WorldWideScience

Sample records for duree eld vis-a-vis

  1. Reflection on the efficiency criteria for a long duration disposal with respect to temporary abandonment situations; Reflexion sur les criteres de performance d'un entreposage de longue duree (ELD) vis-a-vis des situations de delaissement temporaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G; Gadbois, S [Mutadis, 75 - Paris (France); Chieber, C; Schneider, Th [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2002-08-15

    A study carried out by Mutadis and CEPN, on request of the CEA, aimed at supplying some elements allowing to elaborate some performance criteria for a long-term management system in front of situations of temporary abandonment of radioactive waste disposal facilities. The first part of the study has been the identification of case studies illustrating situations of loss of maintenance or temporary abandonment. The second phase has been the selection and analysis of 4 case studies (the ancient underground cavities in Ile-de-France, the regulation relative to new underground quarries, the abandoned mines in Loraine basin, and Unesco's approach for the protection of mankind world patrimony). These cases have been analysed with respect to various aspects: actors involved, construction management and memory preservation, liabilities in time and space, prevention means, scheduling, and resumption strategies. The concepts of abandonment, scheduling and resumption have been precised and analysed in a third part according to the case studies. Three goals - avoiding abandonment, encouraging scheduling and resumption - and eight characteristics are drawn from this analysis, which are indicators of the robustness of the system implemented to fulfill these 3 goals. These characteristics appear as strongly interdependent. (J.S.)

  2. Reflection on the efficiency criteria for a long duration disposal with respect to temporary abandonment situations; Reflexion sur les criteres de performance d'un entreposage de longue duree (ELD) vis-a-vis des situations de delaissement temporaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heriard-Dubreuil, G.; Gadbois, S. [Mutadis, 75 - Paris (France); Chieber, C.; Schneider, Th. [Centre d' Etude sur l' Evaluation de la Protection dans le Domaine Nucleaire, 92 - Fontenay aux Roses (France)

    2002-08-15

    A study carried out by Mutadis and CEPN, on request of the CEA, aimed at supplying some elements allowing to elaborate some performance criteria for a long-term management system in front of situations of temporary abandonment of radioactive waste disposal facilities. The first part of the study has been the identification of case studies illustrating situations of loss of maintenance or temporary abandonment. The second phase has been the selection and analysis of 4 case studies (the ancient underground cavities in Ile-de-France, the regulation relative to new underground quarries, the abandoned mines in Loraine basin, and Unesco's approach for the protection of mankind world patrimony). These cases have been analysed with respect to various aspects: actors involved, construction management and memory preservation, liabilities in time and space, prevention means, scheduling, and resumption strategies. The concepts of abandonment, scheduling and resumption have been precised and analysed in a third part according to the case studies. Three goals - avoiding abandonment, encouraging scheduling and resumption - and eight characteristics are drawn from this analysis, which are indicators of the robustness of the system implemented to fulfill these 3 goals. These characteristics appear as strongly interdependent. (J.S.)

  3. Detecting changes in rainfall pattern and seasonality index vis-`a-vis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    index vis-`a-vis increasing water scarcity in Maharashtra ... in the district scale are identified by trend analysis of rainfall time series. ... for better disaster management and water resource ..... productivity and irrigation water supply in the con-.

  4. EFFECTS OF AZADIRACHTIN ON CUTICULAR PROTEINS OF SPODOPTERA LITURA (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) VIS-A-VIS THE MODES OF APPLICATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yooboon, T; Pluempanupat, W; Koul, Opender; Bullangpoti, V

    2015-01-01

    Azadirachtin is a known botanical insecticide with multiple modes of action. Whether these effects have any relation with the modes of application, specifically during ecdysis process, has been the objective of the present study and accordingly the impairment, if any, among cuticular proteins of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) was determined. Azadirachtin was applied topically, via injection or oral administration. Azadirachtin administered via injection and topical applications severely impaired the ecdysis by 86.67 and 80.0%, respectively. However, this impairment via oral administration was significantly lower (73.33%). Using SDS-PAGE, the cuticular proteins were determined for treated insects under all the three modes of application. In all cases 6 protein bands (MW 9-34 kDa) were identified using markers as standard. In all treatments 3 induced proteins (MW. ~16, 20 and 23 kDa) and 1 reduced protein (~19 kDa) were observed. In case of the topical treatment a different induced protein of ~18 kDa was identified. The change in cuticular proteins, their possible role in ecdysis impairment vis-a-vis the mode of application of azadirachtin is being correlated. This will help in understanding the mode-of-action at cuticular level and also will allow developing a suitable application strategy under field conditions in insect pest management.

  5. Migratory Trends in the Czech Republic: “Divergence or Convergence” vis-a-vis the Developed World?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Drbohlav

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to analyse whether the geopolitical and socio-economic integration and “harmonisation” of the Czech Republic with Western Europe is accompanied by a divergence or convergence of the Czech migratory reality vis-a-vis the developed western world. When testing resemblance two kinds of measurements are used: 1 quantitative – (in terms of the numbers of international migrants, and 2 “qualitative” – a in terms of regularities linked with the migration itself and those that tackle mutual relationships among immigration, the socio-economic development of the destination country and subjective attitudes of the majority population towards minority groups: 3 hypotheses are tested in this regard; b in terms of migratory policies and practices. The results clearly show us that convergence rather than divergence is characteristic of the current migratory trends in the Czech Republic as compared to the developed world, mainly Western Europe.

  6. Stability of extended scalar diquark stars vis-`a-vis soliton stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    50.7 km) obtained for an extended scalar diquark star within the framework of ... ing its stability) within the framework of an effective φ 4-theory described [4,5] by the ..... an award of the Research Scientist Scheme by UGC, New Delhi during the ...

  7. Shad Garbhakara Bhavas vis-a-vis congenital and genetic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Kamini; Kumar, Abhimanayu; Dhiman, K S

    2010-04-01

    Despite the advancements in diagnostic techniques and therapeutic interventions, medical science has failed to keep the incidence of congenital malformations under control. Ayurveda, the ancient Indian medical system has given due emphasis on this and postulated various measures to minimize the risks. These measures start well before conception. According to Ayurvedic principles, proper preparation of the parents is an essential prerequisite for a healthy progeny. Pre-conception care is a set of interventions that identifies biomedical behavioral and social risks to the health of the mother and the baby. It includes both-prevention and management, emphasizing health issues that require action before conception, very early in pregnancy, for maximal impact. For meeting the objective of healthy progeny, Ayurveda scholars felt the importance of six procreative factors (Shadgarbhkarabhavas) such as Matrija, Pitrija, Aatmaja, Rasaja, Satmyaja, and Sattvaja. The conglomeration of these procreative factors is must for healthy progeny. The physical, mental, social, and spiritual well-being of the person, proper nutrition of the mother during pregnancy, and practice of a wholesome regimen, play a prime role in achieving a healthy offspring, thus structuring a healthy family, society, and nation. Negligence toward any of these factors becomes a cause for unhealthy and defective child birth. The present literary / conceptual study, thus focuses mainly on interpreting these observations, on the basis of modern scientific knowledge.

  8. Heterozygosity and Fixation Index for ABO Gene in Barak Valley Populations vis-a-vis a Few Exotic Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supriyo CHAKRABORTY

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In a genetic study of 26 human populations including 2 major endogamous populations (Hindus and Muslims of Barak Valley in Assam and 24 exotic populations, observed heterozygosity (Ho, fixation index (F and Panmictic index (P for ABO gene were estimated from gene frequency data to reveal the extent of inbreeding that has taken place in each population during evolution. Observed heterozygosity, a measure of genetic variation, ranged from 0.3254 to 0.6086 in these populations. Expected Hardy-Weinberg heterozygosity of ABO gene was estimated as 0.6666 assuming the occurrence of all the three alleles in equal frequency. Fixation index was the highest in the population of Sudan (51.18% followed by Australia (48.51% and Iceland (38.28% indicating the occurrence of high inbreeding and the presence of more homozygosity in these populations during evolution. But the fixation index was the lowest in the population of South China (8.70% followed by Central Asia (11.82% and Russia (12.96%. It suggested the occurrence of low inbreeding and hence more outbreeding in these populations resulting in the existence of more heterozygosity (high genetic variation in these populations. Panmictic index, a measure of outbreeding, is the opposite of fixation index and it varied from 48.82 (Sudan to 91.30% (South China. The population showing the highest fixation index recorded the lowest panmictic index and vice-versa. In evolutionary context, outbreeding in human populations would be more desirable to reduce the incidence of genetic diseases caused by recessive genes and to enhance heterozygosity for those loci for better adaptation of future generations, possibly at the cost of gradually increasing genetic load in the population.

  9. Special features of nuclear waste repository ventilation system VIS-A-VIS experiences at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sethi, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis and discussion of the underground ventilation system at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). Particular emphasis is placed on specific repository-related requirements and the gradual evolution of engineering designs relative to the WIPP Project scope. The ventilation system for a nuclear waste facility similar to WIPP is designed to provide a suitable environment for personnel and equipment during normal activities. It is also designed to provide confinement and channeling of potential airborne radioactive material in the event of an accidental release. It is desirable to identify and design all parallel activities and the required process equipment prior to completion of the repository mine final design. Such factors as ventilation requirements, drift sizes, bulkhead sizes, and placement are dependent on these items. Mine creep closure properties must be factored into the mine and ventilation equipment design considerations. Effects of natural ventilation pressures deserve due consideration in the design. Mine ventilation requirements are dominated by the diesel equipment to be operated in the underground horizon. WIPP engineers have also found it extremely desirable to have automated real-time monitoring and control for the underground ventilation air. Final testing and balancing of the ventilation system is an extremely important startup requirement. 3 refs., 2 figs

  10. Insects vis a vis radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, Meera

    2014-01-01

    Insects have turned out to be much more radiation resistant. For most insects a dose of about 500-700 Gy is required to kill them within a few weeks of exposure; although cockroaches require 900-1000 Gy. Killing insects in less than a few days requires much higher doses. These doses are for mature insects, the immature stages of some insects can be killed by doses as low as 40 Gy. Some insects can be sterilized at even lower doses, and this has application in insect control. Screw-worms, for example, can be sterilized with doses of 25-50 Gy. By contrast, doses as low as 3 Gy caused death of humans in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and doses of about 6 Gy caused death of fire fighters in the Chernobyl accident. It is not exactly certain what the basis is for the resistance of insects to ionizing radiation. It is not animal size by itself, nor lack of penetration. It is also not because of few dividing cells as these are more radiosensitive than non-dividing ones. The speculation that insects might have lower oxygen tensions, and the lack of oxygen is known to protect cells from radiation also does not work. Insect cells might have an enhanced capacity to repair radiation damage also could not be proven. The number of chromosomes influenced radio-sensitivity, and that insects had fewer chromosomes could be true. The radiation resistance is inherent to the cells, since cells derived from insects are also radiation resistant when grown in cell culture. For example, a dose of 60 Gy is required to produce a 80% kill of insect cells, while doses of 1-2 Gy are sufficient to generate this level of killing in mammalian cells. But, nevertheless, according to recent researches, radiation from Japan's leaking Fukushima nuclear plant has caused mutations in some butterflies. It is therefore clear that insects are resistant to ionizing radiation and that this resistance is an inherent property of their cells. But it is not clear exactly what the basis of this cellular resistance is, although the dominant theory is that it relates to the relatively small amount of DNA in insect cells. One of the difficulties is assessing possible mechanisms is that very little work on insect radiobiology is being carried out?

  11. Influence of hydrogen on metals behavior. 1 - Mechanical behavior of Ti 6 pc Al 6 pc V 2 pc Sn titanium alloy versus hydrogen: influence of heat treatment and of oxygen content; Influence de l'hydrogene sur le comportement des metaux. 1 - comportement mecanique de l'alliage de titane T A6 V6 E2 vis-a-vis de l'hydrogene: influence du traitement thermique et de la teneur en oxygene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaller, Bernard

    1972-06-26

    The mechanical behavior of Ti 6 pc Al 6 pc V Sn alloy during dynamic testing has been investigated versus hydrogen and oxygen content. The hydrogen susceptibility depends only slightly on its microstructure, acicular or equi-axed: it depends much more on conditions of hydrogen contamination and on the thermal history afterward. When the alloy has been stabilized by annealing in {alpha} - {beta} and provided hydrogen absorption does not induce phase transformations, hydrogen sensitivity is relatively low: brittleness occurs suddenly but at a high concentration threshold (2000 ppm H), which coincides with hydrogen saturation of {beta} phase. When the alloy includes unstabilized phases, its response to hydrogen changes whether it has been finally annealed or not, in the 300 - 500 C temperature area, prone to {omega} phase formation. In the absence of such an annealing, a reduction in ductility only occurs at high concentrations (> 1500 ppm H). In the other and, after annealing at 400 C, alloy hardening and a ductility decrease start even at the lowest hydrogen amounts: then hydrogen susceptibility is very high. Low oxygen concentration (up to 2000 ppm) do not sensibly affect the good hydrogen tolerance of this alloy. Beyond 2500 ppm, oxygen, while improving tensile strength, yet severely decreases ductility. [French] Le comportement mecanique de l'alliage TA6-V6-E2 lors d'un essai dynamique a ete etudie en fonction de la teneur en hydrogene et en oxygene. La sensibilite vis-a-vis de l'hydrogene ne depend que tres faiblement de sa structure migrographique, aciculaire ou equiaxe; elle depend bien plus des conditions de contamination par l'hydrogene et de son histoire thermique apres contamination. Lorsque l'alliage a ete stabilise par un recuit dans le domaine biphase, et a condition que l'absorption d'hydrogene n'entraine pas de modification structurale, la sensibilite vis-a-vis de l'hydrogene est relativement faible: la fragilite apparait brutalement mais pour un

  12. Internet vis-a-vis marine biology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chavan, V.S.

    Internet is an amalgum of networks which reaches to more than 100 million people across the globe. The satellite-telecommunication based computer network web hosts information on every aspect of life. Marine biology related information too is being...

  13. A Comparative Analysis of the Impact of the IAEA Cooperation Instruments in the Field of Nuclear Safety to Deal with the Fukushima Daiichi Accident vis-a-vis the Chernobyl Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva Simões, V.

    2016-01-01

    entrenched among nuclear power plant operators, governments and regulators.” This work intends to make a comparative analysis of the impact of the IAEA cooperation instruments in the field of nuclear safety to deal with the Fukushima Daiichi accident vis-a-vis the Chernobyl accident. (author)

  14. Phenomenology of a realistic accelerating universe using tracker fields

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present a realistic scenario of tracking of scalar fields with varying equation of state. The astrophysical constraints on the evolution of scalar fields in the physical universe are discussed. The nucleosynthesis and the galaxy formation constraints have been used to put limits on and estimate during cosmic evolution.

  15. Macromolecules Vis-a-Vis the Traditions of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Paul J.

    1973-01-01

    Summarizes the history of concepts concerning the molecular nature of polymers, involving the carbon chain theory, graphic formula, polycondensation, colloidal properties, polypeptide hypothesis, secondary aggregation, and Watson-Crick model. Indicates that macromolecular science should be accommodated within the discipline of molecular science…

  16. Issues and prospects vis a vis Indian PV commercialization programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deambi, Suneel

    1994-01-01

    Following a large scale demonstration of photovoltaic systems attending to the important requirements of lighting, water pumping, television and battery charging etc. in the remote surroundings of India, serious efforts are being made to promote the commercial use of these systems. A recently launched World Bank-supported project on PV market development has provided the much needed boost to the Indian PV programme. This paper tries to analyse the issues and prospects with respect to the National PV Commercialization Programme in view of the changing PV scenario in the country. (author)

  17. Mega-geomorphology: Mars vis a vis Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    The areas of chaotic terrain, the giant chasma of the Valles Marineris region, the complex linear and circular depressions of Labyrinthus Noctis on Mars all suggest the possibility of large scale collapse of parts of the martian crust within equatorial and sub equatorial latitudes. It seems generally accepted that the above features are fossil, being perhaps, more than a billion years old. It is possible that parts of Earth's crust experienced similar episodes of large scale collapse sometime early in the evolution of the planet.

  18. Relasi Antagonistik Barat-Timur: Orientalisme vis a vis Oksidentalisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Fudholi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Encounter of the East and the West due to such various interests as economic, political, scientific, cultural has been a major factor in the study of western scientists (Orientalists about the East that produces a variety of works in the fields of archeology, history, literature, environment, customs, and Islamic studies. Meanwhile, resistance against Orientalism in the form of Occidentalism, as initiated by Hasan Hanafî, seems to be closely related to ‘obsession’ and hopes of someone who frustrated and dissatisfied with the condition of the world he has dealt with as the project of civilization he offered seemed to be too theoretical to be applied into the form of well established science. This is a fact that, unlike Orientalism that has born from strength, power, and has been then smoothly formed, Occidentalism was created by the East that was defeated and suffered from weakness and at the same time merely has an obsession. In spite of the impression, apparently, what has been attempted in Occidentalism is dismantling the text, another interpretation, and building a new, more proportional context.

  19. Energy conservation opportunities: audit vis-a-vis mine productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyer, G.H.

    2009-07-01

    Mining operation, whether opencast or underground, with modern equipment is highly energy intensive, needing energy conservation and management to ensure efficiency, cost effectiveness, and overall productivity. Exhaustible primary energy resources such as coal, lignite, oil, and nuclear fuels are being mined out to meet our energy needs. An attempt has been made in this paper to highlight the energy conservation opportunities, energy audit, the relevant Energy Conservation Act 2001 and certain energy saving measures leading to higher productivity followed by a few case study examples. 3 refs.

  20. Strong eld ionization of naphthalene: angular shifts and molecular potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrovski, Darko; Maurer, Jochen; Christensen, Lauge

    We analyze the photoelectron momentum distributions from strong eld ionization of xed-in-space naphthalene molecules by circularly polarized laser pulses. By direct comparison between experiment and theory, we show that the angular shifts in the photoelectron momentum distributions are very...... sensitive to the exact form of the molecular potential....

  1. O desenvolvimento profissional da docência na formação de professores face a utilização das tecnologias/The professional development of teaching in teacher’s formation vis-a-vis the using of technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stela Conceição Bertholo Piconez

    2009-06-01

    aprendizagem: a dos jovens e adultos em curso de ensino médio e a formação em ação de estagiários das licenciaturas. In this paper, we describe the contributions of instructional design and Learning Design approaches to pedagogical work organization of STEA – Transversal Teaching-Learning System that employs technological resources in education supported by the use of qualitative research approach and theoretical-descriptive perspectives, we compare theoretical and practical framework of instructional design and Learning Design in a Brazilian case study, which contemplates all of instructional design processes – since planning, design, implementation, execution and evaluation until formation and continuing evaluation of acting teachers. Pedagogical approach, which is the system is based on, is clearly declared and permeates all its documentation and praxis: Piaget and Vygotsky’s socio-constructivists theories, Ausubel’s studies about students’ previous knowing organization, Paulo Freire’s conception of autonomy and freedom, the conceptual typology of Zabala’s procedural and behavioural contents, and Knowles’ andragogic perspective grounds the decisions to been made during teaching process. Describes and analyses the confrontation of theoretician-practical steps of Learning Design approach with pedagogical work organization accomplished in a national teaching-learning system, which is anchored in explicit pedagogical bases, ripened through two decades of research and praxis. The study also encompasses didactical material production and complementary actions of academic research. As results, it represents the reflections about Learning Design benefits and challenges, and its contributions to innovation in educational technology field. STEA was built according to a proper, pedagogical model which its conceptual delineation embraces objectives, organization of contents and methodologies related to different knowledge areas. The elaboration of this model

  2. Evanescent magnetic field effects on entropy generation at the onset ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper numerically investigates the effect of an externally evanescent magnetic field on total entropy generation in a fluid enclosed in a square cavity by using a control volume finite element method to solve the conservation equations at Prandtl number of 0·71. The values of relaxation time of the magnetic field are ...

  3. On Bianchi-I cosmic strings coupled with Maxwell fields in bimetric ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Axially symmetric Bianchi-I model is studied with source cosmic cloud strings coupled with electromagnetic field in Rosen's bimetric theory of relativity and observed that there is no contribution from cosmic strings and Maxwell fields in this theory.

  4. Metal–insulator crossover in high c cuprates: A gauge field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A metal–insulator crossover appears in the experimental data for in-plane resistivity of underdoped cuprates and a range of superconducting cuprates in the presence of a strong magnetic field suppressing superconductivity. We propose an explanation for this phenomenon based on a gauge field theory approach to the t-J ...

  5. Analytic methods for field induced tunneling in quantum wells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Analytic methods for field induced tunneling in quantum wells with arbitrary potential profiles ... Electric field induced tunneling is studied in three different types of quantum wells by solving time-independent effective mass ... Current Issue : Vol.

  6. Technical Support to an Operating PWR vis-a-vis Safety Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, Subhan; Khan, M.; Chughtai, M. Kamran

    2011-01-01

    Currently a PWR of 300 MWe capacity CHASNUPP-I is in operation since the year 2000. Technical support being provided includes in-core fuel management and corresponding safety analysis for the reshuffled core for the next cycle. Currently calculation and analysis were performed for Cycle 6 to achieve the safe and economical loading pattern. The technique used is designated as out in mode (modified). In this technique, most of the fresh fuel assemblies are not directly located at the periphery of the core, but near the boundary. This technique has the advantage that without using burnable absorber we can design a low leakage core with extended cycle and maximum batch averaged burnup. (author)

  7. Soviet Language Policy vis-a-vis Minority Languages: The Road to Disintegration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Alok Kumar

    2011-01-01

    The present linguistic situation in Russia, however much it may have been affected by political and economic considerations, is overwhelmingly the consequence of what people have made of their geographical conditions, their history and their long-standing language and ethnic contacts over many centuries. The present linguistic complexity of Russia…

  8. Russian Energy Policy vis-a-vis Europe: Natural Resources as a Means of Foreign Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    Charter stipulates,58 Russia would have to give up its almost monopolistic control over the transit routes by making the energy market open, transparent...Russian monopolistic control over energy flow to Europe might be converted into a regional political dominance. Threatening the possibility of abrupt... monopolistic control over energy flow to Europe might be converted into a regional political dominance. Threatening the possibility of abrupt energy

  9. Changes of vegetation vis-a-vis Climate since last several thousand ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IPSITA

    ... since last several thousand years at North-East India ... of agricultural practices showed the presence of cereal and other cultural pollen taxa. Later, a more humid ... research in southeast Asia, and also to trace the migratory route of flora.

  10. Examining Deaf Students' Equitable Access to Science vis-a-vis Contemporary Pedagogical Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Annemarie D.

    As a Deaf individual, it is important to ensure the growth of the Deaf community as science-literate members of society. While many predecessors have contributed to the body of research in Deaf pedagogy, there is still much to be done in safeguarding Deaf learners' equitable access to science education. One area of concern is in narrowing the statistically significant gap in Climate Change knowledge between Deaf students' and Hearing students' at the Rochester Institute of Technology. It is within this topic that the writing-to-learn-science framework is practiced and Deaf students in the Laboratory Science Technology program at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf participate in a study to assess whether or not the use of writing-to-learn-science strategies help them become better scientists, writers and learners. In this study, the social constructivist framework (Vygotsky, 1987) is used to study the impact of the use of the Berland and Reiser (2009) argumentation framework, so that they write-to-learn-science through the steps of sense-making, articulation and persuasion.

  11. Codon usage vis-a-vis start and stop codon context analysis of three ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    To understand the variation in genomic composition and its effect on codon usage, we performed the comparative analysis of codon usage and nucleotide usage in the genes of three dicots, Glycine max, Arabidopsis thaliana and Medicago truncatula. The dicot genes were found to be A/T rich and have predominantly ...

  12. Environmental challenge vis a vis opportunity: the case of water hyacinth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Anushree

    2007-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is a noxious weed that has attracted worldwide attention due to its fast spread and congested growth, which lead to serious problems in navigation, irrigation, and power generation. On the other hand, when looked from a resource angle, it appears to be a valuable resource with several unique properties. As a result, research activity concerning control (especially biological control) and utilization (especially wastewater treatment or phytoremediation) of water hyacinth has boomed up in the last few decades. Investigations on biogas/compost production from water hyacinth have also come up very well mainly from few research groups in India. This review presents a comprehensive view of the research related to water hyacinth with special emphasis on the recent investigations on water hyacinth control and utilization technologies conducted in the last 2-3 decades. Based on these significant research achievements, now it is desirable to identify a management strategy so that the excessive growth can be controlled and the plant can be used in beneficial ways. In the rural areas, water hyacinth could be used in an integrated manner for decentralized wastewater treatment systems coupled to biogas and compost production from the resulting biomass. There is a need to work out the techno-economic viability of such integrated model systems.

  13. Geospatial technology perspectives for mining vis-a-vis sustainable forest ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goparaju Laxmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Forests, the backbone of biogeochemical cycles and life supporting systems, are under severe pressure due to varied anthropogenic activities. Mining activities are one among the major reasons for forest destruction questioning the survivability and sustainability of flora and fauna existing in that area. Thus, monitoring and managing the impact of mining activities on natural resources at regular intervals is necessary to check the status of their depleted conditions, and to take up restoration and conservative measurements. Geospatial technology provides means to identify the impact of different mining operations on forest ecosystems and helps in proposing initiatives for safeguarding the forest environment. In this context, the present study highlights the problems related to mining in forest ecosystems and elucidates how geospatial technology can be employed at various stages of mining activities to achieve a sustainable forest ecosystem. The study collates information from various sources and highlights the role of geospatial technology in mining industries and reclamation process.

  14. First evidence of denitrification vis-a-vis monsoon in the Arabian Sea since late Miocene

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripathi, S.; Tiwari, M.; Lee, J.; Khim, B.-K.; Pandey, D.K.; Clift, P.D.; Kulhanek, D.K.; Ando, S.; Bendle, J.A.P.; Aharonovich, S.; Griffith, E.M.; Gurumurthy, G.P.; Hahn, A.; Iwai, M.; Kumar, A.; Kumar, A.G.; Liddy, H.M.; Lu, H.; Lyle, M.W.; Mishra, R.; Radhakrishna, T.; Routledge, C.M.; Saraswat, R.; Saxena, R.; Scardia, G.; Sharma, G.K.; Singh, A.D.; Steinke, S.; Suzuki, K.; Tauxe, L.; Xu, Z.; Yu, Z.

    of Earth Sciences, University of Southern California, 3651 Trousdale Parkway Los Angeles CA 90089, USA. 15School of Geographical and Oceanographical Sciences, Nanjing University, 163 Xianlin Avenue, Nanjing 210023, China. 16College of Earth, Ocean...

  15. The Problem of Scientific Realism Vis-a-Vis the Probabilistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Scientific realism holds that the objects of scientific knowledge exist independently of the minds or activities of scientists and those scientific theories are true of that objective world. This is antithetical to the posits of quantum physics, a body of knowledge taken as the seal of the sciences because of its incredible feat, which ...

  16. Biomass status vis-a-vis bioenergy prospects and options for India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panigrahhi, M.R.; Overend, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    India has a large biomass energy potential if its underutilized resources are used in modernized biofuels and bioenergy conversion systems. India uses about half traditional and half commercial energy sources. However, with a fast-growing population, a relatively slow-growing economy, and few fossil energy resources, the need to use indigenous resources more efficiency is becoming more pressing. Currently, about 400 million tonnes of biomass (fuel wood, crop residues, and cattle dung) is burnt in millions of traditional cooking stoves, especially in the rural sector. The net energy loss could be as much as 5 EJ. Converting only a fraction of this biomass to biogas, a much cleaner and more efficient fuel, could meet the total cooking requirements of the rural sector. The remainder of the biomass could be converted for use as producer of gas and ethanol. Nearly 15 percent of about 0.6 million villages are unelectrified. Modular power generation using biomass-fueled producer gas-fired generators could meet the rural needs at less cost than grid extensions. Ethanol is already proven in Brazil and the U.S. as a gasoline substitute and extender that mitigates air pollution in urban areas. (author)

  17. Public-Private Partnerships: an International Development vis a vis Indonesia Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizal Yaya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades, Public Private Partnerships (PPP had developed worldwide as an instrument to procure public infrastructure where government funds are limited. This practice supports the covergent theory of the public and private sector. Indonesia experience with PPP follows most of what had been done by countries overseas with some deviations. The main reasons for going for PPP for Indonesia government is to fill the gap in finance and capability in procuring the infrastructure. Unofficial reason such as for off-balance sheet and ideological is not relevant. Up to now, the Government only allow investment in hard economic infrastructure. Instead of using pure private finance, Indonesia Government facilitates public funds either from Central Government or Local Governments to finance PPP projects. In most cases, this involvement is because of marginality of the project. This results in the condition where the Government still has dominant role in the existing PPP projects. Compared to the PPP framework in other countries like in the UK, Indonesia PPP lacks of attention on output specification and risk transfer. This may be because of lacking of experiences as well as due to high degree of Government involvement. Rigorous policy is needed in this area to ensure Government to achieve better value for money.

  18. The Achuar People of the Corrientes Basin: The State vis a vis its own Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Chirif

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the events leading to the 2006 uprising of theAchuar people of the Corrientes basin (Loreto, who have sufferedfour decades of contamination due to oil exploitation. It also examinesthe Peruvian State’s and the oil company´s attitudes throughoutthe protest and after signing an agreement aiming to stop contaminationand remedy environmental and social havoc. Materials usedinclude interviews conducted with different stake holders and a widerange of written records, such as political declarations, reports onlocal people´s health´s and remediation work, agreement documentsand letters exchanged between stake holders, as well as historicaland socio economic background information. Findings highlight thestrength of organized indigenous people´s claiming for their rights;the greater commitment to assuming responsibility shown by the oilcompany´s as compared to the Peruvian State; and the weakness ofa political discourse equating development with the extraction ofnatural resources. The main conclusion is that the Peruvian Statedoes not fulfill the paradigm set in the first article of the Constitution:that the defense of the human person and the respect of its dignityare its supreme aim.

  19. Personal vis-a-vis social responsibility for disparities in health status: An issue of justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ayan; Dobe, Madhumita

    2016-01-01

    Health inequities are disparities which can be avoided through rational actions on the part of policymakers. Such inequalities are unnecessary and unjust and may exist between and within nations, societies, and population groups. Social determinants such as wealth, income, occupation, education, gender, and racial/ethnic groups are the principal drivers of this inequality since they determine the health risks and preventive behaviors, access to, and affordability of health care. Within this framework, there is a debate on assigning a personal responsibility factor over and above societal responsibility to issues of ill health. One school of philosophy argues that when individuals are worse-off than others for no fault of their own, it is unjust, as opposed to health disparities that arise due to avoidable personal choices such as smoking and drug addiction for which there should (can) be a personal responsibility. Opposing thoughts have pointed out that the relative socioeconomic position of an individual dictates how his/her life may progress from education to working conditions and aging, susceptibility to diseases and infirmity, and the consequences thereof. The existence of a social gradient in health outcomes across populations throughout the world is a testimony to this truth. It has been emphasized that assuming personal responsibility for health in public policy-making can only have a peripheral place. Instead, the concept of individual responsibility should be promoted as a positive concept of enabling people to gain control over the determinants of health through conscious, informed, and healthy choices.

  20. Trading Behavior of Foreign Vis a Vis Local Investors in The Indonesian Stock Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soemarso Slamet Rahardjo

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the behavior of foreign, local investors and total market in a stock trading. The analysis is focused on their implementation of positive feedback strategy, the existence of mean reverting process and their sensitivity toward expected capital gain and losses. The result reveals that both of these two investors apply the positive feedback strategy, at a different degree. The investment horizon of the foreign investors is shorter than the local investors. There is a mean reverting pattern in the price volatilities. The convergence period for local investor is 2.4. The market needs 1.8 month. No convergence period for foreign investors. The local investors and total market are neutral toward expected gain and losses. The foreign investors are more sensitive to capital loss. Previous price and volume changes have a leverage effect to the current demand of foreign investors. The local investors are affected by changes in price only.

  1. Usable Security and E-Banking: ease of use vis-a-vis security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Hertzum

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Electronic banking must be secure and easy to use. An evaluation of six Danish web-based electronic banking systems indicates that the systems have serious weaknesses with respect to ease of use. Our analysis of the weaknesses suggests that security requirements are among their causes and that the weaknesses may in turn cause decreased security. We view the conflict between ease of use and security in the context of usable security, a concept that is intended to match security principles and demands against user knowledge and motivation. Automation, instruction, and understanding can be identified as different approaches to usable security. Instruction is the main approach of the systems evaluated; automation relieves the user from involvement in security, as far as possible; and understanding goes beyond step-by-step instructions, to enable users to act competently and safely in situations that transcend preconceived instructions. We discuss the pros and cons of automation and understanding as alternative approaches to the design of web-based e-banking systems.

  2. Comparing Conventional Bank Credit Vis A Vis Shariah Bank Musharakah: Experimental Economic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Abduh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Central Bank of Indonesia with dual banking system – i.e Shariah and Conventional Bank – keep on developing system that considered as an answer to generate the national economic growth. One of the banking activities that emphasized by the Central Bank of Indonesia is fund distribution through either conventional bank credit or shariah bank fi nancing. Having the Experimental Economic Approach based on Induced Value Theory and employing ANOVA, this paper found that shariah bank musharakah fi nancing system would come up with higher profi t opportunity compare to conventional credit system. One main reason is that musharakah fi nancing in shariah bank applies profi t and lost sharing (PLS scheme so that will not be a burden to the customer when he fi nd low profi t.Keywords: Credit Loan, Musharakah Financing, Induced Value Theory, Experimental Economic Approach, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA.

  3. Chemical characterization of meltwater from East Rathong glacier vis-a-vis Western Himalayan glaciers

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sharma, B.M.; Tayal, S.; Chakraborty, P.; Bharat, G.K.

    of (Ca2+ + Mg2+) to the total cations and high value of [(Ca2+ + Mg2+)/(Na+ + K+)] ratio suggests that the major source of dissolved ions in the meltwater is carbonate weathering...

  4. A Look at Technologies Vis-a-vis Information Handling Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Rowena W.

    The paper examines several ideas for information handling implemented with new technologies that suggest directions for future development. These are grouped under the topic headings: Handling Large Data Banks, Providing Personalized Information Packages, Providing Information Specialist Services, and Expanding Man-Machine Interaction. Guides in…

  5. [Agreement and asymmetry. Population and wages vis vis a vis the globalization of the economy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusidman, C

    1991-01-01

    The free flow of labor and services across national borders will be 1 of the most difficult problems of future negotiations for integration of the markets of the US, Mexico, and Canada. The free flow of products and increasingly of capital have been accepted in general terms, and land and natural resources are entering the globalization process through external investment. In the trilateral free trade treaty between Mexico, the US, and Canada, the US is particularly interested in access to the service markets of Canada and Mexico. Mexico would like freer access to the other markets, and to protect its migrant workers. Canada needs foreign labor for its agricultural production. All 3 countries would potentially benefit from more flexible population movement. Mexico, Canada, and the US have very different structures, population dynamics, and labor markets. Mexico's population growth rate is the highest and its active population is increasing the most rapidly. Mexico must generate 1 million new jobs annually, the US requires 2.1 million, and Canada around 230,000. The 3 countries, with about 360 million inhabitants in 1991, must create 3.4 million new jobs annually. Because of differences in occupational and activity structures, levels of skill, salaries, productivity, and cultures of work in the 3 countries, it is clear that the new jobs correspond to different labor markets, making predictions about average salaries difficult. The 1990 average minimum wage in the US was about 10 times that of Mexico, while the average minimum in the manufacturing sector as about 7 times greater. The degree to which the trilateral treaty can contribute to reducing the differential is an important question. 3 possible scenarios suggest themselves. If current restrictions on mobility of workers are maintained, wage disparities will probably continue unless there is a very great foreign investment in activities throughout Mexico that require significant labor inputs. This would probably have a positive effect on unskilled wages. If Mexico does not open its service market, foreign companies would need to train and advance Mexican workers. A 2nd scenario assumes a general easing of restrictions for high-tech services while restrictions remain for unskilled workers. Unemployment among Mexican professionals and technicians in service industries might increase if they were unable to compete. The final scenario represents the longterm possibility of eliminating all restrictions on labor mobility between the 3 countries, which would result in improving the quality of life and working conditions of a large number of persons. Regardless of the outcome, Mexico faces the task of increasing the productivity of its labor force.

  6. RESEARCH ARTICLE Codon usage vis-a-vis start and stop codon ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prosen

    codon usage at start and stop site showed variation in codon selection in ..... pressure is 8.3%, 0.5% and 18.5% while the influence of other factors, for example natural ..... The codon Adaptation Index--a measure of directional synonymous.

  7. Codon usage vis-a-vis start and stop codon context analysis of three ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prosenjit Paul

    2018-02-20

    Feb 20, 2018 ... Keywords. codon; dinucleotide; selection; mutation; genome. Introduction ..... influence of other factors, for example natural selection, is 91.7%, 99.5% ..... measure of directional synonymous codon usage bias, and its potential ...

  8. Bromination vis-a-vis chlorination as a biocide feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyay, S.K.; Nagaigh, N.; Mittal, S.

    2000-01-01

    Water is used extensively as a cooling medium in various heat transfer equipment's of a power industry such as condenser, heat exchangers and cooling towers. At elevated temperature, the breeding of microbiological growth can form slimes, underneath of this, accelerated corrosion can take place resulting into sudden and catastrophic failure of equipment's. The microbiological growth unchecked in the various systems especially in low velocity areas can lead to large growth of micro organisms such as algae which can even reduce the flow of the fluid thus affecting the efficiency of plant equipment's. Therefore, chlorination is a mandatory requirement in industrial cooling water to reduce biofouling in heat transfer equipment's. The chlorination in drinking water produces germicidal effect and thus reduces the bacterial counts. At NAPS the water quality is good and mild doses of chlorine (5 ppm) two times a day, as envisaged in design is noticed to be satisfactory. The chlorination of recirculating condenser cooling water presently is being done with the established doses for a fixed time twice a day. Some of the problems noticed with the chlorination process are : Corrosion of constructional material of chlorination plant and equipment's and pipelines causing large input of efforts on maintenance for keeping high availability of the chlorination plant. In addition to this, the leakages in the equipment could be a potential safety hazard. The effectiveness of chlorine is observed to be less in alkaline pH (above 9.0) as encountered at NAPS. This results is large quantities of chlorine injection for extended periods. The cost of chlorine and bleaching powder keeps fluctuating in the market as noticed in past few years. Many a times this results in scarcity of chlorine/bleaching powder causing interruption in biofouling control programme. Hence it was felt prudent to work on the alternative biocides which could be cost effective, non-polluting and nature and user friendly. This paper highlights the brief details on the feasibility studies carried out on bromination. (author)

  9. Combined full field stress and strain measurement methods for granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broere W.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The current paper re-introduces the photoelastic measurement method in experimental geomechanics. A full-field phase stepping polariscope suitable for geomechanical model tests has been developed. Additional constraints on the measurement and mechanical setup arising from geomechanical test conditions are outlined as well as the opportunity to measure the displacement fields in the sample with digital image correlation. The capability of the current setup in retrieving the stress and strain field in a granular material is demonstrated.

  10. Beyond mean-field approach to heavy-ion reactions around the Coulomb barrier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayik Sakir

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Dissipation and fluctuations of one-body observables in heavy-ion reactions around the Coulomb barrier are investigated with a microscopic stochastic mean-field approach. By projecting the stochastic meanfield dynamics on a suitable collective path, transport coefficients associated with the relative distance between colliding nuclei and a fragment mass are extracted. Although microscopic mean-field approach is know to underestimate the variance of fragment mass distribution, the description of the variance is much improved by the stochastic mean-field method. While fluctuations are consistent with the empirical (semiclassical analysis of the experimental data, concerning mean values of macroscopic variables the semiclassical description breaks down below the Coulomb barrier.

  11. Types of two-dimensional = 4 superconformal field theories

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Types of two-dimensional = 4 superconformal field theories. Abbas Ali ... Various types of = 4 superconformal symmetries in two dimensions are considered. It is proposed that apart ... Pramana – Journal of Physics | News. © 2017 Indian ...

  12. Clinical and economic outcomes of Acinetobacter vis a vis non-Acinetobacter infections in an Indian teaching hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyendu Asim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Acinetobacter infections are a major nosocomial infection causing epidemics of infection in the Intensive Care Units (ICU. Aims: This study estimates the clinical and economic outcomes of Acinetobacter infections and compares them with those of non-Acinetobacter bacterial infections. Settings and Design: Prospective cross-sectional observational study carried out for 6 months in the medicine ICU of a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Patients were divided in two groups, one group with Acinetobacter infections and the other with non-Acinetobacter infections. The data was collected for infection, length of stay (LOS, mortality and cost along with patient demographics from the hospital records for analysis. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences Version 15.0. The LOS and cost of treatment (COT for the two groups were compared using the nonparametric Mann–Whitney U-test. Results: A total of 220 patients were studied out of which 91 had Acinetobacter infections. The median LOS was 20 days in Group-A and 12 days in Group-B (P < 0.0001. The median COT was INR 125,862 in Group-A and INR 68,228 in the Group-B (P < 0.0001. Mortality in Group-A and Group-B was 32.97 and 32.56 (P = 0.949 respectively. Conclusion: The burden of Acinetobacter infections in ICUs is increasing with the increase in LOS and COT for the patients. The infection control team has to play a major role in reducing the rate of nosocomial infections.

  13. Global end-diastolic volume an emerging preload marker vis-a-vis other markers - Have we reached our goal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P M Kapoor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A reliable estimation of cardiac preload is helpful in the management of severe circulatory dysfunction. The estimation of cardiac preload has evolved from nuclear angiography, pulmonary artery catheterization to echocardiography, and transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD. Global end-diastolic volume (GEDV is the combined end-diastolic volumes of all the four cardiac chambers. GEDV has been demonstrated to be a reliable preload marker in comparison with traditionally used pulmonary artery catheter-derived pressure preload parameters. Recently, a new TPTD system called EV1000™ has been developed and introduced into the expanding field of advanced hemodynamic monitoring. GEDV has emerged as a better preload marker than its previous conventional counterparts. The advantage of it being measured by minimum invasive methods such as PiCCO™ and newly developed EV1000™ system makes it a promising bedside advanced hemodynamic parameter.

  14. Reassessment of Business Courses in Foreign Languages: The European Union vis-a-vis Its Individual Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schmidt, Wolff

    The need for advanced (fourth-year) college business courses taught in foreign languages by foreign language teachers, and the design of such courses, are discussed. It is proposed that such courses be offered more often, generally in French, German, and Spanish and preferably over two semesters or three quarters, with a minimum of 3 contact hours…

  15. Spirituality vis-a-vis Islam as prerequisite to Arab American well being: the implications of Eurocentrism for mainstream psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Ronald E; Breland-Noble, Alfiee

    2011-01-01

    Due to the historical preponderance of racial and/or intellectual homogeneity in the field of psychology, Eurocentrism set the "gold standard" for its method of intervention. As such, it might be argued that psychology remains a bastion of Eurocentric thought despite the globalization of knowledge and the influx of racially and ethnically diverse scientists into the research endeavor. At the same time and the significant increase in the immigrant Arab population, Arab Americans remain a less familiar component of society. Among the various Arab populations, spirituality through Islam is fundamental. Thus, psychologists would be remiss to exclude a critical aspect of Arab American life from intervention when it is essential to well-being.

  16. Assessing thermochromatography as a separation method for nuclear forensics. Current capability vis-a-vis forensic requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.E.; Garrison, J.R.; Hall, H.L.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear forensic science has become increasingly important for global nuclear security. However, many current laboratory analysis techniques are based on methods developed without the imperative for timely analysis that underlies the post-detonation forensics mission requirements. Current analysis of actinides, fission products, and fuel-specific materials requires time-consuming chemical separation coupled with nuclear counting or mass spectrometry. High-temperature gas-phase separations have been used in the past for the rapid separation of newly created elements/isotopes and as a basis for chemical classification of that element. We are assessing the utility of this method for rapid separation in the gas-phase to accelerate the separations of radioisotopes germane to post-detonation nuclear forensic investigations. The existing state of the art for thermo chromatographic separations, and its applicability to nuclear forensics, will be reviewed. (author)

  17. Astrophysical limitations to the identification of dark matter: Indirect neutrino signals vis-a-vis direct detection recoil rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serpico, Pasquale D.; Bertone, Gianfranco

    2010-01-01

    A convincing identification of dark matter (DM) particles can probably be achieved only through a combined analysis of different detections strategies, which provides an effective way of removing degeneracies in the parameter space of DM models. In practice, however, this program is made complicated by the fact that different strategies depend on different physical quantities, or on the same quantities but in a different way, making the treatment of systematic errors rather tricky. We discuss here the uncertainties on the recoil rate in direct-detection experiments and on the muon rate induced by neutrinos from dark matter annihilations in the Sun, and we show that, contrarily to the local DM density or overall cross section scale, irreducible astrophysical uncertainties affect the two rates in a different fashion, therefore limiting our ability to reconstruct the parameters of the dark matter particles. By varying within their respective errors astrophysical parameters such as the escape velocity and the velocity dispersion of dark matter particles, we show that the uncertainty on the relative strength of the neutrino and direct-detection signal is as large as a factor of 2 for typical values of the parameters, but can be even larger in some circumstances.

  18. INAA of trace elements in Indian vegetarian diet and its adequacy vis-a-vis Recommended Dietary Allowances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, V.; Garg, A.N.

    1997-01-01

    There has been an increasing awareness concerning the adequacy of trace elements in diet as their deficiency or excess may cause abnormal changes in the biochemical processes. Typical Indian vegetarian diet and dietary components such as cereals, grains, pulses, vegetables and spices have been analysed for 19 elements (Br, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, K, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sr, Th and Zn) by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Several Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) were analysed for quality assurance. Based on the elemental contents, the daily dietary intake has been calculated and the data compared with those from other countries, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) and permissible body burden. It has been observed that, although vegetarian, the Indian diet has an adequate content of essential trace elements compared to non-vegetarian oriental (Japan and Taiwan) and western (Germany, Denmark and USA) diets. (author)

  19. Onset of local ordering in some copper-based alloys: critical solute concentration vis-a-vis various solutionhardening parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Muhammad Zakria; Noshi, Mozina; Bashir, Farooq

    2008-12-01

    The mode of planar distribution of solute atoms in Cu single crystals alloyed with 0.5 to 8.0 at.%Ge has been investigated via the temperature dependence of the critical resolved shear stress of these alloys. It is found that there exists a critical solute concentration c m ≈ 5 at.%Ge below which the distribution of solute atoms in the crystal is random, and above which some local ordering occurs. This together with such data available in the literature for Cu-Zn, Cu-Al and Cu-Mn alloys, i.e. c m ≈7 at. %Zn, 7 at.%Al and 1 at.%Mn, when examined as a function of the size-misfit factor δ = (1/ b)(d b/d c)of a given binary alloy system, shows that the value of c m strongly depends on δ; the smaller the magnitude of δ, the greater the value of c m and vice versa. Also, the value of c m is found to correlate well with the electron-to-atom ratio ( e/a)of the Cu-Zn, Cu-Al, Cu-Ge and Cu-Mn alloys with the solute concentration c = c m . However, no systematic correlation exists between the critical solute concentration c m for the onset of local ordering and the modulus-mismatch parameter η = (1/ G)(d G/d c).

  20. What Perspectives for Crisis Resolution? Which European Diplomacy vis-a-vis Iran's Nuclear Ambitions?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moscovici, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    The conduct of European diplomacy on the Iranian dossier raises many geopolitical issues. What are the strategic possibilities for the European Union? Its credibility is at stake and it must now demonstrate that its alternative approach is more efficient than American policy, which seeks to use the Iranian nuclear dispute as an element of struggle against the Iranian regime. However, the multiplicity of decision-making structures of the EU foreign policy make more complex its action and the implementation of its policies, that are articulated between diplomatic efforts and threats of sanctions. Where the United States has chosen containment, the EU chooses the commitment and sees the return to dialogue and stabilization possible

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on chickpea seeds vis-a-vis total seed storage proteins, antioxidant activity and protein profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagyawant, S S; Gupta, N; Shrivastava, N

    2015-10-23

    The present work describes radiation—induced effects on seed composition vis—à—vis total seed proteins, antioxidant levels and protein profiling employing two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D—GE) in kabuli and desi chickpea varities. Seeds were exposed to the radiation doses of 1,2,3,4 and 5 kGy. The total protein concentrations decreased and antioxidant levels were increased with increasing dose compared to control seed samples. Radiation induced effects were dose dependent to these seed parameters while it showed tolerance to 1 kGy dose. Increase in the dose was complimented with increase in antioxidant levels, like 5 kGy enhanced % scavenging activities in all the seed extracts. Precisely, the investigations reflected that the dose range from 2 to 5 kGy was effective for total seed storage proteins, as depicted quantitatively and qualitative 2D—GE means enhance antioxidant activities in vitro.

  2. Long-term monitoring of nitrate transport to drainage from three agricultural clayey till fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernstsen, Vibeke; Olsen, Preben; Rosenbom, Annette E.

    2015-01-01

    -regulation in future. This study strives to provide such knowledge by evaluating on 11 years of nitrate-N con-centration measurements in drainage from three subsurface-drained clayey till fields (1.3–2.3 ha) representing approxi-mately 71 % of the surface sediments in Denmark dominated by clay. The fields differ...... in their inherent hydrogeological field settings (e.g. soil-type, geology, climate, drainage and groundwater table) and the agricultural management of the fields (e.g. crop type, type of N fertilisers and agricultural practices). The evaluation revealed three types of clayey till fields characterised by: (i) low net...... precipitation, high concen-tration of nitrate-N, and short-term low intensity drainage at air temperatures often below 5 ◦C; (ii) medium net precip-itation, medium concentration of nitrate-N, and short-term medium-intensity drainage at air temperatures often above 5 ◦C; and (iii) high net precipitation, low...

  3. Application of ELD and load forecast in optimal operation of industrial boiler plants equipped with thermal stores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Jiacong

    2007-01-01

    Optimal operation of industrial boiler plants with objects of high energy efficiency and low fuel cost is still well worth investigating when energy problem becomes a world's concern, for there are a great number of boiler plants serving industries. The optimization of operation is a measure that is less expensive and easier to carry out than many other measures. Economic load dispatch (ELD) is an effective approach to optimal operation of industrial boiler plants. In the paper a newly developed method referred to as the method of minimum-departure model (MDM) is used in the ELD for boiler plants. It is more convenient for carrying out ELD when boiler plants are equipped with thermal energy stores that usually adopt the working mode of optimal segmentation of a daily load curve. In the case of industrial boiler plants, ELD needs a prerequisite, viz., the accurate load forecast, which is performed using artificial neural networks in this paper. A computer program for the optimal operation was completed and applied to an example, which results the minimum daily fuel cost of the whole boiler plant

  4. From ELD Curriculum Guide to Practice: A Case Study of Teachers Negotiating How and What to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunez, Raquel Mendia

    2014-01-01

    English language learners (ELs) face multiple challenges in receiving proper instruction that balances their need for English Language Development (ELD) and grade-level content instruction. Additionally, educators often minimize the importance of recognizing students' funds of knowledge as a valuable asset they bring to the classroom. Studies that…

  5. Viscoelastic material properties’ identification using high speed full field measurements on vibrating plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierron F.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an experimental application of a method leading to the identification of the elastic and damping material properties of isotropic vibrating plates. The theory assumes that the searched parameters can be extracted from curvature and deflection fields measured on the whole surface of the plate at two particular instants of the vibrating motion. The experimental application consists in an original excitation fixture, a particular adaptation of an optical full-field measurement technique, a data preprocessing giving the curvature and deflection fields and finally in the identification process using the Virtual Fields Method (VFM. The principle of the deflectometry technique used for the measurements is presented. First results of identification on an acrylic plate are presented and compared to reference values. Details about a new experimental arrangement, currently in progress, is presented. It uses a high speed digital camera to over sample the full-field measurements.

  6. IS Staffing during a Recession: Comparing Student and IS Recruiter Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Jean A.; Hauser, Karina; Ross, Steven C.

    2010-01-01

    The current economic situation in the United States has associated ramifications for IS employment. This study identifies IS recruiters' perceptions vis-a-vis IT budget cuts and layoffs at their organizations. Additionally, it identifies IS student perceptions vis-a-vis employment opportunities and academic preparation. Similar surveys were…

  7. Effects of tritiated water ingestion on mice: II. Damage at cellular vis-a-vis subcellular level monitored up to four generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.N.; Sharan, R.N.; Pozzi, L.

    1983-01-01

    Damage at cellular level is measured using colony forming units in spleen (CFU-S) technique while that at subcellular level by DNA unwinding technique. The damage is monitored up to four generations in Swiss albino mice. The results show drastically reduced colony forming ability in mice bone marrow cells (BMC). On plotting survival fractions (percent of control) for BMC against generations of mice, the plateau is found around 50% survival. The role of DNA in colony forming ability of BMC is tested. The results indicate that, at least, initial impairment of colony ability is not DNA dependent but related to some other factor(s)

  8. Globalização vis-a-vis a história do nacionalismo na América Latina: o caso do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céli Regina Jardim Pinto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article has as start point a central question: Is it possible to identify a reaction to the globalization of capitalism, in term of a globalized movement that involves an alternative to the system or to the north hegemony in relation to the south countries, many of them in conditions of complete miserably and deep social inequality? To examine this question the article is divided in to four small sections: 1.The Internationalism and nationalism; 2. The Nationalism in Brazil; 3. The global civil society; 4. A conclusion. This article concludes that we are far away from a global civil society able to propose a way of life that problematize the capitalist system and all forms of exploitation and class, gender and race dominations.

  9. EVOLUTION OF FIAT AUTOMÓVEIS S.AS STRATEGY VIS-A-VIS COMPETITIVE CHANGES IN THE BRAZILIAN AUTOMOBILE INDUSTRY ENVIRONMENT: A CASE STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    SERGIO MOLINA MICAELO

    2003-01-01

    A Fiat Automóveis S.A. se destacou na indústria automobilística nacional ao atingir, em 2001, a liderança do mercado de automóveis e comerciais leves. A análise desta trajetória avaliou a variação do ambiente competitivo e as estratégias seguidas em dois momentos relevantes determinados por questionário estruturado, que foram 1994 e 2001. A caracterização do ambiente da indústria e das estratégias usaram, respectivamente, o modelo das cinco forças e a tipologia...

  10. High power pulsed/microwave technologies for electron accelerators vis a vis 10MeV, 10kW electron LINAC for food irradiation at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrivastava, Purushottam; Mulchandani, J.; Mohania, P.; Baxy, D.; Wanmode, Y.; Hannurkar, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    Use of electron accelerators for irradiation of food items is gathering momentum in India. The various technologies for powering the electron LINAC were needed to be developed in the country due to embargo situations as well as reservations of the developers worldwide to share the information related to this development. Centre for Advanced Technology, CAT, Indore, is engaged in the development of particle accelerators for medical industrial and scientific applications. Amongst other electron accelerators developed in CAT, a 10MeV, 10kW LINAC for irradiation of food items has been commissioned and tested for full rated 10kW beam power. The high power pulsed microwave driver for the LINAC was designed, developed and commissioned with full indigenous efforts, and is right now operational at CAT. It consists of a 6MW, 25kW S-band pulsed klystron, 15MW peak power pulse modulator system for the klystron, microwave driver amplifier chain, stabilized generator, protection and control electronics, waveguide system to handle the high peak and average power, gun modulator electronics, grid electronics etc. The present paper highlights various technologies like the pulsed power systems and components, microwave circuits and systems etc. Also the performance results of the high power microwave driver for the 10MeV LINAC at CAT are discussed. Future strategies for developing the state of art technologies are highlighted. (author)

  11. Perception of Employers' in Transforming Technical and Vocational Education and Training vis-a-vis Emerging Technology Tools for Sustainable Workforce Development in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oladiran Stephen Olabiyi

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Economic competitiveness of a country depends to a large extent on the skills of its workforce. The skills and the competencies of the workforce, in turn, are dependent upon the quality of the country’s education and training. Education and training are undergoing continuous change, and this change poses more challenges to the 21st-century workforce, and to training institutions. Despite the importance of TVET in transforming economic development, of any nation, Nigeria still has different perspectives about the competency of its TVET graduates. Therefore, the paper aims at determining the perceptions of Organized Private Sector (OPS employers’ regarding the competency of TVET graduates and the role of emerging technology tools in transforming TVET for a sustainable workforce development. Using a descriptive survey research design and a sample of 80 OPS employers. A validated and piloted questionnaire based on a 5-point Likert scale used as the data collection instrument for the study. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics including means, standard deviation and ANOVA. Data analysis was facilitated using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS. Findings revealed that employers were not satisfied with the competency level of TVET graduates as it is showed that they are not well prepared to enter the competitive workforce and to be self-reliant. Given the nature and complexity of the field of TVET for a sustainable workforce, it was recommended that the utilization of adequate planning and management of emerging technology tools and resources in teaching TVET programs could contribute enormously to the quality and sustainability of the Nigerian workforce.

  12. Dissociated reality vis-a-vis integrative planning of AYUSH in Maternal Health Program: A situational analysis in Jaleswar block of Balasore district of Odisha, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehury, Ranjit Kumar; Chatterjee, Suhita Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions is one of the innovative components of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in the state of Odisha, India. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the potential of collocating AYUSH to improve maternal health services in tribal dominated Jaleswar block of the Balasore district. In addition, the study aimed at unearthing the underlying challenges and constraints in mainstreaming AYUSH and linking it with the Maternal Health Program. Review of the policy documents and guidelines, both central and state government, was made to assess the implementation of AYUSH in Odisha. Primary data were collected through interviews with AYUSH doctors, district and block level health administrators, and tribal women. The study revealed the inadequacy of basic amenities, infrastructure, drugs, and consumables in the health centers for integrating AYUSH in the delivery of maternal health services. Analysis of the job chart and work pattern of AYUSH doctors showed underutilization of their specialized knowledge to treat patients. Lack of continued medical education, standard operating procedures for treatment and spatial marginalization made suboptimal utilization of AYUSH services. This is unfortunate given the fact that such regions are economically underdeveloped and already have a distinct orientation toward indigenous health systems. AYUSH, on account of its holistic approach and proven cost-effectiveness, could be a viable option for improving maternal health in the region. The study concluded that although there is huge scope for integrating AYUSH in Maternal Health Program under the ongoing NRHM, the full potential is yet to be exploited. Copyright © 2016 Transdisciplinary University, Bangalore and World Ayurveda Foundation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Dissociated reality vis-a-vis integrative planning of AYUSH in Maternal Health Program: A situational analysis in Jaleswar block of Balasore district of Odisha, India

    OpenAIRE

    Dehury, Ranjit Kumar; Chatterjee, Suhita Chopra

    2016-01-01

    Mainstreaming of AYUSH and revitalization of local health traditions is one of the innovative components of the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) in the state of Odisha, India. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the potential of collocating AYUSH to improve maternal health services in tribal dominated Jaleswar block of the Balasore district. In addition, the study aimed at unearthing the underlying challenges and constraints in mainstreaming AYUSH and linking it with the Maternal...

  14. Histological vis-a-vis biochemical assessment on the toxic level and antineoplastic efficacy of a synthetic drug Pt-ATP on experimental animal models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Shipra; Sadhu, Arpita Sengupta; Patra, Swarup; Mukherjea, Kalyan K

    2008-11-12

    Cisplatin, a platinum based anticancer drug has played a vital role in the treatment of cancers by chemical agents, but in view of the serious toxicity including nephrotoxicity of cisplatin, various other platinum based drugs have been synthesized and screened to overcome its toxicity. A Pt-ATP compound was prepared in our laboratory hoping to have reduced or no toxicity along with the potentiality of reducing neoplasm growth. A Pt-ATP compound was prepared. It was first screened for its antineoplastic efficacy. Confirming that, subsequent experiments were carried on to test its toxicity on animals, viz. Albino Swiss mice. The animals were randomly divided into four sets--Set I: Erhlich Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) challenged mice; Set II: Normal mice; Set III: Drug treated mice, Set IVA Cisplatin (CDDP) treated mice, Set IV B EAC challenged Cisplatin treated mice. Set I was used to test antineoplasticity of the drug, Set II and Set III for studying drug toxicity and Set IV was treated with CDDP. Set II was used as a control. Animals were sacrificed after 5 days, 10 days 15 days and 20 days of drug administration on the 6th, 11th, 16th and 21st days respectively for Set I, II and III. Set IVA was sacrificed only on the 16th day and Set IV B on 6th and 11th days. For Set I only tumor cell count and packed cell volume (PCV) of tumor cells were recorded. For Set II and III, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) assays were done using serum while blood creatinine and creatine were assayed from blood filtrate. For cytotoxicity assessment liver, spleen and kidney tissues were collected and subjected to scanning electron microscopy (SEM) after extensive treatment. Set IV A was only studied for the biochemical parameters viz. aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) assays were done using serum while blood creatinine and creatine were assayed from blood filtrate. Set IV B was studied for tumor cell count after treatment with CDDP for 10 days. Our comparative studies with normal and drug treated animals reveal that the drug does not affect the body weight of the drug treated animals significantly. The biochemical parameters like ALT and AST levels are also within normal limits which rules out hepatotoxicity. The detailed histological studies by SEM reveal that the hepatic, kidney and spleen tissues are not adversely affected by the drug. Comparison of biochemical parameters with the CDDP treated animals show that Pt-ATP is not at all toxic like the CDDP. The Kaplan-Meier analysis of the survival data of Set I has shown promising results with a significance of p < 0.0001. Set I results are promising and indicating antineoplastic efficacy of the synthesized drug with increased life span of the animals. Biochemical analysis, hematological and SEM studies revealed that the drug was neither nephrotoxic nor hepato-spleeno-toxic under the experimental set up.

  15. Valuation of Strength of Structural Steel Angle Sections, under IS Code: 800-1984--A Case Study with Equal vis-a-vis Unequal Angles

    OpenAIRE

    Manoj Kumar Varshaney

    2015-01-01

    International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computa...

  16. An insight into the complexation of trivalent americium vis-a-vis lanthanides with bis(1,2,4-triazinyl)bipyridine derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, Arunasis; Mohapatra, Manoj; Mohapatra, Prasanta K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Radiochemistry Div.; Gadly, Trilochan; Ghosh, Sunil K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Bioorganic Div.; Manna, Debashree; Ghanty, Tapan K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Theoretical Chemistry Section; Rawat, Neetika; Tomar, Bhupendra S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Radioanalytical Chemistry Div.

    2017-01-26

    Complexation of Am{sup 3+} and Ln{sup 3+} (La{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, and Er{sup 3+}) with two bis(1,2,4-triazinyl)bipyridine (C{sub 2}BTBP, C{sub 5}BTBP) derivatives has been studied in acetonitrile medium with use of various experimental techniques such as electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy (TRFS), UV/Vis spectrophotometry, and solution calorimetry. Metal-ligand stoichiometries and conditional stability constants of these complexes were determined. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the complexation of Am{sup 3+} with any of the BTBP derivatives with use of UV/Vis spectrophotometric titration to determine the conditional stability constants. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are carried out on the An{sup 3+} (U{sup 3+} and Am{sup 3+}) and Ln{sup 3+} (La{sup 3+}, Nd{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+}, and Lu{sup 3+}) complexes of BTBP in order to understand the difference between the bonding in actinide and lanthanide complexes. The results indicate a stronger covalent interaction in the An-N bonds as compared to the Ln-N bonds, which leads to an actinide selectivity of this class of ligands. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  17. Analysis of the determining factors in the attitude of an organ of information vis-a-vis the development of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fagnani, F.

    1978-09-01

    The report is devoted to the study of the role of the media, in France, confronted with the nuclear debate. It has been developed through two distinct and complementary approaches, which are illustrative of the possible attitudes towards the research on media impacts. The first approach deals with a systematic qualitative and quantitative review of the various French newspapers (national and regional). With the help of a sample of events running from January 68 to August 76, this study aims at a classification of the periodicals according to their behaviour towards the nuclear issues. It also tries to make assumptions on the role of the press in the public opinion regarding that matter. The second approach follows an inverse scope. By using the result of a survey on a representative sample of French adult population, regarding the nuclear debate, this study concentrates on the individuals as readers of different newspapers. On an other side, individuals are characterized according to their answers to a series of arguments about nuclear energy. In order to precise the impact of the press, this study puts into emphasis the degree of coherence between the general ideological position and the arguments on nuclear. It is proposed to interpret the discrepancies observed in terms of differential media impacts

  18. Visualization and co-occurrence of journals in the area of information science in vis-a-vis the Qualis/Capes system in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Luiz Pinto

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at qualifying scientific journals that are part of the listing Qualis/Capes Brazil. The site of Capes only lists a few influential international titles. Included in this list are “Information Processing & Management, Organization Knowledge and Library” but several other important titles in Information Science are not covered. Our study describes 27 scientific worldwide journals, representing the world stage in Information Science, and which for some reason are not well respected in Brazil. The influence of these international journals (which are part of Web of Science is evidenced by measuring the power they have in the scientific field of Information Science as well as the power of major authors (Salton, Spink, Nicholas, Belkin, Saracevic, Dervin, Garfield and others. Citation index comparison with the other journals in the area and index of impact factor are also analyzed. The results highlight the importance of JASIST, Information Processing & Management, College Research Library, Journal of Documentation, ARIST, Journal Information Sciences, Information Retrieval and Library Trends, both in the matter of world representativeness and in the number of citations.

  19. Toprak Solucanlarından Elde Edilen Vermikompostun Bazı Bitki Patojenleri Üzerindeki Antimikrobiyal Aktivitelerinin Araştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Tutar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Toprak solucanlarının, organik atıkları biyolojik olarak parçalayarak ayrıştırmaları ile oluşturdukları “vemikompost” un, bazı patojen bakteri ve funguslara karşı etkili oldukları yapılan çeşitli araştırmalarla saptanmıştır. Bu çalışmada, Eisenia fetida türü toprak solucanlarından elde edilen vermikompostun; etanol ve kloroform solventleri kullanılarak elde edilen ekstrelerinin, bitkilerde hastalıklara neden olan toprak kaynaklı patojen 9 adet bakteri ve 9 adet fungusa karşı etkinliklerinin belirlenmesi amacıyla “disk difüzyon” ve “MIC” testleri uygulanmıştır. Çalışma sonuçlarına göre, toprak solucanlarından elde edilen vermikompostun kloroform ile elde edilen ekstrelerinin Pseudomonas syringae, Xhantomonas carotae, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Fusarim oxysporum, Aspergillus humicola ve Aspergillus fumigatus’ a karşı etkileri güçlü olurken Erwinia chrysanthemi, Pseudomonas fluorescens, ve Penicillium brevicompactum’ a karşı etkilerinin daha zayıf olduğu görülmüştür. Vermikompostun etanol ile elde edilen ekstrelerinin ise Pseudomonas syringae, Xhantomonas campestris ve Aspergillus fumigatus’ a karşı etkilerinin güçlü olduğu, Erwinia herbicola, Erwinia chrysanthemi ve Sclerotinia sclerotiorum’ a  karşı ise daha zayıf bir etki gösterdiği saptanmıştır.

  20. Effect of biostimulant sprays on Phaeomoniella chlamydospora and esca proper infected vines under greenhouse and fi eld conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Di Marco

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Biostimulants are compounds that infl uence physiological processes in plants, producing better growth and enhancing stress tolerance. The effect of some biostimulants on vines was investigated over a number of years to assess their effect both on the incidence of esca leaf symptoms in the vineyard and on the growth of Phaeomoniella chlamydospora artifi cially inoculated into potted vines. Field trials were carried out for 4–7 years in fi ve 15-20-yearold vineyards infected with esca proper. Potted plants were sprayed with biostimulants, after which the vine trunks were inoculated with P. chlamydospora, and then the vines were sprayed again with biostimulants in the following 2 or 3 growing seasons. On the whole, biostimulants in the fi eld did not reduce foliar symptoms. The percentage of symptomatic vines that had shown symptoms in previous years was higher in the biostimulant-sprayed plots. In the greenhouse, a certain reduction of internal necrosis caused by P. chlamydospora was seen with three of the four biostimulants tested. Prospects for biostimulants as a means control esca are discussed.

  1. MEMS-based contact stress field measurements at a rough elastomeric layer: local test of Amontons’ friction law in static and steady sliding regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debrégeas G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of recent friction experiments in which a MEMS-based sensing device is used to measure both the normal and tangential stress fields at the base of a rough elastomer film in frictional contact with smooth, rigid, glass indentors. We consider successively multicontacts under (i static normal loading by a spherical indentor and (ii frictional steady sliding conditions against a cylindrical indentor, for an increasing normal load. In both cases, the measured fields are compared to elastic calculations assuming (i a smooth interface and (ii Amontons’ friction law. In the static case, significant deviations are observed which decrease with increasing load and which vanish when a lubricant is used. In the steady sliding case, Amontons’ law reproduces rather satisfactorily the experiments provided that the normal/tangential coupling at the contact interface is taken into account. We discuss the origin of the difference between the Amontons fields and the measured ones, in particular the effect of the finite normal and tangential compliances of the multicontact interface.

  2. Development of the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer quality of life questionnaire module for older people with cancer: The EORTC QLQ-ELD15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Colin; Fitzsimmons, Deborah; Gilbert, Jacqueline; Arrarras, Juan-Ignacio; Hammerlid, Eva; Bredart, Anne; Ozmen, Mahir; Dilektasli, Evren; Coolbrandt, Anne; Kenis, Cindy; Young, Teresa; Chow, Edward; Venkitaraman, Ramachandran; Howse, Frances; George, Steve; O'Connor, Steve; Yadegarfar, Ghasem

    2010-08-01

    There is a lack of instruments that focus on the specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL) issues that affect older people with cancer. The aim of this study was to develop a HRQOL questionnaire module to supplement the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) core questionnaire, the EORTC QLQ-C30 for older (>70years) patients with cancer. Phases 1-3 were conducted in seven countries following modified EORTC Quality of Life Group guidelines for module development. Phase 1: potentially relevant issues were identified by a systematic literature review, a questionnaire survey of 17 multi-disciplinary health professionals and two rounds of qualitative interviews. The first round included 9 patients aged >70. The second round was a comparative series of interviews with 49 patients >70years with a range of cancer diagnoses and 40 patients aged 50-69years matched for gender and disease site. In Phase 2 the issues were formulated into a long provisional item list. This was administered in Phase 3 together with the QLQ-C30 to two further groups of cancer patients aged >70 (n=97) or 50-69years (n=85) to determine the importance, relevance and acceptability of each item. Redundant and duplicate items were removed; issues specific to the older group were selected for the final questionnaire. In Phase 1, 75 issues were identified. These were reduced in Phase 2 to create a 45 item provisional list. Phase 3 testing of the provisional list led to the selection of 15 items with good range of response, high scores of importance and relevance in the older patients. This resulted in the EORTC QLQ-ELD15, containing five conceptually coherent scales (functional independence, relationships with family and friends, worries about the future, autonomy and burden of illness). The EORTC QLQ-ELD15 in combination with the EORTC QLQ-C30 is ready for large-scale validation studies, and will assess HRQOL issues of most relevance and concern for older people with

  3. The effect of continuous exposure to electromagnetic fïeld on four successive generations of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oentoeng Soeradi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to know the biobgical effects of  electromagnetic field treatment on four successive generations of mice. Fourty eight male and female mice of Swiss Webster Strain, 3 months of old, and 35 - 40 g body weight, were kept in a controlled environment and fed a standard diet. Mice were divided into 6 groups of four couples each. The first group was exposed to electromagnetic field of I kV/10 cm, the second group to 2 kV/10 cm, and the third group to 3 kV/10 cm. The remaining 3 groups were served as untreated controls of the first, second, and third group, respectively. Each couple of mice was placed in a cage (26x20x11 cm with wire metal cage tops. The cages of experimental groups with mice inside, were then put on the negative terminal plate of a pair of parallel aluminium plate electrodes. These cages were  perpendicular to the positive electrode plate at a distance of I0 cm. Subsequently, the electrodes were connected to stepup transformer as an alternating current power supply. All mice belonging to experimental and untreated control groups were allowed to mate, gastate, and deliver the first up to fourth generations, During investigation, all generations of experimental groups were continuously treated to electromagnetic field, while generations of untreated control groups received no treatment to electromagnetic field, During the study, all mice were housed in a room having a temperature of 26ᵒ C and a light - dark cycle of 12:12 hours. The results of this study showed that exposure of mice to electromagnitic field results in reduced fertility with no change in sex ratio of the offspring. Exposure to electromagnetic field, however, were effective in inducing congenital anomalies, such as micropthalmy, white eyes, short hind legs, dwarf mice, and tumors in both sexes of the offspring which caused of death after 3 - 4 months of old. A large mortality rate were found, especially in the third and fourth

  4. The "BIOmarkers associated with Sarcopenia and PHysical frailty in EldeRly pErsons" (BIOSPHERE) study: Rationale, design and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvani, Riccardo; Picca, Anna; Marini, Federico; Biancolillo, Alessandra; Cesari, Matteo; Pesce, Vito; Lezza, Angela Maria Serena; Bossola, Maurizio; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Bernabei, Roberto; Landi, Francesco; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2018-05-10

    Sarcopenia, the progressive and generalised loss of muscle mass and strength/function, is a major health issue in older adults given its high prevalence and burdensome clinical implications. Over the years, this condition has been endorsed as a marker for discriminating biological from chronological age. However, the absence of a unified operational definition has hampered its full appreciation by healthcare providers, researchers and policy-makers. In addition to this unsolved debate, the complexity of musculoskeletal ageing represents a major challenge to the identification of clinically meaningful biomarkers. Here, we illustrate the advantages of biomarker discovery procedures in muscle ageing based on multivariate methodologies as an alternative approach to traditional single-marker strategies. The rationale, design and methods of the "BIOmarkers associated with Sarcopenia and PHysical frailty in EldeRly pErsons" (BIOSPHERE) study are described as an application of a multi-marker strategy for the development of biomarkers for the newly operationalised Physical Frailty & Sarcopenia condition. Copyright © 2018 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Sensitivity study with respect to direction of ADI method during re-flooding in AHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, M.; Mukhopadhyay, D. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Reactor Safety Div.; Ghosh, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Raja Ramanna Fellow; Kumar, R. [Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2015-05-15

    The Advanced Heavy water Reactor (AHWR) is a natural circulation vertical pressure tube type boiling light water cooled and heavy water moderated reactor. As the AHWR fuel bundle quenching under accident condition is designed primarily with radial jets at several axial locations, bottom re-flooding still remain open as another option. Radial direction injection of emergency core cooling leads to rewetting of AHWR fuel cluster in circumferential direction. A 3D fuel pin model has been developed by using Finite Difference Method (FDM) of transient heat conduction equation. Alternating Direction Implicit technique of Finite Difference Method (FDM) has been used for discretisation of numerical equation in different time step at different direction. Sensitivity numerical study with respect to direction of ADI method has been carried out to optimize the time step during the transient as well as steady state and is found that it is insensitivity with direction of solution. Further, to assess influence of circumferential rewetting vis-a-vis axial rewetting. Both the analyses are carried out with same fluid temperature and heat transfer coefficients as boundary conditions. It has been found from the analyses that for radial jet, the circumferential conduction is significant and overall the fuel temperature falls in the quench plane with the initiation of quenching event. The paper discusses the sensitivity study with respect to direction of ADI solution and comparison of numerical results for circumferential and axial rewetting for single pin.

  6. KESTANE KABUĞUNUN PİROLİZİ VE ELDE EDİLEN ÜRÜNLERİN KARAKTERİZASYONU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur DEMIRAL

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışmada kestane kabuğu biyokütle kaynağı olarak seçilmiş ve sabit yataklı reaktörde pirolizi gerçekleştirilmiştir. Deneylerde piroliz sıcaklığı, ısıtma hızı ve sürükleyici gaz akış hızının piroliz ürün verimleri üzerindeki etkileri incelenmiştir. Yapılan deneyler sonucunda en yüksek katran verimine 50 oCdk-1 ısıtma hızı, 400 oC piroliz sıcaklığı ve 150 cm3dk-1 sürükleyici gaz akış hızında %18,70 ile ulaşılmıştır. Çalışmalar sonucunda elde edilen katranın FTIR spektrumu alınmış, elementel analizi gerçekleştirilmiş ve ısıl değeri belirlenmiştir. Katran sütun kromatografisinde hidrokarbon ve polar bileşiklerine ayrılmıştır.  Alifatik alt fraksiyon GC-MS ile karakterize edilmiştir. Ayrıca hammaddenin ve katı ürünün BET yüzey alanları belirlenmiş ve katı ürünün SEM görüntüsü alınmıştır.

  7. ED-XRF spectrometry-based trace element composition of genetically engineered rhizoclones vis-a-vis natural roots of a multi-medicinal plant, butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, S.S.; Chand, P.K.

    2012-01-01

    The energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence set-up incorporating a molybdenum secondary exciter was used for quantitative determination of major and minor elements in genetically transformed root somaclones (rhizoclones) of butterfly pea (Clitoria ternatea L.) which had been established via explant co-cultivation with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. The multi-elemental composition of these transformed rhizoclones was compared with that of the naturally grown in vivo donor plant. Trace elements namely Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Rb, Sr and Pb in addition to two macro-elements K and Ca were identified and quantified in root tissues of both sources. The elemental content of transformed root cultures was found to be at par with that of the natural roots of in vivo grown plants of the same species. These findings are implicated on the context of utilization of such Agrobacterium-mediated genetically transformed root cultures as a viable alternative to natural roots, the former being a fast-proliferating renewable resource of medicinally useful minerals essential for designing of effective drugs, besides providing an ex situ means for plant conservation. (author)

  8. Elements of comparison between different inert matrix fuels towards plutonium use and safety coefficients; Elements de comparaison de differentes matrices inertes vis a vis de l'utilisation du plutonium et des coefficients de surete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldi, St.; Porta, J. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Etudes des Reacteurs, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2000-08-01

    This work deals with the CERMET fuels, chosen for their good behaviour under irradiation and their high thermal conductivity. The kinetic coefficients have been particularly studied. Comparisons have been made with other solutions using other composite fuels in particular the solid solutions and the ROX solution. The core control requiring an heterogeneous assembly, we propose an assembly whose characteristics are compared with those of the APA reference. (O.M.)

  9. Investigation of actinides speciation within the presence of ligands of interest for decorporation; Etude de la speciation des actinides vis-a-vis de ligands d'interet pour la decorporation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonin, L

    2008-01-15

    Data about the behaviour of actinides in biological media are required in order to investigate their decorporation. Those data are obtained through in vivo experiments and the study of chemical speciation of actinides within the presence of biological constituents. A part of this work consists in the development of a method leading to the determination of the speciation of actinides at the oxidation state +IV within the presence of a complexing species, as well as its structure. The method was applied to two types of ligands: 1) a constituent of blood plasma: the citrate anion. The various complexes formed were investigated and their formation constants were quantified. The coordination mode of the ligand was then clarified through a structural study of the complexes, underlining the role of only one carboxylic site and of the alcohol function. 2) chelating agents used for decorporation. The formation constants of complexes of An(IV) with NTA and DTPA were determined. The coordination number of the metallic cation in those complexes as well as the role of the nitrogen atom were proved. Lastly, the behaviour of Pu(IV) within the presence of LIHOPO was investigated. This chelating agent, more efficient than DTPA in the case of in vivo decorporation of Np, forms very stable complexes with the metallic cation. One of those complexes can be assumed to present a stoichiometry 2:3. (author)

  10. The biological treatment of the wastes facing the greenhouse effect and the climatic change; Les traitements biologiques des dechets vis-a-vis de l'effet de serre et du changement climatique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, E

    2007-07-01

    The weight of the wastes treatment in the accounting of the greenhouse gases production is really poor: 1 to 2% of the CO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} emissions. The aim of this paper is to qualify and quantify the interest of biological solutions for the treatment of domestic wastes and sludges. (A.L.B.)

  11. Contribution to the study of the reactivity of graphite with respect to carbon dioxide and air; Contribution a l'etude de la reactivite du graphite vis-a-vis du gaz corbonique et de l'air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, M [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-09-15

    The oxidation of nuclear-quality graphite by air and carbon dioxide has been studied at temperatures at which the reaction becomes measurable. These experiments have been carried out on graphites differing in the concentration and nature of their ash, and in their mode of preparation. The reaction velocities measured have been compared in an attempt to correlate these two factors. Ten types of graphite have thus been studied. Since the oxidation reactions are of the type gas-solid, their velocities have also been compared to the BET surface areas of the graphite studied and to the diameter distribution of the pores of this surface. The conclusion is that, even for these low impurity contents, the law relating the reaction velocity to the surface is masked by the impurities which appear to behave as preferential reaction sites. This has been shown by carrying out successive purifications on various types of graphite, which treatment results in an important decrease in the reactivity of all the samples studied. (author) [French] On a etudie l'oxydation de graphites de qualites nucleaires par l'air et par le gaz carbonique, a des temperatures telles que la reaction commence a etre mesurable. Ces essais ont porte sur des graphites differents aux points de vue de la concentration et de la nature des cendres, et differents par le mode de preparation. Les vitesses de reaction mesurees ont ete comparees afin de tenter de les relier a ces deux facteurs. Dix qualites de graphite ont ainsi ete etudiees. Les reactions d'oxydation etant des reactions gaz-solide, les vitesses ont ete egalement comparees aux surfaces specifiques B.E.T. des echantillons de graphite etudies et a la repartition par diametres des pores de cette surface. La conclusion est que, meme a ces teneurs faibles en impuretes, la loi de variation de la vitesse de reaction en fonction de la surface est masquee par les impuretes qui paraissent jouer le role de sites privilegies de reaction comme l'ont montre les purifications successives auxquelles diverses qualites de graphite ont ete soumises, traitement accompagne pour tous les echantillons d'une notable diminution de la reactivite. (auteur)

  12. Creative Art and Cinematographic Production Vis-a-Vis the State in Europe. International Colloquy Organised by the European Art and Experimental Cinema Association in Collaboration with the Council of Europe. Cultural Policy Studies Series 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescure, Jean; Degand, Claude

    Various aspects of the role of the state in fostering creative art and cinematography are discussed in the two reports presented in this volume. In "The Role of the Market in the Relation Between the State and Cinematographic Creation" Jean Lescure emphasizes that this relationship should be viewed as one of complicity rather than…

  13. Improving the effectiveness of planning EIA (PEIA) in China: Integrating planning and assessment during the preparation of Shenzhen's Master Urban Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Che Xiuzhen; English, Alex; Lu Jia; Chen, Yongqin David

    2011-01-01

    The enactment and implementation of the 2003 EIA Law in China institutionalised the role of plan environmental impact assessment (PEIA). While the philosophy, methodology and mechanisms of PEIA have gradually permeated through the various levels of government with a positive effect on the process and outcome of urban planning, only a few cities in China have so far carried out PEIA as a Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)-type procedure. One such case is the southern city of Shenzhen. During the past three decades, Shenzhen has grown from a small town to a large and booming city as China has successfully and rapidly developed its economy by adopting the 'reform and open door' policy. In response to the challenges arising from the generally divergent processes of rapid urbanisation, economic transformation and environment protection, Shenzhen has incrementally adopted the SEA concept in developing the city's Master Urban Plan. As such, this paper reviews the effectiveness of PEIA in three ways: ·as a tool and process for achieving more sustainable and strategic planning; ·to determine the level of integration of SEA within the planning system; and, ·its effectiveness vis-a-vis implementation. The implementation of PEIA within Shenzhen's Master Urban Plan offers important insights into the emergence of innovative practices in undertaking PEIA as well as theoretical contributions to the field, especially in exploring the relationship between PEIA and SEA and highlighting the central role of local governing institutions in SEA development.

  14. CollAborative care for Screen-Positive EldeRs with major depression (CASPER plus): a multicentred randomised controlled trial of clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosanquet, Katharine; Adamson, Joy; Atherton, Katie; Bailey, Della; Baxter, Catherine; Beresford-Dent, Jules; Birtwistle, Jacqueline; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Clare, Emily; Delgadillo, Jaime; Ekers, David; Foster, Deborah; Gabe, Rhian; Gascoyne, Samantha; Haley, Lesley; Hamilton, Jahnese; Hargate, Rebecca; Hewitt, Catherine; Holmes, John; Keding, Ada; Lewis, Helen; McMillan, Dean; Meer, Shaista; Mitchell, Natasha; Nutbrown, Sarah; Overend, Karen; Parrott, Steve; Pervin, Jodi; Richards, David A; Spilsbury, Karen; Torgerson, David; Traviss-Turner, Gemma; Trépel, Dominic; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Gilbody, Simon

    2017-11-01

    Depression in older adults is common and is associated with poor quality of life, increased morbidity and early mortality, and increased health and social care use. Collaborative care, a low-intensity intervention for depression that is shown to be effective in working-age adults, has not yet been evaluated in older people with depression who are managed in UK primary care. The CollAborative care for Screen-Positive EldeRs (CASPER) plus trial fills the evidence gap identified by the most recent guidelines on depression management. To establish the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of collaborative care for older adults with major depressive disorder in primary care. A pragmatic, multicentred, two-arm, parallel, individually randomised controlled trial with embedded qualitative study. Participants were automatically randomised by computer, by the York Trials Unit Randomisation Service, on a 1 : 1 basis using simple unstratified randomisation after informed consent and baseline measures were collected. Blinding was not possible. Sixty-nine general practices in the north of England. A total of 485 participants aged ≥ 65 years with major depressive disorder. A low-intensity intervention of collaborative care, including behavioural activation, delivered by a case manager for an average of six sessions over 7-8 weeks, alongside usual general practitioner (GP) care. The control arm received only usual GP care. The primary outcome measure was Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items score at 4 months post randomisation. Secondary outcome measures included depression severity and caseness at 12 and 18 months, the EuroQol-5 Dimensions, Short Form questionnaire-12 items, Patient Health Questionnaire-15 items, Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7 items, Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale-2 items, a medication questionnaire, objective data and adverse events. Participants were followed up at 12 and 18 months. In total, 485 participants were randomised (collaborative

  15. From research to field action: example of the fight against cholera in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Piarroux

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC is the country in the world which reported the highest number of cholera cases to WHO from 2002 to 2007 (128 936 cases out of a worldwide 902 071 cases. We, therefore, implemented research work which intends to understand the epidemiology of cholera in the DRC and to ensure improvements in the strategy to fight against cholera. This broad study enabled us to accurately determine the cholera epidemic’s mechanisms on different scales; to identify the source zones of the disease, and the groups of populations acting as vectors of the spread. It was then possible to demonstrate the role of “sanctuary”, played by some suburbs of lakeside cities. A collaborative network, including several scientific institutions in Europe and in the DRC, local and national government administrations in the field of public health and sanitation, international agencies, NGOs and private foundations, was progressively set up. Following the conclusions of our epidemiological studies, a drastic change of strategy was proposed: the limited curative approach on the one hand, the few existing water/sanitation programs on the other hand, have been merged in a global approach involving a larger scale water and sanitation infrastructure improvement, environmental protection, hygiene awareness and medical surveys targeting a few focus areas playing a central role in the epidemics. In conclusion, by better targeting intervention zones, one can gather human and technical resources previously scattered on the vast territory of the DRC. The strategy presented here revives the hope to eliminate cholera in the DRC.La République Démocratique du Congo (RDC est le pays qui a déclaré le plus grand nombre de cas de choléra à l’OMS entre 2002 et 2007 (128 936 cas sur un nombre total de 902 071 de cas dans le monde. Face à cette situation, nous avons mis en œuvre un travail de recherche qui vise à comprendre l’épidémiologie du

  16. Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) yöntemi ile elde edilen çeşitli CdS ve Pb ince filmlerinin fiziksel özelliklerinin elektrik kuvvet mikroskobu (EKM) ile incelenmesi

    OpenAIRE

    ARSLAN, Melike

    2011-01-01

    Bu tez çalışmasında, Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) yöntemi ile elde edilen farklı pH derecelerine sahip Kadmiyum Sülfür (CdS) ve Kurşun (Pb) ince filminin topografik ve elektriksel özellikleri incelenmiştir. LB ince filmlerinin topografik özellikleri ve elektriksel özellikleri NT-MDT marka Taramalı Uç Mikroskobu (TUM) ile incelenmiştir. Yüzey morfolojik özel...

  17. LİNYİT KÖMÜRLERİNDEN ELDE EDİLEN AKTİF KÖMÜR İLE SULU ÇÖZELTİLERDEN Cr(VI UZAKLAŞTIRILMASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet MAHRAMANLIOĞLU

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Ağaçlı Linyit kömürlerinden elde edilen aktif kömür, sulu çözeltilerden Cr(VI uzaklaştırmak için kullanılmıştır. Cr(VI adsorpsiyonu başlangıç konsantrasyonu, zaman, pH, adsorbent konsantrasyonu ve sıcaklığın fonksiyonu olarak çalışılmıştır. Adsorpsiyon verileri Langmuir ve Freundlich izotermlerine uydurulmuştur. Adsorpsiyon hız sabitini hesaplamak için Lagergren eşitliği kullanıldı. Adsorbe edilen Cr(VI miktarı pH değerinin azalması ile artmış, sıcaklığın artması ile azalmıştır.

  18. Characterization of axially-symmetric magnetic elds

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2087237; Buzio, Marco

    In solenoids for particle accelerators, the magnetic field is usually mapped by means of 3D Hall-sensing systems through a burdensome and costly procedure. A further problem arises from a coherent treatment between the beam physics requirements, the qualification of numerical models, the design and manufacturing of the magnet, and the magnetic measurements. For example, when the magnet is misaligned with respect to the longitudinal direction of the mapper, the fringe field shows spurious components. A method was therefore developed for measuring the magnetic field of axisymmetric magnets by exploiting their inherent symmetry. The method yields a measurement of the magnetic flux linked with a pair of sensing coils as a function of their longitudinal position. An induction transducer, sensitive to the longitudinal and radial components of the solenoid under test, has been designed and constructed. A transport system moves the transducer along the magnet axis, covering the full length of the magnet and including...

  19. Loneliness and Social Isolation among Eldely People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engin Püllüm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Social isolation is defined as the process of people losing their contacts with other social resources or their willingness to participate. Social isolation is a grave and widespread problem among seniors in society causing many harmful health conditions. Social isolation may be prevented by defining risk factors in seniors and leading them to suitable resources. The elderly should be encouraged to share their experiences and continue to produce for as long as possible, so that they are prevented from feeling isolated from society and the continuity of their economic productivity is ensured.

  20. SABİT ODAKLI SİLİNDİRİK P ARAB OLİK BİR YOdUNLAŞTIRlCIDA KIZGIN SU ELDE EDİLMESİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FETHİ HALICI

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Bu çalışn1ada, odağı sabit yansıtıcısı ha reketli olarak imal edilen silindirik parabolik yoğunlaştırıcıda (SPY kızgın su ve sıcak su için yapılan deney sonuçları ve pe rfoımans değerleri verilmiştir. (SPY 'nın yansıtıcı yüzeyi 2ınx3 m boyutlarında olup toplam açıklık alanı 6 ın2 dir. Odaktaki yut ucu yüzey yan yana yerleştirilen 2 kanatlı borudan imal edilmiştir. Odak uzaklığı 6 m olan (SPY kuzey güney doğrultusu nda yerleştirilerek özel yapılan bir ınekanizma ile güneşi doğu batı doğrultusunda izl emesi sağJanmıştır. (SPY' da yaklaşık 120 °C değerlerinde kız gın su elde edilmiştir. leneylerde ölçümü yapıJan sıcaklık, debi ve güneş ışınını şiddeti değerleri verilerek, sistemin performansı irdelennıiştir

    1. Bazı çam türlerinden kraft kağıt hamuru elde etme sürecinde sodyum borhidrür ilavesinin etkileri

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Akın SARAÇBAŞI

      2016-12-01

      Full Text Available Bu araştırmada, kızılçam (Pinus brutia Ten. ve Monteri çamı (Pinus radiata D. Don. türlerinden toplam verim ve delignifikasyonu geliştirmek amacı ile alternatif bir Sodyum borhidrür (NaBH4-Kraft kâğıt hamuru elde etme yöntemi üzerinde çalışılmıştır. Delignifikasyon derecesi ve hamur verimi üzerinde reaksiyon koşullarının etkileri değerlendirilmiştir.Sonuçlar, sodyum borhidrür ilavesinin bilinen Kraft yöntemine göre her iki çam türünün hem verim hem de delignifikasyonunu geliştirmek için daha etkili olduğunu göstermektedir. Sodyum borhidrür (NaBH4-Kraft yönteminin, geleneksel Kraft yönteminin tek başına verdiği kappa numarası ve yüksek verim açısından, daha hızlı ve daha seçici olduğu düşünülmektedir. Ancak, kızılçam için en iyi Sodyum borhidrür (NaBH4-Kraft kâğıt hamuru üretim koşulu Aktif Alkali: %16, Sülfidite: %28, NaBH4 oranı: %0.5 iken, Monteri çamı için en iyi Sodyum borhidrür (NaBH4-Kraft kâğıt hamuru üretim koşulunun ise Aktif Alkali: %20, Sülfidite: %26, NaBH4 Oranı: %0.7 olduğu bulunmuştur.

    2. A method to study electron heating during ICRH

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Eriksson, L.G.; Hellsten, T.

      1989-01-01

      Collisionless absorption of ICRF waves occurs either by ion cyclotron absorption or by electron Landau (ELD) and transit damping (TTMP). Both ion cyclotron absorption, and direct electron absorption results in electron heating. Electron heating by minority ions occurs after a high energy tail of the resonating ions has been formed i.e. typically after 0.2-1s in present JET experiments. Electron heating through ELD, and TTMP, takes place on the timescale given by electron-electron collisions which is typically of the order of ms. This difference in the timescales can be used to separate the two damping mechanisms. This can be done by measuring the time derivatives of the electron temperature after sawtooth crashes during ramp-up and ramp-down of the RF-power. (author) 4 refs., 4 figs

    3. Chinese bilateral intra-industry trade : A panel data study for 50 countries in the 1992-2001 period

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Zhang, J.; van Witteloostuijn, A.; Zhou, C.

      2005-01-01

      This study examines the features and determinants of Chinese intra-industry trade during the 1992-2001 transition period for 50 of China's trade partners. We disentangle total intra-industry trade (TIIT) into vertical intra-industry trade (VIIT) vis-a-vis horizontal intra-industry trade (HIIT),

    4. Farklı Canlı Ağırlıklardaki Keçilerden Elde Edilen Çiğ Sütlerin Sert, Yarı Sert ve Yumuşak Peynir Üretim Standartlarına Uygunluklarının Belirlenmesi

      OpenAIRE

      Çimen, Murat; Topçu, Hakan; Ölcal, Mehmet Cengiz

      2013-01-01

      Bu araştırmanın amacı farklı canlı ağırlıklara sahip keçilerden elde edilen çiğ sütlerin sert, yarı sert ve sert peynir standartlarına göre uygunluğunu araştırmaktır. Veriler Tunceli ilinin İsmailli köyünde yetiştirilen bir Saanen keçi sürüsünden elde edilmiştir. Ağır ve hafif keçiler için sütteki toplam yağ seviyeleri yumuşak peynir üretimi için bildirilen standartlara uygun bulunmuştur. Her iki gruptaki (ağır ve hafif) toplam kurumadde ve protein oranları üç peynir çeşidi (yumuşak, yarı ser...

    5. A percepção das enfermeiras acerca da sua atuação ante os direitos dos clientes La percepción de las enfermeras respecto a su actuación ante los derechos de los clientes Nurses' perception of their work vis-a-vis patients' rights

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Patrícia Chaves Alves

      2008-06-01

      Full Text Available Com o objetivo de conhecer a percepção das enfermeiras acerca de sua atuação ante os direitos dos clientes e desenvolver um instrumento que possibilitasse mensurar esta percepção, realizou-se uma pesquisa exploratório-descritiva, com uma amostra de 73 enfermeiras de dois hospitais. Mediante um questionário auto-aplicado, foram identificados e validados quatro construtos relacionados à atuação das enfermeiras, quanto aos direitos dos clientes: preservação da individualidade; respeito à autonomia do cliente, identificação pessoal e informação para a tomada de decisão. O construto que apresentou melhor desempenho diz respeito à preservação da individualidade. Já o respeito à autonomia do cliente e a identificação pessoal situaram-se em um nível intermediário, enquanto que o construto informação para a tomada de decisão apresentou-se como o menos realizado pelas enfermeiras. A preservação da individualidade e o respeito à autonomia mostraram-se como os construtos que mais influenciam a percepção das enfermeiras de como, em geral, respeitam os direitos dos clientes.Con el objetivo de conocer la percepción de las enfermeras referentes a su actuación ante los derechos de los clientes y para desarrollar un instrumento para mensurar esta percepción, se realizó una investigación exploratorio-descriptiva, con una muestra de 73 enfermeras de dos hospi-tales. Por medio de un cuestionario auto-aplicado, fueron identificados y validados cuatro constructos relacionados a la actuación de las enfermeras, en cuanto a los derechos de los clientes: preservación de la individualidad, respeto a la autonomía del cliente, identificación personal e información para la toma de decisión. El constructo que presentó un mejor desempeño se refiere a la preservación de la individualidad. Ya el respeto a la autonomía del cliente y la identificación personal se situaron en un nivel intermedio, mientras que el constructo información para la toma de decisión se presentó como el menos realizado por las enfermeras. La preservación de la individualidad y el respecto a la autonomía se mostraron como los constructos que más influencian la percepción de las enfermeras de como, en general, respetan los derechos de los clientes.This exploratory-descriptive survey was carried out with a sample consisting of 73 nurses from two hospitals in order to know the perception they have of their work via-a-vis patients' rights and develop an instrument capable of measuring such perception. Four constructs referring to the nurses' performance via-a-vis patients' rights were identified and validated, based on questions the nurses answered: preservation of individuality; respect for the patient's autonomy; personal identification; and information for decision-taking. Preservation of individuality was the construct with the best performance. Respect for the patient's autonomy and personal identification appear in an intermediate level, whereas the construct information for decision-taking was the least used. In general, preservation of individuality and respect for the patient's autonomy are the constructs that influenced the most nurses' perception on patients' rights.

    6. Contribution to the modeling of elaborate cement barriers behaviour with respect to radioelements migration by the study of ancient analogue materials; Apport de l`etude de materiaux analogues anciens a la modelisation du comportement des barrieres ouvragees en ciment vis-a-vis de la migration des radioelements

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Rougeau, P

      1994-10-13

      The durability of cement matrices and their capacity of radioelements retention are determining factors for their use as elaborate barriers in radioactive waste disposal facilities. This study focusses on the observation of concretes in real situation of alteration or in contact with radioelements for predictive modelling. Two materials have been selected. One is a concrete from a gallery wall of the Margnac uranium mine (Cogema, France) submitted to uranium-rich infiltration waters. The alteration concentrates in two characteristic successive zones: the first is composed of calcium depleted and aluminum enriched calcite and calcium hydro-silicates and the second, between the first zone and the sound matrix, is characterized by a self-filling in process due to massive ettringite precipitation induced by sulfate ions transport. Uranium migration depends closely on the fissures and porosity of the cement matrix. The second series of samples correspond to 2000 years old archaeological cements from Pompei (Italy) made of volcanic ashes and carrying uranium traces. These samples were submitted to burying and alteration is characterized by a carbonation of the cement matrix. The mineralogy is closed to the one defined in the first alteration zone of the uranium mine concrete. Both studies demonstrate that the presence of carbonate ions in the percolation water plays a major role in the alteration process. Sulfate reactions must be considered too and tend to diminish the materials porosity and to increase the delay in radionuclides migration processes. (J.S.). 131 refs., 92 figs., 55 tabs., 51 photos., 15 appends.

    7. Synthesis and complexation properties towards uranyl cation of carboxylic acid derivatives of p-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene; Synthese et proprietes complexantes vis-a-vis de l'ion uranyle de derives carboxyliques du p-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Souane, R

      2005-03-15

      In the fuel reprocessing plants radioactive metals, and more particularly, uranium in UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} form in the various installations, have many varied physico-chemical forms and there is a risk of exposure and internal contamination in the nuclear industry. It is necessary to exert a medical control to ensure the protection of the health of the workers. This medical control is done by dosing uranyl cation in the urine of the exposed people. This work forms part of this context. Indeed, we prepared a ligand able to complex the ion uranyl and which is also to be grafted on a solid support. In the family of calixarenes, the calix[6]arenes functionalized by three or four carboxylic functions were selected like chelating molecules of the ion uranyl. The properties of complexation of these calixarenes were studied by potentiometry in methanol, under these conditions balances of protonation and complexation were determined and the constant partners were obtained using the Hyperquad program. We synthesized tri-carboxylic calix[6]arenes comprising of the groupings nitro (NO{sub 2}) in para position of phenol in order to see the influence of a substitution in para position on the complexation. We also synthesized calix[6]arenes tetra-carboxylic in order to show the role of an additional carboxylic acid grouping. The potentiometric study determined thermodynamic parameters of protonation and complexation of carboxylic calix[6]arenes. The results of the complexation highlighted which complex UO{sub 2}L corresponding to the ligand para-tert-butyl-calix[6]arene tetra-acid is more stable than that corresponding to the ligand mono-nitro calix[6]arene tri-acid ({delta}log{beta}110 = 4.3), and than the effect of the groupings nitro in para position has low influence on the complexation of UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. This makes it possible to consider as possible the grafting of the calix[6]arenes which one knows the behaviour of trapping. To this end we synthesized the ligand 23. (author)

    8. Bush v. Bin Laden: Effect of State Emotion on Perceived Threat is Mediated by Emotion Towards the Threat Agent (Bush vs. Ben Laden: l’Effet de l’Emotion etat sur la Menace Percue est Mediatisees par l’Emotion vis-a-vis de l’Agent Menacant)

      Science.gov (United States)

      2009-07-01

      auteurs discu- tent des implications des resultats pour les theories qui postulent un effet de I’emotion sur la perception du risque et pour com...effect of global negative emotion on perceived threat . The authors discuss implications of the findings for theories that postulate an effect of... auteurs ont mene une etude perception j emotion j experimentale afin d’examiner les effets d’etats emotionnels Specifi- ques (peur et colere) et globaux

    9. Study of retention properties of fluoro-apatite carbonate relative to Ni(II), Am(III) and Th(IV); Etude des proprietes de retention des carbonate fluoroapatites vis-a-vis de Ni(II), Am(III) et Th(IV)

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Perrone, Jane [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)

      1999-07-12

      Apatite minerals and particularly the carbonated species (francolites), are characterized by their chemical and geological stability and also by their capacity to retain durably a large number of elements. Therefore, they should be able to improve the retention properties of the engineered barriers of a deep geological nuclear waste repository. But there is a wide variety of francolites, so we focused our study on a synthetic carbonate fluoro-apatite of formula: Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 5}(CO{sub 3})(F,OH){sub 3} and on a natural apatite. We first studied their solubility which is an important criterion for the choice of the materials. A particular attention was also paid to the determination of their surface characteristics and to the study of the radionuclide/solution interactions. Sorption experiments have been performed for the three radionuclides and the influence of various parameters has been investigated. The modelling of the sorption isotherms with surface complexation models leads us to estimate the values of the constants associated to the equilibria under consideration. We have also demonstrated that the phosphate ions of the solution participate to the immobilization of americium as the AmPO{sub 4},xH{sub 2}O compound. Both apatites show high retention levels for the actinides: the sorption is quite total over all the pH range studied and the Kd values are close to 10{sup 4} m{sup 3} kg{sup -1}. Consequently, the use of apatites could be considered as a specific solution for the immobilisation of heavy elements, specially actinides. Moreover, the results indicate that high amounts of carbonates and impurities do not alter the retention properties of francolites. This bears out the feasibility of the use of natural apatites as additives for the engineered barrier materials. (author)

    10. The central position currently occupied by remittances in the economic fi eld has largely restricted its scope on the monetary dimension of them, setting aside their hidden complexity and the variety of forms, uses and meanings that they can take. In fact

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Joan Lacomba Vázquez

      2013-12-01

      Full Text Available The central position currently occupied by remittances in the economic fi eld has largely restricted its scope on the monetary dimension of them, setting aside their hidden complexity and the variety of forms, uses and meanings that they can take. In fact, the social dimension of different types of remittances, as mainly own social remittances, should be considered more as one of the most signifi cant effects of migration in relation to human development. The purpose of this paper is try to contribute to the field of remittances, both in studying the socia dimensions that they contain, and in trying to make a more precise onceptualization on them.

    11. On the circulation in the Bay of Bengal during northern spring inter-monsoon (March-April 1987)

      Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

      Babu, M.T.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Murty, V.S.N.; Vethamony, P.

      ) indicated an anticyclonic circulation with a northeastward flow in the western bay duringMarch–April ( La Fond and La Fond 1968; Duing, 1970; Wyrtki, 1971). The temperature field obtained from satellite- based advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR.... Pergamon. New York, pp. 451–475. Duing,W.,1970.Themonsoonregimeofcurrentsin theIndian Ocean. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA, 68pp. Eigenheer,A.,Quadfasel,D.,2000.SeasonalvariabilityoftheBay of Bengal circulation inferred from TOPEX...

    12. Neomercazole protection against radiation-induced changes in bioamines and testicular metabolism of rats during starvation stress

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Hasan, S.S.; Kushwaha, A.K.S.

      1987-01-01

      Effect of X rays was studied on normally fed and starved rats vis-a-vis neomercazole, a sulfur containing carbimazone as a chemical radioprotector. Levels of 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and vinylmandelic acid which were found rising following exposure to X-rays, were significantly curtailed by the treatment with radioprotector in the protected-cum-irradiated rats. Administration of neomercazole offered protection to the testes against radiation injury by increasing alkaline phophatase and cholesterol contents in the testes of drug-treated-cum-irradiated animals. Pretreatment of neomercazole reduced the rate of mortality in the starvation-cum-irradiated animals as compared to the nontreated starvation-cum-irradiated animals. (author)

    13. Yağ Gülü (Rosa damascena Mill.’nde Tepe Boşluğu Katı Faz Mikro Ekstraksiyonu (HS-SPME ve Konvansiyonel Su Distilasyonu Yöntemleri ile Elde Edilen Uçucu Bileşenlerin Karşılaştırılması

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Hasan BAYDAR

      2016-04-01

      Full Text Available Yağ gülü (Rosa damascena Mill., kendine özgü doğal koku bileşenleri nedeniyle parfüm ve kozmetik endüstrisinde değerlendirilen en önemli kokulu gül türüdür. Bu araştırmada, taze yağ gülü çiçeklerinin sepal (çanak yaprak, petal (taç yaprak, stamen (erkek organ ve pistil (dişi organ olarak ayrılan kısımlarının uçucu bileşenleri gaz kromatografisi/kütle spektrometresi (GC-MS ile kombine edilmiş Tepe Boşluğu-Katı Faz Mikro Ekstraksiyon (HS-SPME tekniği ile tespit edilmiştir. Ayrıca taze yağ gülü çiçekleri konvansiyonel hidro-Clevenger su distilasyonu yöntemi ile damıtılmış, elde edilen uçucu yağların bileşenleri GC-MS ile belirlendikten sonra HS-SPME sonuçları ile karşılaştırılmıştır. HS-SPME yönteminin yağ gülünde uçucu bileşenleri analizinde oldukça hassas ve etkili olduğu anlaşılmış, bir yağ gülü çiçeğinin farklı kısımların farklı koku bileşenlerine sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca su distilasyonu ile elde edilen gül yağının uçucu yağ bileşenlerinin çiçeğin doğal koku bileşenlerinden farklı olduğu ve distilasyon sürecinde önemli bazı bileşenlerde değişimler ve kayıplar olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Taze gül çiçeğinin en önemli bileşeni olan feniletil alkol çiçeğin en fazla pembe renkli petallerinde (taç yapraklarında, gül yağında varlığı istenmeyen metil öjenol ise çiçeğin en fazla stamenlerinde (erkek organlarında bulunduğu belirlenmiştir.

    14. Chemical characteristics of Central Indian Basin waters during the southern summer

      Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

      DeSousa, S.N.; Sardessai, S.; RameshBabu, V.; Murty, V.S.N.; Gupta, G.V.M.

      aspects of oxygen deficient conditions and denitrification in the Arabian Sea. Journal of MarineResearch 45,1049–1072. Redfield,A.C.,Ketchum,B.H.,Richards,F.A.,1963.Theinfluenceoforganismsonthecompositionofseawater.In: Hill, M.N. (Ed.), The Sea: Ideas...-Sea Research II 48 (2001)3343–3352 Chemical characteristics of Central Indian Basin waters during the southern summer S.N. de Sousa*,S.D. Sardessai, V. Ramesh Babu, V.S.N. Murty, G.V.M. Gupta NationalInstituteofOceanography,DonaPaula,Goa403004,India Abstract...

    15. Properties of tin oxide base gas sensors for nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}). Modelling the NO{sub x}-SnO{sub 2} interactions; Proprietes des capteurs de gaz a base d'oxyde d'etain vis a vis des oxydes d'azote (NO{sub x}). Modelisation des interactions NO{sub x}-SnO{sub 2}

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Leblanc, E.

      1999-12-22

      In order to better resolve the selectivity problems of the tin oxide base sensors for nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), three points have been considered: 1)a thoroughly study of the knowledge of the nitrogen oxides properties: experimental and theoretical studies of the gases present in the studied conditions (thermodynamic aspect) and of their transformation velocities (kinetic aspect) have been carried out 2)an understanding of the NO{sub x}-SnO{sub 2} interactions which lead to the conductance variation of the sensors: studies of the NO{sub x} conversion at the surface of the tin dioxide made with a differential reactor allow to specify the reactional mechanism of the reaction: 2 NO + O{sub 2} = 2 NO{sub 2}. The characterization of the adsorbed species reveals the adsorption of NO{sub 2} in great amount under the nitrate form as well as the key role of these species in the catalytic mechanism. A modelling of the conductance variations of a SnO{sub 2} base sensor under an atmosphere of NO, NO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} is proposed 3)an optimization of the gas sensors properties: after having revealed the strong influence on the sensor sensitivity of the electrodes-SnO{sub 2}, a study on the geometry effects of the electrodes is carried out. No major improvement of the sensitivity has been noticed. The addition of MoO{sub 3} to SnO{sub 2} has been considered. This addition has allowed to strongly improve the sensitivity to the carbon monoxide and to the nitrogen oxide at 450 degrees Celsius. Nevertheless, it has not resolved the selectivity problems. In this study, the perfection of a total NO{sub x} sensor able to measure the sum of the NO and NO{sub 2} amounts has been considered too. (O.M.)

    16. Motions of CMS Detector Structures as Observed by the Link Alignment System during the Test of the 4 Tesla Magnet Solenoid

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferramdp, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.; Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martin-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.

      2008-07-01

      This document describes results obtained from the Link Alignment System data recorded during the CMS Magnet Test. A brief description of the system is followed by the discussion of the detected relative displacements (from micro metres to centimetres) between detector elements and rotation of detector structures (from microradiants to milliradiants). Observed displacements are studied as functions of the magnetic fi eld intensity. In addition, a comparison of the reconstructed position of active element sensors with respect to their position as measured by photogrammetry is made and the reconstructed motions due to the magnetic field strength are described. (Author) 19 refs.

    17. Motions of CMS Detector Structures as Observed by the Link Alignment System during the Test of the 4 Tesla Magnet Solenoid

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M. I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J. C.; Yuste, C.; Calderon, A.; Gomez, G.; Gonzalez-Sanchez, F. J.; Martin-Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Arbol, P.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron, M.; Vila, I.; Virto, A. L.

      2008-01-01

      This document describes results obtained from the Link Alignment System data recorded during the CMS Magnet Test. A brief description of the system is followed by the discussion of the detected relative displacements (from micro metres to centimetres) between detector elements and rotation of detector structures (from microradiants to milliradiants). Observed displacements are studied as functions of the magnetic fi eld intensity. In addition, a comparison of the reconstructed position of active element sensors with respect to their position as measured by photogrammetry is made and the reconstructed motions due to the magnetic field strength are described. (Author) 19 refs

    18. LEADERSHIP MODELS AND EFFICIENCY IN DECISION CRISIS SITUATIONS, DURING DISASTERS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      JAIME RIQUELME CASTAÑEDA

      2017-09-01

      Full Text Available This article explains how an effective leadership is made on a team during an emergency, during a decision crisis in the context of a disaster. From the approach of the process, we analyze some variables such as flexibility, value congruence, rationality, politicization, and quality of design. To achieve that, we made a fi eld work with the information obtained from the three Emergency headquarters deployed by the Chilean Armed Forces, due to the effects of the 8.8 earthquake on February 27th 2010. The data is analyzed through econometric technics. The results suggested that the original ideas and the rigorous analysis are the keys to secure the quality of the decision. It also, made possible to unveil the fact, that to have efficiency in operations in a disaster, it requires a big presence of a vision, mission, and inspiration about a solid and pre-existing base of goals and motivations. Finally, we can fi nd the support to the relationship between kinds of leadership and efficiency on crisis decision-making process of the disaster and opens a space to build a decision making theoretic model.

    19. Plant-herbivore interactions along elevational gradient: Comparison of field and common garden data

      Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

      Rokaya, Maan Bahadur; Dostálek, Tomáš; Münzbergová, Zuzana

      2016-01-01

      Roč. 77, November 2016 (2016), s. 168-175 ISSN 1146-609X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP13-10850P Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : anti-herbivore defense * altitude * Himalayan region Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.652, year: 2016

    20. Infrasound pulses from lightning and electrostatic field changes: Observation and discussion

      Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

      Chum, Jaroslav; Diendorfer, G.; Šindelářová, Tereza; Baše, Jiří; Hruška, František

      2013-01-01

      Roč. 118, č. 19 (2013), s. 10653-10664 ISSN 2169-897X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1253; GA ČR(CZ) GAP209/12/2440; GA MŠk 7E12020 Grant - others:RF EU(XE) ARISE 284387 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : Infrasound * Lightning * Thunder * Slowness method * Electrostatic mechanism Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.440, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jgrd.50805/abstract

    1. On permutation polynomials over finite fields: differences and iterations

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Odzak, Almasa; Patel, Vandita

      2017-01-01

      The Carlitz rank of a permutation polynomial f over a finite field Fq is a simple concept that was introduced in the last decade. Classifying permutations over Fq with respect to their Carlitz ranks has some advantages, for instance f with a given Carlitz rank can be approximated by a rational li...

    2. Properties of unipolar magnetic field pulse trains generated by lightning discharges

      Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

      Kolmašová, Ivana; Santolík, Ondřej

      2013-01-01

      Roč. 40, č. 8 (2013), 1637–1641 ISSN 0094-8276 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1253 Grant - others:Rada Programu interní podpory projektů mezinárodní spolupráce AV ČR(CZ) M100421206 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : train of pulses * dart-stepped leader * K change Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.456, year: 2013 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/grl.50366/abstract

    3. ANALYSIS OF THE DETERMINANTS OF EXPORTING INTENSITY IN THE FI ELD OF INNOVATION

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Suárez-Porto, Vanessa

      2014-05-01

      Full Text Available From a sample of Spanish manufacturing businesses, extracted from the 2005 Technological InnovationPanel (PITEC 2005, we suggest a lineal regression model in which we relate the exporting intensity withthe product innovation, the process innovation, the sectorial technological intensity, the business extentand the membership to a pool of businesses. In the descriptive and statistical analysis, we obtained thatall of these variables have a positive and significant influence on the exporting intensity. Regarding thismatter, we have checked that the main influence corresponds to businesses that develop product inno-vation strategies, are of medium extent, are assigned to sectors of medium-high technological intensityand belong to a foreign corporate group.

    4. Covariant solution of the three-quark problem in quantum field theory: the nucleon

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nicmorus D.

      2010-04-01

      Full Text Available We provide details on a recent solution of the nucleon’s covariant Faddeev equation in an explicit three-quark approach. The full Poincaré-covariant structure of the three-quark amplitude is implemented through an orthogonal basis obtained from a partial-wave decomposition. We employ a rainbow-ladder gluon exchange kernel which allows for a comparison with meson Bethe-Salpeter and baryon quark-diquark studies. We describe the construction of the three-quark amplitude in full detail and compare it to a notation widespread in recent publications. Finally, we discuss first numerical results for the nucleon’s amplitude.

    5. The experiences of remaining nurse tutors during the transformation ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      The transformation of public services and education in South Africa is part of the political and socioeconomic transition to democracy. Changes are occurring in every fi eld, including that of the health services. A qualitative study was undertaken to investigate the experiences of the remaining nurse tutors at a school of ...

    6. Modification of the radiosensitivity of barley seed by post-treatment with caffeine

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Nadkarni, S.; Kesavan, P.C.

      1975-01-01

      In dry barley seeds (3.1 per cent moisture content), the maximal level of oxic damage (class III damage) was reached within the first 40 min a post-hydration in oxygenated water at 5 +- 1 0 C. The decay of the gamma-ray-induced oxygensensitive sites required however, about 120 min. The mechanism leading to partial protection against the class III damage were initiated when caffeine was present during the dirst 30 min of oxygenated post-hydration. If added after 30 min of oxygenated hydration, caffeine had no protective action. For the potentiation of an oxygen-independent component of damage, caffeine had to be present during the first 240 min of oxygen-free hydration. These observations involving a physiologically inert system raised questions regarding physico-chemical vis-a-vis biochemical mechanisms of caffeine effect on irradiated systems and these have been briefly discussed. (author)

    7. Net land-atmosphere flows of biogenic carbon related to bioenergy: towards an understanding of systemic feedbacks.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Haberl, Helmut

      2013-07-01

      The notion that biomass combustion is carbon neutral vis-a-vis the atmosphere because carbon released during biomass combustion is absorbed during plant regrowth is inherent in the greenhouse gas accounting rules in many regulations and conventions. But this 'carbon neutrality' assumption of bioenergy is an oversimplification that can result in major flaws in emission accounting; it may even result in policies that increase, instead of reduce, overall greenhouse gas emissions. This commentary discusses the systemic feedbacks and ecosystem succession/land-use history issues ignored by the carbon neutrality assumption. Based on recent literature, three cases are elaborated which show that the C balance of bioenergy may range from highly beneficial to strongly detrimental, depending on the plants grown, the land used (including its land-use history) as well as the fossil energy replaced. The article concludes by proposing the concept of GHG cost curves of bioenergy as a means for optimizing the climate benefits of bioenergy policies.

    8. Simulation of low-latitude ionospheric response to 2015 St. Patrick's Day super geomagnetic storm using ionosonde-derived PRE vertical drifts over Indian region

      Science.gov (United States)

      Joshi, L. M.; Sripathi, S.; Singh, Ram

      2016-03-01

      In this paper, we present low-latitude ionospheric response over Indian longitude to the recent super geomagnetic storm of 17 March 2015, using the Sami2 is Another Model of the Ionosphere (SAMI2) model which incorporates ionosonde-derived vertical drift impacted by prompt penetration eastward electric field occurring during the evening prereversal enhancement (PRE) in the vertical drift. The importance of this storm is that (1) Dst reaches as low as -228 nT and (2) prompt penetration of eastward electric field coincided with evening hours PRE. The daytime vertical E × B drifts in the SAMI2 model are, however, considered based on Scherliess-Fejer model. The simulations indicate a significant enhancement in F layer height and equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA) in the post sunset hours on 17 March 2015 vis-a-vis quiet day. The model simulations during recovery phase, considering disturbance dynamo vertical E × B drift along with equatorward disturbance wind, indicate suppression of the daytime EIA. SAMI2 simulations considering the disturbance wind during the recovery phase suggest that equatorward wind enhances the ionospheric density in the low latitude; however, its role in the formation of the EIA depends on the polarity of the zonal electric field. Comparison of model derived total electron content (TEC) with the TEC from ground GPS receivers indicates that model does reproduce enhancement of the EIA during the main phase and suppression of the EIA during the recovery phase of the superstorm. However, peculiarities pertaining to the ionospheric response to prompt penetration electric field in the Indian sector vis-a-vis earlier reports from American sector have been discussed.

    9. Comparativo del sector confección en china y Colombia: análisis del indicador de competitividad 2000-2008

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tatiana Brito

      2010-11-01

      Full Text Available The clothing industry is regarded as one of the most important productive activities in the world, representing 30% of world production. Differences in the competitiveness of different manufacturing locations determine who gets what in this lucrative market. Objective: To identify the relationship between the Chinese manufacturing sector with the same sector in Colombia during the period 2000 to 2008. Methodology: A comparison based on the Global Competitiveness Index. Frame of reference: The apparel industry is representative within the manufacturing sector of world system, it has started to experience major changes as the increased presence and participation of China in the international market due to entry of this country to the World Trade Organization. The results show that China has a competitive advantage in exporting apparel to the world vis-a-vis Colombia. However, Colombia has the advantage in the development of differentiated products.

    10. Social networks, time homeless, and social support: A study of men on Skid Row.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Green, Harold D; Tucker, Joan S; Golinelli, Daniela; Wenzel, Suzanne L

      2013-12-18

      Homeless men are frequently unsheltered and isolated, disconnected from supportive organizations and individuals. However, little research has investigated these men's social networks. We investigate the structure and composition of homeless men's social networks, vis-a-vis short- and long-term homelessness with a sample of men drawn randomly from meal lines on Skid Row in Los Angeles. Men continuously homeless for the past six months display networks composed of riskier members when compared to men intermittently homeless during that time. Men who report chronic, long-term homelessness display greater social network fragmentation when compared to non-chronically homeless men. While intermittent homelessness affects network composition in ways that may be addressable with existing interventions, chronic homelessness fragments networks, which may be more difficult to address with those interventions. These findings have implications for access to social support from network members which, in turn, impacts the resources homeless men require from other sources such as the government or NGOs.

    11. Models of reality : the unconscious tattletale.

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Brown-VanHoozer, S. A.; VanHoozer, W. R.

      2000-08-29

      Humans are constantly subjected to enormous amounts of information greatly exceeding our conscious ability to sense fully experiences vis-a-vis reality. As a consequence, we assimilate this vast array of information at the unconscious level so it can later be considered useful during the process of identifying belief systems and behaviors for learning, decision-making, memory, language, and knowledge. These assimilations are ordered using internal strategies that can be externally observed as analog feedback behavior(s) from an individual's unconscious. These can then be concisely expressed in models for application regarding effective choices in decision-making and learning strategies, memory access, and the actualization of other understandings and applied as knowledge. How we can learn from the unconscious is the focus of this paper.

    12. Refractories in the Al2O3-ZrO2-SiO2 system

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Banerjee, S.P.; Bhadra, A.K.; Sircar, N.R.

      1978-01-01

      The effect of addition of ZrO 2 in different proportions in the refractories of the Al 2 O 3 -SiO 2 system was studied. The investigation was confined to two broad ranges of compositions incorporating zirconia (15-30 percent and 80-85 percent) in the Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 -SiO 2 system. The overall attainment of properties is dependent upon the mode of fabrication and firing, and bears a relationship with the phase assemblages and the relative proportion thereof. Of the different characteristics, the trend of dissociation of zircon has been found to be specially significant vis-a-vis the temperature of firing and thermal shock resistance. Reassociation of the dissociated products has been ascribed to bring forth improved resistance to thermal spalling. The different products developed during this investigation are considered to be very promising which find useful applications in view of the properties attained by them. (auth.)

    13. Hydrogen engine performance analysis project. Second annual report

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Adt, Jr., R. R.; Swain, M. R.; Pappas, J. M.

      1980-01-01

      Progress in a 3 year research program to evaluate the performance and emission characteristics of hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines is reported. Fifteen hydrogen engine configurations will be subjected to performance and emissions characterization tests. During the first two years, baseline data for throttled and unthrottled, carburetted and timed hydrogen induction, Pre IVC hydrogen-fueled engine configurations, with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and water injection, were obtained. These data, along with descriptions of the test engine and its components, the test apparatus, experimental techniques, experiments performed and the results obtained, are given. Analyses of other hydrogen-engine project data are also presented and compared with the results of the present effort. The unthrottled engine vis-a-vis the throttled engine is found, in general, to exhibit higher brake thermal efficiency. The unthrottled engine also yields lower NO/sub x/ emissions, which were found to be a strong function of fuel-air equivalence ratio. (LCL)

    14. ACADEMIC DISHONESTY ‘VERSUS’ PAKTA INTEGRITAS DAN PRESTISE SEKOLAH DALAM PELAKSANAAN UJIAN NASIONAL

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ahmad Zaini

      2014-05-01

      Full Text Available This article tries to elaborate the academic dishonesty vis a vis integrity pact and school prestise during the implementation of Ujian Nasional (National Examination. It has been known that National Examination is still debatable. Many disagree to do it because the final evaluation must be returned to the teachers. Whereas, government agrees to do so in order to standardize the result of teaching learning process. To guarantee fair play in the exam, all headmasters sign integrity pact. Therefore, students are motivated to study hard to pass the exam. Unfortunately, many students even their teachers and headmasters cheat in many ways to achieve high results. The background can be traced into many factors: internal and external of the students and the prestige of the schools which “must be maintained” by national and private schools.

    15. Distribution of 222Rn in dwellings around proposed uranium mining site at Rohil, Rajasthan

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Jha, V.N.; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, M.K.; Patnaik, R.L.; Sahoo, S.K.; Jha, S.K.; Tripathi, R.M.

      2018-01-01

      Prior to commissioning of uranium ore mining and processing facility baseline radiological monitoring vis-a-vis public exposure assessment is required. Such information are utilized for developing control measures during operational phases to ascertain the minimal impact on the surrounding areas. Among the various pathways the inhalation component far exceeds the other component in the natural background of a region. Further, in inhalation component also the contribution of 222 Rn is almost 50%. The main sources of indoor radon are geological features, soil characteristics, construction materials of the dwellings, water utilization pattern, use of natural cooking gas, climatological/weather variables. As part of preliminary radiological assessment exercise twenty three dwellings were selected in this region comprising of different types of construction design/materials and passive radon dosimeters were provided of evaluation of radon level and inhalation exposure. The results presented in the text are part of the said radiological assessment exercise

    16. Emerging applications of advanced fuels for energy generation and transmutation. Overview of IAEA activities

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Pong Eil Juhn; Arkhipov, V.

      1996-01-01

      Nuclear power generation is an established part of the world's electricity mix. However, the highly radioactive waste generated during power production is of great concern of public perception of nuclear energy. In order for nuclear power to realize its full potential as a major energy source for the entire world, there must be a safe and effective way to deal with this waste. Therefore, science must come to the rescue in the form of new, more effective technology aimed at reducing the amount of long-lived radioactive waste and eliminating nuclear weapons' grade material through transmutation of these isotopes in fission reactors or accelerators. In the framework of IAEA activities on the use of this new technologies the Agency has periodically review and assess the current status of the new fuel cycles, its applications worldwide, its economic benefits, and its perceived advantages vis-a-vis other nuclear fuel cycles. (author)

    17. The use of ligneous plants for controlling the radioactive contamination of a soil; Utilisation des vegetaux ligneux au controle de la pollution radioactive d'un sol

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Gagnaire, J; Heuze, C; Aubert, M T [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Grenoble (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

      1961-07-01

      A method for checking on the possible radioactive pollution of CEN-G. soil, by taking samples of tissue of ligneous plants cultivated on the land in question, is proposed and investigated during the vegetation period. A preliminary study on the retention capacity of the CEN-G. soil for solutions containing {sup 32}P and chemical composition is given. (author) [French] Une methode de controle de la pollution radioactive eventuelle du sol du CEN-G., a l'aide de prelevements de tissus de vegetaux ligneux, cultives sur ce terrain est proposee et etudiee pendant la periode vegetative. Une etude preliminaire du pouvoir de retention du sol du CEN-G, vis-a-vis de solutions contenant du {sup 32}P et de composition chimique, est exposee. (auteur)

    18. University strategy for doctoral training: the Ghent University Doctoral Schools.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bracke, N; Moens, L

      2010-01-01

      The Doctoral Schools at Ghent University have a three-fold mission: (1) to provide support to doctoral students during their doctoral research, (2) to foster a quality culture in (doctoral) research, (3) to promote the international and social stature and prestige of the doctorate vis-a-vis potential researchers and the potential labour market. The Doctoral Schools offer top-level specialized courses and transferable skills training to doctoral students as part of their doctoral training programme. They establish mechanisms of quality assurance in doctoral research. The Doctoral Schools initialize and support initiatives of internationalization. They also organize information sessions, promotional events and interaction with the labour market, and as such keep a finger on the pulse of external stakeholders.

    19. Biotechnological aspects of plants metabolites in the treatment of ulcer: A new prospective

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Amit Kishore Singh

      2018-06-01

      Full Text Available Ulcer is one of the most common diseases affecting throughout the world population. The allopathic treatment of ulcer adversely affects the health by causing harmful side effects. Currently, many herbal plants and secondary metabolites have been used for the ulcer treatment. In the present review, many herbal plants and their parts (root, rhizome, bark, leaves and fruits have been listed in the table are currently being used for ulcer treatment. These metabolites are responsible for ulcer-neutralization or anti-inflammatory properties. In silico study, plant metabolites showed interaction between protodioscin (secondary metabolites of Asparagus racemosus and interferon-γ (virulent factor of gastric ulcer during molecular docking. All the residues of interferon-γ exhibited hydrophobic interactions with plant metabolites. These interactions helps in understanding the plant secondary metabolites vis a vis will open a new door in the research field of new drug discovery and designing for the ulcer treatment.

    20. North-South Commerce and Oficial Development Aid: Some Contradictory Evidence

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Arcadi Oliveres Boadella

      1998-04-01

      Full Text Available That, traditionally, North-South commerce is unfavorably tilted towards the interests of the former is not new: but how is a countries official Aid for Development implicated in the equation? This two-pronged relationship is the subject of the article, which, based on statistics from 1988 to 1995, underlines the importance of the global petroleum trade in the balance between Spainís contribution to Aid for Development and Spainish commercialimport-export gains with countries in the South. By using petroleum as a key ingredient in analyzing the overall relationship, the author demonstrates the quantitative deterioration of Spainish Aid for Development during this period which, in constant prices, revealsthat only in 1991 did the Aid for Development show favorable results for the countries of the South vis a vis the commercial relationship.

    1. Terahertz field enhancement to the MV/cm regime in a tapered parallel plate waveguide

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Iwaszczuk, Krzysztof; Andryieuski, Andrei; Lavrinenko, Andrei

      2012-01-01

      measurement of the field strength at the output of the waveguide. Field enhancement factors greater than 20 are demonstrated and record-high field strengths of > 1.4 MV/cm are reached. We find an excellent agreement between the two independent methods of field measurement and a numerical 3D full...

    2. Chiral effective field theory for nuclear matter including long- and short-range multi-nucleon interactions

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Oller J.A.

      2010-04-01

      Full Text Available We review on a novel chiral power counting scheme for in-medium chiral perturbation theory with nucleons and pions as degrees of freedom. It allows for a systematic expansion taking into account local as well as pion-mediated inter-nucleon interactions. Based on this power counting, one can identify classes of nonperturbative diagrams that require a resummation. As a method for performing those resummations we review on the techniques of Unitary Chiral Pertubation Theory for nucleon-nucleon interactions. We then apply both power counting and non-perturbative methods to the example of calculating the pion self-energy in asymmetric nuclear matter up-to-and-including next-to-leading order. It is shown that the leading corrections involving in-medium nucleon-nucleon interactions cancel between each other at given chiral orders.

    3. Grassy field margins as potential corridors for butterflies in agricultural landscapes: A simulation study

      Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

      Delattre, T.; Pichancourt, J.- B.; Burel, F.; Kindlmann, Pavel

      2010-01-01

      Roč. 221, č. 2 (2010), s. 370-377 ISSN 0304-3800 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Connectivity * Grassland * Dispersal Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.769, year: 2010

    4. Dynamic Nuclear Polarization at low temperature and high magnetic eld for biomedical applications in Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Goutailler, Florent

      2011-01-01

      The aim of this thesis work was to design, build and optimize a large volume multi-samples DNP (Dynamic Nuclear Polarization) polarizer dedicated to Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging applications. The experimental system is made up of a high magnetic field magnet (3,35 T) in which takes place a cryogenic system with a pumped bath of liquid helium ("4He) allowing temperatures lower than 1,2 K. A set of inserts is used for the different steps of DNP: irradiation of the sample by a microwave field (f=94 GHz and P=50 mW), polarization measurement by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance... With this system, up to three samples of 1 mL volume can be polarized to a rate of few per-cents. The system has a long autonomy of four hours, so it can be used for polarizing molecules with a long time constant of polarization. Finally, the possibility to get quasi-simultaneously, after dissolution, several samples with a high rate of polarization opens the way of new applications in biomedical imaging. (author) [fr

    5. From Wasted Land to Megawatts: How to Convert Brownfi elds Into Solar Power Plants (the Case of the Czech Republic)

      Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

      Klusáček, Petr; Havlíček, M.; Dvořák, Petr; Kunc, Josef; Martinát, Stanislav; Petr, T.

      2014-01-01

      Roč. 62, č. 3 (2014), s. 517-528 ISSN 1211-8516 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TD020259 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : brownfields * solar energy * regeneration Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://dx.doi.org/10.11118/actaun201462030517

    6. The Autonomous Student: A Footnote.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Long, Jancis

      1987-01-01

      An argument that rationality is a learned behavior, rather than a natural facility, is developed vis-a-vis certain educational theories. The difficulties students face in maintaining a rational stance in an autonomous classroom are also discussed. (JL)

    7. Revolutionary Pressures and Social Movements in Nigeria: The ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      User

      2011-05-20

      May 20, 2011 ... of revolutionary pressures vis-a-vis social movements in Nigeria in general and the ... material conditions, the dynamic character of reality and the .... (EFCC) and the Independent Corrupt Practices Commission (I.C.P.C) are.

    8. Globalization and its Impact on Bangladesh Economy

      National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

      Rahman, Faizur

      2005-01-01

      ...), and the World Trade Organization (WTO) in setting the rules under which globalization is played, has placed developing countries in a much disadvantageous position vis-a-vis the developed countries...

    9. Utilization Pattern of Vancomycin in a University Teaching Hospital ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      HP

      vis a vis to the Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) guidelines and the ... effective against most Gram-positive bacteria ... Proper use of TDM procedures along ..... between antecedent vancomycin treatment and.

    10. challenges and prospects of the millennium development goals

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      MISS ANIETIE

      The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is one significant break through in development policy. ... objective of this paper is to justify the status of sustainable development in Nigeria vis-a-vis ..... sectors, particularly in health, education and.

    11. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SEPARATION AND SPECTRO ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Four different fractions having colours yellow, grey, orange and ... Two different dyes vis a vis: methylene blue and malachite green dyes have been separated .... hydrogen carbonate of alkaline and alkaline earth metals in the samples.

    12. Site safety requirements for high level waste disposal

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Chen Weiming; Wang Ju

      2006-01-01

      This paper outlines the content, status and trend of site safety requirements of International Atomic Energy Agency, America, France, Sweden, Finland and Japan. Site safety requirements are usually represented as advantageous vis-a-vis disadvantagous conditions, and potential advantage vis-a-vis disadvantage conditions, respectively in aspects of geohydrology, geochemistry, lithology, climate and human intrusion etc. Study framework and steps of site safety requirements for China are discussed under the view of systems science. (authors)

    13. AN IMAGE-BASED MODELING EXPERIENCE ABOUT SOCIAL FACILITIES, BUILT DURING THE FASCIST PERIOD IN MIDDLE ITALY

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      D. Rossi

      2012-09-01

      Full Text Available The main focus of this article is to explain a teaching activity. This experience follows a research aimed to testing innovative systems for formal and digital analysis of architectural building. In particular, the field of investigation is the analytical drawing. An analytical draw allows to develope an interpretative and similar models of reality; these models are built using photomodeling techniques and are designed to re-write modern and contemporary architecture. The typology of the buildings surveyed belong to a cultural period, called Modern Movement, historically placed between the two world wars. The Modern Movement aimed to renew existing architectural principle and to a functional redefinition of the same one. In Italy these principles arrived during the Fascist period. Heritage made up of public social buildings (case del Balilla, G.I.L., recreation center... built during the fascist period in middle Italy is remarkable for quantity and in many cases for architectural quality. This kind of buildings are composed using pure shapes: large cube (gyms alternate with long rectangular block containing offices creates compositions made of big volumes and high towers. These features are perfectly suited to the needs of a surveying process by photomodeling where the role of photography is central and where there is the need to identify certain and easily distinguishable points on all picture, leaning on the edges of the volume or lininig on the texture discontinuity. The goal is the documentation to preserve and to develop buildings and urban complexes of modern architecture, directed to encourage an artistic preservation.

    14. Evaluation of Imidacloprid-Treated Traps as an Attract and Kill System for Filth Flies During Contingency Settings

      Science.gov (United States)

      2013-04-01

      the metallic green histerid beetle (Saprinus sp.), which was likely attracted to the fermenting combina- tion of attractant and fl ies inside the...stable fl ies on dairy farms. J Agric Entomol. 1993;10:9-19. Geden CJ, Szumlas DE, Walker TW. Evaluation 6. of commercial and fi eld-expedient baited

    15. Sex during Pregnancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sex During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sex During Pregnancy ... satisfying and safe sexual relationship during pregnancy. Is Sex During Pregnancy Safe? Sex is considered safe during ...

    16. Back Pain During Pregnancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Back Pain During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs Back Pain During ... FAQ115, January 2016 PDF Format Back Pain During Pregnancy Pregnancy What causes back pain during pregnancy? How ...

    17. Human decidual stromal cells secrete soluble pro-apoptotic factors during decidualization in a cAMP-dependent manner.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Leno-Durán, E; Ruiz-Magaña, M J; Muñoz-Fernández, R; Requena, F; Olivares, E G; Ruiz-Ruiz, C

      2014-10-10

      Is there a relationship between decidualization and apoptosis of decidual stromal cells (DSC)? Decidualization triggers the secretion of soluble factors that induce apoptosis in DSC. The differentiation and apoptosis of DSC during decidualization of the receptive decidua are crucial processes for the controlled invasion of trophoblasts in normal pregnancy. Most DSC regress in a time-dependent manner, and their removal is important to provide space for the embryo to grow. However, the mechanism that controls DSC death is poorly understood. The apoptotic response of DSC was analyzed after exposure to different exogenous agents and during decidualization. The apoptotic potential of decidualized DSC supernatants and prolactin (PRL) was also evaluated. DSC lines were established from samples of decidua from first trimester pregnancies. Apoptosis was assayed by flow cytometry. PRL production, as a marker of decidualization, was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. DSCs were resistant to a variety of apoptosis-inducing substances. Nevertheless, DSC underwent apoptosis during decidualization in culture, with cAMP being essential for both apoptosis and differentiation. In addition, culture supernatants from decidualized DSC induced apoptosis in undifferentiated DSC, although paradoxically these supernatants decreased the spontaneous apoptosis of decidual lymphocytes. Exogenously added PRL did not induce apoptosis in DSC and an antibody that neutralized the PRL receptor did not decrease the apoptosis induced by supernatants. Further studies are needed to examine the involvement of other soluble factors secreted by decidualized DSC in the induction of apoptosis. The present results indicate that apoptosis of DSC occurs in parallel to differentiation, in response to decidualization signals, with soluble factors secreted by decidualized DSC being responsible for triggering cell death. These studies are relevant in the understanding of how the regression of decidua

    18. The Argentine Approach to Radiation Safety: Its Ethical Basis

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Gonzalez, A.J.

      2011-01-01

      The ethical bases of Argentina's radiation safety approach are reviewed. The applied principles are those recommended and established internationally, namely: the principle of justification of decisions that alters the radiation exposure situation; the principle of optimization of protection and safety; the principle of individual protection for restricting possible inequitable outcomes of optimized safety; and the implicit principle of inter generational prudence for protection future generations and the habitat. The principles are compared vis-a-vis the prevalent ethical doctrines: justification vis-a-vis teleology; optimization vis-a-vis utilitarianism; individual protection vis-a-vis de ontology; and, inter generational prudence vis-a-vis aretaicism (or virtuosity). The application of the principles and their ethics in Argentina is analysed. These principles are applied to All exposure to radiation harm; namely, to exposures to actual doses and to exposures to actual risk and potential doses, including those related to the safety of nuclear installations, and they are harmonized and applied in conjunction. It is concluded that building a bridge among all available ethical doctrines and applying it to radiation safety against actual doses and actual risk and potential doses is at the roots of the successful nuclear regulatory experience in Argentina.

    19. Effect of diet composition on acid-base balance in adolescents, young adults and elderly at rest and during exercise.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hietavala, E-M; Stout, J R; Hulmi, J J; Suominen, H; Pitkänen, H; Puurtinen, R; Selänne, H; Kainulainen, H; Mero, A A

      2015-03-01

      Diets rich in animal protein and cereal grains and deficient in vegetables and fruits may cause low-grade metabolic acidosis, which may impact exercise and health. We hypothesized that (1) a normal-protein diet with high amount of vegetables and fruits (HV) induces more alkaline acid-base balance compared with a high-protein diet with no vegetables and fruits (HP) and (2) diet composition has a greater impact on acid-base balance in the elderly (ELD). In all, 12-15 (adolescents (ADO)), 25-35 (young adults (YAD)) and 60-75 (ELD)-year-old male and female subjects (n=88) followed a 7-day HV and a 7-day HP in a randomized order and at the end performed incremental cycle ergometer tests. We investigated the effect of diet composition and age on capillary (c-pH) and urine pH (u-pH), strong ion difference (SID), partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) and total concentration of weak acids (Atot). Linear regression analysis was used to examine the contribution of SID, pCO2 and Atot to c-pH. In YAD and ELD, c-pH (P⩽0.038) and u-pH (Pdiet-induced acid-base changes.

    20. Relative efficiencies of the Burkard 7-Day, Rotorod and Burkard Personal samplers for Poaceae and Urticaceae pollen under field conditions

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

      2014-01-01

      Introduction: In aerobiological studies it is often necessary to compare concentration data recorded with different models of sampling instrument. Sampler efficiency typically varies from device to device, and depends on the target aerosol and local atmospheric conditions. To account for these di...

    1. Türkiye’de Yetiştirilen bazı Soya Varyetelerinden Elde Edilen Soya Sütlerinin Amino Asit Profilinin Belirlenmesi

      OpenAIRE

      Artık, Nevzat

      1989-01-01

      Bu araştırmada Türkiye’de yetiştirilen 5 farklı soya varyetesinden üretilen soya sütlerinin amino asit profilleri incelenmiştir. Ayrıca Japon soya varyetesi amino asit bileşimi ile karşılaştırma yapılmıştır. Soya sütlerinde esansiyel amino asitler yüksek düzeyde bulunmuştur. Esansiyel amino asit miktarı tüm soya varyetelerinde 4.125, 4.922 (mg/g) sınırları içinde değişmektedir. Bu özelliği ile soya sütü insan beslenmesinde önemli bir gıda maddesidir.  

    2. Türkiye’de Yetiştirilen bazı Soya Varyetelerinden Elde Edilen Soya Sütlerinin Amino Asit Profilinin Belirlenmesi

      OpenAIRE

      Nevzat Artık

      2015-01-01

      Bu araştırmada Türkiye’de yetiştirilen 5 farklı soya varyetesinden üretilen soya sütlerinin amino asit profilleri incelenmiştir. Ayrıca Japon soya varyetesi amino asit bileşimi ile karşılaştırma yapılmıştır. Soya sütlerinde esansiyel amino asitler yüksek düzeyde bulunmuştur. Esansiyel amino asit miktarı tüm soya varyetelerinde 4.125, 4.922 (mg/g) sınırları içinde değişmektedir. Bu özelliği ile soya sütü insan beslenmesinde önemli bir gıda maddesidir.

    3. Time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent eld theory: Formulation and application to laser-driven many-electron dynamics

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Miyagi, Haruhide; Madsen, Lars Bojer

      We have developed a new theoretical framework for time-dependent many-electron problems named time-dependent restricted-active-space self-consistent field (TD-RASSCF) theory. The theory generalizes the multicongurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) theory by truncating the expansion...

    4. Türkiye’de Yetiştirilen bazı Soya Varyetelerinden Elde Edilen Soya Sütlerinin Amino Asit Profilinin Belirlenmesi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Nevzat Artık

      2015-02-01

      Full Text Available Bu araştırmada Türkiye’de yetiştirilen 5 farklı soya varyetesinden üretilen soya sütlerinin amino asit profilleri incelenmiştir. Ayrıca Japon soya varyetesi amino asit bileşimi ile karşılaştırma yapılmıştır. Soya sütlerinde esansiyel amino asitler yüksek düzeyde bulunmuştur. Esansiyel amino asit miktarı tüm soya varyetelerinde 4.125, 4.922 (mg/g sınırları içinde değişmektedir. Bu özelliği ile soya sütü insan beslenmesinde önemli bir gıda maddesidir.

    5. CASPER plus (CollAborative care in Screen-Positive EldeRs with major depressive disorder): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Overend, Karen; Lewis, Helen; Bailey, Della; Bosanquet, Kate; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Ekers, David; Gascoyne, Samantha; Hems, Deborah; Holmes, John; Keding, Ada; McMillan, Dean; Meer, Shaista; Meredith, Jodi; Mitchell, Natasha; Nutbrown, Sarah; Parrott, Steve; Richards, David; Traviss, Gemma; Trépel, Dominic; Woodhouse, Rebecca; Gilbody, Simon

      2014-11-19

      Depression accounts for the greatest disease burden of all mental health disorders, contributes heavily to healthcare costs, and by 2020 is set to become the second largest cause of global disability. Although 10% to 16% of people aged 65 years and over are likely to experience depressive symptoms, the condition is under-diagnosed and often inadequately treated in primary care. Later-life depression is associated with chronic illness and disability, cognitive impairment and social isolation. With a progressively ageing population it becomes increasingly important to refine strategies to identity and manage depression in older people. Currently, management may be limited to the prescription of antidepressants where there may be poor concordance; older people may lack awareness of psychosocial interventions and general practitioners may neglect to offer this treatment option. CASPER Plus is a multi-centre, randomised controlled trial of a collaborative care intervention for individuals aged 65 years and over experiencing moderate to severe depression. Selected practices in the North of England identify potentially eligible patients and invite them to participate in the study. A diagnostic interview is carried out and participants with major depressive disorder are randomised to either collaborative care or usual care. The recruitment target is 450 participants. The intervention, behavioural activation and medication management in a collaborative care framework, has been adapted to meet the complex needs of older people. It is delivered over eight to 10 weekly sessions by a case manager liaising with general practitioners. The trial aims to evaluate the clinical and cost effectiveness of collaborative care in addition to usual GP care versus usual GP care alone. The primary clinical outcome, depression severity, will be measured with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) at baseline, 4, 12 and 18 months. Cost effectiveness analysis will assess health-related quality of life using the SF-12 and EQ-5D and will examine cost-consequences of collaborative care. A qualitative process evaluation will be undertaken to explore acceptability, gauge the extent to which the intervention is implemented and to explore sustainability beyond the clinical trial. Results will add to existing evidence and a positive outcome may lead to the commissioning of this model of service in primary care. ISRCTN45842879 (24 July 2012).

    6. Sabit Odaklı Silindirik Parabolik Bir Yoğunlaştırıcıda Kızgın Su Elde Edilmesi

      OpenAIRE

      Halıcı, Fethi

      2018-01-01

      Bu çalışn1ada, odağı sabit yansıtıcısı ha reketli olarak imal edilen silindirik parabolik yoğunlaştırıcıda (SPY) kızgın su ve sıcak su için yapılan deney sonuçları ve pe rfoımans değerleri verilmiştir. (SPY) 'nın yansıtıcı yüzeyi 2ınx3 m boyutlarında olup toplam açıklık alanı 6 ın2 dir. Odaktaki yut ucu yüzey yan yana yerleştirilen 2 kanatlı borudan imal edilmiştir. Odak uzaklığı 6 m olan (SPY) kuzey güney doğrultusu nda yerleştirilerek özel yapılan bir ınekanizma ile güneşi doğu batı do...

    7. «VI ER ALDRI SYKE, DERFOR HOLDER VI OSS FRISKE OG ELDES IKKE». KNUT HAMSUN OG PAULINE FRA POLDEN I ET HELSEMESSIG PERSPEKTIV

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Wenche Torrissen

      2016-04-01

      Full Text Available Can we learn anything about well-being and what it is that constitutes the ‘mystery’ of health by reading Knut Hamsun’s novels? This article argues that Knut Hamsun in his description of the character Pauline Andreassen in the August trilogy (1927–1933, illustrates central elements of what modern radical philosophers (Ivan Illich, Hans-Georg Gadamer, and Aaron Antonovsky understand about good health and well-being, namely: the ability to adapt to a society, the ability to establish a life based on one’s own interests and possibilities, and the ability to cope with different emotional losses and challenges in life. This article also gives a brief introduction to Hamsun’s harsh criticism of bio-medical institutions and the way they tend to medicalize society. As a contribution to the health/humanities debates, this article also investigates how the humanities can enhance our knowledge and understanding of health and well-being.

    8. Working group report: Cosmology and astroparticle physics

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      This is the report of the cosmology and astroparticle physics working group at ... discussions carried out during the workshop on selected topics in the above fields. ... Theoretical Physics Division, Physical Research Laboratory, Navrangpura, ...

    9. Converting Military Airfields to Civil Airports

      National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

      2005-01-01

      .... It was determined during the reuse planning process that many of these former air elds could be a primary engine for attracting new businesses, creating new jobs, and expanding the local economy...

    10. Weight Gain during Pregnancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Global Map Premature Birth Report Cards Careers Archives Pregnancy Before or between pregnancies Nutrition, weight & fitness Prenatal ... fitness > Weight gain during pregnancy Weight gain during pregnancy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ...

    11. Sleeping during Pregnancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Sleeping During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Sleeping During Pregnancy What's in ...

    12. Nutrition during Pregnancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... meals during pregnancy? The United States Department of Agriculture has made it easier to plan meals during ... of folic acid daily to help prevent major birth defects of the fetal brain and spine called ...

    13. Medical Care during Pregnancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... for Educators Search English Español Medical Care During Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Medical Care During Pregnancy What's ... and their babies. What Is Prenatal Care Before Pregnancy? Prenatal care should start before you get pregnant. ...

    14. Effects of Current Forward Market Intervention in the Korean Currency Crisis

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Woosik Moon

      2001-06-01

      Full Text Available This paper investigates the effect of the exchange market interventions of the Bank of Korea on the exchange rate of Korean won vis-a-vis US dollar during the 1997 currency crisis. In particular, this paper tests the effects of spot and forward market interventions, using daily intervention data of the Bank of Korea. During the 1997 period, Korea faced two series of crisis in January-March and September-November. It turns out that the spot market intervention was effective in stabilizing the spot market exchange rate at least during the first crisis period. In contrast, there seemed no effect of the forward market intervention. Forward market intervention was rather destabilizing through forward exchange rate during the second crisis period. This implies that even though the forward and sterilized spot market interventions are equivalent in their effect on exchange rate, these two instruments can widely diverge from each other under the circumstances of exchange rate volatility and speculation.

    15. 18-year variability of ultraviolet radiation penetration in the mid-latitude coastal waters of the western boundary Pacific

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kuwahara, Victor S.; Nozaki, Sena; Nakano, Junji; Toda, Tatsuki; Kikuchi, Tomohiko; Taguchi, Satoru

      2015-07-01

      The 18-year time-series shows in situ ultraviolet radiation (UVR) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) diffuse attenuation coefficient Kd(λ) have recurrent seasonal variability of high/low attenuation during summer/winter months, respectively, dependent on variability in water column stratification and concentrations of bio-optical properties. The mid-latitude coastal survey station displayed significant seasonality of the mixed layer depth (MLD) between 12 and 82 m which modified the distribution of chlorophyll a (4.6-24.9 mg m-2) and absorption of colored dissolved organic matter [aCDOM(320 nm) 0.043-1.34 m-1]. The median Kd(320 nm) displayed significant seasonality at 0.19-0.74 m-1 (C.V. = 44.1%) and seasonal variability within the euphotic layer [Z10%(320 nm) = 7-20%]. High attenuation of UVR with relatively moderate attenuation of PAR was consistently observed during the summer months when increased concentrations of terrestrially derived CDOM coupled with a shallow MLD were present. The winter season showed the opposite of low UVR and PAR attenuation due to a relatively deeper MLD coupled with low concentrations of bio-optical properties. Although the long term Kd(λ) did not vary significantly during the time-series, analysis of the interannual variability suggests there are positive and negative phases following the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) vis-a-vis variability in bio-optical properties (p < 0.001).

    16. Nutrition during lactation

      National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

      Committee on Nutritional Status During Pregnancy and Lactation, Institute of Medicine

      On the basis of a comprehensive literature review and analysis, Nutrition During Lactation points out specific directions for needed research in understanding the relationship between the nutrition...

    17. Acetaminophen use during pregnancy

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Rebordosa, Cristina; Kogevinas, Manolis; Horváth-Puhó, Erzsébet

      2008-01-01

      information on acetaminophen use during the first trimester of pregnancy. We used the National Hospital Registry to identify 3784 (4.3%) children from the cohort diagnosed with 5847 congenital abnormalities. RESULTS: Children exposed to acetaminophen during the first trimester of pregnancy (n = 26,424) did...

    18. Skin Conditions during Pregnancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... during pregnancy. For most skin changes, however, health care providers are not sure of the exact cause. Why do dark spots and patches appear on the skin during pregnancy? Dark spots and patches are caused by an increase in the body’s melanin—a natural substance that gives color to the skin and ...

    19. Bleeding during Pregnancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... in pregnancy? • What problems with the placenta can cause bleeding during pregnancy? • Can bleeding be a sign of preterm labor? • ... the hospital. What problems with the placenta can cause bleeding during pregnancy? Several problems with the placenta later in pregnancy ...

    20. Petróleo, desarrollo y paz Oil, development and peace

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Martínez O. Astrid

      1999-06-01

      Full Text Available Este articulo analiza los planteamientos del Gobierno Nacional sobre politica petrolera. La relacion entre el petroleo y los temas de desarrollo y la paz se exploran con base en la lectura de los pronunciamientos de la guerrilla y los grupos sociales sobre el manejo de los hidrocarburos en Colombia vis a vis los pronunciamientos gubernamentales.This article analyzes the proposals of the National Government concerning oil policy. The relation ship between oil and topics of development and peace are explored based on a reading of the pronouncements of the guerrillas and of social groups about the management of hydrocarbons en Colombia vis a vis governmental pronouncements.

    1. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of the European Community for air - deposition - water - milk - 1977

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      1979-01-01

      The present document is the seventeenth report published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities concerning ambient radioactivity. It was drawn up using the data collected by the stations responsible for environmental radioactivity monitoring in the Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission in application of Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The results presented in this report deal with radioactive contamination of the air, precipitation and fallout, surface water and milk during 1977 in the nine Member States of the European Community, viz. Belgium, Denmark, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Italy, Ireland, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The report also contains supplementary data on short-lived radioelements detected during the fourth quarter of 1977, the list of sampling stations and laboratories together With a list of publications by Member States in this field. This report places special emphasis on the measurement results for specific radionuclides, but it also contains data on total beta activity so as to ensure continuity vis-a-vis previous reports and provide comparative values

    2. Review of In-Service Inspection and Repair Technique Developments for French Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Baque, F.

      2005-01-01

      In-service monitoring of nuclear plants is indispensable for both the Operator and the Regulator. The notion of in-service monitoring ranges from the continuous monitoring of the reactor in operation to the thorough in-service reactor inspection during programmed shutdowns. However, the highly specific environment found in French liquid metal fast reactor plants - Phenix and Superphenix - makes monitoring and inspection complicated because of the use of a sodium coolant that is hot, opaque, and difficult to drain.The Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique, in collaboration with its traditional French partners, Electricite de France utilities and FRAMATOME/Novatome Engineering, decided to conduct a 6-yr research and development program (1994-2000) to explore this problem vis-a-vis Superphenix, as well as the possibilities of intervening within the reactor block or on components in a sodium environment. Furthermore, the safety reevaluation of Phenix, conducted between 1994 and 2003, represented an excellent 'test bench' during which the limits of inspection processes - applied to an integrated reactor concept - were surpassed using techniques such as fuel subassembly head scanning, ultrasonic examination of the core support, and visual inspection of the cover-gas plenum following a partial sodium draining. Repair techniques were investigated for cleaning of sodium wet structure surfaces, cutting of damaged parts, and welding in sodium aerosol atmosphere. Both conventional and laser processes were tested

    3. Treating Psoriasis During Pregnancy

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Bangsgaard, Nannie; Rørbye, Christina; Skov, Lone

      2015-01-01

      Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a well-documented negative effect on the quality of life of affected patients. Psoriasis often occurs in the reproductive years, during which the issue of pregnancy needs to be addressed. The course of psoriasis during pregnancy is unpredictable......, and many patients face the challenge of needing treatment during pregnancy. In this review we provide an overview of the key considerations for managing psoriasis in pregnant women, covering the potential effects of active psoriasis and co-morbid conditions on the health of the mother and fetus, as well...

    4. Cancer during Pregnancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Older Adults Prevention and Healthy Living Cancer.Net Videos Coping With Cancer Research and Advocacy Survivorship Blog About Us You are here Home > Navigating Cancer Care > Dating, Sex, and Reproduction > Cancer During Pregnancy Request Permissions Cancer ...

    5. Travel during Pregnancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... 36 weeks of pregnancy. Some domestic airlines restrict travel completely or require a medical certificate during the last month of pregnancy. For international flights, the cutoff point often is earlier, sometimes as early as 28 ...

    6. Laryngoscopy during swimming

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Walsted, Emil S; Swanton, Laura L; van van Someren, Ken

      2017-01-01

      that precipitates their symptoms. This report provides the first description of the feasibility of performing continuous laryngoscopy during exercise in a swimming environment. The report describes the methodology and safety of the use of continuous laryngoscopy while swimming. Laryngoscope, 2017....

    7. Managing Conflict during Divorce

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... Join AAMFT Approved Supervisors My Account Benefits Managing Conflict During Divorce Ending a marriage or a long- ... themselves in the middle of confusing and overwhelming conflict. When children are involved, finding ways to manage ...

    8. Working during cancer treatment

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000834.htm Working during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Many people continue to work throughout their cancer treatment. Cancer, or the side effects of treatment, may ...

    9. Cardiovascular control during exercise

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Dela, Flemming; Mohr, Thomas; Jensen, Christina M R

      2003-01-01

      We studied the role of the central nervous system, neural feedback from contracting skeletal muscles, and sympathetic activity to the heart in the control of heart rate and blood pressure during 2 levels of dynamic exercise....

    10. Muscle glycogenolysis during exercise

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Richter, Erik; Ruderman, N B; Gavras, H

      1982-01-01

      glycogenolysis during exercise: contractions principally stimulate glycogenolysis early in exercise, and a direct effect of epinephrine on muscle is needed for continued glycogenolysis. In addition, epinephrine increased oxygen consumption and glucose uptake in both resting and electrically stimulated...

    11. Melanoma during pregnancy

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      de Haan, Jorine; Lok, Christianne A; de Groot, Christianne J M

      2017-01-01

      The management of melanoma during pregnancy is challenging as maternal benefits and fetal risks need to be balanced. Here, we present an overview of the incidence, the demographic and clinical characteristics and the treatment modalities used. After analysis of obstetric, fetal and maternal outcome......, recommendations for clinical practice are provided. From the 'International Network on Cancer, Infertility and Pregnancy' database, pregnant patients with melanoma were identified and analysed. Sixty pregnancies were eligible for analysis. Fifty percent of the patients presented with advanced melanoma during...... pregnancy (14 stage III and 16 stage IV), and 27% were diagnosed with recurrent melanoma. Surgery was the main therapeutic strategy during pregnancy. Only four patients with advanced melanoma were treated during pregnancy with systemic therapy (n=1) or radiotherapy (n=3). Premature delivery was observed...

    12. Smoking during Pregnancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... it safe to use e-cigarettes during pregnancy? Electronic cigarettes (also called e-cigarettes or e-cigs) ... this day, throw away all your cigarettes or cigars, lighters and ashtrays. Ask your partner or a ...

    13. Effect of Azolla feeding on the growth, feed conversion ratio, blood biochemical attributes and immune competence traits of growing turkeys.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Shukla, Mayank; Bhattacharyya, Amitav; Shukla, Pankaj Kumar; Roy, Debashis; Yadav, Brijesh; Sirohi, Rajneesh

      2018-04-01

      In the recent past,few studies have been carried out in chicken to assess the effect of Azolla meal and raw Azolla feeding on the performance of chicken. If turkeys effectively use unconventional feedstuffs like Azolla without reducing the performance, it will increase the profitability of turkey business. Hence, a study was carried out to evaluate the effect of dried Azolla pinnata vis-a-vis raw Azolla as choice feeding on the growth, feed conversion ratio (FCR), blood biochemical attributes, and immune competence traits of growing turkeys under intensive system. A total of 72, 8-week-old grower turkey poults of black variety were randomly distributed into three dietary treatments having three replicates each with eight birds. The birds of the control group (T1) were fed a basal diet (CP - 19.71% and ME - 2789.79 Kcal/kg), while the other group (T2) and choice-feeding group (T3) were fed 5% of basal diet replaced by dry Azolla powder on DM basis and ad libitumAzolla along with basal diet, respectively. There was no significant difference among the different groups in the average weekly weight gain during the entire experiment. FCR was significantly better (pdiet may improve FCR without any adverse effect on blood biochemical attributes and immune competence traits.

    14. Relationships between radon anomalies and seismic parameters in N-W Himalaya, India

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Walia, Vivek; Virk, H.S.; Bajwa, B.S.; Sharma, Navjeet

      2003-01-01

      Radon data accumulated during 1992-1999 in the grid (30-34 deg. N, 74-78 deg. E) in N-W Himalaya have been anlaysed vis a vis seismic data recorded in the same area, supplied by Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) network. In general, there is a positive correlation between the total radon emission and the microseismicity in the area under investigation. The earthquake magnitude has moderate positive correlation with epicentral distance and low positive correlation with amplitude of radon precursory signal, whereas both show low negative correlation between them. Empirical scaling relations are proposed using the best fit straight line from the log-linear graphs between magnitude of the events and log of the product of amplitude of radon anomaly and epicentral distance. The error between the recorded and calculated magnitude is also taken into account. The error range is higher at lower epicentral distances and magnitudes, showing that the local geology and tectonics have predominant influence on radon signals

    15. Benzene monitoring at CPPI service stations

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Davis, C.S.

      1996-01-01

      A study was conducted in which ambient airborne concentration levels of benzene were measured at a representative set of gasoline service stations in Toronto and Vancouver. Benzene is considered to be toxic under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA). It is a component in gasoline (0.1 to 4.7 per cent by volume) and is present in vehicle evaporative and exhaust emissions. Measurements were made every 18 days at each station for one year. The objective of the study was to assess the ambient and employee exposure levels of benzene at service stations and to determine whether the levels were typical of those published in the literature. In a 1986 PACE (Petroleum Association for Conservation of the Canadian Environment) survey of exposure to gasoline hydrocarbon vapours at Canadian service stations, airborne benzene concentration data was inconsistent with similar ambient and personal exposure data in the international literature. It was concluded that both the mean ambient benzene concentration and the personal exposure level measurements in this study were generally lower than similar measurements made in other countries. The same observation was made with respect to ambient and personal exposure levels measured in this study vis-a-vis those measured during the PACE study conducted in 1985/86. . 31 refs., 24 tabs., 5 figs

    16. Everyday Attention and Lecture Retention: The Effects of Time, Fidgeting, and Mind Wandering

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      James eFarley

      2013-09-01

      Full Text Available We have all had our thoughts wander from the immediate task at hand. The emerging embodied cognition literature emphasizes the role that the body plays in human thought, and raises the possibility that changes in attentional focus may be associated with changes in body behaviour. Recent research has found that when individuals view a lecture, mind wandering increases as a function of time. In the present study we asked whether this decline in attention during lecture viewing was associated with fidgeting. Participants were filmed while they watched a 40-minute lecture video, and at regular 5 minute intervals provided ratings of their attentiveness. Following the lecture, participant's memory for the material was assessed. Fidgeting behaviour was coded from video recordings of each session. Results indicated that attention to, and retention of, lecture material declined as a function of time on task. Critically, and as predicted, fidgeting also increased with time on task. We also found that the relation between fidgeting and retention was significant even when the role of attention was factored into the equation, suggesting that fidgeting makes a unique contribution to retention of lecture material over and above that contributed by an individual’s attention. We propose a novel non-attentional stress-based account of fidgeting and how this impacts retention for lecture material over and above changes in levels in mind wandering vis-a-vis changes in attention.

    17. Risky business : outlook for financing petrochemical projects in Asia

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Miyachi, M.

      1998-01-01

      The impact of the Asian economic crisis on the petrochemical industry was discussed. From 1985 to 1995 East Asian currencies that were pegged to the US dollar experienced a 40 per cent depreciation against other major currencies, such as the Japanese yen. This resulted in strong exports which stimulated rapid economic growth rates. However, during 1995-1997, the US dollar rebounded, appreciating by 20 per cent. For countries such as Indonesia, Thailand and Korea, the sharp appreciation of their US dollar-linked currencies effectively reversed their export advantage vis-a-vis China and Japan, and led to massive devaluation of their currencies. Tightening of the Japanese fiscal policy by increasing taxes produced disastrous results, leading to a drastic reduction in consumer demand. The solution, it was suggested, lies in loosening Japanese fiscal policy and stabilizing the Yen-Dollar rate. Another solution suggested was decisive action to strengthen the Japanese banking system. Despite the current difficulties, it was concluded that the future outlook for the Asian petrochemical market is bright and that steady economic growth can be expected in the long term. It was suggested that the main factor that will determine how quickly East Asian economies recover will be how quickly the Japanese economy emerges from recession. 6 figs

    18. La relazione banca-impresa e la trasmissione degli impulsi della politica monetaria

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      C. CONIGLIANI

      2013-10-01

      Full Text Available The work analyses the bank-firm relationship in Italy, in order to verify its impact on the behaviour of banks towards customers and the effects on the transmission of monetary policy impulses. The authors single out a sub-group of borrowers whose dependence upon banks seems to be particularly close and examine banks’ behaviour towards this subgroup vis-a-vis other groups of firms. The analysis differs from previous empirical research in that a wider sample of non-financial firms is used, a stability index is employed among the explanatory variables, and the importance of customer relationships is tested with reference to the response of interest rates applied by banks during Italy’s sever episode of monetary restriction in 1992. Specifically, the work looks at the relation between the closeness of bank-firm relations and the probability of being rationed, the multiple borrowing of firms and the possibility that the recent consolidation of the banking system is bound to determine a strengthening in customer relationships.   JEL Codes: G21Keywords: Bank-firm relations, Italian credit market, interest rates

    19. Results of environmental radioactivity measurements in the Member States of the European Community for air - deposition - water - milk. 1981

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      1983-01-01

      This is the 21st report on ambient radioactivity published by the Health and Safety Directorate of the Commission of the European Communities. It was drawn up using the data collected by stations responsible for environmental radioactivity monitoring in Member States. The results are extracts from the data sent to the Commission under Article 36 of the Treaty of Rome establishing the European Atomic Energy Community. The results presented in this report deal with radioactivity of the air, deposition, surface water and milk during 1981 in the ten Member States of the European Community, viz. Belgium, Denmark, Federal Republic of Germany, Greece, France, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. The results are presented under four main headings: artificial radioactivity in the air at ground level; artificial radioactivity in deposition; radioactivity of water; radioactivity of milk. The report also contains the list of sampling stations and laboratories, together with a list of publications by Member States in this field. This report places special emphasis on the measurement results for specific radionuclides, but it also contains data on total beta activity so as to ensure continuity vis-a-vis previous and provide comparative values

    20. The fragility of the Brazilian Defense Ministry

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jorge Zaverucha

      2006-01-01

      Full Text Available The present article presents different phases that the Brazilian Defense Ministry has passed through, since its inception during Fernando Henrique Cardoso's second presidential term (1999-2002 until the current administration of Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2006, under its respective ministers of Defense. It has been seen as one of the important stages in the re-constitutionalization of the country, insofar as it establishes the submission of Armed Forces commanders to a civilian minister, and although some analysts have considered that such submission is actually achieved, we point here to the military resistance and insubordination to civil power that are the result of an authoritarian legacy. To the extent that the Ministry of Defense is unable to implement its own policies in which the military would be required to follow civilian guidance, this article concludes with considerations on the civil Defense Ministry's political and institutional fragility vis-a-vis military command. The latter has been able to retain high levels of decision making autonomy in its relationship to the Ministry and its structure.

    1. Luminosity Optimization for a Higher-Energy LHC

      CERN Document Server

      Dominguez, O

      2011-01-01

      A Higher-Energy Large Hadron Collider (HE-LHC) is an option to further push the energy frontier of particle physics beyond the present LHC. A beam energy of 16.5 TeV would require 20 T dipole magnets in the existing LHC tunnel, which should be compared with 7 TeV and 8.33 T for the nominal LHC. Since the synchrotron radiation power increases with the fourth power of the energy, radiation damping becomes significant for the HE-LHC. It calls for transverse and longitudinal emittance control vis-a-vis beam-beam interaction and Landau damping. The heat load from synchrotron radiation, gas scattering, and electron cloud also increases with respect to the LHC. In this paper we discuss the proposed HE-LHC beam parameters; the time evolution of luminosity, beam-beam tune shifts, and emittances during an HE-LHC store; the expected heat load; and luminosity optimization schemes for both round and flat beams.

    2. Radioactive Scrap Metal (RSM) recycling: A doe white paper

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Chatterjee, S.; Moore, H.H.; Ghoshal, A.

      1992-01-01

      An effective White Paper on recycling radioactive scrap metals has been drafted at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recently. The paper has received the praise and commendation of the DOE's Director of Environmental Management. However, obstructionist posturing by the petty bureaucrats in DOE continues to plague the meaningful implementation of RSM recycling. The key findings of the White Paper study and its major recommendations have discussed in this paper. The study indicates that several technologies, such as melt refining and electro refining, are currently available for surface and volume decontamination of metals. The unit cost of decontamination was found to vary from $700 to $400/ton; recycling of most low-contaminated metals can therefore be cost-effective vis-a vis the average cost of low-level radioactive wastes disposal of %400 to $2800/ton. Major recycling demonstration projects with emphasis on restricted RSM reuse options have been recommended. Volume contamination standard for unrestricted release should be established only after adequate studies of health effects and scientific/industrial effects of RSM reuse has been conducted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Some of the significant technical data developed during this study have also been briefly discussed in this paper. (author)

    3. Optimal level of Au nanoparticles on Pd nanostructures providing remarkable electro-catalysis in direct ethanol fuel cell

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dutta, Abhijit; Mondal, Achintya; Broekmann, Peter; Datta, Jayati

      2017-09-01

      The designing and fabrication of economically viable electro-catalysts for ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR) in direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) has been one of the challenging issues over the decades. The present work deals with controlled synthesis of Pd coupled Au nano structure, as the non Pt group of catalysts for DEFC. The catalytic proficiency of bimetallic NPs (2-10 nm) are found to be strongly dependent on the Pd:Au ratio. The over voltage of EOR is considerably reduced by ∼260 mV with 33% of Au content in PdAu composition compared to Pd alone, demonstrating the beneficial role of Au and/or its surface oxides providing oxygen species at much lower potentials compared to Pd. The catalysts are further subjected to electrochemical analysis through voltammetry along with the temperature study on activation parameters. The quantitative determination of EOR products during the electrolysis is carried out by ion chromatographic analysis; vis-a-vis the coulombic efficiency of the product yield were derived from each of the compositions. Furthermore, a strong correlation among catalytic performances and bimetallic composition is established by screening the catalysts in an in-house fabricated direct ethanol anion exchange membrane fuel cell, DE(AEM)FC. The performance testing demonstrates outstanding increase of peak power density (∼40 mWcm-2, 93%) for the best accomplishment Au (33%) covered Pd (67%) catalyst in comparison with the monometallic Pd.

    4. Post-2012 climate change agreement - Fitting commitments by cities. Political, economic, technical and legal aspects

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Lefevre, B.; Wemaere, M.

      2009-01-01

      There is a growing awareness of the crucial role that urban territories must and can play in reducing greenhouse gas emissions, along with a growing power of a lobby dedicated to supporting the voices of urban territories vis-a-vis national states. The local level of organization and policy is relevant for two main reasons: density and spatial organization are key factors that influence energy consumption in transport and building; some of the major potentials for emission abatement need local coordination to overcome transaction costs. 'Engage, Empower and Resource': this formula, forged during the C40 Seoul Summit (May 2009), calls for clear and quantified commitments with a timetable for delivery; additional power and competencies for cities to increase their capacity to act; and substantial financial resources. Road-Map: This paper identifies key elements that need to be taken into account when developing a road-map that seeks empowerment of local governments in the UN post-2012 framework. It explores political, economic, technical and legal aspects, along with respective main issues to be addressed. (authors)

    5. Surface structure and properties of functionalized nanodiamonds: a first-principles study

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Datta, Aditi; Kirca, Mesut; Fu Yao; To, Albert C

      2011-01-01

      The goal of this work is to gain fundamental understanding of the surface and internal structure of functionalized detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) using quantum mechanics based density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The unique structure of ND assists in the binding of different functional groups to its surface which in turn facilitates binding with drug molecules. The ability to comprehensively model the surface properties, as well as drug-ND interactions during functionalization, is a challenge and is the problem of our interest. First, the structure of NDs of technologically relevant size (∼5 nm) was optimized using classical mechanics based molecular mechanics simulations. Quantum mechanics based density functional theory (DFT) was then employed to analyse the properties of smaller relevant parts of the optimized cluster further to address the effect of functionalization on the stability of the cluster and reactivity at its surface. It is found that functionalization is preferred over reconstruction at the (100) surface and promotes graphitization in the (111) surface for NDs functionalized with the carbonyl oxygen (C = O) group. It is also seen that the edges of ND are the preferred sites for functionalization with the carboxyl group (-COOH) vis-a-vis the corners of ND.

    6. Armour materials for the ITER plasma facing components

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Barabash, V.; Federici, G.; Matera, R.; Raffray, A.R.

      1999-01-01

      The selection of the armour materials for the plasma facing components (PFCs) of the international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER) is a trade-off between multiple requirements derived from the unique features of a burning fusion plasma environment. The factors that affect the selection come primarily from the requirements of plasma performance (e.g., minimise impurity contamination in the confined plasma), engineering integrity, component lifetime (e.g., withstand thermal stresses, acceptable erosion, etc.) and safety (minimise tritium and radioactive dust inventories). The current selection in ITER is to use beryllium on the first-wall, upper baffle and on the port limiter surfaces, carbon fibre composites near the strike points of the divertor vertical target and tungsten elsewhere in the divertor and lower baffle modules. This paper provides the background for this selection vis-a-vis the operating parameters expected during normal and off-normal conditions. The reasons for the selection of the specific grades of armour materials are also described. The effects of the neutron irradiation on the properties of Be, W and carbon fibre composites at the expected ITER conditions are briefly reviewed. Critical issues are discussed together with the necessary future R and D. (orig.)

    7. Does the Sustainability of Food Products Influence Consumer Choices? The Case of Italy

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Alessandro Banterle

      2013-10-01

      Full Text Available In this paper we analyse if there is a diffused interest among consumers about the environmental impacts of their food choices, and try to capture the different types of attitudes of Italian consumers with respect to environmental sustainability of food products. The analysis builds on a survey based on vis-a-vis interviews with 240 consumers in Milan, and on a cluster analysis. The results highlight a high level of stated concern about environmental issues and about possible impacts of personal food consumption choices on the environment. Nevertheless, when investigating their actions during everyday shopping we have identified four groups of consumers: (1 those who take into consideration the environmental information on labels and do not require additional information; (2 those for which environmental information on labels does not have a great effect on purchase, but would like to receive more information; (3 those for which the presence of environmental information directs product selection and would also like to receive more; (4 those that do not take into account environmental issues when purchasing and are not interested in receiving more information about the impacts of the products.

    8. Surface structure and properties of functionalized nanodiamonds: a first-principles study

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Datta, Aditi; Kirca, Mesut; Fu Yao; To, Albert C, E-mail: albertto@pitt.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science and Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)

      2011-02-11

      The goal of this work is to gain fundamental understanding of the surface and internal structure of functionalized detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) using quantum mechanics based density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The unique structure of ND assists in the binding of different functional groups to its surface which in turn facilitates binding with drug molecules. The ability to comprehensively model the surface properties, as well as drug-ND interactions during functionalization, is a challenge and is the problem of our interest. First, the structure of NDs of technologically relevant size ({approx}5 nm) was optimized using classical mechanics based molecular mechanics simulations. Quantum mechanics based density functional theory (DFT) was then employed to analyse the properties of smaller relevant parts of the optimized cluster further to address the effect of functionalization on the stability of the cluster and reactivity at its surface. It is found that functionalization is preferred over reconstruction at the (100) surface and promotes graphitization in the (111) surface for NDs functionalized with the carbonyl oxygen (C = O) group. It is also seen that the edges of ND are the preferred sites for functionalization with the carboxyl group (-COOH) vis-a-vis the corners of ND.

    9. Development and evaluation of one step single tube multiplex RT-PCR for rapid detection and typing of dengue viruses

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Parida Manmohan

      2008-01-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue is emerging as a major public health concern in many parts of the world. The development of a one-step, single tube, rapid, and multiplex reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (M-RT-PCR for simultaneous detection and typing of dengue virus using serotype specific primers during acute phase of illness is reported. Results An optimal assay condition with zero background was established having no cross-reaction with closely related members of flavivirus (Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Yellow fever and alphavirus (Chikungunya. The feasibility of M-RT-PCR assay for clinical diagnosis was validated with 620 acute phase dengue patient sera samples of recent epidemics in India. The comparative evaluation vis a vis conventional virus isolation revealed higher sensitivity. None of the forty healthy serum samples screened in the present study revealed any amplification, thereby establishing specificity of the reported assay for dengue virus only. Conclusion These findings clearly suggested that M-RT-PCR assay reported in the present study is the rapid and cost-effective method for simultaneous detection as well as typing of the dengue virus in acute phase patient serum samples. Thus, the M-RT-PCR assay developed in this study will serve as a very useful tool for rapid diagnosis and typing of dengue infections in endemic areas.

    10. Infective Endocarditis during Pregnancy

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Yuan, S.

      2015-01-01

      Objective: Infective Endocarditis (IE) during pregnancy is a rare but grave condition. The diagnosis and management can be challenging, especially when the pregnant patient warrants a cardiac operation under cardiopulmonary bypass. The present article describes IE during pregnancy based on a series of published case reports in the literature. IE during pregnancy often causes embolic events and mycotic aneurysms. Two-thirds of IE in the pregnant patients requires timely or urgent cardiac surgery to alleviate patients deterioration. At least a 3-week antibiotic therapy is mandatory before cardiac surgery aiming at improving the patients. Conditions. During cardiac surgery, fetal heart rates may temporarily be slowed down but may gradually recover to normal after the operation. The fetal and maternal mortalities were 16.7% and 3.3%, respectively. The fetal deaths were apparently associated with a cardiac surgery during early pregnancy. Cardiopulmonary bypass, hypothermia and rewarming can adversely affect both the mother and the fetus by triggering placental deficits, fetal hypoxia and uterine contraction. Avoidance of cardiac operations before 24th gestation week and preferably deferred until after 28th gestation week have been a plausible argument as per the possible fetal deaths related to immaturity. (author)

    11. RHYTHM DISTURBANCES DURING COLONOSCOPY

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      D. Jordanov

      2012-08-01

      Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess the risk of inducing rhythm disturbances of the heart during colonoscopy.Patients and methods used: 80 patients had undergone colonoscopyper formed by two experienced specialists of endoscopy for the period from March to December 2011. The endoscopies were performed without premedication and sedation. Holter was placed on each patient one hour before the endoscopic examination, and the record continued one hour after the manipulation. The blood pressure was measured before, during and after the procedure.Results: During colonoscopy 25 patients (31,25% manifested rhythm disorders. In 15 patients (18,75% sinus tachycardia occurred. In 7 patients (8,75% suptraventricular extra systoles were observed and in 3 patients (3,75% - ventricular extra systoles. No ST-T changes were found. Highest values of the blood pressure were measured before and during the endoscopy, but the values did not exceed 160/105 mmHg. In 10 patients (12,5% a hypotensive reaction was observed, bur the values were not lower than 80/ 50. In 2 patients there was a short bradycardia with a heart frequency 50-55 /min.Conclusions: Our results showed that the rhythm disorders during lower colonoscopy occur in approximately 1/3 of the examined patients, there is an increase or decrease of the blood pressure in some patients, but that doesn’t require physician’s aid and the examination can be carried out safely without monitoring.

    12. Needle phobia during pregnancy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Searing, Kimberly; Baukus, Mary; Stark, Mary Ann; Morin, Karen H; Rudell, Barb

      2006-01-01

      The objective of this study was to understand the experience of a pregnant woman with needle phobia and examine its impact on her antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum experience. A case study format was employed. A 21-year-old primiparous woman with diagnosed needle phobia was interviewed, and her prenatal and delivery records were reviewed. Three tasks during pregnancy were identified: seeking trusting relationships with health care providers; establishing and maintaining control and understanding; and coping with fear of needles, pain, and invasion. As frequent caregivers during childbearing, nurses with an understanding of needle phobia can help to establish trusting relationships with women with this phobia and support them and their families during childbearing and their encounters with needles. (c) 2006, AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses

    13. Fat utilization during exercise

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Helge, Jørn Wulff; Watt, Peter W.; Richter, Erik

      2001-01-01

      1. This study was carried out to test the hypothesis that the greater fat oxidation observed during exercise after adaptation to a high-fat diet is due to an increased uptake of fat originating from the bloodstream. 2. Of 13 male untrained subjects, seven consumed a fat-rich diet (62 % fat, 21...... % carbohydrate) and six consumed a carbohydrate-rich diet (20 % fat, 65 % carbohydrate). After 7 weeks of training and diet, 60 min of bicycle exercise was performed at 68 +/- 1 % of maximum oxygen uptake. During exercise [1-(13)C]palmitate was infused, arterial and venous femoral blood samples were collected......, and blood flow was determined by the thermodilution technique. Muscle biopsy samples were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. 3. During exercise, the respiratory exchange ratio was significantly lower in subjects consuming the fat-rich diet (0.86 +/- 0.01, mean +/- S.E.M.) than...

    14. Food choices during Ramadan

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Thamina Rashid

      2017-03-01

      Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the dietary Practices of people with diabetes during Ramadan (1. A sub study of Ramadan prospective diabetes study (2 which was conducted at the outpatient department of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and endocrinology, Karachi Pakistan in 2009 analyzed the food choices of patients with diabetes during Ramadan. Several irregularities regarding dietary intake and food choices were noted among the study participants. Although, the patients were counseled regarding diet before Ramadan, many did not follow the dietary advice. All patients had taken food at Iftar but majority of them preferred fried items like samosas, pakoras (fried snack, chicken rolls etc. these deeply fried items can lead to post Iftar hyperglycemia. Patients were also opted for fruit chat, dahibara and chanachaat at Iftar, higher load of these items can also worsen glycemic control. The striking finding was almost absence of meat (protein intake at Iftar but study from India showed increment of all three macronutrients during Ramadan (3. This may result in higher intake of items from carbohydrate and fat groups resulting in hyperglycemia after iftar. Intake of vegetables at Iftar was also negligible and hence the diet was not well balanced. The food choices at sahoor included roti, paratha (fried bread, slices, khajla, pheni, meat, egg and milk. Though it is advisable to take complex carbohydrates, protein and fat at sahoor as these are slowly digestible and can prevent hypoglycemia during fasting but khajla pheni are extremely rich in fat and carbohydrate content and should be avoided (4. However, paratha in 2 teaspoon of oil can be taken at sahoor.Patients with diabetes who fast during the month of Ramadan should have pre Ramadan dietary guidance and counseling session in order to modify their food preferences and choices during the holy month of Ramadan (4.

    15. [Thyroid disorders during pregnancy].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gärtner, R

      2009-01-01

      Thyroid disorders may not only be the cause infertility but also increases the incidence of miscarriages and the morbidity of the pregnancies. During pregnancy the demand of thyroid hormones increases to about 30 - 50 % and the thyroid has to cope with this increase. In Germany the iodine intake has improved significantly during the last 20 years, but still is borderline low with an mean intake of about 120 microg iodide per day. Therefore it is still recommended that pregnant women are supplemented with about 100 - 150 microg of iodide during pregnancy and the time of breast-feeding, to avoid hypothyroidism of the foetus with concomitant delay of the brain development. Not only women with subclinical hypothyroidism, but only elevated TPO antibodies have a significant increase in early miscarriage and preterm delivery. An early supplementation with Levothyroxin despite euthyroidism might reduce these risks. Those women also more frequently develop postpartum thyroiditis. This risk can be reduced by a supplementation with selenium during and after pregnancy. Graves' disease is a rare disorder and only about 0,1 - 0,4 pregnancies are affected. The course of the disease is biphasic, with an exacerbation within the first trimester and an improvement thereafter, but a recurrence after delivery. Overt thyrotoxicosis has to be treated with propylthiouracil, to maintain euthyroidism during pregnancy. The TSH receptor antibodies are transferred to the foetus with the risk of thyrotoxicosis. Special care of the foetus is therefore necessary. Transient mild hyperthyroidism may occur in women with very high HCG levels during the first three months of pregnancy. This often is associated with hyperemesis gravidarum. Subclinical hypothyroidism of the mother will disturb the normal development of the foetus and therefore has to be treated even when TSH is within the upper normal level. Special care is necessary in women with elevated TPO antibodies, because these more often

    16. Sexual activity during pregnancy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Staruch, Monika; Kucharczyk, Aleksandra; Zawadzka, Katarzyna; Wielgos, Miroslaw; Szymusik, Iwona

      2016-01-01

      Pregnancy is usually associated with significant regression in genito-genital intercourse frequency, sexual desire and satisfaction. The aim of the study was to determine women's sexual habits during the third trimester of gestation and to compare their sexual activity before the current pregnancy and during previous pregnancies in case of multiparas. The study material consisted of women in the third trimester of pregnancy, recruited from the Outpatient Clinic of the 1st Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Medical University of Warsaw between January 2013 and February 2014, who filled out a self-prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: demographic data, sexual activity prior to current pregnancy and during gestation, including sexual positions and sources of knowledge regarding the subject. The survey involved 25 questions and was distributed among 220 patients, out of which 165 were returned and 149 properly filled out and analyzed. The average age of the respondents was 29.6 ± 4.85 years; the majority (78.8%) were in an uncomplicated pregnancy. The decrease in sexual activity was evident in all age groups--the majority usually had sex 1 to 3 times a month in contrast to 1-2 times a week prior to conceiving. Sexual activity decreased significantly with increasing age. The main reasons for abandoning sexual activity included: decreased libido (35.5%), the doctor's suggestion (29%) and fears concerning child's health (29%). During pregnancy the frequency of vaginal intercourse significantly decreased (100% prior to vs. 86.6% during pregnancy; p < 0.001); as did oral sex (44.3% vs. 29.5%; p = 0.043) and anal sex (12% vs. 5.4%; p = 0.02). 54% of the respondents declared reduced satisfaction with sexual life during pregnancy in comparison with the previous period; almost half (43.5%) felt less attractive while pregnant. The same claim was related to libido--it decreased in 58.8% of respondents. Multiparas tended to have sexual

    17. Danish Towns during Absolutism

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      This anthology, No. 4 in the Danish Urban Studies Series, presents in English recent significant research on Denmark's urban development during the Age of Absolutism, 1660-1848, and features 13 articles written by leading Danish urban historians. The years of Absolutism were marked by a general...

    18. Eating right during pregnancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... chap 6. West EH, Hark L, Catalano PM. Nutrition during pregnancy. In: Gabbe SG, Niebyl JR, Simpson JL, et ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Pregnancy and Nutrition Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

    19. Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Mulder, W. J.; Berghout, A.; Wiersinga, W. M.

      1990-01-01

      Two cases of Cushing's syndrome during pregnancy are reported, both due to an adrenal adenoma. The association of pregnancy and Cushing's syndrome has up to now been described in 48 patients (including our two cases); Cushing's syndrome was ACTH-independent in 59%, ACTH-dependent in 33%, and of

    20. Knotty Problems during Mitosis

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Sarlós, Kata; Biebricher, Andreas; Petermann, Erwin J G

      2018-01-01

      and binucleation. This, in turn, compromises genome integrity, which is a hallmark of cancer. UFBs are actively removed during anaphase, and most known UFB-associated proteins are enzymes involved in DNA repair in interphase. However, little is known about the mitotic activities of these enzymes or the exact DNA...

    1. Methaemoglobinaemia during Holi festival.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zaki, S A; Jadhav, A; Chandane, P

      2009-09-01

      We report eight children who developed methaemoglobinaemia after exposure to contaminated colours used during Holi, a traditional festival celebrated in India. Methaemoglobinaemia can be life-threatening, but outcome is good if treated in time with intravenous methylene blue. Physicians might encounter such cases after exposure to Holi colours and hence should be aware of this life-threatening but easily treatable complication.

    2. Distortion Control during Welding

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Akbari Pazooki, A.M.

      2014-01-01

      The local material expansion and contraction involved in welding result in permanent deformations or instability i.e., welding distortion. Considerable efforts have been made in controlling welding distortion prior to, during or after welding. Thermal Tensioning (TT) describes a group of in-situ

    3. Cytomegalovirus Hepatitis During Pregnancy

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ying Chan

      1995-01-01

      Full Text Available Background: Although cytomegalovirus (CMV is an uncommon cause of viral hepatitis during pregnancy, a definitive diagnosis is important because of the potential for congenital CMV. In the case reported here, a diagnosis of hepatitis caused by CMV was made after the more common viral pathogens had been ruled out.

    4. DPHPE activities during 1977

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      1978-06-01

      This annual report gives a short summary of experiments in progress and of approved proposals of experiments to be performed by the Elementary Particle Physics Department of Saclay, and also publication lists and informations about the Department activities during 1977 [fr

    5. DPHPE activities during 1978

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      1979-08-01

      This annual report gives a short summary of experiments in progress and of approved proposals of experiments to be performed by the Elementary Particle Physics Department of Saclay, and also publication lists and informations about the Department activities during 1978 [fr

    6. Eating during Pregnancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... to Avoid While Pregnant No level of alcohol consumption is considered safe during pregnancy. Also, check with your doctor before you take ... than canned light tuna, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ... tuna consumption is limited. It can be confusing when recommendations ...

    7. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Rortveit, Guri; Bø, Kari; Hunskaar, Steinar

      2007-04-01

      To investigate incidence and prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy and associated risk factors. The data collection was conducted as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We present questionnaire data about urinary incontinence obtained from 43,279 women (response rate 45%) by week 30. We report data on any incontinence, in addition to type, frequency, and amount of incontinence. Potential risk factors were investigated by logistic regression analyses. The prevalence of incontinence increased from 26% before pregnancy to 58% in week 30. The corresponding figures for nulliparous women were 15% and 48%, and for parous women 35% and 67%. The cumulative incidence was 46%. Stress urinary incontinence was the most common type of incontinence in week 30 of pregnancy, experienced by 31% of nulliparous and 42% of parous women. The majority of pregnant women had leakage less than once per week and droplets only, both before and during pregnancy. Parity was a strong and significant risk factor for incontinence in adjusted analyses both before pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.4-2.7 for primiparous and OR 3.3, 95% CI 3.1-3.5 for multiparous women) and during pregnancy (ORs 2.0, 95% CI 1.9-2.1 and 2.1, 95% CI 2.0-2.2, respectively). Age and body mass index were weaker, but still statistically significant, risk factors. The prevalence of urinary incontinence increases substantially during pregnancy. Incontinence both before and during pregnancy seems to be associated with parity, age, and body mass index. II.

    8. Diabetes insipidus during pregnancy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ananthakrishnan, Sonia

      2016-03-01

      Diabetes insipidus (DI) in pregnancy is a heterogeneous syndrome, most classically presenting with polyuria and polydipsia that can complicate approximately 1 in 30,000 pregnancies. The presentation can involve exacerbation of central or nephrogenic DI during pregnancy, which may have been either overt or subclinical prior to pregnancy. Women without preexisting DI can also be affected by the actions of placental vasopressinase which increases in activity between the 4th and 38th weeks of gestation, leading to accelerated metabolism of AVP and causing a transient form of DI of pregnancy. This type of DI may be associated with certain complications during pregnancy and delivery, such as preeclampsia. Management of DI of pregnancy depends on the pathophysiology of the disease; forms of DI that lack AVP can be treated with desmopressin (DDAVP), while forms of DI that involve resistance to AVP require evaluation of the underlying causes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    9. [Binocular coordination during reading].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bassou, L; Granié, M; Pugh, A K; Morucci, J P

      1992-01-01

      Is there an effect on binocular coordination during reading of oculomotor imbalance (heterophoria, strabismus and inadequate convergence) and of functional lateral characteristics (eye preference and perceptually privileged visual laterality)? Recordings of the binocular eye-movements of ten-year-old children show that oculomotor imbalances occur most often among children whose left visual perceptual channel is privileged, and that these subjects can present optomotor dissociation and manifest lack of motor coordination. Close binocular motor coordination is far from being the norm in reading. The faster reader displays saccades of differing spatial amplitude and the slower reader an oculomotor hyperactivity, especially during fixations. The recording of binocular movements in reading appears to be an excellent means of diagnosing difficulties related to visual laterality and to problems associated with oculomotor imbalance.

    10. Cardiopulmonary Collapse during Labour

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Vasilis Sitras

      2010-01-01

      Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary collapse during labour is a catastrophic event caused by various medical, surgical and obstetrical conditions. It is an emergency that threatens the life of the mother and her unborn child. We present a case of a pregnant woman who suffered from preeclampsia and underwent induction of labour. Severe lung edema occurred early in labour that caused cardiopulmonary collapse. Advanced heart-lung resuscitation was established immediately and continued until an emergency cesarean section was performed few minutes later. The outcome was favourable for both mother and child. We further discuss some aspects of the pathophysiology and appropriate treatment of cardiorespiratory arrest during labour, which involves the coordinated action of the obstetric, pediatric and surgical ward personnel.

    11. Trajetories during AGASP

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Harris, J.M.

      1984-01-01

      Atmospheric trajectories were calculated for various Arctic locations for March and April 1983, during the Arctic Gas and Aerosol Sampling Program (AGASP). Ten-day back trajectories arriving twice daily were calculated on the 850-, 700-, and 500-mb isobaric surfaces. During AGASP flights 1-4, trajectories arriving at Barrow show that flow was over the pole from western Asia and Europe, and that the strongest winds and least vertical wind shear on March 14 at 0000 UT. Surface aerosols and optical depth measured at this time at Barrow reflect a significant haze episode. Trajectories arriving along the flight tracks north of Barrow were frequently very different from those arriving at Barrow, indicating that source areas were in northeast Asia. Trajectories arriving along AGASP flight track 8 near Svalbard showed that the source area changed dramatically in the approximate location of an Arctic aerosol/haze front

    12. Subacute Thyroiditis During Pregnancy

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      CANAN YILDIZ

      2017-03-01

      Full Text Available In this article, we present a case of subacute thyroiditis occurring in the first trimester of pregnancy in a 33-years-old pregnant patient. Thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy is a rare condition and occurs in 0.1 to 0.4% of all pregnancies. Graves' Disease and transient gestational thyrotoxicosis constitute the majority of emerging thyrotoxicosis during pregnancy. Subacute thyroiditis may also cause temporary thyrotoxicosis. Although the majority of the patients recover without treatment, complications in the pregnancy should be considered and each patient must be evaluated individually. As a result, differential diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy and treatment plan should be done well and subacute thyroiditis should be considered in differential diagnosis. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(1.000: 1-1

    13. Physical Activity During School

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Østergaard, Lars Domino

      It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

    14. Urinary incontinence during pregnancy

      OpenAIRE

      Wesnes, Stian Langeland; Rørtveit, Guri; Bø, Kari; Hunskår, Steinar

      2007-01-01

      Objectives: To investigate incidence and prevalence of urinary incontinence during pregnancy, and associated risk factors.Method: The data collection was conducted as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health. We present questionnaire data about urinary incontinence obtained from 43,279 women (response rate 45%) by week 30. We report data on any incontinence in addition to type, frequency and amount of incontinence. Po...

    15. Meat spoilage during distribution.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nychas, George-John E; Skandamis, Panos N; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Koutsoumanis, Konstantinos P

      2008-01-01

      Meat spoilage during distribution can be considered as an ecological phenomenon that encompasses the changes of the available substrata (e.g., low molecular compounds), during the prevailing of a particular microbial association, the so-called specific spoilage organisms (SSO). In fact, spoilage of meat depends on an even smaller fraction of SSO, called ephemeral spoilage organisms (ESO). These ESO are the consequence of factors that dynamically persist or imposed during, e.g., processing, transportation and storage in the market. Meanwhile spoilage is a subjective judgment by the consumer, which may be influenced by cultural and economic considerations and background as well as by the sensory acuity of the individual and the intensity of the change. Indeed, when spoilage progresses, most consumers would agree that gross discoloration, strong off-odors, and the development of slime would constitute the main qualitative criteria for meat rejection. On the other hand, meat industry needs rapid analytical methods or tools for quantification of these indicators to determine the type of processing needed for their raw material and to predict remaining shelf life of their products. The need of an objective evaluation of meat spoilage is of great importance. The use of metabolomics as a potential tool for the evaluation of meat spoilage can be of great importance. The microbial association of meat should be monitored in parallel with the estimation of changes occurring in the production and/or assimilation of certain compounds would allow us to evaluate spoilage found or produced during the storage of meat under different temperatures as well as packaging conditions.

    16. Dislocation damping during irradiation

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Burdett, C.F.; Rahmatalla, H.

      1977-01-01

      The results of Simpson et al (Simpson, H.M., Sosin, A., Johnston, D.F., Phys.Rev. B, 5:1393 (1972)) on the damping produced during electron irradiation of copper are re-examined and it is shown that they can be explained in terms of the model of Granato and Lucke (Granato, A., Lucke, K., J.Appl.Phys., 27:583,789 (1958)). (author)

    17. Quality during construction

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Rogers, C.B.

      1977-01-01

      This paper outlines the quality assurance program used by Bechtel Corp. in constructing Nuclear Power Plants. As a tool for scheduling and visualizing situations during construction, power plant scale models are used. The use of models, preplanning, detail scheduling, and early development of procedures and inspection plans, have all contributed to a lower cost integrated quality program. Quality control and quality assurance are built in, thus satisfying the regulatory requirements

    18. Iron homeostasis during pregnancy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fisher, Allison L; Nemeth, Elizabeta

      2017-12-01

      During pregnancy, iron needs to increase substantially to support fetoplacental development and maternal adaptation to pregnancy. To meet these iron requirements, both dietary iron absorption and the mobilization of iron from stores increase, a mechanism that is in large part dependent on the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. In healthy human pregnancies, maternal hepcidin concentrations are suppressed in the second and third trimesters, thereby facilitating an increased supply of iron into the circulation. The mechanism of maternal hepcidin suppression in pregnancy is unknown, but hepcidin regulation by the known stimuli (i.e., iron, erythropoietic activity, and inflammation) appears to be preserved during pregnancy. Inappropriately increased maternal hepcidin during pregnancy can compromise the iron availability for placental transfer and impair the efficacy of iron supplementation. The role of fetal hepcidin in the regulation of placental iron transfer still remains to be characterized. This review summarizes the current understanding and addresses the gaps in knowledge about gestational changes in hematologic and iron variables and regulatory aspects of maternal, fetal, and placental iron homeostasis. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

    19. Anticancer drugs during pregnancy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Miyamoto, Shingo; Yamada, Manabu; Kasai, Yasuyo; Miyauchi, Akito; Andoh, Kazumichi

      2016-09-01

      Although cancer diagnoses during pregnancy are rare, they have been increasing with the rise in maternal age and are now a topic of international concern. In some cases, the administration of chemotherapy is unavoidable, though there is a relative paucity of evidence regarding the administration of anticancer drugs during pregnancy. As more cases have gradually accumulated and further research has been conducted, we are beginning to elucidate the appropriate timing for the administration of chemotherapy, the regimens that can be administered with relative safety, various drug options and the effects of these drugs on both the mother and fetus. However, new challenges have arisen, such as the effects of novel anticancer drugs and the desire to bear children during chemotherapy. In this review, we outline the effects of administering cytotoxic anticancer drugs and molecular targeted drugs to pregnant women on both the mother and fetus, as well as the issues regarding patients who desire to bear children while being treated with anticancer drugs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

    20. Viral diseases affecting chickpea crops in Eritrea

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      SAFAA G. KUMARI

      2008-07-01

      Full Text Available A survey to identify virus diseases affecting chickpea crops in the major production areas of Eritrea was conducted during November 2005. The survey covered 31 randomly selected chickpea fi elds. Virus disease incidence was determined on the basis of laboratory testing of 100–200 randomly collected samples from each fi eld against antisera of 9 legume viruses. Serological tests indicated that the Luteoviruses were the most common, with an overall incidence of 5.6%, followed by Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV, genus Nanovirus, family Nanoviridae (4.1% and Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV, genus Mastrevirus, family Geminiviridae (0.9%. The reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR test showed that the most common luteoviruses in Eritrea are Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV followed by Beet western yellows virus (BWYV, genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Based on the fi eld symptoms observed, 29 fi elds had, at the time of the survey, a virus disease incidence of 1% or less and only two fi elds had an incidence of about 5%, whereas on the basis of laboratory testing, 19 fi elds had more than 6% virus incidence (three of these had an incidence of 29.5, 34.5 and 40.5%. This is the fi rst survey of chickpea viruses in Eritrea and the fi rst report of BWYV, CpCDV, CpCSV and FBNYV naturally infecting chickpea in Eritrea.

    1. Atmospheric Pressure During Landing

      Science.gov (United States)

      1997-01-01

      This figure shows the variation with time of pressure (dots) measured by the Pathfinder MET instrument during the landing period shown in image PIA00797. The two diamonds indicate the times of bridal cutting and 1st impact. The overall trend in the data is of pressure increasing with time. This is almost certainly due to the lander rolling downhill by roughly 10 m. The spacing of the horizontal dotted lines indicates the pressure change expected from 10 m changes in altitude. Bounces may also be visible in the data.

    2. [Hormonal changes during relaxation].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gallois, P; Forzy, G; Dhont, J L

      1984-01-01

      Among 10 subjects who practiced autogenic training (AT) and 10 subjects who practiced transcendental meditation (TM), compared to 10 control subjects during 40 minutes, have been observed the following results: --decrease in cortisol plasma level (reaching a minima of 2 g/100 ml), --decrease in prolactin plasma level, --the basal plasma level of cortisol and prolactin were significantly lower in the TM group. Lastly, the urinary catecholamines (UC) increase after 40 minutes of rest in the control group, whereas the UC decrease in the TA group and most certainly in the TM group. All these variations indicate a humoral modification which seems to be the opposite of the state induced by stress.

    3. Perforations during contrast enema

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Vogel, H.; Steinkamp, U.; Grabbe, E.; Allgemeines Krankenhaus Ochsenzoll, Hamburg

      1983-01-01

      During contrast enema, perforation into the retroperitoneal space can be differentiated from perforation into the peritoneum and perforation into the intestinal wall associated with formation of barium granulomas or submucosal spreading of the contrast medium. Other special forms are perforation with contrast medium embolism of diverticula; of the processus vermiformis; penetration of contrast medium into fistulous systems and from the operated areas. Risk factors are: balloon catheter, intestinal tubes with a hard tip, preternatural anus, excessive enema pressure, contrast medium additions, preceding manipulations, intestinal diseases, advanced age and delegation of manipulations to assistants and unskilled staff. Children are particularly at risk. (orig.) [de

    4. Electives during Medical Internship

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Al-Sultan, Ali I.; Parashar, Shyam K; Al-Ghamdi, Abulmohsin A.

      2003-01-01

      The purpose of study was to find out the reasons for selecting elective rotations during a rotating medical internship.One hundred and seventy-eight medical interns in the College of Medicine, King Faisal University,Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period March 2001 to August 2002 completed a questionnaire for their selection reasons with responses on a scale of 1-5.The study comprised 60% males and 98.3% Saudis. The most frequently chosen elective is Dermatology 28.1% ,radiology 20.8%, anesthesia 9.6% and otorhinolaryngology (ear, nose and throat [ENT]) 9%. Significantly, more males (89.2%) chose radiology rotation and more females (75%) chose ENT rotation.The leading reasons to choose an elective rotations are;1, to gain broad medical training and education,2, to assist in choice of future speciality and,3, being relevant to future speciality .The mean score for ENT and dermatology is higher than radiology and anesthesia for the response to participate in medical practice in different institute , while dermatology is higher than anesthesia for response to help for getting aceptance for job in the same instituteand radiology is higher than ENT and anesthesia for the response i t has infrequent or no night duties . The reason chosen reflect the educational value of electives and their important role in choosing future career. Dermatology and radiology rotations are most popular electives ,with additional and though different reasons. (author)

    5. Asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sheiner, Eyal; Mazor-Drey, Efrat; Levy, Amalia

      2009-05-01

      The present study was aimed to test the association between asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy, among patients in whom antibiotic treatment was recommended, and perinatal outcome. Our study was also designed to characterize common bacteria and risk factors associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy. A retrospective population-based study comparing all singleton pregnancies of women with and asymptomatic bacteriuria was conducted. Patients with urinary tract infection were excluded from the analysis. Multiple logistic regression model was used to control for confounders. Out of 199,093 deliveries, 2.5% (n = 4890) were in patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria. E. coli was the most common pathogen associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria, representing 78.6% of the cultures with specified growth. Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria were more likely to deliver preterm (PTD, 13.3%vs. 7.6%, odd ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval CI 1.7-2.0; P Asymptomatic bacteriuria was independently associated with PTD (adjusted OR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.5-1.7; P treatments, hypertensive disorders, recurrent abortions, diabetes mellitus, intrauterine growth restriction, polyhydramnion and oligohydramnion, premature rupture of membranes and labour induction, in a multivariable analysis with backwards elimination. Perinatal mortality rates (1.5%vs. 1.4%; P = 0.707) as well as low 5 min Apgar scores (0.8%vs. 0.6%; P = 0.065) were comparable between the groups. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is an independent risk factor for preterm delivery.

    6. Managing prolactinoma during pregnancy

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Maziar Azar

      2010-06-01

      Full Text Available Objective:Prolactinomas are the most common pituitary tumors in pregnant women. We conducted this study on pregnant women with prolactinoma to determine their clinical symptoms and signs and eventual necessity to medical therapy.Materials and methods:A descriptive study was performed on 85 pregnant women with prolactinoma.Patients were followed up by physical examination, imaging, and perimetry for diagnosis of visual field defect. If tumor was increased in size perimetry was performedin order to determine eventual visual field defect (VFD. Patients with progressive visual field defect had absolute indication for trans sphenoidal surgery (TSS.In other cases with progressive enlargement of adenoma size but without VFD bromocriptine was administered. Patients without increasing adenoma size were just followed up.Results:In this study 72 patients (84% had microadenomas, 7 patients (8% had macroadenomas without previous medical or surgical therapy and 6 patients (7% had macroadenomas with previous medical therapy with bromocriptine. Totally 20 patients (23 % had tumor enlargement during pregnancy and was symptomatic in 7 patients (8.2%. There was significant difference between 3 groups according to incidence of symptomatic tumor enlargement.(p<0.05Conclusion:Macroprolactinomas are more likely to enlarge during pregnancy than microprolactinomas. In our study conservative management was successfully done in all patients without surgery or medical therapy.

    7. Cardiac output during exercise

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.

      2015-01-01

      Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported...... a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0...

    8. Oral health during pregnancy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Silk, Hugh; Douglass, Alan B; Douglass, Joanna M; Silk, Laura

      2008-04-15

      Oral health care in pregnancy is often avoided and misunderstood by physicians, dentists, and patients. Evidence-based practice guidelines are still being developed. Research suggests that some prenatal oral conditions may have adverse consequences for the child. Periodontitis is associated with preterm birth and low birth weight, and high levels of cariogenic bacteria in mothers can lead to increased dental caries in the infant. Other oral lesions, such as gingivitis and pregnancy tumors, are benign and require only reassurance and monitoring. Every pregnant woman should be screened for oral risks, counseled on proper oral hygiene, and referred for dental treatment when necessary. Dental procedures such as diagnostic radiography, periodontal treatment, restorations, and extractions are safe and are best performed during the second trimester. Xylitol and chlorhexidine may be used as adjuvant therapy for high-risk mothers in the early postpartum period to reduce transmission of cariogenic bacteria to their infants. Appropriate dental care and prevention during pregnancy may reduce poor prenatal outcomes and decrease infant caries.

    9. Surface segregation during irradiation

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Rehn, L.E.; Lam, N.Q.

      1985-10-01

      Gibbsian adsorption is known to alter the surface composition of many alloys. During irradiation, four additional processes that affect the near-surface alloy composition become operative: preferential sputtering, displacement mixing, radiation-enhanced diffusion and radiation-induced segregation. Because of the mutual competition of these five processes, near-surface compositional changes in an irradiation environment can be extremely complex. Although ion-beam induced surface compositional changes were noted as long as fifty years ago, it is only during the past several years that individual mechanisms have been clearly identified. In this paper, a simple physical description of each of the processes is given, and selected examples of recent important progress are discussed. With the notable exception of preferential sputtering, it is shown that a reasonable qualitative understanding of the relative contributions from the individual processes under various irradiation conditions has been attained. However, considerably more effort will be required before a quantitative, predictive capability can be achieved. 29 refs., 8 figs

    10. Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bouyou, J; Gaujoux, S; Marcellin, L; Leconte, M; Goffinet, F; Chapron, C; Dousset, B

      2015-12-01

      Abdominal emergencies during pregnancy (excluding obstetrical emergencies) occur in one out of 500-700 pregnancies and may involve gastrointestinal, gynecologic, urologic, vascular and traumatic etiologies; surgery is necessary in 0.2-2% of cases. Since these emergencies are relatively rare, patients should be referred to specialized centers where surgical, obstetrical and neonatal cares are available, particularly because surgical intervention increases the risk of premature labor. Clinical presentations may be atypical and misleading because of pregnancy-associated anatomical and physiologic alterations, which often result in diagnostic uncertainty and therapeutic delay with increased risks of maternal and infant morbidity. The most common abdominal emergencies are acute appendicitis (best treated by laparoscopic appendectomy), acute calculous cholecystitis (best treated by laparoscopic cholecystectomy from the first trimester through the early part of the third trimester) and intestinal obstruction (where medical treatment is the first-line approach, just as in the non-pregnant patient). Acute pancreatitis is rare, usually resulting from trans-ampullary passage of gallstones; it usually resolves with medical treatment but an elevated risk of recurrent episodes justifies laparoscopic cholecystectomy in the 2nd trimester and endoscopic sphincterotomy in the 3rd trimester. The aim of the present work is to review pregnancy-induced anatomical and physiological modifications, to describe the main abdominal emergencies during pregnancy, their specific features and their diagnostic and therapeutic management. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

    11. [Thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Díez, Juan J; Iglesias, Pedro; Donnay, Sergio

      2015-10-21

      Recent clinical practice guidelines on thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy have changed health care provided to pregnant women, although their recommendations are under constant revision. Trimester- and area-specific reference ranges for serum thyroid-stimulating hormone are required for proper diagnosis of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. There is no doubt on the need of therapy for overt hypothyroidism, while therapy for subclinical hypothyroidism is controversial. Further research is needed to settle adverse effects of isolated hypothyroxinemia and thyroid autoimmunity. Differentiation between hyperthyroidism due to Graves' disease and the usually self-limited gestational transient thyrotoxicosis is critical. It is also important to recognize risk factors for postpartum thyroiditis. Supplementation with iodine is recommended to maintain adequate iodine nutrition during pregnancy and avoid serious consequences in offspring. Controversy remains about universal screening for thyroid disease during pregnancy or case-finding in high-risk women. Opinions of some scientific societies and recent cost-benefit studies favour universal screening. Randomized controlled studies currently under development should reduce the uncertainties that still remain in this area. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

    12. EXERCISE DURING PREGNANCY

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Zrna Agačević

      2011-03-01

      Full Text Available Exercise has become a vital part of many women's lives. However, theoretic concerns have been raised about the safety of some forms of exercise during pregnancy. Because of the physiologic changes associated with pregnancy, as well as the hemodynamic response to exercise, some precautions should be observed. The physician should screen for any contraindications to exercise and encourage patients to avoid overly vigorous activity, especially in the third trimester, when most pregnant women have a decreased tolerance for weight-bearing exercise. Adequate hydration and appropriate ventilation are important in preventing the possible teratogenic effects of overheating. Pregnant women should avoid exercise that involves the risk of abdominal trauma, falls or excessive joint stress, as in contact sports and vigorous racquet sports. In the absence of any obstetric or medical complications, most women can maintain a regular exercise regimen during pregnancy. Some studies have found a greater sense of well-being, shorter labor and fewer obstetric interventions in physically wellconditioned women as compared with other women.

    13. Fault lubrication during earthquakes.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Di Toro, G; Han, R; Hirose, T; De Paola, N; Nielsen, S; Mizoguchi, K; Ferri, F; Cocco, M; Shimamoto, T

      2011-03-24

      The determination of rock friction at seismic slip rates (about 1 m s(-1)) is of paramount importance in earthquake mechanics, as fault friction controls the stress drop, the mechanical work and the frictional heat generated during slip. Given the difficulty in determining friction by seismological methods, elucidating constraints are derived from experimental studies. Here we review a large set of published and unpublished experiments (∼300) performed in rotary shear apparatus at slip rates of 0.1-2.6 m s(-1). The experiments indicate a significant decrease in friction (of up to one order of magnitude), which we term fault lubrication, both for cohesive (silicate-built, quartz-built and carbonate-built) rocks and non-cohesive rocks (clay-rich, anhydrite, gypsum and dolomite gouges) typical of crustal seismogenic sources. The available mechanical work and the associated temperature rise in the slipping zone trigger a number of physicochemical processes (gelification, decarbonation and dehydration reactions, melting and so on) whose products are responsible for fault lubrication. The similarity between (1) experimental and natural fault products and (2) mechanical work measures resulting from these laboratory experiments and seismological estimates suggests that it is reasonable to extrapolate experimental data to conditions typical of earthquake nucleation depths (7-15 km). It seems that faults are lubricated during earthquakes, irrespective of the fault rock composition and of the specific weakening mechanism involved.

    14. Documentation and dissemination of agricultural Research results in ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      A study was conducted to find out the volume of documented vis a vis generated agricultural research information over a 10-year period and to identify existing avenues for disseminating generated research information to the target population. A questionnaire survey was conducted between December 1996 and February ...

    15. Interview: William and Barbara Christopher.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Teaching Exceptional Children, 1986

      1986-01-01

      Asserting that the biggest mistake educators can make is to set themselves up as experts vis-a-vis parents as amateurs, Barbara and William Christopher emphasize the importance of continued education for the autistic individual and relate their experiences with the educational community as they sought help for their autistic son. (JC)

    16. Does Social Labelling Encourage Child Schooling and Discourage Child Labour in Nepal?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chakrabarty, Sayan; Grote, Ulrike; Luchters, Guido

      2011-01-01

      This paper explores the determinants of child labour vis-a-vis child schooling. It further examines the influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) which are engaged in social labelling, on the incidence of child labour and schooling trade-off. The empirical results show that the probability of child schooling increases as well as child…

    17. Delegation of authority, managerial initiatives, and the design of divisional structure

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Riyanto, Yohanes E.

      2000-01-01

      This paper provides a rationale for a firm to adopt either an integrated or a separated divisional structure, which is based on the interplay between the structure of authority and the costs and benefits of integration vis-a-vis separation. We use the framework of Aghion and Tirole (1997) to explain

    18. Selling library services and skills in Nigeria: the prospect for library ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      The paper proffered a model for the domestication of entrepreneurial education in library and information science, while it listed skills for LIS graduates such as Independent and self-employment, Reliable information provision, Effective customers' relation, etc as prospects for entrepreneurship education vis-a-vis tools ...

    19. Proceedings of the first world mining environment congress. Select papers

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Dhar, B.B.; Thakur, D.N.

      1996-01-01

      The themes covered at the conference were: environmental problems and issues; environmental management practices; environmental policy and legislation; sustainable development vis-a-vis environmental management; environmental training and education; and future strategies. Selected papers have been abstracted separately on the IEA Coal Research CD-ROM

    20. National Report for the Netherlands ‘Study on the implementation of the Regulation 1435/2003 on the Statute for European Cooperative Society (SCE)’

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      van der Sangen, G.J.H.

      2010-01-01

      This National Report contains an analysis of the implementation of the SCE assessing its attractiveness vis-a-vis the national cooperative business form, based on the legal research and a survey of the cooperative movement in the Netherlands. It will be an integral part of the European Commission's

    1. Voicing Solidarity: Linguistic Hospitality and Poststructuralism in the Real World

      Science.gov (United States)

      Phipps, Alison

      2012-01-01

      Structuralism has dominated the field of applied linguistics, which has consequences for the positioning of applied linguistics "vis-a-vis" policy makers, educational practice, and also theoretical and methodological innovations. These consequences pertain to how the field advocates, takes sides, balances its descriptive modes with its discursive…

    2. Comparative supercapacitive properties of asymmetry two electrode coin type supercapacitor cells made from MWCNTs/cobalt oxide and MWCNTs/iron oxide nanocomposite

      CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

      Adekunle, AS

      2015-04-01

      Full Text Available Supercapacitive properties of synthesized metal oxide nanoparticles (MO) vis a vis iron oxides (Fe(sub2)O(sub3)) and cobalt oxide (Co(sub3)O(sub4)) nanoparticles integrated with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) in a two-electrode coin cell type...

    3. Estimating shadow prices and efficiency analysis of productive inputs and pesticide use of vegetable production

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Singbo, Alphonse G.; Lansink, Alfons Oude; Emvalomatis, Grigorios

      2015-01-01

      This paper analyzes technical efficiency and the value of the marginal product of productive inputs vis-a-vis pesticide use to measure allocative efficiency of pesticide use along productive inputs. We employ the data envelopment analysis framework and marginal cost techniques to estimate

    4. The Three Fs of Classroom Management

      Science.gov (United States)

      Daniels, Mark L.

      2009-01-01

      This article describes a cohesive theory of classroom management, developed by the author. This "three Fs" theory, predicated upon extant empiricism and scholarship vis-a-vis classroom management, was devised and implemented over several semesters within a field-based course at the University of Texas at Austin for preservice mathematics majors…

    5. Advocacy for Benchmarking in the Nigerian Institute of Advanced ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      The paper gave a general overview of benchmarking and its novel application to library practice with a view to achieve organizational change and improved performance. Based on literature, the paper took an analytic, descriptive and qualitative overview of benchmarking practices vis a vis services in law libraries generally ...

    6. Employee Development and Turnover Intention: Theory Validation

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rahman, Wali; Nas, Zekeriya

      2013-01-01

      Purpose: This study aims to examine the pattern of behavior of turnover intentions in developing countries "vis-a-vis" the one in advanced countries through the empirical data from public universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. The study provides empirical evidence from academia in Pakistan, thereby enriching the understanding of…

    7. The Teaching of English as an International Language in Japan: An Answer to the Dilemma of Indigenous Values and Global Needs in the Expanding Circle

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hino, Nobuyuki

      2009-01-01

      This paper explores the ambivalent nature of Japanese attitudes toward English vis-a-vis the Japanese language, followed by a discussion of Japanese efforts in incorporating the concept of English as an International Language (EIL) into their educational system and teaching practice as a solution to this dilemma. While the Japanese have an…

    8. Characterization of porous materials by small-angle scattering

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      With the availability of ultra small-angle scattering instruments, one can investigate porous materials in the sub-micron length scale. Because of the increased accessible length scale vis-a-vis the multiple scattering effect, conventional data analysis procedures based on single scattering approximation quite often fail.

    9. The impact of philosophy in the interpretation of African values with ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      ... value of a society as awhole, or of a given culture or a value of a larger culture, etc. From this perspectivewe can speak ofAfrican values as those belonging to the entire Africans as a whole. This is especially when we talk of African values vis-a- vis western or Chinese values, etc. African values could equallymean values ...

    10. Legal Approaches to Combating the Exploitation of Third-Country National Seasonal Workers

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Rijken, Conny

      2015-01-01

      The Directive on Seasonal workers is aimed at combating exploitative practices vis-a-vis seasonal workers from outside the EU. After a thorough analysis of the conditions under which practices can be qualified as exploitative, this article assesses the extent to which the directive is equipped to

    11. "Tough Love and Tears": Learning Doctoral Writing in the Sciences

      Science.gov (United States)

      Aitchison, Claire; Catterall, Janice; Ross, Pauline; Burgin, Shelley

      2012-01-01

      Contemporary changes to the doctorate mean student researchers are likely to be expected to write differently, write more and more often, and yet, despite a growing interest in doctoral education, we still know relatively little about the teaching and learning practices of students and supervisors vis-a-vis doctoral writing. This paper draws from…

    12. A Critique of the Ontological Primacy of the Political

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Hansen, Allan Dreyer

      In this paper I take issue with the status granted the political in the writings of Laclau and Mouffe. The main conclusion is that the claim of the ontological primacy of the political over the social must be given up. What can be maintained is the autonomy of the political (vis a vis other...

    13. Marine minerals: The Indian perspective

      Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

      Gujar, A.R.; Nath, B.N.; Banerjee, R.

      the Konkan Coast, Maharashtra. The future demand for economic minerals and metals for the year 2000 vis-a-vis the production of material in the last twelve years has been calculated, and in light of the above, the importance and chances of offshore...

    14. Middle School Mathematics Teachers Panel Perspectives of Instructional Practicess

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ziegler, Cindy

      2017-01-01

      In a local middle school, students were not meeting standards on the state mathematics tests. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore mathematics teachers' perspectives on effective mathematics instruction vis-a-vis the principles of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). Within this framework, the 6 principles in the…

    15. Rationality and the Role of the University: A Response to Philip Higgs.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Waghid, Y.

      2002-01-01

      Challenges Higgs'"ambivalent" position about the role of the university (presented in a previous article), contending that the university can still retain its character as "a community of reason" (Higgs' main argument) without abandoning its social role vis-a-vis nation building. (EV)

    16. Assessment of Physicochemical Properties of some Bitumens from ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Assessment of the results vis-a-vis available information on bitumens elsewhere indicate that any clear surface or underground natural bitumen obtainable in the region of Agbabu village in Ondo State, and a manufactured type from Kaduna Refining and Petrochemical Company (KRPC) in the country are comparable with ...

    17. Contemporary African philosophy, identity and the question of ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      This essay reviews the import of the issue of identity in contemporary African philosophy vis-a-vis the language policy of most African countries as well as the attitude of many Africans towards their indigenous languages. Given the pivotal importance of language in ensuring cultural identity it argues that there is an antithesis ...

    18. "Obligatory Technologies": Explaining Why People Feel Compelled to Use Certain Technologies

      Science.gov (United States)

      Chandler, Jennifer A.

      2012-01-01

      The ideas of technological determinism and the autonomy of technology are long-standing and widespread. This article explores why the use of certain technologies is perceived to be obligatory, thus fueling the fatalism of technological determinism and undermining our sense of freedom vis-a-vis the use of technologies. Three main mechanisms that…

    19. Modelling traffic congestion using queuing networks

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      Flow-density curves; uninterrupted traffic; Jackson networks. ... ness - also suffer from a big handicap vis-a-vis the Indian scenario: most of these models do .... more well-known queuing network models and onsite data, a more exact Road Cell ...

    20. Advanced Theory of Mind in Children Using Augmentative and Alternative Communication

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sundqvist, Anett; Ronnberg, Jerker

      2010-01-01

      This study focused on the attainment of Theory of Mind (ToM) in children (aged 6 to 13) with complex communication needs who used augmentative and alternative communication (AAC). The AAC group (n = 14) was matched to a younger group, without disabilities, vis-a-vis nonverbal mental age. A second comparison group consisting of children with mild…

    1. School Performance, Status Relations, and the Structure of Sentiment: Bringing the Teacher Back In. Report No. 9.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Alexander, Karl L.; And Others

      Previous research has failed to support the widely held assumption that the academic difficulties experienced by many minority and low socioeconomic status youth are due to their "outsider" standing vis-a-vis the middle class culture thought to govern the social relations of schooling. This analysis suggests that this proposition errs in…

    2. Collateral, Renegotiation and the Value of Diffusely Held Debt

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Hege, U.; Mella-Barral, P.

      1999-01-01

      Debt with many creditors is analyzed in a continuous-time pricing model of the levered firm. We specifically allow for debtor opportunism vis-a-vis a non-coordinated group of creditors, in form of repeated strategic renegotiation offers and default threats. We show that the creditors' initial

    3. Text mining of web-based medical content

      CERN Document Server

      Neustein, Amy

      2014-01-01

      Text Mining of Web-Based Medical Content examines web mining for extracting useful information that can be used for treating and monitoring the healthcare of patients. This work provides methodological approaches to designing mapping tools that exploit data found in social media postings. Specific linguistic features of medical postings are analyzed vis-a-vis available data extraction tools for culling useful information.

    4. Showing and telling : film heritage institutes and their performance of public accountability

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      de Klerk, N.H.

      2015-01-01

      This PhD expands on 12 previously published film historical and -archival articles and essays. An extensive introductory text was written to string these articles and essays together and forge them into an argument for improving the performance of film heritage institutes vis-a-vis the public. In

    5. Journal of Chemical Sciences | Indian Academy of Sciences

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      The recognition of interaction between two molecules is analysed via the topography of their molecular electrostatic potentials (MESP). The point of recognition between two species is proposed to be the geometry at which there is a change in the nature of the set of MESP critical points of one of the molecules vis-a-vis with ...

    6. Petróleo, desarrollo y paz

      OpenAIRE

      Martínez O., Astrid

      2009-01-01

      Este articulo analiza los planteamientos del Gobierno Nacional sobre politica petrolera. La relacion entre el petroleo y los temas de desarrollo y la paz se exploran con base en la lectura de los pronunciamientos de la guerrilla y los grupos sociales sobre el manejo de los hidrocarburos en Colombia vis a vis los pronunciamientos gubernamentales.

    7. On Becoming an Educated Person: Salvadoran Adult Learners' Cultural Model of Educacion/Education

      Science.gov (United States)

      Prins, Esther

      2011-01-01

      Background/Context: In contrast to cultural constructs that equate education with cognitive development and formal schooling, the Latin American cultural model of educacion encompasses academic knowledge and social competence. Prior scholarship has mainly investigated parental notions of educacion vis-a-vis childrearing and schooling, primarily…

    8. Catholic Theological Education in a Religiously Pluralistic Age

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lefebure, Leo D.

      2006-01-01

      This article describes the transformation of Catholic theological education over the last fifty years from a highly defensive posture vis-a-vis other religions toward dialogical engagement with members of other religions and all persons of good will. Until Vatican II, most Catholic theologians and officials distrusted exploration of other…

    9. MODELING ACUTE EXPOSURE TO SOLAR RADIATION

      Science.gov (United States)

      One of the major technical challenges in calculating solar flux on the human form has been the complexity of the surface geometry (i.e., the surface normal vis a vis the incident radiation). The American Cancer Society reports that over 80% of skin cancers occur on the face, he...

    10. MODELING THE ANATOMICAL DISTRIBUTION OF SUNLIGHT

      Science.gov (United States)

      One of the major technical challenges in calculating solar irradiance on the human form has been the complexity of the surface geometry (i.e. the surface normal vis a vis the incident radiation. Over 80 percent of skin cancers occur on the face, head, and back of the hands. The...

    11. Vegetables and other core food groups

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Poelman, Astrid A.M.; Delahunty, Conor M.; Graaf, de Kees

      2017-01-01

      Vegetables are the food category least liked by children. This research investigated the sensory properties of vegetables vis-a-vis other core foods that comprise children's diets, to determine to what degree low acceptance of vegetables can be attributed to sensory properties. Vegetables (n =

    12. Tourism and Facilities Development in Three Art Traditions of Benin ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      The paper therefore seeks to bring to the front burner some of the problems associated with the production of some Benin traditional art works,vis-a-vis sales, their studios, motivation of the artists and how their work environment can be improved upon in order to sustain the vocation using the art historical survey method.

    13. Coppers context, and conjoints: a reassessment of TAM

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Bouwman, Harry; van de Wijngaert, Lidwien

      2009-01-01

      This study examines the role and explanatory value of context-, task- and information-related characteristics vis-a-vis individual characteristics in relation with respect to the adoption of mobile technologies and applications. We combine insights from adoption and acceptance literature with media

    14. Augmented chaos-multiple linear regression approach for prediction of wave parameters

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      M.A. Ghorbani

      2017-06-01

      The inter-comparisons demonstrated that the Chaos-MLR and pure MLR models yield almost the same accuracy in predicting the significant wave heights and the zero-up-crossing wave periods. Whereas, the augmented Chaos-MLR model is performed better results in term of the prediction accuracy vis-a-vis the previous prediction applications of the same case study.

    15. The Application of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) Analysis for Managing Vocational and Technical Education (VTE) Programmes for Improved Efficiency in Nigeria

      Science.gov (United States)

      Adepoju, T. L.; Famade, Olu Adesola

      2010-01-01

      This paper reviews the current status of vocational and technical education programmes (VTE) in Nigeria and the major innovations of the Nigerian Government in the recent times in the sector vis-a-vis the demands of the modern world for vocational and technological development. It therefore, proposes a paradigm shift in the operation of VTE…

    16. New Media and Political Advertising in Nigeria: Prospects and ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      This paper examines the new media as a tool for political advertising in Nigeria vis- a-vis, the challenges and prospects. The new media, especially the Internet and Global System for Mobile Telecommunication (GSM) have become important political campaign tools in Nigeria and the world over. This paper is guided by the ...

    17. Overlapping Rivalries : The two Germanys, Israel and the Cold War

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      De Vita, L.

      2017-01-01

      The case of early German-Israeli relations offers unique insight into the dynamics of the German Cold War. As this article shows, the two Germanys were ideologically and geopolitically antithetical, but vis-a-vis the question of relations with Israel East and West German representatives faced a

    18. The "F" Word: Is Feminism Incompatible with Beauty and Romance?

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rudman, Laurie A.; Fairchild, Kimberly

      2007-01-01

      Three studies examined the predictive utility of heterosexual relationship concerns vis-a-vis support for feminism. Study 1 showed that beauty is perceived to be at odds with feminism, for both genders. The stereotype that feminists are unattractive was robust, but fully accounted for by romance-related attributions. Moreover, more attractive…

    19. Facing the Knowledge Society: Mexico's Public Universities

      Science.gov (United States)

      Varela-Petito, Gonzalo

      2010-01-01

      Public higher education in Mexico faces major challenges vis-a-vis its position within the modern knowledge society, sparking concern among educational authorities. In the second half of the 20th century Mexican universities ceased to be selective, elitist schools, becoming, instead, massive institutions that reflect social and intellectual…

    20. Some critical issues in special needs education as they relate to ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      The study examines five critical issues in special education as they relate to visual impairment vis a vis mercy killing (euthanasia), gender, seclusion, castration and genetic engineering. Literature in the five stated issues was reviewed to provide an insight into these areas with particular reference to visual impairment.

    1. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

      2011-01-01

      Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-a`-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and

    2. The emerging empirics of evolutionary economic geography.

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Boschma, R.A.; Frenken, K.

      2011-01-01

      Following last decade’s programmatic papers on Evolutionary Economic Geography, we report on recent empirical advances and how this empirical work can be positioned vis-a`-vis other strands of research in economic geography. First, we review studies on the path dependent nature of clustering, and

    3. Effectiveness of Crime Prevention through Environmental Design ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      This study examined crime prevention strategies vis-a-vis perceived residents. feeling of safety in Osogbo Nigeria. The survey was conducted using systematic sampling. Four (4) crime prevention approaches were identified in the study area. Residents. perception of effectiveness of these safety strategies measured ...

    4. 15 CFR 303.14 - Allocation factors, duty refund calculations and miscellaneous provisions.

      Science.gov (United States)

      2010-01-01

      ... producer shall accept from any watch parts and components supplier advantages and preferences which might result in a more favorable competitive position for itself vis-a-vis other territorial producers relying... new firms are invited for any unused portion of any territorial share. (e) Territorial shares. The...

    5. Interpreting User's Choice of Technologies: A Quantitative Research on Choosing the Best Web-Based Communication Tools

      Science.gov (United States)

      Adebiaye, Richmond

      2010-01-01

      The proliferation of web-based communication tools like email clients vis-a-vis Yahoo mail, Gmail, and Hotmail have led to new innovations in web-based communication. Email users benefit greatly from this technology, but lack of security of these tools can put users at risk of loss of privacy, including identity theft, corporate espionage, and…

    6. Relaxant effect of Enantia clorantha on the gastrointestinal smooth ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      The effects of aqueous boiled and evaporated extract of Enantia chlorantha (0.8 and 1.5g kg-1) were studied on certain functions of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) vis-a-vis, gastrointestinal fluid accumulation and motility as well as castor oil induced diarrhoea, using adult rats and mice that have been starved 14-20h prior to ...

    7. Reflections on the uptake of climate change policies by local governments: facing the challenges of mitigation and adaptation

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Hoppe, Thomas; van den Berg, Maya Marieke; Coenen, Franciscus H.J.M.

      2014-01-01

      Background: There is a growing body of literature that examines the role of local governments in addressing climate change vis-a-vis mitigation and adaptation. Although it appears that climate change mitigation strategies - in particular those addressing energy issues - are being adopted by a large

    8. ECHR rules on liability of ISPs as a restriction of freedom of speech

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Husovec, Martin

      2014-01-01

      The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR) in Strasbourg handed down its first case concerning the liability of intermediaries. A ruling of the Estonian Supreme Court that imposed broad liability and a general monitoring obligation upon an internet news portal vis-a-vis third party comments made on

    9. Author Details

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Ethothi, E K. Vol 9, No 1 (2006) - Articles Proper Education of the Gifted and the Talented: A Panacea for Technological Advancement Vis-A-Vis Sustainable Development: Counsellors' Perspective Abstract. ISSN: 1119-443X. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

    10. Role Of Expectancy Manipulation In Systematic Desensitization

      Science.gov (United States)

      Brown, H. Alan

      1973-01-01

      Expectancy, relaxation, and hierarchy content were manipulated. Findings did not support the hypothesis that expectancy was the only factor in desensitization, but did clarify the role of expectancy vis-a-vis the counterconditioning elements typically discussed in the literature. (Author)

    11. Higher Education Decisions in Peru: On the Role of Financial Constraints, Skills, and Family Background

      Science.gov (United States)

      Castro, Juan F.; Yamada, Gustavo; Arias, Omar

      2016-01-01

      This paper analyzes the relative importance of short-term financial constraints "vis-a-vis" skills and other background factors when explaining higher education access in Peru. We focus on the disparities in university enrollment between rich and poor households. We use a novel household survey that includes special tests to measure…

    12. The Impact of Dual Enrollment on College Degree Attainment: Do Low-SES Students Benefit?

      Science.gov (United States)

      An, Brian P.

      2013-01-01

      Dual enrollment in high school is viewed by many as one mechanism for widening college admission and completion of low-income students. However, little evidence demonstrates that these students discretely benefit from dual enrollment and whether these programs narrow attainment gaps vis-a-vis students from middle-class or affluent family…

    13. Explosive Forming of Low Carbon Steel Sheet into a Stepped Disc Shape

      OpenAIRE

      S. Balasubramanian; S. Sarvat Ali; E.S. Bhagiradha Rao

      1984-01-01

      This paper deals with the explosive forming of deep drawing quality steel into a two stepped disc type shape. An attempt has been made to predict the forming parameters from theoretical considerations by equating the disc shape with an equivalent dome. Results of forming this shape in a single stage vis-a-vis forming in two stages are compared.

    14. Mechanisms of Innovation Diffusion under Information Abundance and Information Scarcity--On the Contribution of Social Networks in Group vs. Individual Extension Approaches in Semi-Arid Kenya

      Science.gov (United States)

      Darr, Dietrich; Pretzsch, Jurgen

      2008-01-01

      Purpose: The objective of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of innovation diffusion under group-oriented and individual-oriented extension. Current theoretical notions of innovation diffusion in social networks shall be briefly reviewed, and the concepts of "search" and "innovation" vis-a-vis "transfer" and…

    15. Mathematics teachers' knowledge of the subject content and ...

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      This paper discusses the need of the mathematics teacher to be equipped adequately in the content areas in mathematics, vis-a-vis the recent concerns about the poor performance of students in the pre-tertiary schools, and the competence of mathematics teachers in the field. The low performance in mathematics at the ...

    16. Government bond yields and foreign ownership of debt

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Broos, Menno; de Haan, Jakob

      2012-01-01

      We analyse the government bond yield spread vis-a-vis Germany for 10 countries in the euro area for the period 1991 to 2009. Our results suggest a positive relationship between the marginal impact of government debt on the spread and foreign ownership of the government debt of the country concerned

    17. Azathioprine treatment during lactation

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Christensen, L.A.; Dahlerup, J.F.; Nielsen, M.J.

      2008-01-01

      BACKGROUND: Thiopurines are widely used to maintain remission in inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment during pregnancy is generally recommended to improve the chance of a normal birth outcome, but advice concerning breastfeeding is conflicting. Aim To estimate the exposure of breastfed infants...... to 6-mercaptopurine, as a metabolite of azathioprine, from maternal milk. METHODS: Eight lactating women with inflammatory bowel disease receiving maintenance therapy with azathioprine 75-200 mg daily were studied. Milk and plasma samples were obtained 30 and 60 min after drug administration and hourly...... for the following 5 h. RESULTS: The variation in the bioavailability of the drug was reflected in a wide range of peak plasma values of 6-mercaptopurine within the first 3 h. A similar curve, but with an hour's delay and at significantly lower concentrations varying from 2-50 microg/L, was seen in maternal milk...

    18. Radiation during pregnancy

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Faulkner, K.; Malone, J.F.; Corbett, R.H.; Craven, P.; Osei, E.K.

      2001-01-01

      The risks of radiation during pregnancy are well established. There is a risk of somatic effects, genetic effects occurring in subsequent generations and mental retardation if the fetus is irradiated in the critical 8-15 week period when organogenesis occurs. It is imperative that the unintended irradiation of the fetus is avoided. Whilst fetal risks have been appreciated for some time, the International Commission on Radiological Protection has never issued practical guidance. However, many national bodies have developed such guidance. In many centres the 10-day and 28-day rules have been variously applied. The purpose of this paper is to review various sources of advice and to highlight three practical implementation issues. These are: 1. Referral could mean more than one examination is performed. 2. The application of the concept of justification to elective procedures. 3. Practical implementation issues. (author)

    19. [Oesophagitis during mechanical ventilation].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gastinne, H; Canard, J M; Pillegand, B; Voultoury, J C; Catanzano, A; Claude, R; Gay, R

      1982-10-16

      Twenty-one patients whose condition required mechanical ventilation with nasogastric intubation were investigated for oesophagitis before the 3rd day and on the 15th day of treatment, including endoscopy and biopsy. Lesions of oesophagitis were detected in 14 cases during the initial examination and in 19 cases on the second endoscopy. The course of the lesions varied from one patient to another and appeared to be unrelated to the course of the primary disease. Oesophagitis in these patients is probably due to frequent episodes of gastro-oesophageal reflux encouraged by cough, impaired consciousness and the presence of a tube. Reflux may also be the cause of inapparent and recurrent lung aspiration.

    20. Learning During Stressful Times

      Science.gov (United States)

      Shors, Tracey J.

      2012-01-01

      Stressful life events can have profound effects on our cognitive and motor abilities, from those that could be construed as adaptive to those not so. In this review, I discuss the general notion that acute stressful experience necessarily impairs our abilities to learn and remember. The effects of stress on operant conditioning, that is, learned helplessness, as well as those on classical conditioning procedures are discussed in the context of performance and adaptation. Studies indicating sex differences in learning during stressful times are discussed, as are those attributing different responses to the existence of multiple memory systems and nonlinear relationships. The intent of this review is to highlight the apparent plasticity of the stress response, how it might have evolved to affect both performance and learning processes, and the potential problems with interpreting stress effects on learning as either good or bad. An appreciation for its plasticity may provide new avenues for investigating its underlying neuronal mechanisms. PMID:15054128

    1. [Sodium intake during pregnancy].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Delemarre, F M; Franx, A; Knuist, M; Steegers, E A

      1999-10-23

      International studies have yielded contradictory results on efficacy of a sodium-restricted diet during pregnancy in preventing and curing hypertension of pregnancy. In the Netherlands three studies have been performed to investigate the value of dietary sodium restriction in pregnancy; they concerned epidemiology, prevention and treatment. Midwives often prescribed this dietary intervention. Urinary sodium excretion was not related to blood pressure changes in pregnancy. Dietary sodium restriction from the third month of pregnancy onwards did not reduce the incidence of pregnancy-induced hypertension. Maternal side effects were a decreased intake of nutrients, decreased maternal weight gain, lowered plasma volume and stimulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. A dietary sodium restriction in women with early symptoms of pregnancy-induced hypertension showed no therapeutic effect on blood pressure. There is no place for dietary sodium restriction in the prevention or treatment of hypertension in pregnancy.

    2. Radiation exposure during ureteroscopy

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Bagley, D.H.; Cubler-Goodman, A.

      1990-01-01

      Use of fluoroscopy during ureteroscopy increases the risk of radiation exposure to the urologist and patient. Radiation entrance dosages were measured at skin level in 37 patients, and at the neck, trunk and finger of the urologist, and neck and trunk of the circulating nurse. Radiation exposure time was measured in 79 patients, and was related to the purpose of the procedure and the type of ureteroscope used, whether rigid or flexible. Exposure could be minimized by decreasing the fluoroscopy time. A portable C-arm fluoroscopy unit with electronic imaging and last image hold mode should be used to minimize exposure time. Lead aprons and thyroid shields should be used by the urologist and other personnel in the endoscopy room

    3. [Diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy.

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Mathiesen, E.R.; Rasmussen, K.L.; Laugesen, C.S.

      2008-01-01

      INTRODUCTION: The aim was to evaluate the prevalence and progression of diabetic retinopathy during pregnancy in women with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dilated fundal photography was performed at approximately 10 and 28 gestational weeks in 58 and 18 women with type 1 and type...... 2 diabetes, respectively. Retinopathy was classified as five stages +/- macular oedema. Progression was defined as deterioration corresponding to at least one stage between the two examinations. Clinical parameters were obtained from the medical records. RESULTS: Diabetic retinopathy was found in 36...... (62%) women with type 1 and three (17%) with type 2 diabetes at the first examination. In 26 (34%) retinopathy progressed; four women developed proliferations, three macular oedema and three reduction of visual acuity >/=0.2 on Snellen's chart in at least one eye. HbA1c in early pregnancy was the only...

    4. VENTILATION NEEDS DURING CONSTRUCTION

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      C.R. Gorrell

      1998-01-01

      The purpose of this analysis is to determine ventilation needs during construction and development of the subsurface repository and develop systems to satisfy those needs. For this analysis, construction is defined as pre-emplacement excavation and development is excavation that takes place simultaneously with emplacement. The three options presented in the ''Overall Development and Emplacement Ventilation Systems'' analysis (Reference 5.5) for development ventilation will be applied to construction ventilation in this analysis as well as adding new and updated ventilation factors to each option for both construction and development. The objective of this analysis is to develop a preferred ventilation system to support License Application Design. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Description of ventilation conditions; (2) Ventilation factors (fire hazards, dust control, construction logistics, and monitoring and control systems); (3) Local ventilation alternatives; (4) Global ventilation options; and (5) Evaluation of options

    5. Brain atrophy during aging

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Matsuzawa, Taiju; Takeda, Shumpei; Hatazawa, Jun

      1985-01-01

      Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT and following results were obtained. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34 -- 35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34 -- 35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multiinfarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34 -- 35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extents of brain atrophy (20 -- 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Some aged subjects had little or no atrophy of their brains, as seen in young subjects, and others had markedly shrunken brains associated with senility. From these results there must be pathological factors promoting brain atrophy with a great individual difference. We have studied the relation of intelligence to brain volume, and have ascertained that progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was decrease in the cerebral blood flow. MNR-CT can easily detected small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy, while X-CT can not. Therefore NMR-CT is very useful for detection of subtle changes in the brain. (J.P.N.)

    6. Treating schizophrenia during menopause.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Brzezinski, Amnon; Brzezinski-Sinai, Noa A; Seeman, Mary V

      2017-05-01

      The aim of this review is to examine three questions: What are the risks and benefits of treating women with schizophrenia with hormone therapy (HT) at menopause? Should the antipsychotic regimen be changed at menopause? Do early- and late-onset women with schizophrenia respond differently to HT at menopause? MEDLINE databases for the years 1990 to 2016 were searched using the following interactive terms: schizophrenia, gender, menopause, estrogen, and hormones. The selected articles (62 out of 800 abstracts) were chosen on the basis of their applicability to the objectives of this targeted narrative review. HT during the perimenopause in women with schizophrenia ameliorates psychotic and cognitive symptoms, and may also help affective symptoms. Vasomotor, genitourinary, and sleep symptoms are also reduced. Depending on the woman's age and personal risk factors and antipsychotic side effects, the risk of breast cancer and cardiovascular disease may be increased. Antipsychotic types and doses may need to be adjusted at menopause, as may be the mode of administration. Both HT and changes in antipsychotic management should be considered for women with schizophrenia at menopause. The question about differences in response between early- and late-onset women cannot yet be answered.

    7. HEMOSTASIOLOGICAL MONITORING DURING PREGNANCY

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      I. V. Medyannikova

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available As gestation progresses, all hemostatic components show changes aimed at compensating for the expenditures associated with fetal development. Activation of the hemostatic system during pregnancy creates a premorbid background for thrombotic and hemorrhagic complications. Hemostasiological examination is one of the compulsory dispensary management stages for pregnant women. An algorithm for the diagnosis of pregnancy-associated disorders in the hemostatic system is to solve the following problems: to identify the causes of hemocoagulation disorders, to determine the risk of thrombotic and hemorrhagic disorders, to prevent obstetric complications, and to monitor antithrombotic therapy. Hemostatic monitoring in pregnant women is based on rating and special methods and includes 3 stages: early, extended, and differential.The need for extended hemostatic examination is first determined and the direction of a search for a defective component is concretized in relation of the changes found. Interpretation of laboratory test values in terms of a female medical history and gestational age underlies the timely diagnosis, adequate treatment policy, and effective prevention of gestational complications.

    8. Rewetting during bottom flooding

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Pearson, K.G.

      1984-11-01

      A qualitative description of the rewetting process during bottom reflooding of a PWR is presented. Rewetting is seen as the end product of a path taken over a heat transfer surface which defines how the surface heat flux varies with surface temperature and with distance from the rewetting front. The main components are liquid contact, vapour convection and thermal radiation. In this paper the general topography of the heat transfer surface is deduced from consideration of the ways in which the conditions of the vapour and liquid phases in the flow are expected to vary with distance from the rewetting front. The deduced surface has a heat transfer ridge which decreases in height, and whose steep face moves to lower temperatures, with increasing distance from the rewetting front, and a valley which becomes negative with increasing distance. There is a different surface for each position along a subchannel, strongly influenced by the proximity of spacer grids, and by whether these grids are wet or dry. The form of this family of heat transfer surfaces is used to explain the phenomena of reflooding of clusters of heated rods. (U.K.)

    9. Phonological coding during reading.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Leinenger, Mallorie

      2014-11-01

      The exact role that phonological coding (the recoding of written, orthographic information into a sound based code) plays during silent reading has been extensively studied for more than a century. Despite the large body of research surrounding the topic, varying theories as to the time course and function of this recoding still exist. The present review synthesizes this body of research, addressing the topics of time course and function in tandem. The varying theories surrounding the function of phonological coding (e.g., that phonological codes aid lexical access, that phonological codes aid comprehension and bolster short-term memory, or that phonological codes are largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers) are first outlined, and the time courses that each maps onto (e.g., that phonological codes come online early [prelexical] or that phonological codes come online late [postlexical]) are discussed. Next the research relevant to each of these proposed functions is reviewed, discussing the varying methodologies that have been used to investigate phonological coding (e.g., response time methods, reading while eye-tracking or recording EEG and MEG, concurrent articulation) and highlighting the advantages and limitations of each with respect to the study of phonological coding. In response to the view that phonological coding is largely epiphenomenal in skilled readers, research on the use of phonological codes in prelingually, profoundly deaf readers is reviewed. Finally, implications for current models of word identification (activation-verification model, Van Orden, 1987; dual-route model, e.g., M. Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; parallel distributed processing model, Seidenberg & McClelland, 1989) are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

    10. Burnout Syndrome During Residency.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Turgut, Namigar; Karacalar, Serap; Polat, Cengiz; Kıran, Özlem; Gültop, Fethi; Kalyon, Seray Türkmen; Sinoğlu, Betül; Zincirci, Mehmet; Kaya, Ender

      2016-10-01

      The aim of this study is identified the degree of Burnout Syndrome (BOS) and find out its correlation with years of recidency and sociodemograpfic chareacteristics, training, sleeping habits, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. After approval from the Hospital Ethics Committee and obtaining informed consent, First, second, third, fourth and fifth year of recidency staff (n=127) working in our hospital were involved in this study. The standardized Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) was used in this study. Fifty six male (44.1%) and seventy one female (55.9%) residents were enroled in this study (Coranbach Alfa(α)=0.873). 57% of the first year residents smokes cigaret and 54% of them use alcohol. 2% of them gets one day off after hospital night shift, 61% of them suffers from disturbed sleep. 60% of them had been stated that they willingly selected their profession. 61% of them prefers talking to friends and 32% of them prefers shopping to overcome stress. There were statistical difference acording to years of recidency in MBI, Emotional Burnout (EB) and desensitisation scale (DS) points. EB scale points of the second year of residency group was statisticaly higher than fourth year of residency group. DS points of second year of residency group was also statisticaly higher than the third and fourth year of residency group. There was no statistical difference between any groups in Personal Success. BOS is a frequent problem during residency in anaesthesia. Appropriate definition and awareness are the first important steps to prevent this syndrome. Further administrative approaches should be evaluated with regard to their effects.

    11. Recovery during radiation mutagenesis

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Deen, D.F.; Shaw, E.I.

      1976-01-01

      Many variables (e.g. cell inoculum size, mutagen dose, expression time, and concentration of the selective agent) are known to affect the induced mutation frequency obtained in cultured mammalian cells. The authors have studied the effects of several parameters on the frequency of radiation-induced resistance to 8-azaguanine in asynchronous V79-171B hamster cells. Inoculation with 10 5 cells was followed by graded doses of radiation, expression times were optimized to maximize mutation frequency, and then the treated cells were challenged with 8-azaguanine for ten days. The optimal expression times which maximized mutation frequency were dose dependent and are in the range of 14-24, 24, and 24-36 hours respectively for doses of 250, 40 and 800 rads. A time interval of 24 hours between two 250-rad fractions resulted in a mutation frequency smaller than that obtained from administration of a single 500-rad dose. With 36 hours between halves of the dose, the induced mutation frequency was an order of magnitude lower than that produced by a single dose and actually below the unirradiated (spontaneous) frequency. Maintenance of cells after irradation first at 18 0 C for 24 hours, and then allowance of expression at 37 0 C for 24 hours, increased both the spontaneous and induced mutation frequency. A one-hour postirradiation balanced salt-solution treatment did not affect the number of spontaneous mutants that arose, but reduced the number of induced mutants. Thus, the balanced salt treatment lowers the induced mutation frequency about a factor of two. The possible significance of these results are discussed with respect to the role of radiation repair mechanisms during mutagenesis, and to recovery at low dose rates. A working hypothesis is advanced to explain the possible mechanism which causes expression time to vary as a function of the dose of mutagen. (author)

    12. Brain atrophy during aging

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Matsuzawa, Taiju; Yamada, Kenji; Yamada, Susumu; Ono, Shuichi; Takeda, Shunpei; Hatazawa, Jun; Ito, Masatoshi; Kubota, Kazuo

      1985-01-01

      Age-related brain atrophy was investigated in thousands of persons with no neurologic disturbances using X-CT and NMR-CT. Brain atrophy was minimal in 34-35 years old in both sexes, increased exponentially to the increasing age after 34-35 years, and probably resulted in dementia, such as vascular or multi-infarct dementia. Brain atrophy was significantly greater in men than in women at all ages. Brain volumes were maximal in 34-35 years old in both sexes with minimal individual differences which increased proportionally to the increasing age. Remarkable individual differences in the extent of brain atrophy (20 - 30 %) existed among aged subjects. Progression of brain atrophy was closely related to loss of mental activities independently of their ages. Our longitudinal study has revealed that the most important factors promoting brain atrophy during aging was the decrease in the cerebral blood flow. We have classified brain atrophy into sulcal and cisternal enlargement type (type I), ventricular enlargement type (type II) and mixed type (type III) according to the clinical study using NMR-CT. Brain atrophy of type I progresses significantly in almost all of the geriatric disorders. This type of brain atrophy progresses significantly in heavy smokers and drinkers. Therefore this type of brain atrophy might be caused by the decline in the blood flow in anterior and middle cerebral arteries. Brain atrophy of type II was caused by the disturbance of cerebrospinal fluid circulation after cerebral bleeding and subarachnoid bleeding. Brain atrophy of type III was seen in vascular dementia or multi-infarct dementia which was caused by loss of brain matter after multiple infarction, and was seen also in dementia of Alzheimer type in which degeneration of nerve cells results in brain atrophy. NMR-CT can easily detect small infarction (lacunae) and edematous lesions resulting from ischemia and hypertensive encephalopathy. (J.P.N.)

    13. Safe drinking during cancer treatment

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... ency/patientinstructions/000060.htm Drinking water safely during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. During and right after your cancer treatment, your body may not be able to protect ...

    14. Vesicovaginal Fistula Repair During Pregnancy

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      Vesicovaginal Fistula Repair During Pregnancy: A Case Report ... Abstract. We report a repair of Vesicovaginal fistula during pregnancy that was aimed at preventing another spontaneous ... practices that encourage teenage marriage and girl.

    15. Primary processes during water radiolysis

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Pikaev, A.K.

      1980-01-01

      Briefly reviewed are investigations of primary process mechanism taking place during radiolysis of water and similar systems, executed by direct and indirect methods. A conclusion is made on the important role of the water structure during radiolysis of aqueous solutions of some substances. A necessity to take account of this factor during consideration of radiolysis theoretical models is pointed out

    16. Runaway electrons during tokamak startup

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Sharma, A.S.; Jayakumar, R.

      1988-01-01

      Runaway electrons significantly affect the plasma and impurity evolution during tokamak startup. During its rise, a runaway pulse stores magnetic flux inductively; this is then released during the decay phase of the runaway pulse. This process affects plasma formation, current initiation and current buildup. Because of their relativistic velocities the runaway electrons have higher ionization and excitation rates than the plasma electrons. This leads to a significant modification of the impurity behaviour and consequently the plasma evolution. (author). 20 refs, 8 figs

    17. Gastroenteropancreatic hormonal changes during exercise

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Hilsted, J; Galbo, H; Sonne, B

      1980-01-01

      Peripheral plasma concentrations of gastroenteropancreatic peptides were measured during a 3-h period of bicycle exercise at 40% of maximal oxygen uptake in six normal men. Marked increases (P......Peripheral plasma concentrations of gastroenteropancreatic peptides were measured during a 3-h period of bicycle exercise at 40% of maximal oxygen uptake in six normal men. Marked increases (P...

    18. Geomagnetic Reversals during the Phanerozoic.

      Science.gov (United States)

      McElhinny, M W

      1971-04-09

      An antalysis of worldwide paleomagnetic measurements suggests a periodicity of 350 x 10(6) years in the polarity of the geomagnetic field. During the Mesozoic it is predominantly normal, whereas during the Upper Paleozoic it is predominantly reversed. Although geomagnetic reversals occur at different rates throughout the Phanerozoic, there appeaars to be no clear correlation between biological evolutionary rates and reversal frequency.

    19. SCHOTTKY MEASUREMENTS DURING RHIC 2000

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      CAMERON, P.; CUPOLO, J.; DEGEN, C.; HAMMONS, L.; KESSELMAN, M.; LEE, R.; MEYER, A.; SIKORA, R.

      2001-01-01

      The 2GHz Schottky system was a powerful diagnostic during RHIC 2000 commissioning. A continuous monitor without beam excitation, it provided betatron tune, chromaticity, momentum spread relative emittance, and synchrotron tune. It was particularly useful during transition studies. In addition, a BPM was resonated at 230MHz for Schottky measurements

    20. Physical exercise during adjuvant chemotherapy

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      van Waart, H.

      2017-01-01

      This thesis evaluates the effect of physical exercise during chemotherapy. In chapter two the study design, rationale and methods of the Physical exercise during Adjuvant Chemotherapy Study (PACES) are described. Chapter three presents the effects of the randomized controlled trial evaluating a

    1. Quality assurance during site construction

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Eymess, K.J.; Haas, R.; Wellnitz, G.

      1980-01-01

      Quality Assurance for Nuclear Power Plants under consideration of pipe assembling. Flow of Quality Requirements during: - Desing - Construction - Procurement - Prefabrication - Site. Organizational Requirements and Measurements during Erection: - Incoming Control - Material Storage - Surveillance of Tools - Weld Surveillance - Nondestructive Testing - Cleaning - Final Documentation. Qualification and Training of QA Personnel. (orig.)

    2. What Happens during Prenatal Visits?

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... smoke, drink, or take drugs, and whether you exercise regularly. Ask about your stress level. Perform prenatal blood tests to do the ... increased risk of health problems during pregnancy? Will stress during pregnancy affect my ... minerals linked to problem with ovulation Release: Elevated blood pressure before pregnancy may increase chance ...

    3. Ammonium generation during SRAT cycle

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Hsu, C.W.

      1992-01-01

      During the IDMS noble-metal demonstration runs ammonium nitrate deposition was found in the vessel vent system of the feed preparation area. In the bench-scale experiments of studying the hydrogen generation during the sludge treatment cycle, ammonium ion production was also monitored. It was found that: During a simulation of the DWPF Cold Chemical Runs SRAT cycle no detectable amount of ammonium ions was generated when treating a non-noble-metal containing sludge simulant according to the nitric acid flowsheet. Ammonium ions were generated during the SRAT-SME cycle when treating the noble-metal containing sludge with either formic acid or nitric acid/late-washing PHA. This is due to the reaction between formic acid and nitrate catalyzed by the noble metals in the sludge simulant. Ammonium ion production closely followed the hydrogen evolution from the catalytic decomposition of formic acid. This report summarizes the results of the production of ammonia during the SRAT cycle

    4. Early assessment of anxiety and behavioral response to novel swine-origin influenza A(H1N1.

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      James Holland Jones

      Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since late April, 2009, a novel influenza virus A (H1N1, generally referred to as the "swine flu," has spread around the globe and infected hundreds of thousands of people. During the first few days after the initial outbreak in Mexico, extensive media coverage together with a high degree of uncertainty about the transmissibility and mortality rate associated with the virus caused widespread concern in the population. The spread of an infectious disease can be strongly influenced by behavioral changes (e.g., social distancing during the early phase of an epidemic, but data on risk perception and behavioral response to a novel virus is usually collected with a substantial delay or after an epidemic has run its course. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report the results from an online survey that gathered data (n = 6,249 about risk perception of the Influenza A(H1N1 outbreak during the first few days of widespread media coverage (April 28-May 5, 2009. We find that after an initially high level of concern, levels of anxiety waned along with the perception of the virus as an immediate threat. Overall, our data provide evidence that emotional status mediates behavioral response. Intriguingly, principal component analysis revealed strong clustering of anxiety about swine flu, bird flu and terrorism. All three of these threats receive a great deal of media attention and their fundamental uncertainty is likely to generate an inordinate amount of fear vis-a-vis their actual threat. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that respondents' behavior varies in predictable ways. Of particular interest, we find that affective variables, such as self-reported anxiety over the epidemic, mediate the likelihood that respondents will engage in protective behavior. Understanding how protective behavior such as social distancing varies and the specific factors that mediate it may help with the design of epidemic control strategies.

    5. Price learning during grocery shopping

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Jensen, Birger Boutrup

      Many attempts have been made to measure consumers' price knowledge for groceries. However, the results have varied considerably and conflict with results of reference price research. This is the first study to examine price knowledge before, during, and after store visit, thus enabling a study...... of what consumers learn about prices during grocery shopping. Three measures of price knowledge corresponding to different levels of price information processing were applied. Results indicate that price learning does take place and that episodic price knowledge after store exit is far more widespread...... than expected. Consequently, a new view of how consumer price knowledge evolves during grocery shopping is presented....

    6. Perceived radial translation during centrifugation

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Bos, J.E.; Correia Grácio, B.J.

      2015-01-01

      BACKGROUND: Linear acceleration generally gives rise to translation perception. Centripetal acceleration during centrifugation, however, has never been reported giving rise to a radial, inward translation perception. OBJECTIVE: To study whether centrifugation can induce a radial translation

    7. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000032.htm Dry mouth during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you ...

    8. Exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Ali, Z; Hansen, A V; Ulrik, C S

      2016-01-01

      Asthma is common among pregnant women, and the incidence of asthma exacerbations during pregnancy is high. This literature review provides an overview of the impact of exacerbations of asthma during pregnancy on pregnancy-related complications. The majority of published retrospective studies reveal...... that asthma exacerbations during pregnancy increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, placental abruption and placenta praevia. Furthermore, these women also have higher risk for breech presentation, haemorrhage, pulmonary embolism, caesarean delivery, maternal admission to the intensive care...... to these outcomes. In conclusion, asthma exacerbations during pregnancy are associated with complications of pregnancy, labour and delivery. Prevention of exacerbations is essential to reduce the risk of complications and poor outcome....

    9. Particle creation during vacuum decay

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Rubakov, V.A.

      1984-01-01

      The hamiltonian approach is developed with regard to the problem of particle creation during the tunneling process, leading to the decay of the false vacuum in quantum field theory. It is shown that, to the lowest order in (h/2π), the particle creation is described by the euclidean Schroedinger equation in an external field of a bounce. A technique for solving this equation is developed in an analogy to the Bogoliubov transformation technique, in the theory of particle creation in the presence of classical background fields. The technique is illustrated by two examples, namely, the particle creation during homogeneous vacuum decay and during the tunneling process leading to the materialization of the thin-wall bubble of a new vacuum in the metastable one. The curious phenomenon of intensive particle annihilation during vacuum decay is discussed and explicitly illustrated within the former example. The non-unitary extension of the Bogoliubov u, v transformations is described in the appendix. (orig.)

    10. Pharmacokinetics of clomipramine during pregnancy

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Ter Horst, P G J; Proost, J H; Smit, J P; Vries, M T; de Jong-van den Berg, Lolkje; Wilffert, B

      2015-01-01

      Clomipramine is one of the drugs for depression during pregnancy; however, pharmacokinetic data of clomipramine and its active metabolite desmethylclomipramine in this vulnerable period are lacking. In this study, we describe clomipramine and desmethylclomipramine concentrations including their

    11. Micro transport phenomena during boiling

      CERN Document Server

      Peng, Xiaofeng

      2011-01-01

      "Micro Transport Phenomena During Boiling" reviews the new achievements and contributions in recent investigations at microscale. It presents some original research results and discusses topics at the frontier of thermal and fluid sciences.

    12. Dealing with Pain during Childbirth

      Science.gov (United States)

      ... consider writing a birth plan that makes your preferences clear. Remember, too, that many women make decisions ... During Pregnancy View more About Us Contact Us Partners Editorial Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of ...

    13. Thermoregulatory Function During the Marathon

      National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

      Kenefick, Robert W; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Sawka, Michael N

      2007-01-01

      Marathon races are performed over a broad range of environmental conditions. Hyperthermia is a primary challenge for runners in temperature and warm weather, but hypothermia can be a concern during cool-wet or cold conditions...

    14. Oral phenoxymethylpenicillin treatment during pregnancy

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Czeizel, A.E.; Rockenbauer, M.; Olsen, Jørn

      2000-01-01

      The objective of the study was to examine the human teratogenic potential of oral penicillin V: phenoxymethylpenicillin treatment during pregnancy in the large population-based dataset of the Hungarian Case-Control Surveillance of Congenital Abnormalities, 1980–1996. The dataset included 22......, i.e. in the critical period for most major congenital abnormalities in case-matched control pairs. Thus, treatment with oral phenoxymethylpenicillin during pregnancy presents very little if any teratogenic risk to the fetus....

    15. Ventilatory strategy during liver transplantation

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Sørensen, Henrik; Grocott, Hilary P; Niemann, Mads

      2014-01-01

      BACKGROUND: As measured by near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) may be reduced by hyperventilation in the anhepatic phase of liver transplantation surgery (LTx). Conversely, the brain may be subjected to hyperperfusion during reperfusion of the grafted liver. We investig......, this retrospective analysis suggests that attention to maintain a targeted EtCO2 would result in a more stable ScO2 during the operation....

    16. Bioma platform advancements during 2017

      OpenAIRE

      FUMAGALLI DAVIDE; NIEMEYER STEFAN

      2017-01-01

      In this report we describe the advancements on the Bioma Framework developed during year 2017. Given that the Bioma platform is quite mature, its core was not recently changed. So that the majority of changes concerns the implementation of the models developed in the platform. Moreover, during 2017 we also set up an alternative version of the framework itself, based on a new developing framework called .NET Core, with the purpose of being able to create a version of Bioma runnable on Linux. ...

    17. Mitigating hyperventilation during cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nikolla, Dhimitri; Lewandowski, Tyler; Carlson, Jestin

      2016-03-01

      Although multiple airway management and ventilation strategies have been proposed during cardiac arrest, the ideal strategy is unknown. Current strategies call for advanced airways, such as endotracheal intubation and supraglottic airways. These may facilitate hyperventilation which is known to adversely affect cardiopulmonary physiology. We provide a summary of conceptual models linking hyperventilation to patient outcomes and identify methods for mitigating hyperventilation during cardiac arrest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    18. Exposure to sibutramine during pregnancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      Garcia-Bournissen, Facundo; Shrim, Alon; Koren, Gideon

      2007-01-01

      QUESTION One of my patients who was taking sibutramine to lose weight found out that she had unexpectedly conceived. The medication was stopped as soon as she found out, about 5 weeks into the pregnancy. Is the baby at risk? Should the pregnancy be aborted? ANSWER No data to date suggest that involuntary exposure to sibutramine during pregnancy carries major risk of congenital malformations. Nevertheless, this medicationshould be avoided whenever possible during pregnancy, as there is little information on its effects. PMID:17872638

    19. Protecting the skin during thyroidectomy

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Renan Bezerra Lira

      Full Text Available In this note we describe the standard technical maneuver used in our department to protect the skin during thyroidectomy in order to get the best aesthetic result. We use surgical gloves to protect the skin during these operations to reduce the negative impact of thermal trauma and mechanical retractors and energy delivery devices at the edges of the skin incised. This practice is effective, inexpensive, rapid, reproducible and showed no complication in our experience of over 2,500 thyroidectomies.

    20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons over a tropical urban and a high altitude Himalayan Station in India: Temporal variation and source apportionment

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ray, Debajyoti; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Majumdar, Dipanjali; Ghosh, Sanjay K.; Raha, Sibaji

      2017-11-01

      The temporal variations and major sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) intrinsic to PM10 were investigated over a tropical urban atmosphere on the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and for the first time over a high altitude urban atmosphere at eastern Himalaya in India. Samples were collected over Kolkata, a megacity and Darjeeling, a high altitude (2200 m asl) hill station in eastern India during the dry season (October 2015-May 2016). Fourteen PAHs were detected and quantified over Kolkata and Darjeeling during three consecutive seasons, viz., post-monsoon, winter and pre-monsoon. The total-PAHs concentrations were in the order of winter (78.08-146.71 ngm- 3) > post-monsoon (83.42-113.52 ngm- 3) > pre-monsoon (37.65-109.27 ngm- 3) at Kolkata, whereas post-monsoon (22.72-36.60 ngm- 3) > winter (8.52-28.43 ngm- 3) > pre-monsoon (5.45-13.34 ngm- 3) at Darjeeling. The observed seasonality of PAHs at Kolkata vis-a-vis Darjeeling has been explored in the light of anthropogenic activities, boundary layer dynamics and meteorological parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and solar radiation. Negative correlation was observed between total-PAHs and temperature, wind speed and solar radiation over Kolkata and Darjeeling. The positive matrix factorization (PMF) model calculations suggested that coal (26%), petrol (24%) and diesel (17%) combustion, commercial and household kitchens (18%) and municipal solid waste incineration (15%) are the possible contributors to the PM10 associated PAHs over Kolkata whereas diesel (37%), commercial and household kitchens (23%), coal (21%) and petrol (20%) are the possible PM10 associated PAH sources over Darjeeling.

    1. Trinta e sete dias em Nova York com Adalzira Bittencourt Thirty - seven days in New York with Adalzira Bittencourt

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Peggy Sharpe

      2008-12-01

      Full Text Available A viagem de Adalzira Bittencourt para os Estados Unidos durante 1939 gerou a publicação de uma narrativa de viagem que conta os detalhes de sua visita a inúmeras escolas, hospitais, orfanatos de Nova York e à Feira Mundial de 1939 na mesma cidade. Suas impressões sobre as reformas eugênicas, que estavam sendo implementadas nos Estados Unidos nessa época, revelam sua aliança aos projetos de renovação cultural patrocinados pelo regime de Getúlio Vargas que visavam melhorar as condições sociais da população não privilegiada da sociedade brasileira. Os comentários de Bittencourt também expõem o preconceito racial prevalente nos Estados Unidos e sua própria atitude racista com o setor da população brasileira pelo qual advogava como educadora, ativista social, escritora e advogada.Adalzira Bittencourt's visit to the US during 1939 resulted in a travel narrative that recounts the details of her visits to numerous schools, hospitals and orphanages in the city of New York and to the 1939 World's Fair held in the same city. Her general impressions of the eugenic reforms underway in the US during this time period reveal her support for the project of cultural renewal sponsored by the Vargas regime that targeted the disadvantaged in Brazilian society. In addition, Bittencourt's commentary exposes the racial prejudice prevalent in American society at the time and outlines the hues and tones of her own brand of racism vis a vis the very sector of the Brazilian population she advocated for throughout her career as a lawyer, educator, social activist and writer.

    2. Effects of the "New Climate" warmed in North Africa and Western Mediterranean: the situation of recent meteorological droughts and floods

      Science.gov (United States)

      Karrouk, Mohammed-Said

      2017-04-01

      "New Climate" subjected to North Africa, Western Mediterranean and geoclimatic midlatitude space atmospheric effects of the new regime characterized by the supremacy of the meridian circulation (MAC: Meridian Atmospheric Circulation), by alternating cool conditions (humidity) heat (drought) along the year, and imposes situation of anxiety and perplexity vis-a-vis their socio-economic activities; shoved agricultural calendar, hesitant policymakers, uncertainty and waiting, ... etc. The recent example of the fall-winter 2015-2016 is indicative of the conditions that have left a deep psychological imprint on economic and social Moroccans. During this period, the summer heat has extended to the end of autumn and even winter. And precipitation contracted by more than 51% of accumulated rainfall autumn, compared with the same period a normal year. A slowdown in economic growth has been felt since last December and was extended until the rains return (and snow!) In mid February 2016. Weather conditions during this period were marked by the succession and persistence of very active planetary peaks, projected to the northern borders of Western Europe (Heat Christmas 2015!), Rejecting the negative waves to the east: Algeria, Tunisia, Italy, the Balkans, Anatolia, and even the Middle East. These conditions are the consequences of the "New Climate" warmed, strengthened by the strong El Niño event in 2015 decennial. The identification of hemispheric and regional climate mechanisms of these atmospheric regime systems based on energy balance and atmospheric circulation will be defined, with links of cause and effect, in view of integrating these characters to extreme events in the New Climate Warmed.

    3. The voluntary safeguards offer of the United States

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Houck, F.S.

      1985-01-01

      During negotiations of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) concerns were expressed by non-nuclear-weapon States that their acceptance of Agency safeguards would put them at a disadvantage vis-a-vis the nuclear-weapon States. To allay these concerns, the United States and the United Kingdom in December 1967 made voluntary offers to accept Agency safeguards on their peaceful nuclear activities. Subsequently, France made a voluntary offer, the safeguards agreement for which was approved by the IAEA Board of Governors in February 1978, with a view to encouraging acceptance of Agency safeguards by additional States. More recently, in February 1985 the Board approved the safeguards agreement for the voluntary offer of the USSR, made inter alia to encourage further acceptance of Agency safeguards. These safeguards agreements with nuclear-weapon-States have two important features in common: Namely, they result from voluntary offers to accept safeguards rather than from multilateral or bilateral undertakings, and they give the Agency the right but generally not an obligation to apply its safeguards. The agreements differ in certain respects, the most noteworthy of which is the scope of the nuclear activities covered by each offer. The agreements of the United States and United Kingdom are the broadest, covering all peaceful nuclear activities in each country. The safeguards agreement for the US voluntary offer has been in force since December 1980. Now is an appropriate time to review the experience with the agreement's implementation during its first four years, as well as its history and salient features

    4. Possible roles of HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein in the specificity of proviral DNA synthesis and in its variability.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lapadat-Tapolsky, M; Gabus, C; Rau, M; Darlix, J L

      1997-05-02

      Retroviral nucleocapsid (NC) protein is an integral part of the virion nucleocapsid where it coats the dimeric RNA genome. Due to its nucleic acid binding and annealing activities, NC protein directs the annealing of the tRNA primer to the primer binding site and greatly facilitates minus strand DNA elongation and transfer while protecting the nucleic acids against nuclease degradation. To understand the role of NCp7 in viral DNA synthesis, we examined the influence of NCp7 on self-primed versus primer-specific reverse transcription. The results show that HIV-1 NCp7 can extensively inhibit self-primed reverse transcription of viral and cellular RNAs while promoting primer-specific synthesis of proviral DNA. The role of NCp7 vis-a-vis the presence of mutations in the viral DNA during minus strand elongation was examined. NCp7 maximized the annealing between a cDNA(-) primer containing one to five consecutive errors and an RNA representing the 3' end of the genome. The ability of reverse transcriptase (RT) in the presence of NCp7 to subsequently extend the mutated primers depended upon the position of the mismatch within the primer:template complex. When the mutations were at the polymerisation site, primer extension by RT in the presence of NCp7 was very high, about 40% for one mismatch and 3% for five consecutive mismatches. Mutations within the DNA primer or at its 5' end had little effect on the extension of viral DNA by RT. Taken together these results indicate that NCp7 plays major roles in proviral DNA synthesis within the virion core due to its ability to promote prime-specific proviral DNA synthesis while concurrently inhibiting non-specific reverse transcription of viral and cellular RNAs. Moreover, the observation that NCp7 enhances the incorporation of mutations during minus strand DNA elongation favours the notion that NCp7 is a factor contributing to the high mutation rate of HIV-1.

    5. Activation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in cerebellum of chronic hepatic encephalopathy rats is associated with up-regulation of NADPH-producing pathway.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Singh, Santosh; Trigun, Surendra K

      2010-09-01

      Cerebellum-associated functions get affected during mild hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) in patients with chronic liver failure (CLF). Involvement of nitrosative and antioxidant factors in the pathogenesis of chronic hepatic encephalopathy is an evolving concept and needs to be defined in a true CLF animal model. This article describes profiles of NADPH-dependent neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and those of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase (GR) vis-a-vis regulation of NADPH-producing pathway in the cerebellum of CLF rats induced by administration of thioacetamide (100 mg kg⁻¹ b.w., i.p.) up to 10 days and confirming MHE on Morris water maze tests. Significant increases in the expression of nNOS protein and nitric oxide (NOx) level coincided with a similar increment in NADPH-diaphorase activity in the cerebellum of CLF rats. Glutathione peroxidase and GR utilize NADPH to regenerate reduced glutathione (GSH) in the cells. Both these enzymes and GSH level were found to be static and thus suggested efficient turnover of GSH in the cerebellum of MHE rats. Relative levels of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) vs. phosphofructokinase 2 (PFK2) determine the rate of pentose phosphate pathway (PPP) responsible to synthesize NADPH. The cerebellum of CLF rats showed overactivation of G6PD with a significant decline in the expression of PFK2 and thus suggested activation of PPP in the cerebellum during MHE. It is concluded that concordant activations of PPP and nNOS in cerebellum of MHE rats could be associated with the implication of NOx in the pathogenesis of MHE.

    6. A survey on Triatoma dimidiata in an urban area of the province of Heredia, Costa Rica

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Rodrigo Zeledón

      2005-10-01

      Full Text Available Triatoma dimidiata has been found in several cities and towns of those countries where the insect is a domestic or peridomestic pest. In Central America, urban infestations occur in the capitals of at least five countries. During 2001 and 2002 a survey was carried out in the county of San Rafael, Heredia province, located 15 km northwest of San José, capital of Costa Rica, in order to determine the degree of infestation by T. dimidiata in an entire city block. Six peridomestic colonies of the insect were detected in the backyards of eight households. The ecotopes occupied by the insects consisted of store rooms with old objects, wood piles or firewood, and chicken coops. A total of 1917 insects were found in the six foci, during two sampling periods, and a mean infection rate by Trypanosoma cruzi of 28.4% was found in 1718 insects examined. The largest colony found in one of the households yielded 872 insects that were thriving mainly at the expenses of two dogs. Opossums and adult insects were common visitors of the houses and it became evident that this marsupial is closely related to the peridomestic cycle of the Chagas disease agent. Lack of colonization of the insect inside the human dwellings is explained by the type of construction and good sanitary conditions of the houses, in contrast to the situation in most peridomiciliary areas. Stomach blood samples from the insects showed that the main hosts were, in order of decreasing frequency: rodents, dogs, fowl, humans, opossums, and cats. The fact that no indication of infection with Chagas disease could be detected in the human occupants of the infested houses, vis a vis the high infection rate in dogs, is discussed.

    7. In Praise of Illusions: Giacomo Leopardi‘s Ultraphilosophy

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Geir Sigurðsson

      2010-03-01

      Full Text Available Judging from his most prominent works, the Italian poet and writer Giacomo Leopardi (1898-1937 may seem to have been a rather isolated proponent of classical thinking in his backward Recanati during Europe‘s powerful thrust to modernity. However, his philosophical diaries, Zibaldone di pensieri, written between 1817 and 1832 while not published until 1898, reveal that Leopardi followed closely the philosophical development in Europe during his time. By leaning on the chronologically ordered Zibaldone, as well as on some of his philosophical prose and essays, this paper seeks to clarify Leopardi‘s critical stance vis-a-vis the modern and scientific philosophy of the Enlightenment and formulate his own responses to the radically altered worldview with which it is associated. Leopardi predates both Friedrich Nietzsche and later existential thinkers in considering the scientific and epistemological advances in Europe to have brought about a collapse of meaning and significance for the human being and his status in the universe. While identifying, in a most lucid manner, the ills of modernity for meaningful human orientation, he at the same time proposes a way out of the ‘nothingness of being’ that involves a formulation of a new kind of philosophy – an ‘ultraphilosophy’ with the ability to overcome the negative effects of the modern philosophy while, nevertheless, accepting its most important and inevitable conclusions. In this endeavour, Leopardi offers an interesting and often entertaining discussion of the different propensities in Southern and Northern cultures to romantic sensitivity, the quest for truth and belief in social values.

    8. [Prehospital thrombolysis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Spöhr, F; Böttiger, B W

      2005-02-01

      Although prehospital cardiac arrest has an incidence of 40-90/100,000 inhabitants per year, there has been a lack of therapeutic options to improve the outcome of these patients. Of all cardiac arrests, 50-70% are caused by acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or massive pulmonary embolism (PE). Thrombolysis has been shown to be a causal and effective therapy in patients with AMI or PE who do not suffer cardiac arrest. In contrast, experience with the use of thrombolysis during cardiac arrest has been limited. Thrombolysis during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) acts directly on thrombi or emboli causing AMI or PE. In addition, experimental studies suggest that thrombolysis causes an improvement in microcirculatory reperfusion after cardiac arrest. In-hospital and prehospital case series and clinical studies suggest that thrombolysis during CPR may cause a restoration of spontaneous circulation and survival even in patients that have been resuscitated conventionally without success. In addition, there is evidence for an improved neurological outcome in patients receiving a thrombolytic therapy during during CPR. A large randomized, double-blind multicenter trial that has started recently is expected to show if this new therapeutic option can generally improve the prognosis of patients with cardiac arrest.

    9. Transcendental experiences during meditation practice.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Travis, Frederick

      2014-01-01

      This article explores transcendental experiences during meditation practice and the integration of transcendental experiences and the unfolding of higher states of consciousness with waking, dreaming, and sleeping. The subject/object relationship during transcendental experiences is characterized by the absence of time, space, and body sense--the framework that gives meaning to waking experiences. Physiologically, transcendental experiences during Transcendental Meditation practice are marked by slow inhalation, along with autonomic orientation at the onset of breath changes and heightened α1 (8-10 Hz) frontal coherence. The integration of transcendental experiences with waking, dreaming, and sleeping is also marked by distinct subjective and objective markers. This integrated state, called Cosmic Consciousness in the Vedic tradition, is subjectively marked by inner self-awareness coexisting with waking, sleeping, and dreaming. Physiologically, Cosmic Consciousness is marked by the coexistence of α1 electroencephalography (EEG) with delta EEG during deep sleep, and higher brain integration, greater emotional stability, and decreased anxiety during challenging tasks. Transcendental experiences may be the engine that fosters higher human development. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

    10. Passengers waste production during flights.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tofalli, Niki; Loizia, Pantelitsa; Zorpas, Antonis A

      2017-12-20

      We assume that during flights the amount of waste that is produced is limited. However, daily, approximately 8000 commercial airplanes fly above Europe's airspace while at the same time, more than 17,000 commercial flights exist in the entire world. Using primary data from airlines, which use the Larnaca's International Airport (LIA) in Cyprus, we have tried to understand why wastes are produced during a typical flight such as food waste, paper, and plastics, as well as how passengers affect the production of those wastes. The compositional analysis took place on 27 flights of 4 different airlines which used LIA as final destination. The evaluation indicated that the passenger's habits and ethics, and the policy of each airline produced different kinds of waste during the flights and especially food waste (FW). Furthermore, it was observed that the only waste management strategy that exists in place in the airport is the collection and the transportation of all those wastes from aircrafts and from the airport in the central unit for further treatment. Hence, this research indicated extremely difficulties to implement any specific waste minimization, or prevention practice or other sorting methods during the flights due to the limited time of the most flights (less than 3 h), the limited available space within the aircrafts, and the strictly safety roles that exist during the flights.

    11. DN detection during SLSF tests

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Braid, T.H.; Harper, H.A.; Wilson, R.E.; Baldwin, R.D.; Gilbert, D.M.; Baxter, D.E.; Gillins, R.L.; Jeffries, G.L.

      1982-01-01

      During two tests in the Sodium Loop Safety Facility (W2 and P4), two systems were operated to detect delayed neutrons from exposed fuel. One monitored directly the sodium in the in-pile loop with a transit delay from the flux region of approx.2 seconds; the other conducted a sample stream of sodium to external detectors with a transit delay which could be varied from approx.10 to approx. 40 seconds. Detectors of a wide range of sensitivity were operated in pulse and current mode; DN signals varying from 2 recoil to many grams of molten fuel could be recorded reliably without saturation. During the W2 and P4 tests a continuous DN record was made. Massive fuel failure signals were observed during reactor transients in both tests, including events interpreted as fuel melting and exposure of large areas. The steady signal from the blockage in P4 was studied as a function of reactor power and sodium temperature

    12. Arterial responses during migraine headache

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Nielsen, T H; Olesen, J

      1990-01-01

      The superficial temporal artery has been thought to be the main focus of pain during migraine attacks, but its diameter has never been measured directly. The use of a new, high-resolution ultrasound machine to measure arterial size in 25 migraine patients with unilateral head pain showed...... that the lumen was wider on the painful than on the non-painful side during a migraine attack. The diameters of both radial arteries and the temporal artery on the non-painful side were smaller during than between attacks. The generalised vasoconstriction was not shared by the temporal artery on the affected...... side, which suggests a local vasodilatory response. The findings suggest that cephalic arteries may play a role in migraine pathogenesis....

    13. Customer Integration during Innovation Development

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Pedrosa, Alex

      2012-01-01

      of companies’ growing interest in effectively collaborating with customers, research has investigated the importance of firm–customer interaction during innovation development. However, despite valuable insights into the performance-enhancing effects of customer integration, research has thus far overlooked......To stay viable, companies need to increase their innovation development investments over time. However, successful innovation development also cannot happen without customers, and thus companies seek opportunities to enhance their knowledge of current and future customer needs. As a result...... the activities companies should engage in when integrating customers during innovation development. Thus, this study investigates how and when customer-oriented companies engage in customer interaction during innovation development. Using a multiple case study design, this study examines four substantive cases...

    14. Deprem Magnitüdleri İçin Tekrarlanma Yıllarının Elde Edilmesi : Marmara Bölgesi Örneği = Obtaining the Return Period of Earthquake Magnitudes : As an Example Marmara Region

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Reşat KASAP

      2003-06-01

      Full Text Available In this study, statistical analysis have been done for 447 earthquake occurrences data, between north (39.500-41.500 and east (26.000-32.500 coordinates in the Marmara Region from 1900 to 2000. It has been found that the probability density and distribution functions of magnitude random variable, and then the return period of earthquakes of various magnitudes have been found.

    15. Ozmatik Ortam Olarak Beta Vulgaris Özütü İle Cocos Nucifera Cipsi Elde Edilmesinin Araştırılması (İngilizce

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Meenakshisundaram Sivasakthi

      2015-02-01

      Full Text Available Sakkaroz ve şeker pancarı ekstraktı infüzyonunun, hindistancevizi cipsinin fiziksel, fizikokimyasal, duyusal, renk ve tekstür özellikleri üzerine dehidrasyon yöntemleri (sıcak hava kurutma destekli ozmotik önişlemlerin etkisi incelendi. Kalınlığı 0.5 ve 0.8±0.1 mm olan hindistancevizi dilimlerine, farklı konsantrasyonlarda (%100, %90 ve %80 şeker pancarı ekstraktı infüzyonu varlığında (% 5, %10 ve % 15 ve bu infüzyon olmadan kalınlığa bağlı olarak 30-60 dakika ozmotik önişlem uygulanmıştır. Ozmotik işlemden sonra, dilimler etüvde 50-60 °C'da 7-8 saat süre ile ilave kurutma işlemi uygulanmıştır. Şeker pancarı ekstresi infüzyonu olmayan ozmotik ortam, kontrol olarak kullanılmıştır. Kontrol ile karşılaştırıldığında, %15 şeker pancarı ekstresi infüzyonu eklenmiş % 100 sakkaroz çözeltisi ile hazırlanmış cipslerin karbohidrat, toplam şeker, kül, enerji içeriği ile ağırlık kaybı, katı madde kazanımı, nem kaybı, renk, tekstür, kuruma özellikleri ve pH açısından önemli derecede (P<0.05 üstün olduğu görülmüştür.

    16. SABİT ODAKLI SİLİNDİRİK P ARAB OLİK BİR YOdUNLAŞTIRlCIDA KIZGIN SU ELDE EDİLMESİ

      OpenAIRE

      FETHİ HALICI

      1999-01-01

      Bu çalışn1ada, odağı sabit yansıtıcısı ha reketli olarak imal edilen silindirik parabolik yoğunlaştırıcıda (SPY) kızgın su ve sıcak su için yapılan deney sonuçları ve pe rfoımans değerleri verilmiştir. (SPY) 'nın yansıtıcı yüzeyi 2ınx3 m boyutlarında olup toplam açıklık alanı 6 ın2 dir. Odaktaki yut ucu yüzey yan yana yerleştirilen 2 kanatlı borudan imal edilmiştir. Odak uzaklığı 6 m olan (SPY) kuzey güney doğrultusu nda yerleştirilerek özel yapılan bir ınekanizma ile güneşi doğu batı doğrult...

    17. Fındık zurufu atığından yakıt briketi elde edilmesi ve brikete ait bazı özelliklerin belirlenmesi

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Bahadır Demirel

      2018-02-01

      Full Text Available Turkey’s energy status mainly depends on imported resources such as oil and natural gas. Such imported resources create extra load on the country’s economy and cause an important problem on its development. Despite being a poor country in terms of fossil fuel, Turkey has rich renewable energy sources. In this study, hazelnut husks were used as an agricultural residue after harvesting to obtain fuel briquette. The materials were firstly dried up to 13 – 15 % moisture content and grinded into 10 mm size, and then they were pressed under 80 MPa pressure in order to form briquettes. Heating values of hazelnut husk briquette was found to be 4232 cal g -1. Ash content was 10.65 %, while tumbler index, shatter index and water resistance were 75.82 %, 95.82 % and 91.52%, respectively.

    18. Respiratory physiology during early life.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Stocks, J

      1999-08-01

      Despite the rapid adaptation to extrauterine life, the respiratory system of an infant is not simply a miniaturized version of that of an adult, since the rapid somatic growth that occurs during the first year of life is accompanied by major developmental changes in respiratory physiology. The highly compliant chest wall of the infant results in relatively low transpulmonary pressures at end expiration with increased tendency of the small peripheral airways to close during tidal breathing. This not only impairs gas exchange and ventilation-perfusion balance, particularly in dependent parts of the lung, but, together with the small absolute size of the airways, renders the infant and young child particularly susceptible to airway obstruction. Premature airways are highly compliant structures compared with those of mature newborns or adults. This increased compliance can cause airway collapse, resulting in increased airways resistance, flow limitation, poor gas exchange and increased work of breathing. Although there is clear evidence that airway reactivity is present from birth, its role in wheezing lower respiratory tract illnesses in young infants may be overshadowed by pre-existing abnormalities of airway geometry and lung mechanics, or by pathological changes such as airway oedema and mucus hypersecretion. Attempts to assess age-related changes in airway reactivity or response to aerosol therapy in the very young is confounded by changes in breathing patterns and the fact that infants are preferential nose breathers. There is increasing evidence that pre-existing abnormalities of respiratory function, associated with adverse events during foetal life (including maternal smoking during pregnancy), and familial predisposition to wheezing are important determinants of wheezing illnesses during the first years of life. This emphasizes the need to identify and minimize any factors that threaten the normal development of the lung during this critical period if

    19. Respiratory tract infection during Hajj

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Alzeer Abdulaziz

      2009-01-01

      Full Text Available Respiratory tract infection during Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca is a common illness, and it is responsible for most of the hospital admissions. Influenza virus is the leading cause of upper respiratory tract infection during Hajj, and pneumonia can be serious. Taking into account the close contacts among the pilgrims, as well as the crowding, the potential for transmission of M. tuberculosis is expected to be high. These pilgrims can be a source for spreading infection on their return home. Although vaccination program for influenza is implemented, its efficacy is uncertain in this religious season. Future studies should concentrate on prevention and mitigation of these infections.

    20. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

      1990-01-01

      To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

    1. Conceptual Combination During Sentence Comprehension

      Science.gov (United States)

      Swinney, David; Love, Tracy; Walenski, Matthew; Smith, Edward E.

      2008-01-01

      This experiment examined the time course of integration of modifier-noun (conceptual) combinations during auditory sentence comprehension using cross-modal lexical priming. The study revealed that during ongoing comprehension, there is initial activation of features of the noun prior to activation of (emergent) features of the entire conceptual combination. These results support compositionality in conceptual combination; that is, they indicate that features of the individual words constituting a conceptual combination are activated prior to combination of the words into a new concept. PMID:17576278

    2. The role of nuclear power in meeting future U.S. energy needs

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Wiggin, E.A.

      1977-01-01

      Uranium and coal are domestically available fuels that provide a viable means for augmenting dwindling indigenous supplies of natural gas and imported oil to meet U.S. electric power needs during the remainder of the twentieth century. Their availability, coupled with a proven technology for utilizing them efficiently, offers the U.S. an attractive route to energy independence. Uranium, through the breeder, offers the further potential of helping the U.S. meet its energy needs into the twenty-first century - hopefully, until fusion and other high technology alternatives can be brought to commercialization. Notwithstanding the financial, regulatory and institutional problems that have plagued the U.S. nuclear power program over the past two years, the utility industry has maintained its commitment to nuclear power. This reflects to some extent, the absence of a viable alternative. But more importantly, it reflects a conviction on the part of the U.S. utility industry, based on an unmatched record of reliable and safe performance, that nuclear power offers the most economic and most environmentally acceptable means of generating steam to produce electricity. This paper considers the likelihood of the U.S. industry's further commitment to nuclear power vis-a-vis comparable commitments in other parts of the world. It points out wherein those commitments will be contingent upon closing the nuclear fuel cycle. It also addresses, the extent to which such commitments will be influenced by government policy and regulation, financing and manpower requisites, and the challenge of the critics. Finally, this paper points out wherein nuclear power is already a de facto key to a U.S. national energy policy and wherein it can further contribute to the goal of energy independence

    3. Calculation of nondiffused proximity functions from cloud-chamber data

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Zaider, M.

      1987-01-01

      To a large extent the cloud chamber is an ideal microdosimetric device: by measuring the positions of ionizing events in charged-particle tracks one can generate - with a flexibility matched only by Monte-Carlo simulations-any microdosimetric quantity of interest, ranging from lineal energy spectra (in volumes of practically arbitrary shape and size) to proximity functions, that is, distributions of distances between energy transfer points in the track. Cloud-chamber data analyzed in such ways have been indeed reported for a variety of radiations. In view of these clear advantages it is certainly surprising that, within the microdosimetric community, only one group (at Harwell, UK) is actively involved in such work and that, furthermore, cloud-chamber results are used essentially only as a testing ground for Monte-Carlo calculations. It appears that this reluctance can be traced to the fact that the tracks are distorted by the diffusion of droplets during their growth. This diffusion - which is of the order of several nanometers (in unit-density material), although rather insignificant vis-a-vis conventional microdosimetry, can be a serious limitation in view of modern theories of radiation action which emphasize energy deposition events at the nanometer level. The purpose of this research activity is to show that, using a rather straight-forward mathematical procedure, one can unfold the effect of diffusion from proximity functions. Since the nondiffused proximity function can be used to calculate other microdosimetric quantities an important limitation of the cloud-chamber data can thus be avoided

    4. Real purchasing power of oil revenues for OPEC Member Countries: a broad currency basket and dynamic trade pattern approach

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Mazraati, M.

      2005-01-01

      The purpose of this paper is to examine the real purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries' oil revenues, which are subject to 'the value of the US dollar vis-a-vis other major currencies' and 'world imported inflation'. The exponential weighting average formula with a broad basket of currencies is suggested. The basket of currencies is labelled as a broad currency basket and includes the major trading partners of OPEC Member Countries. The weights are normalized OPEC import shares of the countries of the basket and are updated and adjusted every year to incorporate a gradual change in the trade pattern. In other words, the dynamic trade pattern approach is incorporated in the calculations. The nominal dollar oil revenues of OPEC Member Countries are about $5,099 billion during 1970 to 2004, of which $3,725 bn (73 per cent) have been lost due to imported inflation and the dollar's depreciation. Imported inflation and dollar depreciation have had a respective 78.6 per cent and 21.4 per cent contribution to the losses of the purchasing power of OPEC Member Countries. The imported inflation rate approaches a stable low level, but OPEC still has a lot of concerns on dollar swings. The euro offers opportunities for many oil-exporting nations that have extensive trade relations with Euro-zone countries. Payments for oil exports can be invoked in euros at the prevailing dollar-euro rate on the day of a given contract, or any other trigger formula. This would immunize a major portion of OPEC oil revenues from dollar depreciation. (author)

    5. Vertical jumping tests in volleyball: reliability, validity, and playing-position specifics.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sattler, Tine; Sekulic, Damir; Hadzic, Vedran; Uljevic, Ognjen; Dervisevic, Edvin

      2012-06-01

      Vertical jumping is known to be important in volleyball, and jumping performance tests are frequently studied for their reliability and validity. However, most studies concerning jumping in volleyball have dealt with standard rather than sport-specific jumping procedures and tests. The aims of this study, therefore, were (a) to determine the reliability and factorial validity of 2 volleyball-specific jumping tests, the block jump (BJ) test and the attack jump (AJ) test, relative to 2 frequently used and systematically validated jumping tests, the countermovement jump test and the squat jump test and (b) to establish volleyball position-specific differences in the jumping tests and simple anthropometric indices (body height [BH], body weight, and body mass index [BMI]). The BJ was performed from a defensive volleyball position, with the hands positioned in front of the chest. During an AJ, the players used a 2- to 3-step approach and performed a drop jump with an arm swing followed by a quick vertical jump. A total of 95 high-level volleyball players (all men) participated in this study. The reliability of the jumping tests ranged from 0.97 to 0.99 for Cronbach's alpha coefficients, from 0.93 to 0.97 for interitem correlation coefficients and from 2.1 to 2.8 for coefficients of variation. The highest reliability was found for the specific jumping tests. The factor analysis extracted one significant component, and all of the tests were highly intercorrelated. The analysis of variance with post hoc analysis showed significant differences between 5 playing positions in some of the jumping tests. In general, receivers had a greater jumping capacity, followed by libero players. The differences in jumping capacities should be emphasized vis-a-vis differences in the anthropometric measures of players, where middle hitters had higher BH and body weight, followed by opposite hitters and receivers, with no differences in the BMI between positions.

    6. Synergistic effect of tungsten disulfide and cenosphere combination on braking performance of composite friction materials

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Kachhap, Rakesh K.; Satapathy, Bhabani K.

      2014-01-01

      Graphical abstract: Graphical abstract showing correlation between enhanced frictional stability and enhanced visc-oelastic energy dissipation. - Highlights: • Developed new class of brake composites based on WS 2 and cenosphere. • Synergistic effect of WS 2 and cenosphere for enhanced friction stability. • Wear surface morphology revealed composition specific topography. • Friction fade-recovery performance remained optimal. - Abstract: Tungsten disulfide (WS 2 /TDS) based cenosphere (Cn) filled friction composites with varying cenosphere to WS 2 ratio (Cn/TDS) were fabricated by compression molding of phenolic resin based dry formulation mix and evaluated for their thermal, thermo-mechanical and tribological performances. The loss and revival of braking friction effectiveness due to heating or cooling of the disc termed as fade and recovery performance have been characterized on a Krauss friction testing machine following ECE R-90 industrial standards. The fade performance remained dependent on Cn/TDS, where enhanced fading could be correlated to lower Cn/TDS value accompanied with broader frictional fluctuations i.e. μ max –μ min . A decrease in the frictional-recovery response ensued with increase in Cn/TDS. Dynamic mechanical analysis revealed an increase in storage modulus till 2.5 wt.% of TDS loading followed by consistent decrease whereas two distinct peaks in loss modulus plots that are composition independent have been observed. Scanning electron microscopy revealed the worn surface morphology associated with the dynamics of contact patches formation and deformation vis-a-vis friction layer formation as integrally responsible for the observed friction performance. Energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDX) enabled compositional analysis of the friction layer viz. Fe, W, Si, and Al content which may have a mechanistic role in controlling phenomena like, disc rubbing, lubricity, porosity, and hardness of friction layer formed during braking

    7. Separation profiles of Sr from irradiated Yttrium matrix using different eluants by ion-exchange chromatography

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Ashok Kumar, G.V.S.; Vithya, J.; Kumar, R.; VenkataSubramani, C.R.

      2014-01-01

      89 Sr (a pure β - emitter, T 1/2 = 50.5d) is used in palliative care of bone metastases and was produced using the 89 Y(n,p) 89 Sr reaction in Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR), Kalpakkam. The irradiated yttria target was dissolved in nitric acid and bulk separation of yttrium carried out by solvent extraction using TBP-HNO 3 followed by ion exchange chromatography of the aqueous phase with nitric acid as an eluting agent to obtain the pure fraction of 89 Sr. This paper discusses about the feasibility of separation of 89 Sr with other eluting agents in ion exchange chromatography vis-a-vis nitric acid. As this nuclide is injected as the chloride, the purified fraction of Sr in nitric acid medium is finally converted into HCI medium which is the preferred medium of source for its final application. In order to simplify the conversion, HCI medium can be used directly in the purifying stage making the process faster and simpler. Hence the separation profile using HCI was obtained. In addition, the elution pattern using another reagent tri sodium tri meta phosphate (SMP) was also determined. Purification of 89 Sr fraction using the eluants HCI and SMP was established. However, the elution with SMP yielded the 89 Sr fraction in a small volume and shorter period i.e. ∼ 9 h in comparison with 15 h and 22 h in the case of HCI and HNO 3 medium respectively and also generated less liquid waste. This study established that SMP can be a more favoured elution agent for the purification of 89 Sr source during the chemical processing of the bulk irradiated yttria target material. However the direct separation of Sr using the Sr selective crown ether i.e.ditert.butyl dicyclohexano 18 Crown 6, is much preferred over this method which is in progress

    8. Regional nuclear fuel cycle centers study project

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Bennett, L.; Catlin, R.G.; Meckoni, V.

      1977-01-01

      The concept of regional fuel cycle centers (RFCC) has attracted wide interest. The concept was endorsed by many countries in discussions at the General Conference of the International Atomic Energy Agency and at the General Assembly of the United Nations. Accordingly, in 1975, the IAEA initiated a detailed study of the RFCC concept. The Agency study has concentrated on what is referred to as the ''back-end'' of the fuel cycle because that is the portion which is currently problematic. The study covers transport, storage, processing and recycle activities starting from the time the spent fuel leaves the reactor storage pools and through all steps until the recycled fuel is in finished fuel elements and shipped to the reactor. A detailed evaluation of the specific features of large regional fuel cycle centers established on a multinational basis vis-a-vis smaller dispersed fuel cycle facilities set up on a national basis has been carried out. The methodology for assessment of alternative strategies for fuel storage, reprocessing, and recycling of plutonium has been developed, characteristic data on material flows and cost factors have been generated, and an analytic system has been developed to carry out such evaluations including appropriate sensitivity analysis. Studies in related areas on institutional and legal, organizational, environmental, materials control and other essential aspects have also been made. The material developed during the course of this Study would enable any group of interested Member States to examine and work out alternative strategies pertinent to their present and projected nuclear fuel cycle needs, as well as evolve institutional, legal and other appropriate frameworks or agreements for the establishment of fuel cycle centers on a multinational cooperative basis

    9. Magnetopriming - an alternate strategy for crop stress management of field crops

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Anand, Anjali

      2014-01-01

      Abiotic stresses are major deterrent to sustainable crop production worldwide. Seed germination and early seedling growth are considered as the most critical stages of plant growth under stress conditions. Maximising stress tolerance of crop species by breeding is an integral part of development of strategies for improving sustainable food production under stressed environment but the unprecedented rate at which stress is increasing vis-a-vis the time taken for development of a tolerant variety, necessitates exploring alternate strategies of crop stress management. Seed priming has emerged as a promising crop stress management technique that increases the speed of germination thus ensuring synchronized field emergence of the crop. Magnetopriming (exposure of seeds to magnetic field) is a non invasive physical stimulant used for improving seedling vigour that helps in establishment of crop stand under stress. In our experiments on maize; chickpea and wheat under water deficit and salinity, respectively, improved seed water absorption characteristics resulted in faster hydration of enzymes (amylases, protease and dehydrogenase) leading to early germination and enhanced vigour of seedlings under stress. Increased levels of hydrogen peroxide in faster germinating - magnetoprimed seeds, under both the growing conditions, suggested its role in oxidative signaling during seed germination process. An 'oxidative window' for reactive oxygen species ensured that faster germination rate in magnetoprimed seeds led to vigourous seedlings. Improved root system integrated with higher photosynthetic efficiency and efficient partitioning of Na + increased yield from magnetoprimed seeds under salinity in controlled experiments. Magnetopriming can be effectively used as a pre-sowing treatment for mitigating adverse effects of water deficit and salinity at seed germination and early seedling growth. Unlike other conventional priming techniques it avoids seed hydration and

    10. A pilot study to determine medical laser generated air contaminant emission rates for a simulated surgical procedure.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lippert, Julia F; Lacey, Steven E; Lopez, Ramon; Franke, John; Conroy, Lorraine; Breskey, John; Esmen, Nurtan; Liu, Li

      2014-01-01

      The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) estimates that half a million health-care workers are exposed to laser surgical smoke each year. The purpose of this study was to establish a methodology to (1) estimate emission rates of laser-generated air contaminants (LGACs) using an emission chamber, and to (2) perform a screening study to differentiate the effects of three laser operational parameters. An emission chamber was designed, fabricated, and assessed for performance to estimate the emission rates of gases and particles associated with LGACs during a simulated surgical procedure. Two medical lasers (Holmium Yttrium Aluminum Garnet [Ho:YAG] and carbon dioxide [CO2]) were set to a range of plausible medical laser operational parameters in a simulated surgery to pyrolyze porcine skin generating plume in the emission chamber. Power, pulse repetition frequency (PRF), and beam diameter were evaluated to determine the effect of each operational parameter on emission rate using a fractional factorial design. The plume was sampled for particulate matter and seven gas phase combustion byproduct contaminants (benzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, formaldehyde, hydrogen cyanide, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide): the gas phase emission results are presented here. Most of the measured concentrations of gas phase contaminants were below their limit of detection (LOD), but detectable measurements enabled us to determine laser operation parameter influence on CO2 emissions. Confined to the experimental conditions of this screening study, results indicated that beam diameter was statistically significantly influential and power was marginally statistically significant to emission rates of CO2 when using the Ho:YAG laser but not with the carbon dioxide laser; PRF was not influential vis-a-vis emission rates of these gas phase contaminants.

    11. Strategies to reduce infant mortality rate in India.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Ghai, O P

      1985-01-01

      As a systems approach is needed to develop strategies to reduce the infant mortality rate (IMR), it is appropriate to analyze the present situation in India, reasons for low IMR in some Indian states vis-a-vis others, the status in some neighboring countries, and the cost effectiveness of various available technological interventions and their organizational constraints. A 1981 survey revealed 1) a low IMR for the state of Kerala, one which was comparable with Western nations, despite the fact that nearly half of the population in Kerala lived below the poverty line; 2) a very high IMR for the state of Uttar Pradesh, even though the number of people living below the poverty line was not significantly by different from the state of Kerala; and a moderate IMR reduction in the state of Punjab, even though only 15% of the population was below the poverty line. Favorable factors for low IMR appear to be a high female literacy rate, good medical and educational facilities close to the place of residence, and an excellent transportation and communication system. To significantly reduce IMR in a short period of time, it is necessary to adopt certain immediate measures. Nearly 55% of infant deaths occur in the 1st month of life, and these generally are not amenable to general measures and technological interventions. The problem is difficult, but a solution can be found by reaching a broad consensus among professionals and administrators. The major recommendations of a seminar on the Strategies for Reducing infant Mortality in India, held during January 1984, were: provide antenatal care to 100% of pregnant women; work for early registration of pregnancy and identification of high risk pregnancies; immunize 100% of pregnant women with tetanus toxoid; make available intrapartum care for all pregnant women; delineate anticipated job requirements, duties, and functions of village level health workers; make presterilized packaged delivery kits available to all female health

    12. Simulation of Safety and Transient Analysis of a Pressurized Water Reactor using the Personal Computer Transient Analyzer

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Sunday J. IBRAHIM

      2013-06-01

      Full Text Available Safety and transient analyses of a pressurised water reactor (PWR using the Personal Computer Transient Analyzer (PCTRAN simulator was carried out. The analyses presented a synergistic integration of a numerical model; a full scope high fidelity simulation system which adopted point reactor neutron kinetics model and movable boundary two phase fluid models to simplify the calculation of the program, so it could achieve real-time simulation on a personal computer. Various scenarios of transients and accidents likely to occur at any nuclear power plant were simulated. The simulations investigated the change of signals and parameters vis a vis loss of coolant accident, scram, turbine trip, inadvertent control rod insertion and withdrawal, containment failure, fuel handling accident in auxiliary building and containment, moderator dilution as well as a combination of these parameters. Furthermore, statistical analyses of the PCTRAN results were carried out. PCTRAN results for the loss of coolant accident (LOCA caused a rapid drop in coolant pressure at the rate of 21.8KN/m2/sec triggering a shutdown of the reactor protection system (RPS, while the turbine trip accident showed a rapid drop in total plant power at the rate of 14.3 MWe/sec causing a downtime in the plant. Fuel handling accidents mimic results showed release of radioactive materials in unacceptable doses. This work shows the potential classes of nuclear accidents likely to occur during operation in proposed reactor sites. The simulations are very appropriate in the light of Nigeria’s plan to generate nuclear energy in the region of 1000 MWe from reactors by 2017.

    13. Host influence on irradiation bioefficacy : growth and development of Spodoptera litura (Fabricius)

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Seth, R.K.

      1995-01-01

      Survival and development of Spodoptera litura(F), a polyphagous pest was ascertained on a range of host plants, common and economic in the Indian context. Castor, cotton, green gram and okra constituted the preferred host group showing significantly better growth rate (GR) and growth index (GI) than the group of less preferred host plants that included groundnut, red gram, rose leaf and rose petal. Ontogenic growth profile vis-a-vis irradiation was studied with recording of GI at L3, pupa and adult levels in response to gamma dosages administered in L1 stage. Irradiation effect on the growth index was mainly due to reduction in survival, which was further pronounced owing to delay in development. On all the preferred host plants, adult-G1 was reduced by more than 50 per cent at 40 Gy gamma dose; whereas the same dose on less preferred host plants could prevent adult emergence on ground nut and red gram, and inhibited pupa formation on rose diet. The percentage mortality of larvae exhibiting delayed development was markedly more in the less preferred host group. Dose dependent reduction was observed in the larval growth rate of L3, L5 and L6 instars on all the host plants. 20 Gy exhibited almost same intensity of adverse impact in less preferred host group as was shown by 40 Gy in preferred hosts. 20 Gy dose reduced the pupal weight and conversion ratio of treated insects significantly. Age influence was evident on irradiation efficacy on all the diets. Insects treated in the later instar had less radiosusceptibility as compared to the young irradiated larvae. Irradiation had a negative correlation with survival and weight gain during the course of development that in turn bore a positive relation with the increase in radiation dosage. Food is an important governing factor in influencing the insects survival value and developmental behaviour and may modify its intrinsic sensitivity towards irradiation stress. (author). 21 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

    14. Hepatic diseases related to triglyceride metabolism.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrubal; Álvarez-Delgado, Carolina; Hernández-Godinez, Daniel; Fernandez-Mejia, Cristina

      2013-10-01

      Triglycerides participate in key metabolic functions such as energy storage, thermal insulation and as deposit for essential and non-essential fatty acids that can be used as precursors for the synthesis of structural and functional phospholipids. The liver is a central organ in the regulation of triglyceride metabolism, and it participates in triglyceride synthesis, export, uptake and oxidation. The metabolic syndrome and associated diseases are among the main concerns of public health worldwide. One of the metabolic syndrome components is impaired triglyceride metabolism. Diseases associated with the metabolic syndrome promote the appearance of hepatic alterations e.g., non-alcoholic steatosis, steatohepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis and cancer. In this article, we review the molecular actions involved in impaired triglyceride metabolism and its association with hepatic diseases. We discuss mechanisms that reconcile the chronic inflammation and insulin resistance, and new concepts on the role of intestinal micro-flora permeability and proliferation in fatty liver etiology. We also describe the participation of oxidative stress in the progression of events leading from steatosis to steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Finally, we provide information regarding the mechanisms that link fatty acid accumulation during steatosis with changes in growth factors and cytokines that lead to the development of neoplastic cells. One of the main medical concerns vis-a-vis hepatic diseases is the lack of symptoms at the onset of the illness and, as result, its late diagnosis. The understandings of the molecular mechanisms that underlie hepatic diseases could help design strategies towards establishing markers for their accurate and timely diagnosis.

    15. Metabolic reprogramming during neuronal differentiation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Agostini, M; Romeo, F; Inoue, S; Niklison-Chirou, M V; Elia, A J; Dinsdale, D; Morone, N; Knight, R A; Mak, T W; Melino, G

      2016-09-01

      Newly generated neurons pass through a series of well-defined developmental stages, which allow them to integrate into existing neuronal circuits. After exit from the cell cycle, postmitotic neurons undergo neuronal migration, axonal elongation, axon pruning, dendrite morphogenesis and synaptic maturation and plasticity. Lack of a global metabolic analysis during early cortical neuronal development led us to explore the role of cellular metabolism and mitochondrial biology during ex vivo differentiation of primary cortical neurons. Unexpectedly, we observed a huge increase in mitochondrial biogenesis. Changes in mitochondrial mass, morphology and function were correlated with the upregulation of the master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, TFAM and PGC-1α. Concomitant with mitochondrial biogenesis, we observed an increase in glucose metabolism during neuronal differentiation, which was linked to an increase in glucose uptake and enhanced GLUT3 mRNA expression and platelet isoform of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFKp) protein expression. In addition, glutamate-glutamine metabolism was also increased during the differentiation of cortical neurons. We identified PI3K-Akt-mTOR signalling as a critical regulator role of energy metabolism in neurons. Selective pharmacological inhibition of these metabolic pathways indicate existence of metabolic checkpoint that need to be satisfied in order to allow neuronal differentiation.

    16. Dynamic Routing during Disaster Events

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Fitrianie, S.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.

      2015-01-01

      Innovations in mobile technology allow people to request route information on their smartphone to reach safe areas during emergency and disaster evacuations. In return, the affected people in the field can send their observation reports, e.g. using a dedicated icon-based disaster language. However,

    17. Modelling dynamic roughness during floods

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Paarlberg, Andries; Dohmen-Janssen, Catarine M.; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.; Termes, A.P.P.

      2007-01-01

      In this paper, we present a dynamic roughness model to predict water levels during floods. Hysteresis effects of dune development are explicitly included. It is shown that differences between the new dynamic roughness model, and models where the roughness coefficient is calibrated, are most

    18. Leadership Transitions during Fundraising Campaigns

      Science.gov (United States)

      Nehls, Kimberly

      2012-01-01

      Capital campaigns are intense efforts to build the financial assets of an institution in a specified amount of time. This study provides an empirical view of how changes in leadership affected concomitant capital campaigns at ten colleges and universities. The transitions during these 10 campaigns influenced morale on campus, altered timing of the…

    19. Atypical sexual behavior during sleep.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Guilleminault, Christian; Moscovitch, Adam; Yuen, Kin; Poyares, Dalva

      2002-01-01

      This article reports a case series of atypical sexual behavior during sleep, which is often harmful to patients or bed partners. Eleven subjects underwent clinical evaluation of complaints of sleep-related atypical sexual behavior. Complaints included violent masturbation, sexual assaults, and continuous (and loud) sexual vocalizations during sleep. One case was a medical-legal case. Sleep logs, clinical evaluations, sleep questionnaires, structured psychiatric interviews, polysomnography, actigraphy, home electroencephalographic monitoring during sleep, and clinical electroencephalographic monitoring while awake and asleep were used to determine clinical diagnoses. Atypical sexual behaviors during sleep were associated with feelings of guilt, shame, and depression. Because of these feelings, patients and bed partners often tolerated the abnormal behavior for long periods of time without seeking medical attention. The following pathologic sleep disorders were demonstrated on polysomnography: partial complex seizures, sleep-disordered breathing, stage 3 to 4 non-rapid eye movement (REM) sleep parasomnias, and REM sleep behavior disorder. These findings were concurrent with morning amnesia. The atypical behaviors were related to different syndromes despite the similarity of complaints from bed partners. In most cases the disturbing and often harmful symptoms were controlled when counseling was instituted and sleep disorders were treated. In some cases treatment of seizures or psychiatric disorders was also needed. Clonazepam with simultaneous psychotherapy was the most common successful treatment combination. The addition of antidepressant or antiepileptic medications was required in specific cases.

    20. Pharmacokinetics of topiramate during pregnancy

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Ohman, Inger; Sabers, Anne; de Flon, Pierre

      2009-01-01

      PURPOSE: To study the effects of pregnancy on plasma concentrations of topiramate (TPM). METHODS: An established routine fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) method was used to determine TPM concentrations in 15 women with epilepsy treated with TPM during altogether 17 pregnancies. RESULTS......: In 10 pregnancies, where samples were available from all three trimesters, the mean TPM dose/concentration ratio (D/C-ratio) was significantly higher than outside pregnancy baseline value 37.3 L/day (+/-15.9), during the 2nd, 67.5L/day (+/-23.4), and the 3rd trimester, 65.1L/day (+/-30.......4), but not during the 1st, 49.4 L/day (+/-29.4). Including seven additional pregnancies enrolled late with data only from the 3rd trimester, the mean D/C-ratio during the 3rd trimester was 67.4 L/day (+/-27.5) compared to baseline, 38.8L/day (+/-18.0), an average increase by 71.8%. There was a pronounced intra...

    1. Intragroup Conflict during Study Abroad

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bodycott, Peter

      2015-01-01

      Co-national groups of individuals from the same country can provide members with psychological and sociocultural support when coping with the stresses of studying abroad. This article examines intragroup task and relationship conflict that occurred in one co-national group during a 14-week short-term study abroad program. Findings reveal the…

    2. Settlement during vibratory sheet piling

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Meijers, P.

      2007-01-01

      During vibratory sheet piling quite often the soil near the sheet pile wall will settle. In many cases this is not a problem. For situations with houses, pipelines, roads or railroads at relative short distance these settlements may not be acceptable. The purpose of the research described in this

    3. Atmospheric contamination during ultrasonic scaling

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Timmerman, MF; Menso, L; Steinfort, J; van Winkelhoff, AJ; van der Weijden, GA

      Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the microbial atmospheric contamination during initial periodontal treatment using a piezoelectric ultrasonic scaler in combination with either high-volume evacuation (HVE) or conventional dental suction (CDS). Methods: The study included 17

    4. Semantic Preview Benefit during Reading

      Science.gov (United States)

      Hohenstein, Sven; Kliegl, Reinhold

      2014-01-01

      Word features in parafoveal vision influence eye movements during reading. The question of whether readers extract semantic information from parafoveal words was studied in 3 experiments by using a gaze-contingent display change technique. Subjects read German sentences containing 1 of several preview words that were replaced by a target word…

    5. Soleus stretch reflex during cycling

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Grey, Michael James; Pierce, C. W.; Milner, T. E.

      2001-01-01

      The modulation and strength of the human soleus short latency stretch reflex was investigated by mechanically perturbing the ankle during an unconstrained pedaling task. Eight subjects pedaled at 60 rpm against a preload of 10 Nm. A torque pulse was applied to the crank at various positions durin...

    6. Healthy Eating During Winter Gatherings

      Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

      2007-10-04

      This podcast delivers tips on how to eat healthfully – and avoid overeating – during the holidays.  Created: 10/4/2007 by National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP), a joint program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institutes of Health.   Date Released: 11/22/2007.

    7. Controlling adhesive behavior during recycling

      Science.gov (United States)

      Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Jihui Guo; XinPing Wang; Steve Severtson; Mark Kroll; Mike Nowak

      2004-01-01

      Adhesives can be formulated to facilitate their removal by typical paper recycling unit operations. The investigations described in this paper are focused on determining fundamental properties that control particle size during pulping. While pressure-sensitive adhesives (PSAs) with high elastic moduli tend to survive pulping with larger particles, facestock and...

    8. Probing Pharmaceutical Mixtures during Milling

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Walker, Greg; Römann, Philipp; Poller, Bettina

      2017-01-01

      interpret the spectral changes. Overall, this study demonstrates the potential of low-frequency Raman spectroscopy, which has several practical advantages over XRPD, for probing (dis-)order during pharmaceutical processing, showcasing its potential for future development, and implementation as an in...

    9. Prediction during natural language comprehension

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      Willems, R.M.; Frank, S.L.; Nijhof, A.D.; Hagoort, P.; Bosch, A.P.J. van den

      2016-01-01

      The notion of prediction is studied in cognitive neuroscience with increasing intensity. We investigated the neural basis of 2 distinct aspects of word prediction, derived from information theory, during story comprehension. We assessed the effect of entropy of next-word probability distributions as

    10. Inflammatory Bowel Disease During Pregnancy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Rajapakse, Ramona; Korelitz, Burton I.

      2001-06-01

      The management of both male and female patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who wish to have a baby is challenging. For women, the most important factor to bear in mind is that the outcome of pregnancy is largely influenced by disease activity at the time of conception. Women with quiescent disease are likely to have an uncomplicated pregnancy with the delivery of a healthy baby, whereas women with active disease are more likely to have complications such as spontaneous abortions, miscarriages, stillbirths, and exacerbation of the disease. This is more true of patients with Crohn's disease than of patients with ulcerative colitis. Although the safety of medications used during pregnancy is an important issue, the impact of the medications used to treat IBD is less important in comparison to disease activity itself. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) products appear to be safe during pregnancy; corticosteroids are probably safe; 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine should be used with caution; and methotrexate is contraindicated. There are inadequate data on the use of infliximab during pregnancy. In regard to men with IBD, the disease itself does not seem to have any negative impact on fertility. However, there is controversy about the effects of using 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine prior to and during fertilization. In view of possible adverse pregnancy outcomes, it would be prudent to withhold 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine therapy in men with IBD for 3 months prior to conception, when feasible. Most IBD medications should be continued before, during, and after pregnancy, with careful attention to the known cautions and exceptions. If IBD in a pregnant patient is in remission, the prognosis for pregnancy is the same as if she did not have IBD. Active disease should therefore be treated aggressively and remission accomplished before pregnancy is attempted. Similarly, a woman who unexpectedly becomes pregnant while her IBD is active should be treated

    11. Venous thromboembolism during pregnancy, postpartum or during contraceptive use.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Blanco-Molina, A; Rota, L L; Di Micco, P; Brenner, B; Trujillo-Santos, J; Ruiz-Gamietea, A; Monreal, M

      2010-02-01

      Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a leading cause of maternal death during pregnancy or postpartum, and in women using hormonal contraceptives. However, important issues concerning its natural history and therapy remain unsolved, and most of the protocols for treatment of VTE in this patient population are based on data extrapolated from other populations. RIETE is an ongoing registry of consecutive patients with objectively confirmed, symptomatic, acute VTE. We examined the clinical characteristics and three-month outcome of all enrolled women with pregnancy, postpartum or using hormonal contraceptives. As of December 2008, 173 pregnant women, 135 postpartum, and 798 contraceptive users were enrolled. Of these, 438 (40%) presented with pulmonary embolism (PE) and 668 with deep-vein thrombosis (DVT). Most women with acute PE had dyspnea (72%) or chest pain (75%), but only 2.0% had hypoxaemia. During the three-month study period, five women (0.45%; 95% CI: 0.17-1.00) died (3 had fatal PE), 13 (1.18%; 95% CI: 0.66-1.95) had VTE recurrences, and seven (0.63%; 95% CI: 0.28-1.25) major bleeding. Two of the three women with fatal PE died during the first few hours after arriving at the emergency ward, with no time to start any therapy. The outcome of pregnant or postpartum women with VTE is similar to that in contraceptive users, even though the treatment is different. The non-specific nature of PE signs may have caused some delay in PE diagnosis.

    12. Freaque waves during Typhoon Krosa

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      P. C. Liu

      2009-07-01

      Full Text Available This paper presents a subjective search for North Sea Draupner-like freaque waves from wave measurement data available in the northeastern coastal waters of Taiwan during Typhoon Krosa, October 2007. Not knowing what to expect, we found rather astonishingly that there were more Draupner-like freaque wave types during the build-up of the storm than we ever anticipated. As the conventional approach of defining freaque waves as Hmax/Hs>2 is ineffective to discern all the conspicuous cases we found, we also tentatively proposed two new indices based on different empirical wave grouping approaches which hopefully can be used for further development of effective indexing toward identifying freaque waves objectively.

    13. Contaminated sediment transport during floods

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Fontaine, T.A.

      1992-01-01

      Over the past 48 years, operations and waste disposal activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory have resulted in the contamination of parts of the White Oak Creek catchment. The contaminants presenting the highest risk to human health and the environment are particle reactive and are associated with the soils and sediments in the White Oak Creek drainage system. The erosion of these sediments during floods can result in the transport of contaminants both within the catchment and off-site into the Clinch River. A data collection program and a modeling investigation are being used to evaluate the probability of contaminated sediment transport during floods and to develop strategies for controlling off-site transport under present and future conditions

    14. Viral hepatitis vaccination during pregnancy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zhao, Yueyuan; Jin, Hui; Zhang, Xuefeng; Wang, Bei; Liu, Pei

      2016-04-02

      Viral hepatitis is a serious global public health problem. It is also a common cause of jaundice and gestational complications in pregnant women. Moreover, infected mothers can transmit the virus to their fetus or neonate, which may increase disease burden and decrease quality of life. To date, commercial vaccines have been developed for hepatitis A, B, and E and are available to the general population. The Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices currently accepts emergency vaccination against hepatitis A and B during pregnancy due to benefits that overweight the potential risks. While there are limited data from trials with limited numbers of samples that suggest the efficacy or safety of hepatitis B and E vaccines in pregnant women, additional data are necessary to provide evidence of vaccination during pregnancy.

    15. Partially massless fields during inflation

      Science.gov (United States)

      Baumann, Daniel; Goon, Garrett; Lee, Hayden; Pimentel, Guilherme L.

      2018-04-01

      The representation theory of de Sitter space allows for a category of partially massless particles which have no flat space analog, but could have existed during inflation. We study the couplings of these exotic particles to inflationary perturbations and determine the resulting signatures in cosmological correlators. When inflationary perturbations interact through the exchange of these fields, their correlation functions inherit scalings that cannot be mimicked by extra massive fields. We discuss in detail the squeezed limit of the tensor-scalar-scalar bispectrum, and show that certain partially massless fields can violate the tensor consistency relation of single-field inflation. We also consider the collapsed limit of the scalar trispectrum, and find that the exchange of partially massless fields enhances its magnitude, while giving no contribution to the scalar bispectrum. These characteristic signatures provide clean detection channels for partially massless fields during inflation.

    16. Aerosol emission during human speech

      Science.gov (United States)

      Asadi, Sima; Wexler, Anthony S.; Cappa, Christopher D.; Bouvier, Nicole M.; Barreda-Castanon, Santiago; Ristenpart, William D.

      2017-11-01

      We show that the rate of aerosol particle emission during healthy human speech is strongly correlated with the loudness (amplitude) of vocalization. Emission rates range from approximately 1 to 50 particles per second for quiet to loud amplitudes, regardless of language spoken (English, Spanish, Mandarin, or Arabic). Intriguingly, a small fraction of individuals behave as ``super emitters,'' consistently emitting an order of magnitude more aerosol particles than their peers. We interpret the results in terms of the eggressive flowrate during vocalization, which is known to vary significantly for different types of vocalization and for different individuals. The results suggest that individual speech patterns could affect the probability of airborne disease transmission. The results also provide a possible explanation for the existence of ``super spreaders'' who transmit pathogens much more readily than average and who play a key role in the spread of epidemics.

    17. Benefits of exercise during pregnancy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Prather, Heidi; Spitznagle, Tracy; Hunt, Devyani

      2012-11-01

      There is a direct link between healthy mothers and healthy infants. Exercise and appropriate nutrition are important contributors to maternal physical and psychological health. The benefits and potential risks of exercise during pregnancy have gained even more attention, with a number of studies having been published after the 2002 American College of Obstetrics and Gynecologists guidelines. A review of the literature was conducted by using PubMed, Scopus, and Embase to assess the literature regarding the benefits of exercise during pregnancy. The search revealed 219 publications, which the authors then narrowed to 125 publications. The purpose of this review is to briefly summarize the known benefits of exercise to the mother, fetus, and newborn. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    18. Animal Exposure During Burn Tests

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gaume, J. G.

      1978-01-01

      An animal exposure test system (AETS) was designed and fabricated for the purpose of collecting physiological and environmental (temperature) data from animal subjects exposed to combustion gases in large scale fire tests. The AETS consisted of an open wire mesh, two-compartment cage, one containing an exercise wheel for small rodents, and the other containing one rat instrumented externally for electrocardiogram (ECG) and respiration. Cage temperature is measured by a thermistor located in the upper portion of the rat compartment. Animal activity is monitored by the ECG and the records indicate an increase in EMG (electromyograph) noise super-imposed by the increased activity of the torso musculature. Examples of the recordings are presented and discussed as to their significance regarding toxicity of fire gases and specific events occurring during the test. The AETS was shown to be a useful tool in screening materials for the relative toxicity of their outgassing products during pyrolysis and combustion.

    19. Atypical Centrioles During Sexual Reproduction

      OpenAIRE

      Tomer eAvidor-Reiss; Atul eKhire; Emily Lillian Fishman; Kyoung Ha Jo

      2015-01-01

      Centrioles are conserved, self-replicating, microtubule-based, 9-fold symmetric subcellular organelles that are essential for proper cell division and function. Most cells have two centrioles and maintaining this number of centrioles is important for animal development and physiology. However, how animals gain their first two centrioles during reproduction is only partially understood. It is well established that in most animals, the centrioles are contributed to the zygote by the sperm. Howe...

    20. Low Activity Microstates During Sleep.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Miyawaki, Hiroyuki; Billeh, Yazan N; Diba, Kamran

      2017-06-01

      To better understand the distinct activity patterns of the brain during sleep, we observed and investigated periods of diminished oscillatory and population spiking activity lasting for seconds during non-rapid eye movement (non-REM) sleep, which we call "LOW" activity sleep. We analyzed spiking and local field potential (LFP) activity of hippocampal CA1 region alongside neocortical electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG) in 19 sessions from four male Long-Evans rats (260-360 g) during natural wake/sleep across the 24-hr cycle as well as data from other brain regions obtained from http://crcns.org.1,2. LOW states lasted longer than OFF/DOWN states and were distinguished by a subset of "LOW-active" cells. LOW activity sleep was preceded and followed by increased sharp-wave ripple activity. We also observed decreased slow-wave activity and sleep spindles in the hippocampal LFP and neocortical EEG upon LOW onset, with a partial rebound immediately after LOW. LOW states demonstrated activity patterns consistent with sleep but frequently transitioned into microarousals and showed EMG and LFP differences from small-amplitude irregular activity during quiet waking. Their likelihood decreased within individual non-REM epochs yet increased over the course of sleep. By analyzing data from the entorhinal cortex of rats,1 as well as the hippocampus, the medial prefrontal cortex, the postsubiculum, and the anterior thalamus of mice,2 obtained from http://crcns.org, we confirmed that LOW states corresponded to markedly diminished activity simultaneously in all of these regions. We propose that LOW states are an important microstate within non-REM sleep that provide respite from high-activity sleep and may serve a restorative function. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

    1. Interaction Quality during Partner Reading

      OpenAIRE

      Meisinger, Elizabeth B.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Bradley, Barbara A.; Stahl, Steven A.

      2004-01-01

      The influence of social relationships, positive interdependence, and teacher structure on the quality of partner reading interactions was examined. Partner reading, a scripted cooperative learning strategy, is often used in classrooms to promote the development of fluent and automatic reading skills. Forty-three pairs of second grade children were observed during partner reading sessions taking place in 12 classrooms. The degree to which the partners displayed social cooperation (instrumental...

    2. Subcutaneous emphysema during status astmaticus

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Schwarz, E.

      1985-01-01

      Spontaneous subcutaneous accumulations of air in the soft parts of the thorax during an asthmatic crisis (status asthmaticus) are rarely seen. The pathomechanism of the phenomenon, which may lead to the formation of an emphysema of the soft parts via the pneumomediastinum, is discussed, and the possible complications which must be taken into account are pointed out. The value of radiological examination of the thorax in children suffering from asthma bronchiale, is explained briefly. (orig.) [de

    3. Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal

      Science.gov (United States)

      Heirtzler, J. R.

      2003-01-01

      It has frequently been suggested that only the geomagnetic dipole, rather than higher order poles, reverse during a geomagnetic field reversal. Under this assumption the geomagnetic field strength has been calculated for the surface of the Earth for various steps of the reversal process. Even without an eminent a reversal of the field, extrapolation of the present secular change (although problematic) shows that the field strength may become zero in some geographic areas within a few hundred years.

    4. Management of HIV During Pregnancy

      OpenAIRE

      Chamma JP; Monteleone VF; V dos Reis L; Bonafe SM; Panão M

      2016-01-01

      According to UNAIDS, in 2015, one hundred and fifty thousand children were infected by HIV worldwide, therefore the use of antiretroviral therapy (ARV) during pregnancy is an important development for the reduction of maternal-fetal transmission. The treatment of a pregnant woman is done by combining two different ARV classes. The combination of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) with one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or protease inhibitor (PI) is...

    5. Extragastrointestinal Stromal Tumor during Pregnacy

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Ilay Gözükara

      2012-01-01

      Full Text Available Extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs are mesenchymal neoplasms without connection to the gastrointestinal tract. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs and EGIST are similar according to their clinicopathologic and histomorphologic features. Both of them most often express immunoreactivity for CD-117, a c-kit proto-oncogene protein. The coexistence of GIST and pregnancy is very rare, with only two cases reported in the literature. In this paper, we presented the first EGIST case during pregnancy in the literature.

    6. Japanese physicist during the war

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Brown, L.; Nambu, Y.

      1999-01-01

      The japanese interest for the science is comparatively recent and one of the first japanese physicist is Hantoro Nagaoka with an atomic model in 1903. During the war the physicist take refuge in the theory and two universities proper in spite of difficult working conditions. This paper goes over the historical aspects of the japanese scientific research and contributions to the nucleus physic. (A.L.B.)

    7. Awareness during emergence from anaesthesia

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Thomsen, J. L.; Nielsen, C V; Eskildsen, K Z

      2015-01-01

      -traumatic stress disorder. Reports of panic, hopelessness, suffocation, or a feeling of being dead or dying resulted in the experience being classified further as distressful. Patients were categorized as aware or unaware by investigators blinded to use of neuromuscular monitoring. RESULTS: Ninety-five patients...... patients reported distress compared with seven (20%) unaware patients (Prisk factor for distressing awareness during emergence....... Lack of neuromuscular monitoring increases the risk significantly. Neuromuscular monitoring should be applied even when using short-acting neuromuscular blocking agents....

    8. Bicarbonate Transport During Enamel Maturation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Yin, Kaifeng; Paine, Michael L

      2017-11-01

      Amelogenesis (tooth enamel formation) is a biomineralization process consisting primarily of two stages (secretory stage and maturation stage) with unique features. During the secretory stage, the inner epithelium of the enamel organ (i.e., the ameloblast cells) synthesizes and secretes enamel matrix proteins (EMPs) into the enamel space. The protein-rich enamel matrix forms a highly organized architecture in a pH-neutral microenvironment. As amelogenesis transitions to maturation stage, EMPs are degraded and internalized by ameloblasts through endosomal-lysosomal pathways. Enamel crystallite formation is initiated early in the secretory stage, however, during maturation stage the more rapid deposition of calcium and phosphate into the enamel space results in a rapid expansion of crystallite length and mineral volume. During maturation-stage amelogenesis, the pH value of enamel varies considerably from slightly above neutral to acidic. Extracellular acid-base balance during enamel maturation is tightly controlled by ameloblast-mediated regulatory networks, which include significant synthesis and movement of bicarbonate ions from both the enamel papillary layer cells and ameloblasts. In this review we summarize the carbonic anhydrases and the carbonate transporters/exchangers involved in pH regulation in maturation-stage amelogenesis. Proteins that have been shown to be instrumental in this process include CA2, CA6, CFTR, AE2, NBCe1, SLC26A1/SAT1, SLC26A3/DRA, SLC26A4/PDS, SLC26A6/PAT1, and SLC26A7/SUT2. In addition, we discuss the association of miRNA regulation with bicarbonate transport in tooth enamel formation.

    9. Soliton collapse during ionospheric heating

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Sheerin, J.P.; Nicholson, D.R.; Payne, G.L.; Duncan, L.M.

      1984-01-01

      We present analytical and numerical work which indicates that during ionospheric heating with high-powered hf radio waves, the oscillating two-stream instability may dominate the parametric decay instability. The oscillating two-stream instability saturates nonlinearly through the formation of solitons which undergo a collisionally damped collapse. Using the heater and radar facilities at Arecibo Observatory, we have investigated this phenomenon experimentally. Recent results from our theoretical and experimental investigations are presented

    10. Bioavailability of Promethazine during Spaceflight

      Science.gov (United States)

      Boyd, Jason L.; Wang, Zuwei; Putcha, Lakshmi

      2009-01-01

      Promethazine (PMZ) is the choice anti-motion sickness medication for treating space motion sickness (SMS) during flight. The side effects associated with PMZ include dizziness, drowsiness, sedation, and impaired psychomotor performance which could impact crew performance and mission operations. Early anecdotal reports from crewmembers indicate that these central nervous system side effects of PMZ are absent or greatly attenuated in microgravity, potentially due to changes in pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics in microgravity. These changes could also affect the therapeutic effectiveness of drugs in general and PMZ, in particular. In this investigation, we examined bioavailability and associated pharmacokinetics of PMZ in astronauts during and after space flight. Methods. Nine astronauts received, per their preference, PMZ (25 or 50 mg as intramuscular injection, oral tablet, or rectal suppository) on flight day one for the treatment of SMS and subsequently collected saliva samples and completed sleepiness scores for 72 h post dose. Thirty days after the astronauts returned to Earth, they repeated the protocol. Bioavailability and PK parameters were calculated and compared between flight and ground. Results. Maximum concentration (Cmax) was lower and time to reach Cmax (tmax) was longer in flight than on the ground. Area under the curve (AUC), a measure of bioavailability, was lower and biological half-life (t1/2) was longer in flight than on the ground. Conclusion. Results indicate that bioavailability of PMZ is reduced during spaceflight. Number of samples, sampling method, and sampling schedule significantly affected PK parameter estimates.

    11. Lithium control during normal operation

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Suryanarayan, S.; Jain, D.

      2010-01-01

      Periodic increases in lithium (Li) concentrations in the primary heat transport (PHT) system during normal operation are a generic problem at CANDU® stations. Lithiated mixed bed ion exchange resins are used at stations for pH control in the PHT system. Typically tight chemistry controls including Li concentrations are maintained in the PHT water. The reason for the Li increases during normal operation at CANDU stations such as Pickering was not fully understood. In order to address this issue a two pronged approach was employed. Firstly, PNGS-A data and information from other available sources was reviewed in an effort to identify possible factors that may contribute to the observed Li variations. Secondly, experimental studies were carried out to assess the importance of these factors in order to establish reasons for Li increases during normal operation. Based on the results of these studies, plausible mechanisms/reasons for Li increases have been identified and recommendations made for proactive control of Li concentrations in the PHT system. (author)

    12. Psychosocial interactions during ISS missions

      Science.gov (United States)

      Kanas, N. A.; Salnitskiy, V. P.; Ritsher, J. B.; Gushin, V. I.; Weiss, D. S.; Saylor, S. A.; Kozerenko, O. P.; Marmar, C. R.

      2007-02-01

      Based on anecdotal reports from astronauts and cosmonauts, studies of space analog environments on Earth, and our previous research on the Mir Space Station, a number of psychosocial issues have been identified that can lead to problems during long-duration space expeditions. Several of these issues were studied during a series of missions to the International Space Station. Using a mood and group climate questionnaire that was completed weekly by crewmembers in space and personnel in mission control, we found no evidence to support the presence of predicted decrements in well-being during the second half or in any specific quarter of the missions. The results did support the predicted displacement of negative feelings to outside supervisors among both crew and ground subjects. There were several significant differences in mood and group perceptions between Americans and Russians and between crewmembers and mission control personnel. Crewmembers related cohesion to the support role of their leader, and mission control personnel related cohesion to both the task and support roles of their leader. These findings are discussed with reference to future space missions.

    13. Vestibulosympathetic reflex during mental stress

      Science.gov (United States)

      Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Cooke, William H.

      2002-01-01

      Increases in sympathetic neural activity occur independently with either vestibular or mental stimulation, but it is unknown whether sympathetic activation is additive or inhibitive when both stressors are combined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of vestibular and mental stimulation on sympathetic neural activation and arterial pressure in humans. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), arterial pressure, and heart rate were recorded in 10 healthy volunteers in the prone position during 1) head-down rotation (HDR), 2) mental stress (MS; using arithmetic), and 3) combined HDR and MS. HDR significantly (P < 0.05) increased MSNA (9 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 bursts/min). MS significantly increased MSNA (8 +/- 2 to 13 +/- 2 bursts/min) and mean arterial pressure (87 +/- 2 to 101 +/- 2 mmHg). Combined HDR and MS significantly increased MSNA (9 +/- 1 to 16 +/- 2 bursts/min) and mean arterial pressure (89 +/- 2 to 100 +/- 3 mmHg). Increases in MSNA (7 +/- 1 bursts/min) during the combination trial were not different from the algebraic sum of each trial performed alone (8 +/- 2 bursts/min). We conclude that the interaction for MSNA and arterial pressure is additive during combined vestibular and mental stimulation. Therefore, vestibular- and stress-mediated increases of MSNA appear to occur independently in humans.

    14. Radar Rainfall Statistics During PECAN

      Science.gov (United States)

      Romatschke, U.; Weckwerth, T.

      2017-12-01

      The Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field campaign, based in Kansas, USA, took place from May to July 2015. It was designed to understand the causes and improve predictions of the central US nocturnal precipitation maximum. Over 100 instruments were utilized to sample the pre-convective and convective conditions within and around unorganized storms and Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs). We analyze quantitative precipitation estimates (QPEs) derived from a dense network of NEXRADs which, combined with S-Pol, cover an area extending from the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains over the Central Great Plains. As expected, precipitation maxima occurred during the afternoon and evening over the eastern Rocky Mountains and during the night over the plains. The precipitation over the mountains is almost exclusively associated with smaller scale storms which are triggered by solar heating over the elevated terrain. The mountain triggered storms quickly grow and merge to the size of MCSs and are then advected east over the plains. Storms are also initiated over the plains but at much lower frequency than over the mountains. The diurnal cycle of plain initiation is much less pronounced with a broad peak in the afternoon and evening but also significant convection initiation during the night. The nocturnal precipitation over the plains is primarily associated with the MCSs advected from the mountains which merge with the storms triggered over the plains. Some precipitation over the plains is generated by pristine storms triggered over the plains but their precipitation contribution is mostly secondary compared to the merged systems.

    15. Quality control during repeated fryings

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Cuesta, C.

      1998-08-01

      Full Text Available Most of the debate ¡s about how the slow or frequent turnover of fresh fat affects the deterioration, of fat used in frying. Then, the modification of different oils used in repeated fryings of potatoes without or with turnover of fresh oil, under similar frying conditions, was evaluated by two criteria: by measuring the total polar component isolated by column chromatography and by the evaluation of the specific compounds related to thermoxidative and hydrolytic alteration by High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC. The results indicate that with frequent turnover of fresh oil, the critical level of 25% of polar material is rarely reached, and there are fewer problems with fat deterioration because the frying tended to increase the level of polar material and thermoxidative compounds (polymers and dimers of triglycerides and oxidized triglycerides in the fryer oil during the first fryings, followed by minor changes and a tendency to reach a near-steady state in successive fryings. However, in repeated frying of potatoes using a null turnover the alteration rate was higher being linear the relationship found between polar material or the different thermoxidative compounds and the number of fryings. On the other hand chemical reactions produced during deep-fat frying can be minimized by using proper oils. In addition the increased level of consumers awareness toward fat composition and its impact on human health could had an impact on the selection of fats for snacks and for industry. In this way monoenic fats are the most adequate from a nutritional point of view and for its oxidative stability during frying.

    16. Thermal vesiculation during volcanic eruptions.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Lavallée, Yan; Dingwell, Donald B; Johnson, Jeffrey B; Cimarelli, Corrado; Hornby, Adrian J; Kendrick, Jackie E; von Aulock, Felix W; Kennedy, Ben M; Andrews, Benjamin J; Wadsworth, Fabian B; Rhodes, Emma; Chigna, Gustavo

      2015-12-24

      Terrestrial volcanic eruptions are the consequence of magmas ascending to the surface of the Earth. This ascent is driven by buoyancy forces, which are enhanced by bubble nucleation and growth (vesiculation) that reduce the density of magma. The development of vesicularity also greatly reduces the 'strength' of magma, a material parameter controlling fragmentation and thus the explosive potential of the liquid rock. The development of vesicularity in magmas has until now been viewed (both thermodynamically and kinetically) in terms of the pressure dependence of the solubility of water in the magma, and its role in driving gas saturation, exsolution and expansion during decompression. In contrast, the possible effects of the well documented negative temperature dependence of solubility of water in magma has largely been ignored. Recently, petrological constraints have demonstrated that considerable heating of magma may indeed be a common result of the latent heat of crystallization as well as viscous and frictional heating in areas of strain localization. Here we present field and experimental observations of magma vesiculation and fragmentation resulting from heating (rather than decompression). Textural analysis of volcanic ash from Santiaguito volcano in Guatemala reveals the presence of chemically heterogeneous filaments hosting micrometre-scale vesicles. The textures mirror those developed by disequilibrium melting induced via rapid heating during fault friction experiments, demonstrating that friction can generate sufficient heat to induce melting and vesiculation of hydrated silicic magma. Consideration of the experimentally determined temperature and pressure dependence of water solubility in magma reveals that, for many ascent paths, exsolution may be more efficiently achieved by heating than by decompression. We conclude that the thermal path experienced by magma during ascent strongly controls degassing, vesiculation, magma strength and the effusive

    17. Laboratory operation during radiation emergency

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Bunata, M.; Prouza, Z.; Tecl, J.

      2009-01-01

      During radiation emergency, a special operation mode of laboratories of the Radiation Monitoring Network (hereinafter RMN) is expected. The principal factors differing the emergency mode from the normal one are the following: - significantly higher amount of analyzed samples; - high activities of the majority of the samples; - higher risk of personal and equipment contamination; - higher working and psychological demands on laboratory staff. The assuring of the radiation protection requirements of laboratory staff has to be the primary objective, nevertheless the risk of equipment contamination and of samples cross- contamination of course have to be as well taken into consideration. The presentation describes the experience of the RMN Central Laboratory of the National Radiation Protection Institute in Prague (SURO) which was obtained during realization of field tests, in which a radioactive matter was released. These tests allow us to evaluate the source term or radioactivity dispersal balance based on various detection methods with the aim to estimate exposure of the afflicted persons. Tests provided to simulate emergency working conditions in Central Laboratory - high number of contaminated samples, which have to be analyzed in a short time (short half-time of used radionuclide 99m Tc) using sophisticated laboratory techniques (gamma spectrometers, aerosols collectors, etc.). The testing shows the availability of the SURO laboratory to work during the radiation emergency and to participate on its determination. The suitable settings and the ideal number of staff have been found. The average analysis time was approximately 1 minute per sample and the sample results were available just a few minutes after the counting. Moreover, the settings avoided any danger and kept both the crew and the samples safe and secure from contamination. (authors)

    18. Thromboelastographic changes during laparoscopic fundoplication.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Zostautiene, Indre; Zvinienė, Kristina; Trepenaitis, Darius; Gerbutavičius, Rolandas; Mickevičius, Antanas; Gerbutavičienė, Rima; Kiudelis, Mindaugas

      2017-01-01

      Thromboelastography (TEG) is a technique that measures coagulation processes and surveys the properties of a viscoelastic blood clot, from its formation to lysis. To determine the possible hypercoagulability state and the effect of antithrombotic prophylaxis on thromboelastogram results and development of venous thrombosis during laparoscopic fundoplication. The study was performed on 106 patients who were randomized into two groups. The first group received low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) 12 h before the operation, and 6 and 30 h after it. The second group received LMWH only 1 h before the laparoscopic fundoplication. The TEG profile was collected before LMWH injection, 1 h after the introduction of the laparoscope and 15 min after the surgery was completed. There was no significant difference in thromboelastography R-time between the groups before low-molecular-weight heparin injection. In group I preoperative R-values significantly decreased 1 h after the introduction of the laparoscope, after the end of surgery and on the third postoperative day. K-time values decreased significantly on the third postoperative day compared with the results before low-molecular-weight heparin injection, and after the operation. In group II, preoperative R-values significantly decreased 1 h after the introduction of the laparoscope, and after surgery. K-time values did not change significantly during or after the laparoscopic operation. Our study results demonstrated that the hypercoagulation state (according to the TEG results) was observed during and after laparoscopic fundoplication in patients when LMWH was administered 12 h before the operation together with intraoperative intermittent pneumatic compression. The optimal anticoagulation was obtained when LMWH was administered 1 h before fundoplication.

    19. Laboratory operation during radiation emergency

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Bunata, M.; Tecl, J.; Prouza, Z.

      2008-01-01

      During radiation emergency, a special operation mode of laboratories of the Radiation Monitoring Network (hereinafter RMN) is expected. The principal factors differing the emergency mode from the normal one are the following: - significantly higher amount of analyzed samples; - high activities of the majority of the samples; - higher risk of personal and equipment contamination; - higher working and psychological demands on laboratory staff. The assuring of the radiation protection requirements of laboratory staff has to be the primary objective, nevertheless the risk of equipment contamination and of samples cross- contamination of course have to be as well taken into consideration. The presentation describes the experience of the RMN Central Laboratory of the National Radiation Protection Institute in Prague (SURO) which was obtained during realization of field tests, in which a radioactive matter was released. These tests allow us to evaluate the source term or radioactivity dispersal balance based on various detection methods with the aim to estimate exposure of the afflicted persons. Tests provided to simulate emergency working conditions in Central Laboratory -high number of contaminated samples, which have to be analyzed in a short time (short half-time of used radionuclide 99m Tc) using sophisticated laboratory techniques (gamma spectrometers, aerosols collectors, etc.). The testing shows the availability of the SURO laboratory to work during the radiation emergency and to participate on its determination. The suitable settings and the ideal number of staff have been found. The average analysis time was approximately 1 minute per sample and the sample results were available just a few minutes after the counting. Moreover, the settings avoided any danger and kept both the crew and the samples safe and secure from contamination. (authors)

    20. Dislocation Dynamics During Plastic Deformation

      CERN Document Server

      Messerschmidt, Ulrich

      2010-01-01

      The book gives an overview of the dynamic behavior of dislocations and its relation to plastic deformation. It introduces the general properties of dislocations and treats the dislocation dynamics in some detail. Finally, examples are described of the processes in different classes of materials, i.e. semiconductors, ceramics, metals, intermetallic materials, and quasicrystals. The processes are illustrated by many electron micrographs of dislocations under stress and by video clips taken during in situ straining experiments in a high-voltage electron microscope showing moving dislocations. Thus, the users of the book also obtain an immediate impression and understanding of dislocation dynamics.

    1. Corporate governance cycles during transition

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Jones, Derek C.; Mygind, Niels

      2004-01-01

      -sures for restructuring produce strong impulses for ownership changes. There is limited possibility for external finance because of the embryonic development of the banking system and the capital markets during early transition. The governance cycle is also influenced by specific features of the institutional, cultural...... is faster in Estonia and this can be explained by the relatively fast pace of institutional change and evolution of important gov-ernance institutions, including tough bankruptcy legislation and advances in the financial system. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 Keywords: corporate governance, life...

    2. Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura during pregnancy

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tânia Regina Padovani

      2012-04-01

      Full Text Available ABSTRACT This essay is based on a medical case of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP during pregnancy. The cause of ITP is unknown, who suffer from this disorder, generate antibodies that destroy thrombocytes from their blood. ITP affects women of childbearing age and is associated to maternal and fetal complications. The management of a pregnant patient is difficult and requires the combined care of an obstetrician, a hematologist, and a neonatologist. The main therapeutic options for ITP in pregnant women include glucocorticoids and intravenous immunoglobulin. Splenectomy may be (performed in refractory cases. There is no concerning the management and treatment of pregnant women.

    3. Use of diuretics during pregnancy

      Science.gov (United States)

      Al-Balas, Mosa’b; Bozzo, Pina; Einarson, Adrienne

      2009-01-01

      ABSTRACT QUESTION Several of my pregnant patients use diuretics for hypertension. I have heard that diuretics cannot be used in pregnancy because of the reduction of plasma volume and the potential for decreasing placental perfusion, as well as a possible diabetogenic effect. ANSWER Many studies—including a meta-analysis of almost 7000 neonates exposed to diuretics during pregnancy—did not find an increased risk of adverse effects, such as birth defects, fetal growth restriction, thrombocytopenia, or diabetes, among neonates exposed to diuretics in utero. PMID:19155365

    4. Widespread marrow necrosis during pregnancy

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Knickerbocker, W.J.; Quenville, N.F.

      1982-01-01

      Recently, a 22-year-old Caucasian female was referred to our Hospital two days post-partum. She had been feeling unwell during the last few days of her pregnancy and complained of multiple aches and pains, worst in the abdomen and lower back. Her admission platelet count was severely depressed and a bone biopsy showed extensive marrow necrosis with viable bony trabeculae. There was no evidence of vasculitis, vascular thrombosis, or malignancy. Widespread marrow necrosis in pregnancy followed by recovery, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported. (orig.)

    5. Potential wine ageing during transportation

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Jung Rainer

      2014-01-01

      Full Text Available In a global world, wineries have to satisfy the demand of consumers who wish to drink high quality wines from countries all over the world. To fulfill this request wines have to be transported, crossing thereby great distances from the place of production to the consumer country. At the Institute of Enology of Hochschule Geisenheim University examinations with White-, Rosé- and Red-Wines of different origins which had been transported over longer distances within Europe (Portugal, France, Italy to Germany by trucks were carried out. Shipping of wines was simulated in a climatized cabinet to analyze the influence on wine quality during this way and conditions of transportation. Time and temperature profiles were based on real transport situtations which were recorded during shipping from Germany to Japan using data loggers. White, Rosé and Red wines were transported during 6 to 8 weeks and then were analytically and sensorically compared to those which were stored at a constant temperature of 15 ∘C. Besides the effect of temperature, the movements and vibrations encountered by the wines were also examined. Analytically wines were analyzed for general analytical parameters with Fourier-Transformation-Infrared-Spectroscopie (FTIR, Colour differences (Spectralphotometrie and free and total sulfuric acid with Flow-Injection-Analysis (FIA. Sensory examinations with a trained panel were performed in difference tests in form of rankings and triangular tests. Summarizing the results from the different tests it could be found that transportation had an influence on the potential ageing of wines depending on the wine matrix. Especially high and varying temperatures during transportations over a longer distance and time had negative influences on wine quality. Also the movement of wine at higher temperatures had showed a negative effect whereas transport at cool temperatures even below 0 ∘C did not influence wine characteristics. Sophisticated

    6. Cardiovascular regulation during water immersion.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Park, K S; Choi, J K; Park, Y S

      1999-11-01

      Head-out water immersion at thermoneutral temperature (34-35 degrees C) increases cardiac output for a given O2 consumption, leading to a relative hyperperfusion of peripheral tissues. To determine if subjects immersed in water at a colder temperature show similar responses and to explore the significance of the hyperperfusion, cardiovascular functions were investigated (impedance cardiography) on 10 men at rest and while performing exercise on a leg cycle ergometer (delta M = approximately 95 W.m-2) in air and in water at 34.5 degrees C and 30 degrees C, respectively. In subjects resting in water, the cardiac output increased by approximately 50% compared to that in air, mainly due to a rise in stroke volume. The stroke volume change tended to be greater in 30 degrees C water than in 34.5 degrees C water, and this was due to a greater increase in cardiac preload, as indicated by a significantly greater left ventricular end-diastolic volume. Arterial systolic pressure rose slightly during water immersion. Arterial diastolic pressure remained unchanged in 34.5 degrees C water, but it rose in 30 degrees C water. The total peripheral resistance fell 37% in 34.5 degrees C water and 32% in 30 degrees C water. Both in air and in water, mild exercise increased the cardiac output, and this was mainly due to an increase in heart rate. Since, however, the stroke volume increased with water immersion, cardiac output at a given work load appeared to be significantly higher in water than in air. The arterial pressures did not decrease with water immersion, despite a marked reduction in total peripheral resistance. These results suggest that 1) during cold water immersion, peripheral vasoconstriction provides an additional increase in cardiac preload, leading to a further increase in the stroke volume compared to that of the thermoneutral water immersion, 2) the mechanism of cardiovascular adjustment during dynamic exercise is not changed by the persistent increase in cardiac

    7. Amorphisation during elevated temperature implantation

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Carter, G.; Nobes, M.J.; Elliman, R.G.

      1994-01-01

      Transition state theory is employed to predict the rates of amorphous zone recrystallization by direct thermal and radiation mediated thermal annealing processes. These rates are functions of zone radius and are employed to describe the competition between amorphous zone generation and annealing during elevated temperature heavy ion implantation of, particularly, Si and the accumulation of amorphousness with increasing ion fluence. This analysis predicts a change from monotonic to sigmoidal to biexponential accumulation functions with increasing annealing rate or substrate temperature in agreement with experiments. A logarithmic dependence of ion flux density upon substrate temperature for the achievement of defined fractional amorphisation is predicted and is also in agreement with the experiment. (author)

    8. Intracardiac tromboembolism during liver transplantation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Longo, S; Palacios, M; Tinti, M E; Siri, J; de Brahi, J I; Cabrera Shulmeyer, M C

      2018-03-20

      We describe a case of intraoperative cardiac trombosis during orthotopic liver transplant surgery that resulted in intraoperative death. By using transesophageal echocardiography, the cause of the descompensation of the patient could be determined and the mechanism of trombus migration from thrombi from the venous circulation to the left heart was accurately observed. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

    9. Vasoplegic syndrome during Whipple procedure.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Anandaswamy, Tejesh C; Rajappa, Geetha C; Krishnamachar, Harish

      2017-02-01

      Vasoplegic syndrome is an unusual cause of refractory hypotension under general anesthesia. It is commonly described in the setting of cardiac surgery, but rarely seen in noncardiac setting. We describe successful management of vasoplegic syndrome during Whipple procedure with vasopressin infusion. A high index of suspicion and prompt treatment with vasopressin can be lifesaving in patients with risk factors for vasoplegic syndrome who present with severe refractory hypotension and who respond poorly to fluid administration and routine vasopressor infusion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    10. Atypical centrioles during sexual reproduction.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Avidor-Reiss, Tomer; Khire, Atul; Fishman, Emily L; Jo, Kyoung H

      2015-01-01

      Centrioles are conserved, self-replicating, microtubule-based, 9-fold symmetric subcellular organelles that are essential for proper cell division and function. Most cells have two centrioles and maintaining this number of centrioles is important for animal development and physiology. However, how animals gain their first two centrioles during reproduction is only partially understood. It is well established that in most animals, the centrioles are contributed to the zygote by the sperm. However, in humans and many animals, the sperm centrioles are modified in their structure and protein composition, or they appear to be missing altogether. In these animals, the origin of the first centrioles is not clear. Here, we review various hypotheses on how centrioles are gained during reproduction and describe specialized functions of the zygotic centrioles. In particular, we discuss a new and atypical centriole found in sperm and zygote, called the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL). We also discuss another type of atypical centriole, the "zombie" centriole, which is degenerated but functional. Together, the presence of centrioles, PCL, and zombie centrioles suggests a universal mechanism of centriole inheritance among animals and new causes of infertility. Since the atypical centrioles of sperm and zygote share similar functions with typical centrioles in somatic cells, they can provide unmatched insight into centriole biology.

    11. Atypical Centrioles During Sexual Reproduction

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Tomer eAvidor-Reiss

      2015-04-01

      Full Text Available Centrioles are conserved, self-replicating, microtubule-based 9-fold symmetric subcellular organelles that are essential for proper cell division and function. Most cells have two centrioles and maintaining this number of centrioles is important for animal development and physiology. However, how animals gain their first two centrioles during reproduction is only partially understood. It is well established that in most animals, the centrioles are contributed to the zygote by the sperm. However, in humans and many animals, the sperm centrioles are modified in their structure and protein composition, or they appear to be missing altogether. In these animals, the origin of the first centrioles is not clear. Here, we review various hypotheses on how centrioles are gained during reproduction and describe specialized functions of the zygotic centrioles. In particular, we discuss a new and atypical centriole found in sperm and zygote, the proximal centriole-like structure (PCL. We also discuss another type of atypical centriole, the zombie centriole, which is degenerated but functional. Together, the presence of centrioles, PCL, and zombie centrioles suggests a universal mechanism of centriole inheritance among animals and new causes of infertility. Since the atypical centrioles of sperm and zygote share similar functions with typical centrioles in somatic cells, they can provide unmatched insight into centriole biology.

    12. Urinary tract infections during pregnancy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Le, Jennifer; Briggs, Gerald G; McKeown, Anna; Bustillo, Gerardo

      2004-10-01

      To provide a comprehensive review of urinary tract infections (UTIs) during pregnancy. All aspects of UTIs, including epidemiology, pathogenesis, resistance, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, were reviewed. MEDLINE (1966-August 2003) and Cochrane Library searches were performed using the key search terms urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, cystitis, asymptomatic bacteriuria, and resistance. All article abstracts were evaluated for relevance. Only articles pertaining to pregnancy were included. The majority of published literature were review articles; the number of original clinical studies was limited. UTIs are the most common bacterial infections during pregnancy. They are characterized by the presence of significant bacteria anywhere along the urinary tract. Pyelonephritis is the most common severe bacterial infection that can lead to perinatal and maternal complications including premature delivery, infants with low birth weight, fetal mortality, preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, anemia, thrombocytopenia, and transient renal insufficiency. Enterobacteriaceae account for 90% of UTIs. The common antibiotics used are nitrofurantoin, cefazolin, cephalexin, ceftriaxone, and gentamicin. Therapeutic management of UTIs in pregnancy requires proper diagnostic workup and thorough understanding of antimicrobial agents to optimize maternal outcome, ensure safety to the fetus, and prevent complications that lead to significant morbidity and mortality in both the fetus and the mother.

    13. Supercoil Formation During DNA Melting

      Science.gov (United States)

      Sayar, Mehmet; Avsaroglu, Baris; Kabakcioglu, Alkan

      2009-03-01

      Supercoil formation plays a key role in determining the structure-function relationship in DNA. Biological and technological processes, such as protein synthesis, polymerase chain reaction, and microarrays relys on separation of the two strands in DNA, which is coupled to the unwinding of the supercoiled structure. This problem has been studied theoretically via Peyrard-Bishop and Poland-Scheraga type models, which include a simple representation of the DNA structural properties. In recent years, computational models, which provide a more realtistic representaion of DNA molecule, have been used to study the melting behavior of short DNA chains. Here, we will present a new coarse-grained model of DNA which is capable of simulating sufficiently long DNA chains for studying the supercoil formation during melting, without sacrificing the local structural properties. Our coarse-grained model successfully reproduces the local geometry of the DNA molecule, such as the 3'-5' directionality, major-minor groove structure, and the helical pitch. We will present our initial results on the dynamics of supercoiling during DNA melting.

    14. [Community intervention during economic disasters].

      Science.gov (United States)

      de León, O A

      1991-03-01

      A political conflict forced banks to close down in Panama during March 1988. Thus, thousand of families were unable to meet their most basic needs during that lapse of time. This paper describes a community intervention program that was set up in the midst of such an economic disaster. That program emphasized mental health consultation techniques to help devising an effective organizational action as well as developing standards to determine needs, and a clear-cut two-way communication with the affected families. The incidence of emotional disorder was assessed with the Self Report Questionnaire, and crisis intervention was offered to any people who should apply for it. Cognitive responses, coping behaviors, and social supports were also assessed. Results showed that those individuals excluded from a full participation in their culture were much more likely to develop emotional disorders. Finding that affected people showed a scarce self-help behavior was interpreted as a feature of the transcultural transaction between affected people, and professionals.

    15. Substorms during different storm phases

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      N. Partamies

      2011-11-01

      Full Text Available After the deep solar minimum at the end of the solar cycle 23, a small magnetic storm occurred on 20–26 January 2010. The Dst (disturbance storm time index reached the minimum of −38 nT on 20 January and the prolonged recovery that followed the main phase that lasted for about 6 days. In this study, we concentrate on three substorms that took place (1 just prior to the storm, (2 during the main phase of the storm, and (3 at the end of the recovery of the storm. We analyse the solar wind conditions from the solar wind monitoring spacecraft, the duration and intensity of the substorm events as well as the behaviour of the electrojet currents from the ground magnetometer measurements. We compare the precipitation characteristics of the three substorms. The results show that the F-region electron density enhancements and dominant green and red auroral emission of the substorm activity during the storm recovery resembles average isolated substorm precipitation. However, the energy dissipated, even at the very end of a prolonged storm recovery, is very large compared to the typical energy content of isolated substorms. In the case studied here, the dissipation of the excess energy is observed over a 3-h long period of several consecutive substorm intensifications. Our findings suggest that the substorm energy dissipation varies between the storm phases.

    16. Prediction During Natural Language Comprehension.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Willems, Roel M; Frank, Stefan L; Nijhof, Annabel D; Hagoort, Peter; van den Bosch, Antal

      2016-06-01

      The notion of prediction is studied in cognitive neuroscience with increasing intensity. We investigated the neural basis of 2 distinct aspects of word prediction, derived from information theory, during story comprehension. We assessed the effect of entropy of next-word probability distributions as well as surprisal A computational model determined entropy and surprisal for each word in 3 literary stories. Twenty-four healthy participants listened to the same 3 stories while their brain activation was measured using fMRI. Reversed speech fragments were presented as a control condition. Brain areas sensitive to entropy were left ventral premotor cortex, left middle frontal gyrus, right inferior frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, and left supplementary motor area. Areas sensitive to surprisal were left inferior temporal sulcus ("visual word form area"), bilateral superior temporal gyrus, right amygdala, bilateral anterior temporal poles, and right inferior frontal sulcus. We conclude that prediction during language comprehension can occur at several levels of processing, including at the level of word form. Our study exemplifies the power of combining computational linguistics with cognitive neuroscience, and additionally underlines the feasibility of studying continuous spoken language materials with fMRI. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

    17. [Hypertension during pregnancy: Epidemiology, definition].

      Science.gov (United States)

      Fauvel, Jean-Pierre

      2016-01-01

      Hypertension in pregnancy has several forms that differ by their mechanisms and their consequences for mothers and fetus. Chronic hypertension is defined by SBP≥140mm Hg or DBP≥90mm Hg before pregnancy or before the 20th week of amenorrhea. Gestational hypertension is defined by SBP≥140mm Hg or DBP≥90mm Hg during or after the 20th week of amenorrhea. Preeclampsia is the occurrence of hypertension and proteinuria after 20weeks of amenorrhea. Severe preeclampsia is accompanied by clinical signs and symptoms indicating visceral pain. The HELLP syndrome is a severe preeclampsia accompanied by intravascular hemolysis and hepatic cytolysis. Eclampsia is characterized by seizures of the tonic-clonic type. A chronic hypertension is observed in 1-5% of pregnancies. Gestational hypertension without proteinuria appears in 5-6% of pregnancies. A preeclampsia develops in 1-2% of pregnancies, but much more frequently (up 34%) in the presence of risk factors. High blood pressure during pregnancy remains, by its complications, the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

    18. Stress evolution during caldera collapse

      Science.gov (United States)

      Holohan, E. P.; Schöpfer, M. P. J.; Walsh, J. J.

      2015-07-01

      The mechanics of caldera collapse are subject of long-running debate. Particular uncertainties concern how stresses around a magma reservoir relate to fracturing as the reservoir roof collapses, and how roof collapse in turn impacts upon the reservoir. We used two-dimensional Distinct Element Method models to characterise the evolution of stress around a depleting sub-surface magma body during gravity-driven collapse of its roof. These models illustrate how principal stress orientations rotate during progressive deformation so that roof fracturing transitions from initial reverse faulting to later normal faulting. They also reveal four end-member stress paths to fracture, each corresponding to a particular location within the roof. Analysis of these paths indicates that fractures associated with ultimate roof failure initiate in compression (i.e. as shear fractures). We also report on how mechanical and geometric conditions in the roof affect pre-failure unloading and post-failure reloading of the reservoir. In particular, the models show how residual friction within a failed roof could, without friction reduction mechanisms or fluid-derived counter-effects, inhibit a return to a lithostatically equilibrated pressure in the magma reservoir. Many of these findings should be transferable to other gravity-driven collapse processes, such as sinkhole formation, mine collapse and subsidence above hydrocarbon reservoirs.

    19. Redirecting treatment during neonatal transport.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Dulkerian, Susan J; Douglas, Webra Price; Taylor, Renee McCraine

      2011-01-01

      Neonatal transport teams comprise multidisciplinary health care providers who are skilled in patient care, communication and customer service, and equipment mechanics. They are extensively trained in resuscitation and stabilization, preparing for accelerating care, and their focus is preservation of life. In any situation focused on caring for critically ill patients, ethical issues and questions may arise. For instance, is it compassionate and/or cost-effective to separate mothers and infants when continuing/accelerating care is futile, and when and how should care be redirected from acute and lifesaving care to comfort care and bereavement support for the family? The knowledge and skills required to address such situations and communicate and participate in a redirection of care may not be adequately emphasized in the preparation of the professionals responsible for stabilizing and transporting critically ill newborns. This article raises issues relating to transport and redirecting care such as eligibility for transport, parental request and consent, separation of mothers and infants, palliative and bereavement care, ethical considerations, competitive transport environment, and customer service. A shared mental model is essential. The focus of this article is not to provide answers to all of these issues, but to highlight the complexity of the topic of redirecting treatment during neonatal transport. Redirecting treatment needs to be discussed, and health care professionals should be prepared during their transport team training. Each family and situation must be approached individually, with the acceptance that there will always be more questions than answers.

    20. Plasma sheet behavior during substorms

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Hones, E.W. Jr.

      1983-01-01

      Auroral or magnetic substorms are periods of enhanced auroral and geomagnetic activity lasting one to a few hours that signify increased dissipation of energy from the magnetosphere to the earth. Data acquired during the past decade from satellites in the near-earth sector of the magnetotail have suggested that during a substorm part of the plasma sheet is severed from earth by magnetic reconnection, forming a plasmoid, i.e., a body of plasma and closed magnetic loops, that flows out of the tail into the solar wind, thus returning plasma and energy that have earlier been accumulated from the solar wind. Very recently this picture has been dramatically confirmed by observations, with the ISEE 3 spacecraft in the magnetotail 220 R/sub E/ from earth, of plasmoids passing that location in clear delayed response to substorms. It now appears that plasmoid release is a fundamental process whereby the magnetosphere gives up excess stored energy and plasma, much like comets are seen to do, and that the phenomena of the substorm seen at earth are a by-product of that fundamental process

    1. Deformation During Friction Stir Welding

      Science.gov (United States)

      White, Henry J.

      2002-01-01

      Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process that exhibits characteristics similar to traditional metal cutting processes. The plastic deformation that occurs during friction stir welding is due to the superposition of three flow fields: a primary rotation of a radially symmetric solid plug of metal surrounding the pin tool, a secondary uniform translation, and a tertiary ring vortex flow (smoke rings) surrounding the tool. If the metal sticks to the tool, the plug surface extends down into the metal from the outer edge of the tool shoulder, decreases in diameter like a funnel, and closes up beneath the pin. Since its invention, ten years have gone by and still very little is known about the physics of the friction stir welding process. In this experiment, an H13 steel weld tool (shoulder diameter, 0.797 in; pin diameter, 0.312 in; and pin length, 0.2506 in) was used to weld three 0.255 in thick plates. The deformation behavior during friction stir welding was investigated by metallographically preparing a plan view sections of the weldment and taking Vickers hardness test in the key-hole region.

    2. Personality Development during Teacher Preparation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Corcoran, Roisin P; O'Flaherty, Joanne

      2016-01-01

      Objective: The purpose of this 3-year longitudinal study was to examine pre-service teachers' personality trajectories as measured by the IPIP Big-Five factor markers during teacher preparation. The relationship between students' personality traits, social desirability, and prior academic attainment was also examined. Method: This 3-year longitudinal study invited participants from the first year of a 4-year undergraduate (UG) pre-service teacher education program, the class of 2017. The sample consisted of 305 students. Results: The results suggest that extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience were best represented by a non-significant longitudinal change in means. Results also suggest that social desirability predicts agreeableness and emotional stability with small to moderate effect sizes. Conclusion: The study concludes that no value is added to pre-service teachers' personality traits during 3 years of tertiary education. Furthermore, the data presented does not support the view that academic attainment is a good predictor of personality traits. Implications for educational research, theory, and practice are considered.

    3. Increased chromosome radiosensitivity during pregnancy

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Ricoul, Michelle; Sabatier, Laure; Dutrillaux, Bernard

      1997-01-01

      It was necessary to consider the risks of exposure of pregnant women, not only in relation to the child, but also in relation to their own hypersensitivity. We have demonstrated that pregnancy increases radiosensitivity of chromosome in the mouse at the end of gestation. This is of importance since it may have implications on radioprotection of pregnant women and give experimental guidelines to the problems of hypersensitivity to drugs and cancer aggravation during pregnancy. Blood obtained from women at various times of pregnancy was exposed to ionizing radiations. By comparison to non-pregnant women, an increase in chromosome breakage was observed in metaphases from lymphocytes, after short-term culture in the presence of the serum of the same donor. Immediately after delivery, this increase in radiosensitivity disappeared. In a prospective study, serial analyses showed a very strong correlation between the amount of pregnancy hormones, progesterone in particular, and the increase in radiosensitivity. Pregnant women may have an increased sensitivity to ionizing radiation during the second half of their pregnancy. This study provides the first evidence in human that radiosensitivity may vary in relation to physiological conditions

    4. Pharmacokinetics of metformin during pregnancy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Eyal, Sara; Easterling, Thomas R; Carr, Darcy; Umans, Jason G; Miodovnik, Menachem; Hankins, Gary D V; Clark, Shannon M; Risler, Linda; Wang, Joanne; Kelly, Edward J; Shen, Danny D; Hebert, Mary F

      2010-05-01

      Our objective was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of metformin during pregnancy. Serial blood and urine samples were collected over one steady-state dosing interval in women treated with metformin during early to late pregnancy (n = 35) and postpartum (n = 16). Maternal and umbilical cord blood samples were obtained at delivery from 12 women. Metformin concentrations were also determined in breast milk samples obtained over one dosing interval in 6 women. Metformin renal clearance increased significantly in mid (723 +/- 243 ml/min, P pregnancy (625 +/- 130 ml/min, P metformin net secretion clearance (480 +/- 190 ml/min, P pregnancy versus postpartum, respectively. Metformin concentrations at the time of delivery in umbilical cord plasma ranged between nondetectable (metformin through breast milk was 0.13 to 0.28 mg, and the relative infant dose was metformin pharmacokinetics are affected by pregnancy-related changes in renal filtration and net tubular transport and can be roughly estimated by the use of creatinine clearance. At the time of delivery, the fetus is exposed to metformin concentrations from negligible to as high as maternal concentrations. In contrast, infant exposure to metformin through the breast milk is low.

    5. ECLOUD in PS2, PS+, SPS+: AN UPDATE

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Furman, M.A.

      2007-01-01

      We present an update of our results for the electron-cloud build-up for several upgrades proposed for the LHC injectors. Specifically, we have re-examined our published results for the ecloud heat load [1] from the perspective of numerical convergence of the simulations vis-a-vis the integration time step Δt. We repeated most of the simulations with ever smaller values of Δt until we reached stable results, indicating numerical convergence; this was achieved at 200-500 slices per bunch, depending on the particular case. In all cases examined, the simulated heat load decreases monotonically, until the limit is reached, as Δt decreases in the range explored, hence the stable results are more favorable vis-a-vis the heat load than the previous ones. This is particularly true for a bunch spacing t b = 25 ns

    6. Purity determination of 60Co gamma irradiated atropine sulphate by different analytical techniques (Preprint No. RA.05)

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Balan, N.; Sharma, G.; Gopal, N.G.S.

      1989-01-01

      Some of the results obtained, employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) are reported and some other methods to determine the purit y of radiation sterilized atropine sulphate in solid (I) and in aqueous solutions (0.1 per cent to 1.0 per cent w/v) (II) are also described. (I) and (II) were irradiated to graded doses of 10-100kGy and 5-20kGy respectively. The purity of irradiated sample (I) vis-a-vis unirradiated was determined using non aqueous potentiometric titration, thin layer chromatography, uv-vis spectrophotometry, HPLC and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Purity of (II) was examined only by HPLC vis-a-vis unirradiated aqueous solution. (author). 3 figs

    7. How equity markets view heavy oil

      Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

      Janisch, M. L. [Nesbitt Burns Research, Toronto, ON (Canada)

      1996-12-31

      Factors that influence the equity market in investment decisions vis-a-vis the oil sands/heavy oil industry were reviewed. The importance of financing methods (debt, royalty trusts, common equity), liquidity of investments, absolute vs. relative performance, comparative economics vis-a-vis conventional oil producers, oil prices, operating cost drivers (technology, natural gas costs, cost/availability of diluent), transportation and refining capacity, were summarized. In the final analysis, consistent economic success on a large scale, combined with an assessment of available alternatives, were considered to be the most likely motivators for portfolio managers. As a cautionary note, it was noted that traditionally, oil and gas investors have not been known to be in the forefront to invest in research and development.

    8. How equity markets view heavy oil

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Janisch, M. L.

      1996-01-01

      Factors that influence the equity market in investment decisions vis-a-vis the oil sands/heavy oil industry were reviewed. The importance of financing methods (debt, royalty trusts, common equity), liquidity of investments, absolute vs. relative performance, comparative economics vis-a-vis conventional oil producers, oil prices, operating cost drivers (technology, natural gas costs, cost/availability of diluent), transportation and refining capacity, were summarized. In the final analysis, consistent economic success on a large scale, combined with an assessment of available alternatives, were considered to be the most likely motivators for portfolio managers. As a cautionary note, it was noted that traditionally, oil and gas investors have not been known to be in the forefront to invest in research and development

    9. Design of self-correction coils in a superferric dipole magnet

      Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

      Design of self-correction coils in a superferric dipole magnet is carried out. By adopting the self-correction coil (SCC) scheme, we can do online correction of unwanted fields inside the magnet aperture during the whole operating cycle irrespective of their origin. The self-correction coils are short-circuited superconducting ...

    10. Spatial redistribution of irregularly-spaced Pareto fronts for more intuitive navigation and solution selection

      NARCIS (Netherlands)

      A. Bouter (Anton); K. Pirpinia (Kleopatra); T. Alderliesten (Tanja); P.A.N. Bosman (Peter)

      2017-01-01

      textabstractA multi-objective optimization approach is o.en followed by an a posteriori decision-making process, during which the most appropriate solution of the Pareto set is selected by a professional in the .eld. Conventional visualization methods do not correct for Pareto fronts with

    11. Calculation of critical fault recovery time for nonlinear systems based on region of attraction analysis

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba; Blanke, Mogens

      2014-01-01

      of a system. It must be guaranteed that the trajectory of a system subject to fault remains in the region of attraction (ROA) of the post-fault system during this time. This paper proposes a new algorithm to compute the critical fault recovery time for nonlinear systems with polynomial vector elds using sum...

    12. Institutional Field for Outward Foreign Direct Investment:

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Marinova, Svetla Trifonova; Child, John; Marinov, Marin Alexandrov

      2012-01-01

      The paper AU :3 explores the stages of development of an outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) institutional field during periods of major system change in big emerging economies. The state and its agencies appear to be the principal institutional entrepreneurs in developing the OFDI...

    13. South African metropolis

      African Journals Online (AJOL)

      South Africa's formal employment growth rate has been declining steadily since the ... the institutions, political processes and social networks of society. Barriers to .... central business district, as well as to other white residential areas like Phillip .... during this time by maintaining frequent contact between field workers,.

    14. On speech recognition during anaesthesia

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Alapetite, Alexandre

      2007-01-01

      This PhD thesis in human-computer interfaces (informatics) studies the case of the anaesthesia record used during medical operations and the possibility to supplement it with speech recognition facilities. Problems and limitations have been identified with the traditional paper-based anaesthesia...... and inaccuracies in the anaesthesia record. Supplementing the electronic anaesthesia record interface with speech input facilities is proposed as one possible solution to a part of the problem. The testing of the various hypotheses has involved the development of a prototype of an electronic anaesthesia record...... interface with speech input facilities in Danish. The evaluation of the new interface was carried out in a full-scale anaesthesia simulator. This has been complemented by laboratory experiments on several aspects of speech recognition for this type of use, e.g. the effects of noise on speech recognition...

    15. Nuclear processing during star formation

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Newman, M.J.

      1978-01-01

      A preliminary survey was conducted of the thermonuclear energy release expected during star formation. The destruction of primordial deuterium provides substantial amounts of energy at surprisingly low temperatures, and must be considered in any meaningful treatment of star formation carried to stages in which the internal temperature exceeds a few hundred thousand degrees. Significant energy generation from consumption of initial lithium requires higher temperatures, of the order of a few million degrees. Depletion of primordial beryllium and boron may never provide an important energy source. The approach to equilibrium of the carbon--nitrogen cycle is dominant at temperatures approaching those characteristic of the central regions of main sequence stars. The present calculation should serve as a useful guide in choosing those nuclear processes to be included in a more detailed study. 8 figures, 2 tables

    16. Demonstration of creep during filtration

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard; Bugge, Thomas Vistisen; Kirchheiner, Anders Løvenbalk

      The classical filtration theory assumes a unique relationship between the local filter cake porosity and the local effective pressure. For a number of compressible materials, it has however been observed that during the consolidation stage this may not be the case. It has been found...... that the production of filtrate also depends on the characteristic time for the filter cake solids to deform. This is formulated in the Terzaghi-Voigt model in which a secondary consolidation is introduced. The secondary consolidation may be visualized by plots of the relative cake deformation (U) v.s. the square...... root of time. Even more clearly it is demonstrated by plotting the liquid pressure at the cake piston interface v.s. the relative deformation (to be shown). The phenomenon of a secondary consolidation processes is in short called creep. Provided that the secondary consolidation rate is of the same...

    17. Chameleon field dynamics during inflation

      Science.gov (United States)

      Saba, Nasim; Farhoudi, Mehrdad

      By studying the chameleon model during inflation, we investigate whether it can be a successful inflationary model, wherein we employ the common typical potential usually used in the literature. Thus, in the context of the slow-roll approximations, we obtain the e-folding number for the model to verify the ability of resolving the problems of standard big bang cosmology. Meanwhile, we apply the constraints on the form of the chosen potential and also on the equation of state parameter coupled to the scalar field. However, the results of the present analysis show that there is not much chance of having the chameleonic inflation. Hence, we suggest that if through some mechanism the chameleon model can be reduced to the standard inflationary model, then it may cover the whole era of the universe from the inflation up to the late time.

    18. Restaurant closures during holiday period

      CERN Multimedia

      2015-01-01

      CERN restaurant opening times on Friday, 1 May: Restaurant No. 1 will be opened from 7.00 a.m. to 10.00 p.m. Restaurants No. 2 and No. 3 will be closed.   CERN restaurant opening times during the Ascension weekend: Restaurant No. 1 will be open from 7.00 a.m. to 10.00 p.m. on Thursday, 14 and Friday 15 May. Restaurant No. 2 will be closed on Thursday, 14 May and open on Friday, 15 May until 3.30 p.m. (no table service). Restaurant No. 3 will be closed.   CERN restaurant opening times on Whit Monday, 25 May: Restaurant No. 1 will be open from 7.00 a.m. to 10.00 p.m. Restaurants No. 2 and No. 3 will be closed.

    19. MANAGEMENT STRATEGIES DURING ECONOMIC CRISIS

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      SINTEA(ANGHEL LUCICA

      2014-05-01

      Full Text Available During the financial and economic crisis, the management of an entity must establish a plan and apply strategies needed to mitigate the negative effects due to the action of disturbing factors. Management must have a vision of business evolution, of costumer and supplier perspective, of how to develop the technological equipment in order to increase profitability and product quality. The manager must give utmost importance to all economic information he receives, to analyze it, to group it into categories depending on the effects they can produce, to establish the extent to which it influences the activity. The strategies a manager applies are also based on his flair, culture, knowledge or the human and material resources at its disposal

    20. Radiation investigations during space flight

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Akatov, A.Yu.; Nevzgodina, L.V.; Sakovich, V.A.; Fekher, I.; Deme, Sh.; Khashchegan, D.

      1986-01-01

      Results of radiation investigations during ''Salyut-6'' orbital station flight are presented. The program of studying the environmental radioactivity at the station included ''Integral'' and ''Pille'' experiments. In the course of the ''Integral'' experiment absorbed dose distributions of cosmic radiation and heavy charged particle fluence for long time intervals were studied. Method, allowing one to study dose distributions and determine individual doses for any time interval rapidity and directly on board the station was tested in the course of ''Pille'' experiment for the first time. Attention is paid to measuring equipment. Effect of heavy charged particles on the cellular structure of air-dry Lactuca sativa lettuce seeds was studied in the course of radiobiological experiments conducted at ''Salyut-6'' station. It is shown, that with the increase of flight duration the frequency of cells with chromosomal aberrations increases

    1. Observability during planetary approach navigation

      Science.gov (United States)

      Bishop, Robert H.; Burkhart, P. Daniel; Thurman, Sam W.

      1993-01-01

      The objective of the research is to develop an analytic technique to predict the relative navigation capability of different Earth-based radio navigation measurements. In particular, the problem is to determine the relative ability of geocentric range and Doppler measurements to detect the effects of the target planet gravitational attraction on the spacecraft during the planetary approach and near-encounter mission phases. A complete solution to the two-dimensional problem has been developed. Relatively simple analytic formulas are obtained for range and Doppler measurements which describe the observability content of the measurement data along the approach trajectories. An observability measure is defined which is based on the observability matrix for nonlinear systems. The results show good agreement between the analytic observability analysis and the computational batch processing method.

    2. Medication management during electroconvulsant therapy

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Zolezzi M

      2016-04-01

      Full Text Available Monica Zolezzi Clinical Pharmacy and Practice, College of Pharmacy, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar Abstract: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT has demonstrated to be highly effective and safe, even life saving for many psychiatric disorders such as major depression, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. Most patients who require ECT are also on concurrent pharmacotherapy. As such, the objective of this article is to provide a review of the most recent literature focusing on the medications used during an ECT procedure and on the effects of concurrent psychiatric and non-psychiatric medications on the effectiveness and safety of ECT. The review also attempts to summarize the recommendations derived from existing documents to guide pharmacotherapy decisions for patients undergoing ECT. For this purpose, using electronic databases, an extensive search of the current literature was made using ECT and medications or drug classes as keywords. Keywords: ECT, medications, drug interactions

    3. Treatment of mastitis during lactation.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Pyörälä, S

      2009-04-01

      Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, because of high treatment costs and generally poor efficacy. All mastitis treatment should be evidence-based, i.e., the efficacy of each product and treatment length should be demonstrated by scientific studies. Use of on-farm written protocols for mastitis treatment promotes a judicious use of antimicrobials and reduces the use of antimicrobials.

    4. Depression During Pregnancy and Postpartum.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Becker, Madeleine; Weinberger, Tal; Chandy, Ann; Schmukler, Sarah

      2016-03-01

      Depression is a common complication of pregnancy and the postpartum period. There are multiple risk factors for peripartum mood disorders, most important of which is a prior history of depression. Both depression and antidepressant medications confer risk upon the infant. Maternal depression has been associated with preterm birth, low birth weight, fetal growth restriction, and postnatal cognitive and emotional complications. Antidepressant exposure has been associated with preterm birth, reductions in birth weight, persistent pulmonary hypertension, and postnatal adaptation syndrome (PNAS) as well as a possible connection with autism spectrum disorder. Paroxetine has been associated with cardiac malformations. Most antidepressant medications are excreted in low levels in breast milk and are generally compatible with breastfeeding. The use of antidepressants during pregnancy and postpartum must be weighed against the risk of untreated depression in the mother.

    5. Corporate governance cycles during transition

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Mygind, Niels; Demina, Natalia; Gregoric, Aleksandra

      2004-01-01

      -ing or exit stage. During transition the cycle reflects: privatization often with a high proportion of employee ownership like in Russia and in Slovenia; strong pressures for restructuring and owner-ship changes; limited possibility for external finance because of embryonic development of the fi......-nancial system. To provide simple hypothesis tests, we use Russian enterprise data for 1995-2003 and Slovenian data covering 1998-2003. In spite of differences in institutional development, con-cerning privatization and development of corporate governance institutions, we find that govern-ance cycles are broadly...... of ownership on managers, external domestic and foreign owners. JEL-codes: G3, J5, P2, P3 - Keywords: corporate governance, life-cycle, privatization, ownership change, transition economies, Russia and Slovenia....

    6. Exercise Training During +Gz Acceleration

      Science.gov (United States)

      Greenleaf, J. E.; Chou, J. L.; Simonson, S. R.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Barnes, P. R.

      1999-01-01

      The overall purpose is to study the effect of passive (without exercise) and active (with exercise) +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration training, using a short-arm (1.9m radius) centrifuge, on post- training maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max, work capacity) and 70 deg head-up tilt (orthostatic) tolerance in ambulatory subjects to test the hypothesis that (a) both passive and active acceleration training will improve post-training tilt-tolerance, and (b) there will be no difference in tilt-tolerance between passive and active exercise acceleration training because increased hydrostatic and blood pressures, rather than increased muscular metabolism, will provide the major adaptive stimulus. The purpose of the pilot study was to test the hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in the metabolic responses (oxygen uptake, heart rate, pulmonary ventilation, or respiratory exchange ratio) during supine exercise with moderate +Gz acceleration.

    7. Fall prevention walker during rehabilitation

      Science.gov (United States)

      Tee, Kian Sek; E, Chun Zhi; Saim, Hashim; Zakaria, Wan Nurshazwani Wan; Khialdin, Safinaz Binti Mohd; Isa, Hazlita; Awad, M. I.; Soon, Chin Fhong

      2017-09-01

      This paper proposes on the design of a walker for the prevention of falling among elderlies or patients during rehabilitation whenever they use a walker to assist them. Fall happens due to impaired balance or gait problem. The assistive device is designed by applying stability concept and an accelerometric fall detection system is included. The accelerometric fall detection system acts as an alerting device that acquires body accelerometric data and detect fall. Recorded accelerometric data could be useful for further assessment. Structural strength of the walker was verified via iterations of simulation using finite element analysis, before being fabricated. Experiments were conducted to identify the fall patterns using accelerometric data. The design process and detection of fall pattern demonstrates the design of a walker that could support the user without fail and alerts the helper, thus salvaging the users from injuries due to fall and unattended situation.

    8. Price knowledge during grocery shopping

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Jensen, Birger Boutrup; Grunert, Klaus G

      2014-01-01

      applying a multi-point, multi-measure approach, consumers appear to know more aboutprices than suggested by past research. Determinants of price knowledge are also examined and the results indicate that price knowledge buildsup not only because of active search but also due to accidental exposure to prices......Past research on consumer price knowledge has varied considerably partly due to differences in how and when price knowledge is measured.This paper applies a multi-point, multi-measure approach to reconcile differences in past price knowledge research by examining systematicrelationships between...... time of measurement and type of measures applied. Examination of consumer price knowledge before, during, and afterstore visit sheds light on what is measured at the individual points in time: episodic price knowledge and/or reference prices? With a between-subjects design interviewing 1...

    9. Bradycardia During Targeted Temperature Management

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Nielsen, Niklas; Hassager, Christian

      2016-01-01

      OBJECTIVES: Bradycardia is common during targeted temperature management, likely being a physiologic response to lower body temperature, and has recently been associated with favorable outcome following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in smaller observational studies. The present study sought...... to confirm this finding in a large multicenter cohort of patients treated with targeted temperature management at 33°C and explore the response to targeted temperature management targeting 36°C. DESIGN: Post hoc analysis of a prospective randomized study. SETTING: Thirty-six ICUs in 10 countries. PATIENTS......: We studied 447 (targeted temperature management = 33°C) and 430 (targeted temperature management = 36°C) comatose out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients with available heart rate data, randomly assigned in the targeted temperature management trial from 2010 to 2013. INTERVENTIONS: Targeted...

    10. Quantifying Information Flow During Emergencies

      Science.gov (United States)

      Gao, Liang; Song, Chaoming; Gao, Ziyou; Barabási, Albert-László; Bagrow, James P.; Wang, Dashun

      2014-02-01

      Recent advances on human dynamics have focused on the normal patterns of human activities, with the quantitative understanding of human behavior under extreme events remaining a crucial missing chapter. This has a wide array of potential applications, ranging from emergency response and detection to traffic control and management. Previous studies have shown that human communications are both temporally and spatially localized following the onset of emergencies, indicating that social propagation is a primary means to propagate situational awareness. We study real anomalous events using country-wide mobile phone data, finding that information flow during emergencies is dominated by repeated communications. We further demonstrate that the observed communication patterns cannot be explained by inherent reciprocity in social networks, and are universal across different demographics.

    11. Ejecta evolution during cone impact

      KAUST Repository

      Marston, Jeremy

      2014-07-07

      We present findings from an experimental investigation into the impact of solid cone-shaped bodies onto liquid pools. Using a variety of cone angles and liquid physical properties, we show that the ejecta formed during the impact exhibits self-similarity for all impact speeds for very low surface tension liquids, whilst for high-surface tension liquids similarity is only achieved at high impact speeds. We find that the ejecta tip can detach from the cone and that this phenomenon can be attributed to the air entrainment phenomenon. We analyse of a range of cone angles, including some ogive cones, and impact speeds in terms of the spatiotemporal evolution of the ejecta tip. Using superhydrophobic cones, we also examine the entry of cones which entrain an air layer.

    12. Treatment of mastitis during lactation

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Pyörälä S

      2009-04-01

      Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of mastitis should be based on bacteriological diagnosis and take national and international guidelines on prudent use of antimicrobials into account. In acute mastitis, where bacteriological diagnosis is not available, treatment should be initiated based on herd data and personal experience. Rapid bacteriological diagnosis would facilitate the proper selection of the antimicrobial. Treating subclinical mastitis with antimicrobials during lactation is seldom economical, because of high treatment costs and generally poor efficacy. All mastitis treatment should be evidence-based, i.e., the efficacy of each product and treatment length should be demonstrated by scientific studies. Use of on-farm written protocols for mastitis treatment promotes a judicious use of antimicrobials and reduces the use of antimicrobials.

    13. Distress During the Menopause Transition

      Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

      Marcianna Nosek

      2012-07-01

      Full Text Available In 2010, nearly 400 million women worldwide were of menopause age (45-54. Although many women transition through menopause with ease, some experience distress and a subsequent decrease in quality of life. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of distress in women during the menopause transition. A narrative analysis methodology was used maintaining participants’ complete narratives when possible. In-person interviews of 15 midlife women were digitally audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Women shared narratives of distress related to menstrual changes, emotional instability, vaginal dryness, and decreased libido affected by their relationships with self, partners, work, and family. Some experiences were presented against a backdrop of the past and influenced by concerns for the future. Detailed stories illuminated the effect that distressful symptoms had on quality of life and captured how intricately woven symptoms were with the women’s interpersonal and social lives.

    14. Vascular Morphodynamics During Secondary Growth.

      Science.gov (United States)

      de Reuille, Pierre Barbier; Ragni, Laura

      2017-01-01

      Quantification of vascular morphodynamics during secondary growth has been hampered by the scale of the process. Even in the tiny model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the xylem can include more than 2000 cells in a single cross section, rendering manual counting impractical. Moreover, due to its deep location, xylem is an inaccessible tissue, limiting live imaging. A novel method to visualize and measure secondary growth progression has been proposed: "the Quantitative Histology" approach. This method is based on a detailed anatomical atlas, and image segmentation coupled with machine learning to automatically extract cell shapes and identify cell type. Here we present a new version of this approach, with a user-friendly interface implemented in the open source software LithoGraphX.

    15. Radiation dose during angiographic procedures

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Lavoie, Ch.; Rasuli, P.

      2001-01-01

      The use of angiographic procedures is becoming more prevalent as new techniques and equipment are developed. There have been concerns in the scientific community about the level of radiation doses received by patients, and indirectly by staff, during some of these radiological procedures. The purpose of this study was to assess the level of radiation dose from angiographic procedures to patient at the Ottawa Hospital, General Campus. Radiation dose measurements, using Thermo-Luminescent Dosimeters (TLDs), were performed on more than 100 patients on various procedures. The results show that while the patient dose from the great majority of angiographic procedures is less than 2 Gy, a significant number of procedures, especially interventional procedures may have doses greater than 2 Gy and may lead to deterministic effects. (author)

    16. Openness during business model innovation

      DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

      Holm, Anna B.; Günzel, Franziska; Ulhøi, John Parm

      the recent developments in the Danish newspaper industry, especially how the Internet and related technology developments have disrupted the long-standing successful business model of the industry. Our findings suggest that a more nuanced understanding of the term ‘openness’ is needed since the opening......Literature on business model innovation portraits an open business model as a modern and lucrative approach to conducting business, and even as a way to engage in open innovation activities. Using archival data and interviews with key employees of the two largest media groups from Denmark, we show...... of business models during technological dynamics may have far more diverse consequences than it has been reported in the literature so far and can even become a major threat to business viability....

    17. Cyanobacterial evolution during the Precambrian

      Science.gov (United States)

      Schirrmeister, Bettina E.; Sanchez-Baracaldo, Patricia; Wacey, David

      2016-07-01

      Life on Earth has existed for at least 3.5 billion years. Yet, relatively little is known of its evolution during the first two billion years, due to the scarceness and generally poor preservation of fossilized biological material. Cyanobacteria, formerly known as blue green algae were among the first crown Eubacteria to evolve and for more than 2.5 billion years they have strongly influenced Earth's biosphere. Being the only organism where oxygenic photosynthesis has originated, they have oxygenated Earth's atmosphere and hydrosphere, triggered the evolution of plants -being ancestral to chloroplasts- and enabled the evolution of complex life based on aerobic respiration. Having such a strong impact on early life, one might expect that the evolutionary success of this group may also have triggered further biosphere changes during early Earth history. However, very little is known about the early evolution of this phylum and ongoing debates about cyanobacterial fossils, biomarkers and molecular clock analyses highlight the difficulties in this field of research. Although phylogenomic analyses have provided promising glimpses into the early evolution of cyanobacteria, estimated divergence ages are often very uncertain, because of vague and insufficient tree-calibrations. Results of molecular clock analyses are intrinsically tied to these prior calibration points, hence improving calibrations will enable more precise divergence time estimations. Here we provide a review of previously described Precambrian microfossils, biomarkers and geochemical markers that inform upon the early evolution of cyanobacteria. Future research in micropalaeontology will require novel analyses and imaging techniques to improve taxonomic affiliation of many Precambrian microfossils. Consequently, a better understanding of early cyanobacterial evolution will not only allow for a more specific calibration of cyanobacterial and eubacterial phylogenies, but also provide new dates for the tree

    18. Precipitation patterns during channel flow

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jamtveit, B.; Hawkins, C.; Benning, L. G.; Meier, D.; Hammer, O.; Angheluta, L.

      2013-12-01

      Mineral precipitation during channelized fluid flow is widespread in a wide variety of geological systems. It is also a common and costly phenomenon in many industrial processes that involve fluid flow in pipelines. It is often referred to as scale formation and encountered in a large number of industries, including paper production, chemical manufacturing, cement operations, food processing, as well as non-renewable (i.e. oil and gas) and renewable (i.e. geothermal) energy production. We have studied the incipient stages of growth of amorphous silica on steel plates emplaced into the central areas of the ca. 1 meter in diameter sized pipelines used at the hydrothermal power plant at Hellisheidi, Iceland (with a capacity of ca 300 MW electricity and 100 MW hot water). Silica precipitation takes place over a period of ca. 2 months at approximately 120°C and a flow rate around 1 m/s. The growth produces asymmetric ca. 1mm high dendritic structures ';leaning' towards the incoming fluid flow. A novel phase-field model combined with the lattice Boltzmann method is introduced to study how the growth morphologies vary under different hydrodynamic conditions, including non-laminar systems with turbulent mixing. The model accurately predicts the observed morphologies and is directly relevant for understanding the more general problem of precipitation influenced by turbulent mixing during flow in channels with rough walls and even for porous flow. Reference: Hawkins, C., Angheluta, L., Hammer, Ø., and Jamtveit, B., Precipitation dendrites in channel flow. Europhysics Letters, 102, 54001

    19. Prevention of thromboembolism during radiosynoviorthesis?

      International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

      Fischer, M.; Ritter, B.

      2006-01-01

      The question of pharmacological prevention of thromboembolic disease during radiosynoviorthesis with concomitant immobilization of the treated joint is discussed by means of a recent case report. The possible advantages must be balanced against the potential risks of hemorrhage and heparine-induced thrombocytopenia in every patient. The intraarticular radionuclide therapy might be ranked as ''low risk'', comparable to small or medium interventions with minor trauma according to surgical and perioperative classifications, provided that there are no individual risk factors. With respect to the possible side effects, a general thromboembolic prophylaxis is not recommended in these patients. After radiosynoviorthesis of the knee and an additional joint of the same limb which requires an immobilization spanning both joints, a ''medium risk'' of thromboembolic disease must be assumed. In these cases, as well as with two or more predisposing risk factors, a pharmacological prevention of thromboembolism is mandatory. Ready-to-use syringes containing low-molecular-weight heparine are available for this purpose. Although serious side effects from LMW heparine are rare, monitoring of the thrombocyte counts prior to and 1-2 times during heparine application are advisable. Pharmacological prophylaxis of thromboembolic disease is strictly contraindicated in patients with acute bleeding, cerebral aneurysms and known aortic dissections. In case of concomitant treatment with NSAIDs, antagonists of platelet aggregation or valproic acid, the indication for heparine treatment should be discussed very seriously. Both the verbal and written information of each patient must be complete and precise with respect to possible advantages and potential risks of pharmacological prevention of thromboembolic disease. (orig.)

    20. Stray energy transfer during endoscopy.

      Science.gov (United States)

      Jones, Edward L; Madani, Amin; Overbey, Douglas M; Kiourti, Asimina; Bojja-Venkatakrishnan, Satheesh; Mikami, Dean J; Hazey, Jeffrey W; Arcomano, Todd R; Robinson, Thomas N

      2017-10-01

      Endoscopy is the standard tool for the evaluation and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. While the risk of complication is low, the use of energy devices can increase complications by 100-fold. The mechanism of increased injury and presence of stray energy is unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine if stray energy transfer occurs during endoscopy and if so, to define strategies to minimize the risk of energy complications. A gastroscope was introduced into the stomach of an anesthetized pig. A monopolar generator delivered energy for 5 s to a snare without contacting tissue or the endoscope itself. The endoscope tip orientation, energy device type, power level, energy mode, and generator type were varied to mimic in vivo use. The primary outcome (stray current) was quantified as the change in tissue temperature (°C) from baseline at the tissue closest to the tip of the endoscope. Data were reported as mean ± standard deviation. Using the 60 W coag mode while changing the orientation of the endoscope tip, tissue temperature increased by 12.1 ± 3.5 °C nearest the camera lens (p energy transfer (p = 0.04 and p = 0.002, respectively) as did utilizing the low-voltage cut mode (6.6 ± 0.5 °C, p energy transfer compared to a standard generator (1.5 ± 3.5 °C vs. 9.5 ± 0.8 °C, p energy is transferred within the endoscope during the activation of common energy devices. This could result in post-polypectomy syndrome, bleeding, or perforation outside of the endoscopist's view. Decreasing the power, utilizing low-voltage modes and/or an impedance-monitoring generator can decrease the risk of complication.