating the porous heat exchange modules with oxides of multivalent metals for which their reduction/oxidation reactions are accompanied by significant heat effects, or by manufacturing them entirely of such oxides. In this way solar heat produced during on-sun operation can be used (in addition to sensibly heating the porous solid) to power the endothermic reduction of the oxide from its state with the higher metal valence to that of the lower; the thermal energy can be entirely recovered by the reverse exothermic oxidation reaction (in addition to sensible heat) during off-sun operation. Such sensible and thermochemical storage concepts were tested on a solar-irradiated receiver- heat storage module cascade for the first time. Parametric studies performed so far involved the comparison of three different SiC-based receivers with respect to their capability of supplying solar-heated air at temperatures sufficient for the reduction of the oxides, the effect of air flow rate on the temperatures achieved within the storage module, as well as the comparison of different porous storage media made of cordierite with respect to their sensible storage capacity.

  12. Modular and efficient ozone systems based on massively parallel chemical processing in microchannel plasma arrays: performance and commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M.-H.; Cho, J. H.; Park, S.-J.; Eden, J. G.

    2017-08-01

    Plasmachemical systems based on the production of a specific molecule (O3) in literally thousands of microchannel plasmas simultaneously have been demonstrated, developed and engineered over the past seven years, and commercialized. At the heart of this new plasma technology is the plasma chip, a flat aluminum strip fabricated by photolithographic and wet chemical processes and comprising 24-48 channels, micromachined into nanoporous aluminum oxide, with embedded electrodes. By integrating 4-6 chips into a module, the mass output of an ozone microplasma system is scaled linearly with the number of modules operating in parallel. A 115 g/hr (2.7 kg/day) ozone system, for example, is realized by the combined output of 18 modules comprising 72 chips and 1,800 microchannels. The implications of this plasma processing architecture for scaling ozone production capability, and reducing capital and service costs when introducing redundancy into the system, are profound. In contrast to conventional ozone generator technology, microplasma systems operate reliably (albeit with reduced output) in ambient air and humidity levels up to 90%, a characteristic attributable to the water adsorption/desorption properties and electrical breakdown strength of nanoporous alumina. Extensive testing has documented chip and system lifetimes (MTBF) beyond 5,000 hours, and efficiencies >130 g/kWh when oxygen is the feedstock gas. Furthermore, the weight and volume of microplasma systems are a factor of 3-10 lower than those for conventional ozone systems of comparable output. Massively-parallel plasmachemical processing offers functionality, performance, and commercial value beyond that afforded by conventional technology, and is currently in operation in more than 30 countries worldwide.

  13. Modular Flooring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thate, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The modular flooring system (MFS) was developed to provide a portable, modular, durable carpeting solution for NASA fs Robotics Alliance Project fs (RAP) outreach efforts. It was also designed to improve and replace a modular flooring system that was too heavy for safe use and transportation. The MFS was developed for use as the flooring for various robotics competitions that RAP utilizes to meet its mission goals. One of these competitions, the FIRST Robotics Competition (FRC), currently uses two massive rolls of broadloom carpet for the foundation of the arena in which the robots are contained during the competition. The area of the arena is approximately 30 by 72 ft (approximately 9 by 22 m). This carpet is very cumbersome and requires large-capacity vehicles, and handling equipment and personnel to transport and deploy. The broadloom carpet sustains severe abuse from the robots during a regular three-day competition, and as a result, the carpet is not used again for competition. Similarly, broadloom carpets used for trade shows at convention centers around the world are typically discarded after only one use. This innovation provides a green solution to this wasteful practice. Each of the flooring modules in the previous system weighed 44 lb (.20 kg). The improvements in the overall design of the system reduce the weight of each module by approximately 22 lb (.10 kg) (50 %), and utilize an improved "module-to-module" connection method that is superior to the previous system. The MFS comprises 4-by-4-ft (.1.2-by- 1.2-m) carpet module assemblies that utilize commercially available carpet tiles that are bonded to a lightweight substrate. The substrate surface opposite from the carpeted surface has a module-to-module connecting interface that allows for the modules to be connected, one to the other, as the modules are constructed. This connection is hidden underneath the modules, creating a smooth, co-planar flooring surface. The modules are stacked and strapped

  14. Dust impact on surface solar irradiance assessed with model simulations, satellite observations and ground-based measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmopoulos, Panagiotis G.; Kazadzis, Stelios; Taylor, Michael; Athanasopoulou, Eleni; Speyer, Orestis; Raptis, Panagiotis I.; Marinou, Eleni; Proestakis, Emmanouil; Solomos, Stavros; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Amiridis, Vassilis; Bais, Alkiviadis; Kontoes, Charalabos

    2017-07-01

    This study assesses the impact of dust on surface solar radiation focussing on an extreme dust event. For this purpose, we exploited the synergy of AERONET measurements and passive and active satellite remote sensing (MODIS and CALIPSO) observations, in conjunction with radiative transfer model (RTM) and chemical transport model (CTM) simulations and the 1-day forecasts from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). The area of interest is the eastern Mediterranean where anomalously high aerosol loads were recorded between 30 January and 3 February 2015. The intensity of the event was extremely high, with aerosol optical depth (AOD) reaching 3.5, and optical/microphysical properties suggesting aged dust. RTM and CTM simulations were able to quantify the extent of dust impact on surface irradiances and reveal substantial reduction in solar energy exploitation capacity of PV and CSP installations under this high aerosol load. We found that such an extreme dust event can result in Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) attenuation by as much as 40-50 % and a much stronger Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) decrease (80-90 %), while spectrally this attenuation is distributed to 37 % in the UV region, 33 % in the visible and around 30 % in the infrared. CAMS forecasts provided a reliable available energy assessment (accuracy within 10 % of that obtained from MODIS). Spatially, the dust plume resulted in a zonally averaged reduction of GHI and DNI of the order of 150 W m-2 in southern Greece, and a mean increase of 20 W m-2 in the northern Greece as a result of lower AOD values combined with local atmospheric processes. This analysis of a real-world scenario contributes to the understanding and quantification of the impact range of high aerosol loads on solar energy and the potential for forecasting power generation failures at sunshine-privileged locations where solar power plants exist, are under construction or are being planned.

  15. Reasoning about modular datatypes with Mendler induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Torrini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In functional programming, datatypes a la carte provide a convenient modular representation of recursive datatypes, based on their initial algebra semantics. Unfortunately it is highly challenging to implement this technique in proof assistants that are based on type theory, like Coq. The reason is that it involves type definitions, such as those of type-level fixpoint operators, that are not strictly positive. The known work-around of impredicative encodings is problematic, insofar as it impedes conventional inductive reasoning. Weak induction principles can be used instead, but they considerably complicate proofs. This paper proposes a novel and simpler technique to reason inductively about impredicative encodings, based on Mendler-style induction. This technique involves dispensing with dependent induction, ensuring that datatypes can be lifted to predicates and relying on relational formulations. A case study on proving subject reduction for structural operational semantics illustrates that the approach enables modular proofs, and that these proofs are essentially similar to conventional ones.

  16. INFORMATION SECURITY IN MOBILE MODULAR MEASURING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Tkhishev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A special aspect of aircraft test is carrying out both flight evaluation and ground operation evaluation in a structure of flying aids and special tools equipment. The specific of flight and sea tests involve metering in offshore zone, which excludes the possibility of fixed geodetically related measuring tools. In this regard, the specific role is acquired by shipbased measurement systems, in particular the mobile modular measuring systems. Information processed in the mobile modular measurement systems is a critical resource having a high level of confidentiality. When carrying out their functions, it should be implemented a proper information control of the mobile modular measurement systems to ensure their protection from the risk of data leakage, modification or loss, i.e. to ensure a certain level of information security. Due to the specific of their application it is difficult to solve the problems of information security in such complexes. The intruder model, the threat model, the security requirements generated for fixed informatization objects are not applicable to mobile systems. It was concluded that the advanced mobile modular measuring systems designed for flight experiments monitoring and control should be created due to necessary information protection measures and means. The article contains a diagram of security requirements formation, starting with the data envelopment analysis and ending with the practical implementation. The information security probabilistic model applied to mobile modular measurement systems is developed. The list of current security threats based on the environment and specific of the mobile measurement system functioning is examined. The probabilistic model of the information security evaluation is given. The problems of vulnerabilities transformation of designed information system into the security targets with the subsequent formation of the functional and trust requirements list are examined.

  17. China general nuclear power corporation--The recent research and application of the modular technology in nuclear power engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Qinwu

    2014-01-01

    Modular design and construction is one of the distinctive features of the 3"r"d generation nuclear power technology. In order to promote the technological innovations in nuclear power engineering design and construction and develop the self-owned modular technology, China General Nuclear Power Corporation (CGN) has carried out the R and D and application of the modular technology based on the CPR1000-type nuclear power plants, and has made the national-level achievements in the establishment of modular design technology system, development of 3D modular design system and application of modular construction of containment steel liner in the demonstration projects. (author)

  18. CANDU 3 - Modularization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McAskie, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The CANDU 3 Heavy Water Reactor is the newest design developed by AECL CANDU. It has set as a major objective, the achievement of significant reductions in both cost and schedule over previous designs. The basic construction strategy is to incorporate extensive modularization of the plant in order to parallel the civil and mechanical installation works. This results in a target 38 month construction schedule from first concrete to in-service compared to 68 months for the Wolsong-1 CANDU 6 actually achieved and the 54 months envisaged for an improved CANDU 6. This paper describes the module concepts that have been developed and explains how they contribute to the overall construction program and achieve the desired cost and schedule targets set for the CANDU 3. (author). 7 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Cross-calibration of CO- vs dust-based gas masses and assessment of the dynamical mass budget in Herschel-SDSS Stripe82 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertemes, Caroline; Wuyts, Stijn; Lutz, Dieter; Förster Schreiber, Natascha M.; Genzel, Reinhard; Minchin, Robert F.; Mundell, Carole G.; Rosario, David; Saintonge, Amélie; Tacconi, Linda

    2018-05-01

    We present a cross-calibration of CO- and dust-based molecular gas masses at z ≤ 0.2. Our results are based on a survey with the IRAM 30-m telescope collecting CO(1-0) measurements of 78 massive (log M⋆/M⊙ > 10) galaxies with known gas-phase metallicities, and with IR photometric coverage from WISE (22 μ ) and Herschel SPIRE (250, 350, 500μ). We find a tight relation (˜0.17 dex scatter) between the gas masses inferred from CO and dust continuum emission, with a minor systematic offset of 0.05 dex. The two methods can be brought into agreement by applying a metallicity-dependent adjustment factor (˜0.13 dex scatter). We illustrate that the observed offset is consistent with a scenario in which dust traces not only molecular gas, but also part of the H I reservoir, residing in the H2 -dominated region of the galaxy. Observations of the CO(2-1) to CO(1-0) line ratio for two thirds of the sample indicate a narrow range in excitation properties, with a median ratio of luminosities ⟨R21⟩ ˜ 0.64. Finally, we find dynamical mass constraints from spectral line profile fitting to agree well with the anticipated mass budget enclosed within an effective radius, once all mass components (stars, gas and dark matter) are accounted for.

  20. Valorization of GaN based metal-organic chemical vapor deposition dust a semiconductor power device industry waste through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching: A sustainable green process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swain, Basudev, E-mail: Swain@iae.re.kr [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin-Si 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Mishra, Chinmayee; Lee, Chan Gi; Park, Kyung-Soo [Institute for Advanced Engineering (IAE), Advanced Materials & Processing Center, Yongin-Si 449-863 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kun-Jae [Department of Energy Engineering, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-07-15

    Dust generated during metal organic vapor deposition (MOCVD) process of GaN based semiconductor power device industry contains significant amounts of gallium and indium. These semiconductor power device industry wastes contain gallium as GaN and Ga{sub 0.97}N{sub 0.9}O{sub 0.09} is a concern for the environment which can add value through recycling. In the present study, this waste is recycled through mechanochemical oxidation and leaching. For quantitative recovery of gallium, two different mechanochemical oxidation leaching process flow sheets are proposed. In one process, first the Ga{sub 0.97}N{sub 0.9}O{sub 0.09} of the MOCVD dust is leached at the optimum condition. Subsequently, the leach residue is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally re-leached. In the second process, the MOCVD waste dust is mechanochemically treated, followed by oxidative annealing and finally leached. Both of these treatment processes are competitive with each other, appropriate for gallium leaching and treatment of the waste MOCVD dust. Without mechanochemical oxidation, 40.11 and 1.86 w/w% of gallium and Indium are leached using 4 M HCl, 100 °C and pulp density of 100 kg/m{sup 3,} respectively. After mechanochemical oxidation, both these processes achieved 90 w/w% of gallium and 1.86 w/w% of indium leaching at their optimum condition. - Highlights: • Waste MOCVD dust is treated through mechanochemical leaching. • GaN is hardly leached, and converted to NaGaO{sub 2} through ball milling and annealing. • Process for gallium recovery from waste MOCVD dust has been developed. • Thermal analysis and phase properties of GaN to Ga{sub 2}O{sub 3} and GaN to NaGaO{sub 2} is revealed. • Solid-state chemistry involved in this process is reported.

  1. A simplified Suomi NPP VIIRS dust detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yikun; Sun, Lin; Zhu, Jinshan; Wei, Jing; Su, Qinghua; Sun, Wenxiao; Liu, Fangwei; Shu, Meiyan

    2017-11-01

    Due to the complex characteristics of dust and sparse ground-based monitoring stations, dust monitoring is facing severe challenges, especially in dust storm-prone areas. Aim at constructing a high-precision dust storm detection model, a pixel database, consisted of dusts over a variety of typical feature types such as cloud, vegetation, Gobi and ice/snow, was constructed, and their distributions of reflectance and Brightness Temperatures (BT) were analysed, based on which, a new Simplified Dust Detection Algorithm (SDDA) for the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership Visible infrared Imaging Radiometer (NPP VIIRS) is proposed. NPP VIIRS images covering the northern China and Mongolian regions, where features serious dust storms, were selected to perform the dust detection experiments. The monitoring results were compared with the true colour composite images, and results showed that most of the dust areas can be accurately detected, except for fragmented thin dusts over bright surfaces. The dust ground-based measurements obtained from the Meteorological Information Comprehensive Analysis and Process System (MICAPS) and the Ozone Monitoring Instrument Aerosol Index (OMI AI) products were selected for comparison purposes. Results showed that the dust monitoring results agreed well in the spatial distribution with OMI AI dust products and the MICAPS ground-measured data with an average high accuracy of 83.10%. The SDDA is relatively robust and can realize automatic monitoring for dust storms.

  2. Comprehensive study on mechanical properties of lime-based pastes with additions of metakaolin and brick dust

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nežerka, V.; Slížková, Zuzana; Tesárek, P.; Plachý, T.; Frankeová, Dita; Petráňová, Veronika

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 64, October (2014), s. 17-29 ISSN 0008-8846 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF11P01OVV008 Keywords : microstructure * mechanical properties * CaO * metakaolin * brick dust Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 2.864, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0008884614001239

  3. A Novel Brominated Triazine-based Flame Retardant (TTBP-TAZ) in Plastic Consumer Products and Indoor Dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ballesteros Gomez, A.M.; de Boer, J.; Leonards, P.E.G.

    2014-01-01

    The presence of a novel brominated flame retardant named 2,4,6-tris(2,4,6-tribromophenoxy)-1,3,5-triazine (TTBP-TAZ) is reported for the first time in plastic parts of consumer products and indoor dust samples. TTBP-TAZ was identified by untargeted screening and can be a replacement of the banned

  4. Immersion freezing by natural dust based on a soccer ball model with the Community Atmospheric Model version 5: climate effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Liu, Xiaohong

    2014-12-01

    We introduce a simplified version of the soccer ball model (SBM) developed by Niedermeier et al (2014 Geophys. Res. Lett. 41 736-741) into the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). It is the first time that SBM is used in an atmospheric model to parameterize the heterogeneous ice nucleation. The SBM, which was simplified for its suitable application in atmospheric models, uses the classical nucleation theory to describe the immersion/condensation freezing by dust in the mixed-phase cloud regime. Uncertain parameters (mean contact angle, standard deviation of contact angle probability distribution, and number of surface sites) in the SBM are constrained by fitting them to recent natural dust (Saharan dust) datasets. With the SBM in CAM5, we investigate the sensitivity of modeled cloud properties to the SBM parameters, and find significant seasonal and regional differences in the sensitivity among the three SBM parameters. Changes of mean contact angle and the number of surface sites lead to changes of cloud properties in Arctic in spring, which could be attributed to the transport of dust ice nuclei to this region. In winter, significant changes of cloud properties induced by these two parameters mainly occur in northern hemispheric mid-latitudes (e.g., East Asia). In comparison, no obvious changes of cloud properties caused by changes of standard deviation can be found in all the seasons. These results are valuable for understanding the heterogeneous ice nucleation behavior, and useful for guiding the future model developments.

  5. Immersion freezing by natural dust based on a soccer ball model with the Community Atmospheric Model version 5: climate effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yong; Liu, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a simplified version of the soccer ball model (SBM) developed by Niedermeier et al (2014 Geophys. Res. Lett. 41 736–741) into the Community Atmospheric Model version 5 (CAM5). It is the first time that SBM is used in an atmospheric model to parameterize the heterogeneous ice nucleation. The SBM, which was simplified for its suitable application in atmospheric models, uses the classical nucleation theory to describe the immersion/condensation freezing by dust in the mixed-phase cloud regime. Uncertain parameters (mean contact angle, standard deviation of contact angle probability distribution, and number of surface sites) in the SBM are constrained by fitting them to recent natural dust (Saharan dust) datasets. With the SBM in CAM5, we investigate the sensitivity of modeled cloud properties to the SBM parameters, and find significant seasonal and regional differences in the sensitivity among the three SBM parameters. Changes of mean contact angle and the number of surface sites lead to changes of cloud properties in Arctic in spring, which could be attributed to the transport of dust ice nuclei to this region. In winter, significant changes of cloud properties induced by these two parameters mainly occur in northern hemispheric mid-latitudes (e.g., East Asia). In comparison, no obvious changes of cloud properties caused by changes of standard deviation can be found in all the seasons. These results are valuable for understanding the heterogeneous ice nucleation behavior, and useful for guiding the future model developments. (letter)

  6. Pulmonary function in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M C; Enterline, P E; Sussman, N B; Bonney, T B; Rippey, L L

    1985-12-01

    A cross-sectional study of 1,142 male employees at the Arkansas Operations of a large aluminum production company examined the effect on pulmonary function of chronic exposure to total dust produced in the mining and refining of bauxite and the production of alumina chemicals. Never smokers, ex-smokers, and current smokers were analyzed separately. Among never smokers, a pattern of decreasing FEV1 was observed in relation to increasing duration and cumulative total dust exposure. Among never smokers with cumulative total dust exposures of greater than or equal to 100 mg/m3 yr and greater than or equal to 20 yr of exposure, there was a mean reduction from the predicted FEV1 of 0.29 to 0.39 L, in addition to a 3- to 4-fold excess of observed/expected numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted. These results were observed relative to an external and an internal comparison group. Among current smokers, the deviations from predicted and the excess numbers of subjects with FEV1 less than 80% of predicted were larger in all exposure groups than for the never smokers. However, the quality of the smoking data was inadequate to allow separation of the effects of smoking and dust exposure.

  7. Modular reconfigurable machines incorporating modular open architecture control

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Padayachee, J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available degrees of freedom on a single platform. A corresponding modular Open Architecture Control (OAC) system is presented. OAC overcomes the inflexibility of fixed proprietary automation, ensuring that MRMs provide the reconfigurability and extensibility...

  8. The Modular Helium Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. Harvego; M. Richards; A. Shenoy; K. Schultz; L. Brown; M. Fukuie

    2006-01-01

    For electricity and hydrogen production, an advanced reactor technology receiving considerable international interest is a modular, passively-safe version of the high-temperature, gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), known in the U.S. as the Modular Helium Reactor (MHR), which operates at a power level of 600 MW(t). For hydrogen production, the concept is referred to as the H2-MHR. Two concepts that make direct use of the MHR high-temperature process heat are being investigated in order to improve the efficiency and economics of hydrogen production. The first concept involves coupling the MHR to the Sulfur-Iodine (SI) thermochemical water splitting process and is referred to as the SI-Based H2-MHR. The second concept involves coupling the MHR to high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) and is referred to as the HTE-Based H2-MHR

  9. Modular robotics for playful physiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    We developed modular robotic tiles to be used for playful physiotherapy, which is supposed to motivate patients to engage in and perform physical rehabilitation exercises. We tested the modular robotic tiles for an extensive period of time (3 years) in daily use in a hospital rehabilitation unit e.......g. for cardiac patients. Also, the tiles were tested for performing physical rehabilitation of stroke patients in their private home. In all pilot test cases qualitative feedback indicate that the patients find the playful use of modular robotic tiles engaging and motivating for them to perform...

  10. Dust characterisation for hot gas filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dockter, B.; Erickson, T.; Henderson, A.; Hurley, J.; Kuehnel, V.; Katrinak, K.; Nowok, J.; O`Keefe, C.; O`Leary, E.; Swanson, M.; Watne, T. [University of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy and Environmental Research Center (UNDEERC)

    1998-03-01

    Hot gas filtration to remove particulates from the gas flow upstream of the gas turbine is critical to the development of many of the advanced coal-fired power generation technologies such as the Air Blown Gasification Cycle (ABGC), a hybrid gasification combined cycle being developed in the UK. Ceramic candle filters are considered the most promising technology for this purpose. Problems of mechanical failure and of `difficult-to-clean` dusts causing high pressure losses across the filter elements need to be solved. The project investigated the behaviour of high-temperature filter dusts, and the factors determining the ease with which they can be removed from filters. The high-temperature behaviour of dusts from both combustion and gasification systems was investigated. Dust samples were obtained from full-scale demonstration and pilot-scale plant operating around the world. Dust samples were also produced from a variety of coals, and under several different operating conditions, on UNDEERC`s pilot-scale reactor. Key factors affecting dust behaviour were examined, including: the rates of tensile strength developing in dust cakes; the thermochemical equilibria pertaining under filtration conditions; dust adhesivity on representative filter materials; and the build-up and cleaning behaviour of dusts on representative filter candles. The results obtained confirmed the importance of dust temperature, dust cake porosity, cake liquid content, and particle size distribution in determining the strength of a dust cake. An algorithm was developed to indicate the likely sticking propensity of dusts as a function of coal and sorbent composition and combustion conditions. This algorithm was incorporated into a computer package which can be used to judge the degree of difficulty in filter cleaning that can be expected to arise in a real plant based on operating parameters and coal analyzes. 6 figs.

  11. Modular architecture for robotics and teleoperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert J.

    1996-12-03

    Systems and methods for modularization and discretization of real-time robot, telerobot and teleoperation systems using passive, network based control laws. Modules consist of network one-ports and two-ports. Wave variables and position information are passed between modules. The behavior of each module is decomposed into uncoupled linear-time-invariant, and coupled, nonlinear memoryless elements and then are separately discretized.

  12. Modularity analysis of automotive control software

    OpenAIRE

    Dajsuren, Y.; Brand, van den, M.G.J.; Serebrenik, A.

    2013-01-01

    A design language and tool like MATLAB/Simulink is used for the graphical modelling and simulation of automotive control software. As the functionality based on electronics and software systems increases in motor vehicles, it is becoming increasingly important for system/software architects and control engineers in the automotive industry to ensure the quality of the highly complex MATLAB/Simulink control software. For automotive software, modularity is recognized as being a crucial quality a...

  13. MOBS - A modular on-board switching system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, W.; Grassmann, W.; Piontek, M.

    The authors describe a multibeam satellite system that is designed for business services and for communications at a high bit rate. The repeater is regenerative with a modular onboard switching system. It acts not only as baseband switch but also as the central node of the network, performing network control and protocol evaluation. The hardware is based on a modular bus/memory architecture with associated processors.

  14. Human health risk assessment based on toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and simple bioaccessibility extraction test of toxic metals in urban street dust of Tianjin, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binbin Yu

    Full Text Available The potential ecological and human health risk related with urban street dust from urban areas of Tianjin, China was quantitatively analyzed using the method of toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP and simple bioaccessibility extraction test (SBET. In the study, Hakason index, Nemerow index (P, the hazard index (HI and the cancer risk index (RI were calculated to assess the potential risk. The sequence of potential ecological risk based on Hakason index was arsenic (As > cadmium (Cd > lead (Pb > copper (Cu > chromium (Cr, in particular, As and Cd were regarded as high polluted metals. While the results of extraction of TCLP were assessed using P, the sequence was As > Pb > Cd > Cr > Cu, which mean that As and Pb should be low polluted, and Cd, Cr and Cu would barely not polluted. For human health, total carcinogenic risk for children and adults was 2.01 × 10(-3 and 1.05 × 10(-3, respectively. This could be considered to be intolerable in urban street dust exposure. The sequence in the hazard quotient (HQ of each element was As > Cr > Pb > Cu > Cd. The HI value of these toxic metals in urban street dust for children and adults was 5.88 × 10(-1 and 2.80 × 10(-1, respectively. According to the characters of chemistry, mobility, and bioavailability of metals in urban street dust, we estimated the hazards on the environment and human health, which will help us to get more reasonable information for risk management of metals in urban environment.

  15. The modularity of pollination networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jens Mogens; Bascompte, J.; Dupont, Yoko

    2007-01-01

    In natural communities, species and their interactions are often organized as nonrandom networks, showing distinct and repeated complex patterns. A prevalent, but poorly explored pattern is ecological modularity, with weakly interlinked subsets of species (modules), which, however, internally...... consist of strongly connected species. The importance of modularity has been discussed for a long time, but no consensus on its prevalence in ecological networks has yet been reached. Progress is hampered by inadequate methods and a lack of large datasets. We analyzed 51 pollination networks including...... almost 10,000 species and 20,000 links and tested for modularity by using a recently developed simulated annealing algorithm. All networks with >150 plant and pollinator species were modular, whereas networks with

  16. Dust impact on surface solar irradiance assessed with model simulations, satellite observations and ground-based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. Kosmopoulos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the impact of dust on surface solar radiation focussing on an extreme dust event. For this purpose, we exploited the synergy of AERONET measurements and passive and active satellite remote sensing (MODIS and CALIPSO observations, in conjunction with radiative transfer model (RTM and chemical transport model (CTM simulations and the 1-day forecasts from the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS. The area of interest is the eastern Mediterranean where anomalously high aerosol loads were recorded between 30 January and 3 February 2015. The intensity of the event was extremely high, with aerosol optical depth (AOD reaching 3.5, and optical/microphysical properties suggesting aged dust. RTM and CTM simulations were able to quantify the extent of dust impact on surface irradiances and reveal substantial reduction in solar energy exploitation capacity of PV and CSP installations under this high aerosol load. We found that such an extreme dust event can result in Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI attenuation by as much as 40–50 % and a much stronger Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI decrease (80–90 %, while spectrally this attenuation is distributed to 37 % in the UV region, 33 % in the visible and around 30 % in the infrared. CAMS forecasts provided a reliable available energy assessment (accuracy within 10 % of that obtained from MODIS. Spatially, the dust plume resulted in a zonally averaged reduction of GHI and DNI of the order of 150 W m−2 in southern Greece, and a mean increase of 20 W m−2 in the northern Greece as a result of lower AOD values combined with local atmospheric processes. This analysis of a real-world scenario contributes to the understanding and quantification of the impact range of high aerosol loads on solar energy and the potential for forecasting power generation failures at sunshine-privileged locations where solar power plants exist, are under construction or are

  17. Complex modular structure of large-scale brain networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencia, M.; Pastor, M. A.; Fernández-Seara, M. A.; Artieda, J.; Martinerie, J.; Chavez, M.

    2009-06-01

    Modular structure is ubiquitous among real-world networks from related proteins to social groups. Here we analyze the modular organization of brain networks at a large scale (voxel level) extracted from functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. By using a random-walk-based method, we unveil the modularity of brain webs and show modules with a spatial distribution that matches anatomical structures with functional significance. The functional role of each node in the network is studied by analyzing its patterns of inter- and intramodular connections. Results suggest that the modular architecture constitutes the structural basis for the coexistence of functional integration of distant and specialized brain areas during normal brain activities at rest.

  18. Toward the Modularization of Decision Support Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raskin, R. G.

    2009-12-01

    Decision support systems are typically developed entirely from scratch without the use of modular components. This “stovepiped” approach is inefficient and costly because it prevents a developer from leveraging the data, models, tools, and services of other developers. Even when a decision support component is made available, it is difficult to know what problem it solves, how it relates to other components, or even that the component exists, The Spatial Decision Support (SDS) Consortium was formed in 2008 to organize the body of knowledge in SDS within a common portal. The portal identifies the canonical steps in the decision process and enables decision support components to be registered, categorized, and searched. This presentation describes how a decision support system can be assembled from modular models, data, tools and services, based on the needs of the Earth science application.

  19. Implementing a modular system of computer codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vondy, D.R.; Fowler, T.B.

    1983-07-01

    A modular computation system has been developed for nuclear reactor core analysis. The codes can be applied repeatedly in blocks without extensive user input data, as needed for reactor history calculations. The primary control options over the calculational paths and task assignments within the codes are blocked separately from other instructions, admitting ready access by user input instruction or directions from automated procedures and promoting flexible and diverse applications at minimum application cost. Data interfacing is done under formal specifications with data files manipulated by an informed manager. This report emphasizes the system aspects and the development of useful capability, hopefully informative and useful to anyone developing a modular code system of much sophistication. Overall, this report in a general way summarizes the many factors and difficulties that are faced in making reactor core calculations, based on the experience of the authors. It provides the background on which work on HTGR reactor physics is being carried out

  20. Integrating modular mechatronic systems for immersive performances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pagliarini, Luigi; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2015-01-01

    and video output in a very easy manner, thanks to mechatronical wearable interfaces. In this light, we describe two of our systems that explore the concept of run-time composition of a variety of input and output modalities, e.g. both music and graphical expression. Indeed, we developed both hardware......As a branch of mechatronic research in interactivity, and in robot art, we describe the concept of implementing Playware based tools inspired by modern AI robotic systems for audio-video performances. We develop immersive and personalizable tools that can allow any user to manipulate both audio...... to create a run-time audio-video performance that is original and unique. This can further be combined with modular wearable – inspired by modular robotics – to interact and control the performance. This mechatronic wearable concept and its implementations exemplify how to convey a user-centered experience...

  1. Hierarchical State Machines as Modular Horn Clauses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Loïc Garoche

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In model based development, embedded systems are modeled using a mix of dataflow formalism, that capture the flow of computation, and hierarchical state machines, that capture the modal behavior of the system. For safety analysis, existing approaches rely on a compilation scheme that transform the original model (dataflow and state machines into a pure dataflow formalism. Such compilation often result in loss of important structural information that capture the modal behaviour of the system. In previous work we have developed a compilation technique from a dataflow formalism into modular Horn clauses. In this paper, we present a novel technique that faithfully compile hierarchical state machines into modular Horn clauses. Our compilation technique preserves the structural and modal behavior of the system, making the safety analysis of such models more tractable.

  2. Hy Tronic - The hybrid system for distributor commercial vehicles on the bases of a modular NKW gear family; Hy Tronic. Das Hybridsystem fuer Verteiler Nutzfahrzeuge basierend auf einer modularen NKW-Getriebefamilie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallner, Stefan; Lamke, Martin; Sedlacek, Martin [ZF Friedrichshafen AG (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    Hybrid technology offers solutions to the intensely increasing delivery traffic requirements, such as a significant reduction in fuel consumption and noticeably reduced emissions. Diverse requirements result from the multitude of possible applications in delivery traffic. In response, ZF has developed a parallel hybrid system based on a modular and standardized transmission family. Composed of the automatic AS Tronic lite transmission, an electric machine, inverter, a highvoltage battery, wiring and a hybrid control unit, this system can be integrated into present vehicle concepts. Including start-stop operation, recuperation, boosting, purely electric driving and emission-free auxiliary drive, it offers the functionality of a full hybrid. (orig.)

  3. LADEE LUNAR DUST EXPERIMENT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This archive bundle includes data taken by the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) instrument aboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft....

  4. Construction dust amelioration techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Dust produced on seasonal road construction sites in Alaska is both a traffic safety and environmental concern. Dust emanating from : unpaved road surfaces during construction severely reduces visibility and impacts stopping sight distance, and contr...

  5. On Dust Charging Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Tsintsadze, Nodar L.; Tsintsadze, Levan N.

    2008-01-01

    A general derivation of the charging equation of a dust grain is presented, and indicated where and when it can be used. A problem of linear fluctuations of charges on the surface of the dust grain is discussed.

  6. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagliesi, M.G., E-mail: mg.bagliesi@pi.infn.i [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy); Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N. [University of Siena and INFN Pisa (Italy)

    2010-05-21

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5{mu}s. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  7. The TOTEM modular trigger system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagliesi, M.G.; Berretti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Greco, V.; Lami, S.; Latino, G.; Oliveri, E.; Pedreschi, E.; Scribano, A.; Spinella, F.; Turini, N.

    2010-01-01

    The TOTEM experiment will measure the total cross-section with the luminosity independent method and study elastic and diffractive scattering at the LHC. We are developing a modular trigger system, based on programmable logic, that will select meaningful events within 2.5μs. The trigger algorithm is based on a tree structure in order to obtain information compression. The trigger primitive is generated directly on the readout chip, VFAT, that has a specific fast output that gives low resolution hits information. In two of the TOTEM detectors, Roman Pots and T2, a coincidence chip will perform track recognition directly on the detector readout boards, while for T1 the hits are transferred from the VFATs to the trigger hardware. Starting from more than 2000 bits delivered by the detector electronics, we extract, in a first step, six trigger patterns of 32 LVDS signals each; we build, then, on a dedicated board, a 1-bit (L1) trigger signal for the TOTEM experiment and 16 trigger bits to the CMS experiment global trigger system for future common data taking.

  8. Physics of interstellar dust

    CERN Document Server

    Krugel, Endrik

    2002-01-01

    The dielectric permeability; How to evaluate grain cross sections; Very small and very big particles; Case studies of Mie calculus; Particle statistics; The radiative transition probability; Structure and composition of dust; Dust radiation; Dust and its environment; Polarization; Grain alignment; PAHs and spectral features of dust; Radiative transport; Diffuse matter in the Milky Way; Stars and their formation; Emission from young stars. Appendices Mathematical formulae; List of symbols.

  9. Dust as a surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatov, A M; Schram, P P J M; Trigger, S A

    2003-01-01

    We argue that dust immersed in a plasma sheath acts as a surfactant. By considering the momentum balance in a plasma sheath, we evaluate the dependence of the plasma surface pressure on the dust density. It is shown that the dust may reduce the surface pressure, giving rise to a sufficiently strong tangential force. The latter is capable of confining the dust layer inside the sheath in the direction perpendicular to the ion flow

  10. Dust storm events over Delhi: verification of dust AOD forecasts with satellite and surface observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aditi; Iyengar, Gopal R.; George, John P.

    2016-05-01

    Thar desert located in northwest part of India is considered as one of the major dust source. Dust storms originate in Thar desert during pre-monsoon season, affects large part of Indo-Gangetic plains. High dust loading causes the deterioration of the ambient air quality and degradation in visibility. Present study focuses on the identification of dust events and verification of the forecast of dust events over Delhi and western part of IG Plains, during the pre-monsoon season of 2015. Three dust events have been identified over Delhi during the study period. For all the selected days, Terra-MODIS AOD at 550 nm are found close to 1.0, while AURA-OMI AI shows high values. Dust AOD forecasts from NCMRWF Unified Model (NCUM) for the three selected dust events are verified against satellite (MODIS) and ground based observations (AERONET). Comparison of observed AODs at 550 nm from MODIS with NCUM predicted AODs reveals that NCUM is able to predict the spatial and temporal distribution of dust AOD, in these cases. Good correlation (~0.67) is obtained between the NCUM predicted dust AODs and location specific observations available from AERONET. Model under-predicted the AODs as compared to the AERONET observations. This may be mainly because the model account for only dust and no anthropogenic activities are considered. The results of the present study emphasize the requirement of more realistic representation of local dust emission in the model both of natural and anthropogenic origin, to improve the forecast of dust from NCUM during the dust events.

  11. Lectures on Hilbert modular varieties and modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Goren, Eyal Z

    2001-01-01

    This book is devoted to certain aspects of the theory of p-adic Hilbert modular forms and moduli spaces of abelian varieties with real multiplication. The theory of p-adic modular forms is presented first in the elliptic case, introducing the reader to key ideas of N. M. Katz and J.-P. Serre. It is re-interpreted from a geometric point of view, which is developed to present the rudiments of a similar theory for Hilbert modular forms. The theory of moduli spaces of abelian varieties with real multiplication is presented first very explicitly over the complex numbers. Aspects of the general theory are then exposed, in particular, local deformation theory of abelian varieties in positive characteristic. The arithmetic of p-adic Hilbert modular forms and the geometry of moduli spaces of abelian varieties are related. This relation is used to study q-expansions of Hilbert modular forms, on the one hand, and stratifications of moduli spaces on the other hand. The book is addressed to graduate students and non-exper...

  12. Cosmic dust investigations. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.A.; Tuzzolino, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    A series of experiments have been completed using accelerator dust particles in the mass range ≅ 10 -9 -10 -6 g and velocity range ≅ 2-12 km/s to measure the velocity loss and degree of fragmentation for dust particles penetrating 6 and 28 μm thick polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) dust detectors. These measurements prove that even for a ratio of PVDF foil thickness to particle diameter as large as 0.6, the velocity loss and fragmentation is far less than expected from earlier reports in the literature. For 6 μm thick foils the velocity loss is ≤5%. These experiments are based on an extension of our earlier work which showed that two PVDF foils spaced a given distance apart could provide accurate time-of-flight (TOF) information due to the fast pulse rise time of PVDF detector response. We also report on our present state of development of PVDF position-sensing detectors which identify the x, y coordinates of particle impact, using detector and electronic pulse techniques adapted from our semiconductor position-sensing cosmic-ray detectors. Typical position errors of ≅ 1 mm are readily achieved. Finally, we have combined the above developments into a dust-particle telescope which accurately (≅ 1 0 angular accuracy) measures the trajectory of the incident particle as well as its mass and incident velocity, irrespective of whether it is a charged or neutral particle. We discuss how this practical dust telescope can be combined with dust capture cells for space flight and later recovery for laboratory determination of elemental and isotopic composition of captured dust. We also describe a simpler trajectory array based on discrete mosaics of thin detectors which would measure trajectories with a mean angular error of ≅ 4 0 . We discuss the application of these instruments for distinguishing between interplanetary dust of cometary and asteroidal origin, and for measurements on a space station, from near-Earth trapped dust of artificial origin. (orig.)

  13. Four Interstellar Dust Candidates from the Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Bechtel, H. A.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; hide

    2011-01-01

    In January 2006, the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approx. 0.1 sq m in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 sq m/day. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a consortium-based project to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described . A summary of analytical techniques is described.

  14. Convergent evolution of modularity in metabolic networks through different community structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wanding

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been reported that the modularity of metabolic networks of bacteria is closely related to the variability of their living habitats. However, given the dependency of the modularity score on the community structure, it remains unknown whether organisms achieve certain modularity via similar or different community structures. Results In this work, we studied the relationship between similarities in modularity scores and similarities in community structures of the metabolic networks of 1021 species. Both similarities are then compared against the genetic distances. We revisited the association between modularity and variability of the microbial living environments and extended the analysis to other aspects of their life style such as temperature and oxygen requirements. We also tested both topological and biological intuition of the community structures identified and investigated the extent of their conservation with respect to the taxomony. Conclusions We find that similar modularities are realized by different community structures. We find that such convergent evolution of modularity is closely associated with the number of (distinct enzymes in the organism’s metabolome, a consequence of different life styles of the species. We find that the order of modularity is the same as the order of the number of the enzymes under the classification based on the temperature preference but not on the oxygen requirement. Besides, inspection of modularity-based communities reveals that these communities are graph-theoretically meaningful yet not reflective of specific biological functions. From an evolutionary perspective, we find that the community structures are conserved only at the level of kingdoms. Our results call for more investigation into the interplay between evolution and modularity: how evolution shapes modularity, and how modularity affects evolution (mainly in terms of fitness and evolvability. Further, our results

  15. Convergent evolution of modularity in metabolic networks through different community structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wanding; Nakhleh, Luay

    2012-09-14

    It has been reported that the modularity of metabolic networks of bacteria is closely related to the variability of their living habitats. However, given the dependency of the modularity score on the community structure, it remains unknown whether organisms achieve certain modularity via similar or different community structures. In this work, we studied the relationship between similarities in modularity scores and similarities in community structures of the metabolic networks of 1021 species. Both similarities are then compared against the genetic distances. We revisited the association between modularity and variability of the microbial living environments and extended the analysis to other aspects of their life style such as temperature and oxygen requirements. We also tested both topological and biological intuition of the community structures identified and investigated the extent of their conservation with respect to the taxonomy. We find that similar modularities are realized by different community structures. We find that such convergent evolution of modularity is closely associated with the number of (distinct) enzymes in the organism's metabolome, a consequence of different life styles of the species. We find that the order of modularity is the same as the order of the number of the enzymes under the classification based on the temperature preference but not on the oxygen requirement. Besides, inspection of modularity-based communities reveals that these communities are graph-theoretically meaningful yet not reflective of specific biological functions. From an evolutionary perspective, we find that the community structures are conserved only at the level of kingdoms. Our results call for more investigation into the interplay between evolution and modularity: how evolution shapes modularity, and how modularity affects evolution (mainly in terms of fitness and evolvability). Further, our results call for exploring new measures of modularity and network

  16. Hybrid green permeable pave with hexagonal modular pavement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M A; Abustan, I; Hamzah, M O

    2013-01-01

    Modular permeable pavements are alternatives to the traditional impervious asphalt and concrete pavements. Pervious pore spaces in the surface allow for water to infiltrate into the pavement during rainfall events. As of their ability to allow water to quickly infiltrate through the surface, modular permeable pavements allow for reductions in runoff quantity and peak runoff rates. Even in areas where the underlying soil is not ideal for modular permeable pavements, the installation of under drains has still been shown to reflect these reductions. Modular permeable pavements have been regarded as an effective tool in helping with stormwater control. It also affects the water quality of stormwater runoff. Places using modular permeable pavement has been shown to cause a significant decrease in several heavy metal concentrations as well as suspended solids. Removal rates are dependent upon the material used for the pavers and sub-base material, as well as the surface void space. Most heavy metals are captured in the top layers of the void space fill media. Permeable pavements are now considered an effective BMP for reducing stormwater runoff volume and peak flow. This study examines the extent to which such combined pavement systems are capable of handling load from the vehicles. Experimental investigation were undertaken to quantify the compressive characteristics of the modular. Results shows impressive results of achieving high safety factor for daily life vehicles.

  17. Modularity and the spread of perturbations in complex dynamical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolchinsky, Artemy; Gates, Alexander J; Rocha, Luis M

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method to decompose dynamical systems based on the idea that modules constrain the spread of perturbations. We find partitions of system variables that maximize "perturbation modularity," defined as the autocovariance of coarse-grained perturbed trajectories. The measure effectively separates the fast intramodular from the slow intermodular dynamics of perturbation spreading (in this respect, it is a generalization of the "Markov stability" method of network community detection). Our approach captures variation of modular organization across different system states, time scales, and in response to different kinds of perturbations: aspects of modularity which are all relevant to real-world dynamical systems. It offers a principled alternative to detecting communities in networks of statistical dependencies between system variables (e.g., "relevance networks" or "functional networks"). Using coupled logistic maps, we demonstrate that the method uncovers hierarchical modular organization planted in a system's coupling matrix. Additionally, in homogeneously coupled map lattices, it identifies the presence of self-organized modularity that depends on the initial state, dynamical parameters, and type of perturbations. Our approach offers a powerful tool for exploring the modular organization of complex dynamical systems.

  18. Modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, L.R.

    1988-01-01

    The high financial risk involved in building large nuclear power reactors has been a major factor in halting investment in new plant and in bringing further technical development to a standstill. Increased public concern about the safety of nuclear plant, particularly after Chernobyl, has contributed to this stagnation. Financial and technical risk could be reduced considerably by going to small modular units, which would make it possible to build up power station capacity in small steps. Such modular plant, based on the helium-cooled high temperature reactor (HTR), offers remarkable advantages in terms of inherent safety characteristics, partly because of the relatively small size of the individual modules but more on account of the enormous thermal capacity and high temperature margins of the graphitic reactor assemblies. Assessments indicate that, in the USA, the cost of power from the modular systems would be less than that from conventional single reactor plant, up to about 600 MW(e), and only marginally greater above that level, a margin that should be offset by the shorter time required in bringing the modular units on line to earn revenue. The modular HTR would be particularly appropriate in the UK, because of the considerable British industrial background in gas-cooled reactors, and could be a suitable replacement for Magnox. The modular reactor would be particularly suited to combined heat and power schemes and would offer great potential for the eventual development of gas turbine power conversion and the production of high-temperature process heat. (author)

  19. Modular Knowledge Representation and Reasoning in the Semantic Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Luciano; Homola, Martin

    Construction of modular ontologies by combining different modules is becoming a necessity in ontology engineering in order to cope with the increasing complexity of the ontologies and the domains they represent. The modular ontology approach takes inspiration from software engineering, where modularization is a widely acknowledged feature. Distributed reasoning is the other side of the coin of modular ontologies: given an ontology comprising of a set of modules, it is desired to perform reasoning by combination of multiple reasoning processes performed locally on each of the modules. In the last ten years, a number of approaches for combining logics has been developed in order to formalize modular ontologies. In this chapter, we survey and compare the main formalisms for modular ontologies and distributed reasoning in the Semantic Web. We select four formalisms build on formal logical grounds of Description Logics: Distributed Description Logics, ℰ-connections, Package-based Description Logics and Integrated Distributed Description Logics. We concentrate on expressivity and distinctive modeling features of each framework. We also discuss reasoning capabilities of each framework.

  20. From modular invariants to graphs: the modular splitting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isasi, E; Schieber, G

    2007-01-01

    We start with a given modular invariant M of a two-dimensional su-hat(n) k conformal field theory (CFT) and present a general method for solving the Ocneanu modular splitting equation and then determine, in a step-by-step explicit construction (1) the generalized partition functions corresponding to the introduction of boundary conditions and defect lines; (2) the quantum symmetries of the higher ADE graph G associated with the initial modular invariant M. Note that one does not suppose here that the graph G is already known, since it appears as a by-product of the calculations. We analyse several su-hat(3) k exceptional cases at levels 5 and 9

  1. Modular, Reconfigurable, High-Energy Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrington, Connie; Howell, Joe

    2006-01-01

    The Modular, Reconfigurable High-Energy (MRHE) Technology Demonstrator project was to have been a series of ground-based demonstrations to mature critical technologies needed for in-space assembly of a highpower high-voltage modular spacecraft in low Earth orbit, enabling the development of future modular solar-powered exploration cargo-transport vehicles and infrastructure. MRHE was a project in the High Energy Space Systems (HESS) Program, within NASA's Exploration Systems Research and Technology (ESR&T) Program. NASA participants included Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), and Glenn Research Center (GRC). Contractor participants were the Boeing Phantom Works in Huntsville, AL, Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto, CA, ENTECH, Inc. in Keller, TX, and the University of AL Huntsville (UAH). MRHE's technical objectives were to mature: (a) lightweight, efficient, high-voltage, radiation-resistant solar power generation (SPG) technologies; (b) innovative, lightweight, efficient thermal management systems; (c) efficient, 100kW-class, high-voltage power delivery systems from an SPG to an electric thruster system; (d) autonomous rendezvous and docking technology for in-space assembly of modular, reconfigurable spacecraft; (e) robotic assembly of modular space systems; and (f) modular, reconfigurable distributed avionics technologies. Maturation of these technologies was to be implemented through a series of increasingly-inclusive laboratory demonstrations that would have integrated and demonstrated two systems-of-systems: (a) the autonomous rendezvous and docking of modular spacecraft with deployable structures, robotic assembly, reconfiguration both during assembly and (b) the development and integration of an advanced thermal heat pipe and a high-voltage power delivery system with a representative lightweight high-voltage SPG array. In addition, an integrated simulation testbed would have been developed

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPT OF HARDWARE-SOFTWARE COMPLEX OF MODULAR DESIGN FOR DETERMINATION OF ANTENNA SYSTEMS׳ CHARACTERISTICS BASED ON MEASUREMENTS IN THE NEAR FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. Buday

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measuring the amplitude-phase distribution of the radiation field of complex antenna systems on a certain surface close to the radiating aperture allows solving the problem of reconstructing the free-space diagram in the far field and also helps in determining the influence of various structural elements and defects of radiating surfaces on formation of directional diagram. The purpose of this work was to develop a universal hardware-software complex of a modular design aimed for determining the characteristics of wide range of antenna systems in respect of measurements of the amplitude-phase distribution of the radiation field in the near zone.The equations that connect the structure of radiation fields of the antenna system at various distances from it in planar, cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems as well as structural diagrams of the hardware part of measuring complexes have been analyzed.As a result, the concept of constructing a universal hardware-software complex for measuring the radiation field of various types of antenna systems with any type of measurement surface for solving a wide range of applied problems has been developed. A modular structure of hardware and software has been proposed; it allows reconfiguring the complex rapidly in order to measure the characteristics of any particular antenna system at all stages of product development and testing, and also makes the complex economically accessible even for small enterprises and organizations.

  3. Modular Power Standard for Space Explorations Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Gardner, Brent G.

    2016-01-01

    Future human space exploration will most likely be composed of assemblies of multiple modular spacecraft elements with interconnected electrical power systems. An electrical system composed of a standardized set modular building blocks provides significant development, integration, and operational cost advantages. The modular approach can also provide the flexibility to configure power systems to meet the mission needs. A primary goal of the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project is to establish a Modular Power Standard that is needed to realize these benefits. This paper is intended to give the space exploration community a "first look" at the evolving Modular Power Standard and invite their comments and technical contributions.

  4. TOOLS AND TECHNIQUES FOR IMPROVING THE MODULAR FIXTURE DESIGN IN AUTODESK INVENTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PĂUNESCU Rodica

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some strategies achieving significant productivity gains in modular fixture design like: intelligent tools iParts, iAssembly, iProperties, Constraint and Joint, Interference, Relationships tools, working with subassemblies, using Autodesk Inventor new releases. Another objective is to minimize modular fixture systems databases and to optimize searching and inserting components. All this techniques and tools are exemplified by a modular fixture based on grid patterns with multipurpose holes.

  5. Radiographic abnormalities in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, M.C.; Sussman, N.B.; Enterline, P.E.; Morgan, W.K.; Belk, H.D.; Dinman, B.D.

    1988-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 788 male employees of an aluminum production company examined the relationship of radiographic abnormalities to smoking and dust exposure from the mining and refining of bauxite to alumina. Among the aluminas produced were low temperature range transitional forms. The present analyses were limited to nonsmokers and current smokers. Two National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified B readers interpreted the radiographs. The predominant radiographic abnormalities noted were scanty, small, irregular opacities in the lower zones of profusion 0/1 to 1/1. Rounded opacities were rare. Among nonsmokers with low dust exposures, the prevalence of opacities greater than or equal to 1/0 showed no trend with increasing age and duration of exposure, suggesting no relationship between age and prevalence of opacities of Category 1 or more in this cohort (p greater than 0.10). Nonsmokers who had accumulated higher dust exposures showed a trend of increasing prevalence of opacities with increasing duration, suggesting an effect of occupational exposure at higher cumulative exposure levels (p less than 0.05). In most exposure categories, smokers exceeded nonsmokers in their prevalence of opacities greater than or equal to 1/0; the overall prevalence among smokers being 12 and 11% according to Readers A and B, respectively, compared with 4% in nonsmokers (p less than 0.01). In conclusion, 7 to 8% of aluminum workers in this cohort had radiographic findings of scanty, small, irregular opacities, the prevalence of which was increased among smokers (p less than 0.01). There was a moderate increase in the prevalence of opacities with increasing tenure in nonsmokers with high cumulative exposures (p less than 0.05)

  6. Radiographic abnormalities in relation to total dust exposure at a bauxite refinery and alumina-based chemical products plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, M C; Sussman, N B; Enterline, P E; Morgan, W K; Belk, H D; Dinman, B D

    1988-07-01

    A cross-sectional study of 788 male employees of an aluminum production company examined the relationship of radiographic abnormalities to smoking and dust exposure from the mining and refining of bauxite to alumina. Among the aluminas produced were low temperature range transitional forms. The present analyses were limited to nonsmokers and current smokers. Two National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH)-certified "B" readers interpreted the radiographs. The predominant radiographic abnormalities noted were scanty, small, irregular opacities in the lower zones of profusion 0/1 to 1/1. Rounded opacities were rare. Among nonsmokers with low dust exposures, the prevalence of opacities greater than or equal to 1/0 showed no trend with increasing age and duration of exposure, suggesting no relationship between age and prevalence of opacities of Category 1 or more in this cohort (p greater than 0.10). Nonsmokers who had accumulated higher dust exposures showed a trend of increasing prevalence of opacities with increasing duration, suggesting an effect of occupational exposure at higher cumulative exposure levels (p less than 0.05). In most exposure categories, smokers exceeded nonsmokers in their prevalence of opacities greater than or equal to 1/0; the overall prevalence among smokers being 12 and 11% according to Readers A and B, respectively, compared with 4% in nonsmokers (p less than 0.01). In conclusion, 7 to 8% of aluminum workers in this cohort had radiographic findings of scanty, small, irregular opacities, the prevalence of which was increased among smokers (p less than 0.01). There was a moderate increase in the prevalence of opacities with increasing tenure in nonsmokers with high cumulative exposures (p less than 0.05).

  7. Observed spectral features of dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    The author concentrates on the observed properties of dust spectral features. Identifications, based on laboratory data, are given whenever plausible ones exist. There are a very large number of papers in the literature of even such a young field as infrared spectroscopy, and therefore the author refers only to the most recent paper on a topic or to another review. (Auth.)

  8. Quantization and non-holomorphic modular forms

    CERN Document Server

    Unterberger, André

    2000-01-01

    This is a new approach to the theory of non-holomorphic modular forms, based on ideas from quantization theory or pseudodifferential analysis. Extending the Rankin-Selberg method so as to apply it to the calculation of the Roelcke-Selberg decomposition of the product of two Eisenstein series, one lets Maass cusp-forms appear as residues of simple, Eisenstein-like, series. Other results, based on quantization theory, include a reinterpretation of the Lax-Phillips scattering theory for the automorphic wave equation, in terms of distributions on R2 automorphic with respect to the linear action of SL(2,Z).

  9. Modular Software-Defined Radio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhiemeier Arnd-Ragnar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the technical and commercial boundary conditions for software-defined radio (SDR, it is suggestive to reconsider the concept anew from an unconventional point of view. The organizational principles of signal processing (rather than the signal processing algorithms themselves are the main focus of this work on modular software-defined radio. Modularity and flexibility are just two key characteristics of the SDR environment which extend smoothly into the modeling of hardware and software. In particular, the proposed model of signal processing software includes irregular, connected, directed, acyclic graphs with random node weights and random edges. Several approaches for mapping such software to a given hardware are discussed. Taking into account previous findings as well as new results from system simulations presented here, the paper finally concludes with the utility of pipelining as a general design guideline for modular software-defined radio.

  10. Modular invariance and stochastic quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, C.R.; Rubin, M.A.; Zwanziger, D.

    1989-01-01

    In Polyakov path integrals and covariant closed-string field theory, integration over Teichmueller parameters must be restricted by hand to a single modular region. This problem has an analog in Yang-Mills gauge theory---namely, the Gribov problem, which can be resolved by the method of stochastic gauge fixing. This method is here employed to quantize a simple modular-invariant system: the Polyakov point particle. In the limit of a large gauge-fixing force, it is shown that suitable choices for the functional form of the gauge-fixing force can lead to a restriction of Teichmueller integration to a single modular region. Modifications which arise when applying stochastic quantization to a system in which the volume of the orbits of the gauge group depends on a dynamical variable, such as a Teichmueller parameter, are pointed out, and the extension to Polyakov strings and covariant closed-string field theory is discussed

  11. Modular assembly of optical nanocircuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jinwei; Monticone, Francesco; Elias, Sarah; Wu, Yanwen; Ratchford, Daniel; Li, Xiaoqin; Alù, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    A key element enabling the microelectronic technology advances of the past decades has been the conceptualization of complex circuits with versatile functionalities as being composed of the proper combination of basic ‘lumped’ circuit elements (for example, inductors and capacitors). In contrast, modern nanophotonic systems are still far from a similar level of sophistication, partially because of the lack of modularization of their response in terms of basic building blocks. Here we demonstrate the design, assembly and characterization of relatively complex photonic nanocircuits by accurately positioning a number of metallic and dielectric nanoparticles acting as modular lumped elements. The nanoparticle clusters produce the desired spectral response described by simple circuit rules and are shown to be dynamically reconfigurable by modifying the direction or polarization of impinging signals. Our work represents an important step towards extending the powerful modular design tools of electronic circuits into nanophotonic systems.

  12. Emergent interfaces for feature modularization

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Márcio; Brabrand, Claus

    2014-01-01

    Developers frequently introduce errors into software systems when they fail to recognise module dependencies. Using forty-three software families and Software Product Lines (SPLs), where the majority are commonly used in industrial practice, the authors reports on the feature modularization problem and provides a study of how often it may occur in practice. To solve the problem they present the concept of emergent feature modularization which aims to establish contracts between features to prevent developers from breaking other features when performing a maintenance task.

  13. Modular Firewalls for Storage Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedor, O. H.; Owens, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    Giant honeycomb structures assembled in modular units. Flammable materials stored in cells. Walls insulated with firebrick to prevent spread of fire among cells. Portable, modular barrier withstands heat of combustion for limited time and confines combustion products horizontally to prevent fire from spreading. Barrier absorbs heat energy by ablation and not meant to be reused. Designed to keep fires from spreading among segments of solid rocket propellant in storage, barrier erected between storage units of other flammable or explosive materials; tanks of petroleum or liquid natural gas. Barrier adequate for most industrial purposes.

  14. Inherent controllability in modular ALMRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.; Sevy, R.H.; Wei, T.Y.C.

    1989-01-01

    As part of recent development efforts on advanced reactor designs ANL has proposed the IFR (Integral Fast Reactor) concept. The IFR concept is currently being applied to modular sized reactors which would be built in multiple power paks together with an integrated fuel cycle facility. It has been amply demonstrated that the concept as applied to the modular designs has significant advantages in regard to ATWS transients. Attention is now being focussed on determining whether or not those advantages deriving from the traits of the IFR can be translated to the operational/DBA (design basis accident) class of transients. 5 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Modular nuclear fuel assembly rack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, C.J.

    1982-01-01

    A modular nuclear fuel assembly rack constructed of an array of identical cells, each cell constructed of a plurality of identical flanged plates. The unique assembly of the plates into a rigid rack provides a cellular compartment for nuclear fuel assemblies and a cavity between the cells for accepting neutron absorbing materials thus allowing a closely spaced array. The modular rack size can be easily adapted to conform with available storage space. U-shaped flanges at the edges of the plates are nested together at the intersection of four cells in the array. A bar is placed at the intersection to lock the cells together

  16. Research of Dust Field Optimization Distribution Based on Parameters Change of Air Duct Outlet in Fully Mechanized Excavation Face of Coal Mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiao-Yan; Xia, Zhi-Xin; Wu, Yue; Mo, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Xin-Yi

    2017-12-01

    Aiming at the problem of dust accumulation and pollution risk rising sharply in fully mechanized excavation face, which caused by the unreasonable air duct outlet airflow under the long distance driving, this paper proposes a new idea to optimize the distribution of dust by changing the angle, caliber and the front and rear distance of air duct outlet. Taking the fully mechanized excavation face of Ningtiaota coal mine which located in Shaanxi province as the research object, the numerical simulation scheme of dust field was established, the safety hazard of the distribution of original dust field was simulated and analyzed, the numerical simulation and optimization analysis of the dust distribution by changing the angle, caliber and the front and rear distance of air duct outlet was carried out, and the adjustment scheme of the optimized dust distribution was obtained, which provides a theoretical basis for reducing the probability of dust explosion and the degree of pollution.

  17. Modular architectures for quantum networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirker, A.; Wallnöfer, J.; Dür, W.

    2018-05-01

    We consider the problem of generating multipartite entangled states in a quantum network upon request. We follow a top-down approach, where the required entanglement is initially present in the network in form of network states shared between network devices, and then manipulated in such a way that the desired target state is generated. This minimizes generation times, and allows for network structures that are in principle independent of physical links. We present a modular and flexible architecture, where a multi-layer network consists of devices of varying complexity, including quantum network routers, switches and clients, that share certain resource states. We concentrate on the generation of graph states among clients, which are resources for numerous distributed quantum tasks. We assume minimal functionality for clients, i.e. they do not participate in the complex and distributed generation process of the target state. We present architectures based on shared multipartite entangled Greenberger–Horne–Zeilinger states of different size, and fully connected decorated graph states, respectively. We compare the features of these architectures to an approach that is based on bipartite entanglement, and identify advantages of the multipartite approach in terms of memory requirements and complexity of state manipulation. The architectures can handle parallel requests, and are designed in such a way that the network state can be dynamically extended if new clients or devices join the network. For generation or dynamical extension of the network states, we propose a quantum network configuration protocol, where entanglement purification is used to establish high fidelity states. The latter also allows one to show that the entanglement generated among clients is private, i.e. the network is secure.

  18. The Lunar Dust Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalay, Jamey Robert

    Planetary bodies throughout the solar system are continually bombarded by dust particles, largely originating from cometary activities and asteroidal collisions. Surfaces of bodies with thick atmospheres, such as Venus, Earth, Mars and Titan are mostly protected from incoming dust impacts as these particles ablate in their atmospheres as 'shooting stars'. However, the majority of bodies in the solar system have no appreciable atmosphere and their surfaces are directly exposed to the flux of high speed dust grains. Impacts onto solid surfaces in space generate charged and neutral gas clouds, as well as solid secondary ejecta dust particles. Gravitationally bound ejecta clouds forming dust exospheres were recognized by in situ dust instruments around the icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn, and had not yet been observed near bodies with refractory regolith surfaces before NASA's Lunar Dust and Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission. In this thesis, we first present the measurements taken by the Lunar Dust Explorer (LDEX), aboard LADEE, which discovered a permanently present, asymmetric dust cloud surrounding the Moon. The global characteristics of the lunar dust cloud are discussed as a function of a variety of variables such as altitude, solar longitude, local time, and lunar phase. These results are compared with models for lunar dust cloud generation. Second, we present an analysis of the groupings of impacts measured by LDEX, which represent detections of dense ejecta plumes above the lunar surface. These measurements are put in the context of understanding the response of the lunar surface to meteoroid bombardment and how to use other airless bodies in the solar system as detectors for their local meteoroid environment. Third, we present the first in-situ dust measurements taken over the lunar sunrise terminator. Having found no excess of small grains in this region, we discuss its implications for the putative population of electrostatically lofted dust.

  19. Modular envelopes, OSFT and nonsymmetric (non-$\\sum$) modular operads

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Markl, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2016), s. 775-809 ISSN 1661-6952 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : open string * surface * modular completion Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.625, year: 2016 http://www.ems-ph.org/journals/show_abstract.php?issn=1661-6952&vol=10&iss=2&rank=12

  20. A modular interpretation of various cubic towers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Bassa, Alp; Beelen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    In this article we give a Drinfeld modular interpretation for various towers of function fields meeting Zink's bound.......In this article we give a Drinfeld modular interpretation for various towers of function fields meeting Zink's bound....

  1. Modular Nuclease-Responsive DNA Three-Way Junction-Based Dynamic Assembly of a DNA Device and Its Sensing Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing; Wang, Lei; Xu, Xiaowen; Wei, Haiping; Jiang, Wei

    2016-04-05

    Here, we explored a modular strategy for rational design of nuclease-responsive three-way junctions (TWJs) and fabricated a dynamic DNA device in a "plug-and-play" fashion. First, inactivated TWJs were designed, which contained three functional domains: the inaccessible toehold and branch migration domains, the specific sites of nucleases, and the auxiliary complementary sequence. The actions of different nucleases on their specific sites in TWJs caused the close proximity of the same toehold and branch migration domains, resulting in the activation of the TWJs and the formation of a universal trigger for the subsequent dynamic assembly. Second, two hairpins (H1 and H2) were introduced, which could coexist in a metastable state, initially to act as the components for the dynamic assembly. Once the trigger initiated the opening of H1 via TWJs-driven strand displacement, the cascade hybridization of hairpins immediately switched on, resulting in the formation of the concatemers of H1/H2 complex appending numerous integrated G-quadruplexes, which were used to obtain label-free signal readout. The inherent modularity of this design allowed us to fabricate a flexible DNA dynamic device and detect multiple nucleases through altering the recognition pattern slightly. Taking uracil-DNA glycosylase and CpG methyltransferase M.SssI as models, we successfully realized the butt joint between the uracil-DNA glycosylase and M.SssI recognition events and the dynamic assembly process. Furthermore, we achieved ultrasensitive assay of nuclease activity and the inhibitor screening. The DNA device proposed here will offer an adaptive and flexible tool for clinical diagnosis and anticancer drug discovery.

  2. Reasoning and change management in modular ontologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Klein, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of modular representations are well known from many areas of computer science. While in software engineering modularization is mainly a vehicle for supporting distributed development and re-use, in knowledge representation, the main goal of modularization is efficiency of reasoning. In

  3. Modular invariance of N=2 minimal models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidenius, J.

    1991-01-01

    We prove modular covariance of one-point functions at one loop in the diagonal N=2 minimal superconformal models. We use the recently derived general formalism for computing arbitrary conformal blocks in these models. Our result should be sufficient to guarantee modular covariance at arbitrary genus. It is thus an important check on the general formalism which is not manifestly modular covariant. (orig.)

  4. Prospect of small modular reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huailin; Zhu Qingyuan; Wang Suli; Xia Haihong

    2014-01-01

    Small modular reactor has the advantages of modular construction, enhanced safety/robustness from simplified designs, better ecomonic, clean and carbon free, compatible with the needs of smaller utilities and diversified application. In this paper, the prospect of small modular reactor is discussed from technology development status, constraints, economic. (authors)

  5. Integrity and change in modular ontologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuckenschmidt, Heiner; Klein, Michel

    2003-01-01

    The benefits of modular representations arc well known from many areas of computer science. In this paper, we concentrate on the benefits of modular ontologies with respect to local containment of terminological reasoning. We define an architecture for modular ontologies that supports local

  6. Chemical Composition Based Aerosol Optical Properties According to Size Distribution and Mixture Types during Smog and Asian Dust Events in Seoul, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Chang Hoon; Lee, Ji Yi; Um, Junshik; Lee, Seung Soo; Kim, Yong Pyo

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the optical properties of aerosols involved in different meteorological events, including smog and Asian dust days. Carbonaceous components and inorganic species were measured in Seoul, Korea between 25 and 31 March 2012. Based on the measurements, the optical properties of aerosols were calculated by considering composition, size distribution, and mixing state of aerosols. To represent polydisperse size distributions of aerosols, a lognormal size distribution with a wide range of geometric mean diameters and geometric standard deviations was used. For the optical property calculations, the Mie theory was used to compute single-scattering properties of aerosol particles with varying size and composition. Analysis of the sampled data showed that the water-soluble components of organic matter increased on smog days, whereas crustal elements increased on dust days. The water content significantly influenced the optical properties of aerosols during the smog days as a result of high relative humidity and an increase in the water-soluble component. The absorption coefficients depended on the aerosol mixture type and the aerosol size distributions. Therefore, to improve our knowledge on radiative impacts of aerosols, especially the regional impacts of aerosols in East Asia, accurate measurements of aerosols, such as size distribution, composition, and mixture type, under different meteorological conditions are required.

  7. Modular networks with hierarchical organization

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Several networks occurring in real life have modular structures that are arranged in a hierarchical fashion. In this paper, we have proposed a model for such networks, using a stochastic generation method. Using this model we show that, the scaling relation between the clustering and degree of the nodes is not a necessary ...

  8. Modularity in Cancer Care Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gobbi, Chiara; Hsuan, Juliana

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the findings of a case study research conducted within the Danish healthcare system aimed at analyzing how modularity is deployed in the process of delivery cancer care. Three cancer packages are presented into detailed describing the process of defining the diagnosis and treat...

  9. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin

    2016-01-01

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  10. Hierarchy of modular graph identities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Hoker, Eric; Kaidi, Justin [Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy,University of California,Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2016-11-09

    The low energy expansion of Type II superstring amplitudes at genus one is organized in terms of modular graph functions associated with Feynman graphs of a conformal scalar field on the torus. In earlier work, surprising identities between two-loop graphs at all weights, and between higher-loop graphs of weights four and five were constructed. In the present paper, these results are generalized in two complementary directions. First, all identities at weight six and all dihedral identities at weight seven are obtained and proven. Whenever the Laurent polynomial at the cusp is available, the form of these identities confirms the pattern by which the vanishing of the Laurent polynomial governs the full modular identity. Second, the family of modular graph functions is extended to include all graphs with derivative couplings and worldsheet fermions. These extended families of modular graph functions are shown to obey a hierarchy of inhomogeneous Laplace eigenvalue equations. The eigenvalues are calculated analytically for the simplest infinite sub-families and obtained by Maple for successively more complicated sub-families. The spectrum is shown to consist solely of eigenvalues s(s−1) for positive integers s bounded by the weight, with multiplicities which exhibit rich representation-theoretic patterns.

  11. Modular forms a classical approach

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen, Henri

    2017-01-01

    The theory of modular forms is a fundamental tool used in many areas of mathematics and physics. It is also a very concrete and "fun" subject in itself and abounds with an amazing number of surprising identities. This comprehensive textbook, which includes numerous exercises, aims to give a complete picture of the classical aspects of the subject, with an emphasis on explicit formulas. After a number of motivating examples such as elliptic functions and theta functions, the modular group, its subgroups, and general aspects of holomorphic and nonholomorphic modular forms are explained, with an emphasis on explicit examples. The heart of the book is the classical theory developed by Hecke and continued up to the Atkin-Lehner-Li theory of newforms and including the theory of Eisenstein series, Rankin-Selberg theory, and a more general theory of theta series including the Weil representation. The final chapter explores in some detail more general types of modular forms such as half-integral weight, Hilbert, Jacob...

  12. Morphology Independent Learning in Modular Robots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, David Johan; Bordignon, Mirko; Schultz, Ulrik Pagh

    2009-01-01

    Hand-coding locomotion controllers for modular robots is difficult due to their polymorphic nature. Instead, we propose to use a simple and distributed reinforcement learning strategy. ATRON modules with identical controllers can be assembled in any configuration. To optimize the robot’s locomotion...... speed its modules independently and in parallel adjust their behavior based on a single global reward signal. In simulation, we study the learning strategy’s performance on different robot configurations. On the physical platform, we perform learning experiments with ATRON robots learning to move as fast...

  13. Some Learning Properties of Modular Network SOMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Manabu; Ikeda, Kazushi; Furukawa, Tetsuo

    The Modular Network Self-Organizing Map (mnSOM) is a generalization of the SOM, where each node represents a parametric function such as a multi-layer perceptron or another SOM. Since given datasets are, in general, fewer than nodes, some nodes never win in competition and have to update their parameters from the winners in the neighborhood. This is a process that can be regarded as interpolation. This study derives the interpolation curve between winners in simple cases and discusses the distribution of winners based on the neighborhood function.

  14. Synchronous Control of Modular Multilevel Converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Bose, Bimal K.

    2002-01-01

    A novel method of direct synchronous pulsewidth modulation (PWM) is applied for control of modular multilevel converters consisting from three standard triphase inverter modules along with an 0.33 p.u. output transformer. The proposed method provides synchronisation of the voltage waveforms...... for each module and the composed voltage at the output of the converter. Multilevel output voltage of the converter has quarter-wave symmetry during the whole range including the zone of overmodulation. Both continuous and discontinuous versions of synchronous PWM, based on vector approach...

  15. Investigation of small and modular-sized fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Kenichi; Kawasaki, Nobuchika; Umetsu, Yoichiro; Akatsu, Minoru; Kasai, Shigeo; Konomura, Mamoru; Ichimiya, Masakazu

    2000-06-01

    In this paper, feasibility of the multipurpose small fast reactor, which could be used for requirements concerned with various utilization of electricity and energy and flexibility of power supply site, is discussed on the basis of examination of literatures of various small reactors. And also, a possibility of economic improvement by learning effect of fabrication cost is discussed for the modular-sized reactor which is expected to be a base load power supply system with lower initial investment. (1) Multipurpose small reactor (a) The small reactor with 10MWe-150MWe has a potential as a power source for large co-generation, a large island, a middle city, desalination and marine use. (b) Highly passive mechanism, long fuel exchange interval, and minimized maintenance activities are required for the multipurpose small reactor design. The reactor has a high potential for the long fuel exchange interval, since it is relatively easy for FR to obtain a long life core. (c) Current designs of small FRs in Japan and USA (NERI Project) are reviewed to obtain design requirements for the multipurpose small reactor. (2) Modular-sized reactor (a) In order that modular-sized reactor could be competitive to 3200MWe twin plant (two large monolithic reactor) with 200kyenWe, the target capital cost of FOAK is estimated to be 260kyen/yenWe for 800MWe modular, 280kyen/yenWe for 400MWe modular and 290kyen/yenWe for 200MWe by taking account of the leaning effect. (b) As the result of the review on the current designs of modular-sized FRs in Japan and USA (S-PRISM) from the viewpoint of economic improvement, since it only be necessary to make further effort for the target capital cost of FOAK, since the modular-sized FRs requires a large amount of material for shielding, vessels and heat exchangers essentially. (author)

  16. Dust Devil Tracks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    (Released 8 May 2002) The Science This image, centered near 50.0 S and 17.7 W displays dust devil tracks on the surface. Most of the lighter portions of the image likely have a thin veneer of dust settled on the surface. As a dust devil passes over the surface, it acts as a vacuum and picks up the dust, leaving the darker substrate exposed. In this image there is a general trend of many of the tracks running from east to west or west to east, indicating the general wind direction. There is often no general trend present in dust devil tracks seen in other images. The track patterns are quite ephemeral and can completely change or even disappear over the course of a few months. Dust devils are one of the mechanisms that Mars uses to constantly pump dust into the ubiquitously dusty atmosphere. This atmospheric dust is one of the main driving forces of the present Martian climate. The Story Vrrrrooooooooom. Think of a tornado, the cartoon Tasmanian devil, or any number of vacuum commercials that powerfully suck up swirls of dust and dirt. That's pretty much what it's like on the surface of Mars a lot of the time. Whirlpools of wind called

  17. Asian dust events of April 1998

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husar, R.B.; Tratt, D.M.; Schichtel, B.A.; Falke, S.R.; Li, F.; Jaffe, D.; Gasso, S.; Gill, T.; Laulainen, N.S.; Lu, F.; Reheis, M.C.; Chun, Y.; Westphal, D.; Holben, B.N.; Gueymard, C.; McKendry, I.; Kuring, N.; Feldman, G.C.; McClain, C.; Frouin, R.J.; Merrill, J.; DuBois, D.; Vignola, F.; Murayama, T.; Nickovic, S.; Wilson, W.E.; Sassen, K.; Sugimoto, N.; Malm, W.C.

    2001-01-01

    On April 15 and 19, 1998, two intense dust storms were generated over the Gobi desert by springtime low-pressure systems descending from the northwest. The windblown dust was detected and its evolution followed by its yellow color on SeaWiFS satellite images, routine surface-based monitoring, and through serendipitous observations. The April 15 dust cloud was recirculating, and it was removed by a precipitating weather system over east Asia. The April 19 dust cloud crossed the Pacific Ocean in 5 days, subsided to the surface along the mountain ranges between British Columbia and California, and impacted severely the optical and the concentration environments of the region. In east Asia the dust clouds increased the albedo over the cloudless ocean and land by up to 10-20%, but it reduced the near-UV cloud reflectance, causing a yellow coloration of all surfaces. The yellow colored backscattering by the dust eludes a plausible explanation using simple Mie theory with constant refractive index. Over the West Coast the dust layer has increased the spectrally uniform optical depth to about 0.4, reduced the direct solar radiation by 30-40%, doubled the diffuse radiation, and caused a whitish discoloration of the blue sky. On April 29 the average excess surface-level dust aerosol concentration over the valleys of the West Coast was about 20-50 ??g/m3 with local peaks >100 ??g/m3. The dust mass mean diameter was 2-3 ??m, and the dust chemical fingerprints were evident throughout the West Coast and extended to Minnesota. The April 1998 dust event has impacted the surface aerosol concentration 2-4 times more than any other dust event since 1988. The dust events were observed and interpreted by an ad hoc international web-based virtual community. It would be useful to set up a community-supported web-based infrastructure to monitor the global aerosol pattern for such extreme aerosol events, to alert and to inform the interested communities, and to facilitate collaborative

  18. COAL DUST EMISSION PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Biliaiev

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The article aims to develop 2D numerical models for the prediction of atmospheric pollution during transportation of coal in the railway car, as well as the ways to protect the environment and the areas near to the mainline from the dust emission due to the air injection installation. Methodology. To solve this problem there were developed numerical models based on the use of the equations of motion of an inviscid incompressible fluid and mass transfer. For the numerical integration of the transport equation of the pollutant the implicit alternating-triangular difference scheme was used. For numerical integration of the 2D equation for the velocity potential the method of total approximation was used. The developed numerical models are the basis of established software package. On the basis of the constructed numerical models it was carried out a computational experiment to assess the level of air pollution when transporting bulk cargo by rail when the railway car has the air injection. Findings. 2D numerical models that belong to the class «diagnostic models» were developed. These models take into account the main physical factors affecting the process of dispersion of dust pollution in the atmosphere during transportation of bulk cargo. The developed numerical models make it possible to calculate the dust loss process, taking into account the use of the air injection of the car. They require a small cost of the computer time during practical realization at the low and medium power machines. There were submitted computational calculations to determine pollutant concentrations and the formation of the zone of pollution near the train with bulk cargo in «microscale» scale taking into account the air curtains. Originality. 2D numerical models taking into account the relevant factors influencing the process of dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere, and the formation of the zone of pollution during transportation of bulk cargo by

  19. Mechanical Design of Odin, an Extendable Heterogeneous Deformable Modular Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyder, Andreas; Garcia, Ricardo Franco Mendoza; Støy, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Highly sophisticated animals consist of a set of heterogenous modules decided by nature so that they can survive in a complex environment. In this paper we present a new modular robot inspired by biology called Odin. The Odin robot is based on a deformable lattice and consists of an extendable se...... of heterogeneous modules. We present the design and implementation of a cubic closed-packed (CCP) joint module, a telescoping link, and a flexible connection mechanism. The developed robot is highly versatile and opens up for a wide range of new research in modular robotics.......Highly sophisticated animals consist of a set of heterogenous modules decided by nature so that they can survive in a complex environment. In this paper we present a new modular robot inspired by biology called Odin. The Odin robot is based on a deformable lattice and consists of an extendable set...

  20. Unraveling the disease consequences and mechanisms of modular structure in animal social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Pratha; Leu, Stephan T.; Cross, Paul C.; Hudson, Peter J.; Bansal, Shweta

    2017-01-01

    Disease risk is a potential cost of group living. Although modular organization is thought to reduce this cost in animal societies, empirical evidence toward this hypothesis has been conflicting. We analyzed empirical social networks from 43 animal species to motivate our study of the epidemiological consequences of modular structure in animal societies. From these empirical studies, we identified the features of interaction patterns associated with network modularity and developed a theoretical network model to investigate when and how subdivisions in social networks influence disease dynamics. Contrary to prior work, we found that disease risk is largely unaffected by modular structure, although social networks beyond a modular threshold experience smaller disease burden and longer disease duration. Our results illustrate that the lowering of disease burden in highly modular social networks is driven by two mechanisms of modular organization: network fragmentation and subgroup cohesion. Highly fragmented social networks with cohesive subgroups are able to structurally trap infections within a few subgroups and also cause a structural delay to the spread of disease outbreaks. Finally, we show that network models incorporating modular structure are necessary only when prior knowledge suggests that interactions within the population are highly subdivided. Otherwise, null networks based on basic knowledge about group size and local contact heterogeneity may be sufficient when data-limited estimates of epidemic consequences are necessary. Overall, our work does not support the hypothesis that modular structure universally mitigates the disease impact of group living.

  1. New Modular Heliotron system compatible with closed helical divertor and good plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Watanabe, K.Y.

    1994-04-01

    A new helical system ('Modular Heliotron') with improved modular coils compatible with efficient closed helical divertor and good plasma confinement property is proposed based on a Heliotron system with continuous helical coils and one pair of poloidal coils. The physics optimization of this system as a function of the gap angle between adjacent modular coils has been carried out by means of vacuum magnetic surface calculations and finite-beta plasma analyses, and a new improved coil system is invented by combining sectored helical field coils with sectored returning poloidal field coils. The Modular Heliotron with standard coil winding law (reference Modular Heliotron) was previously proposed, but it is found that this is not appropriate to keep clean helical divertor and high beta configuration when the coil gap becomes large. By modulating the modular coil winding with outside-plus and inside-minus pitch modulation, almost the same good magnetic configuration as that of a conventional Heliotron can be produced. The optimal gap angle is determined as a function of the modulation parameter. This improved Modular Heliotron permits larger gap angle between adjacent modules and produces more clean helical divertor configuration than the reference Modular Heliotron. All these helical system are created by only modular coils without poloidal coils. (author)

  2. New modular heliotron system compatible with closed helical divertor and good plasma confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Watanabe, K.Y.

    1995-01-01

    A new helical system ('modular heliotron') with improved modular coils compatible with an efficient closed helical divertor and a good plasma confinement property is proposed, based on a heliotron system with continuous helical coils and one pair of poloidal coils. The physics optimization of this system as a function of the gap angle between adjacent modular coils has been carried out by means of vacuum magnetic surface calculations and finite-beta plasma analyses, and a new improved coil system is invented by combining sectored helical field coils with sectored returning poloidal field coils. A modular heliotron with standard coil winding law (the reference modular heliotron) was previously proposed, but it is found that this was not appropriate to keep a clean helical divertor and high beta configuration when the coil gap becomes large. By modulating the modular coil winding with outside-plus and inside-minus pitch modulation, almost the same good magnetic configuration as that of a conventional heliotron can be produced. The optimal gap angle is determined as a function of the modulation parameter. This improved modular heliotron permits a larger gap angle between adjacent modules and produces a cleaner helical divertor configuration than the reference modular heliotron. All these helical systems are created by only modular coils without poloidal coils. (author). Letter-to-the-editor. 11 refs, 7 figs

  3. Effects of complex feedback on computer-assisted modular instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, Jan; Nijhof, W.J.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the effects of two versions of Computer-Based Feedback within a prevocational system of modularized education in The Netherlands. The implementation and integration of Computer-Based Feedback (CBF) in Installation Technology modules in all schools (n=60) in The

  4. Bundling Products and Services Through Modularization Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bask, Anu; Hsuan, Juliana; Rajahonka, Mervi

    2012-01-01

    Modularity has been recognized as a powerful tool in improving the efficiency and management of product design and manufacturing. However, the integrated view on covering both, product and service modularity for product-service systems (PSS), is under researched. Therefore, in this paper our...... objective is to contribute to the PSS modularity. Thus, we describe configurations of PSSs and the bundling of products and services through modularization strategies. So far there have not been tools to analyze and determine the correct combinations of degrees of product and service modularities....

  5. Airborne desert dust and aeromicrobiology over the Turkish Mediterranean coastline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Dale W.; Kubilay, Nilgün; Kocak, Mustafa; Gray, Mike A.; Borden, Timothy C.; Shinn, Eugene A.

    2007-01-01

    Between 18 March and 27 October 2002, 220 air samples were collected on 209 of 224 calendar days, on top of a coastal atmospheric research tower in Erdemli, Turkey. The volume of air filtered for each sample was 340 liters. Two hundred fifty-seven bacterial and 2598 fungal colony forming units (CFU) were enumerated from the samples using a low-nutrient agar. Ground-based dust measurements demonstrated that the region is routinely impacted by dust generated regionally and from North Africa and that the highest combined percent recovery of total CFU and African dust deposition occurred in the month of April (93.4% of CFU recovery and 91.1% of dust deposition occurred during African dust days versus no African dust present, for that month). A statistically significant correlation was observed (peak regional African dust months of March, April and May; rs=0.576, P=0.000) between an increase in the prevalence of microorganisms recovered from atmospheric samples on dust days (regional and African as determined by ground-based dust measurements), versus that observed on non-dust days. Given the prevalence of atmospherically suspended desert dust and microorganisms observed in this study, and that culture-based studies typically only recover a small fraction (

  6. The iFlow modelling framework v2.4: a modular idealized process-based model for flow and transport in estuaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. M. Dijkstra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The iFlow modelling framework is a width-averaged model for the systematic analysis of the water motion and sediment transport processes in estuaries and tidal rivers. The distinctive solution method, a mathematical perturbation method, used in the model allows for identification of the effect of individual physical processes on the water motion and sediment transport and study of the sensitivity of these processes to model parameters. This distinction between processes provides a unique tool for interpreting and explaining hydrodynamic interactions and sediment trapping. iFlow also includes a large number of options to configure the model geometry and multiple choices of turbulence and salinity models. Additionally, the model contains auxiliary components, including one that facilitates easy and fast sensitivity studies. iFlow has a modular structure, which makes it easy to include, exclude or change individual model components, called modules. Depending on the required functionality for the application at hand, modules can be selected to construct anything from very simple quasi-linear models to rather complex models involving multiple non-linear interactions. This way, the model complexity can be adjusted to the application. Once the modules containing the required functionality are selected, the underlying model structure automatically ensures modules are called in the correct order. The model inserts iteration loops over groups of modules that are mutually dependent. iFlow also ensures a smooth coupling of modules using analytical and numerical solution methods. This way the model combines the speed and accuracy of analytical solutions with the versatility of numerical solution methods. In this paper we present the modular structure, solution method and two examples of the use of iFlow. In the examples we present two case studies, of the Yangtze and Scheldt rivers, demonstrating how iFlow facilitates the analysis of model results, the

  7. The iFlow modelling framework v2.4: a modular idealized process-based model for flow and transport in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Yoeri M.; Brouwer, Ronald L.; Schuttelaars, Henk M.; Schramkowski, George P.

    2017-07-01

    The iFlow modelling framework is a width-averaged model for the systematic analysis of the water motion and sediment transport processes in estuaries and tidal rivers. The distinctive solution method, a mathematical perturbation method, used in the model allows for identification of the effect of individual physical processes on the water motion and sediment transport and study of the sensitivity of these processes to model parameters. This distinction between processes provides a unique tool for interpreting and explaining hydrodynamic interactions and sediment trapping. iFlow also includes a large number of options to configure the model geometry and multiple choices of turbulence and salinity models. Additionally, the model contains auxiliary components, including one that facilitates easy and fast sensitivity studies. iFlow has a modular structure, which makes it easy to include, exclude or change individual model components, called modules. Depending on the required functionality for the application at hand, modules can be selected to construct anything from very simple quasi-linear models to rather complex models involving multiple non-linear interactions. This way, the model complexity can be adjusted to the application. Once the modules containing the required functionality are selected, the underlying model structure automatically ensures modules are called in the correct order. The model inserts iteration loops over groups of modules that are mutually dependent. iFlow also ensures a smooth coupling of modules using analytical and numerical solution methods. This way the model combines the speed and accuracy of analytical solutions with the versatility of numerical solution methods. In this paper we present the modular structure, solution method and two examples of the use of iFlow. In the examples we present two case studies, of the Yangtze and Scheldt rivers, demonstrating how iFlow facilitates the analysis of model results, the understanding of the

  8. Whither Cometary Dust?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisse, Carey M.

    2010-10-01

    In this paper I will discuss recent findings that have important implications for our understanding of the formation and evolution of primitive solar system dust, including: - Nesvorny et al. (2010), following up on their dynamical analyses of the zodiacal dust bands as sourced by the breakup of the Karin (5Mya) and Veritas (8Mya) asteroid families, argue that over 90% of the interplanetary dust cloud at 1 AU comes from JFC comets with near-circularized, low inclination orbits. This implies that the noted IPD collections of anhydrous and hydrous dust particles are likely to be from Oort cloud and JFC comets, respectively, not from asteroids and comets as thought in the past. Hydrous dust particles from comets like 85P/Wild2 and 9P/Tempel 1 would be consistent with results from the STARDUST and Deep Impact experiments. - Estimates of the dust particle size distributions (PSDs) in the comae of 85P/Wild2 (Green et al. 2004, 2007) and 73P/SW-3 (Sitko et al. 2010, Vaubaillon & Reach 2010) and in the trails of comets (Reach et al. 2007) have broken power law structure, with a plateau enhancement of particles of 1 mm - 1 cm in size. This size is also the size of most chondritic inclusions, and the predicted size range of the "aggregational barrier", where collisions between dust particles become destructive. - Studies of the albedo and polarization properties of cometary dust (Kolokolova et al. 2007) suggest there are 2 major groupings, one with low scattering capability and one with high. While these families could possibly have been explained by systematics in the PSDs of the emitted dust, independent work by Lisse et al. (2008) on the mineralogy of a number of highly dusty comets has shown evidence for one family of comets with highly crystalline dust and another with highly amorphous dust.

  9. Modular High Voltage Pulse Converter for Short Rise and Decay Times

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mao, S.

    2018-01-01

    This thesis explores a modular HV pulse converter technology with short rise and decay times. A systematic methodology to derive and classify HV architectures based on a modularization level of power building blocks of the HV pulse converter is developed to summarize existing architectures and

  10. Pebble Bed Reactor Dust Production Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Joshua J. Cogliati

    2008-09-01

    The operation of pebble bed reactors, including fuel circulation, can generate graphite dust, which in turn could be a concern for internal components; and to the near field in the remote event of a break in the coolant circuits. The design of the reactor system must, therefore, take the dust into account and the operation must include contingencies for dust removal and for mitigation of potential releases. Such planning requires a proper assessment of the dust inventory. This paper presents a predictive model of dust generation in an operating pebble bed with recirculating fuel. In this preliminary work the production model is based on the use of the assumption of proportionality between the dust production and the normal force and distance traveled. The model developed in this work uses the slip distances and the inter-pebble forces computed by the authors’ PEBBLES. The code, based on the discrete element method, simulates the relevant static and kinetic friction interactions between the pebbles as well as the recirculation of the pebbles through the reactor vessel. The interaction between pebbles and walls of the reactor vat is treated using the same approach. The amount of dust produced is proportional to the wear coefficient for adhesive wear (taken from literature) and to the slip volume, the product of the contact area and the slip distance. The paper will compare the predicted volume with the measured production rates. The simulation tallies the dust production based on the location of creation. Two peak production zones from intra pebble forces are predicted within the bed. The first zone is located near the pebble inlet chute due to the speed of the dropping pebbles. The second peak zone occurs lower in the reactor with increased pebble contact force due to the weight of supported pebbles. This paper presents the first use of a Discrete Element Method simulation of pebble bed dust production.

  11. Pebble Bed Reactor Dust Production Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abderrafi M. Ougouag; Joshua J. Cogliati

    2008-01-01

    The operation of pebble bed reactors, including fuel circulation, can generate graphite dust, which in turn could be a concern for internal components; and to the near field in the remote event of a break in the coolant circuits. The design of the reactor system must, therefore, take the dust into account and the operation must include contingencies for dust removal and for mitigation of potential releases. Such planning requires a proper assessment of the dust inventory. This paper presents a predictive model of dust generation in an operating pebble bed with recirculating fuel. In this preliminary work the production model is based on the use of the assumption of proportionality between the dust production and the normal force and distance traveled. The model developed in this work uses the slip distances and the inter-pebble forces computed by the authors PEBBLES. The code, based on the discrete element method, simulates the relevant static and kinetic friction interactions between the pebbles as well as the recirculation of the pebbles through the reactor vessel. The interaction between pebbles and walls of the reactor vat is treated using the same approach. The amount of dust produced is proportional to the wear coefficient for adhesive wear (taken from literature) and to the slip volume, the product of the contact area and the slip distance. The paper will compare the predicted volume with the measured production rates. The simulation tallies the dust production based on the location of creation. Two peak production zones from intra pebble forces are predicted within the bed. The first zone is located near the pebble inlet chute due to the speed of the dropping pebbles. The second peak zone occurs lower in the reactor with increased pebble contact force due to the weight of supported pebbles. This paper presents the first use of a Discrete Element Method simulation of pebble bed dust production

  12. Recent ARC developments: Through modularity to interoperability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnova, O; Cameron, D; Ellert, M; Groenager, M; Johansson, D; Kleist, J; Dobe, P; Joenemo, J; Konya, B; Fraagaat, T; Konstantinov, A; Nilsen, J K; Saada, F Ould; Qiang, W; Read, A; Kocan, M; Marton, I; Nagy, Zs; Moeller, S; Mohn, B

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware introduced by NorduGrid is one of the basic Grid solutions used by scientists worldwide. While being well-proven in daily use by a wide variety of scientific applications at large-scale infrastructures like the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) and smaller scale projects, production ARC of today is still largely based on conventional Grid technologies and custom interfaces introduced a decade ago. In order to guarantee sustainability, true cross-system portability and standards-compliance based interoperability, the ARC community undertakes a massive effort of implementing modular Web Service (WS) approach into the middleware. With support from the EU KnowARC project, new components were introduced and the existing key ARC services got extended with WS technology based standard-compliant interfaces following a service-oriented architecture. Such components include the hosting environment framework, the resource-coupled execution service, the re-engineered client library, the self-healing storage solution and the peer-to-peer information system, to name a few. Gradual introduction of these new services and client tools into the production middleware releases is carried out together with NDGF and thus ensures a smooth transition to the next generation Grid middleware. Standard interfaces and modularity of the new component design are essential for ARC contributions to the planned Universal Middleware Distribution of the European Grid Initiative.

  13. Recent ARC developments: Through modularity to interoperability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smirnova, O; Cameron, D; Ellert, M; Groenager, M; Johansson, D; Kleist, J [NDGF, Kastruplundsgade 22, DK-2770 Kastrup (Denmark); Dobe, P; Joenemo, J; Konya, B [Lund University, Experimental High Energy Physics, Institute of Physics, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund (Sweden); Fraagaat, T; Konstantinov, A; Nilsen, J K; Saada, F Ould; Qiang, W; Read, A [University of Oslo, Department of Physics, P. O. Box 1048, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Kocan, M [Pavol Jozef Safarik University, Faculty of Science, Jesenna 5, SK-04000 Kosice (Slovakia); Marton, I; Nagy, Zs [NIIF/HUNGARNET, Victor Hugo 18-22, H-1132 Budapest (Hungary); Moeller, S [University of Luebeck, Inst. Of Neuro- and Bioinformatics, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D-23538 Luebeck (Germany); Mohn, B, E-mail: oxana.smirnova@hep.lu.s [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Div. of Nuclear and Particle Physics, Box 535, SE-75121 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2010-04-01

    The Advanced Resource Connector (ARC) middleware introduced by NorduGrid is one of the basic Grid solutions used by scientists worldwide. While being well-proven in daily use by a wide variety of scientific applications at large-scale infrastructures like the Nordic DataGrid Facility (NDGF) and smaller scale projects, production ARC of today is still largely based on conventional Grid technologies and custom interfaces introduced a decade ago. In order to guarantee sustainability, true cross-system portability and standards-compliance based interoperability, the ARC community undertakes a massive effort of implementing modular Web Service (WS) approach into the middleware. With support from the EU KnowARC project, new components were introduced and the existing key ARC services got extended with WS technology based standard-compliant interfaces following a service-oriented architecture. Such components include the hosting environment framework, the resource-coupled execution service, the re-engineered client library, the self-healing storage solution and the peer-to-peer information system, to name a few. Gradual introduction of these new services and client tools into the production middleware releases is carried out together with NDGF and thus ensures a smooth transition to the next generation Grid middleware. Standard interfaces and modularity of the new component design are essential for ARC contributions to the planned Universal Middleware Distribution of the European Grid Initiative.

  14. Communication plan for windblown dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Windblown dust events occur in Arizona, and blowing dust has been considered a contributing factor to serious crashes on the : segment of Interstate 10 (I10) between Phoenix and Tucson, as well as on other Arizona roadways. Arizonas dust events...

  15. Domain organizations of modular extracellular matrix proteins and their evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, J

    1996-11-01

    Multidomain proteins which are composed of modular units are a rather recent invention of evolution. Domains are defined as autonomously folding regions of a protein, and many of them are similar in sequence and structure, indicating common ancestry. Their modular nature is emphasized by frequent repetitions in identical or in different proteins and by a large number of different combinations with other domains. The extracellular matrix is perhaps the largest biological system composed of modular mosaic proteins, and its astonishing complexity and diversity are based on them. A cluster of minireviews on modular proteins is being published in Matrix Biology. These deal with the evolution of modular proteins, the three-dimensional structure of domains and the ways in which these interact in a multidomain protein. They discuss structure-function relationships in calcium binding domains, collagen helices, alpha-helical coiled-coil domains and C-lectins. The present minireview is focused on some general aspects and serves as an introduction to the cluster.

  16. Canadian House Dust Study: Population-based concentrations, loads and loading rates of arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, nickel, lead, and zinc inside urban homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Pat E. [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Levesque, Christine [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Chénier, Marc; Gardner, H. David [Exposure and Biomonitoring Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 50 Colombine Driveway, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada); Department of Earth Sciences, University of Ottawa, 140 Louis Pasteur, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1N 6N5 (Canada); Jones-Otazo, Heather [Regions and Programs Branch, Health Canada, 180 Queen Street West, Toronto, ON, Canada M5V 3L7 (Canada); Petrovic, Sanya [Contaminated Sites Division, Healthy Environments and Consumer Safety Branch, Health Canada, 269 Laurier Ave West, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0K9 (Canada)

    2013-01-15

    The Canadian House Dust Study was designed to obtain nationally representative urban house dust metal concentrations (μg g{sup −1}) and metal loadings (μg m{sup −2}) for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn). Consistent sampling of active dust of known age and provenance (area sampled) also permitted the calculation of indoor loading rates (mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for dust and μg m{sup −2} day{sup −1} for metals) for the winter season (from 2007 to 2010) when houses are most tightly sealed. Geomean/median indoor dust loading rates in homes located more than 2 km away from industry of any kind (9.6/9.1 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 580) were significantly lower (p < .001) than geomean (median) dust loading rates in homes located within 2 km of industry (13.5/13.4 mg m{sup −2} day{sup −1}; n = 421). Proximity to industry was characterized by higher indoor metal loading rates (p < .003), but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.29 ≥ p ≤ .97). Comparisons of non-smokers' and smokers' homes in non-industrial zones showed higher metal loading rates (.005 ≥ p ≤ .038) in smokers' homes, but no difference in dust metal concentrations (.15 ≥ p ≤ .97). Relationships between house age and dust metal concentrations were significant for Pb, Cd and Zn (p < .001) but not for the other four metals (.14 ≥ p ≤ .87). All seven metals, however, displayed a significant increase in metal loading rates with house age (p < .001) due to the influence of higher dust loading rates in older homes (p < .001). Relationships between three measures of metals in house dust – concentration, load, and loading rate – in the context of house age, smoking behavior and urban setting consistently show that concentration data is a useful indicator of the presence of metal sources in the home, whereas dust mass is the overriding influence on metal loadings and loading rates

  17. A Modular and Affordable Time-Lapse Imaging and Incubation System Based on 3D-Printed Parts, a Smartphone, and Off-The-Shelf Electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Vera, Rodrigo; Schwan, Emil; Fatsis-Kavalopoulos, Nikos; Kreuger, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a powerful tool for studying cellular dynamics and cell behavior over long periods of time to acquire detailed functional information. However, commercially available time-lapse imaging systems are expensive and this has limited a broader implementation of this technique in low-resource environments. Further, the availability of time-lapse imaging systems often present workflow bottlenecks in well-funded institutions. To address these limitations we have designed a modular and affordable time-lapse imaging and incubation system (ATLIS). The ATLIS enables the transformation of simple inverted microscopes into live cell imaging systems using custom-designed 3D-printed parts, a smartphone, and off-the-shelf electronic components. We demonstrate that the ATLIS provides stable environmental conditions to support normal cell behavior during live imaging experiments in both traditional and evaporation-sensitive microfluidic cell culture systems. Thus, the system presented here has the potential to increase the accessibility of time-lapse microscopy of living cells for the wider research community.

  18. A Modular and Affordable Time-Lapse Imaging and Incubation System Based on 3D-Printed Parts, a Smartphone, and Off-The-Shelf Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwan, Emil; Fatsis-Kavalopoulos, Nikos; Kreuger, Johan

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse imaging is a powerful tool for studying cellular dynamics and cell behavior over long periods of time to acquire detailed functional information. However, commercially available time-lapse imaging systems are expensive and this has limited a broader implementation of this technique in low-resource environments. Further, the availability of time-lapse imaging systems often present workflow bottlenecks in well-funded institutions. To address these limitations we have designed a modular and affordable time-lapse imaging and incubation system (ATLIS). The ATLIS enables the transformation of simple inverted microscopes into live cell imaging systems using custom-designed 3D-printed parts, a smartphone, and off-the-shelf electronic components. We demonstrate that the ATLIS provides stable environmental conditions to support normal cell behavior during live imaging experiments in both traditional and evaporation-sensitive microfluidic cell culture systems. Thus, the system presented here has the potential to increase the accessibility of time-lapse microscopy of living cells for the wider research community. PMID:28002463

  19. Development of small simplified modular reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiki, Hideaki; Nakamaru, Mikihide

    2003-01-01

    The small simplified modular reactor, which is being development with matured BWR technologies together with innovative systems/components, will provide attractiveness for the energy market in the world due to its flexibility in energy demands as well as in site conditions, its high potential in reducing investment risk and its safety feature facilitating public acceptance. The flexibility is achieved by small output of 300 MWe and capability of long operating cycle (refueling intervals). The investment potential is expected from simplification/innovation in design such as natural circulation core cooling with the bottom located short core, internal upper entry control rod drives (CRDs) with ring-type dryers and hull structure building concept. The natural circulation core eliminates recirculation pumps as well as needs for maintenance of such pumps. The internal CRDs shorten the height of the reactor vessel (RPV) and consequently shorten the primary containment vessel (PCV). The hull structure facilitates modular arrangement, design standardization and factory fabrication. The safety feature mainly consists of large water inventory above the core without large penetration below the top of the core, passive containment cooling system (PCCS), passive auto-catalytic recombiner and in-vessel retention (IVR) capability. The large inventory increases the system response time in case of design base accidents including loss of coolant accidents. The PCCS suppresses PCV pressure by steam condensation without and AC power. The recombiner decreases hydrogen concentration in the PCV in case of a severe accident. The IVR could cool the molten core inside the RPV if the core should be damaged by loss of core coolability. These innovative systems/components featured in the small simplified modular reactor will stimulate global energy market. (author)

  20. Dust in planetary nebulae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathis, J.S.

    1978-01-01

    The author's review concentrates on theoretical aspects of dust in planetary nebulae (PN). He considers the questions: how much dust is there is PN; what is its composition; what effects does it have on the ionization structure, on the dynamics of the nebula. (Auth.)

  1. Toxicity of lunar dust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linnarsson, D.; Carpenter, J.; Fubini, B.; Gerde, P.; Loftus, D.; Prisk, K.; Staufer, U.; Tranfield, E.; van Westrenen, W.

    2012-01-01

    The formation, composition and physical properties of lunar dust are incompletely characterised with regard to human health. While the physical and chemical determinants of dust toxicity for materials such as asbestos, quartz, volcanic ashes and urban particulate matter have been the focus of

  2. Combustible dust tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    The sugar dust explosion in Georgia on February 7, 2008 killed 14 workers and injured many others (OSHA, 2009). As a consequence of this explosion, OSHA revised its Combustible Dust National Emphasis (NEP) program. The NEP targets 64 industries with more than 1,000 inspections and has found more tha...

  3. Respirable dust measured downwind during rock dust application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M L; Organiscak, J; Klima, S; Perera, I E

    2017-05-01

    The Pittsburgh Mining Research Division of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) conducted underground evaluations in an attempt to quantify respirable rock dust generation when using untreated rock dust and rock dust treated with an anticaking additive. Using personal dust monitors, these evaluations measured respirable rock dust levels arising from a flinger-type application of rock dust on rib and roof surfaces. Rock dust with a majority of the respirable component removed was also applied in NIOSH's Bruceton Experimental Mine using a bantam duster. The respirable dust measurements obtained downwind from both of these tests are presented and discussed. This testing did not measure miners' exposure to respirable coal mine dust under acceptable mining practices, but indicates the need for effective continuous administrative controls to be exercised when rock dusting to minimize the measured amount of rock dust in the sampling device.

  4. Lunar Dust Mitigation Screens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Shawn; Holloway, Nancy

    With plans for the United States to return to the moon, and establish a sustainable human presence on the lunar surface many issues must be successfully overcome. Lunar dust is one of a number of issues with the potential to create a myriad of problems if not adequately addressed. Samples of dust brought back from Apollo missions show it to be soft, yet sharp and abrasive. The dust consists of a variety of morphologies including spherical, angular blocks, shards, and a number of irregular shapes. One of the main issues with lunar dust is its attraction to stick to anything it comes in contact with (i.e. astronauts, equipment, habitats, etc.). Ionized radiation from the sun strikes the moon's surface and creates an electrostatic charge on the dust. Further, the dust harbors van der Waals forces making it especially difficult to separate once it sticks to a surface. During the Apollo missions, it was discovered that trying to brush the lunar dust from spacesuits was not effective, and rubbing it caused degradation of the suit material. Further, when entering the lunar module after moonwalks, the astronauts noted that the dust was so prolific inside the cabin that they inhaled and ingested it, causing at least one of them, Harrison "Jack" Schmidt, to report irritation of the throat and lungs. It is speculated that the dust could also harm an astronaut's nervous and cardiovascular systems, especially during an extended stay. In addition to health issues, the dust can also cause problems by scouring reflective coatings off of thermal blankets, and roughening surfaces of windows and optics. Further, panels on solar cells and photovoltaics can also be compromised due to dust sticking on the surfaces. Lunar dust has the capacity to penetrate seals, interfere with connectors, as well as mechanisms on digging machines, all of which can lead to problems and failure. To address lunar dust issues, development of electrostatic screens to mitigate dust on sur-faces is currently

  5. A New Modular Multilevel Converter with Integrated Energy Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    applications. Furthermore, this solution can interconnect a DC and AC grid with bidirectional power flow, where both of them can receive or generate excess power to the third source integrated in each converter sub-module. This particularity enables the converter usage as a high voltage UPS system......This paper introduces a new modular converter with integrated energy storage based on the cascaded half-bridge modular multilevel converter with common DC bus. It represents a complete modular solution with power electronics and energy storage building blocks, for medium and high voltage...... in the future HVDC meshed grids. Its functionality and flexibility makes the converter independent on the energy storage unit characteristic. The converter concept with its basic functions and control schemes are described and evaluated in this paper....

  6. A Modular Architecture for Developing Robots for Industrial Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faina, Andres; Orjales, Felix; Souto, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    addresses the problem the other way around. In this line, we start by defining the industrial settings the architecture is aimed at and then extract the main features that would be required from a modular robotic architecture to operate successfully in this context. Finally, a particular heterogeneous......This chapter is concerned with proposing ways to make feasible the use of robots in many sectors characterized by dynamic and unstructured environments. In particular, we are interested in addressing the problem through a new approach, based on modular robotics, to allow the fast deployment...... modular robotic architecture is designed from these requirements and a laboratory implementation of it is built in order to test its capabilities and show its versatility using a set of different configurations including manipulators, climbers and walkers....

  7. Modular beam diagnostics instrument design for Cyclotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaddha, N.; Bhole, R.B.; Sahoo, S.; Nandy, P.P.; Pal, S.

    2012-01-01

    The Cyclotrons at VECC, Kolkata i.e. Room Temperature Cyclotron (RTC) and Superconducting Cyclotron (SCC) comprise of internal and external Beam Diagnostic systems. These systems provide the beam developer with position, intensity, beam profile, a visual impression of the size and shape of ion beam, and operational control over diagnostic components like 3-finger probe, Beam Viewer probe, Deflector probe, Faraday cup, X-Y slit, Beam viewer etc. Automation of these components was initially done using customised modules for individual sub-system. An expansion of this facility and various levels of complexity demand modular design to cater easy modification and upgradation. The overall requirements are analysed and modular cards are developed based on basic functionalities like valve operation, probe/slit/viewer control, position read-out, Interlock, aperture control of beam line and communication. A 32-bit Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) based card with embedded EPICS is chosen as the master controller and FPGA/microcontroller is used for functional modules. The paper gives a comprehensive description of all modules and their integration with the control system. (author)

  8. A modular platform for targeted RNAi therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedmi, Ranit; Veiga, Nuphar; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Goldsmith, Meir; Rosenblum, Daniel; Dammes, Niels; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Nahary, Limor; Leviatan-Ben-Arye, Shani; Harlev, Michael; Behlke, Mark; Benhar, Itai; Lieberman, Judy; Peer, Dan

    2018-03-01

    Previous studies have identified relevant genes and signalling pathways that are hampered in human disorders as potential candidates for therapeutics. Developing nucleic acid-based tools to manipulate gene expression, such as short interfering RNAs 1-3 (siRNAs), opens up opportunities for personalized medicine. Yet, although major progress has been made in developing siRNA targeted delivery carriers, mainly by utilizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for targeting 4-8 , their clinical translation has not occurred. This is in part because of the massive development and production requirements and the high batch-to-batch variability of current technologies, which rely on chemical conjugation. Here we present a self-assembled modular platform that enables the construction of a theoretically unlimited repertoire of siRNA targeted carriers. The self-assembly of the platform is based on a membrane-anchored lipoprotein that is incorporated into siRNA-loaded lipid nanoparticles that interact with the antibody crystallizable fragment (Fc) domain. We show that a simple switch of eight different mAbs redirects the specific uptake of siRNAs by diverse leukocyte subsets in vivo. The therapeutic potential of the platform is demonstrated in an inflammatory bowel disease model by targeting colon macrophages to reduce inflammatory symptoms, and in a Mantle Cell Lymphoma xenograft model by targeting cancer cells to induce cell death and improve survival. This modular delivery platform represents a milestone in the development of precision medicine.

  9. A modular platform for targeted RNAi therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedmi, Ranit; Veiga, Nuphar; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Goldsmith, Meir; Rosenblum, Daniel; Dammes, Niels; Hazan-Halevy, Inbal; Nahary, Limor; Leviatan-Ben-Arye, Shani; Harlev, Michael; Behlke, Mark; Benhar, Itai; Lieberman, Judy; Peer, Dan

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have identified relevant genes and signalling pathways that are hampered in human disorders as potential candidates for therapeutics. Developing nucleic acid-based tools to manipulate gene expression, such as short interfering RNAs1-3 (siRNAs), opens up opportunities for personalized medicine. Yet, although major progress has been made in developing siRNA targeted delivery carriers, mainly by utilizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for targeting4-8, their clinical translation has not occurred. This is in part because of the massive development and production requirements and the high batch-to-batch variability of current technologies, which rely on chemical conjugation. Here we present a self-assembled modular platform that enables the construction of a theoretically unlimited repertoire of siRNA targeted carriers. The self-assembly of the platform is based on a membrane-anchored lipoprotein that is incorporated into siRNA-loaded lipid nanoparticles that interact with the antibody crystallizable fragment (Fc) domain. We show that a simple switch of eight different mAbs redirects the specific uptake of siRNAs by diverse leukocyte subsets in vivo. The therapeutic potential of the platform is demonstrated in an inflammatory bowel disease model by targeting colon macrophages to reduce inflammatory symptoms, and in a Mantle Cell Lymphoma xenograft model by targeting cancer cells to induce cell death and improve survival. This modular delivery platform represents a milestone in the development of precision medicine.

  10. Modular Theory, Non-Commutative Geometry and Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wicharn Lewkeeratiyutkul

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper contains the first written exposition of some ideas (announced in a previous survey on an approach to quantum gravity based on Tomita-Takesaki modular theory and A. Connes non-commutative geometry aiming at the reconstruction of spectral geometries from an operational formalism of states and categories of observables in a covariant theory. Care has been taken to provide a coverage of the relevant background on modular theory, its applications in non-commutative geometry and physics and to the detailed discussion of the main foundational issues raised by the proposal.

  11. Sambot II: A self-assembly modular swarm robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuchao; Wei, Hongxing; Yang, Bo; Jiang, Cancan

    2018-04-01

    The new generation of self-assembly modular swarm robot Sambot II, based on the original generation of self-assembly modular swarm robot Sambot, adopting laser and camera module for information collecting, is introduced in this manuscript. The visual control algorithm of Sambot II is detailed and feasibility of the algorithm is verified by the laser and camera experiments. At the end of this manuscript, autonomous docking experiments of two Sambot II robots are presented. The results of experiments are showed and analyzed to verify the feasibility of whole scheme of Sambot II.

  12. Abstraction and Modularization in the BETA Programming Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Ole Lehrmann

    2000-01-01

    abstraction mechanisms and lead to a number of new possibilities. Patterns and their instances are intended for modeling concepts and phenomena in the application domain and provide the logical structure of a given system. Modularization is viewed as a means for describing the physical structure of a program....... Modules are units of program text that may be edited, stored in libraries, exist in different variants, be separately compiled, etc. Modularization is provided by a language-independent mechanism based on the context-free grammar of the language. In principle, any correct sequence of terminal...

  13. [Dust concentration analysis in non-coal mining. Exposure evaluation based on measurements performed by occupational hygiene laboratories in the years 2001-2005 in Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujak-Pietrek, Stella; Mikołajczyk, Urszula; Szadkowska-Stańczyk, Irena

    2011-01-01

    Non-coal mining includes the extraction of materials for construction (stone, gravel, sand and clay), chemical industry (salt and sulfur), metallurgy (metal ores, uranium and thorium) and other mining and quarrying. Regardless of the type of mining company one of the most common health hazards in this sector is exposure to high concentrations of dust occurring during the extraction of materials. Such activities as drilling, use of blasting agents, processing of raw material, its transportation and loading are the source of large amounts of dust containing crystalline silica. Data on exposure to dust, collected by industrial hygiene laboratories on the basis of dust concentration measurements in the work environment, were obtained from the sanitary inspection service. The analysis of dust concentrations at workplaces in non-coal mining covered the years 2001-2005. The average concentration of inhalable and respirable dust and the degree of results dispersion at workposts in different branches of non-coal mining (according to NACE rev1.1) were evaluated. Also there was estimated the percentage of surveys indicating dust concentrations above hygiene standards. Almost 5000 measurements of dust concentrations were performed in the years under study. The highest concentration of inhalable dust was noted for the production of salt (5.51 mg/m3), other mining and quarrying (4.30 mg/m3) and quarrying of slate (3.77 mg/m3). For respirable dust the highest concentrations were noted in other mining and quarrying (1.10 mg/m3), quarrying of slate (1.09 mg/m3) and quarrying of stone (0.81 mg/m3). Exposure to high concentrations of dust during the extraction of non-carbon is still an important hazard to human health. Almost for all workposts under study the excess of hygiene standards were observed.

  14. Dust limit management strategy in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosanvallon, S.; Grisolia, C.; Andrew, P.; Ciattaglia, S.; Delaporte, P.; Douai, D.; Garnier, D.; Gauthier, E.; Gulden, W.; Hong, S.H.; Pitcher, S.; Rodriguez, L.; Taylor, N.; Tesini, A.; Vartanian, S.; Vatry, A.; Wykes, M.

    2009-01-01

    Dust is produced in tokamaks by the interaction between the plasma and the plasma facing components. Dust has not yet been of a major concern in existing tokamaks mainly because the quantity is small and these devices are not nuclear facilities. However, in ITER and in future reactors, it will represent operational and potential safety issues. From a safety point of view, in order to control the potential dust hazard, the current ITER strategy is based on a defense in depth approach designed to provide reliable confinement systems, to avoid failures, and to measure and minimise the dust inventory. In addition, R and D is put in place for optimisation of the proposed methods, such as improvement of measurement, dust cleaning and the reduction of dust production. The aim of this paper is to present the approach for the control of the dust inventory, relying on the monitoring of envelope values and the development of removal techniques already developed in the existing tokamaks or plasma dedicated devices or which will need further research and development in order to be integrated in ITER.

  15. Dust limit management strategy in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosanvallon, S.; Grisolia, C.; Andrew, P.; Ciattaglia, S.; Delaporte, P.; Douai, D.; Garnier, D.; Gauthier, E.; Gulden, W.; Hong, S. H.; Pitcher, S.; Rodriguez, L.; Taylor, N.; Tesini, A.; Vartanian, S.; Vatry, A.; Wykes, M.

    2009-06-01

    Dust is produced in tokamaks by the interaction between the plasma and the plasma facing components. Dust has not yet been of a major concern in existing tokamaks mainly because the quantity is small and these devices are not nuclear facilities. However, in ITER and in future reactors, it will represent operational and potential safety issues. From a safety point of view, in order to control the potential dust hazard, the current ITER strategy is based on a defense in depth approach designed to provide reliable confinement systems, to avoid failures, and to measure and minimise the dust inventory. In addition, R&D is put in place for optimisation of the proposed methods, such as improvement of measurement, dust cleaning and the reduction of dust production. The aim of this paper is to present the approach for the control of the dust inventory, relying on the monitoring of envelope values and the development of removal techniques already developed in the existing tokamaks or plasma dedicated devices or which will need further research and development in order to be integrated in ITER.

  16. CP violation and modular symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Dent, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the origin of CP violation in fundamental theory. Existing string models of spontaneous CP violation make ambiguous predictions, due to the arbitrariness of CP transformation and the apparent non-invariance of the results under duality. We find an unambiguous modular CP invariance condition, applicable to predictive models of spontaneous CP violation, which circumvents these problems; it strongly constrains CP violation by heterotic string moduli. The dilaton is also evaluated a...

  17. A Modular Instant Messaging System

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad Raad; Zouhair Bazzal; Majd Ghareeb; Hanan Farhat; Semar Bahmad

    2017-01-01

    Instant Messaging (IM) Android applications are a trend nowadays. These applications are categorized according to their features: usability, flexibility, privacy and security. However, IM applications tend to be inflexible in terms of functionality offered. The “Dble-U” system was developed as a solution to this inflexibility, with a focus on privacy as an example use case. “Dble-U” is a configurable modular system consisting of an Android chatting application, a privacy controller applicatio...

  18. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve.

  19. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, G.W.; Suehiro, S.; Hendricks, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve

  20. Analysis of Dust and Fission Products in PBMR Turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stempniewicz, M.M.; Wessels, D.

    2014-01-01

    A 400 MWth direct cycle Pebble Bed Modular reactor was under development in South Africa. The work performed included design and safety analyses. In HTR/PBMR, graphite dust is generated during normal reactor operation due to pebble-to-pebble scratching. This dust will be deposited throughout the primary system. Furthermore, the dust will become radioactive due to sorption of fission products released, although in very small quantities, during normal operation. This paper presents a model and analyses of the PBMR turbine with the SPECTRA code. The purpose of the present work was to estimate the amount and distribution of deposited dust and the fission products, namely cesium, iodine, and silver, during plant life-time, which was assumed to be 40 full-power years. The performed work showed that after 40 years of plant life-time deposited layers are very small. The largest deposition is of course observed on the dust filters. Apart from the dust filters, the largest dust deposition is observed on the: • Outer Casing (inner walls) • Turbine Rotor Cooling Cavity (inner walls) • HPC Cold Cooling Gas Header (inner walls) This is caused by relatively low gas velocities in these volumes. The low velocities allow a continuous build-up of the dust layer. About 90% of cesium, 40% of iodine, and 99.9% of silver is adsorbed on the metallic structures of the turbine. The sorption rate increases along the turbine due to decreasing temperatures. In case of cesium and iodine the highest concentrations are observed in the last stage (stage 12) of the turbine. In the case of silver the sorption is so large that the silver vapor is significantly depleted in the last stages of the turbine. This is a reason for having a maximum in silver concentration in the stage 10. In the following stages the concentration decreases due to very small silver vapor fraction in the gas. (author)

  1. Modular programming method at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asai, Kiyoshi; Katsuragi, Satoru

    1982-02-01

    In this report the histories, concepts and a method for the construction and maintenance of nuclear code systems of Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) are presented. The method is mainly consisted of novel computer features. The development process of the features and experiences with them which required many man-months and efforts of scientists and engineers of JAERI and a computer manufacturer are also described. One of the features is a file handling program named datapool. The program is being used in code systems which are under development at JAERI. The others are computer features such as dynamic linking, reentrant coding of Fortran programs, interactive programming facility, document editor, quick system output viewer and editor, flexible man-machine interactive Fortran executor, and selective use of time-sharing or batch oriented computer in an interactive porgramming environment. In 1980 JAERI has replaced its two old computer systems by three FACOM M-200 computer systems and they have such features as mentioned above. Since 1981 most code systems, or even big single codes can be changed to modular code systems even if the developers or users of the systems will not recognize the fact that they are using modular code systems. The purpose of this report is to describe our methodology of modular programming from aspects of computer features and some of their applications to nuclear codes to get sympathetic understanding of it from persons of organizations who are concerned with the effective use of computers, especially, in nuclear research fields. (author)

  2. Medusa-Isosampler: A modular, network-based observatory system for combined physical, chemical and microbiological monitoring, sampling and incubation of hydrothermal and cold seep fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, A.; Flynn, M.; Taylor, P.

    2004-12-01

    The study of life in extreme environments provides an important context from which we can undertake the search for extraterrestrial life, and through which we can better understand biogeochemical feedback in terrestrial hydrothermal and cold seep systems. The Medusa-Isosampler project is aimed at fundamental research into understanding the potential for, and limits to, chemolithoautotrophic life, i.e. primary production without photosynthesis. One environment that might foster such life is associated with the high thermal and chemical gradient environment of hydrothermal vent structures. Another is associated with the lower thermal and chemical gradient environment of continental margin cold seeps. Under NERC, NASA and industrial support, we have designed a flexible instrumentation system, operating as networked, autonomous modules on a local area network, that will make possible simultaneous physical and chemical sampling and monitoring of hydrothermal and cold seep fluids, and the in situ and laboratory incubation of chemosynthetic microbes under high pressure, isobaric conditions. The system has been designed with long-term observatory operations in mind, and may be reconfigured dynamically as the requirements of the observatory installation change. The modular design will also accommodate new in situ chemical and biosensor technologies, provided by third parties. The system may be configured for seafloor use, and can be adapted to use in IODP boreholes. Our overall project goals are provide an instrumentation system capable of probing both high and low-gradient water-rock systems for chemolithoautotrophic biospheres, to identify the physical and chemical conditions that define these microhabitats and explore the details of the biogeochemical feedback loops that mediate these microhabitats, and to attempt to culture and identify chemolithoautotrophic microbial communities that might exist there. The Medusa-Isosampler system has been produced and is now

  3. Remote-sensing-based analysis of landscape change in the desiccated seabed of the Aral Sea--a potential tool for assessing the hazard degree of dust and salt storms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, F; Navratil, P; Kotte, K; Schöler, H F; Bubenzer, O

    2013-10-01

    With the recession of the Aral Sea in Central Asia, once the world's fourth largest lake, a huge new saline desert emerged which is nowadays called the Aralkum. Saline soils in the Aralkum are a major source for dust and salt storms in the region. The aim of this study was to analyze the spatio-temporal land cover change dynamics in the Aralkum and discuss potential implications for the recent and future dust and salt storm activity in the region. MODIS satellite time series were classified from 2000-2008 and change of land cover was quantified. The Aral Sea desiccation accelerated between 2004 and 2008. The area of sandy surfaces and salt soils, which bear the greatest dust and salt storm generation potential increased by more than 36 %. In parts of the Aralkum desalinization of soils was found to take place within 4-8 years. The implication of the ongoing regression of the Aral Sea is that the expansion of saline surfaces will continue. Knowing the spatio-temporal dynamics of both the location and the surface characteristics of the source areas for dust and salt storms allows drawing conclusions about the potential hazard degree of the dust load. The remote-sensing-based land cover assessment presented in this study could be coupled with existing knowledge on the location of source areas for an early estimation of trends in shifting dust composition. Opportunities, limits, and requirements of satellite-based land cover classification and change detection in the Aralkum are discussed.

  4. Ice nucleation properties of mineral dusts

    OpenAIRE

    Steinke, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Ice nucleation in clouds has a significant impact on the global hydrological cycle as well as on the radiative budget of the Earth. The AIDA cloud chamber was used to investigate the ice nucleation efficiency of various atmospherically relevant mineral dusts. From experiments with Arizona Test Dust (ATD) a humidity and temperature dependent ice nucleation active surface site density parameterization was developed to describe deposition nucleation at temperatures above 220 K. Based...

  5. Personal exposure to inhalable cement dust among construction workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Susan; Kromhout, Hans; Thomassen, Yngvar; Fechter-Rink, Edeltraud

    2009-01-01

    A case study was carried out in 2006-2007 to assess the actual cement dust exposure among construction workers involved in a full-scale construction project and as a comparison among workers involved in various stages of cement and concrete production. Full-shift personal exposure measurements were performed for several job types. Inhalable dust and cement dust (based on analysis of elemental calcium) concentrations were determined. Inhalable dust exposures at the construction site ranged from 0.05 to 34 mg/m3, with a mean concentration of 1.0 mg/m3. For inhalable cement dust mean exposure was 0.3 mg/m3 (range 0.02-17 mg/m3). Reinforcement and pouring workers had the lowest average concentrations. Inhalable dust levels in the ready-mix and pre-cast concrete plants were, on average, below 0.5 mg/m3 for inhalable dust and below 0.2 mg/m3 for inhalable cement dust. Highest dust concentrations were measured in cement production, particularly during cleaning tasks (inhalable dust GM=55 mg/m3; inhalable cement dust GM=33 mg/m3) at which point the workers wore personal protective equipment. Elemental measurements showed highest but very variable cement percentages in the cement plant and very low percentages of cement during reinforcement work and pouring.

  6. Simulating galactic dust grain evolution on a moving mesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Ryan; Vogelsberger, Mark; Torrey, Paul; Marinacci, Federico; Kannan, Rahul

    2018-05-01

    Interstellar dust is an important component of the galactic ecosystem, playing a key role in multiple galaxy formation processes. We present a novel numerical framework for the dynamics and size evolution of dust grains implemented in the moving-mesh hydrodynamics code AREPO suited for cosmological galaxy formation simulations. We employ a particle-based method for dust subject to dynamical forces including drag and gravity. The drag force is implemented using a second-order semi-implicit integrator and validated using several dust-hydrodynamical test problems. Each dust particle has a grain size distribution, describing the local abundance of grains of different sizes. The grain size distribution is discretised with a second-order piecewise linear method and evolves in time according to various dust physical processes, including accretion, sputtering, shattering, and coagulation. We present a novel scheme for stochastically forming dust during stellar evolution and new methods for sub-cycling of dust physics time-steps. Using this model, we simulate an isolated disc galaxy to study the impact of dust physical processes that shape the interstellar grain size distribution. We demonstrate, for example, how dust shattering shifts the grain size distribution to smaller sizes resulting in a significant rise of radiation extinction from optical to near-ultraviolet wavelengths. Our framework for simulating dust and gas mixtures can readily be extended to account for other dynamical processes relevant in galaxy formation, like magnetohydrodynamics, radiation pressure, and thermo-chemical processes.

  7. Modular playware as a playful diagnosis tool for autistic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2009-01-01

    children. Using artificial neural networks for automatic classification of the individual construction practices, we may compare this classification with the diagnosis of the children, and possible obtain a supplementary diagnosis tool which is based on the autistic children's free play with the modular...

  8. Mechanical Design of Odin, an Extendable Heterogeneous Deformable Modular Robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyder, Andreas; Garcia, Ricardo Franco Mendoza; Støy, Kasper

    2008-01-01

    Highly sophisticated animals consist of a set of heterogenous modules decided by nature so that they can survive in a complex environment. In this paper we present a new modular robot inspired by biology called Odin. The Odin robot is based on a deformable lattice and consists of an extendable se...

  9. Modular program systems for scientific-technical programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennewitz, F.; Lembcke, R.

    1977-01-01

    In order to replace the numerous traditional stand alone codes, great modular data based systems were developed by KWU for the simulation of nuclear reactors. These latter systems exhibit a high degree of automatization and combine quality assurance with a high flexibility in special problems. On the other hand they show a greater mashine dependency. (orig.) [de

  10. In Situ Modular Waste Retrieval and Treatment System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.S.

    1996-10-01

    As part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act process from remediation of Waste Area Grouping (WAG 6) at ORNL, a public meeting was held for the Proposed Plan. It was recognized that contaminant releases from WAG 6 posed minimal potential risk to the public and the environment. The US DOE in conjunction with the US EPA and the TDEC agreed to defer remedial action at WAG 6 until higher risk release sites were first remediated. This report presents the results of a conceptual design for an In Situ Modular Retrieval and Treatment System able to excavate, shred, and process buried waste on site, with minimum disturbance and distribution of dust and debris. the system would bring appropriate levels of treatment to the waste then encapsulate and leave it in place. The system would be applicable to areas in which waste was disposed in long trenches

  11. Dust coma of Halley comet: measurements with the dust counter and mass analyzer (DUSMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpson, J.A.; Sagdeev, R.Z.; Tuzzolino, A.J.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Kosmicheskikh Issledovanij)

    1986-01-01

    The paper represents a preliminary report on measurements of spatial and temporal distribution of mass and flows of dust particles coming from comet nucleus performed by means of devices constructed on the new principle of detecting comet dust specks. The device has a high time resolution (∼ 4 μs) in the wide range of mass and dust flows. On the base of a preliminary analysis the following conclusions are drawn: dust coma in quiet state (''Vega-2'') as well as at the presence of considerable emissions (''Vega-1'') manifests the presence of important short-term out-bursts having by time a quasi-periodic structure. Integral mass spectra show flows intensity growth with the decrease of measured mass (which contradicts some theoretical models). Flow levels lie approximately in the region previously determined by ground observations. The coma is extremely dynamic both in space and in time which proves the complex structure of regions of dust emission from the nucleus

  12. Quantifying Anthropogenic Dust Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Nicholas P.; Pierre, Caroline

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic land use and land cover change, including local environmental disturbances, moderate rates of wind-driven soil erosion and dust emission. These human-dust cycle interactions impact ecosystems and agricultural production, air quality, human health, biogeochemical cycles, and climate. While the impacts of land use activities and land management on aeolian processes can be profound, the interactions are often complex and assessments of anthropogenic dust loads at all scales remain highly uncertain. Here, we critically review the drivers of anthropogenic dust emission and current evaluation approaches. We then identify and describe opportunities to: (1) develop new conceptual frameworks and interdisciplinary approaches that draw on ecological state-and-transition models to improve the accuracy and relevance of assessments of anthropogenic dust emissions; (2) improve model fidelity and capacity for change detection to quantify anthropogenic impacts on aeolian processes; and (3) enhance field research and monitoring networks to support dust model applications to evaluate the impacts of disturbance processes on local to global-scale wind erosion and dust emissions.

  13. Modular packaging concept for MEMS and MOEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenchly, Vanessa; Reinert, Wolfgang; Quenzer, Hans-Joachim

    2017-11-01

    Wherever technical systems detect objects in their environment or interact with people, optical devices may play an important role. Light can be relatively easily produced and spatially and temporally modulated. Laser can project sharp images over long distances or cut materials in short distances. Depending on the wavelength an invisible scanning in near infrared for gesture recognition is possible as well as a projection of brilliant colour images. For several years, the Fraunhofer ISIT develops Opto-Packaging processes based on the viscous reshaping of glass wafers: First, hermetically sealed laser micro-mirror scanners WLP with inclined windows deflect in the central light reflex of the window out of the image area. Second, housing with lateral light exit permits hermetic sealing of edge-emitting lasers for highest reliability and durability. Such systems are currently experiencing an extremely high interest of the industry in all segments, from consumer to automotive through to materials processing. Our modular Opto-Packaging platform enables fast product developments. Housing for opto mechanical MEMS devices are equipped with inclined windows to minimize distortion, stray light and reflection losses. The hot viscous glass forming technology is also applied to functionalized substrate wafers which possess areas with high heat dissipation in addition to thermally insulating areas. Electrical contacts may be realized with metal filled vias or TGV (Through Glass Vias). The modular system reduces the development times for new, miniaturized optical systems so that manufacturers can focus on the essentials in their development, namely their product functionalities.

  14. Safety concerns related to modular/prefabricated building construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Maryam Mirhadi; Terouhid, Seyyed Amin; Kibert, Charles J; Hakim, Hamed

    2017-03-01

    The US construction industry annually experiences a relatively high rate of fatalities and injuries; therefore, improving safety practices should be considered a top priority for this industry. Modular/prefabricated building construction is a construction strategy that involves manufacturing of the whole building or some of its components off-site. This research focuses on the safety performance of the modular/prefabricated building construction sector during both manufacturing and on-site processes. This safety evaluation can serve as the starting point for improving the safety performance of this sector. Research was conducted based on Occupational Safety and Health Administration investigated accidents. The study found 125 accidents related to modular/prefabricated building construction. The details of each accident were closely examined to identify the types of injury and underlying causes. Out of 125 accidents, there were 48 fatalities (38.4%), 63 hospitalized injuries (50.4%), and 14 non-hospitalized injuries (11.2%). It was found that, the most common type of injury in modular/prefabricated construction was 'fracture', and the most common cause of accidents was 'fall'. The most frequent cause of cause (underlying and root cause) was 'unstable structure'. In this research, the accidents were also examined in terms of corresponding location, occupation, equipment as well as activities during which the accidents occurred. For improving safety records of the modular/prefabricated construction sector, this study recommends that future research be conducted on stabilizing structures during their lifting, storing, and permanent installation, securing fall protection systems during on-site assembly of components while working from heights, and developing training programmes and standards focused on modular/prefabricated construction.

  15. Spirit Feels Dust Gust

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On sol 1149 (March 28, 2007) of its mission, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit caught a wind gust with its navigation camera. A series of navigation camera images were strung together to create this movie. The front of the gust is observable because it was strong enough to lift up dust. From assessing the trajectory of this gust, the atmospheric science team concludes that it is possible that it passed over the rover. There was, however, no noticeable increase in power associated with this gust. In the past, dust devils and gusts have wiped the solar panels of dust, making it easier for the solar panels to absorb sunlight.

  16. Modular inverter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Mingyao; Hu, Haibing; Kutkut, Nasser; Batarseh, Issa; Shen, John; , Bkayrat, Raed

    2017-08-01

    A system connected to an AC power grid having an AC phase signal includes an inverter module including a first inverter coupled to a DC voltage, actuated based on the AC phase signal. The first inverter provides a first voltage signal having predetermined harmonic components. A second inverter includes second switch elements coupled to the DC voltage and actuated by a second set of control signals phase delayed with respect to the first control signals. A transformer module has first and second primary windings coupled to the first and second inverters. The transformer module further includes a secondary winding coupled to first primary winding, the second primary winding, and the AC power grid. The secondary winding is configured to provide a secondary output voltage to the AC power grid by combining the first voltage signal and the second voltage signal such that the predetermined harmonic components are substantially cancelled.

  17. Modular properties of 6d (DELL) systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, G.; Mironov, A.; Morozov, A.

    2017-11-01

    If super-Yang-Mills theory possesses the exact conformal invariance, there is an additional modular invariance under the change of the complex bare charge [InlineMediaObject not available: see fulltext.]. The low-energy Seiberg-Witten prepotential ℱ( a), however, is not explicitly invariant, because the flat moduli also change a - → a D = ∂ℱ/∂ a. In result, the prepotential is not a modular form and depends also on the anomalous Eisenstein series E 2. This dependence is usually described by the universal MNW modular anomaly equation. We demonstrate that, in the 6 d SU( N) theory with two independent modular parameters τ and \\widehat{τ} , the modular anomaly equation changes, because the modular transform of τ is accompanied by an ( N -dependent!) shift of \\widehat{τ} and vice versa. This is a new peculiarity of double-elliptic systems, which deserves further investigation.

  18. Modular Design in Treaty Verification Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Benz, Jacob [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tolk, Keith [Milagro Consulting, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Weber, Tom [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-01-27

    It is widely believed that modular design is a good thing. However, there are often few explicit arguments, or even an agreed range of definitions, to back up this belief. In this paper, we examine the potential range of design modularity, the implications of various amounts of modularity, and the advantages and disadvantages of each level of modular construction. We conclude with a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of each type, as well as discuss many caveats that should be observed to take advantage of the positive features of modularity and minimize the effects of the negative. The tradeoffs described in this paper will be evaluated during the conceptual design to determine what amount of modularity should be included.

  19. Modular Robotics in an African Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we review the concept, development and use of modular robotic devices for education, health improvements, and business in Africa. The modular robotics inspired technology has the advantage of allowing any user easy access to a physical construction of new and advanced technology. We...... conceptualized several educational tools inspired by modular robotics for contextualized IT education in Tanzania, leading to a novel IT degree program and the development of East Africa’s first science and business park in Iringa, Tanzania. The prototypes inspired by modular robotics were developed in the local......, rural context and tested by local users in hospitals and rehabilitation centres. In this paper, we review the development of both modular building blocks for education and modular robotic tiles for rehabilitation in Tanzania....

  20. (Automated) software modularization using community detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius; Manikas, Konstantinos

    2015-01-01

    The modularity of a software system is known to have an effect on, among other, development effort, change impact, and technical debt. Modularizing a specific system and evaluating this modularization is, however, challenging. In this paper, we apply community detection methods to the graph...... of class dependencies in software systems to find optimal modularizations through communities. We evaluate this approach through a study of 111 Java systems contained in the Qualitas Corpus. We found that using the modularity function of Newman with an Erdős-Rényi null-model and using the community...... detection algorithm of Reichardt and Bornholdt improved community quality for all systems, that coupling decreased for 99 of the systems, and that coherence increased for 102 of the systems. Furthermore, the modularity function correlates with existing metrics for coupling and coherence....