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Sample records for durene

  1. Purification and separation of durene by static melt crystallization☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Cong; Ying Liu; Hong Li; Xingang Li; Lvhong Zhang; Lei Wang

    2015-01-01

    The purification and separation of durene from the mixture containing durene isomers were studied. Since the boiling points of tetramethyl benzene isomers are very close but their melting points are of great differences, stat-ic melt crystallization was applied to separate and purify durene from its isomers. Crystallization experiments were carried out under various operating conditions. The effects of cooling rate, crystallization temperature, sweating temperature and sweating time on the yield and purity of crystal were investigated. Orthogonal exper-imental design method was adopted to analyze the factors that may affect the yield of durene. Under the optimal crystal ization conditions, the purity of durene could reach as high as 99.06%with the yield of 75.3%through one crystal ization process. By fitting purification data based on sweating time in isothermal operations, the purifica-tion rate coefficient was obtained.

  2. The disposition and metabolism of durene (1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ligocka, D.; Sapota, A.; Rydzynski, K. [Nofer' s Inst. of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2001-01-01

    The organ and tissue distribution, excretion and metabolism of [{sup 3}H]1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene ([{sup 3}H]durene) in male Wistar albino rats were investigated following a single i.p. administration (40 mg/kg) and within 9 days after five daily repeated administrations. Urine proved to be the main route of tritium excretion. Within the first 24 h after a single administration 69% of the radioactivity was excreted in the urine and only 9% in the feces. The highest level of tritium binding was found in the fat tissue, liver, kidneys and adrenal glands. The accumulation of tritium in the plasma proceeded with a kinetic constant of 0.49 h{sup -1}, whereas the half-life of radioactivity decayamounted to about 6.3 h. In erythrocytes, the tritium level was found to be about three times lower than in blood plasma. The total amount eliminated during the 9 days following repeated administration was about 94% of the five doses given. The highest level of tritium was found in fat tissue and adrenal glands, followed by the liver, kidneys, sciatic nerve and muscle. A gradual decline in tritium levels was observed during the following 4 days in most tissues to reach about 2% of the dose given. The main urinary metabolites resulting from the administration of durene were 2,4,5-trimethylbenzyl alcohol (about 22%), 4,5-dimethyl-1,2-benzdialdehyde (about 19%), 2,4,5-trimethylbenzaldehyde (about 19%) and 2,4,5-trimethylbenzoic acid (about 16%). The oxygen-containing metabolites accounted for almost 80%, whereas sulphur-containing metabolites accounted for approximately 10% of the products of biotransformation. In conclusion, most of the durene administered has a relatively rapid turnover rate, with minor levels retained in the tissues for longer time periods. (orig.)

  3. Pelaksanaan Ekstensifikasi Wajib Pajak dan Intensifikasi Pajak: Upaya Peningkatan Penerimaan PPH Orang Pribadi pada KPP Pratama Duren Sawit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Safira Dewi

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the expansion and intensification of the taxpayer and its effects on the revenue of Personal Income of Pratama Tax Office Duren Sawit Jakarta. Besides, this study aims to find out the obstacles that occur in the implementation of these activities. This study used qualitative method. Results of the research show that the expansion and intensification of taxpayer in Pratama Tax Office Duren Sawit, Jakarta, did not run optimally although the growth of the taxpayer and the tax revenues increased from 2010 to 2012. However, there was a slight decrease in tax revenues in 2012. Various efforts were made by Pratama Tax Office Duren Sawit Jakarta to maximize the implementation of the extensification and intensification of tax, such as socialization. To overcome problems occur in Pratama Tax Office Duren Sawit Jakarta, research’s suggestion is adding human resources if possible or optimization for effectiveness of the current resource to do outreach of taxpayers and expand cooperation with other parties.

  4. PENGARUH KUALITAS PELAYANAN TOUR LEADER TERHADAP LOYALITAS KONSUMEN PADA TRAVEL AGENT KENCANA WISATA TANJUNG DUREN JAKARTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggy Cariena

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The increasing amount of traveler is affecting  the tourism sector.The role of tour leader is very significant to support the success of a tour. Tour leader as a front liner of the company is needed to maintain the consumer’s satisfaction which is also affect the consumer’s loyalty to the company. The purpose of this study is to find the effect of Service Quality toward Consumer’s loyalty from Kencana Wisata Tanjung Duren Jakarta. Data was collected by using the questionnaire. The types of data are quantitative which  obtained by calculating data from the questionnaire. The method of sampling used purposive with the determination of respondents .The data method analyzed used double regression analysis techniques , double correlation, analysis of determination ,T- test and F-test with significant level of 5 percent .Assisted by using data processing program SPSS ( statistical package for social science 15. The research result indicates that service quality of tour leader and consumer’s loyalty has a positive relation partially. Simultaneously,indicates that tangible (X1, empathy (X2, reliability (X3, responsiveness (X4 and assurance (X5 loyalty  (Y with value 0,834  which means significantly affecting consumer’s at travel agent Kencana Wisata Tanjung Duren Jakarta. The writer’s  suggestion is Kencana Wisata management should give special attention to maintain the honest behavior and make the tour leader more trustable to boost the consumer’s satisfactian which by the end can affect the consumer’s loyalty to the company.

  5. Turbidite Facies Study of Halang Formation on Pangkalan River, Karang Duren - Dermaji Village, Banyumas District, Central Java - Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, Yan; Lagona, Raymond; Dwijo Santoso, Wahyu

    2017-06-01

    The Halang formation had been exposed continuously in Pangkalan river, Banyumas Basin. Detailed stratigraphic studies by which using measuring section method was performed on Halang formation which found along Pangkalan river. The facies of Halang formation based on sedimentological study can be divided into five facies association, namely with: proximal channel, distal levee, frontal splay 1, crevasse splay, and frontal splay 2. The thickness of distal levees deposit indicates that Halang formation is confirmed as mud rich system turbidities. Fasies association of Halang formation is controlled by several factors. Changes in sediment supply are that one of factor which created a change in fasies association. Sediment supply has changes caused by sea level changes which are resulting of global climatic changes or tectonic factor. Moreover, volcanism process during Late Miocene leads the sediment supply changes.

  6. The Effectiness of Train to Train Game in the Improvement of Speaking Skills of English Course Students: A Case Study at EF Tanjung Duren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhartoyo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Article clarifies on how the students speaking abilities can be stimulated by Train to Train game. The writers create Train to Train game which covers three activities, those are drawing, explaining, and making chain story that can be done individually and also in a team. Twenty-four students have participated in this research and the writers use Train to Train game as an experimental tool in the class for forty-five minutes in each meeting. The writers collect the data from eight meetings inside the classroom twice a week in each class. The beneficial impact of the Train to Train game is evaluated by comparing the results of the pre-test and posttest. The questionnaires distributed to the students is used to obtain insights/ feedback from the students The result of the research proves that Train to Train game can stimulate the students to speak English more confidently, clearly, corectly, and fluently than before they practice the game.

  7. Asupan kalsium, vitamin D, kafein, merokok, indeks massa tubuh dan hubungannya dengan kejadian osteoporosis pada pria di Kecamatan Duren Sawit, Jakarta Timur

    OpenAIRE

    Susanti, Eka; Pramantara, I Dewa Putu; Pangastuti, Retno

    2017-01-01

    Background: Osteoporosis can cause public health problem because both man and woman have high risk factor for osteoporosis. This is related to high morbidity and mortality of man. The increase of elderly population intensifies the frequency of the prevalence of osteoporosis, which limits activities of the patients.Objective: To identify the relationship between calcium, vitamin D, and caffeine intake, smoking, and mass body index with osteoporosis among elderly men.Method: This study was anal...

  8. Production of low-density poly (4-methyl-1-pentene) foam via phase inversion from binary solvent/nonsovent systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simandl, R.F.; Robinson, D.N.; Bolinger, W.L.; Davis, W.E.

    1991-11-01

    Phase inversion from durene/naphthalene, durene/tmpdo, and durene/hexadecanol binary solvent/nonsolvent systems produced well interconnected, radiographically homogeneous, open-celled poly (4- methyl-1-pentene) or pmp foams. These foams ranged in density from 5 to 50 mg/cm{sup 2}. Foam homogeneity and casting efficiency were dependent on casting scheme, durene quality, solvent-to-nonsolvent ratio, and quench temperature. Foam density tracked linearly with dissolved-polymer content. Homogeneous, ultralow-density (5 to 6 mg/cm{sup 3}) foams were produced by using a 49/51 durene/naphthalene solvent eutectic. Foam hardness or firmness tracked somewhat linearly with foam density. Foams with densities above 20 mg/cm{sup 3} were too fragile to handle without damage.

  9. 9,10-二氰基蒽和杜烯间光诱导电子转移的电荷分离态和电子耦合%Charge-separated State and Electronic Coupling for Photoinduced Electron Transfer Between 9,10-Dicyanoanthracene and Durene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易海波; 段晓惠; 李象远; 杨胜勇

    2003-01-01

    采用从头算方法, 讨论了9,10-二氰基蒽(DCA)和杜烯(DUR)间光诱导电子转移反应的态-态跃迁.考虑基组重叠误差(BSSE)对相互作用能的校正, 用MP2方法优化得到重叠式[DCA…DUR]配合物的稳定构型.用单激发组态相互作用(CIS)方法讨论了[DCA…DUR]配合物的光诱导电荷分离和电荷复合过程.根据广义 Mulliken-Hush(GMH)模型, 计算了电荷复合过程的电子耦合矩阵元.结果表明, [DCA…DUR]配合物的S0→S1和S0→S2跃迁产生了两个强的局域激发态, S0→S3跃迁直接导致电荷分离态, 小的振子强度预测该电荷转移(CT)跃迁是一弱跃迁, 电荷分离态S3衰变到低局域激发态或基态的电荷复合是可能的.

  10. Coefficient multipliers of H~p spaces over bounded symmetric domains in C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖建斌

    1995-01-01

    One way to give information about the Taylor coefficients of Hp functions is to describe the multipliers of Hp into various spaces. In the case of one complex variable, Duren and Shields described the multipliers of Hp into lq (0Duren-Shields theorems to the case with the bounded symmetric domains in Cn are generalized. The results are sharp if q≥2. A sufficient condition of Hp into Hq is given for any p and q, 0

  11. Homogeneous Broadening of Optical Transitions in Organic Mixed Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, Harmen de; Wiersma, Douwe A.

    1976-01-01

    We have used the phenomenon of laser-induced molecular photodissociation to determine the homogeneous linewidth at 2 K of the origin (zero-phonon line) and a vibronic transition in the mixed-crystal absorption spectrum of dimethyl s-tetrazine in durene. From the measured 55-MHz (upper limit) homogen

  12. ERP-implementaties : Managementprobleem of softwareprobleem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de W. Fred

    2004-01-01

    Implementaties van ERP-pakketten leiden nogal eens tot problemen: uit onderzoek blijkt dat veel implementatietrajecten te lang duren en teveel kosten en dat bovendien de resultaten nogal eens tegenvallen. Er worden zelfs faillissementen toegeschreven aan mislukte ERP-implementaties. De literatuur ov

  13. ..ende men sal van een erve ende goedt niet meer dan een trop schaepe holden..; historische begrazing van gemeenschappelijke weidegronden in Gelderland en Overijssel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirkx, G.H.P.

    1997-01-01

    De langetermijneffecten van begrazing in het natuurbeheer kunnen moeilijk worden voorspeld uit lopende begrazingsexperimenten, omdat die nog te kort duren. Daarom is onderzocht of de historische ecologie hier uitkomst biedt. Het onderzoek richtte zichop de archieven van marken in Gelderland en Overi

  14. ERP-implementaties : Managementprobleem of softwareprobleem?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, de W. Fred

    2004-01-01

    Implementaties van ERP-pakketten leiden nogal eens tot problemen: uit onderzoek blijkt dat veel implementatietrajecten te lang duren en teveel kosten en dat bovendien de resultaten nogal eens tegenvallen. Er worden zelfs faillissementen toegeschreven aan mislukte ERP-implementaties. De literatuur

  15. Vibrational relaxation of guest and host in mixed molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jeffrey R.; Chronister, Eric L.; Chang, Ta-Chau; Kim, Hackjin; Postlewaite, Jay C.; Dlott, Dana D.

    1988-02-01

    Vibrational relaxation (VR) of dilute impurity molecules (naphthalene, anthracene) in crystalline host matrices (durene, naphthalene) is studied with the ps photon echo technique. The results obtained by echoes on vibrations in the electronically excited state are compared to previous ps time delayed coherent Raman studies of ground state vibrations of the pure host matrix. The relaxation channels for guest and host, and the effects of molecular and crystal structure on VR rates are determined.

  16. Conversaciones veraniegas

    OpenAIRE

    Mandianes Castro, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Antes se decía: hay que aprender y hacer cosas que duren; hoy lo que dura es un estorbo para aprender lo nuevo que llega a todo instante. La gente busca vías de escape a la ansiedad y a las ganas de bronca por el temor ante el futuro incierto que puede conducir al largo y tortuoso trecho del paro a muchos más de los que ya están.

  17. PENANGANAN PASCA PANEN DAN DIVERSIFIKASI PENGOLAHAN BUAH MANGGIS DI DESA BELIMBING KECAMATAN PUPUAN KABUPATEN TABANAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AGUS SELAMET DUNIAJI

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen fruit in the village of Belimbing at the time of harvest and the season is very abundant and the price at that time was very low, so farmers often lose money. Therefore, farmers need to be equipped with skills mangosteen fruit post-harvest handling and processing method. Mangosteen fruit contains vitamin C is high at 66.0 mg/100 g of material and also contains antioxidants like xanthon very useful and good for health. Mangosteen fruit processing training was conducted at Women Farmers Group (KWT at Duren Taluh, Belimbing of Pupuan district ofTabanan. Number of participants is 35 people. Training was conducted in March 2013 held at the Hall of subak groups Duren Taluh Belimbing. Diversification offood processingin addition toreproducea varietyof processedfoods thatcanalsoextendthe shelf life ofthe productand thetype of processingcan still beobtainedin theoff-season. Syrup and juice products produced in the hamlet village Duren Taluh is expected to overcome the problems of post-harvest handling and processing the mangosteen fruit and can increase the income of farmers and farming groups of women in villages of Belimbing of Pupuan district ofTabanan.Keywords: Mangosteen fruit, syrup, juice, women farmers group

  18. El divorcio expedito: respeto y aplicación de la expresión de la voluntad de los conyugues

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Alarcón, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    Para conocer el verdadero sentido del divorcio es necesario entender primero qué significa el Matrimonio, ante Dios y ante la ley. Esa unión sublime y sagrada que tiene vivas a las mayorías de las sociedades, dando origen a las familias. La unión voluntaria de un hombre y una mujer en un lazo social y sexual con respecto al cual tienen la intención de que duren toda la vida, y que se debe caracterizar por la fidelidad, la confianza, el amor y la entrega. El matrimonio ha funcionado tradici...

  19. Changes in ambient SO/sub 2/ by rhododendron and pyracantha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, B.R.; Krause, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The capacity of rhododendron (Rhododendron catawbiense michx., cv. Nova zembla) and firethorn (Pyracantha coccinea M.J. Roem. Var. Lalandii (duren) dipp.) to change ambient SO/sub 2/ levels in a closed fumigation system was studied. P. coccinea removed greater quantities of SO/sub 2/ at faster rates than R. catawbiense. Differences in leaf surface characteristics between the 2 species suggest that at least part of the SO/sub 2/ uptake mechanism may involve a surface-mediated response to the pollutant.

  20. Direct Conversion of Syngas-to-Hydrocarbons over Higher Alcohols Synthesis Catalysts Mixed with HZSM-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebarbier Dagel, Vanessa M.; Dagle, Robert A.; Li, Jinjing; Deshmane, Chinmay A.; Taylor, Charles E.; Bao, Xinhe; Wang, Yong

    2014-09-10

    The synthesis of hydrocarbon fuels directly from synthesis gas (i.e. one step process) was investigated with a catalytic system comprised of HZSM-5 physically mixed with either a methanol synthesis catalyst or a higher alcohols synthesis (HAS) catalyst. The metal sites of the methanol or HAS synthesis catalyst enable the conversion of syngas to alcohols, whereas HZSM-5 provides acid sites required for methanol dehydration, and dimethyl ether-to-hydrocarbons reactions. Catalytic performance for HZSM-5 when mixed with either a 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 methanol synthesis catalyst or a HAS catalyst was evaluated at 300°C, 70 bars, GHSV=700 h-1 and H2/CO=1 using a HZSM-5: alcohols synthesis catalyst weight ratio of 3:1. The major difference observed between the methanol synthesis and HAS catalyst mixtures was found in the production of durene which is an undesirable byproduct. While durene formation is negligible with any of the HAS catalysts mixed with the HZSM-5 evaluated in this study, it represents almost 50% of the C5+ fraction for the methanol synthesis catalyst (5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 ) mixed with HZSM-5. This presents an advantage for using HAS catalysts over the methanol synthesis catalyst to minimize the durene by-product. The yield toward the desired C5+ hydrocarbons is thus twice higher with selected HAS catalysts as compared to when HZSM-5 is mixed with 5 wt.% Pd/ZnO/Al2O3. Among all the HAS catalysts evaluated in this study, a catalyst with 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst was found the most promising due to higher production of C5+ hydrocarbons and low durene formation. The efficiency of the one-step process was thus further evaluated using the HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu catalyst mixture under a number of process conditions to maximize liquid hydrocarbons product yield. At 300oC, 70 bars, GHSV = 700 h-1 and HZSM-5: 0.5 wt.% Pd/FeCoCu = 3:1 (wt.), the C5+ fraction represents 48.5% of the hydrocarbons. Unfortunately, it is more difficult to achieve higher selectivity

  1. KUAT MEDAN LISTRIK DAN MEDAN MAGNET PADA PERALATAN RUMAH TANGGA DAN KANTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Athena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of electric and magnetic fields strength of electronic household appliances and office equipments were conducted in Jakarta (Duren Sawit and Paseban sub-districts. Samples of home appliances include television, radio, electric bulb, refrigerator, microwave oven, iron, washing machine, heating jar, AC, and fan. The only samples of office equipment are computers. In addition to home appliances and office equipment, electric and magnetic fields strength were also measured in living rooms, and in office working rooms. The instrument used for the electric and magnetic fields strength measurement is Holaday portable field strength meters model HI 3604. Among all the household samples, television (310 V/m in 100 cm from the source, and iron (1680 V/m in 3 cm from the source exposed the highest electric field. While the highest magnetic field exposure is from microwave oven (8,25 µT in 3 cm from the source; 4,45 µT in 30 cm from the source; 0,72 µT in 100 cm from the source. The highest electric field exposure of the living room was detected in Paseban district (44,6 V/m and the higest magnetic field exposure was detected in the working rooms (0,073 µT.In this study the electric and magnetic fields exposures measured from various home appliances, office equipments, and office working rooms were still under the value of International Radiation Protection Association (IRPAZWorld Health Organization (WHO recommendation in 1990.

  2. Vibrational relaxation and vibrational cooling in low temperature molecular crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Jeffrey R.; Chronister, Eric L.; Chang, Ta-Chau; Kim, Hackjin; Postlewaite, Jay C.; Dlott, Dana D.

    1988-01-01

    The processes of vibrational relaxation (VR) and vibrational cooling (VC) are investigated in low temperature crystals of complex molecules, specifically benzene, naphthalene, anthracene, and durene. In the VR process, a vibration is deexcited, while VC consists of many sequential and parallel VR steps which return the crystal to thermal equilibrium. A theoretical model is developed which relates the VR rate to the excess vibrational energy, the molecular structure, and the crystal structure. Specific relations are derived for the vibrational lifetime T1 in each of three regimes of excess vibrational energy. The regimes are the following: Low frequency regime I where VR occurs by emission of two phonons, intermediate frequency regime II where VR occurs by emission of one phonon and one vibration, and high frequency regime III where VR occurs by evolution into a dense bath of vibrational combinations. The VR rate in each regime depends on a particular multiphonon density of states and a few averaged anharmonic coefficients. The appropriate densities of states are calculated from spectroscopic data, and together with available VR data and new infrared and ps Raman data, the values of the anharmonic coefficients are determined for each material. The relationship between these parameters and the material properties is discussed. We then describe VC in a master equation formalism. The transition rate matrix for naphthalene is found using the empirically determined parameters of the above model, and the time dependent redistribution in each mode is calculated.

  3. KUAT MEDAN LISTRIK DAN MEDAN MAGNET PADA PERALATAN RUMAH TANGGA DAN KANTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Athena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of electric and magnetic fields strength of electronic household appliances and office equipments were conducted in Jakarta (Duren Sawit and Paseban sub-districts. Samples of home appliances include television, radio, electric bulb, refrigerator, microwave oven, iron, washing machine, heating jar, AC, and fan. The only samples of office equipment are computers. In addition to home appliances and office equipment, electric and magnetic fields strength were also measured in living rooms, and in office working rooms. The instrument used for the electric and magnetic fields strength measurement is Holaday portable field strength meters model HI 3604. Among all the household samples, television (310 V/m in 100 cm from the source, and iron (1680 V/m in 3 cm from the source exposed the highest electric field. While the highest magnetic field exposure is from microwave oven (8,25 µT in 3 cm from the source; 4,45 µT in 30 cm from the source; 0,72 µT in 100 cm from the source. The highest electric field exposure of the living room was detected in Paseban district (44,6 V/m and the higest magnetic field exposure was detected in the working rooms (0,073 µT.In this study the electric and magnetic fields exposures measured from various home appliances, office equipments, and office working rooms were still under the value of International Radiation Protection Association (IRPAZWorld Health Organization (WHO recommendation in 1990.

  4. Ionic Liquids as the MOFs/Polymer Interfacial Binder for Efficient Membrane Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Rijia; Ge, Lei; Diao, Hui; Rudolph, Victor; Zhu, Zhonghua

    2016-11-23

    Obtaining strong interfacial affinity between filler and polymer is critical to the preparation of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with high separation efficiency. However, it is still a challenge for micron-sized metal organic frameworks (MOFs) to achieve excellent compatibility and defect-free interface with polymer matrix. Thin layer of ionic liquid (IL) was immobilized on micron-sized HKUST-1 to eliminate the interfacial nonselective voids in MMMs with minimized free ionic liquid (IL) in polymer matrix, and then the obtained IL decorated HKUST-1 was incorporated into 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride-2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,3-phenyldiamine (6FDA-Durene) to fabricate MMMs. Acting as a filler/polymer interfacial binder, the favorable MOF/IL and IL/polymer interaction can facilitate the enhancement of MOF/polymer affinity. Compared to MMM with only HKUST-1 incorporation, MMM with IL decorated HKUST-1 succeeded in restricting the formation of nonselective interfacial voids, leading to an increment in CO2 selectivity. The IL decoration method can be an effective approach to eliminate interfacial voids in MMMs, extending the filler selection to a wide range of large-sized fillers.

  5. Werner's Measure on Self-Avoiding Loops and Welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Angel; Pickrell, Doug

    2014-08-01

    Werner's conformally invariant family of measures on self-avoiding loops on Riemann surfaces is determined by a single measure μ_0 on self-avoiding loops in C setminus{0} which surround 0. Our first major objective is to show that the measure μ_0 is infinitesimally invariant with respect to conformal vector fields (essentially the Virasoro algebra of conformal field theory). This makes essential use of classical variational formulas of Duren and Schiffer, which we recast in representation theoretic terms for efficient computation. We secondly show how these formulas can be used to calculate (in principle, and sometimes explicitly) quantities (such as moments for coefficients of univalent functions) associated to the conformal welding for a self-avoiding loop. This gives an alternate proof of the uniqueness of Werner's measure. We also attempt to use these variational formulas to derive a differential equation for the (Laplace transform of) the ''diagonal distribution'' for the conformal welding associated to a loop; this generalizes in a suggestive way to a deformation of Werner's measure conjectured to exist by Kontsevich and Suhov (a basic inspiration for this paper).

  6. Chlorido[2,3,5,6-tetrakis(tert-butylsulfanylmethylphenyl-κ3S2,C1,S6]palladium(II dichloromethane monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morales-Morales

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Pd(C26H45S4Cl]·CH2Cl2, crystallizes with a disordered dichloromethane solvent molecule [occupancy ratio = 0.67 (4:0.33 (4]. Two of the tert-butyl groups are also disordered [occupancy ratios = 0.70 (5:0.30 (5 and 0.63 (4:0.37 (4]. Although the pincer ligand offers the possibility for coordination of two different metal atoms, the present structure shows only the coordination of a single PdII atom in a typical S—C—S tridentate pincer manner. The PdII atom is in a slightly distorted square-planar environment with the two tert-butylsulfanyl groups arranged in a trans conformation and with a chloride ligand trans to the σ-bonded aromatic C atom. The structure exhibits a durene-like ligand frame, forming a dihedral angle of 13.6 (4° with the metal coordination (Pd/S/S/Cl/C environment. It is noteworthy that the tert-butyl groups are found in a syn arrangement, this being different to that found previously by Loeb, Shimizu & Wisner [(1998. Organometallics, 17, 2324–2327].

  7. Detection and Spatial Mapping of Anthropogenic Methane Plumes with the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulley, Glynn; Duren, Riley; Hook, Simon; Hopkins, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    Detection and Spatial Mapping of Anthropogenic Methane Plumes with the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) Glynn Hulley, Simon Hook, Riley Duren, Francesca Hopkins Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, USA Currently large uncertainties exist associated with attribution and quantification of fugitive emissions of greenhouse gases such as methane across many regions and key economic sectors. A number of observational efforts are currently underway to better quantify and reduce uncertainties associated with these emissions, including agriculture and oil and gas production operations. One such effort led by JPL is the development of the Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) - a wide swath Thermal Infrared (TIR) airborne imager with high spectral (256 bands from 7.5 - 12 micron) and spatial resolution (~1.5 m at 1-km AGL altitude) that presents a major advance in airborne TIR remote sensing measurements. Using HyTES we have developed robust and reliable techniques for the detection and high resolution mapping of small scale plumes of anthropogenic (oil and gas fields, landfills, dairies) and non-anthropogenic (natural seeps) sources of methane in the state of California and Colorado. A background on the HyTES sensor, science objectives, gas detection methods, and examples of mapping fugitive methane plumes in California and Colorado will be discussed. These kind of observational efforts and studies will help address critical science questions related to methane budgets and management of future emissions in California and other regions.

  8. Groundwater Quality Assessment in Jakarta Capital Region for the Safe Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadly, M.; Prayogi, T. E.; Mohamad, F.; Zulfaris, D. Y.; Memed, M. W.; Daryanto, A.; Abdillah, F.; Nasution, E. M.; Sudianto, J. R.; Giarto, B.; Maliki, F.

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to determine the quality of Jakarta Capital Region’s groundwater and its recommendation based on the standards set by the Indonesian government especially The Health Minister Decree No. 907 / Menkes / SK / VII / 2002 about The Drinking Water Monitoring. The study activity uses the data that carried out by Geological Agency, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Indonesia from March to April 2015. The methods used in this study are direct observation and hydrogeological measurement to measure physics and chemistry parameters. The results show that most places in the study area have the low quality of groundwater which is below the drinking water quality standards according to the government. However, at the unconfined aquifer (depth of 0-40 meters), the certain areas such as in the Kramat Jati, Halim Perdana Kusuma, Tongkol-Pademangan, and Duren sawit are still relatively safe for consumption as drinking water. In addition, the confined aquifer (depth> 40 meters) such as in the area of Cibubur, Pasar Rebo, and Jagakarsa are considered safe for consumption as drinking water. This study is expected to be used as a benchmark for researchers, especially academics in the region in order to maintain the sustainable groundwater resources in the area.

  9. German chemical plants with particular reference to centrifuges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broadbent, F.

    1946-01-01

    This report consisted of 9 reports. Report No. 1 was about Elmore Metall A. G., Schlandern on Siegburg. Two divisions of works in this factory were: (1) tube-drawing section for copper, steel, and zinc, with old machinery; (2) a section making electrolytically-deposited copper cylinders up to 100'' diameter, of high purity and excellent mechanical properties. The electrolytically-deposited copper cylinders were produced in lead-lined wooden tanks. Report No. 2 was about H. Krantz Maschinenfabrik, Aachen. This firm specialized in hydro-extractors, confined to types suitable for laundries and textile work. The machines built were of sizes from 800 mm to 1,8000 mm basket diameter. Report No. 3 was about O. Doerries A. G., Vorm Banning, and Seyfold Duren. This firm specialized in paper-making machinery, including centrifugal grit extractors for the treatment of paper stock. Erkensators number 4 and number 4L were compared in this report. Reports No. 4 and No. 5 were about I. G. Farbenindustrie, Dormagen, and Elberfeld. General information about the continuously-operating centrifuges was given. Report No. 6 was about Glanstoff Courtald between Cologne and Dormagen, where they used two methods of extracting water from viscose cakes, (1) by multiple-hinged candle hydro-extractors, and (2) by converted spinning pots. Report No. 7 was about Matthers and Weber, Duisberg, and gave general information about two kinds of centrifuges, (1) for crude bi-carbonate, and (2) for refined bi-carbonate. Report No. 8 was about Westfalia Separator A. G., Oelde; where the high-speed centrifuges of the ''cream separator'' or Laval type were made. Report No. 9 was about Escher Wyss, Ravensburg, where centrifuges, water turbines, spray dryers, and paper-making machinery were manufactured.

  10. Photochemical Oxidation of a Manganese(III) Complex with Oxygen and Toluene Derivatives to Form a Manganese(V)-Oxo Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jieun; Ohkubo, Kei; Prokop-Prigge, Katharine A.; Neu, Heather M.; Goldberg, David P.; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2013-01-01

    Visible light photoirradiation of an oxygen-saturated benzonitrile solution of a manganese(III) corrolazine complex [(TBP8Cz)MnIII (1): [TBP8Cz = octakis(p-tert-butylphenyl)corrolazinato3−] in the presence of toluene derivatives resulted in formation of the manganese(V)-oxo complex [(TBP8Cz)MnV(O)]. The photochemical oxidation of (TBP8Cz)MnIII with O2 and hexamethylbenzene (HMB) led to the isosbestic conversion of 1 to (TBP8Cz)MnV(O), accompanied by the selective oxidation of HMB to pentamethylbenzyl alcohol (87%). The formation rate of (TBP8Cz)MnV(O) increased with methyl group substitution, from toluene, p-xylene, mesitylene, durene, pentamethylbenzene, up to hexamethylbenzene. Deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) were observed for toluene (KIE = 5.4) and mesitylene (KIE = 5.3). Femtosecond laser flash photolysis of (TBP8Cz)MnIII revealed the formation of a tripquintet excited state, which was rapidly converted to a tripseptet excited state. The tripseptet excited state was shown to be the key, activated state that reacts with O2 via a diffusion-limited rate constant. The data allow for a mechanism to be proposed in which the tripseptet excited state reacts with O2 to give the putative (TBP8Cz)MnIV(O2•−), which then abstracts a hydrogen atom from the toluene derivatives in the rate-determining step. The mechanism of hydrogen abstraction is discussed by comparison of the reactivity with the hydrogen abstraction from the same toluene derivatives by cumylperoxyl radical. Taken together, the data suggest a new catalytic method is accessible for the selective oxidation of C-H bonds with O2 and light, and the first evidence for catalytic oxidation of C–H bonds was obtained with 10-methyl-9,10-dihydroacridine as a substrate. PMID:24219426

  11. Charge transport in organic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortmann, Frank

    2009-07-01

    The understanding of charge transport is one of the central goals in the research on semiconducting crystals. For organic crystals this is particularly complicated due to the strength of the electron-phonon interaction which requires the description of a seamless transition between the limiting cases of a coherent band-transport mechanism and incoherent hopping. In this thesis, charge transport phenomena in organic crystals are studied by theoretical means. A theory for charge transport in organic crystals is developed which covers the whole temperature range from low T, where it reproduces an expression from the Boltzmann equation for band transport, via elevated T, where it generalizes Holstein's small-polaron theory to finite bandwidths, up to high T, for which a temperature dependence equal to Marcus' electron-transfer theory is obtained. Thereby, coherent band transport and thermally induced hopping are treated on equal footing while simultaneously treating the electron-phonon interaction non-perturbatively. By avoiding the approximation of narrow polaron bands the theory allows for the description of large and small polarons and serves as a starting point for computational studies. The theoretical description is completed by using ab initio material parameters for the selected crystals under study. These material parameters are taken from density functional theory calculations for durene, naphthalene, and guanine crystals. Besides the analysis of the transport mechanism, special focus is put on the study of the relationship between mobility anisotropy and structure of the crystals. This study is supported by a 3D-visualization method for the transport channels in such crystals which has been derived in this thesis. (orig.)

  12. Molecular simulation of sorption of gases in 6FDA-polyimides%6FDA型聚酰亚胺中气体溶解行为的分子模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍艳辉; 张海峰; 李明; 刘仲能

    2009-01-01

    用分子模拟方法对6FDA-durene、6FDA-pPDA及其共聚物6FDA-durene/pPDA的链间距及自由体积进行了模拟计算,结果与文献实验值一致;采用巨正则Monte Carlo(GCMC)方法模拟了O2、N2、CH4和CO2在聚酰亚胺中的溶解,计算结果表明:COMPASS力场能较准确地描述O2、N2和CH4在聚酰亚胺中的吸附溶解,O2、N2、CH4的溶解系数模拟结果与实验数据吻合较好.CO2的溶解系数计算值与实验值偏差较大(约50%),主要原因可能在于模拟过程中未考虑体积溶胀效应以及COMPASS力场不能精确描述CO2与-CF3基团的相互作用.同一聚合物中,计算所得气体溶解系数的大小顺序为CO2>CH4>O2>N2,与气体凝聚性趋势一致,同种气体在6FDA型聚酰亚胺中的溶解系数与其自由体积分数变化趋势一致.3种聚合物对CO2/CH4的溶解选择性高于O2/N2,共聚物与均聚物相比,气体溶解选择性没有明显提高.

  13. Atmospheric Fossil Fuel CO2 Tracing By 14C In Some Chinese Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W.; Niu, Z.; Zhu, Y., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    CO2 plays an important role in global climate as a primary greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Moreover, it has been shown that more than 70% of global fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions are concentrated in urban areas (Duren and Miller, 2012). Our study focuses on atmospheric CO2ff concentrations in 15 Chinese cities using accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) to measure 14C. Our objectives are: (1) to document atmospheric CO2ff concentrations in a variety of urban environments, (2) to differentiate the spatial-temporal variations in CO2ff among these cities, and (3) to ascertain the factors that control the observed variations. For about two years (winter 2014 to winter 2016), the CO2ff concentrations we observed from all sites varied from 5.1±4.5 ppm to 65.8±39.0 ppm. We observed that inland cities display much higher CO2ff concentrations and overall temporal variations than coastal cities in winter, and that northern cities have higher CO2ff concentrations than those of southern cities in winter. For inland cities relatively high CO2ff values are observed in winter and low values in summer; while seasonal variations are not distinct in the coastal cities. No significant (p > 0.05) differences in CO2ff values are found between weekdays and weekends as was shown previously in Xi'an (Zhou et al., 2014). Diurnal CO2ff variations are plainly evident, with high values between midnight and 4:00 am, and during morning and afternoon rush hours (Niu et al., 2016). The high CO2ff concentrations in northern inland cities in winter results mainly from the substantial consumption of fossil fuels for heating. The high CO2ff concentrations seen in diurnal measurements result mainly from variations in atmospheric dispersion, and from vehicle emissions related to traffic flows. The inter-annual variations in CO2ff in cities could provide a useful reference for local governments to develop policy around the effect of energy conservation and emission reduction strategies.

  14. 再谈 MTG 的发展机遇%Rediscussion of the Development Opportunities of MTG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛志颖; 王成

    2013-01-01

      在《FCC 汽油后加工技术滞后与 M TG 的发展机遇》基础上,确认以煤为原料,采用 M TG工艺生产汽油,具有一定的盈利和抗价格风险能力;首次将 M TG 生产成本估算回归为一直线,并给出了直线方程;确认外购甲醇 M TG 项目盈利和抗价格风险能力降低,副产品的销售收入可在一定范围内抵御项目风险;通过分析和列举科研单位、生产厂家混合芳烃提纯均四甲苯技术的研究进展和生产实践,确认混合芳烃深加工不存在技术问题,且提纯分离成本低廉; M TG 与混合芳烃深加工组合,经济效益显著提高。%  Based on 《Delaying of FCC Gasoline Postprocessing Technology and Development Opportunities of M TG》 ,we affirm that taking coal as raw material and adopting M TG process to produce gasoline is capable to profit and against price crisis ; Return production cost estimation of M TG to be a line initially , and give out the linear equation ; make sure outsorcing of methanol M TG is not good to make profit and be against price crisis and the income from byproduct can resist risk to some extent ; By analyzing and giving examples of scientific research units and manufactures to find out the research progress and productive pratcice of durene mixed aromatics purification technology , ensure mixed aromatics deep processing doesnot exist technical problem and cost little for separation and purification ; adopting the combination of M TG process and mixed aromatics deep processing increases the economic benefits greatly .