Sample records for durene

  1. The disposition and metabolism of durene (1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ligocka, D.; Sapota, A.; Rydzynski, K.


    The organ and tissue distribution, excretion and metabolism of [ 3 H]1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene ([ 3 H]durene) in male Wistar albino rats were investigated following a single i.p. administration (40 mg/kg) and within 9 days after five daily repeated administrations. Urine proved to be the main route of tritium excretion. Within the first 24 h after a single administration 69% of the radioactivity was excreted in the urine and only 9% in the feces. The highest level of tritium binding was found in the fat tissue, liver, kidneys and adrenal glands. The accumulation of tritium in the plasma proceeded with a kinetic constant of 0.49 h -1 , whereas the half-life of radioactivity decayamounted to about 6.3 h. In erythrocytes, the tritium level was found to be about three times lower than in blood plasma. The total amount eliminated during the 9 days following repeated administration was about 94% of the five doses given. The highest level of tritium was found in fat tissue and adrenal glands, followed by the liver, kidneys, sciatic nerve and muscle. A gradual decline in tritium levels was observed during the following 4 days in most tissues to reach about 2% of the dose given. The main urinary metabolites resulting from the administration of durene were 2,4,5-trimethylbenzyl alcohol (about 22%), 4,5-dimethyl-1,2-benzdialdehyde (about 19%), 2,4,5-trimethylbenzaldehyde (about 19%) and 2,4,5-trimethylbenzoic acid (about 16%). The oxygen-containing metabolites accounted for almost 80%, whereas sulphur-containing metabolites accounted for approximately 10% of the products of biotransformation. In conclusion, most of the durene administered has a relatively rapid turnover rate, with minor levels retained in the tissues for longer time periods. (orig.)

  2. Pelaksanaan Ekstensifikasi Wajib Pajak dan Intensifikasi Pajak: Upaya Peningkatan Penerimaan PPH Orang Pribadi pada KPP Pratama Duren Sawit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Safira Dewi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the expansion and intensification of the taxpayer and its effects on the revenue of Personal Income of Pratama Tax Office Duren Sawit Jakarta. Besides, this study aims to find out the obstacles that occur in the implementation of these activities. This study used qualitative method. Results of the research show that the expansion and intensification of taxpayer in Pratama Tax Office Duren Sawit, Jakarta, did not run optimally although the growth of the taxpayer and the tax revenues increased from 2010 to 2012. However, there was a slight decrease in tax revenues in 2012. Various efforts were made by Pratama Tax Office Duren Sawit Jakarta to maximize the implementation of the extensification and intensification of tax, such as socialization. To overcome problems occur in Pratama Tax Office Duren Sawit Jakarta, research’s suggestion is adding human resources if possible or optimization for effectiveness of the current resource to do outreach of taxpayers and expand cooperation with other parties.

  3. Fabrication of 6FDA-durene membrane incorporated with zeolite T and aminosilane grafted zeolite T for CO2/CH4 separation (United States)

    Jusoh, Norwahyu; Fong Yeong, Yin; Keong Lau, Kok; Shariff, Azmi Mohd


    In the present work, zeolite T and aminosilane grafted zeolite T are embedded into 6FDA-durene polyimide phase for the fabrication of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs). FESEM images demonstrated that the improvement of interfacial adhesion between zeolite and polymer phases in MMM loaded with aminosilane grafted zeolite T was not significant as compared to zeolite T/6FDA-durene MMM. From the gas permeation test, CO2/CH4 selectivity up to 26.4 was achieved using MMM containing aminosilane grafted zeolite T, while MMM loaded with ungrafted zeolite T showed CO2/CH4 selectivity of 19.1. In addition, MMM incorporated with aminosilane grafted zeolite T particles successfully lies on Robeson upper bound 2008, which makes it an attractive candidate for CO2/CH4 separation.

  4. Pemanfaatan Digital Marketing Bagi Usaha Mikro, Kecil, Dan Menengah (UMKM Di Kelurahan Malaka Sari, Duren Sawit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Purwana


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to improve knowledge and skill about digital marketing, especially social media, for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs business maker to enhance their sales and profit. Attended by 13 women SMEs participants, the method used in this activity is; first, explanation using power point slides and LCD projector; second, experience sharing and discussion; and last, direct practice of creating social media (Facebook and Instagram account and how to make it attractive for buyers (the pictures, the wording, the story, etc. Held on May 7, 2017, the community service is funded by DIPA BLU Faculty of Economics, Universitas Negeri Jakarta. The result shows that only few who actively use social media as their promotion tools and they have not separated their online shop account with their personal account, several others use it occasionally, and the rest participants have never used social media marketing for being lack of technological skill. All participants show great interest to use social media marketing continuously

  5. ‘Transient epileptic amnesia’ : een caus en loteratuuroverzicht

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thissen, S.; Vlooswijk, Marielle; Hendriks, M.P.H.; Majoie, Marian

    ‘Transient epileptic amnesia’ (TEA) wordt gezien als een weinig voorkomende vorm van temporaalkwabepilepsie, gekarakteriseerd door aanvallen van specifieke amnesie door epileptische activiteit (ictaalof postictaal). TEA treft voornamelijk mannen bovende 40 jaar. Aanvallen duren korter dan 60 minuten

  6. Hubungan Antara Lingkungan Kerja Dan Kerjasama Tim Dengan Kepuasan Kerja


    Oktapiani, Marliza


    The Objectivity of study is to examine the work Environment and Teamwork in improving to lecture's job satisfaction teacher's at Raudhatul Athfal of Duren Sawit region east Jakarta. In this study, the method applied is descriptive quantitative method. Analysis unit refers lecture's job satisfaction at Raudhatul Athfal of Duren Sawit region east Jakarta . Instrument applied in collecting of data it is questioner.This study covers: (1) is the work Environment lecture's job satisfaction teacher'...



    Oktapiani, Marliza


    The Objectivity of study is to examine the work Environment and Teamwork in improving to lecture's job satisfaction teacher's at Raudhatul Athfal of Duren Sawit region east Jakarta. In this study, the method applied is descriptive quantitative method. Analysis unit refers lecture's job satisfaction at Raudhatul Athfal of Duren Sawit region east Jakarta . Instrument applied in collecting of data it is questioner.This study covers: (1) is the work Environment lecture's job satisfaction teacher'...

  8. I nducin ng and d ident ifying in b artifici banana ially-in as nduced d ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    520. Stover RH, Simmonds NW(1987). Bananas. Third Edition. Longman,. London. Vakili NG (1962). Colchicine-induced polyploidy in Musa. Nature 194: 453-454. Van Duren M, Morpurgo R, Dolezel J Afza R (1996). Induction and verification of ...

  9. Kasus Paedofil Di Indonesia: Kajian Afektif Menuju Kebijakan Pendidikan


    Harianto, Harianto


    Phenomenon in the year 2016 recorded cases of "pedophile" in Indonesia such as: Sarno (46) in Duren Sawit Jakarta, Andri Sobari alias Emon (Sukabumi) conduct pedophile about 114 children, at Jakarta International School, Samai and Sodikin (Tegal), Bali And Batam. The problem is how the affective study of the case of Paedofil in Indonesia towards the Education Policy? The purpose of this paper answers the following questions: Can a pedophile case affect the moral destruction of a nation? Does ...

  10. Random power series in the unit ball of Cn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jihuai.


    The random power series in the unit disc has been studied by many authors. In this paper, we studied the random power series in the unit ball of C n and generalized some results in the unit disc to the unit ball, in particular, the result obtained recently by Duren has been generalized to the unit ball. The main tool used here is the generalized Salem-Zygmund's theorem. (author). 12 refs

  11. Effect of Ce2O3, La2O3 and ZnO additives on the oxygenates conversion into liquid hydrocarbons (United States)

    Kachalov, V. V.; Lavrenov, V. A.; Lishchiner, I. I.; Malova, O. V.; Tarasov, A. L.; Zaichenko, V. M.


    A selective modifying effect of cerium, magnesium and zinc oxide additives on the activity and the selectivity of a pentasil group zeolite catalyst in the reaction of conversion of oxygenates (methanol and dimethyl ether) to liquid hydrocarbons was found. It was found that zinc oxide contributes to the stable operation of the zeolite catalyst in the conversion of oxygenates in the synthesis gas stream and leads to the production of gasolines with low durene content (not more than 6.1 wt%). The obtained results demonstrate the rationale for producing hydrocarbons from synthesis gas without the stage of oxygenate separation with their subsequent conversion to synthetic gasoline.

  12. Polymethylated [Fe(η6-arene)2]2+ dications: methyl-group rearrangements and application of the EINS mechanism. (United States)

    Štíbr, Bohumil; Bakardjiev, Mario; Hájková, Zuzana; Holub, Josef; Padělková, Zdenka; Růžička, Aleš; Kennedy, John D


    Reactions between the methylated arenes ArMe(n) [where ArMe(n) = C(6)Me(n)H((6-n)), and n = 1-6] and FeCl(2) in heptane at 90 °C in the presence of anhydrous AlCl(3) give, for the arenes with n = 1-5, extensive isomerisations and disproportionations involving the methyl groups on the arene rings, and the formation of mixtures of [Fe(ArMe(n))(2)](2+) dications that defy separation into pure species. GC-MS studies of AlCl(3)/mesitylene and AlCl(3)/durene reactions in the absence of FeCl(2) (90 °C, 2 h) allow quantitative assessments of the rearrangements, and the EINS mechanism (electrophile-induced nucleophilic substitution) is applied to rationalise the phenomena. By contrast, ArMe(n) / FeCl(2) /AlCl(3) reactions in heptane for 24-36 h at room-temperature proceed with no rearrangements, allowing the synthesis of the complete series of pure [Fe(ArMen)](2+) cations in yields of 48-71%. The pure compounds are characterised by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and electrospray-ionization mass-spectrometry (ESI-MS), and the structures of [Fe(m-xylene)(2)][PF(6)](2) and [Fe(durene)(2)][PF(6)](2) are established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses.

  13. Spin coherence in phosphorescent triplet states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hof, C.A. van 't


    The electron spin echo is studied on the dephasing mechanism in the photo-excited triplet state of quinoline in a durene host. First, a comparative investigation of the merits of the different spin echo techniques is presented. It turns out that the rotary echo generally yields a longer phase memory time than the two-pulse echo, whereas in the Carr-Purcell experiment, the dephasing can even be largely suppressed. Secondly, it is shown that the dephasing mechanism is determined by the nuclear spins of the guest molecules as well as those in the host material. A theoretical basis for interpreting the effect of vibronic relaxation on the decay rate of the rotary echo, as observed in parabenzoquinone, is given. Similar experiments in aniline reveal also that in this molecule, two close-lying triplet states exist, which is attributed to an inversion vibration analogous to the well-known example in ammonia

  14. Some technical subjects on production of hydrocarbon fuel from synthetic gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Takashi


    Since fuel oil meeting the requirements of current petroleum products can be produced by SASOL F-T synthetic process, the manufacturing process of hydrocarbon fuel oil from the coal-derived synthesis gas, downstream processes are being successively investigated. Mobile M-gasoline, MTG, process which produces gasoline from the natural gas-derived synthesis gas through methanol went into commercial operation in New Zealand in 1986. Although the gasoline suffices the quality of commercial gasoline by both fixed bed and fluidized bed systems, the price and service life of catalyst and control of by-product durene must be improved. Any STG processes have not been completed yet and the yield and quality of gasoline are inferior to those of gasoline produced by the MTG process. Applying two-stage process, the STG process will be more economically effective.(21 refs, 4 figs, 10 tabs)

  15. Role of energy exchange in vibrational dephasing processes in liquids and solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.


    Three theories which claim relevance to the dephasing of molecular vibrations in condensed phase matter are presented. All of these theories predict (in certain limiting cases) that the widths and shifts of molecular vibrations will obey an Arrhenius temperature dependence. The basic tenets of the theories are detailed so that the differences between them may be used in an experiment to distinguish between them. One model, based on intermolecular energy exchange of low-frequency modes, results in dephasing the high-frequency modes when anharmonic coupling is present. A computer analysis of temperature dependent experimental lineshapes can result in the extraction of various parameters such as the anharmonic shifts and the exchange rates. It is shown that, in order to properly assess the relative validity of the three models, other evidence must be obtained such as the spectral parameters of the low-frequency modes, the combination bands, and the isotopic dilution behavior. This evidence is presented for d 14 -durene (perdeutero-1,2,4,5-tetramethylbenzene) and compared to previous data obtained on pure h 14 -durene. An extension of the (HSC) intermolecular energy exchange model which allows for the possibility of partial delocalization of the low-frequency modes gives an adequate description of the experimental evidence. Isotopic dilution experiments, in particular, have resulted in a detailed picture of the energy transfer dynamics of the low-frequency modes. A section in which some spontaneous Raman spectra support a model of inhomogeneous broadening in liquids based on results of picosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy is presented. The model is that a distribution of environmental sites is created by a distribution in the local density and thus creates inhomogeneous broadening

  16. Critical test of vibrational dephasing theories in solids using spontaneous Raman scattering in isotopically mixed crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marks, S.; Cornelius, P.A.; Harris, C.B.


    A series of experiments have been conducted in order to evaluate the relative importance of several recent theories of vibrational dephasing in solids. The theories are discussed briefly, and are used to interpret the temperature dependence of the C--H and C--D stretch bands in the spontaneous Raman spectra of h 14 - and d 14 -1,2,4,5-tetramethyl benzene (durene). The infrared spectra of these same molecules are also reported in the region of the combination bands involving C--H (or C--D) stretches and low-frequency modes. The results support the applicability of the model of Harris et al., [C. B. Harris, R. M. Shelby and P. A. Cornelius, Phys. Rev. Lett. 38, 1415 (1977); Chem Phys. Lett. 57, 8 (1978); R. M. Shelby, C. B. Harris, and P. A. Cornelius, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 34 (1979)], based on energy exchange in anharmonically coupled low-frequency modes. This theory is then used, in connection with Raman spectra obtained in isotopically mixed samples of durene, to elucidate the vibrational dynamics underlying the dephasing. It is found that the results are consistent with the hypothesis that some low-frequency modes in this molecule are significantly delocalized or ''excitonic'' in character, and that this delocalization may be studied by means of Raman spectroscopy on the low-frequency modes themselves, as well as by exchange analysis of the coupled high-frequency modes. These conclusions represent a generalization and extension of the previously published exchange model [R. M. Shelby, C. B. Harris, and P. A. Cornelius, J. Chem Phys. 70, 34 (1979)

  17. Potential of solid waste utilization as source of refuse derived fuel (RDF) energy (case study at temporary solid waste disposal site in West Jakarta) (United States)

    Indrawati, D.; Lindu, M.; Denita, P.


    This study aims to measure the volume of solid waste generated as well asits density, composition, and characteristics, to analyze the potential of waste in TPS to become RDF materials and to analyze the best composition mixture of RDF materials. The results show that the average of solid waste generation in TPS reaches 40.80 m3/day, with the largest percentage of its share is the organic waste component of 77.9%, while the smallest amount of its share is metal and rubber of 0.1%. The average water content and ash content of solid waste at the TPS is 27.7% and 6.4% respectively, while the average calorific potential value is 728.71 kcal/kg. The results of solid waste characteristics comparison at three TPS indicate thatTPS Tanjung Duren has the greatest waste potential to be processed into RDF materials with a calorific value of 893.73 kcal/kg, water content level of 24.6%, andlow ash content of 6.11%. This research has also shown that the best composition for RDF composite materials is rubber, wood, and textile mixtureexposed to outdoor drying conditions because it produced low water content and low ash content of 10.8% and 9.6%, thus optimizedthe calorific value of 4,372.896 kcal/kg.

  18. Development of the fabrication of ultra-low density ploy (4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) foams by thermal induced phase-inversion technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lin; Wang Chaoyang; Luo Xuan; Du Kai; Tu Haiyan; Fan Hong; Luo Qing; Yuan Guanghui; Huang Lizhen


    By thermally induced phase-inversion technique, ploy (4-methyl-1-pentene) (PMP) foams are successfully prepared; the density and pore size are 3-80 mg/cm 3 and 1-20 μm respectively. Durene/naphthalene (60/40) is confirmed as the suitable solvent/nonsolvent binary system. The PMP's thermal properties are characterized by TG-DSC system. It is found that the foams thermal properties depend on the density. The thermal analysis method is utilized to measure the gelation of PMP in the binary solvent/nonsolvent system. The range of gelation temperature is preliminarily determined. The influence of mixture system composition and the cooling rate during the making of foams is discussed. TG-DSC is applied to determine the thermal properties of low-density PMP foams prepared in the laboratory. And the effect of density change on the thermal stability of foams are studied. The thermal analysis data play a great role in improving the foam quality. (authors)

  19. Ionic Liquids as the MOFs/Polymer Interfacial Binder for Efficient Membrane Separation. (United States)

    Lin, Rijia; Ge, Lei; Diao, Hui; Rudolph, Victor; Zhu, Zhonghua


    Obtaining strong interfacial affinity between filler and polymer is critical to the preparation of mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) with high separation efficiency. However, it is still a challenge for micron-sized metal organic frameworks (MOFs) to achieve excellent compatibility and defect-free interface with polymer matrix. Thin layer of ionic liquid (IL) was immobilized on micron-sized HKUST-1 to eliminate the interfacial nonselective voids in MMMs with minimized free ionic liquid (IL) in polymer matrix, and then the obtained IL decorated HKUST-1 was incorporated into 4,4'-(hexafluoroisopropylidene)diphthalic anhydride-2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,3-phenyldiamine (6FDA-Durene) to fabricate MMMs. Acting as a filler/polymer interfacial binder, the favorable MOF/IL and IL/polymer interaction can facilitate the enhancement of MOF/polymer affinity. Compared to MMM with only HKUST-1 incorporation, MMM with IL decorated HKUST-1 succeeded in restricting the formation of nonselective interfacial voids, leading to an increment in CO 2 selectivity. The IL decoration method can be an effective approach to eliminate interfacial voids in MMMs, extending the filler selection to a wide range of large-sized fillers.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athena Athena


    Full Text Available Measurements of electric and magnetic fields strength of electronic household appliances and office equipments were conducted in Jakarta (Duren Sawit and Paseban sub-districts. Samples of home appliances include television, radio, electric bulb, refrigerator, microwave oven, iron, washing machine, heating jar, AC, and fan. The only samples of office equipment are computers. In addition to home appliances and office equipment, electric and magnetic fields strength were also measured in living rooms, and in office working rooms. The instrument used for the electric and magnetic fields strength measurement is Holaday portable field strength meters model HI 3604. Among all the household samples, television (310 V/m in 100 cm from the source, and iron (1680 V/m in 3 cm from the source exposed the highest electric field. While the highest magnetic field exposure is from microwave oven (8,25 µT in 3 cm from the source; 4,45 µT in 30 cm from the source; 0,72 µT in 100 cm from the source. The highest electric field exposure of the living room was detected in Paseban district (44,6 V/m and the higest magnetic field exposure was detected in the working rooms (0,073 µT.In this study the electric and magnetic fields exposures measured from various home appliances, office equipments, and office working rooms were still under the value of International Radiation Protection Association (IRPAZWorld Health Organization (WHO recommendation in 1990.

  1. Charge transport in organic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortmann, Frank


    The understanding of charge transport is one of the central goals in the research on semiconducting crystals. For organic crystals this is particularly complicated due to the strength of the electron-phonon interaction which requires the description of a seamless transition between the limiting cases of a coherent band-transport mechanism and incoherent hopping. In this thesis, charge transport phenomena in organic crystals are studied by theoretical means. A theory for charge transport in organic crystals is developed which covers the whole temperature range from low T, where it reproduces an expression from the Boltzmann equation for band transport, via elevated T, where it generalizes Holstein's small-polaron theory to finite bandwidths, up to high T, for which a temperature dependence equal to Marcus' electron-transfer theory is obtained. Thereby, coherent band transport and thermally induced hopping are treated on equal footing while simultaneously treating the electron-phonon interaction non-perturbatively. By avoiding the approximation of narrow polaron bands the theory allows for the description of large and small polarons and serves as a starting point for computational studies. The theoretical description is completed by using ab initio material parameters for the selected crystals under study. These material parameters are taken from density functional theory calculations for durene, naphthalene, and guanine crystals. Besides the analysis of the transport mechanism, special focus is put on the study of the relationship between mobility anisotropy and structure of the crystals. This study is supported by a 3D-visualization method for the transport channels in such crystals which has been derived in this thesis. (orig.)

  2. Strategies for satellite-based monitoring of CO2 from distributed area and point sources (United States)

    Schwandner, Florian M.; Miller, Charles E.; Duren, Riley M.; Natraj, Vijay; Eldering, Annmarie; Gunson, Michael R.; Crisp, David


    Atmospheric CO2 budgets are controlled by the strengths, as well as the spatial and temporal variabilities of CO2 sources and sinks. Natural CO2 sources and sinks are dominated by the vast areas of the oceans and the terrestrial biosphere. In contrast, anthropogenic and geogenic CO2 sources are dominated by distributed area and point sources, which may constitute as much as 70% of anthropogenic (e.g., Duren & Miller, 2012), and over 80% of geogenic emissions (Burton et al., 2013). Comprehensive assessments of CO2 budgets necessitate robust and highly accurate satellite remote sensing strategies that address the competing and often conflicting requirements for sampling over disparate space and time scales. Spatial variability: The spatial distribution of anthropogenic sources is dominated by patterns of production, storage, transport and use. In contrast, geogenic variability is almost entirely controlled by endogenic geological processes, except where surface gas permeability is modulated by soil moisture. Satellite remote sensing solutions will thus have to vary greatly in spatial coverage and resolution to address distributed area sources and point sources alike. Temporal variability: While biogenic sources are dominated by diurnal and seasonal patterns, anthropogenic sources fluctuate over a greater variety of time scales from diurnal, weekly and seasonal cycles, driven by both economic and climatic factors. Geogenic sources typically vary in time scales of days to months (geogenic sources sensu stricto are not fossil fuels but volcanoes, hydrothermal and metamorphic sources). Current ground-based monitoring networks for anthropogenic and geogenic sources record data on minute- to weekly temporal scales. Satellite remote sensing solutions would have to capture temporal variability through revisit frequency or point-and-stare strategies. Space-based remote sensing offers the potential of global coverage by a single sensor. However, no single combination of orbit

  3. Comparison of two non-invasive methods of microbial analysis in surgery practice: incision swabbing and the indirect imprint technique. (United States)

    Chovanec, Zdenek; Veverkova, Lenka; Votava, Miroslav; Svoboda, Jiri; Jedlicka, Vaclav; Capov, Ivan


    A variety of methods exist to take samples from surgical site infections for cultivation; however, an unambiguous and suitable method has not yet been defined. The aim of our retrospective non-randomized study was to compare two non-invasive techniques of sampling material for microbiologic analysis in surgical practice. We compared bacteria cultured from samples obtained with the use of the swab technique, defined in our study as the gold standard, with the indirect imprint technique. A cotton-tipped swab (Copan, Brescia, Italy) was used; the imprints were taken using Whatman no. 4 filter paper (Macherey-Nagal, Duren, Germany) cut into 5×5 cm pieces placed on blood agar in a Petri dish. To culture the microorganisms in the microbiology laboratory, we used blood agar, UriSelect 4 medium (Bio-Rad, Marnes-la-Coquette, France), and a medium with sodium chloride (blood agar with salt). After careful debridement, a sample was taken from the incision surface by swab and subsequently the same area of the surface was imprinted onto filter paper. The samples were analyzed in the microbiology laboratory under standard safety precautions. The cultivation results of the two techniques were processed statistically using contingency tables and the McNemar test. Those samples that were simultaneously cultivation-positive by imprint and -negative by swabbing were processed in greater detail. Over the period between October 2008 and March 2013, 177 samples from 70 patients were analyzed. Sampling was carried out from 42 males and 28 females. One hundred forty-six samples were from incisions after operations (21 samples from six patients after operation on the thoracic cavity, 73 samples from 35 patients after operation on the abdominal cavity combined with the gastrointestinal tract, 52 samples from 19 patients with other surgical site infections not included above) and 31 samples from 11 patients with no post-operative infection. One patient had a sample taken both from a post