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Sample records for duraznero prunus persica

  1. UTILIZACION DE ISOENZIMAS DE EXTRACTOS DE HOJAS EN LA CARACTERIZACION DE CULTIVARES DE DURAZNERO (Prunus persica (L Batsch THE USE OF ISOZYME LEAF EXTRACTS IN THE CHARACTERIZATION OF PEACH CULTIVARS (Prunus persica L Batsch

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    HECTOR ABEL ALTUBE

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available La caracterización de cultivares de duraznero (Prunus persica (L Batsch se hace por medio de la descripción de caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos codificados por organizaciones internacionales, los cuales están fuertemente influenciados por el ambiente. Se han buscado métodos alternativos de caracterización y las isoenzimas han sido utilizadas por su independencia de las condiciones del ambiente, además de identificar individuos en etapas tempranas de su desarrollo. El objetivo del presente estudio es caracterizar cultivares de duraznero mediante el análisis isoenzimático de catecol oxidasas, fosfatasas ácidas, esterazas y peroxidazos en extractos de hojas. Los cultivares de duraznero analizados presentaron bajo polimorfismo isoenzimático, las esterazas caracterizaron diez cultivares, las catecol oxidasas un cultivar agrupándose el resto en cinco modelos, las fosfatasas ácidas caracterizaron dos cultivares agrupándose los otros en siete modelos y las peroxidazos formaron tres grupos. Ello puede explicarse ya que el duraznero es una especie autofértil y presenta una base genética muy reducida. Los evidentes límites discriminatorios de este tipo de análisis hacen que su aporte sea sólo complementario a los métodos de los caracteres agronómicos y morfológicos.Characterization of peach cultivars (Prunus persica (L Batsh was made by description of agronomical and morphological characters codified from international organizations, which are strongly affected by environmental conditions. Alternative methods of characterization have been searched, and isoenzymes have been used as independent of environmental conditions in addition to identify some individuals in early stages of development. The goal of this study is the peach cultivars characterization by isoenzymatic analysis of catecol oxidases, acid phosphatases, esterases and peroxidases within the leaf extracts. The peach cultivars analyzed have showed low isoenzymatic

  2. LA RELACIÓN HOJA: FRUTO AFECTA LA PRODUCCIÓN, EL CRECIMIENTO Y LA CALIDAD DEL FRUTO EN DURAZNERO (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’ LEAF TO FRUIT RATIO AFFECTS YIELD, FRUIT GROWTH AND FRUIT QUALITY OF PEACH (Prunus persica L. Batsch, cv. ‘Rubidoux’

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    Fánor Casierra-Posada

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available El raleo de frutos es un práctica agrícola común en los árboles de melocotón con miras a una cosecha moderada a abundante. Sin embargo, a pesar de las muchas ventajas del raleo, demostradas a lo largo de años de experiencia en la zona templada, esta práctica es a menudo una de las operaciones conducidas de manera ineficiente en el cultivo del duraznero. Árboles de duraznero (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. ‘Rubidoux’ se ralearon manualmente con el objeto de mejorar la calidad comercial del fruto. Se evaluaron los cambios en el crecimiento del fruto, los sólidos solubles totales, la relación pulpa: semilla, la producción, la calidad del fruto y el diámetro de la fruta, durante una temporada de crecimiento de los frutos según el efecto de la relación hoja: fruto (10; 20; 30; 40 y 50 hojas por fruto, en Guasca - Cundinamarca - Colombia. El raleo se realizó 85 días después de plena floración. Los árboles del tratamiento control no se ralearon. Se observaron diferencias en las curvas de crecimiento del fruto, en el promedio de fruto cosechado, en el peso fresco de los frutos y en su calidad comercial. El contenido de sólidos solubles totales en los frutos y la relación pulpa:semilla aumentaron con el raleo. Al momento de la cosecha, la producción se redujo en los árboles raleados, pero se mejoró la cantidad del fruto comercial. Los tratamientos con 40 y 50 hojas por fruto tuvieron la mayor proporción de frutos de mejor calidad en comparación con los árboles control.Fruit thinning is a standard practice on peach trees carrying a moderate to heavy crop. However, in spite of the many benefits from thinning demostrated through long years of experience in the temperate zone, fruit thinning is too often one of the most unefficiently conducted operations in peach growing. With a view to improve marketable yield and fruit quality, trees of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. ‘Rubidoux’ were subjected to hand thinning. Changes

  3. Exceso de agua en el suelo: efecto sobre la calidad del fruto del duraznero prunus persica (L. batsch Excess water in the soil: effect on fruit quality of peach prunus persica (l. batsch

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    Mirta G. González

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available El duraznero es un cultivo perenne que requiere para su crecimiento un suelo sin limitaciones, en base a ello el objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los cambios químicos producidos en el suelo en condiciones de anegamiento, desde floración hasta fructificación, relacionándolo a la calidad y cantidad de la fruta. Se trabajó con un suelo Argiudol de características vérticas, con un destacado horizonte Bt que posee 35-38% de arcilla. Se realizaron dos tratamientos: control, sin anegamiento (C y con anegamiento (T. En el tratamiento (C, la disponibilidad hídrica de los mismos estuvo sujeta a las condiciones climáticas que se presentaron durante el ensayo, incluyendo la realización de riego complementario permitiendo en todo momento que el suelo se mantenga en condiciones óptimas de humedad. Los resultados del ensayo estuvieron relacionados a los cambios en las características químicas del suelo, planta y fruto. Los suelos anegados tuvieron, contenidos de fósforo y potasio deficientes que repercutió en un menor rendimiento (peso del fruto fresco y seco. Los análisis químicos en planta siguieron la misma tendencia en relación a los contenidos de nitrógeno total, fósforo y potasio que disminuyeron sustancialmente como así también el contenido de materia seca. Estas variables determinaron la disminución de la calidad de fruta en relación a su firmeza y tamaño.Peach is a perennial culture that requires for its growth soils without limitations, on the basis of it the objective of this work was to study the chemical changes produced in soils on flooding conditions, from flowering to fruit production, relating it to the quality and amount of the fruit. The experiment was a done at an Argiudoll soil of vertic characteristics, with an outstanding Bt horizon that has 35- 38% of clay. Two treatments were made: control, without flooding (c and with flooding (T. In the treatment (C, the hydric availability was subject to the climatic

  4. Inoculación en duraznero con productos micorrízicos comerciales

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    Ana Ma. Castillo-González; Edilberto Avitia-García; Tarsicio Corona-Torres

    2006-01-01

    Con la finalidad de determinar la respuesta de plántulas de duraznero criollo (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) de Zacatecas a la micorrización y determinar la eficacia de productos comerciales endomicorrízicos, se evaluaron crecimiento, peso seco de hoja, tallo y raíz, volumen radical, área foliar, peso específico de hojas, concentración de clorofilas a, b y total en hoja, porcentaje de micorrización y concentración nutrimental en plántulas de tres meses de edad obtenidas a partir de semilla, ino...

  5. Comparative assessment of physicochemical properties of unripe peach (Prunus persica) and Japanese apricot (Prunus mume)

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    Hye-Ryun Kim; Il-Doo Kim; Sanjeev Kumar Dhungana; Mi-Ok Kim; Dong-Hyun Shin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the physicochemical properties of unripe peach-Prunus persica cv. Mibaekdo (Mibaekdo) and Prunus persica cv. Nagasawa Hakuho (Nagasawa Hakuho) as an alternative to food supplement while Japanese apricot (Prunus mume cv. Backaha) (Backaha) was used as a control sample.Methods:The unripe fruits were analyzed for soluble solid (˚Brix), titratable acidity, pH, total polyphenol content, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, amygdalin content, free amino acid content, organic acid content, free sugar content, and α-amylase activities.Results:Total polyphenol content of unripe peach ranged between 137.27-151.64 µg/g whereas that of apricot was 160.73 µg/g. DPPH radical scavenging activities of Backaha was the highest (89.16%) followed by Mibaekdo (85.05%) and Nagasawa Hakuho (41.50%). The highest amount of oxalic acid (612.8 mg/100 g) was observed in Mibaekdo while that of Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were (184.6±18.1) and (334.8±16.1) mg/100 g, respectively. Amygdalin contents of Mibaekdo, Nagasawa Hakuho and Backaha were 486.61, 548.60 and 174.28 µg/g, respectively.Conclusions:The results suggest that the unripe fruit of peach has a significant biochemical potential of using as a food supplement with potential health benefit for human health.

  6. Endogenous hormones response to cytokinins with regard to organogenesis in explants of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis).

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    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-11-01

    Organogenesis in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) and peach rootstocks (P. persica × Prunus dulcis) has been achieved and the action of the regeneration medium on 7 phytohormones, zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), abscisic acid (ABA), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA), has been studied using High performance liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Three scion peach cultivars, 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach × almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677' were cultured in two different media, Murashige and Skoog supplemented with plant growth regulators (PGRs) (regeneration medium) and without PGRs (control medium), in order to study the effects of the media and/or genotypes in the endogenous hormones content and their role in organogenesis. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach × almond rootstocks and showed a lower content of Z, IAA, ABA, ACC and JA. Only Z, ZR and IAA were affected by the action of the culture media. This study shows which hormones are external PGRs-dependent and what is the weight of the genotype and hormones in peach organogenesis that provide an avenue to manipulate in vitro organogenesis in peach.

  7. The pericarp extract of Prunus persica attenuates chemotherapy-induced acute nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in mice.

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    Lee, Chang Ki; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Hwang, Jae-Kwan; Lee, Sang Kook; Chung, Won-Yoon

    2008-06-01

    The fruit of Prunus persica L. (peach) is one of the common fruits. Its seed is well known as a traditional medicine (Persicae Semen) in Japan, China, and other Asian countries. However, the biological activities of P. persica fruit except its seed are poorly understood. This study was aimed at evaluating the protective effect of the pericarp extract of P. persica (PPE) against cisplatin-induced acute toxicity in mice. PPE (500 mg/kg, p.o.) showed a significant protection against the acute nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity induced by a single administration of cisplatin (45 mg/kg, i.p.) over a 16-hour period in mice. Its protective effect was evaluated by serum and tissue biochemical parameters. The pretreatment with PPE for 7 days prevented the cisplatin-induced decrease in the kidney and liver weights as a percentage of the total body weight. PPE significantly inhibited both the cisplatin-induced elevation in serum blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels caused by kidney damage and the cisplatin-induced increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels by the liver damage. In addition, the administration of PPE caused recovery of the cisplatin-mediated changes in levels of serum nitric oxide and tissue lipid peroxidation, and reduced glutathione content returned to control levels. These results suggest that PPE protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity by reducing cisplatin-induced oxidative stress in mice.

  8. Anti-tumor promoting effect of glycosides from Prunus persica seeds.

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    Fukuda, Toshiyuki; Ito, Hideyuki; Mukainaka, Teruo; Tokuda, Harukuni; Nishino, Hoyoku; Yoshida, Takashi

    2003-02-01

    Four minor components, along with the major cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin and prunasin, were isolated from Prunus persica seeds (Persicae Semen; Tounin), and characterized as mandelic acid glycosides (beta-gentiobioside and beta-D-glucoside) and benzyl alcohol glycosides (beta-gentiobioside and beta-D-glucoside). The anti-tumor promoting activity of these compounds was examined in both in vitro and in vivo assays. All of the compounds significantly inhibited the Epstein-Barr virus early antigen activation induced by tumor promoter. In addition, they produced a delay of two-stage carcinogenesis on mouse skin that was comparable in potency to (-)-epigallocatechin gallate from green tea. Structure-activity relationships indicated that a substituent at the benzylic position with glycosidic linkage affected the in vitro and in vivo activities with an order of enhancing potency, CN

  9. Prokinetic Activity of Prunus persica (L. Batsch Flowers Extract and Its Possible Mechanism of Action in Rats

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    Wei Han

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The peach tree, Prunus persica (L. Batsch, is widely cultivated in China, and its flowers have been used for centuries in traditional Chinese medicine to treat gut motility disorders. But few studies have explored the pharmacological effect of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on gastrointestinal motility. In this study, the activities of different extracts from Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers on the smooth muscle contractions were evaluated using isolated colon model, and the ethyl acetate extract (EAE showed the strongest effects in vitro. EAE (10−8–10−5 g/mL caused a concentration-dependent stimulatory effect in rat colonic tissue. Additionally, ketotifen (100 µM, cimetidine (10 µM, and pyrilamine (1 µM produced a significant inhibition of contractions caused by EAE. Furthermore, immunofluorescence and toluidine blue staining revealed increased numbers of mast cells in the EAE group, and EAE increased histamine release from the colonic tissues. These data indicate that EAE has significant prokinetic activity and acts by a mechanism that mainly involves mast cell degranulation. Our study provides a pharmacological basis for the use of an extract of Prunus persica (L. Batsch flowers in the treatment of gut motility disorders.

  10. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE MORPHOLOGY OF POLLEN FROM SOME VARIETIES OF MALUS DOMESTICA, PYRUS COMMUNIS, PRUNUS DOMESTICA, PRUNUS PERSICA AND PRUNUS ARMENIACA

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    Nicoleta IANOVICI

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare Rosaceae genotypes from for their pollen viability and morphology. The pollen of some varieties of Malus domestica, Pyrus communis, Prunus domestica, Prunus persica and Prunus armeniaca was identified. Pollen from mature anthers was collected. Pollen grains of all genera of Rosaceae surveyed occur as radially symmetric isopolar monads. The main aspect studied were the shape of pollen in the polar view (polar perimeter and polar area of pollen. Shape of pollen is triangular-obtuse-convex in polar view. The pollen class is trizonocolpate-obtus-triangular while the sculpturing of exine surface is striate. The number of colpi is three while the spines are absent. Apart from fully developed pollen grains, also much smaller, not completely developed pollen were found in the samples of the examined species. The viability of the pollen was determined on 1% 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC. Viable, semi-viable and dead pollen numbers and their percentages were determined. This stain test may be used to determine pollen viability in these species to provide only a rough estimate of viability. The results presented here are important for improving our understanding of Rosaceae reproduction biology. Knowledge of reproduction biology, particularly pollen viability and quality, is critical for the newly-developed cultivars.

  11. Water stress and crop load effects on fruit fresh and dry weights in peach (Prunus persica).

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    Berman, M E; DeJong, T M

    1996-10-01

    Effects of water stress on fruit fresh and dry weights were investigated in peach trees, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch., with varying crop loads: light, moderate and heavy. In well-watered controls, tree water status was independent of crop load. In trees receiving reduced irrigation, the degree of water stress increased with increasing crop load. Water stress induced fruit fresh weight reductions at all crop loads. Fruit dry weight was not reduced by water stress in trees having light to moderate crop loads, indicating that the degree of water stress imposed did not affect the dry weight sink strength of fruit. Water-stressed trees with heavy crop loads had significantly reduced fruit dry weights, which were likely due to carbohydrate source limitations resulting from large crop carbon demands and water stress limitations on photosynthesis.

  12. Molecular Identification and Cultivar Fingerprints of Prunus persica (L.)Batsch Germplasms

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    SUN Shu-xia; LI Jing; JIANG Guo-liang; CHEN Dong; XIE Hong-jiang; TU Mei-yan

    2010-01-01

    [Objective]The aim was to study the molecular identification and cultivar fingerprints of Prunus persica(L.)Batsch germplasms.[Method]Sixty peach genotypes,representing China common local cultivars and European samples were screened by microsatellites(simple sequence repeats,SSRs)and Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat(ISSR)markers.[Result]26 reproducible bands were amplified by Nine SSR primers,and 24 of which were polymorphic; 236 bands were amplified by 30 ISSR primers,and 113 of which were polymorphic.31 genotypes were discriminated with 1-3 distinct polymorphic bands generated from the primers ISSR and SSR.Seven cultivar-specific ISSR fragments and two SSR unique alleles obtained from this study were available to be converted into Sequence Characterized Amplified Region(SCAR)markers.The genetic similarity coefficient(GS)estimated from these molecular data averaged were 0.939(ranged from 0.856 to 0.983)for ISSR and0.646(ranged from 0.240 to 1.000)for SSR,respectively.The combined grouping association indicated that most local Chinese peach cultivars and exotic accessions were clustered together.This could be related to the mode of introduction and maintenance of the peach cultivars involving limited foundation germplasm,exchange of cultivars between plantations,and periodic development of new recombinant cultivars following sexual reproduction.[Conclusion]The results obtained in this work would help to improve the conservation,molecular identification and management of peach germplasm in breeding.

  13. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Properties of Different Peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] Cultivars in China

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    Xiaoyong Zhao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available China is an important centre of diversity for Prunus persica. In the present study, 17 Chinese peach cultivars were evaluated for phenolic content and antioxidant activity. Neochlorogenic acid (NCHA, chlorogenic acid (CHA, procyanidin B1 (B1, catechin (CAT, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G, quercetin-3-O-galactoside (Q3GAL, quercetin-3-O-glucoside (Q3GLU, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (Q3R, and kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (K3R were identified and quantified. CHA and CAT were the predominant components in both the peel and pulp of this fruit. In general, peel extracts showed higher antioxidant activities than the pulp counterparts, consistent with the observed higher phenolic content. The melting peach cultivar “Xinyu” showed the highest antioxidant potency composite (APC index. The principal component analysis (PCA of peel phenolics showed a clear distinction between the melting peach and nectarine. Overall, peach cultivars rich in hydroxycinnamates and flavan-3-ols showed relatively higher antioxidant activities and might be excellent sources of phytochemicals and natural antioxidants.

  14. Pegamento e crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas Tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings

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    Newton Alex Mayer

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar o pegamento e o crescimento inicial de enxertos do pessegueiro 'Aurora-1' em clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagados por estacas herbáceas. Realizaram-se dois experimentos, adotando-se a enxertia de borbulhia por escudo (março e borbulhia por escudo modificada (julho. Com os resultados obtidos, pode-se concluir que é viável a realização da enxertia do 'Aurora-1' nos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e no 'Okinawa', tanto em março quanto em julho, com as metodologias utilizadas. O 'Okinawa' induz crescimento mais rápido ao enxerto, de forma que o ponto máximo do comprimento é atingido em tempo menor.This study aimed to evaluate the tissue union and initial growth of 'Aurora-1' peach buds on mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa' [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] propagated by herbaceous cuttings. Two experiments were carried out, being adopted the chip budding (March and chip budding modified (July. The results showed that accomplishment of 'Aurora-1' peach bud on mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 and 'Okinawa' is viable, in both periods, with the methodologies used. The 'Okinawa' induces faster growth to the bud and the maximum length point is reached in a short time.

  15. Prunus persica crop management as step toward AMF diversity conservation for the sustainable soil management

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    Alguacil, M. M.; Torrecillas, E.; Lozano, Z.; Garcia-Orenes, F.; Roldan, A.

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in roots of Prunus persica under two fertilization treatments (CF: consisted of application of chicken manure (1400 kg.ha-1), urea (140 kg.ha-1), complex fertilizer 12-12-17/2 (280 kg.ha-1), and potassium sulfate (40 kg.ha-1) and IF: consisted of application of urea (140 kg.ha-1), complex fertilizer 12-12-17/2 (400 kg.ha-1) and potassium sulfate (70 kg.ha-1)) combined with integrated pest management (IM) or chemical pest management (CM), in a tropical agroecosystem in the north of Venezuela. Our goal was to ascertain how different fertilizers/pest management can modify the AMF diversity colonizing P. persica roots as an important step towards sustainable soil use and therefore protection of biodiversity. The AM fungal small-subunit (SSU) rRNA genes were subjected to PCR, cloning, sequencing and phylogenetic analyses. Twenty-one different phylotypes were identified, which were grouped in five families: Glomeraceae, Paraglomeraceae, Acaulosporaceae, Gigasporaceae and Archaeosporaceae. Sixteen of these sequence groups belonged to the genus Glomus, two to Paraglomus, one to Acaulospora, one to Scutellospora and one to Archaeospora. A different distribution of the AMF phylotypes as consequence of the difference between treatments was observed. Thus, the AMF communities of tree roots in the (IF+CM) treatment had the lowest diversity (H'=1.78) with the lowest total number of AMF sequence types (9). The trees from both (CF+IM) and (IF+IM) treatments had similar AMF diversity (H'?2.00); while the treatment (CF+CM) yielded the highest number of different AMF sequence types (17) and showed the highest diversity index (H'=2.69). In conclusion, the crop management including combination of organic and inorganic fertilization and chemical pest control appears to be the most suitable strategy with respect to reactivate the AMF diversity in the roots of this crop and thus, the agricultural and environmental

  16. Genome wide identification of chilling responsive microRNAs in Prunus persica

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    Barakat Abdelali

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small RNAs (sRNAs approximately 21 nucleotides in length that negatively control gene expression by cleaving or inhibiting the translation of target gene transcripts. Within this context, miRNAs and siRNAs are coming to the forefront as molecular mediators of gene regulation in plant responses to annual temperature cycling and cold stress. For this reason, we chose to identify and characterize the conserved and non-conserved miRNA component of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch focusing our efforts on both the recently released whole genome sequence of peach and sRNA transcriptome sequences from two tissues representing non-dormant leaves and dormant leaf buds. Conserved and non-conserved miRNAs, and their targets were identified. These sRNA resources were used to identify cold-responsive miRNAs whose gene targets co-localize with previously described QTLs for chilling requirement (CR. Results Analysis of 21 million peach sRNA reads allowed us to identify 157 and 230 conserved and non-conserved miRNA sequences. Among the non-conserved miRNAs, we identified 205 that seem to be specific to peach. Comparative genome analysis between peach and Arabidopsis showed that conserved miRNA families, with the exception of miR5021, are similar in size. Sixteen of these conserved miRNA families are deeply rooted in land plant phylogeny as they are present in mosses and/or lycophytes. Within the other conserved miRNA families, five families (miR1446, miR473, miR479, miR3629, and miR3627 were reported only in tree species (Populustrichocarpa, Citrus trifolia, and Prunus persica. Expression analysis identified several up-regulated or down-regulated miRNAs in winter buds versus young leaves. A search of the peach proteome allowed the prediction of target genes for most of the conserved miRNAs and a large fraction of non-conserved miRNAs. A fraction of predicted targets in peach have not been previously reported in other

  17. A review on the complexity of insect-plant interactions under varying levels of resources and host resistance: the case of Myzus persicae-Prunus persica

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    Verdugo, JA.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insect-plant interactions are affected directly or indirectly by stress factors. The effect of environmental resource availability on insect-plant interactions is here reviewed. Subsequently, the analysis focuses on aphid-host plant interactions, particularly in the system composed by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and its primary host plant Prunus persica. Literature. Plant defenses arise in two ways: resistance and tolerance, both are affected by abiotic factors. The information gathered from studies (n = 29 on plant-aphid interactions addressing the reduction in water availability on plant resistance, showed that in 41,4% of the studies, drought stress elicits lower resistance, while 34.5%, 20.1% and 3.4%, showed higher, no change and conditional effects on plant resistance, respectively. Conclusions. Water stress elicits mixed effects on plant resistance to aphids. However, the literature review also suggests that cultural practices play a role in the fate of the peach-aphid interactions, whereas the development of predictive models aimed to assist crop-pest management systems still requires more basic information. Aphid responses to plant defenses under stressed conditions are still largely unexplored.

  18. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants

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    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  19. Genome-Wide Transcriptional Profile Analysis of Prunus persica in Response to Low Sink Demand after Fruit Removal.

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    Duan, Wei; Xu, Hongguo; Liu, Guotian; Fan, Peige; Liang, Zhenchang; Li, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Prunus persica fruits were removed from 1-year-old shoots to analysis photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence and genes changes in leaves to low sink demand caused by fruit removal (-fruit) during the final stage of rapid fruit growth. A decline in net photosynthesis rate was observed, accompanied with a decrease in stomatal conductance. The intercellular CO2 concentrations and leaf temperature increased as compared with a normal fruit load (+fruit). Moreover, low sink demand significantly inhibited the donor side and the reaction center of photosystem II. 382 genes in leaf with an absolute fold change ≥1 change in expression level, representing 116 up- and 266 down-regulated genes except for unknown transcripts. Among these, 25 genes for photosynthesis were down-regulated, 69 stress and 19 redox related genes up-regulated under the low sink demand. These studies revealed high leaf temperature may result in a decline of net photosynthesis rate through down-regulation in photosynthetic related genes and up-regulation in redox and stress related genes, especially heat shock proteins genes. The complex changes in genes at the transcriptional level under low sink demand provided useful starting points for in-depth analyses of source-sink relationship in P. persica.

  20. Molecular identification of species in Prunus sect.Persica (Rosaceae), with emphasis on evaluation of candidate barcodes for plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu QUAN; Shi-Liang ZHOU

    2011-01-01

    Species of Prunus L. sect. Persica are not only important fruit trees, but also popular ornamental and medicinal plants. Correct identification of seedlings, barks, or fruit kernels is sometimes required, but no reliable morphological characters are available. Nowadays, the technique of DNA barcoding has the potential to meet such requirements. In this study, we evaluated the suitability of 11 DNA loci (atpB-rbcL, trnH-psbA, trnL-F, trnS-G,atpF-H, rbcL, marK, rpoB, rpoC1, nad1, and internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) as candidate DNA barcodes for peaches, using samples from 38 populations, covering all the species in sect. Persica. On the whole, the primers worked well in this group and sequencing difficulties were met only in the case of ITS locus. Five loci (rbcL,matK, rpoB, rpoC, and nad1) have very low variation rates, whereas atpB-rbcL, atpF-H, trnH-psbA, trnL-F and trnS-G show more variability. The most variable loci, atpB-rbcL and trnH-psbA, can distinguish three of the five species. Two two-locus combinations, atpB-rbcL+trnL-F and atpB-rbcL+atpF-H, can resolve all five species. We also find that identification powers of the loci are method-dependent. The NeighborNet method shows higher species identification power than maximum parsimony, neighbor joining, and unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean methods.

  1. Chemometric evaluation of trace metals in Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica from Minićevo (Serbia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alagić, Slađana Č; Tošić, Snežana B; Dimitrijević, Mile D; Petrović, Jelena V; Medić, Dragana V

    2017-02-15

    The samples of spatial soils and different organs of Prunus persica L. Batech and Malus domestica were analyzed by methods such as inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA), One-way ANOVA, and calculation of biological accumulation factors (BAFs) with the aim of investigating whether these methods may help in the evaluation of trace metals in plants, as well as in the estimation of plant bioaccumulation potentials. ICP-OES provided accurate data on present concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Cd, and Ni which showed that most concentrations were in normal ranges, except in some cases for Cu, Zn, and As. HCA illustrated nicely various specifics in the distribution of metals in both investigated systems plant-soil. One-way ANOVA pointed successfully on the existing statistical differences between metal concentrations. Calculated BAFs showed that both plants had very low accumulation rates for all elements; they acted as metal excluders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The influence of severe shoot pruning on growth, carbon and nitrogen status in young peach trees (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediene, S; Jordan, M O; Pagès, L; Lebot, J; Adamowicz, S

    2002-12-01

    One-year-old peach trees (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) were severely pruned in July by removing 60% of the shoots. Tree responses were analyzed in terms of architecture and nutritional status. Tree growth was recorded from July to September by nondestructive (leaf production, thickening and branching of the remaining secondary axes) and destructive measurements (biomass partitioning and concentrations of total nitrogen (N) and nonstructural carbohydrates (NC) in specific tissues). The dry weights of pruned trees were lower than those of control trees at the end of the growing season (i.e., 2.5 months after pruning), whereas shoot:root ratios were restored to the initial values. Tree response occurred in two stages. During the first 24 days following pruning, the growth components of the remaining secondary axes were similar to the control, and new secondary axes were produced. During the next 17 days, increases in both diameter and branching of secondary axes contributed to the maintenance of pruned tree growth rate (similar to that of control trees) and restoration of initial shoot:root ratios. No significant effect of pruning was observed on NC concentrations, whereas N concentrations increased in several organs of the pruned trees during the first growth period. The transient increase in internal N availability contributed to the initiation of new axes and the restoration of a more functional biomass partitioning between shoots and roots.

  3. Green synthesis of nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets with use of Prunus persica for supercapacitor applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchudan, Raji; Edison, Thomas Nesakumar Jebakumar Immanuel; Perumal, Suguna; Lee, Yong Rok

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen-doped graphitic carbon sheets (N-GCSs) were prepared from the extract of unripe Prunus persica fruit by a direct hydrothermal method. The synthesized N-GCSs were examined by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), nitrogen adsorption-desorption isotherms, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. HRTEM showed that the synthesized carbon sheets were graphitic with lattice fringes and an inter-layer distance of 0.36 nm. Doping with the nitrogen moiety present over the synthesized GCSs was confirmed by XPS, FT-IR spectroscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping. The fruit extract associated with hydrothermal-carbonization method is economical and eco-friendly with a single step process. The resulting carbon sheets could be modified and are promising candidates for nano-electronic applications, including supercapacitors. The synthesized N-GCSs-2 provided a high specific capacitance of 176 F g-1 at a current density of 0.1 A g-1. This electrode material has excellent cyclic stability, even after 2000 cycles of charge-discharge at a current density of 0.5 A g-1.

  4. Discovery and Annotation of Plant Endogenous Target Mimicry Sequences from Public Transcriptome Libraries: A Case Study of Prunus persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakülah, Gökhan

    2017-06-28

    Novel transcript discovery through RNA sequencing has substantially improved our understanding of the transcriptome dynamics of biological systems. Endogenous target mimicry (eTM) transcripts, a novel class of regulatory molecules, bind to their target microRNAs (miRNAs) by base pairing and block their biological activity. The objective of this study was to provide a computational analysis framework for the prediction of putative eTM sequences in plants, and as an example, to discover previously un-annotated eTMs in Prunus persica (peach) transcriptome. Therefore, two public peach transcriptome libraries downloaded from Sequence Read Archive (SRA) and a previously published set of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) were investigated with multi-step analysis pipeline, and 44 putative eTMs were found. Additionally, an eTM-miRNA-mRNA regulatory network module associated with peach fruit organ development was built via integration of the miRNA target information and predicted eTM-miRNA interactions. My findings suggest that one of the most widely expressed miRNA families among diverse plant species, miR156, might be potentially sponged by seven putative eTMs. Besides, the study indicates eTMs potentially play roles in the regulation of development processes in peach fruit via targeting specific miRNAs. In conclusion, by following the step-by step instructions provided in this study, novel eTMs can be identified and annotated effectively in public plant transcriptome libraries.

  5. Genome-Wide Identification, Expression Patterns, and Functional Analysis of UDP Glycosyltransferase Family in Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Boping; Gao, Liuxiao; Gao, Jie; Xu, Yaying; Liu, Hongru; Cao, Xiangmei; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Kunsong

    2017-01-01

    Peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) is a commercial grown fruit trees, important because of its essential nutrients and flavor promoting secondary metabolites. The glycosylation processes mediated by UDP-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) play an important role in regulating secondary metabolites availability. Identification and characterization of peach UGTs is therefore a research priority. A total of 168 peach UGT genes that distributed unevenly across chromosomes were identified based on their conserved PSPG motifs. Phylogenetic analysis of these genes with plant UGTs clustered them into 16 groups (A–P). Comparison of the patterns of intron–extron and their positions within genes revealed one highly conserved intron insertion event in peach UGTs. Tissue specificity, temporal expression patterns in peach fruit during development and ripening, and in response to abiotic stress UV-B irradiation was investigated using RNA-seq strategy. The relationship between UGTs transcript levels and concentrations of glycosylated volatiles was examined to select candidates for functional analysis. Heterologous expressing these candidate genes in Escherichia coli identified UGTs that were involved in the in vitro volatile glycosylation. Our results provide an important source for the identification of functional UGT genes to potential manipulate secondary biosynthesis in peach. PMID:28382047

  6. Chemical characterization and thermal properties of kernel oils from Tunisian peach and nectarine varieties of Prunus persica

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    D. Chamli

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study was conducted to determine the fatty acids, triacylglycerol compositions and thermal properties of Tunisian kernel oils from the Prunus persica varieties, peach and nectarine, grown in two areas of Tunisia, Gabes and Morneg. Qualitatively, the fatty acids composition and triacylglycerol species were identical for all samples. Oleic acid (67.7-75.0% was the main fatty acid, followed by linoleic (15.7-22.1% and palmitic (5.6-6.3% acids. The major triacylglycerol species were triolein, OOO (38.4-50.5%, followed by OOL (18.2-23.2%, POO (8.3-9.7% and OLL (6.3-10.1%. The thermal profiles were highly influenced by the high content of triolein due to the importance of oleic acid in these oils. Moreover, the fatty acids distribution in TAG external positions was determined as corresponding to an α asymmetry coefficient that was between 0.10 and 0.12, indicating a high asymmetry in the distribution of saturated fatty acids in the position sn-1 and sn-3 in the TAG species of all samples.

  7. Evaluation of different doses of gamma radiation on physicochemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Ana Claudia S.; Silva, Lucia C.A.S.; Perecin, Thalita Neme; Arthur, Valter; Harder, Marcia N.C. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Radiobiologia e Ambiente], e-mail: acsoliveira@usp.br, e-mail: arthur@cena.usp.br; Mansi, Debora N.; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange G. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Agroindustria, Alimentos e Nutricao

    2009-07-01

    The objective was to evaluate the effect of different doses of gamma radiation on the physico-chemical characteristics of peach Prunus persica (cv. Chimarrita) minimally processed, to increase the useful life of the fruit. The peaches were purchased at Ceasa of Campinas/SP and taken to the Laboratory of Radiobiology and Environment of CENA/USP (Piracicaba/SP), which were washed in tap water, peeled and cut into four pieces. The pieces of peach were dipped in sodium hypochlorite solution of 15 mL/L for 4 minutes and dry in a plastic support. Then it were placed in plastic containers (polypropylene). Subsequently, they were irradiated in a Cobalt-60 source, type Gammacell-220 (dose rate of 0,543 kGy/hour) with doses of: 0 (control), 1.0 and 2.0 kGy and stored at a temperature of 8 deg C. The experimental was developed entirely at random with 3 replicates for each treatment. For the statistic analysis was using the Tuckey test at 5% level of probability. Subsequently, analysis was carried out: color factors (l, a, b), pH, soluble solids (deg Brix), acidity and vitamin C. The tests were performed at 1, 3 and 6 days after irradiation. According to the results concluded that the analysis of color and acidity there was no significant difference between treatments, however, for the soluble solids (deg Brix), vitamin C and texture significant difference showing a decrease proportional to increasing doses of radiation and storage time. But the pH increased in relation to dose and during the analysis. (author)

  8. Effects of fruit pre-harvest bagging on fruit quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Jia, Hui-Juan; Zhang, Xiao-Meng

    2006-06-01

    Experiments were conducted to test the effects of pre-harvest bagging on fruit ripening and quality of peach (Prunus persica Batsch cv. Hujingmilu). Young fruits, at 50 days after full bloom (DAFB), were covered with bags made of single-, double-, and triple-layers of orange paper bag with 27.0%, 13.9% and 8.2% sunlight transmission, respectively. Ethylene production and respiration rate were measured, and fruit quality was analyzed at 111, 114, 117, 120 (firm-ripe stage) and 124 DAFB (full-ripe stage). Single- and triple-layer bagged fruits had higher ethylene production rates than double-layer bagged and un-bagged fruits. The skin of un-bagged fruit had higher brightness (L-value) but smaller hue angle (h degrees) at the full-ripe stage compared with that of bagged fruit. Flesh firmness of un-bagged fruit was higher than that of bagged fruit until the firm-ripe stage, although triple-layer bagged fruit had higher firmness than un-bagged fruit at the full-ripe stage. Total soluble solids in juice of single-layer bagged fruit were a little higher than those of other treated fruits at the full-ripe stage. Single-layer bagged fruit showed the highest level of gamma-decalactone, a main characteristic aroma of peach and total lactones at the firm-ripe and full-ripe stages. It was concluded that 'Hujingmilu' peach had high quality with abundant aromas when the fruits were bagged with single-layer orange paper bags at 50 DAFB. The biosynthesis of gamma-decalactone and other aromas may be affected by light to some extent.

  9. Protective Effect of White-fleshed Peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) on Chronic Nicotine-induced Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Park, Kwang-Kyun; Chung, Won-Yoon; Lee, Sun Kyoung; Kim, Ki-Rim

    2017-01-01

    Background Nicotine is a major toxic component of tobacco smoke and has been recognized as a risk factor to induce oxidative tissue damage, which is a precursor to cardiovascular diseases, lung-related diseases, and cancers. Peaches (Prunus persica) have been used for the treatment of degenerative disorders, such as hypermenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, and infertility in Asian countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of white-fleshed peach on the excretion of nicotine metabolites and 1-hydroxypyrene in smokers and chronic nicotine-induced tissue damages in mice. Methods The concentrations of cotinine and 1-hydroxypyrene were measured in urine of smokers before or after intake of white-fleshed peaches. In addition, ICR mice were injected with nicotine (5 mg/kg body weight) and then orally administered with white-fleshed peach extracts (WFPE) (250 or 500 mg/kg body weight) for 36 days. The oxidative stress parameters and the activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in liver and kidney tissues. Also, histological changes and nitrotyrosine expression were assessed. Results Intake of white-fleshed peaches increased the urinary concentration of nicotine metabolites and 1-hydroxypyrene in 91.67% and 83.33% of smokers, respectively. WFPE decreased the malondialdehyde levels and recovered the activities of antioxidant enzymes in nicotine-injected mice. In addition, WFPE inhibited nitrotyrosine expression and inflammatory responses in the liver, kidney, and lung tissues of nicotine-treated mice. Conclusions White-fleshed peaches may increase the metabolism of toxic components in tobacco smoke in smokers and protect normal tissues against nicotine toxicity in mice. Therefore, supplementation of white-fleshed peaches might be beneficial to smokers.

  10. The Technology Research on Prunus persica Pruning%碧桃整形修剪技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤巧香; 王建团

    2013-01-01

    在对碧桃生物学特性进行观察的基础上,开展整形修剪试验研究。结果表明:整形修剪对碧桃树冠内枝条的组成、枝条的着花量、花期都有影响,通过抑上缓下、疏外缓内、缩前截后的综合修剪方法,能够改变树冠枝类比例,明显减少旺花枝的量,增加有效花枝的量,使花期延长;通过疏除上部旺枝和密挤大枝,回缩外围枝可以调整树冠的结构,使碧桃光秃带减少,观赏价值提高。%On the base of the study of Prunus persica’ s biological characteristics ,this research developed the pruning experiment ,it showed that pruning influenced the composition of branches ,amount of flowers,flowing period.Through the method of slowing down the inside and downside ,inhibiting the upside and pruning outside ,it could change the proportion of the tree branches ,reduce the a-mount of flourishing flowers and prolonged florescence.Through adjusting the structure of crown ,it could reduce the baldness of flow-ering peach ,and improve the ornamental value.

  11. Mites fluctuation population on peach tree (Prunus persica (L. Batsch and in associated plants Flutuação populacional de ácaros na cultura do pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch e em plantas associadas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rosana Eichelberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch in Rio Grande do Sul, little is known about mites fluctuation population considered important to this crop. The objective of this study was to know the population diversity and fluctuation of mite species associated with Premier and Eldorado varieties in Roca Sales and Venâncio Aires counties, Rio Grande do Sul. The study was conducted from July 2008 to June 2009 when 15 plants were randomly chosen in each area. The plants were divided in quadrants and from each one a branch was chosen from which three leaves were removed: one collected in the apical region, another in the medium and the other in the basal region, totalizing 180 leaves/area. Five of the most abundant associated plants were collected monthly in enough amounts for the screening under the stereoscopic microscope during an hour. A total of 1,124 mites were found belonging to 14 families and 28 species. Tetranychus ludeni Zacher, 1913, Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836 and Mononychellus planki (McGregor, 1950 were the most abundant phytophagous mites, whereas Typhlodromalus aripo Deleon, 1967 and Phytoseiulus macropilis (Banks, 1904 the most common predatory mites. The period of one hour under stereoscopic microscope was enough to get a representative sample. In both places evaluated the ecologic indices were low, but little higherin Premier (H' 0.56; EqJ: 0.43 when compared to Eldorado (H' 0.53; EqJ 0.40. In Premier constant species were not observed and accessory only Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939, T. ludeni and T. aripo. Higher abundance was observed in December and January and bigger amount in April. Already in Eldorado, T. ludeni and P. ulmi were constants. Greater abundance was observed in November and December, whereas grater richness in December and January. In both orchards were not found mites in buds. Tetranychus ludeni is the most abundant phytophagous mites with outbreak population in November, December and

  12. Multiplicação in vitro e alongamento das brotações micropropagadas do porta-enxerto 'Tsukuba 1'(Prunus persica L. In vitro multiplication and elongation of the micropropagation shoots of the roostock of 'Tsukuba 1' (Prunus persica L.

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    Elizete Beatriz Radmann

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da fonte e concentração de citocinina e da composição dos sais presentes no meio de cultivo, na multiplicação in vitro do porta-enxerto 'Tsukuba 1' (Prunus persica L.. Explantes cultivados em meio QL/MS com 2,0 mg L-1 de BAP apresentaram maior formação de brotações e crescimento destas. Porém, é necessária a transferência dos explantes para o meio de cultura com redução na concentração de BAP (0,5 mg L-1 para as brotações adquirirem tamanho adequado para a fase de enraizamento.The objective was to assess the font and concentration's effect of cytokinin and salt composition, present in the medium of cultivation, on in vitro multiplication of the rootstock 'Tsukuba 1' (Prunus persica L.. Explants cultivated in QL/MS medium enriched with 2.0 mg/L of BAP showed more shoot formation and growth. However, it is necessary to transfer the explants to culture medium with reduced BAP concentration (0.5 mg/L, so that shoots may obtain the properly size for the rooting phase.

  13. Changes in fruit sugar concentrations in response to assimilate supply, metabolism and dilution: a modeling approach applied to peach fruit (Prunus persica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Génard, M; Lescourret, F; Gomez, L; Habib, R

    2003-04-01

    The influence of assimilate supply, metabolism and dilution on sugar concentrations in the mesocarp of peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) fruit during the main stage of fruit enlargement was analyzed with the SUGAR model of Génard and Souty (1996). The model predicts the partitioning of carbon into sucrose, sorbitol, glucose and fructose in the mesocarp of peach fruit. Based on measured data and the model, we determined values for the relative rates of sugar transformation. These rates were constant, varied with time or varied with relative fruit growth rate, depending on the type of sugar. Equations were derived to describe these rates and incorporated into the SUGAR model. The model simulated the effects of changing assimilate supply and fruit volume on sugar concentrations. The set of equations for the SUGAR model was rewritten to include the three components influencing sugar concentrations: assimilate supply, metabolism and dilution. The sugar types differed in sensitivity to these components. Sucrose was highly sensitive to changes in assimilate supply and to the dilution effect; it was not subject to intense metabolic transformation. Sorbitol was the most important carbohydrate in fruit metabolism, which explains why the sorbitol concentration was always low despite the strong positive effect of assimilate supply. The reducing sugars constituted a transitory storage pool and their concentrations were closely related to metabolism.

  14. A simple model to predict the probability of a peach (Prunus persicae) tree bud to develop as a long or short shoot as a consequence of winter pruning intensity and previous year growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Daniele; Génard, Michel; Lescourret, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae) trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots.

  15. Concentrações de carboidratos em tecidos de pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. jubileu em plantas com ou sem sintomas de morte-precoce durante o período de dormência Carbohydrates content in peach trees tissues (Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. jubileu in plants with and without peach-tree-short-life symptoms during the dormant period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Carlos Marafon

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as concentrações de amido e açúcares solúveis em tecidos de gemas e base de gemas de plantas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch cultivar Jubileu, com e sem sintomas da Morte-Precoce-do-Pessegueiro, durante o período de repouso. Os ramos foram coletados em quatro épocas durante a dormência (11-06, 11-07, 29-07 e 05-08, no inverno de 2003. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos separadamente, um para cada pomar. A elevada concentração de amido nos tecidos das plantas sem sintomas de morte-precoce na fase da saída de dormência propiciou um adequado suprimento energético para que a brotação e a floração destas plantas ocorressem de maneira uniforme e regular. Por outro lado, a antecipação na quebra de dormência das plantas com sintomas da morte-precoce, provocada pelo desencadeamento da síndrome, intensificou a degradação do amido e do sorbitol em ambos os tecidos na saída de dormência, possivelmente, para o fornecimento de glicose e frutose.The aim of this study was to quantify the carbohydrates content (starch and soluble sugars in bud tissues and bud base of peach trees (Prunus persica (L. Batsch cultivar Jubileu in plants with and without Peach-tree-short-life (PTSL symptoms during the dormant period. The branches were collected in four different times during the dormant period (June, 11th, July, 11th, July, 29th, August, 05th in the winter of 2003. Two experiments were conducted separately, one for each orchard. The higher concentration of starch in plnt tissues without PTSL symptoms in the final of the dormant period provided a suitable energetic supply , leading to a regular and uniform budbreak of the plants. On the other hand, the budbreak anticipation of the plants with PTSL symptoms, which was provoked by the syndrome starting, intensified the starch and sorbitol breakdown in both tissues in the final of the dormant period, possibly producing glucose and fructose.

  16. DETERMINATION OF A MATHEMATICAL MODEL TO ESTIMATE THE AREA AND DRY WEIGHT OF THE LEAF LIMBO OF Prunus persica CV. Jarillo DETERMINACIÓN DE UN MODELO MATEMÁTICO PARA LA ESTIMACIÓN DEL ÁREA FOLIAR Y PESO SECO DEL LIMBO DE Prunus persica CV. Jarillo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Quevedo García

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A study was conducted to determine the variables that estimated the leaf limbo area and the leaf limbo dry weight of peach Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. Jarillo. Fifty leaves, aged 2.5 months, were selected and measured: leaf limbo length and width, petiole length, leaf length, petiole diameter, leaf limbo fresh weight, petiole fresh weight, leaf fresh weight, leaf limbo dry weight, petiole dry weight, leaf dry weight, length/width limbo, petiole length/limbo length and leaf limbo area. The results allowed to obtain regression equations for estimating the leaf area and the limbo dry weight. Using the lineal models LA = b1 + b2 (LLL x LLW and LA= b1+ b2LLL + b3LLW a leaf area equation was determined. Alternative models to calculate limbo dry weight were evaluated LLDW = -b1+ b2 LLFW and LLDW= - b1 + b2LLL + b3PL. The best equations found with an R2 of 0.99 were LA = 1.572 + 0.65169(LLL x LLW, LA=-23.106+2.8064LLW + 3.6761LLL and LLDW = -0.002+0.401(LLFW.Resumen. Se realizó un estudio para determinar las variables que estimaran el área del limbo foliar y el peso seco del limbo de durazno Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. Jarillo. Se seleccionaron cincuenta hojas con 2,5 meses de edad, fueron medidos: ancho del limbo, longitud del limbo, longitud del peciolo, longitud hoja, diámetro peciolo, peso fresco del limbo, peso fresco del peciolo, peso fresco de la hoja, peso seco del limbo, peso seco peciolo, peso seco de la hoja, longitud /ancho limbo, longitud del peciolo/longitud del limbo, área foliar del limbo. Los resultados alcanzados permitieron obtener ecuaciones de regresión para estimar el área foliar del limbo y el peso seco del limbo. Se halló una ecuación para la determinación del área foliar del limbo con los modelos lineales LA = b1 + b2 (LLL x LLW y LA= b1 + b2LLL + b3LLW. También se evaluaron modelos alternativas para calcular el peso seco del limbo, LLDW = -b1+ b2LLFW y LLDW= - b1 + b2LLL + b3PL. Las mejores ecuaciones

  17. The Effect of a Strain of Penicillium on Lead (Pb) Toxicity of Prunus persica L.%青霉菌对桃树铅胁迫的缓解效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李奕松; 杜立栋; 梁为; 王有年

    2011-01-01

    A strain of Penicillium(Penicillium Inordinate Arenicola sp.) with the function of concentrating lead(Ph) from soil was employed to explored the possibility that by using it to decrease the effect of Pb toxicity on the two peach trees(Prunus persica L.Batsch and Prunus persica L.Batsch cv.Okubao) grew on soil with different lead contents.The results indicated that the amount of Pb accumulated whatever in the shoots, roots and leaves of both the peach trees grew on soil inoculated with the Penicillium fungi was lower than the control which did not inoculate the Penicillium fungi, the distribution rates of Pb in the shoots and leaves was also lower than control, and plant height ,the contents of chlorophyll, the activity of superoxide dismutase(SOD) and nitrate reductase(NR) of plants grew on the soil treated with Penicillium fungi was higher than that grew on the control soil, the membrane permeability of the cell was lower in treated plants than in control, but with the increasing Pb concentration in the soil, alleviation effect of Penicillium fungi on Pb toxicity was decreased progressively.The impact of Pb stress on the two peaches and alleviation effect of Penicillium fungi on Pb toxicity were different between Prunus persica L.Batsch and Prunus persica L.Batsch cv.Okubao.%为了解青霉菌对植物吸收重金属元素铅的影响,把从土壤里分离到的具有铅富集能力的青霉菌(Penicillium InordinateArenicola sp.)接种到铅污染不同程度的土壤里,采用盆栽的方法观察这个菌株对毛桃(Prunus persica L.Batsch)和大久保桃(Prunuspersica L.Batsch cv.Okubao)铅胁迫的缓解效应.结果表明:(1)在接种青霉菌的土壤里生长的毛桃和大久保桃的根、茎、叶中铅累积量均比未接种青霉菌的低,茎叶中铅的分配率比未接种青霉菌的低;(2)接种青霉菌相对增加桃苗株高、叶绿素含量、硝酸还原酶及超氧化物歧化酶活性,降低叶片的细胞膜透性;随着土壤中铅胁

  18. Effect prediction of identified SNPs linked to fruit quality and chilling injury in peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-García, Pedro J; Fresnedo-Ramírez, Jonathan; Parfitt, Dan E; Gradziel, Thomas M; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-01-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are a fundamental source of genomic variation. Large SNP panels have been developed for Prunus species. Fruit quality traits are essential peach breeding program objectives since they determine consumer acceptance, fruit consumption, industry trends and cultivar adoption. For many cultivars, these traits are negatively impacted by cold storage, used to extend fruit market life. The major symptoms of chilling injury are lack of flavor, off flavor, mealiness, flesh browning, and flesh bleeding. A set of 1,109 SNPs was mapped previously and 67 were linked with these complex traits. The prediction of the effects associated with these SNPs on downstream products from the 'peach v1.0' genome sequence was carried out. A total of 2,163 effects were detected, 282 effects (non-synonymous, synonymous or stop codon gained) were located in exonic regions (13.04 %) and 294 placed in intronic regions (13.59 %). An extended list of genes and proteins that could be related to these traits was developed. Two SNP markers that explain a high percentage of the observed phenotypic variance, UCD_SNP_1084 and UCD_SNP_46, are associated with zinc finger (C3HC4-type RING finger) family protein and AOX1A (alternative oxidase 1a) protein groups, respectively. In addition, phenotypic variation suggests that the observed polymorphism for SNP UCD_SNP_1084 [A/G] mutation could be a candidate quantitative trait nucleotide affecting quantitative trait loci for mealiness. The interaction and expression of affected proteins could explain the variation observed in each individual and facilitate understanding of gene regulatory networks for fruit quality traits in peach.

  19. Genome-wide identification of miRNAs responsive to drought in peach (Prunus persica by high-throughput deep sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahap Eldem

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is one of the most important worldwide fresh fruits. Since fruit growth largely depends on adequate water supply, drought stress is considered as the most important abiotic stress limiting fleshy fruit production and quality in peach. Plant responses to drought stress are regulated both at transcriptional and post-transcriptional level. As post-transcriptional gene regulators, miRNAs (miRNAs are small (19-25 nucleotides in length, endogenous, non-coding RNAs. Recent studies indicate that miRNAs are involved in plant responses to drought. Therefore, Illumina deep sequencing technology was used for genome-wide identification of miRNAs and their expression profile in response to drought in peach. In this study, four sRNA libraries were constructed from leaf control (LC, leaf stress (LS, root control (RC and root stress (RS samples. We identified a total of 531, 471, 535 and 487 known mature miRNAs in LC, LS, RC and RS libraries, respectively. The expression level of 262 (104 up-regulated, 158 down-regulated of the 453 miRNAs changed significantly in leaf tissue, whereas 368 (221 up-regulated, 147 down-regulated of the 465 miRNAs had expression levels that changed significantly in root tissue upon drought stress. Additionally, a total of 197, 221, 238 and 265 novel miRNA precursor candidates were identified from LC, LS, RC and RS libraries, respectively. Target transcripts (137 for LC, 133 for LS, 148 for RC and 153 for RS generated significant Gene Ontology (GO terms related to DNA binding and catalytic activities. Genome-wide miRNA expression analysis of peach by deep sequencing approach helped to expand our understanding of miRNA function in response to drought stress in peach and Rosaceae. A set of differentially expressed miRNAs could pave the way for developing new strategies to alleviate the adverse effects of drought stress on plant growth and development.

  20. 桃水孔蛋白基因克隆及序列分析%Cloning and sequence analysis of aquaporin gene in peach (Prunus persica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗静; 刘正富; 武峥; 漆巨容; 谢永红; 王武; 程杨

    2012-01-01

    为给水孔蛋白(AQP)在低温对花芽发育和休眠调控中的作用研究奠定基础,以低温休眠的桃“满天红”花芽为试材,提取总RNA,根据其它植物AQP基因保守区设计简并引物,采用RT-PCR方法,扩增出3个编码长约147个氨基酸序列的水孔蛋白基因Pp PIP1-1、PpPIP1-2和PpPIP2-1.同源性比对结果表明这些序列与其它物种AQP基因具有较高的同源性.这3个AQP基因的氨基酸序列均具有MIP家族的特征信号序列SGXHXNPAVT,还具有植物质膜水孔蛋白(PIP)家族的特征信引序列GGGANXXXXGY和TGI/TNPARSL/FGAAINI/VF/YN.经系统发育分析将这3个AQP基因分为2类,分属PIP蛋白的PIP1和PIP2亚家族成员.%To lay a foundation for the studies on aquaporin (AQP) function in flower bud development and dormancy regulating under low temperature, taking flower buds of Mantianhong during dormancy as materials, total RNA was extracted, the degenerate primers which were planed based on the conservative regions of AQP genes in other plants, and three AQP genes in Prunus persica L. were amplified by RT-PCR method. The AQP genes encoded a protein of 147 amino acids, which were named PpPIPl-l, PpPIPl-2 and PpPIP2-\\, respectively. The results of homology alignment showed that the sequences had highly homologous with AQP genes in other species. The deduced amino acids sequences of all three genes had MIP family signature sequence SGXHXNPAVT and PIP family signature sequence GGGANXXXXGY and TGI/TNPARSL/ FGAAIM/VFATN. The three genes could be divided into two PIP subfamilies PIP1 and PIP2, based on phylogenetic tree.

  1. Evaluación productiva, económica y social del agua de riego de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch en Zacatecas (México

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    José Luis Ríos-Flores

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La escasez de agua limita la agricultura, por lo que su uso debe ser más eficiente en la producción de alimentos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la productividad económica, física y social del agua del cultivo de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch, en la región del Distrito de Desarrollo Rural 183 —correspondiente a Fresnillo, Zacatecas— para el ciclo 2012; se desarrollaron modelos matemáticos para estimar la productividad y eficiencia del agua. En Zacatecas se cosecharon 817 ha de durazno; mismas que produjeron 3,954.1 t; con un valor de $32.79 millones de pesos, utilizando un total de 8.17 Mm3 en todo el estado; mientras que en el DDR183-Fresnillo (compuesto por los municipios Fresnillo y Valparaíso se emplearon 3.39 Mm3. La determinación de la huella hídrica azul mostró que, por cada kg de durazno se emplearon 2,066 L en Zacatecas, 2,000 L en Fresnillo, y 1,851 L en Valparaíso. En cuanto al ingreso por metro cúbico, se determinó que en Zacatecas se obtuvo un ingreso de $4.01 m-3, $4.38 m-3 en Fresnillo y $4.83 m-3 en Valparaíso. Mientras, la productividad laboral en Zacatecas fue 97.53 h t-1, en Fresnillo 94.40 h t-1, y en Valparaíso 87.35 h t-1. El trabajador adscrito a la producción de durazno en Zacatecas generó $97.53 h-1, en Fresnillo $94.40 h-1, y $87.35 h-1 en Valparaíso. La producción de durazno en Valparaíso resultó altamente eficiente y productiva, lo que se tradujo en una menor huella hídrica; ello promueve la sustentabilidad del recurso agua en esa región.

  2. Identification of Known and Novel microRNAs and Their Targets in Peach (Prunus persica) Fruit by High-Throughput Sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunhua; Zhang, Binbin; Ma, Ruijuan; Yu, Mingliang; Guo, Shaolei; Guo, Lei; Korir, Nicholas Kibet

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of non-coding RNAs that have functions in post-transcriptional gene regulation in plants. Although the most important economic component of peach trees (Prunus persica) is the fruit, not much is known about miRNAs in this organ. In this study, miRNAs and their targets were identified and characterized from libraries of small RNAs of peach fruit through Solexa based-sequencing and bioinformatics approaches. A total of 557 known peach miRNAs belonging to 34 miRNA families were identified, and some of these miRNAs were found to be highly conserved in at least four other plant species. Using the most current criteria for miRNA annotation, 275 putative novel miRNAs were predicted, and the sequencing frequencies of these novel miRNAs were less than those of the conserved miRNAs. In total, 3959 and 1614 target genes for 349 known and 193 novel miRNAs, respectively, were predicted with the criteria that a single target gene can be targeted by different miRNAs and that a single miRNA can also have a large number of target genes. Three targets were even found to be targeted by 13 novel miRNAs that contained the same complete miRNA sequence at different locations and had different scaffolds. The proteins predicted to be targeted by the miRNAs identified in this study encompass a wide range of transcription factors and are involved in many biological processes and pathways, including development, metabolism, stress responses and signal transduction. A total of 115 and 101 target genes were identified to be cleaved by 60 known miRNAs and 27 novel miRNAs through degradome sequencing, respectively. These miRNAs induce cleavage of their targets precisely at the position between nucleotides 10 and 11 of the miRNA sequences from the 5' to the 3' end. Thirty conserved miRNAs and 19 novel miRNAs exhibited differential expression profiles in the peach, and the expression patterns of some miRNAs appeared to be tissue- or developmental stage-specific. The

  3. Controle da infestação natural de ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 (Diptera, Tephritidae em pêssegos(Prunus persica através das radiações gama Control of naturally infested peaches (Prunus persica by mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata through the use of gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Arthur

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a dose desinfestante de radiações gama para pêssegos, Prunus persica, infestados com larvas da mosca do Mediterrâneo, Ceratitis capitata. Utilizaram-se frutas de procedência conhecida no campo fazendo-se uma amostragem prévia, constatando-se que cada fruta continha em média nove larvas do último ínstar da mosca praga. As frutas foram irradiadas em uma fonte de Cobalto-60 com as seguintes doses de radiação gama: 0 (test., 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 e 1200 Gy, sob uma taxa de 58 Gy por minuto. Após a irradiação as frutas foram colocadas em câmaras climatizadas com a temperatura variando entre 23 e 27°C e a umidade relativa variando entre 65 e 75%. Aguardou-se que as larvas deixassem as frutas e se transformassem em pupas e adultos. A dose letal para larvas, pelos resultados obtidos no experimento, concluiu-se ser de 600 Gy. A dose letal para pupas provenientes de larvas irradiadas dentro das frutas foi de 50 Gy, impedindo totalmente a emergência de adultos.Determination of the dose of gamma radiation to disinfest peaches, Prunus pérsica infested with larvae of Ceratitis capitata (Wied., 1824 was made. Fruits were collected in the field, each one holding about nine larvae of the last instar of the fruit-fly. The fruits were irradiated with Cobalt-60 gamma radiation source at the following doses: 0 (control, 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000 and 1200 Gy; at a dose rate of 58 Gy per minute. After irradiation the fruits were kept in a climatic chamber with the temperature adjusted between 23 and 27°C, and relative humidity between 65 and 75 percent, until the larvae left the fruits and were transformed into pupae and adults. It was concluded that the lethal dose of gamma radiation for larvae at the last instar, in naturally infested peaches, was 600 Gy and the dose of 50 Gy inhibited completely the emergency of adults.

  4. Flutuação populacional e previsão de gerações de Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae em pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch = Populational fluctuation and generation prediction of Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916 (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jorge Cividanes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A mariposa-oriental, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, encontra-se distribuída em quase todas as partes do mundo, constituindo importante praga do pessegueiro, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. Este estudo foi desenvolvido em pomar comercial de pessegueiro localizado em Taiúva, São Paulo, durante os anos 1997 a 2003, visando obter a flutuação populacional de adultos de G. molesta relacionando-a com fatores meteorológicos. O estudo também visou determinar uma data biofix adequada para prever a ocorrência de gerações da praga por meio de um modelo de graus-dia. A amostragem da mariposa-oriental e de insetos predadores foi efetuada com armadilha plástica com suco de pêssego e armadilha adesiva amarela, respectivamente. A influência de fatores físicos e biológicos foi avaliada por análise de correlação linear simples. Os maiores picos populacionais de G. molesta ocorreram nos meses de maio, julho e outubro. As correlações obtidas sugerem que a baixa umidade ambiental pode ter sido fator de mortalidade para G. molesta. O elevado número de pulverizações de inseticida pode ter causado impacto negativo sobre inimigos naturais contribuindo para a elevada densidade do inseto-praga no período de 1998 a 1999. A data de constatação dapresença de gemas vegetativas e de flor diferenciadas no pessegueiro mostrou-se adequada para se iniciar a contagem de graus-dia para prever gerações de G. molesta. Esses resultados devem ajudar aimplementação de programas para prever picos populacionais de adultos de G. molesta visando à aplicação de inseticidas. Recomenda-se a validação do modelo de graus-dia em outras localidades para comprovar os resultados obtidos.The oriental fruit moth, Grapholita molesta (Busck, 1916, is spread around the world and is considered an important pest on peach, Prunus persica (Linnaeus Batsch. This work was carried out at a commercial peach orchard located in Taiúva, State of São Paulo, Brazil, from 1997 to

  5. Atividade da peroxidase durante o período hibernal de plantas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch. cv. jubileu com e sem sintomas da morte precoce Peroxidase activity during the rest period of peach trees (Prunus persica (L. Batsch cv. jubileu in plants with and without symptoms ofpeach-tree-short-life (PTSL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Carlos Marafon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A morte precoce do pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch é uma síndrome caracterizada por um colapso da planta durante a floração ou no início da brotação, após drástica redução da temperatura. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a atividade da peroxidase (UE min-1 g-1 MF durante o período hibernal, em gemas e ramos de plantas de pessegueiro cv. Jubileu, com e sem sintomas de morte precoce. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos separadamente, um para cada tipo de tecido, em dois pomares próximos, ambos com quatro anos de implantação, situados na região colonial de Pelotas - RS, nas localidades de Santa Helena e Cascata. As amostras foram constituídas por dois tipos de tecidos (gemas e ramos e foram coletadas em quatro datas (11-06, 11-07, 29-07 e 05-08 durante o inverno de 2003. As determinações da atividade da peroxidase nos tecidos foram realizadas no Laboratório de Fisiologia Vegetal da Embrapa Clima Temperado. As plantas com sintomas de morte precoce apresentaram, durante a dormência, maior atividade da peroxidase nos dois tipos de tecidos, quando comparadas com as plantas sem sintomas da síndrome. Provavelmente, o desencadeamento da síndrome provoca alterações na dormência das plantas afetadas, que resultam na antecipação da retomada do crescimento das gemas e na exposição dos tecidos recém-formados aos danos causados pelas baixas temperaturas. Os níveis populacionais donematoide-anelado (Mesocriconema xenoplax e dos nematoides do gênero Helicotylenchus sp. foram superiores nas amostras de solo coletadas na rizosfera das plantas com sintomas de morte precoce do que os verificados nas amostras coletadas das plantas sem sintomas da síndrome, resultando também na maior atividade da peroxidase em ambos os tecidos (gemas e ramos, durante o período hibernal das plantas afetadas.Peach Tree Short Life (PTSL is a syndrome characterized by a collapse of the peach trees (Prunus persica (L. Batsch during the

  6. A Simple Model to Predict the Probability of a Peach (Prunus persicae) Tree Bud to Develop as a Long or Short Shoot as a Consequence of Winter Pruning Intensity and Previous Year Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevacqua, Daniele; Génard, Michel; Lescourret, Françoise

    2012-01-01

    In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae) trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots. PMID:23300609

  7. A simple model to predict the probability of a peach (Prunus persicae tree bud to develop as a long or short shoot as a consequence of winter pruning intensity and previous year growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Bevacqua

    Full Text Available In many woody plants, shoots emerging from buds can develop as short or long shoots. The probability of a bud to develop as a long or short shoot relies upon genetic, environmental and management factors and controlling it is an important issue in commercial orchard. We use peach (Prunus persicae trees, subjected to different winter pruning levels and monitored for two years, to develop and calibrate a model linking the probability of a bud to develop as a long shoot to winter pruning intensity and previous year vegetative growth. Eventually we show how our model can be used to adjust pruning intensity to obtain a desired proportion of long and short shoots.

  8. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. grown in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi eEl-Jendoubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. ‘Orbis’ grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated and basal (untreated leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  9. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Ángeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. “Orbis”) grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs. PMID:24478782

  10. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Angeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. "Orbis") grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  11. 桃树修剪分枝模式的模拟%Modeling the Branching Patterns of Peach Tree Branches (Prunus persica) After Being Pruned

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏宁; 李保国; 邓西民; 郭焱

    2004-01-01

    在不同修剪手法下,对栽培桃树(Prunuspersica(L.)Batsch)不同母枝上的分枝模式进行了比较研究.从分枝模式来看:修剪后的母枝基本由3个不同的区域组成,基部是不萌发的潜伏芽形成的未分枝区域;中部是延迟分枝和多次分枝组成的分枝区域(主要的枝条类型有短枝、长枝和多次枝);顶部是被剪除的部分.我们通过隐式半马尔可夫模型来模拟这一分枝模式,主要是定量描述1次枝和多次枝在母枝上的数量及其分布状况.在上述模型中,未分枝区、延迟分枝区和多次分枝区称为瞬时态,被剪除的部分称为吸收态.模拟的结果与观察的结果进行对比后发现,两者具有很好的一致性.这说明隐式半马尔可夫模型是模拟植物分枝过程的一种有效方法,尽管隐式半马尔可夫链模型只是一个描述性的模型,但仍能对其所描述的生物现象进行解释,在预测修剪手法对母枝分枝模式影响方面比传统的方法具有明显的优势.本研究结果是建立三维虚拟桃树树冠分枝结构的基础.%The shoot branching patterns of the two-year-old branches of peach trees (Prunus parsica (L.) Batsch cv. Elberta) were compared with different pruning measures. The branches were divided into a basal non-branching zone, a proleptic branching zone, a sylleptic branching zone and the part removed. We used the hidden semi-Markov model to capture the branching patterns. The final results showed that theoretical probability distributions of diverse lateral shoots of the parent branches calculated on the basis of the parameters of the hidden semi-Markov chain model were in good agreement with probabilities extracted from the observed data. This paper described the quantitative effects of pruning on branching architecture of a parent branch, taking into account of branch morphology. Results suggest that the hidden semi-Markov model could be used as an effective tool to describe the

  12. 氨基酸硒对桃设施栽培环境适应性的影响%Effects of selenoamino acids addition on the adaptability of peach ( Prunus persica) to the condition of protected culti-vation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王孝娣; 刘凤之; 史祥宾; 王宝亮; 郑晓翠; 王海波

    2015-01-01

    探讨了硒提高桃适应设施栽培环境的效果, 为提高设施桃的环境适应能力和改善果实品质调控技术提供依据. 以4年生桃设施栽培的主栽品种中油4号油桃和春雪毛桃为试验材料, 研究氨基酸硒对桃光合作用光响应曲线、二氧化碳响应曲线、 温度响应曲线和蒸腾速率的影响. 喷施氨基酸硒使设施桃的光补偿点和二氧化碳补偿点显著降低, 表观量子效率和羧化效率显著提高, 使设施桃净光合速率在高温条件下保持较高数值且呈平稳状态, 显著促进了设施桃的蒸腾作用. 喷施氨基酸硒显著增强了桃对设施弱光、 二氧化碳浓度低、 高温和高湿环境的适应能力, 为设施桃品质的改善奠定了良好基础, 因此, 喷施氨基酸硒是一项切实可行的提高桃对设施环境适应能力的重要农艺措施.%To study the effects of application of selenoamino acids ( Se-aa) on the physiological parameters of peach tree and its adaptability to the protected cultivation condition, an experiment was carried using two 4-year-old peach ( Prunus persica) cultivars ('No. 4 Zhongyou' nectarine and'Springsnow' peach) which were cultivated in greenhouse as experimental materi-als. The results showed that Se-aa addition significantly decreased light compensation point and CO2 compensation point of peach plant, but significantly increased apparent quantum efficiency and carboxylation efficiency. Meanwhile, Se-aa addition improved net photosynthetic rate of protected peach plant under the condition of high temperature, and significantly improved the peach transpiration. These results fully showed that Se-aa addition significantly enhanced the adaptability of peach to the weak light condition with low concentration of CO2 , high temperature and high humidity under protected cultivation, which could be helpful for improveing the quality of peach fruits. It could be concluded that Se-aa addition could be taken as a

  13. 桃单果重与6个物候期性状的遗传关联分析%Genetic Association of Fruit Weight and Six Phenological Traits in Peach (Prunus persica L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹珂; 王力荣; 朱更瑞; 方伟超; 陈昌文; 赵娟

    2012-01-01

    study aims to improve the speed and efficiency of fruit quality breeding by investigating the genetic correlation of fruit weight and six phenological traits in peach (Prunus persica) using association mapping approach. [Method] In the current study, 104 peach landrace accessions from 6 Chinese geographical regions were evaluated for fruit and phenological period traits. The accessions were genotyped with 53 genome-wide simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers. The population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) of peach were analyzed by using STRUCTURE 2.3.3 and TASSEL 2.0.1 software. The genetic correlation was studied based on the results of association mapping of fruit weight and six phenological traits. [Result] Based on population structure analysis, the 104 peaches were divided into 5 groups. Of the 1378 SSR pairs composed of 53 SSR primers, 27 were in LD (P<0.01). Although correlation analysis showed that the fruit weight was only related to leaf expansion date trait positively, same QTLs were found associated with fruit weight and the date of full bloom, leaf expansion, harvest maturity, and defoliation based association mapping. Simultaneously, the obviously LD was observed amongthe interchromosomal loci association with fruit weight and the date of full bloom, defoliation and fruit development period. UDP96-013-206, an allele which possesses a significantly positive effect on fruit weight also acted on the phenological trait to advance the bloom date for 1.46 days, delay the fruit development period and defoliation date for 13.77 and 2.17 days, respectively. [Conclusion] Twenty-seven QTLs associated with fruit weight and six phenological traits were obtained using association mapping, and many of them were located in same chromosomes which obtained using linkage analysis previously. Although fruit weight was only related to leaf expansion date through correlation analysis, the real genetic correlation was found between fruit weight and the date of full

  14. [Antimutagenic substances in the Armeniacae semen and Persicae semen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Osaki, Y; Kato, T; Miyazaki, T

    1992-12-01

    Using the Ames/Salmonella/microsome assay, we examined the antimutagenic effect of the hexane extract of Armeniacae semen (apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) seed), Persicae semen (peach (P. persica Bat.) seed), and seeds of cherry (P. avium L.), plum (P. salicina Lindle) and almond (P. dulcis Mill). Hexane extracts of Armeniacae semen and Persicae semen inhibited the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), but those of seeds of cherry, plum and almond did not. The mutagenicities of 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) and 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (AF-2) were also inhibited by the extracts of Armeniacae semen and Persicae semen. Inhibitory substances in Persicae semen were fractionated by silica gel column chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, and were identified as oleic acid and linoleic acid. The contents of oleic acid and linoleic acid were 0.7 and 0.4% in the hexane extract of Armeniacae semen, and 1.5 and 0.5% in that of Persicae semen, respectively.

  15. Uso potencial de aceites esenciales de Cymbopogon citratus y Laurus nobilis para el control de Myzus persicae en lechuga bajo cubierta

    OpenAIRE

    Valdés, Ramiro Julián

    2017-01-01

    El pulgón verde del duraznero, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), es un àfido polífago considerado una de las plagas de mayor dificultad de manejo en los cultivos hortícolas bajo cubierta. Su control se realiza con plaguicidas sintéticos convencionales. El uso de estos productos genera problemas de residuos tóxicos, inconvenientes en los aplicadores y resistencia de los insectos a los mismos. Los aceites esenciales constituyen productos naturales ensayados para el control de plagas, siendo una estrateg...

  16. Caracterización con RAMs de la colección de durazno (Prunus persica L. Batsch existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando ocho cebadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs fue evaluada la diversidad genética de 31 materiales de Prunus de la colección de caducifolios existente en la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Se generaron un total de 121 amplicones con pesos moleculares entre 260 y 1000 Kb. Con un coeficiente de similitud de 0.75, se formaron tres grupos, de acuerdo principalmente con las características del fruto, encontrando en el grupo 2 las variedades de importancia económica. El número de loci polimórficos varió entre 5 y 16 para los cebadores GT y CCA, respectivamente. El valor promedio de heterocigosidad fue de 0.22, más bajo que los encontrados en otros estudios de diversidad genética en el género Prunus; por tanto, se deben buscar estrategias para incrementar la variabilidad genética de la colección como la introducción de nuevos materiales o híbridos interespecíficos. La técnica RAMs es útil para evaluar la diversidad genética en especies caducifolias.

  17. Caracteres físico-químicos del hospedero preferencial de Grapholita molesta : brotes y frutos de duraznero, Mendoza, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Llanos, Lorena Vanina; Marín, María Susana

    2004-01-01

    Grapholita molesta (Busck) es una plaga que tiene como principal hospedero el duraznero donde produce daños en brotes y frutos. El estudio de características físicoquímicas, en dichos órganos vegetales (pH, sólidos solubles, acidez y contenido de vitamina C) puede brindar información sobre los hábitos alimentarios de dicha plaga. Los objetivos del trabajo fueron: 1) Determinar características físico-químicas como pH, sólidos solubles, acidez y vitamina C en brotes y frutos de duraznero (c...

  18. Variabilidad interspecífica de duraznos (Prunus pérsica L. Batsch. y ciruelos (Prunus domestica usando RAMs

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    Ana Cruz Morillo Coronado

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Intraespecific variability of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch. and plums (Prunus domestica using RAMsResumen: Se seleccionó una muestra de 41 materiales de Prunus de la colección de caducifolios de la Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia, para evaluar su variabilidad genética usando ocho marcadores Microsatélites Amplificados al Azar (RAMs. Se generaron un total de 121 alelos con pesos moleculares entre 260 y 1000 Kb. Se formaron tres grupos, a un coeficiente de similitud de 0.75, de acuerdo a las características del fruto y a la especie, encontrándose en el grupo II a los materiales de ciruelo. El porcentaje de loci polimórficos varío entre 71 y 99% para los cebadores CGA y CCA, respectivamente. El valor promedio de heterocigosidad fue de 0.22, mucho más bajo que los encontrados en otros estudios de diversidad genética en el género Prunus. La técnica RAMs mostró ser una herramienta útil para evaluar la diversidad genética en frutales caducifolios, al discriminar a los materiales en tres grupos e identificar el alto grado de consanguinidad que existe entre las diferentes especies de Prunus lo cual debe ser aprovechado dentro de las estrategias de hibridación que busquen la obtención de nuevos y mejores materiales. Palabras claves: Prunus, Diversidad genética, Microsatélites RAMs, caducifolios.Abstract: A sample of 41 Prunus materials from the deciduous collection of the Pedagogical and Technological University of Colombia was selected to evaluate its genetic diversity using eight primers for Random Amplified Microsatellite (RAMs. A total of 121 alleles were generated with molecular weights ranging between 260 and 1000 Kb. Three groups were formed, a similarity coefficient of 0.75, according to fruit characteristics and specie, found plum materials in group II. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 71 to 99% for the primers CGA and CCA, respectively. The average value of

  19. Prunus hybrids rootstocks for flat peach

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    Pilar Legua

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Peach (Prunus persica L. is the most important stone fruit tree grown in Spain and is the second most important fruit crop in Europe. The influence of eight Prunus rootstocks (GF-677, Krymsk® 86, PADAC 97-36, PADAC 99-05, PADAC 9912-03, PADAC 0024-01, PAC 0021-01 and PAC 0022-01 on vigor, yield and fruit quality traits of 'UFO 3' flat peach cultivar was studied. The highest trunk cross sectional area was exhibited by GF-677 and the lowest by PADAC 99-05, while intermediate values were found on the other rootstocks. The highest yield efficiency was found on PADAC 99-05, PAC 0021-01, PAC 0022-01 and PADAC 0024-01 and the lowest was shown on Krymsk® 86. The fruit quality parameters measured were color, fruit and stone weights, equatorial diameter, pulp thickness, pulp yield, firmness, pH, soluble solids content and titratable acidity. 'UFO 3' grafted on GF-677 resulted in the largest fruit weight, while the smallest was on PADAC 99-05. Fruits of 'UFO 3' showed a tendency to have higher firmness, higher red colored skin and RI when grafted on PADAC 99-05.

  20. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

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    Bliss Fredrick A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus fruit development, growth, ripening, and senescence includes major biochemical and sensory changes in texture, color, and flavor. The genetic dissection of these complex processes has important applications in crop improvement, to facilitate maximizing and maintaining stone fruit quality from production and processing through to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance. Results A genetic linkage map of 211 markers was constructed for an intraspecific peach (Prunus persica progeny population, Pop-DG, derived from a canning peach cultivar 'Dr. Davis' and a fresh market cultivar 'Georgia Belle'. The Pop-DG map covered 818 cM of the peach genome and included three morphological markers, 11 ripening candidate genes, 13 cold-responsive genes, 21 novel EST-SSRs from the ChillPeach database, 58 previously reported SSRs, 40 RAFs, 23 SRAPs, 14 IMAs, and 28 accessory markers from candidate gene amplification. The Pop-DG map was co-linear with the Prunus reference T × E map, with 39 SSR markers in common to align the maps. A further 158 markers were bin-mapped to the reference map: 59 ripening candidate genes, 50 cold-responsive genes, and 50 novel EST-SSRs from ChillPeach, with deduced locations in Pop-DG via comparative mapping. Several candidate genes and EST-SSRs co-located with previously reported major trait loci and quantitative trait loci for chilling injury symptoms in Pop-DG. Conclusion The candidate gene approach combined with bin-mapping and availability of a community-recognized reference genetic map provides an efficient means of locating genes of interest in a target genome. We highlight the co-localization of fruit quality candidate genes with previously reported fruit quality QTLs. The fruit quality gene map developed here is a

  1. Relationship between endogenous hormonal content and somatic organogenesis in callus of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) cultivars and Prunus persica×Prunus dulcis rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Cantero-Navarro, Elena; Pérez-Alfocea, Francisco; Le-Disquet, Isabel; Guivarc'h, Anne; Cos-Terrer, José

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between endogenous hormones content and the induction of somatic peach plant was studied. To induce multiple shoots from callus derived from the base of stem explants of the scion cultivars 'UFO-3', 'Flariba' and 'Alice Bigi', and the peach×almond rootstocks 'Garnem' and 'GF677', propagated plants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog salts augmented with 0.1mgL(-1) of indolebutyric acid, 1mgL(-1) of 6-benzylaminopurine and 3% sucrose. The highest regeneration rate was obtained with the peach×almond rootstocks. Endogenous levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin (Z), zeatin riboside (ZR), ethylene precursor 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), salicylic acid (SA), and jasmonic acid (JA) were analyzed in the organogenic callus. Lower levels of several hormones, namely Z, ZR, ABA, and ACC were found in the peach×almond rootstock compared to peach cultivars, while IAA and SA presented inconclusive returns. These results suggest that the difference in somatic organogenesis capacity observed in peach and peach×almond hybrids is markedly affected by the endogenous hormonal content of the studied genotypes.

  2. Production of chlorogenic acid in Varthemia persica DC (var. persica) callus cultures

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, a pharmacologically important compound, is a phenolic compound that occurs in certain commonly used medicinal herbs. We looked for the presence of this compound in the callus cultures of Varthemia persica DC (var. persica). We have evaluated the conditions for establishment of callus cultures of V. persica and the in vitro production of chlorogenic acid. Callus was initiated by culturing seedling of V. persica on MS basal medium supplemented with different concentrations of ...

  3. 'Candidatus Phytoplasmas pruni', a novel taxon associated with X-disease of stone fruits, Prunus spp.: multilocus characterization based on 16S rRNA, secY, and ribosomal protein genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-disease is one of the most serious diseases known in peach (Prunus persica). Based on RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, peach X-disease phytoplasma strains from eastern and western United States and eastern Canada were classified in 16S rDNA RFLP group 16SrIII, subgroup A. Phylogenetic a...

  4. Antithrombotic lipids from Semen Persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Nian-Yun; Liu, Li; Tao, Wei-Wei; Duan, Jin-Ao; Liu, Xun-Hong; Huang, Su-Ping

    2011-10-01

    Chemical investigation of Semen Persicae has led to the isolation of decane (1), triolein (2), nonacosanoic acid (3), oleic acid ethyl ester (4), palmitic acid (5), oleic acid (6) and 15,16-dihydroxy-9Z,12Z-octadecadienoic acid 2,3-dihydroxypropyl ester (7). Amongst these, compound 7 is a new lipid. Their structures were elucidated by chemical and extensive spectral analysis. Their anticoagulative activities were also evaluated in vitro, which showed that petroleum ether extract and compounds 5-6 could significantly prolong thrombin time while methanol extract could obviously inhibit platelet aggregation.

  5. ARMAZENAMENTO DE PÊSSEGOS (Prunus persica L., CULTIVAR CHIRIPÁ, EM ATMOSFERA CONTROLADA STORAGE OF CHIRIPA PEACH (Prunus persica L. IN CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Valmor Rombaldi

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Uma das principais alterações durante o armazenamento refrigerado de pêssegos é a ocorrência de lanosidade. No presente trabalho, foi estudado o efeito da atmosfera controlada sobre a conservação de pêssegos da cultivar Chiripá e, em particular, no controle de lanosidade. Os pêssegos foram colhidos com valores médios de firmeza de polpa (FP de 50N, 7cmo.L-1 de acidez total titulável (ATT, 13,8ºBrix de sólidos solúveis totais (SST e coloração de fundo verde-esbranquiçada. As frutas foram armazenadas em dois sistemas: 1 ar refrigerado (AR a 0ºC± 0,5ºC e 90± 5% de umidade relativa (UR; 2 atmosfera controlada (AC a 0ºC± 0,5ºC e 95± 2%UR, 1,5KPa de O2 e 5KPa de CO2. Na instalação do experimento, aos 30 dias e aos 45 dias, coletaram-se amostras para avaliações de FP, SST, ATT, ocorrência de lanosidade e de escurecimento interno, e análise sensorial. Estas análises foram realizadas 24 horas e 72 horas após a retirada das frutas das câmaras frias, em cujo período foram mantidas a 20ºC± 2ºC. A AC foi eficiente no controle de lanosidade, mantendo os pêssegos da cv. Chiripá em condições de comercialização por, no mínimo, 45 dias. Em AR este período foi inferior a 30 dias e ocorreram perdas significativas na qualidade das frutas.The woolly breakdown is one of the major disorders during cold storage of "Chiripá" peaches. In the present work the effects of controlled atmosphere (CA on peaches storability were studied, particularly in the control of woolliness. The peaches were harvested with 50N of pulp firmness (PF, 7cmo .L-1of total titratable acidity (TTA, 13,8ºBrix of total soluble solids (TSS and green-white ground color. Peaches were stored in two systems: 1 refrigerated air storage (RA at 0ºC± 0,5ºC and 90± 5% of relative humidity (RU or 2 controlled atmosphere (CA at 0ºC± 0,5ºC, 95± 2% of RU, 1,5KPa of O2 and 5kPa de CO2. At the installation of the experiment, 30 days after and 45 days after, samples were collected to evaluate PF, TTA, TSS, woolly breakdown, browning and for organoleptic analysis. These evaluations were done 24 and 72 hours after sampling. The results showed that CA is capable of reducing efficiently the woolliness and maintaining fruit quality for 45 days of storage. In RA this period was less than 30 days with significative losses in the quality.

  6. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of an antibacterial compound from Ferula persica var. persica roots

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    Ahmad-Reza Shahverdi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of the chloroform and water extracts of Ferula persica var. persica (Apiaceaeroots were studied by the disk diffusion method. While the chloroform extract of F. persica roots showed antibacterial activity, the water extract of the roots at the concentrations that tested did not show any activity. By bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform extract of the roots by preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC a compound was found which was active against some bacteria. By conventional spectroscopy methods the active fraction was identified as umbelliprenin. This coumarin was mostly active against B. subtillis, B. cereus, E. coli, K. ponumoniae, S. typhi, S. aureus, and S. epidermilis.

  7. Influence of Prunus spp., peach cultivars, and bark damage on oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, T E; Fuest, J; Horton, D L

    2008-12-01

    An examination of oviposition choices by the lesser peachtree borer, Synanthedon pictipes (Grote and Robinson) (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae), showed that wounded peach, Prunus persica (L.) Batsch, bark was attractive to females for oviposition. Females responded to bark that was injured mechanically (e.g., hammer blows, knife cuts, pruning wounds), infested by lesser peachtree borer larvae or injured by disease. In fact, there was no difference in female oviposition response to knife cut wounds and knife cut wounds infested with lesser peachtree borer larvae. Oviposition on wounded bark from three different high chill peach cultivars was similar and strongly suggests that the narrow genetic base of high chill peach cultivars grown in the southeastern United States has little inherent resistance to the lesser peachtree borer. In stark contrast, when provided different Prunus spp., i.e., exotic peach and the native species P. angustifolia and P. serotina, the exotic peach was highly preferred for oviposition by the native lesser peachtree borer.

  8. Carbohydrate-free peach (Prunus persica and plum (Prunus domestica juice affects fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model.

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    Giuliana D Noratto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Growing evidence shows the potential of nutritional interventions to treat obesity but most investigations have utilized non-digestible carbohydrates only. Peach and plum contain high amounts of polyphenols, compounds with demonstrated anti-obesity effects. The underlying process of successfully treating obesity using polyphenols may involve an alteration of the intestinal microbiota. However, this phenomenon is not well understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Obese Zucker rats were assigned to three groups (peach, plum, and control, n = 10 each, wild-type group was named lean (n = 10. Carbohydrates in the fruit juices were eliminated using enzymatic hydrolysis. Fecal samples were obtained after 11 weeks of fruit or control juice administration. Real-time PCR and 454-pyrosequencing were used to evaluate changes in fecal microbiota. Over 1,500 different Operational Taxonomic Units at 97% similarity were detected in all rats. Several bacterial groups (e.g. Lactobacillus and members of Ruminococcacea were found to be more abundant in the peach but especially in the plum group (plum juice contained 3 times more total polyphenolics compared to peach juice. Principal coordinate analysis based on Unifrac-based unweighted distance matrices revealed a distinct separation between the microbiota of control and treatment groups. These changes in fecal microbiota occurred simultaneously with differences in fecal short-chain acids concentrations between the control and treatment groups as well as a significant decrease in body weight in the plum group. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that consumption of carbohydrate-free peach and plum juice has the potential to modify fecal microbial ecology in an obese animal model. The separate contribution of polyphenols and non-polyphenols compounds (vitamins and minerals to the observed changes is unknown.

  9. Convergent evolution at the gametophytic self-incompatibility system in Malus and Prunus.

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    Bruno Aguiar

    Full Text Available S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI; tribe Pyreae, P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC; Amygdaleae, P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae, Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae, and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen.

  10. Convergent Evolution at the Gametophytic Self-Incompatibility System in Malus and Prunus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Ana E.; Fonseca, Nuno A.; Iezzoni, Amy; van Nocker, Steve; Vieira, Cristina P.

    2015-01-01

    S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) has evolved once before the split of the Asteridae and Rosidae. This conclusion is based on the phylogenetic history of the S-RNase that determines pistil specificity. In Rosaceae, molecular characterizations of Prunus species, and species from the tribe Pyreae (i.e., Malus, Pyrus, Sorbus) revealed different numbers of genes determining S-pollen specificity. In Prunus only one pistil and pollen gene determine GSI, while in Pyreae there is one pistil but multiple pollen genes, implying different specificity recognition mechanisms. It is thus conceivable that within Rosaceae the genes involved in GSI in the two lineages are not orthologous but possibly paralogous. To address this hypothesis we characterised the S-RNase lineage and S-pollen lineage genes present in the genomes of five Rosaceae species from three genera: M. × domestica (apple, self-incompatible (SI); tribe Pyreae), P. persica (peach, self-compatible (SC); Amygdaleae), P. mume (mei, SI; Amygdaleae), Fragaria vesca (strawberry, SC; Potentilleae), and F. nipponica (mori-ichigo, SI; Potentilleae). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Malus and Prunus S-RNase and S-pollen genes belong to distinct gene lineages, and that only Prunus S-RNase and SFB-lineage genes are present in Fragaria. Thus, S-RNase based GSI system of Malus evolved independently from the ancestral system of Rosaceae. Using expression patterns based on RNA-seq data, the ancestral S-RNase lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in pistils only, while the ancestral S-pollen lineage gene is inferred to be expressed in tissues other than pollen. PMID:25993016

  11. Prunus transcription factors: Breeding perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valmor João Bianchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Many plant processes depend on differential gene expression, which is generally controlled by complex proteins called transcription factors (TFs. In peach, 1,533 TFs have been identified, accounting for about 5.5% of the 27,852 protein-coding genes. These TFs are the reference for the rest of the Prunus species. TF studies in Prunus have been performed on the gene expression analysis of different agronomic traits, including control of the flowering process, fruit quality, and biotic and abiotic stress resistance. These studies, using quantitative RT-PCR, have mainly been performed in peach, and to a lesser extent in other species, including almond, apricot, black cherry, Fuji cherry, Japanese apricot, plum, and sour and sweet cherry. Other tools have also been used in TF studies, including cDNA-AFLP, LC-ESI-MS, RNA and DNA blotting or mapping. More recently, new tools assayed include microarray and high-throughput DNA sequencing (DNA-Seq and RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq. New functional genomics opportunities include genome resequencing and the well-known synteny among Prunus genomes and transcriptomes. These new functional studies should be applied in breeding programs in the development of molecular markers. With the genome sequences available, some strategies that have been used in model systems (such as SNP genotyping assays and genotyping-by-sequencing may be applicable in the functional analysis of Prunus TFs as well. In addition, the knowledge of the gene functions and position in the peach reference genome of the TFs represents an additional advantage. These facts could greatly facilitate the isolation of genes via QTL (quantitative trait loci map-based cloning in the different Prunus species, following the association of these TFs with the identified QTLs using the peach reference genome.

  12. Polar secondary metabolites of Ferula persica roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Mojarab, Mehdi; Sadeghian, Hamid; Hanafi-Bojd, Mohammad Yahya; Schneider, Bernd

    2008-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of the dried roots of Ferula persica resulted in four sesquiterpene coumarin glycosides, persicaosides A-D, and two known phytosterol glucosides, sitosterol 3-O-beta-glucoside and stigmasterol 3-O-beta-glucoside. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D-((1)H and (13)C) and 2D NMR experiments (DQF-COSY, HSQC, HMBC, and ROESY) as well as ESIMS and TOFMS analyses.

  13. Evaluation of Antioxidant Compounds and Total Sugar Content in a Nectarine [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] Progeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Gogorcena

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies suggest that consumption of fruit rich in phenolic compounds is associated with health-protective effects due to their antioxidant properties. For these reasons quality evaluation has become an important issue in fruit industry and in breeding programs. Phytochemical traits such as total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanins, L-ascorbic acid, sugar content and relative antioxidant capacity (RAC were analyzed over four years in flesh fruit of an F1 population “Venus” × “Big Top” nectarines. Other traits such as harvesting date, yield, fruit weight, firmness, soluble solids concentration (SSC, pH, titratable acidity (TA and ripening index (RI were also determined in the progeny. Results showed high variability among genotypes for all analyzed traits. Total phenolics and flavonoids showed significant positive correlations with RAC implying that both are important antioxidant bioactive compounds in peaches. We found genotypes with enhanced antioxidant capacity and a better performance than progenitors, and in consequence the best marketability.

  14. Response of early-peach [Prunus persica (L.)] trees to deficit irrigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrisqueta, I.; Tapia, L. M.; Conejero, W.; Sanchez-Toribio, M. I.; Abrisqueta, J. M.; Vera, J.; Ruiz-Sanchez, C.

    2010-07-01

    The effect of different irrigation strategies in water relations, vegetative growth and yield of early maturing peach trees, growing in Murcia, (Spain) was studied during two years. Treatments consisted on: a control T1, full irrigated (150% of ETc); T2, continuous deficit irrigation at 50% of ETc; T3, regulated deficit irrigation (RDI), irrigated at 100% of ETc only during stage III of fruit growth and 25% the rest of the growing season; and T4, with automatic control of irrigation based on capacitance FDR-type probe data, varying threshold values. The results indicated that irrigation deficits in T2 and T3 treatments induced the lowest soil water content and stem water potential(?stem) values during the post harvest period (e.g {psi}{sub s}tem up to -1.8 MPa in T3 during summer 2008); thus, a reduction in trunk growth and pruning weight, respect to control treatment values, was noted in both years. Also, peach yield was significantly reduced in both deficit irrigated treatments. The greatest irrigation water saving in T3 treatment (=60%) caused the higher water use efficiency values in this treatment. For these reasons, water deficit during the post harvest periods (extended in the early maturing varieties) must be limited if fruit yield is not to be reduced. Irrigation scheduling based on capacitance probes have become a useful tool in the control of soil water content. When threshold values were precisely defined, the slight water deficits limited only vegetative growth while maintaining similar peach yield to that of well irrigated trees. (Author) 31 refs.

  15. Modelling of Peach Tree (Prunus persica) Full Blooming Dates Using APCC MME Seasonal Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, Jong; Kim, Sung; Lee, Hyojin; Han, Hyun-Hee; Son, In-Chang; Cho, Kyung Hwa

    2016-04-01

    Due to global warming, recently, bud-burst and flowering dates of fruit crops have become earlier and the abnormal climate increases the variabilities of temperature in spring, suggesting that the risk of frost damage has increased. However, the full blooming date prediction model for peach tree used by the Rural Developmental Administration (RDA) were developed using only one cultivar (Youmyeong) and observations from a station (Suwon). This model might not adequately reflect the characteristics of peach cultivars or local orchards. the objectives of this study were to develops the site-and cultivar-specific blooming date prediction models for major peach cultivation regions and cultivars and presents a framework for applications of the APEC Climate Center Multimodel Ensemble (APCC MME) seasonal datasets.Developmental rate (DVR), and Sequential dormancy models (Chill day, New chill day, and fraction-time models) were used to develop the locally tailored full blooming date prediction models for major peach cultivars. For the development of these models, bud-burst and full blooming dates of peach tree for 5 cultivars (Cheonhong, Youmyeong, Changbangjosaeng, Cheonjoongdo, and Janghowon) were collected from the 6 major peach cultivation sites: Chuncheon, Suwon, Cheongwon, Cheongdo, Naju, and Jinju. For the chill day model, those measures for the entire dataset regardless the location and cultivar were 2.31%, 0.79, and 3.36 day for MAPE, R2, RMSE, respectively. For the new chill day model, those values (2.19%, 0.82, and 3.16 day for MAPE, R2, RMSE, respectively) were slightly better than those of the chill day model. The model results showed that the new chill day model was found slightly highest performance than others. Based on the considerations of the predictability of the statistical downscaling method and the observed periods of the full blooming dates at each site, we determined that the APCC MME seasonal datasets were applied for the new chill day model for the Changbangjosaeng and Youmyeong cultivars at the Suwon site. The values of the goodness-of-fit measures using the selected synthetic daily maximum and minimum temperatures reflecting APCC MME seasonal datasets and selected were worse than those using those collected from the Suwon station. It is concluded that further work was recommended that the predictability of APCC MME seasonal forecasts should be improved to reduce the prediction errors of full blooming dates of peach trees.

  16. Accumulated chilling hours during endodormancy impact blooming and fruit shape developmentin peach (Prunus persicaL.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yong; FANG Wei-chao; ZHU Geng-rui; CAO Ke; CHEN Chang-wen; WANG Xin-wei; WANG Li-rong

    2016-01-01

    Winter chil is essential for the growth and development of deciduous species. To understand the relationship between accumulated chiling hours during endodormancy and blooming and fruit shape development, we controled chiling hours and investigated their effects on blooming date and fruit shape of peaches. The results showed that the number of days to full bloom date and the heat requirement for blooming were negatively correlated with accumulated chilling hours. Accumulated chiling hours were signiifcantly negatively correlated with fruit shape index and fruit tip lengths, suggesting that the number of chiling hours affect the fruit shape development. Fewer accumulated chiling hours may be the major reason for longer fruit shape and protruding fruit tips. In conclusion, our results indicate speciifcaly that decreased winter chiling hours can delay the bloom date and may lead to aberrant fruit shape development in peaches. Our study provides preliminary insights into the response of temperate fruit species to global climate change.

  17. Effects of Fe deficiency chlorosis on yield and fruit quality in peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Fernández, Ana; Paniagua, Pilar; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación

    2003-09-10

    The effects of iron (Fe) deficiency on fruit yield and quality were measured in two peach cultivars, Carson (yellow-skin fruit) and Babygold (red-skin fruit). In both cultivars, Fe deficiency caused major decreases in fruit fresh weight per tree and number of fruits per tree. Fruits from Fe-deficient peach trees had a smaller size, resulting in a large decrease in the percentage of commercially acceptable fruits, whereas fruit firmness was unaffected. In cv. Babygold, Fe deficiency greatly decreased the red color of the fruit skin. Part of these results was likely associated with a delay in fruit ripening. When fruits with similar appearance were compared, taking into account fruit size, color, and firmness, Fe deficiency generally led to higher concentrations of organic anions (especially succinate and quinate), vitamin C, and phenolic compounds and to lower total sugar/total organic acid ratios. This could lead to decreased fruit eating quality and to a slight improvement in fruit nutritional value.

  18. Supercritical fluid extraction of peach (Prunus persica) almond oil: process yield and extract composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzomo, Natália; Mileo, Bruna R; Friedrich, Maria T; Martínez, Julian; Ferreira, Sandra R S

    2010-07-01

    Peach kernels are industrial residues from the peach processing, contain oil with important therapeutic properties and attractive nutritional aspects because of the high concentration of oleic and linoleic acids. The extraction method used to obtain natural compounds from raw matter is critical for product quality definition. Thus, the aim of this work was to compare peach almond extraction yields obtained by different procedures: soxhlet extractions (Sox) with different solvents; hydrodistillation (HD); ethanolic maceration (Mac) followed by fractionation with various solvents, and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) at 30, 40 and 50 degrees C and at 100, 200 and 300bar, performed with pure CO(2) and with a co-solvent. The extracts were evaluated with respect to fatty acid composition (FAC), fractionated chemical profile (FCP) and total phenolic content (TPC). The Sox total yields were generally higher than those obtained by SFE. The crossover pressure for SFE was between 260 and 280bar. The FAC results show oleic and linoleic acids as main components, especially for Sox and SFE extracts. The FCP for samples obtained by Sox and Mac indicated the presence of benzaldehyde and benzyl alcohol, components responsible for almond flavor and with important industrial uses, whereas the SFE extracts present a high content of a possible flavonoid. The higher TPC values were obtained by Sox and Mac with ethanol. In general, the maximum pressure in SFE produced the highest yield, TPC and oleic acid content. The use of ethanol at 5% as co-solvent in SFE did not result in a significant effect on any evaluated parameter. The production of peach almond oil through all techniques is substantially adequate and SFE presented advantages, with respect to the quality of the extracts due to the high oleic acid content, as presented by some Sox samples. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Host-correlated morphological variation of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margaritopoulos, J T; Tsitsipis, J A; Zintzaras, E; Blackman, R L

    2000-06-01

    Morphological variation in nine characters of 157 clones of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) was examined by multivariate analysis. The clones were collected from peach, Prunus persica, the primary host and the secondary hosts tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, cabbage, Brassica oleracea, sugarbeet, Beta vulgaris and pepper Capsicum annuum. The 156 clones originated from various regions of Greece, both in the north, where a large part of the population has an annual bisexual generation on peach, and in more southerly regions, where populations are predominantly unisexual. One clone was collected from tobacco in Caserta, Italy. All clones were laboratory-reared on potato. Canonical variate analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and a non-parametric classification tree method both revealed morphological differences associated with the host-plant on which they were collected. The scores of the first two canonical variates separated the tobacco-feeding clones from those originating from other secondary host-plants. However, in tobacco-growing areas the tobacco-feeding form predominated in spring populations on peach, and was sometimes found on other secondary hosts. In addition, using cluster analysis, the clones from tobacco which were sampled in the most southeasterly region showed a relatively large phenotypic distance from those collected further north and west. Moreover, clonal phenotypes were affected both by host plant and by long-term parthenogenetic rearing. However, in spite of these effects, the tobacco form was generally distinguishable from aphids originating from other hosts, indicating that the difference must have a genetic basis. In separate analyses of the clones originating from secondary hosts no association was found between morphology and either life cycle category or colour. Discriminant analysis showed that 89% of 1723 specimens could be correctly classified into the two groups.

  20. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-growing areas in South Africa. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S rDNA, ITS-1, ITS-2 and EF-1a) were used to identify known members and describe novel members of Botryosphaeriaceae. From the total number of wood samples collected (258) 67 isolates of Botryosphaeriaceae were obtained, from which eight species were identified. All species were associated with wood necrosis. Diplodia seriata (= "Botryosphaeria" obtusa) was dominant, and present on all four Prunus species sampled, followed by Neofusicoccum vitifusiforme and N. australe. First reports from Prunus spp. include N. vitifusiforme, Dothiorella viticola and Diplodia pinea. This is also the first report of D. mutila from South Africa. Two species are newly described, namely Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov. from P. salicina and Diplodia africana sp. nov. from P. persica. All species, except Dothiorella viticola, caused lesions on green nectarine and/or plum shoots in a detached shoot pathogenicity assay.

  1. Genetic relationships between diploid and allotetraploid cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus x gondouinii and Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavaud, M; Zanetto, A; David, J L; Laigret, F; Dirlewanger, E

    2004-12-01

    Prunus avium L. (diploid, AA, 2n=2x=16), Prunus cerasus L. (allotetraploid, AAFF, 2n=4x=32) species, and their hybrid Prunus x gondouinii Rehd., constitute the most widely cultivated cherry tree species. P. cerasus is supposed to be an hybrid species produced by the union of unreduced P. avium gametes and normal P. fruticosa gametes. A continuum of morphological traits between these three species makes their assignation difficult. The aim of this paper is to study the genetic relationships between tetraploid and diploid cherry species. In all, 114 genotypes belonging to these species were analyzed using 75 AFLP markers. The coordinates of these genotypes on the first axis of a correspondence analysis allowed us to clearly distinguish each species, to identify misclassifications and to assign unknown genotypes to one species. We showed that there are specific alleles in P. cerasus, which are not present in the A genome of P. avium and which probably come from the F genome of P. cerasus. The frequencies of each marker in the A and the F genomes were estimated in order to identify A and F specific markers. We discuss the utility of these specific markers for finding the origin of the A and F genomes in the allopolyploid species.

  2. Determinación del consumo de agua del duraznero por lisimetría Determination of water use in peach trees with a lysimeter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Puppo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En el año 2004 se instaló un lisímetro de compensación de 2 x 2 x 0,80 m con capa freática constante en un monte de durazneros, con el objetivo de estudiar el consumo de agua de ese cultivo en la región sur del Uruguay. Las mediciones se hicieron en las tres primeras temporadas de crecimiento. El consumo en la primera temporada alcanzó valores de 5 mm d-1, equivalente a 56 L en el marco de plantación. En la segunda temporada llegó a 6 mm d-1 (68 L, aunque alcanzó valores extremos de más de 7 mm d-1. Cuando el árbol alcanzó su tamaño adulto, el consumo máximo se mantuvo alrededor de los 6 mm d-1, aunque este valor se alcanzó más temprano que en la temporada anterior. Este adelanto se correspondió con un mayor índice de área foliar (IAF. El coeficiente de cultivo (Kc fue de alrededor de 1,2 en la primera temporada, y de 1,4 en las dos siguientes. Se calcularon los coeficientes de base (Kcb y su valor se ajustó por el modelo tri-segmentado. Su valor fue de 0,91 en la primera temporada, 1,04 en la segunda y 1,20 en la tercera. Se hacen algunas observaciones metodológicas sobre el uso de este lisímetro, proponiéndose incorporar la variación de agua en el suelo a la ecuación de balance de volúmenes y se propone adicionar riego desde la superficie.A compensation lysimeter with constant freatic water table of 2 x 2 x 0.80 m was installed in 2004 in a peach grove, in order to study the crop water consumption in the south of Uruguay. Measurements were taken in the first three growing seasons. Evapotranspiration at the first season reached 5 mm d-1, equivalent to 56 L in the whole area. In the second season, it went up to 6 mm d-1 (68 L, reaching extreme values of 7 mm d-1 and more. When the tree reached its adult size, the maximum consumption remained around 6 mm d-1, although this value was reached earlier than the season before. This early behavior came together with higher leaf area index (LAI. The crop coefficient (Kc was

  3. Respuesta del duraznero a diferentes patrones de aplicación del agua Peach trees response to different water application patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Morales

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento durante tres años (2004/05 a 2006/07 sobre un monte de duraznero recién implantado en el sur de Uruguay. Se aplicaron cinco tratamientos de riego: secano (T1, goteros de 1,6 L h-1 a 0,4 m (T2, goteros de 4 L h-1 a 1 m (T3, microjets de 21 L h-1 a 5 m (T4 y goteros de 2 L h-1 a 1 m, dos líneas por fila (T5, en un diseño experimental en cuadro latino. Las parcelas eran de siete plantas en un marco de plantación de 2,5 x 4,5 m. En todos los tratamientos con riego se aplicó la misma dosis de agua, de forma de cubrir el 100% de la ETc. El porcentaje de volumen de suelo mojado fue de 16, 18, 22 y 44% para los tratamientos T2, T3, T4 y T5 respectivamente. En las variables peso de poda, potencial hídrico foliar y xilemático, conductancia estomática, crecimiento de frutos, rendimiento y tamaño promedio de los frutos, los tratamientos que recibieron riego no se diferenciaron estadísticamente entre sí, pero todos presentaron valores significativamente superiores al secano (p An experiment was carried out for three years (2004/05 to 2006/07 on a just implanted peach grove, in the south of Uruguay. Five irrigation treatments were applied: without irrigation (T1, drippers of 1.6 L h-1 at 0.4 m (T2, drippers of 4 L h-1 at 1 m (T3, microjets of 21 L h-1 at 5 m (T4 and drippers of 2 L h-1 at 1 m, two lines by row (T5, following a Latin square experimental design. The experimental plots had seven trees in a plantation frame of 2.5 x 4.5 m. In all treatments with irrigation, the same water dose was applied, in order to fulfill 100% of the ETc. The percentage of wetted soil volume was 16, 18, 22 and 44% for treatments T2, T3, T4 and T5 respectively. Regarding variables, prune weight, foliar and xilematic water potential, stomata conductance, fruit growth, yield and average size of the fruits, the treatments with irrigation were not statistically different, but all of them were significantly different from the treatment without

  4. Taxonomy Icon Data: peach [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available g Prunus_persica_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus...+persica&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Prunus+persica&t=NS ...

  5. Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methylene blue (cationic dye) adsorption into Salvadora persica stems ash. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT ... Abstract. Methylene blue (MB) is the most commonly used substance for dyeing cotton, wood and silk.

  6. A fruit quality gene map of Prunus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ogundiwin, Ebenezer A; Peace, Cameron P; Gradziel, Thomas M; Parfitt, Dan E; Bliss, Fredrick A; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2009-01-01

    ... to marketing and consumption. Here we present an integrated fruit quality gene map of Prunus containing 133 genes putatively involved in the determination of fruit texture, pigmentation, flavor, and chilling injury resistance...

  7. Authenticity assessment of gamma- and delta-decalactone from prunus fruits by gas chromatography combustion/pyrolysis isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C/P-IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Hirotoshi; Appel, Markus; Richling, Elke; Schreier, Peter

    2005-06-29

    Authenticity assessment of gamma-decalactone (1) and delta-decalactone (2) from peach (Prunus persica var. persica), apricot (Prunus armeniaca), and nectarine (Prunus persica var. nectarina) was performed using gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) in the combustion (C) and pyrolysis (P) mode. In addition, commercially available synthetic (nature-identical) 1 and 2 as well as biotechnologically produced samples (declared to be "natural") were characterized by their delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) and delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) values. For the Prunus fruits under study, rather narrow ranges of delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data of 1, varying from - 34.6 per thousand to - 38.4 per thousand and -160 per thousand to -206 per thousand, respectively, were obtained. Synthetic references of 1 showed delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data ranging from -27.4 per thousand to -28.3 per thousand and -151 per thousand to -184 per thousand, respectively. Samples of 1 declared to be "natural" exhibited ranges from -28.1 per thousand to -29.2 per thousand and -192 per thousand to -286 per thousand for delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW), respectively. For 2 from peach, apricot, and nectarine, delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) values ranging from -34.0 per thousand to -37.9 per thousand were determined; the delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) values ranged from -171 per thousand to -228 per thousand. The delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data for synthetic 2 were -28.2 per thousand and -171 per thousand, respectively, that is, similar to those of 2 from "natural" origin, ranging from -27.7 per thousand to -30.1 per thousand and -185 per thousand to -230 per thousand for delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW), respectively. GC-C/P-IRMS allowed clear-cut analytical differentiation of the synthetic and "ex-plant" origin of 1 and 2, whereas narrow ranges of delta(13)C(V)(-)(PDB) and delta(2)H(V)(-)(SMOW) data were found for samples of

  8. Bioactivity of Centaurea persica boiss. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarker Satyajit D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The free-radical-scavenging property, antibacterial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of petroleum ether (PE, dichloromethane (DCM and methanol (MeOH extracts of Centaurea persica, a Turkish medicinal plant, were assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay, the resazurin microtiter plate based assay, and the brine shrimp lethality assay, respectively. Additionally, the disc diffusion assay was also used to assess antibacterial activity. Only the MeOH extract of C. persica exhibited a significant free-radical-scavenging property in the DPPH assay, with an RC50 value of 0.025 mg/mL. However, in the TLC-based qualitative assay, petroleum ether and DCM extracts showed an extremely low level of free-radical-scavenging property. Among the solid-phase extraction fractions of the MeOH extract, the fractions eluted with 60% and 80% MeOH in water exhibited the highest level of free-radicalscavenging activity (RC50 = 0.010 and 0.015 mg/mL, respectively. While DCM extract showed reasonable antibacterial activity against five out of the nine test strains both in the disc diffusion assay and in the resazurin assay, the MeOH extract was highly active against both Escherichia coli and ampicillin-resistant E. coli strains. Among the solid-phase extraction fractions of the MeOH extract, fractions eluted with 80% MeOH in water and 100% MeOH displayed significant antibacterial potencies against both E. coli species. None of the extracts showed any significant toxicity towards brine shrimps (LD50 = >1.00 mg/mL.

  9. Arsenic Removal from Aqueous Solutions by Salvadora persica Stem Ash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdos Kord Mostafapour

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring metalloid, which is widely distributed in nature and is regarded as the largest mass poisoning in history. In the present study, the adsorption potential of Salvadora persica (S. persica stem ash in a batch system for the removal of As(V from aqueous solutions was investigated. Isotherm studies were carried out to evaluate the effect of contact time (20–240 min, pH (2–11, initial arsenic concentration (50–500 μg/L, and adsorbent dose on sorption efficiency. Maximum removal efficiency of 98.33% and 99.32% was obtained at pH 6, adsorbent dosage 3.5 g/L, initial As(V concentration 500 μg/L, and contact time 80 and 60 min for S. persica stem ash at 300 °C and 500 °C, respectively. Also, the adsorption equilibriums were analyzed by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Such equilibriums showed that the adsorption data was well fitted with the Freundlich isotherm model for S. persica stem ash at both 300 °C and 500 °C (R2=0.8983 and 0.9274, resp.. According to achieved results, it was defined that S. persica stem ash can be used effectively for As(V removal from the aqueous environment.

  10. Using Perls Staining to Trace the Iron Uptake Pathway in Leaves of a Prunus Rootstock Treated with Iron Foliar Fertilizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Juan J; Carrasco-Gil, Sandra; Abadía, Anunciación; Abadía, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves of Prunus rootstock (GF 677; Prunus dulcis × Prunus persica) plants treated with foliar Fe compounds using the Perls blue method, which detects labile Fe pools. Young expanded leaves of Fe-deficient plants grown in nutrient solution were treated with Fe-compounds using a brush. Iron compounds used were the ferrous salt FeSO4, the ferric salts Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3, and the chelate Fe(III)-EDTA, all of them at concentrations of 9 mM Fe. Leaf Fe concentration increases were measured at 30, 60, 90 min, and 24 h, and 70 μm-thick leaf transversal sections were obtained with a vibrating microtome and stained with Perls blue. In vitro results show that the Perls blue method is a good tool to trace the Fe uptake pathway in leaves when using Fe salts, but is not sensitive enough when using synthetic Fe(III)-chelates such as Fe(III)-EDTA and Fe(III)-IDHA. Foliar Fe fertilization increased leaf Fe concentrations with all Fe compounds used, with inorganic Fe salts causing larger leaf Fe concentration increases than Fe(III)-EDTA. Results show that Perls blue stain appeared within 30 min in the stomatal areas, indicating that Fe applied as inorganic salts was taken up rapidly via stomata. In the case of using FeSO4 a progression of the stain was seen with time toward vascular areas in the leaf blade and the central vein, whereas in the case of Fe(III) salts the stain mainly remained in the stomatal areas. Perls stain was never observed in the mesophyll areas, possibly due to the low concentration of labile Fe pools.

  11. Characterization of microsatellites in wild and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)--markers for individual identification and reproductive processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueler, Silvio; Tusch, Alexandra; Schuster, Mirko; Ziegenhagen, Birgit

    2003-02-01

    Nuclear microsatellites were characterized in Prunus avium and validated as markers for individual and cultivar identification, as well as for studies of pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. We used 20 primer pairs from a simple sequence repeat (SSR) library of Prunus persica and identified 7 loci harboring polymorphic microsatellite sequences in P. avium. In a natural population of 75 wild cherry trees, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 9 and expected heterozygosity from 0.39 to 0.77. The variability of the SSR markers allowed an unambiguous identification of individual trees and potential root suckers. Additionally, we analyzed 13 sweet cherry cultivars and differentiated 12 of them. An exclusion probability of 0.984 was calculated, which indicates that the seven loci are suitable markers for paternity analysis. The woody endocarp was successfully used for resolution of all microsatellite loci and exhibited the same multilocus genotype as the mother tree, as shown in a single seed progeny. Hence, SSR fingerprinting of the purely maternal endocarp was also successful in this Prunus species, allowing the identification of the mother tree of the dispersed seeds. The linkage of microsatellite loci with PCR-amplified alleles of the self-incompatibility locus was tested in two full-sib families of sweet cherry cultivars. From low recombination frequencies, we inferred that two loci are linked with the S locus. The present study provides markers that will significantly facilitate studies of spatial genetic variation and gene flow in wild cherry, as well as breeding programs in sweet cherry.

  12. Apoptosis induction of Persicae Semen extract in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hee-Young; Hong, Seon-Pyo; Hahn, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Jeong Hee

    2003-02-01

    The major ingredient of Persicae Semen is a cynogenic compound, amygdalin (D-mandelonitrile-beta-gentiobioside). Controversial results on the anticancer activity of amygdalin were reported due to its conversion to its inactive isomer, neoamygdalin. In order to inhibit the epimerization of amygdalin, we used newly developed simple acid boiling method in preparation of Persicae Semen extract. HPLC analysis revealed most of amygdalin in Persicae Semen extract was active D-form. Persicae Semen extract was used to analyze its effect on cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in human promyelocytic leukemia (HL-60) cells. Persicae Semen extract was cytotoxic to HL-60 cells with IC50 of 6.4 mg/mL in the presence of 250 nM of beta-glucosidase. The antiproliferative effects of Persicae Semen extract appear to be attributable to its induction of apoptotic cell death, as Persicae Semen extract induced nuclear morphology changes and internucleosomal DNA fragmentation.

  13. Investigation on the pollen morphology of traditional cultivars of Prunus species in Sicily

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    Anna Geraci

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study pollen grains of 13 cultivars and 3 rootstocks belonging to 5 species (P. armeniaca, P. domestica, P. dulcis, P. persica, P. avium of the genus Prunus collected from North-East Sicily were examined for the micromorphological characterization through the scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The length of polar axis (P and the equatorial diameter (E of grain, P/E ratio, the length of colpi (C, diameter of perforations (DP and the number of perforations in 25 μm2 (PN, the width of muri (WM, the distance between muri (DM and their number in 25 μm2 (MN, the width of grooves (WG were measured and their variation was compared among studied taxa. Moreover multivariate statistical analysis was carried out to distinguish morphometric information from measured parameters. All pollen grains are trizonocolpate, isopolar, medium-large sized and their shape varies from prolate to perprolate. Regarding outline pollen grains are subtriangular in polar view and elliptic in equatorial view. Exine sculpturing is striate with perforations on grain surface. The arrangement of ridges appears roughly parallel but too sloped (sometimes curved compared to polar axis, or branched and oriented in different directions, or perfectly parallel or more irregular with bifurcated ridges often sinuous. The analyses showed a great variability (particularly in P. domestica cultivars related in some cases to the diversity in the morphological features of the leaves and the fruits of the investigated entities.

  14. Influência do ácido indolbutírico e ethefon no enraizamento de estacas de pessegueiro (Prunus persica (L. Batsch Influence of indolebutyric acid and ethephon on rooting of cuttings of peach (Prunus persica (L. Batsch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adilson Tonietto

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Faculdade de Agronomia Eliseu Maciel, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, em estufa com nebulização intermitente, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito do ácido indolbutírico(AIB e ethefon (ácido 2-cloroetil fosfônico no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de pessegueiro. Utilizou-se estacas medianas retiradas de ramos de plantas com seis anos de idade, da cultivar Diamante, com comprimento de 15cm. Efetuou-se duas lesões laterais na base das estacas que foram tratadas com ácido indolbutírico nas concentrações 0; 1000; 2000 e 3000ppm, na forma líquida e, ethefon nas concentrações de 0; 50; 100 e 150ppm. Após a imersão de 5 segundos, acondicionou-se as estacas em sacos de polietileno contendo como substrato a mistura de areia+cinza (2:1 v/v. Pelos resultados obtidos concluiu-se que o ácido indolbutírico aumentou o percentual de estacas realizadas até a concentração de 1752ppm. e o número de raízes até a concentração de 1791ppm. O ethefon não apresentou resultados significativos na forma e concentração utilizadas.This work was conducted at the Plant Science Departament Eliseu Maciel Agronomy College of Federal University of Pelotas, in greenhouse with intermitent mist, aiming to evaluate the effect of indolebutyric acid and ethephon (2-chloroetyl phosphonic acid on peach hranch cutting rooting. Median cuttings with 15cm length removed from Diamante cultivar branch were used. Two lateral lesions were made on cutting basis and they were treated with indolebutyric acid in liquid at 0; 1000; 2000; and 3000ppm concentrations and ethefon at 0; 50; 100 and 150ppm concentrations. The immersion time was five seconds and the cuttings were packed in polietylene sacks containing a mixture of sand and rice husk ash substrate (2:1 v/v. Results showed that the indolebutyric acid increased the rooted cuttings percentage up to 1752ppm concentration and the number of roots until 1791ppm concentration. The ethephon did not show significant variation for the form and concentrations used.

  15. Comportamento do pessegueiro (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. Chimarrita em diferentes sistemas de condução Behavior of the peach tree (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv. Chimarrita in different training systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clevison Luiz Giacobbo

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available A persicultura, no Brasil, é praticada há bastante tempo, porém poucos estudos foram realizados visando alternativas de manejo nos pomares para aumento de produtividade. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento anual do diâmetro do tronco e produção nos terceiro e quarto anos, em pessegueiro cv. Chimarrita, enxertado sobre o porta-enxerto Capdeboscq. Foram avaliados quatro sistemas de condução: I - espaçamento de 0,5 m entre plantas, conduzido em 'Áxis colunar'; II e III - 1,0 m e 2,0 m, respectivamente, conduzidos em 'Y' e IV - 4,0 m em 'Vaso' (sistema tradicional. Entre as linhas de plantio o espaçamento foi constante de 5,0 m para todos os sistemas de condução. O pomar foi implantado em julho de 1997 na Fazenda experimental do Centro Agropecuário da Palma, propriedade da Universidade Federal de Pelotas, localizada no município de Capão do Leão, RS. Avaliou-se a taxa de crescimento anual do diâmetro do tronco, produtividade, qualidade físico-química das frutas e ocorrência de podridão parda. Os resultados obtidos na taxa de crescimento foram semelhantes em ambos os anos, porém observou-se maior incremento relativo no período 2000/2001, no sistema de condução I. A produtividade foi superior no sistema I e II diferindo do sistema IV, no entanto, a qualidade físico-química e a ocorrência de podridão parda foram semelhantes em todos os sistemas.The peach culture has been practiced for a long time in Brazil but a few studies were performed aiming to define choices of orchard management for increasing productivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate fruit production and annual growth rate of the trunk diameter in the third and fourth year after planting of peach-trees cv. "Chimarrita" on Capdeboscq rootstock. Four training systems were evaluated, as follow: I -spacing of 0,5 m among plants trained as "columnar axis"; II and III - spacing of 1 and 2 m, respectively trained as an "Y shape" and IV - 4,0 m as an "open vase" (traditional system. The space between tree rows was steady in 5,0 m for all the training systems. The orchard was implanted in July 1997 in the Experimental Farm of Centro Agropecuário da Palma, Universidade Federal de Pelotas located in a rural district of Capão do Leão, RS. The annual growth rate of the trunk diameter, productivity, physicochemical quality of fruits and rottenness occurrence were evaluated. The trunk rate was similar in both years, but a greater relative increasing was observed in 2000/2001 period for training system I. The productivity was higher in system I and II differing from the IV system, nonetheless the physicochemical quality and rottenness occurrence were similar in all systems.

  16. Cianamida hidrogenada no raleio químico de flores e frutos de pessegueiros (Prunus persica, L. Batsch cv. Eldorado Hydrogen cyanamide on chemical thinning of peach-tree (Prunus persica, L. Batsch Flowers and fruits of Eldorado cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Couto Rodrigues

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da cianamida hidrogenada (CH2N2 no raleio de flores e frutos de pessegueiros do cultivar Eldorado. Utilizaram-se plantas com idade de 6 anos, conduzidas sob a forma de vaso e espaçamento de 6,0 x 4,0m, localizadas no Centro Agropecuário da Palma - UFPel. Os tratamentos (0; 0,15; 0,3; 0,45 e 0,6% de CH2N2 foram pulverizados em cobertura sobre ramos selecionados aleatoriamente, até o início de gotejamento, quando 100% das flores encontravam-se totalmente abertas. O produto comercial utilizado foi o Dormex (52% de CH2N2. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. As variáveis avaliadas foram: percentual de flores raleadas 36 dias após a aplicação do produto e percentual de frutos raleados, peso médio, coloração, diâmetro, firmeza da polpa e sólidos solúveis totais por ocasião da colheita. A maior intensidade de raleio de flores (50,96% foi obtida com utilização de 0,5% de CH2N2. Na percentagem de frutos raleados, observou-se valor máximo de 9,53%, utilizando-se CH2N2 a 0,6%. O peso dos frutos aumentou com o raleio químico, porém, este não interferiu nos sólidos solúveis totais, firmeza de polpa e índice de cor dos frutos.The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of hydrogen cyanamide (CH2N2 on the chemical thinning of peach-tree flowers and fruits of Eldorado cultivar. Six-year plants localized at Agricultural Center of Palma - UFPel were used and conducted in vase with spacing of 6.0 x 4.0m. Treatments with 0, 0.15, 0.3, 0.45 and 0.6% of CH2N2 were sprayed on randomly selected shoots until drip point, when 100% of the flowers were totally blown. Dormex (52% of hydrogen cyanamide was the commercial chemical used. A completely randomized experimental design was used, with three replications. Percentage of flowers thinned 36 days after chemical application and percentage of thinned fruits, mean fruit weight, color, diameter, flesh firmness and total soluble solids at harvest time were evaluated. It was observed statistical difference among treatments on the thinning of flowers. The use of CH2N2 0.5% showed high intensity of thinning (50,96%. Differences were also observed for the percentage of thinned fruits, however, the highest thinning was reached at 9.53% of CH2N2 0.6%. Fruit weight increased with chemical thinning, however, no changes in total soluble solids, color and fruit flesh firmness were observed.

  17. Antibacterial efficacy of Salvadora persica as a cleansing teeth towards Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli colonies

    OpenAIRE

    Erlina Sih Mahanani; Mohd Fadhli Khamis; Erry Mochamad Arief; Siti Nabilah Mat Rippin; Zainul Ahmad Rajion

    2012-01-01

    Background: Salvadora persica is a traditional chewing stick for cleaning teeth that it is known Siwak. Several studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial effects of Salvadora persica. Purpose: This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of Salvadora persica in several modified preparation against the salivary Streptoccocus mutans and Lactobacilli. Methods: A single-blind, randomized clinical trial study with crossover design was used. The study comprised of 5 groups, per group consist...

  18. Gamma irradiation induced enhancement of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and antioxidant activity in peach (Prunus persica Bausch, Cv. Elberta)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, Peerzada R., E-mail: hussainpr@rediffmail.co [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar 190006, Kashmir (India); Wani, Ali M.; Meena, Raghuveer S.; Dar, Mohd A. [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar 190006, Kashmir (India)

    2010-09-15

    Effect of medium dose gamma irradiation on PAL and antioxidant activity of peach fruit was investigated. Peach fruit after harvest at commercial maturity was irradiated in the dose range 1.0-2.0 kGy, stored under refrigerated conditions (3{+-}1 {sup o}C, RH 80%) and evaluated at intervals of 7 days. The antioxidant activity as determined by DPPH and FRAP methods revealed significant (p{<=}0.05) increase particularly in the dose range 1.6-2.0 kGy. During storage, maximum increase in both PAL and antioxidant activity was observed after 21 days. Positive correlation (r=0.75) existed between antioxidant activity and total phenols. EC{sub 50} values as obtained from DPPH and FRAP experiments were significantly (p{<=}0.05) lower in irradiated fruits compared to control.

  19. Transcriptomic analysis of fruit stored under cold conditions using controlled atmosphere in Prunus persica cv. “Red Pearl”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Dayan; Vizoso, Paula; Balic, Iván; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Meneses, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Cold storage (CS) can induce a physiological disorder known as chilling injury (CI) in nectarine fruits. The main symptom is mealiness that is perceived as non-juicy fruit by consumers. Postharvest treatments such as controlled atmosphere (CA; a high CO2 concentration and low O2) have been used under cold conditions to avoid this disorder. With the objective of exploring the mechanisms involved in the CA effect on mealiness prevention, we analyzed transcriptomic changes under six conditions of “Red Pearl” nectarines by RNA-Seq. Our analysis included just harvested nectarines, juicy non-stored fruits, fruits affected for CI after CS and fruits stored in a combination of CA plus CS without CI phenotype. Nectarines stored in cold conditions combined with CA treatment resulted in less mealiness; we obtained 21.6% of juice content compared with just CS fruits (7.7%; mealy flesh). RNA-Seq data analyses were carried out to study the gene expression for different conditions assayed. During ripening, we detected that nectarines exposed to CA treatment expressed a similar number of genes compared with fruits that were not exposed to cold conditions. Firm fruits have more differentially expressed genes than soft fruits, which suggest that most important changes occur during CS. On the other hand, gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment mainly in metabolic and cellular processes. Differentially expressed genes analysis showed that low O2 concentrations combined with cold conditions slows the metabolic processes more than just the cold storage, resulting mainly in the suppression of primary metabolism and cold stress response. This is a significant step toward unraveling the molecular mechanism that explains the effectiveness of CA as a tool to prevent CI development on fruits. PMID:26483806

  20. Transcriptomic analysis of fruit stored under cold conditions using controlled atmosphere in Prunus persica cv. "Red Pearl".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanhueza, Dayan; Vizoso, Paula; Balic, Iván; Campos-Vargas, Reinaldo; Meneses, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Cold storage (CS) can induce a physiological disorder known as chilling injury (CI) in nectarine fruits. The main symptom is mealiness that is perceived as non-juicy fruit by consumers. Postharvest treatments such as controlled atmosphere (CA; a high CO2 concentration and low O2) have been used under cold conditions to avoid this disorder. With the objective of exploring the mechanisms involved in the CA effect on mealiness prevention, we analyzed transcriptomic changes under six conditions of "Red Pearl" nectarines by RNA-Seq. Our analysis included just harvested nectarines, juicy non-stored fruits, fruits affected for CI after CS and fruits stored in a combination of CA plus CS without CI phenotype. Nectarines stored in cold conditions combined with CA treatment resulted in less mealiness; we obtained 21.6% of juice content compared with just CS fruits (7.7%; mealy flesh). RNA-Seq data analyses were carried out to study the gene expression for different conditions assayed. During ripening, we detected that nectarines exposed to CA treatment expressed a similar number of genes compared with fruits that were not exposed to cold conditions. Firm fruits have more differentially expressed genes than soft fruits, which suggest that most important changes occur during CS. On the other hand, gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment mainly in metabolic and cellular processes. Differentially expressed genes analysis showed that low O2 concentrations combined with cold conditions slows the metabolic processes more than just the cold storage, resulting mainly in the suppression of primary metabolism and cold stress response. This is a significant step toward unraveling the molecular mechanism that explains the effectiveness of CA as a tool to prevent CI development on fruits.

  1. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.

  2. Sugar Profile of Kernels as a Marker of Origin and Ripening Time of Peach (Prunus persicae L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojević, Marija; Trifković, Jelena; Akšić, Milica Fotirić; Rakonjac, Vera; Nikolić, Dragan; Šegan, Sandra; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka

    2015-12-01

    Large amounts of fruit seeds, especially peach, are discarded annually in juice or conserve producing industries which is a potential waste of valuable resource and serious disposal problem. Regarding the fact that peach seeds can be obtained as a byproduct from processing companies their exploitation should be greater and, consequently more information of cultivars' kernels and their composition is required. A total of 25 samples of kernels from various peach germplasm (including commercial cultivars, perspective hybrids and vineyard peach accessions) differing in origin and ripening time were characterized by evaluation of their sugar composition. Twenty characteristic carbohydrates and sugar alcohols were determined and quantified using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC/PAD). Sucrose, glucose and fructose are the most important sugars in peach kernels similar to other representatives of the Rosaceae family. Also, high amounts of sugars in seeds of promising hybrids implies that through conventional breeding programs peach kernels with high sugar content can be obtained. In addition, by the means of several pattern recognition methods the variables that discriminate peach kernels arising from diverse germplasm and different stage of maturity were identified and successful models for further prediction were developed. Sugars such as ribose, trehalose, arabinose, galactitol, fructose, maltose, sorbitol, sucrose, iso-maltotriose were marked as most important for such discrimination.

  3. Acyl-CoA oxidase 1 is involved in γ-decalactone release from peach (Prunus persica) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liping; Li, Haiyan; Gao, Ling; Qi, Yujie; Fu, Wanyi; Li, Xiongwei; Zhou, Xiang; Gao, Qikang; Gao, Zhongshan; Jia, Huijuan

    2017-06-01

    γ-Decalactone accumulation in peach mesocarp was highly correlated with ACX enzyme activity and natural PpACX1 content. Adding the purified recombinant PpACX1 induced γ-decalactone biosynthesis in cultured mesocarp discs in vitro. Previous gene expression studies have implied that acyl coenzyme A oxidase (ACX) is related to lactones synthesis, the characteristic aroma compounds of peach. Here, we analysed the correlation between γ-decalactone content and ACX enzyme activity in mesocarp of five different types of fully ripe peach varieties. Furthermore, 'Hu Jing Mi Lu' ('HJ') and 'Feng Hua Yu Lu' ('YL'), which have strong aroma among them, at four ripening stages were selected to study the role of ACX in lactone biosynthesis. The result showed that γ-decalactone was the most abundant lactone compound. γ-Decalactone accumulation was highly correlated with ACX enzyme activity. Mass spectrometry (MS) showed that PpACX1 was the most abundant PpACX protein in fully ripe mesocarp of cv. 'HJ'. To further elucidate the function of the PpACX1 protein, the PpACX1 gene was heterologously expressed in a bacterial system and characterized in vitro. MS identification gave the molecular weight of the recombinant PpACX1 as 94.44 kDa and the coverage rate of the peptide segments was 47.3%. In cultured mesocarp discs in vitro, adding the purified recombinant PpACX1 and C16-CoA substrate induced the expected γ-decalactone biosynthesis. Using a sandwich ELISA based on mixed mono- and polyclonal antibodies against recombinant PpACX1, PpACX1 content in mesocarp was found to be highly correlated with γ-decalactone accumulation in mesocarp of five fully ripe varieties and four ripening stages of 'HJ' and 'YL'. This study revealed the vital function of PpACX1 in γ-decalactone biosynthesis in peach fruit.

  4. Gene regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in two blood-flesh peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) cultivars during fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Yun; Ma, Rui-juan; Shen, Zhi-jun; Yan, Juan; Yu, Ming-liang

    2014-09-01

    The blood-flesh peach has become popular in China due to its attractive anthocyanin-induced pigmentation and antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying anthocyanin accumulation by examining the expression of nine genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway found in the peach mesocarp. Expression was measured at six developmental stages in fruit of two blood-flesh and one white-flesh peach cultivars, using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results show that the expression of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene was closely related to anthocyanin accumulation in both of the blood-flesh peaches. In the white-flesh peach, we found that the transcription level of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) during fruit development was much lower than that in the blood-flesh peach, even though all other genes of the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were highly expressed, suggesting that the PAL gene may be limiting in anthocyanin production in the white-flesh peach. Moreover, the transcription levels of the CHS and UDP-glucose-flavonoid 3-O-glucosyltransferase (UFGT) genes were markedly up-regulated at three days after bag removal (DABR) in the blood-flesh peach, suggesting that CHS and UFGT are the key genes in the process of anthocyanin biosynthesis for both of the blood-flesh peaches. The present study will be of great help in improving understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in anthocyanin accumulation in blood-flesh peaches.

  5. Studies on enhancing the keeping quality of peach (Prunus persica Bausch) Cv. Elberta by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, P.R.; Meena, R.S.; Dar, M.A. [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar-190006 (India); Wani, A.M. [Nuclear Research Laboratory, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Zakura, Srinagar-190006 (India)], E-mail: alimwani@yahoo.co.uk

    2008-04-15

    The effect of gamma-irradiation on keeping quality of peach fruit was studied. The fruit, after harvesting at proper maturity stage, was irradiated in the dose range of 1.0-2.0 kGy, stored under ambient (temp. 25{+-}2 deg. C, RH 70%) and refrigerated (temp. 3{+-}1 deg. C, RH 80%) conditions and evaluated periodically for firmness, total soluble solids (TSS), anthocyanins, water-soluble pectic fractions, loss in weight and decay percentage. The anthocyanin evaluation of the fruits revealed that irradiation enhanced the colour development under both the storage conditions. The gamma-irradiation dose range of 1.2-1.4 kGy proved effective in maintaining higher TSS concentration, reducing weight loss and significantly (p{<=}0.05) delaying the decaying of the fruit by 6 days under ambient conditions and by 20 days under refrigerated storage conditions.

  6. Obtaining of nectarinum (Prunus persica (L. Batsch subsp. nectarina (Ait. Shof. polyploid plants in Nikitsky Botanical Gardens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Є. П. Шоферістов

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Firstly in Ukraine as the result of resiprocal interbreedings of autotetraploid (2n=4x=32 / diploid (2n=2x=16 and diploid (2n=2x=16 / autotetraploid (2n=4x=32 four sintetic triploid (2n=3x=24 hybrid forms (611-91, 13-93, 14-93, 18-93 have been obtained. Spontaneous triploid nectarinum 166-80 has been shared out from diploid hybrid seedlings population. Tetraploid and triploid nectarinum forms are valuable sources for directoinal selection and making hybrids with the complex of new signs, which are difficult or impossible to receive on diploid level.

  7. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannan Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA, inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%, with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%. Western   blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China. 

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of fruit stored under cold conditions using controlled atmosphere in Prunus persica cv. ‘Red Pearl’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayan eSanhueza

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cold storage (CS can induce a physiological disorder known as chilling injury (CI in nectarine fruits. The main symptom is mealiness that is perceived as non-juicy fruit by consumers. Postharvest treatments such as controlled atmosphere (CA; a high CO2 concentration and low O2 have been used under cold conditions to avoid this disorder. With the objective of exploring the mechanisms involved in the CA effect on mealiness prevention, we analyzed transcriptomic changes under six conditions of ‘Red Pearl’ nectarines by RNA-Seq. Our analysis included just harvested nectarines, juicy non-stored fruits, fruits affected for CI after CS and fruits stored in a combination of CA plus CS without CI phenotype. Nectarines stored in cold conditions combined with CA treatment resulted in less mealiness; we obtained 21.6% of juice content compared with just CS fruits (7.7%; mealy flesh. RNA-Seq data analyses were carried out to study the gene expression for different conditions assayed. During ripening, we detected that nectarines exposed to CA treatment expressed a similar number of genes compared with fruits that were not exposed to cold conditions. Firm fruits have more differentially expressed genes than soft fruits, which suggest that most important changes occur during CS. On the other hand, gene ontology analysis revealed enrichment mainly in metabolic and cellular processes. Differentially expressed genes analysis showed that low O2 concentrations combined with cold conditions slows the metabolic processes more than just the cold storage, resulting mainly in the suppression of primary metabolism and cold stress response. This is a significant step toward unraveling the molecular mechanism that explains the effectiveness of CA as a tool to prevent CI development on fruits.

  9. Enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de quatro clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. durante o inverno ameno, em Jaboticabal-SP Rooting of herbaceous cuttings of four mume clones (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. during soft winter, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo state, Brazil

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    Newton Alex Mayer

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudos realizados no Brasil com o umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. relatam promissoras perspectivas de utilização desta espécie como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, em função de sua rusticidade, adaptação ao inverno brando, compatibilidade com Prunus persica, redução do vigor das plantas e melhoria da qualidade dos frutos. Entretanto, em função da propagação por sementes, tem sido observadas diferenças de vigor entre as plantas, resultando em pomares muito heterogêneos. Assim, o presente estudo teve por objetivo estudar o enraizamento de estacas herbáceas de quatro clones de umezeiro (Clones 02, 05, 10 e 15 durante o inverno ameno, em Jaboticabal-SP. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de junho e agosto, sendo avaliado aos 70 dias após a estaquia. Pelos resultados obtidos, foi possível concluir que é viável a propagação dos clones estudados por enraizamento de estacas herbáceas durante o inverno. Foram observadas diferenças entre os clones quanto à porcentagem de enraizamento, porcentagem de estacas com calo, número e comprimento das raízes. No conjunto das variáveis analisadas, os melhores resultados foram obtidos com os Clones 10 e 15.Studies developed in Brazil with the mume (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. have shown promising perspectives of using this species as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, in function of its rusticity, adaptation to soft winter, compatibility with Prunus persica, plant vigor reduction and improvement of the fruit quality. However, due to seed propagation, vigor differences have been observed among plants, resulting in very heterogeneous orchards. Thus, the present study had the objective of studying the rooting of herbaceous cuttings of four mume clones (Clones 02, 05, 10 and 15 in intermittent mist during the soft winter, in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out between June and August, being evaluated 70 days after the cutting

  10. Formulation of indomethacin emulsion using biopolymer of Prunus avium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Shivangi; Dabral, Prashant; Rana, Vinod; Upadhaya, Kumud; Bhardwaj

    2012-03-01

    The aim of the investigation was to formulate Indomethacin Emulsion using Bio-polymer as Emulsifier. Different batches of emulsions were prepared by varying concentration of biopolymer prunus avium. Based evaluation of the prepared polymers, a conclusion can be drawn that in the Prunus avium bio-material can serve as a promising film forming agent for formulating various drug.

  11. Formulation of indomethacin emulsion using biopolymer of Prunus avium

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    Shivangi Verma

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the investigation was to formulate Indomethacin Emulsion using Bio-polymer as Emulsifier. Different batches of emulsions were prepared by varying concentration of biopolymer prunus avium. Based evaluation of the prepared polymers, a conclusion can be drawn that in the Prunus avium bio-material can serve as a promising film forming agent for formulating various drug.

  12. Quality and quantity evaluation of flavonoids in the aerial parts, flowers and fruits of varthemia persica (var. persica DC.

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    Gh.R. Asghari

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground and Purpose: Varthemia persica is an aromatic plant belonging to the Astraceae family. The plant is endemic to Iran. It contains volatile oils and the main constituents of volatile oils are sesquiterepens. There is no information regarding flavonoid constituents.Materials and Methods: Extract was prepared from freeze-dried power of flower, fruit and aerial parts with methanol-water (1-1 and HCl (1.2 M. Determination of myricetin, Lute Olin, apigenin, quercetin and kaempferol in all samples were carried out by HPLC.Results: The plant flowers contain all five mentioned flavonoids, however, fruit and aerial parts contain only kaempferol, lute Olin and quercetin.Conclusion: The plants can be considered as flavonoid containing plant and are a good candidate for pharmacological studies.Key words: Varthemia persica, HPLC,

  13. Bioactivity-guided fractionation identifies amygdalin as a potent neurotrophic agent from herbal medicine semen persicae extract

    OpenAIRE

    Chuanbin Yang; Jia Zhao; Yuanyuan Cheng; Xuechen Li; Jianhui Rong

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae...

  14. Micropropagation of ornamental Prunus spp. and GF305 peach, a Prunus viral indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, Anna; Brown, Daniel C W

    2007-07-01

    A micropropagation approach was developed for nine ornamental Prunus species, P. americana, P. cistena, P. glandulosa, P. serrulata 'Kwanzan', P. laurocerasus, P. sargentii, P. tomentosa, P. triloba, P. virginiana 'Schubert', commercially important in North America, and GF305 peach, commonly used for Prunus virus indexing. The micropropagation cycle based on proliferation of vegetative tissues includes establishment of tissue culture through introduction of shoot meristems in vitro, shoot proliferation, root induction and plant acclimatization steps and can be completed in 5 months. A meristem sterilization protocol minimized bacterial and fungal contamination. Multiple shoot formation in ornamental Prunus was obtained through the use of 1 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine. For GF305 peach, alteration in the sugar composition, fructose instead of sucrose, and addition of 1 mg l(-1 )ferulic acid had a significant impact on the shoot proliferation rate and maintenance of long-term in vitro culture. Rooting and plant acclimatization conditions were improved using a two-step protocol with a 4-day root induction in indole-3-butiric acid (IBA)-containing media with consequent 3-week root elongation in IBA-free media. One-month incubation of rooted shoots in a vermiculite-based medium resulted in additional shoot and root growth and provided better acclimatization and plant recovery. The micropropagation approach can be used for maintenance of the clonal properties for Prunus spp. as well as a protocol to support meristem therapy against viral infection.

  15. Perspectives for sustainable Prunus africana production and trade. Factsheets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Loo, van J.; Dawson, I.; Vinceti, B.; Duminil, J.; Muchugi, A.; Awono, A.; Asaah, E.

    2015-01-01

    This brief documents current knowledge about pygeum (Prunus africana). It aims to inform decision makers in governments in producing and consumer countries, international and civil society organisations and researchers, about sustainable (international) trade and governance of the species.

  16. Effect of Pretreatments on Seed Germination of Prunus mahaleb L

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elias PIPINIS; Elias MILIOS; Olga MAVROKORDOPOULOU; Christina GKANATSIOU; Maria ASLANIDOU; Pavlos SMIRIS

    2012-01-01

    Sexual propagation of Prunus mahaleb is difficult due to seed dormancy. To overcome dormancy and maximize germination, various pretreatments have been applied, including stratification (warm and cold), gibberellic acid (GA3...

  17. Dehydrogenase isoenzyme polymorphism in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus

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    Čolić Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrogenase polymorphism was studied in 36 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., sweet cherry (Prunus avuim L., mahaleb (Prunus mahaleb L., ground cherry (Prunus fruticosa Pall., duke cherry (Prunus gondounii Redh., Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. and four iterspecific hybrids (standard cherry rootstocks ‘Gisela 5’, ‘Gisela 6’, ‘Max Ma’ and ‘Colt’. Inner bark of one-year-old shoots, in dormant stage, was used for enzyme extraction. Vertical PAGE was used for isoenzyme analysis: alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH, formate dehydrogenase (FDH, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH, isocitrate dehydrogenaze (IDH, malate dehydrogenase (MDH, phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD, and shikimate dehydrogenase (SDH. All studied systems were polymorphic at 10 loci: Adh -1 (3 genotypes and Adh-2 (5 genotypes, Fdh-1 (2 genotypes, Gdh-1 (3 genotypes, Idh-1 (4 genotypes i Idh -2 (5 genotypes, Mdh-1 (3 genotypes, Pgd-1 (4 genotypes, Sdh-1 (1 genotype i Sdh-2 (3 genotypes. Cluster analysis was used to construct dendrogram on which four groups of similar genotypes were separated. Obtained results indicate that studied enzyme systems can be used for determination of genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus. Among studied enzyme systems ADH, IDH and SDH were the most polymorphic and most useful to identify genetic variability. Polymorphism of FDH and GDH in genus Prunus, subgenus Cerasus was described first time in this work. First results for dehydrogenase variability of Oblačinska indicate that polymorphism of loci Idh-2 and Sdh-2 can be useful for discrimination of different clones.

  18. Molecular Characterization of Prunus angustifolia Genotypes from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Mustafa; Polat, Mehmet; Ercisli, Sezai; Sorkheh, Karim

    2016-08-25

    Prunus angustifolia var. angustifolia is a deciduous shrub with 1.5-3.0 m plant height and mostly found in rural areas between 1400 and 1600 m in northeastern Turkey including Bayburt, Gumushane, and Kars provinces. The plant has multistems and well known to adapt severe winter and dry-hot summer conditions. In this study, we aimed to explore the genetic diversity within this specie and also to investigate its phylogenetic relationship with economically important the other cherry species; Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus laurocerasus, and Prunus mahaleb. A total of 50 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers used to elucidate the genetic variation among 32 P. angustifolia var. angustifolia genotypes selected from three locations (Bayburt, Gumushane, and Kars) in northeastern Turkey. The cross-species transportability of used 50 SSRs was 80 % indicating a high degree of homology between P. angustifolia and the other Prunus species. The genetic distance between P. angustifolia var. angustifolia genotypes belonging to a particular geographic site was lower than that between genotypes of different geographic origins. Cluster analysis in general differentiated P. angustifolia var. angustifolia genotypes according to their geographic sites and separated them from the other Prunus species. P. angustifolia found more closer to P. mahaleb and P. cerasus, in the subgenus Cerasus, The analysis of molecular variance revealed that genetic variation among individuals within populations was much higher than among Prunus groups and among P. angustifolia var. angustifolia populations of different geographic sites. The results indicate a substantial genetic diversity in P. angustifolia var. angustifolia and the need of exploring a wider area to increase the chance of finding a particular genotype.

  19. Otostegia persica extraction on healing process of burn wounds

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    Amin Ganjali

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate if the methanolic extract of the Otostegia persica can accelerating healing process of burn wound because of its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. METHODS:Forty eight male Wistar rats were randomized into three study groups of 16 rats each. Burn wounds were created on dorsal part of shaved rats using a metal rod. In group I the burn wound was left without any treatment. Group was treated with topical silver sulfadiazine pomade. In group III, ointment containing the OP extract was administered. Skin biopsies were harvested from burn area on the 3rd, 5th, 14th and 21st days after burn and examined histologically. RESULTS: Re-epithelialization in the control group and in group II was lower than in group III. Re-epithelialization in groups II and III was significantly different from that in the control group. On the 5th day of the experiment, we assessed lower inflammation in the burn area compared to control group. This means that the inflammation was suppressed by methanolic extract of OP. From day 5 to 14; the fibroblast proliferation peaked and was associated with increased collagen accumulation. It was obvious that angiogenesis improved more in the groups II and III, which facilitated re-epithelialisation. CONCLUSION:Methanolic extract of Otostegia persica exhibited significant healing activity when topically applied on rats. OP is an effective treatment for saving the burn site.

  20. [Geostatistics analysis on spatial patterns of Myzus persicae and Erigonidium graminicola in plum orchard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chengcheng; Zou, Yunding; Bi, Shoudong; Gao, Caiqiu; Liu, Xiaolin; Cao, Cuanwang; Meng, Qinglei; Li, Changgen

    2005-07-01

    Investigations on the spatial construction and distribution of Myzus persicae and Erigonidium graminicola in a plum orchard were conducted from March 2003 to November 2003. The results indicated that the semivariogram of Myzus persicae could be described by spherical model, except on June 27 and November 22, which should be described by lined model, and that of Erigonidium graminicola could be described by spherical model, except on May 21, May 31, October 19 and November 22, which should be described by lined model. It could be concluded that the amount and spatial distribution of Erigonidium graminicola was closely related to those of Myzus persicae.

  1. Identification of aphid salivary proteins: a proteomic investigation of Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmel, N; Létocart, E; Cherqui, A; Giordanengo, P; Mazzucchelli, G; Guillonneau, F; De Pauw, E; Haubruge, E; Francis, F

    2008-04-01

    The role of insect saliva in the first contact between an insect and a plant is crucial during feeding. Some elicitors, particularly in insect regurgitants, have been identified as inducing plant defence reactions. Here, we focused on the salivary proteome of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae. Proteins were either directly in-solution digested or were separated by 2D SDS-PAGE before trypsin digestion. Resulting peptides were then identified by mass spectrometry coupled with database investigations. A homemade database was constituted of expressed sequence tags from the pea aphid Acyrtosiphon pisum and M. persicae. The databases were used to identify proteins related to M. persicae with a nonsequenced genome. This procedure enabled us to discover glucose oxidase, glucose dehydrogenase, NADH dehydrogenase, alpha-glucosidase and alpha-amylase in M. persicae saliva. The presence of these enzymes is discussed in terms of plant-aphid interactions.

  2. The occurrence of the cicada Cicadatra persica on apple trees, Malus domestica, in Erneh, Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardar, Marah A; Belal, Hamzeh M R; Basheer, Abedlnabi M

    2013-01-01

    An infestation of Cicadatra persica KirKaldy (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) on apple trees, Malus domestica Borkhausen (Rosales: Rosaceae), was reported for the first time in the apple fruit orchards of Erneh, Syria. Nymphs, adults, exuvia, and exit holes in the soil were observed. The species was identified as C. persica based on morphological characters. Some biological observations and an acoustic analysis of the male's songs were also achieved.

  3. Genomic resources for Myzus persicae: EST sequencing, SNP identification, and microarray design

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    Malloch Gaynor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer, is a world-wide insect pest capable of infesting more than 40 plant families, including many crop species. However, despite the significant damage inflicted by M. persicae in agricultural systems through direct feeding damage and by its ability to transmit plant viruses, limited genomic information is available for this species. Results Sequencing of 16 M. persicae cDNA libraries generated 26,669 expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Aphids for library construction were raised on Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Brassica oleracea, B. napus, and Physalis floridana (with and without Potato leafroll virus infection. The M. persicae cDNA libraries include ones made from sexual and asexual whole aphids, guts, heads, and salivary glands. In silico comparison of cDNA libraries identified aphid genes with tissue-specific expression patterns, and gene expression that is induced by feeding on Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, 2423 genes that are novel to science and potentially aphid-specific were identified. Comparison of cDNA data from three aphid lineages identified single nucleotide polymorphisms that can be used as genetic markers and, in some cases, may represent functional differences in the protein products. In particular, non-conservative amino acid substitutions in a highly expressed gut protease may be of adaptive significance for M. persicae feeding on different host plants. The Agilent eArray platform was used to design an M. persicae oligonucleotide microarray representing over 10,000 unique genes. Conclusion New genomic resources have been developed for M. persicae, an agriculturally important insect pest. These include previously unknown sequence data, a collection of expressed genes, molecular markers, and a DNA microarray that can be used to study aphid gene expression. These resources will help elucidate the adaptations that allow M. persicae to develop compatible

  4. In Vitro Scolicidal Effects of Salvadora persica Root Extract against Protoscolices of Echinococcus granulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Almalki, Esam; Mansour, Lamjed; Al-Quarishy, Saleh

    2016-02-01

    It has been known that Arak, Salvadora persica, has a number of medicinal properties. We tried to investigate in vitro scolicidal effect of root extracts of this plant against protoscolices from hydatid cysts of Echinococcus granulosus. Protoscolices were aseptically collected from sheep livers containing hydatid cysts. S. persica root extract was used in 10, 30, and 50 mg/ml concentration for 10, 20, and 30 min. The viability of protoscolices was ascertained by 0.1% eosin staining. Scolicidal activity of S. persica extract at a concentration of 10 mg/ml was 36.3%, 50.3%, and 70.8% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. The scolicidal effect of this extract at a concentration of 30 mg/ml was 52.9%, 86.7%, and 100% after 10, 20, and 30 min of exposure, respectively. S. persica extract at a concentration of 50 mg/ml, meanwhile, killed 81.4%, 100%, and 100% of protoscolices after 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively. Also, the cytotoxic potential of S. persica was assessed on human liver cells (HepG2) using trypan blue exclusion test. No cytotoxic effect was observed on HepG2 cell line. The present study confirmed for the first time that the ethanolic extract of S. persica has high scolicidal power in vitro. However, in vivo effect of this material remains to be studied for treatment of echinococcosis in humans and herbivorous animals.

  5. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U; Mostert, L; Crous, P W; Fourie, P H

    2008-06-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from different stone fruit growing areas in South Africa. Morphological and cultural characteristics as well as DNA sequence data (5.8S rDNA, ITS1, ITS2, beta-tubulin, actin and 18S rDNA) were used to identify known, and describe novel species. From the total number of wood samples collected (257), 42 Phaeoacremonium isolates were obtained, from which 14 species were identified. Phaeoacremonium scolyti was most frequently isolated, and present on all Prunus species sampled, followed by Togninia minima (anamorph: Pm. aleophilum) and Pm. australiense. Almost all taxa isolated represent new records on Prunus. Furthermore, Pm. australiense,Pm. iranianum, T. fraxinopennsylvanica and Pm. griseorubrum represent new records for South Africa, while Pm. griseorubrum, hitherto only known from humans, is newly reported from a plant host. Five species are newly described, two of which produce a Togninia sexual state. Togninia africana, T. griseo-olivacea and Pm. pallidum are newly described from Prunus armeniaca, while Pm. prunicolum and Pm. fuscum are described from Prunus salicina.

  6. Molecular characterization of Spanish Prunus avium plus trees

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    Javier Fernandez-Cruz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: The Breeding Program of wild cherry (Prunus avium developed by Lourizán Forest Research Center (NW Spain, aims for the creation of the Main Breeding Population, that is formed by a large number of plus trees and for obtaining an Elite Population generated from controlled crosses of a number of plus trees selected by, at least, one trait of economic importance. The aim of this study was to genotype 131 accessions of Prunus avium plus trees, included in the breeding program.Area of study: The Prunus avium plus trees are located in the North, Northwest and Central Spain.Material and Methods: The Prunus avium plus trees were genotyped with nine microsatellites. Several genetic parameters were calculated. Genetic data were analyzed with STRUCTURE and the genetic distance between the plus trees were calculated.Main results: A total of 122 multilocus genotypes were detected. Several accessions with the same genotype were identified, which could be due to clonality or to labelling errors. The nine microsatellites are useful for identifying individuals because the combined probability of identity was low (PI = 5.19X10-9. Bayesian methods detected two genetic clusters in the sampled plus trees.Research highlights: The unique genotypes identified in this work are suitable for being included in the elite breeding population for economic traits.Keywords: Prunus avium; breeding program; microsatellite; genetic distance.

  7. A taxonomic revision of Eremopoa persica (Trin. Roshev. and E. songarica (Schrenk. Roshev. using morphological features and cytological data

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    Sorour Rahmanian

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 58 accessions of Eremopoa persica and E. songarica belongigng to the family Poaceae and tribe Festuceae (Poacea were morphologically studied. Three polidy levels diplo, triplo and tetraploid were counted from chromosome number counting of 7 accessions of the root tips as: 2n=14 and 21 for E. persica and 2n=28 for songarica. Based on the results of this study it could be suggested that the two Eremopoa species (E. persica and E. songarica might to be considered as two varieties of E. persica.

  8. Gene flow in Prunus species in the context of novel trait risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cici, S Zahra H; Van Acker, Rene C

    2010-01-01

    Prunus species are important commercial fruit (plums, apricot, peach and cherries), nut (almond) and ornamental trees cultivated broadly worldwide. This review compiles information from available literature on Prunus species in regard to gene flow and hybridization within this complex of species. The review serves as a resource for environmental risk assessment related to pollen mediated gene flow and the release of transgenic Prunus. It reveals that Prunus species, especially plums and cherries show high potential for transgene flow. A range of characteristics including; genetic diversity, genetic bridging capacity, inter- and intra-specific genetic compatibility, self sterility (in most species), high frequency of open pollination, insect assisted pollination, perennial nature, complex phenotypic architecture (canopy height, heterogeneous crown, number of flowers produced in an individual plant), tendency to escape from cultivation, and the existence of ornamental and road side Prunus species suggest that there is a tremendous and complicated ability for pollen mediated gene movement among Prunus species. Ploidy differences among Prunus species do not necessarily provide genetic segregation. The characteristics of Prunu s species highlight the complexity of maintaining coexistence between GM and non-GM Prunus if there were commercial production of GM Prunus species. The results of this review suggest that the commercialization of one GM Prunus species can create coexistence issues for commercial non-GM Prunus production. Despite advances in molecular markers and genetic analysis in agroecology, there remains limited information on the ecological diversity, metapopulation nature, population dynamics, and direct measures of gene flow among different subgenera represented in the Prunus genus. Robust environmental impact, biosafety and coexistence assessments for GM Prunus species will require better understanding of the mechanisms of gene flow and hybridization

  9. Cryopreservation of Prunus avium L. embryogenic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grenier-de March, Ghislaine; de Boucaud, Marie-Therese; Chmielarz, Pawel

    2005-01-01

    Embryogenic tissues from wild cherry (Prunus avium L.) were successfully cryopreserved by using a one-step freezing procedure. Cryoprotection consisted of a pretreatment on solid medium with increasing sucrose concentrations (0.25 M for 1 day, 0.5 M for 1 day, 0.75 M for 2 days, and 1.0 M for 3 days), followed by air desiccation to about 20 percent moisture content (fresh weight basis). This method was compared with a pretreatment on solid medium containing 5 percent DMSO and 2 percent proline, followed by immersion in a modified PVS2 cryoprotective solution. Pretreatment on solid medium with increasing concentrations of sucrose led to regrowth of frozen embryogenic tissues, and after 6 weeks of culture, growth was comparable to that of non-dehydrated and non-frozen tissues. By contrast, no regrowth was observed when embryogenic tissues were submitted to the solid/liquid pretreatment with DMSO/proline and a modified PVS2 solution.

  10. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND CYTOTOXICITY EFFECTS OF SALVADORA PERSICA (MESWAK EXTRACTS ON JURKAT T-CELLS

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    Farimah Sardari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Salvadora persica (S. persica, Meswak, is an evergreen shrub to 6-7 m. It has many biological activities such as antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and antifungal activities. This study evaluated in vitro cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of S. persica extracts on human oral Jurkat (T leukemia cells. Extracts from Meswak stick and leaves were tested in different concentrations for their cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory activities on human oral Jurkat T- cells. So treated cells viability with increasing concentrations of S. persica stick extract (0.008-0.2 μg/ml and leaves extract (0.016-0.5 μg/ml for 24, 48 or 72 hours was assessed by using the mitochondrial dependent reduction of yellow MTT (3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide to purple formazan. Also Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was performed on supernatants from treated Jurkat T-cells with phytohemagglutinin (PHA and both extracts to quantify IL-6, IL-8 pro-inflammatory cytokines. Statistically significant differences were indicated by p <0.05. Incubation of Jurkat cells with sterile distilled water, negative control, didn't show any mortality through the incubation period. Against PHA, positive control, both stick and leaves extracts of S. persica like resulted in a dose-dependent decrease of IL-6 and IL-8 secretion (p <0.01. Although both extracts significantly inhibited survival of Jurkat cells (p < 0.01 in a dose- and time-dependent manner, stick extract exerted more cytotoxic effects on Jurkat cells than leaves extract of S. persica (p <0.03. In conclusion, although with increasing concentrations of both extracts anti-inflammatory properties were boosted, S. persica extracts had dose-dependent cytotoxic effects on human oral Jurkat T-cells.

  11. Effects of mti-2 Transgenic Potato Plants on the Aphid Myzus persicae (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae

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    Julien Saguez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Overexpressed in transgenic plants, protease inhibitors showed insecticidal effects against several insect taxa. We transformed potato internodes with the mustard trypsin inhibitor mti-2 gene. Among the 35 independent transgenic potato lines obtained via Agrobacterium tumefasciens transformation, four (DM6, DM7, DM11, and DM19 were selected for their high level of MTI-2 (at least to 30% of trypsin activity inhibition. Feeding assays were carried out to evaluate their effects on the green-peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae. Prereproductive period, nymphal mortality, adult fecundity, and doubling time of M. persicae populations were monitored on nontransformed potato plants (NT and the four selected DM lines. Compared to NT plants, DM19 did not induce any effect on M. persicae. In contrast, DM7 and DM11 increased nymphal survival by approximately 20%. DM6 and DM11 lines slightly enhanced M. persicae daily fecundity and intrinsic rate of natural increase, leading to a reduction of the doubling time of the populations by 1 day. DM6 did not impact nymphal mortality, whereas with the DM11 almost all the nymphs survived. Potato plants transformed with the mti-2 gene variably affected the life history of M. persicae but did not show any insecticidal effect on the aphid.

  12. Vasorelaxant effect of Prunus yedoensis bark

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    Lee Kyungjin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prunus yedoensis Matsum. is used as traditional medicine—‘Yaeng-Pi’ or ‘Hua-Pi’—in Japan and Korea. However, no studies have examined the pharmacological activities of the P. yedoensis bark. Only the antioxidant and antiviral activities of P. yedoensis fruit and the anti-hyperglycaemic effect of P. yedoensis leaf have been investigated. While studying the antihypertensive effects of several medicinal plants, we found that a methanol extract of P. yedoensis bark (MEPY had distinct vasorelaxant effects on rat aortic rings. Methods The aortic rings were removed from Sprague–Dawley rats and suspended in organ chambers containing 10 ml Krebs-Henseleit solution. The aortic rings were placed between 2 tungsten stirrups and connected to an isometric force transducer. Changes in tension were recorded via isometric transducers connected to a data acquisition system. Results MEPY relaxed the contraction induced by phenylephrine (PE both in endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded aortic rings concentration dependently. However, the vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-denuded aortic rings were lower than endothelium-intact aortic rings. The vasorelaxant effects of MEPY on endothelium-intact aortic rings were reduced by pre-treatment with l-NAME, methylene blue, or ODQ. However, pre-treatment with indomethacin, atropine, glibenclamide, tetraethylammonium, or 4-aminopyridine had no affection. In addition, MEPY inhibited the contraction induced by extracellular Ca2+ in endothelium-denuded rat thoracic aorta rings pre-contracted by PE (1 μM or KCl (60 mM in Ca2+-free solution. Conclusions Our results suggest that MEPY exerts its vasorelaxant effects via the activation of NO formation by means of l-Arg and NO-cGMP pathways and via the blockage of extracellular Ca2+ channels.

  13. Novel Phaeoacremonium species associated with necrotic wood of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Mostert, L.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The genus Phaeoacremonium is associated with opportunistic human infections, as well as stunted growth and die-back of various woody hosts, especially grapevines. In this study, Phaeoacremonium species were isolated from necrotic woody tissue of Prunus spp. (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) from

  14. Waardplantonderzoek Prunus laurocerasus voor Xanthomonas : Consultancy-onderzoek

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, van A.J.; Hollinger, T.C.

    2010-01-01

    In de teelt van Prunus laurocerasus komt de laatste jaren een nieuwe ziekte voor, veroorzaakt door de Q-bacterie Xanthomonas aboricola pv pruni (Xap). r Op 9 oktober 2009 is een door de NBvB georganiseerde Xanthomonas-bijeenkomst geweest. Gezien de ernst van de situatie voor de boomkwekerijsector is

  15. Enraizamento in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus In vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Rogalski

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Na micropropagação de Prunus sp., o enraizamento tem sido considerado uma fase crítica, pois determina a sobrevivência das plantas durante a aclimatização. Dentre os fatores importantes ao enraizamento in vitro, destacam-se o genótipo e as auxinas por serem determinantes na indução e na formação de raízes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações de IBA no enraizamento in vitro dos porta-enxertos de espécies do gênero Prunus: cultivares Capdeboscq e GF677, e seleções VP411 e VP417. Para o enraizamento in vitro, brotos com 2-3cm de comprimento foram introduzidos em meio de Lepoivre suplementado com 0,1; 0,5; 1,0 e 2,0 mg.L-1 IBA. Observou-se que o porta-enxerto 'Capdeboscq' apresentou maior taxa de enraizamento e maior número de raízes in vitro, sendo superior aos demais genótipos quanto a estas características. O nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA esteve associado à maior taxa média de enraizamento (100%, 64% e 64,0%, respectivamente para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq', 'GF677' e VP411. O nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA foi superior para a seleção VP417 com taxa de 64% de enraizamento. Para os porta-enxertos 'Capdeboscq' e 'GF677', o número máximo de raízes foi de 9,6 e 5,2 raízes por broto, respectivamente, em resposta ao nível de 2,0 mg.L-1 de IBA, enquanto as seleções VP411 e VP417 apresentaram o maior número de raízes (3,6 e 3,9, respectivamente em resposta ao nível de 1,0 mg.L-1 de IBA.In Prunus sp. micropropagation of rooting is considered a critical stage, since it determines the plant survival during the acclimatization. Among important factors associated with rooting, the genotype and the auxins are considered important in the induction and formation of roots. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effect of different IBA on the in vitro rooting of Prunus rootstocks Capdeboscq and GF677, and the selections VP411 and VP417. For the in vitro rooting stage, shoots of

  16. Efeito do comprimento de estacas herbáceas de dois clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. no enraizamento adventício Effect of the length of herbaceous cuttings of two clones of japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. in adventicious rooting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O umezeiro (Prunus mumeSieb & Zucc. é uma rosácea de folhas caducas, nativa da China, cujos frutos e flores são muito apreciados pelos povos orientais. No Brasil, alguns estudos foram realizados visando a sua utilização como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro e nectarineira, dadas as suas características de adaptação, rusticidade, redução do porte da planta e compatibilidade com algumas cultivares de Prunus persica. O presente estudo foi conduzido em câmara de nebulização sob ripado, pertencente ao Departamento de Produção Vegetal da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP. Objetivou-se verificar a influência de quatro comprimentos de estacas herbáceas no enraizamento de dois clones de umezeiro. O material vegetal, identificado como Clone 10 e Clone 15, foi oriundo do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas-SP. O experimento foi constituido de fatorial 2 x 4, em blocos casualizados, sendo o fator clone em 2 níveis (Clone 10 e Clone 15 e o fator comprimento de estaca em 4 níveis (12; 15; 18 e 25cm. Pelos resultados observados, verificou-se diferença entre os clones somente na porcentagem de estacas brotadas e número de raízes por estaca. O comprimento da estaca influenciou na porcentagem de enraizamento e na mortalidade das estacas, sendo que estacas maiores tenderam a apresentar maiores porcentagens de enraizamento e menores de mortalidade. As estacas com 12cm, embora apresentando menor número de raízes por estaca, são recomendadas por permitirem a obtenção de um maior número de estacas por planta-matriz. Houve efeito significativo da interação entre os fatores para número e comprimento de raízes.The japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. is a Rosaceae of falling leaves, native of China, whose fruits and flowers are quite appreciated by the oriental people. In Brazil, some studies were accomplished seeking its use as rootstock for peach and nectarine trees, due its adaptation

  17. 梅花 CBF 转录因子的克隆及表达%Cloning and Expression of CBF Transcription Factor from Prunus mume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 张启翔; 杨炜茹

    2012-01-01

    根据GenBank中与梅花同属的桃、甜樱桃等已发表CBFs转录因子序列设计简并引物,采用PCR和RTPCR方法,从梅花基因组DNA和cDNA中克隆CBF转录因子片段.结果表明,两种途径获得的CBF基因序列一致,基因全长821 bp,编码238个氨基酸,其氨基酸序列具有典型的CBF蛋白特征,包含保守的AP2/EREB DNA 结合结构域及CBF家族蛋白特征短多肽序列(PKK/RPAGRxKFxETRHP和DSAWR).氨基酸相似性分析结果表明,该基因与欧洲甜樱桃、矮扁桃等CBF转录因子相似性较高.相对荧光定量PCR结果显示,4℃低温胁迫下,其表达量符合CBF转录因子表达特点,随着胁迫时间的增长表达量呈上升趋势,8h时达峰值,说明该基因在低温胁迫下上调表达.%Primers were designed according to the CBF transcription factors of Peach (Prunus persica), Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) et al from GenBank. Fragments of CBF gene were isolated from Prunus mume by PCR and RT-PCR, The CBF gene was 821 bp long, encoding a putative protein of 238 amino acids;The amino acids sequence owns the characteristics of the CBF protein,which contains an AP2/EREB DNA-binding domain and two special short amino acids sequences;Similarity analysis showed that the nu-cleotide were highly similarity to that of P. avium, P. tenella et al. Relative real-time PCR experiment showed the expression of PmCBFl was coincidence with the expression characteristics of the CBF gene after exposed to 4℃. The expression of PmCBFl increased at beginning and achieved the highest after 8 hour,indicating PmCBFl was induced under low temperature stress.

  18. Procyanidins in fruit from Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) differ strongly in chainlength from those in Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus) and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanoglu, E.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus), Laurel cherry (Prunus lauracerasus), and Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) fruits are widely used in Turkey, both as food and as traditional medicines. The phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacities of these three cherry types were compared. Fruit flesh was evalua

  19. Evaluation of wound healing effects between Salvadora persica ointment and Solcoseryl jelly in animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Hina; Ahmad, Mansoor; Rahman, Atiqur; Yaqeen, Zahra; Sohail, Tehmina; Fatima, Nudrat; Iqbal, Wasif; Yaqeen, Syed Shafay

    2015-09-01

    In this research study very first time a herbal ointment contain 10% Salvadora persica extract was compared with Solcosseryl jelly 10% and blank Vaseline to evaluate wound healing effects using excision wound healing model in animals. Three groups of rats (n-6) were experimentally wounded on the back of their neck. Group I was dressed with Vaseline containing 10% test drug, Group II was treated with thin layer of Solcoseryl jelly 10% as reference drug while Group III was dressed with thin layer of blank Vaseline as control group. The effect of vehicle on rate of wound healing were assessed and in all cases there were progressive decreased in wound area with time but wound dress with Vaseline containing S. persica extract and wound treated with Solcosseryl jelly significantly healed earlier than those treated with Vaseline. It is concluded that S. persica extract significantly enhance the acceleration rate of wound enclosure in rats.

  20. 桃铁离子吸收动力学研究%Studies on Uptake Kinetics of Fe Ion for Peach (P. persica)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方从兵; 孙俊

    2001-01-01

    The influences of Fe ion status, pH and NaCl stress on Fe ion u p take characteristics were studied in peach (Prunus persica) seedlings with 35-da ys-old . The results showed that pH is the major factor of affecting iron ab sorption. Efficiency of different Fe ion status in peach was determined by p H. Fe ion uptake kinetic parameters Km and Imax were influenced by pH and F e ion status respectively. The findings also revealed the effect of NaCl str ess on Fe ion uptake characteristics of salt-sensitive plant (peach), which may be closely related to perviousness of plast membrane, activity of carrier system and free iron content respectively in cultivated medium.%以毛桃幼苗为试材,对不同铁形态、pH值和盐胁迫条件下铁离子吸收动力学 特性进行了研究。结果表明,pH是影响铁吸收的主要因素,不同铁形态的有效性随pH的变化 而变化;pH和铁形态影响桃铁离子吸收动力学参数Km和Imax;NaCl 胁迫对盐敏感性植物(桃 )铁吸收特性的影响,可能与质膜透性、载体系统活性以及介质中有效铁含量有关。

  1. Investigation of the Effect of Chitosan and Salvadora Persica on Blood Lipids in the Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Mirjalili

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypercholesterolemia is a metabolic disorder that ultimately results in arterial sclerosis and complications like hypertension and coronary arterial diseases. Various drugs have been used for the treatment of this condition and many studies are underway for introducing new drugs. Chitosan and Salvadora Persica are two such drugs. Chitosan is produced by deacetylation of chitin which is present mainly in the exoskeleton of crustaceans. The aim of this invitro study was to study the effects of these two drugs on blood lipid levels. Methods: In this Interventional Laboratory Trial, 30 mature vistar rats weighing 200-250 grams were selected and after a period of two weeks in order to allow them to adapt to their surroundings, they were allotted randomly to 6 groups. The rats were then fed for a period of 15 days with normal or fatty diet, with or without the drugs. Chitosan in pure powder form and persica in the form of hydro alcoholic salvadora persica stem extract were added to the diet of the respective study groups. At the end of this period, blood samples were taken in order to measure cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL levels. Data was analyzed statistically using SPSS software program and Scheffe, ANOVA and Descriptive statistical tests. Results: Both chitosan and persica decreased cholesterol and LDL levels in the groups ingesting fatty diet (P 0.05. The two drugs had no effect on triglyceride and HDL levels. (P > 0.05 Both chitosan and persica had no effect on blood lipid levels of subjects on normal diet whose cholesterol levels were normal (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Persica and chitosan have similar effects on reduction of cholesterol and LDL levels in cases of hypercholesterolemia, but have no effect on triglyceride and HDL levels.

  2. Extract of Salvadora persica roots attenuates lead acetate-induced testicular oxidative stress in rats

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    Gamal A. Soliman

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Context: Lead exerts pathological changes on male mammals. Deleterious effects on testicular tissues may be mediated by oxidative damage and subsequent lipid peroxidation. Medicinal plants can protect against such oxidative stress. Aims: To determine the protective activity of Salvadora persica, against lead acetate (LA testicular oxidative stress in rats. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were allocated into six groups: control group received the vehicle, S. persica group received extract (500 mg/kg, LA group was exposed to 0.1% LA in drinking water and three other groups were co-treated with LA plus S. persica (125, 250 and 500 mg/kg. Treatments were applied for 60 days. Five days prior to the end of the experiment, male rats in all groups were mated with untreated females. Results: S. persica (500 mg/kg increased testosterone level and relative weights of testes, cauda epididymis and seminal vesicles in normal rats but did not affect testicular antioxidant parameters and sperm characteristics. Superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase activities and the level of reduced glutathione were significantly reduced and malondialdehyde was elevated in the testicular homogenate of LA-exposed rats. LA exposure significantly reduced serum levels of testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, as well as, sperm characteristics and relative weight of the testes, cauda epididymis, seminal vesicles and ventral prostate. Administration of S. persica extract (250 and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced oxidative stress and protected against LA-exposure effects. Conclusions: S. persica extract exhibited marked protective activity against LA-induced testicular oxidative stress in rats.

  3. Molecular Identification of Persicae Semen and Its Sibling Species Based on ITS2 Sequence%基于ITS2序列鉴定桃仁及其近缘种*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To identify Persicae Semen and its sibling species, and to secure the quality and clinical safety of this medicinal material. Methods: The internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA of Persicae Semen and its sibling species were amplified and bidirectionally sequenced by DNA barcoding. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed by the CodonCode Aligner 4.1. The genetic distances were computed by MEGA 5.0 in accordance with the Kimura 2-parameter (K2P) model, and the phylogenetic tree constructed by the neighbor-joining (NJ) method. Results: The length of ITS2 sequences of the two origin plants of Persicae Semen was between 212 bp to 213 bp. Their intraspecific genetic distance was much lower than the interspecific genetic distance with their sibling species. The ITS2 sequence possessed the character of good stability and low intra-specific sequence variation. In the NJ tree, both Prunus persica and P. davidiana were clustered into one large branch, and clearly separated with their sibling species. Conclusion: ITS2 can be used to effectively distinguish Persicae Semen from its sibling species, which can provide a reference for the iden-tification of other Chinese medicine and its sibling species.%  目的:对药材桃仁及其近缘种进行ITS2分子鉴定,以保证药材质量及用药安全。方法:利用 DNA 条形码技术,对桃仁及其近缘种的 ITS2核基因片段进行扩增并双向测序,经 CodonCode Aligner V4.1拼接后,将所有的ITS2序列用MEGA5.0软件进行相关数据分析,并构建NJ树。结果:桃仁两基原物种ITS2序列长度为212~213 bp,序列变异较小;两基原物种ITS2序列与近缘种的种间平均K2P遗传距离大于其种内平均K2P遗传距离;由 NJ树可知,桃仁的两基原物种聚为一枝,并与其他近缘种明显分开。结论:ITS2序列作为DNA条形码可以有效地鉴定药材桃仁及其近缘种,为其他中药

  4. [Optimization for supercritical CO2 extraction with response surface methodology of Prunus armeniaca oil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei-Fei; Wu, Yan; Ge, Fa-Huan

    2012-03-01

    To optimize the extraction conditions of Prunus armeniaca oil by Supercritical CO2 extraction and identify its components by GC-MS. Optimized of SFE-CO extraction by response surface methodology and used GC-MS to analysis Prunus armeniaca oil compounds. Established the model of an equation for the extraction rate of Prunus armeniaca oil by supercritical CO2 extraction, and the optimal parameters for the supercritical CO2 extraction determined by the equation were: the extraction pressure was 27 MPa, temperature was 39 degrees C, the extraction rate of Prunus armeniaca oil was 44.5%. 16 main compounds of Prunus armeniaca oil extracted by supercritical CO2 were identified by GC-MS, unsaturated fatty acids were 92.6%. This process is simple, and can be used for the extraction of Prunus armeniaca oil.

  5. Antibacterial effect of an herbal product persica on porphyromonas gingivalis and aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans: an in-vitro study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Jelvehgaran Esfahani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The plant Salvadora persica is used for oral hygiene in many parts of the world. It has been suggested that it has antibacterial properties, in addition to its ability to mechanically remove plaques. The aim of this study was to assess the antimicrobial activity of the herbal product Persica containing Salvadora persica against periodontopathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in vitro.Fifty patients with moderate and severe periodontitis were recruited. Using paper points, subgingival plaque samples were taken from pockets with attachment loss ≥ 3mm. The samples were subjected to microbial culture to yield P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans. The ditch plate method was used for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the bacteria to Persica compared to chlorhexidine and distilled water. The growth inhibition zones of microorganisms around the ditches were measured in millimeters. The data were analyzed using SPSS 16. Freidman test and Wilcoxon signed ranks test with Bonferroni adjustment were used for analysis of variance with 5% significance level. P<0.05 for main comparisons and P< 0.017 for multiple comparisons were considered statistically significant.P. gingivalis was sensitive to chlorhexidine and persica. There was a significant difference (P=0.001 between antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine (mean 28.733mm, SD 5.216 and Persica (mean 16.333mm, SD 5.259 compared to water against P. gingivalis. There was a significant difference (P< 0.001 between the antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine (24.045mm, SD 3.897 and Persica (0.545mm, SD 2.558 with respect to A. actinomycetemcomitans. There was no significant difference (P=0.317 between the antimicrobial activity of Persica and water against A. actinomycetemcomitans.The herbal product Persica had significant antimicrobial activity against P. gingivalis and negligible antimicrobial activity against A. actinomycetemcomitans compared to 0

  6. National Plant Diagnostic Network, Taxonomic training videos: Aphids under the microscope - Myzus persicae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Training is a critical part of aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) identification. This video provides provides training to identify the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, using a compound microscope and an electronic identification key called “LUCID.” The video demonstrates key morphological structures t...

  7. [Observation on the action of extractum semen Persicae on anti-fibrosis of liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L M; Liu, P; Liu, C; Hong, J H; Lu, G; Xue, H M; Zhu, J L; Hu, Y Y

    1994-08-01

    It was observed that Extractum Semen Persicae acted obviously on hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl4. Through promoting the degradation of collagens type I, II, IV, VI and fibronectin, ESP has proved helpful in markedly reducing the fibrous septa composed of both collagenous and reticular fibers as well as in repairing the structure of hepatic tissues.

  8. Concentration-mortality responses of Myzus persicae and natural enemies to selected insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Leandro; Rosado, Jander F; Picanço, Marcelo C; Pereira, Eliseu J G; Silva, Gerson A; Martins, Júlio C

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of six insecticides was determined for the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and some of its natural enemies - the predatory beetles Cycloneda sanguinea (Coccinellidae) and Acanthinus sp. (Anthicidae), and the wasp parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Aphidiidae). Natural enemies from these groups are important natural biological control agents in a number of agroecosystems, and insecticides potentially safe to these non-target organisms should be identified using standardized tests. Thus, concentration-mortality bioassays were carried out with both the aphid and its natural enemies to assess the toxicity and selectivity of acephate, deltamethrin, dimethoate, methamidophos, methyl parathion, and pirimicarb. The latter insecticide was highly selective to all natural enemies tested, and its LC(90) for M. persicae was 14-fold lower than the field rate recommended for control of the aphid in brassica crops. Methyl parathion also showed selectivity to C. sanguinea and Acanthinus sp., but not to D. rapae. Acephate was the least potent insecticide against M. persicae and was equally or more toxic to the natural enemies relative to the aphid. Pirimicarb and methyl parathion were efficient against M. persicae and selective in favor of two of the natural enemies tested. Acanthinus sp. and C. sanguinea were more tolerant to the insecticides than was the parasitoid D. rapae. This study shows that there are selective insecticides that may be compatible with conservation of natural enemies in brassica crops, which is important practical information to improve integrated pest management systems in these crops.

  9. Acquisition and transmission of potato leafroll virus by Myzus persicae; quantitative aspects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, van den J.F.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    Studying the transmission of potato leafroll virus (PLRV) by Myzus persicae from infected Physalis floridana plants, revealed that the ability of aphids to transmit the virus differed widely among individuals and strongly depended on the biotype of the vector aphid and the age of the virus source. V

  10. The site of potato leafroll virus multiplication in its vector, Myzus persicae : an anatomical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsen, M.B.

    1972-01-01

    In search of the site of PLRV multiplication in its vector a detailed study was made of the anatomy of the aphid, Myzus persicae SULZ. The findings are summarized in the following lines:Alimentary canalThe most anterior part of the alimentary canal is the food canal which is firmly interlocked by th

  11. The site of potato leafroll virus multiplication in its vector, Myzus persicae : an anatomical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ponsen, M.B.

    1972-01-01

    In search of the site of PLRV multiplication in its vector a detailed study was made of the anatomy of the aphid, Myzus persicae SULZ. The findings are summarized in the following lines:

    Alimentary canal

    The most anterior part of

  12. Influence of Silicon on Resistance of Zinnia Elegans to Myzus Persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studies were conducted to examine the effect of treating Zinnia elegans Jacq. with soluble silicon on the performance of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Zinnia elegans plants were irrigated every 2 days throughout the duration of the experiment with a nutrient solution amended with ...

  13. Micropropagation of Prunus species relevant to cherry fruit production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druart, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Cherry tree micropropagation is limited to the production of healthy cultivars of Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus, and their rootstocks; mainly the dwarfing ones. By using meristem-tip (0.1 mm long) or healthy shoot tips/nodes, four successive steps are needed to obtain whole plants capable of growing in the nursery: multiplication by axillary branching, shoot elongation, rooting, and plantlet acclimation. Along this process, several parameters have to be adjusted for each phase of the culture, including media composition, environmental culture conditions and plant handling. These parameters vary depending on genotypic response and specific vulnerability to physiological disorders such as hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, unstable propagation, and rooting rates. Based on a 40 year-long experience of study and application of culture conditions to large-scale plant production, this document summarizes the main problems (variability of the propagation rate, hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, plant re-growth) and solutions encountered to solve them, with means validated on many mericlones.

  14. Effect of Prunus avium roots on river bank strong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibalani, Ghassem Habibi; Bazhrang, Zia; Mohsenifar, Hani; Shibaei, Naeime; Joodi, Lila

    2008-04-15

    A pulling effect by side roots is one way in which roots help to side in-plane strong of a little depth soil mass. In contrast to the effect of vertically-enlarge roots, whereby soil is strengthened by an increase in its shear strength, the pulling effect strengthens the soil by increasing the tensile strength of the rooted soil zone. To verify whether or not a pulling effect exists in the root system of Prunus avium in the Roudsar, North Iran and to study the importance and size of this effect, a direct in situ test was led at a site in the Chaboksar Forests. The results from the site showed that, in the surface soil (0-30 cm), Side roots can provide a pull force of up to 490-712 N (Newtons) over a vertical cross-section area of 20-50 cm2, or an enhance in the pulling stability of the rooted soil by about 48.1%. The test results suggest that, together with the Prunus avium vertical roots, which keep the little depth rooted soil zone to the deep and more stable soil mass, the side roots of the Prunus avium, with their pulling effect, are able to make less against little depth instability in the forest slopes, such as little depth slide, to a certain degree.

  15. Assessment of hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts of Rosa persica Mich. flower on rat ileum spasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadraei, Hassan; Asghari, Gholamreza; Jalali, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that Rosa damascena hydroalcoholic extract has inhibitory effect at higher concentration but stimulatory action at lower concentrations on ileum. This could be due to the presence of stimulatory components in the extract. R. persica Mich. is another species which belongs to Rose family but so far there is no report about pharmacological action of its extract. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate inhibitory effect of hydroalcoholic and hexane extract of this plant on ileum contraction to see which type of extract would be more appropriate as antispasmodic agents. Hydroalcoholic and hexane extracts were prepared by percolation method. A section of rat ileum was suspended in an organ bath containing Tyrode's solution. The tissue was kept under 1 g tension at 37°C and continuously gassed with O2. Effects of R. persica extracts or vehicle were studied on ileum contractions induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS), KCl or acetylcholine (ACh) and compared with that of atropine. Hydroalcoholic extracts of R. persica (10-640 μg/ml) concentration dependently inhibited ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50 = 244 ± 35 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 129 ± 7.4 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 172 ± 18.7 μg/ml). Hexane extract of R. persica (10-320 μg/ml) concentration dependently inhibited ileum contraction induced by KCl (IC50 = 117 ± 12.4 μg/ml), ACh (IC50 = 78 ± 9.1 μg/ml) and EFS (IC50 = 67 ± 10.5 μg/ml). Atropine only inhibited the responses to ACh and EFS. The vehicle had no significant effect on ileum contractions. From this experiment it was concluded that R. persica extract have inhibitory effect on rat isolated ileum. Therefore, separation and identification of active component is recommended.

  16. [Effects of Beauveria bassiana on Myzus persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xu-mei; Song, Jin-xin; Fan, Mei-zhen; Li, Zeng-zhi

    2011-09-01

    A Beauveria bassiana strain Bb21 was isolated from naturally infected green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The effects of the strain on M. persicae and its two predaceous natural enemies Chrysoperla carnea (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) and Harmonia axyridis (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were investigated under laboratory conditions. Bb21 had strong pathogenicity to M. persicae, with the LD50 of 97 conidia x mm(-2) (45-191, 95% confidence interval), but was less pathogenic to the second instar nymph of C. carnea, with the LD50 of 1089 conidia x mm(-2). The LD50 for C. carnea was 10.2 times higher than that for M. persicae. The pathogenicity of Bb21 to H. axyridis was very weak, with a low infection rate of 13% even at a high concentration 5 x 10(8) conidia x mL(-1). The Bb21 at low conidia concentration had less effect on the developmental period and fecundity of the two predaceous natural enemies. However, when applied at the high concentration 5 x 10(8) spores x mL(-1), Bb21 shortened the larval stage of H. axyridis averagely by 1.4 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 33% and 14%, respectively, and shortened the larval stage of C. carnea averagely by 0.7 d and decreased the adult emergence rate and fecundity by 24% and 11%, respectively. Since the LD50 for green peach aphid was much lower than that for the two predaceous natural enemies, and had very low effect on the adult emergence rate and fecundity of the two predators at the concentration recommended for field spray, Bb21 could be applied as a biocontrol agent of M. persicae in the integrated management of pernicious organisms.

  17. Pollen morphology of the Maddenia clade of Prunus and its taxonomic and phylogenetic implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenting SHI; Jun WEN; Susan LUTZ

    2013-01-01

    Maddenia (Rosaceae) was long recognized as a distinct genus closely related to Prunus and was recently merged with the latter.The Maddenia clade of Prunus has been revised taxonomically with four species from eastern Asia recognized.Recent molecular studies have provided evidence that this group is nested within Prunus,having a close relationship with the Padus-Laurocerasus complex.To further test the phylogenetic position of Maddenia,this study investigates pollen morphology of all former Maddenia species and 28 other Prunus species,using scanning electron microscopy and light microscopy.The Prunus species sampled here represent major subgenera:Amygdalus,Cerasus,Laurocerasus,Padus,and Prunus s.s.We found that pollen grains of these groups are all monad and tricolporate with striate or rugulate sculpturing.The pollen evidence supports a close relationship between Maddenia and species of Padus and Laurocerasus subgroups (excluding the Pygeum group),all of which have elongated,thicker,and less directional muri.Pollen of the subgenera ofCerasus,Amygdalus,and Prunus has generally thinner,highly directional,and predominantly parallel muff.The pollen grains of the Pygeum subgroup are quite distinct from the other groups of Prunus.Pygeum pollen has rugulate exines with much shorter and rod-shaped muri.

  18. Aplicação de revestimentos comestíveis em pêssego (Prunus persica Use of edible coating in peaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle de Assis Jacometti

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a influência de revestimentos comestíveis sobre a vida-de-prateleira, perda de massa, atividade metabólica e contaminação microbiológicas em pêssegos in natura. Foram utilizados pêssegos brancos cv. Perola de Mairinque (IAC 769-8 revestidos com soluções de 1% de goma gelana (p/v e 1% goma gelana + 1% sorbitol (p/v, embalados em caixas de papelão e armazenados a 10ºC / 80-85% UR por 16 dias. Frutos sem revestimento serviram de controle. Os revestimentos à base de goma gelana e gelana+sorbitol não alteraram a atividade fisiológica dos pêssegos, medida através da taxa de respiração, teor de sólidos solúveis e acidez titulável ao longo da armazenagem. Não houve diferença entre as taxas de perda de massa, que ficaram em torno de 1,4g/100g.dia. Os revestimentos não alteraram a aceitação dos pêssegos em termos de sabor e em termos de aparência, o controle obteve notas superiores aos revestidos devida a opacidade que o revestimento conferiu aos frutos. Na contagem total de microrganismos aeróbios mesófilos e bolores e leveduras não houve diferença entre os tratamentos ao longo da armazenagem, mas em termos de microrganismos psicrotróficos os frutos revestidos apresentaram uma menor contagem em relação ao controle. Revestimentos à base de goma gelana e gelana+sorbitol não aumentaram a vida-de-prateleira de pêssegos armazenados sob refrigeração devido à composição do revestimento, que não reduziu a perda de massa nem a atividade fisiológica dos frutos.The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of edible coatings on shelf-life, weight loss, metabolic activity and microbial contamination of peaches in natura. White peaches cv. Perola de Mairinque (IAC 769-8 were coated with 1% gelan gum (p/v and 1% gelan gum + 1% sorbitol (p/v solutions, packed in paperboard box and stored at 10ºC/80-85% RH during 16 days. No coated fruits served as control. Gelan and gelan+sorbitol coatings had no effect on physiological activity of peaches, measured by respiration rates, total soluble solid content and total titratable acidity during storage. There was no difference among weight loss rates (~1.4 g/100g.day of all treatments. Edible coatings had no influence on flavor acceptance of the peaches but control fruits had higher scores than coated ones on appearance acceptance evaluation because the opacity caused by the coating. There was no difference among treatments in total count of aerobic mesophiles microorganisms and molds and yeasts during storage but for psychotropic microorganisms, coated fruits presented lower counts than control ones. Gelan and gelan+sorbitol based coatings have not extended shelf-life of cold stored peaches due to coating composition that did not reduced the weight loss and physiological metabolism of the fruits.

  19. Genotyping by Sequencing for SNP-Based Linkage Map Construction and QTL Analysis of Chilling Requirement and Bloom Date in Peach [Prunus persica (L. Batsch].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Gary Bielenberg

    Full Text Available Low-cost, high throughput genotyping methods are crucial to marker discovery and marker-assisted breeding efforts, but have not been available for many 'specialty crops' such as fruit and nut trees. Here we apply the Genotyping-By-Sequencing (GBS method developed for cereals to the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in a peach F2 mapping population. Peach is a genetic and genomic model within the Rosaceae and will provide a template for the use of this method with other members of this family. Our F2 mapping population of 57 genotypes segregates for bloom time (BD and chilling requirement (CR and we have extensively phenotyped this population. The population derives from a selfed F1 progeny of a cross between 'Hakuho' (high CR and 'UFGold' (low CR. We were able to successfully employ GBS and the TASSEL GBS pipeline without modification of the original methodology using the ApeKI restriction enzyme and multiplexing at an equivalent of 96 samples per Illumina HiSeq 2000 lane. We obtained hundreds of SNP markers which were then used to construct a genetic linkage map and identify quantitative trait loci (QTL for BD and CR.

  20. Radiação gama na conservação pós-colheita da nectarina (Prunus persica var. Nucipersica frigoconservada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neves Leandro Camargo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi desenvolvido no laboratório de Frutas e Hortaliças do Departamento de Gestão e Tecnologia Agroindustrial da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas - UNESP - Câmpus de Botucatu, tendo como objetivo principal a caracterização do comportamento da radiação gama, na conservação pós-colheita da nectarina cv. "Sunred". Os frutos foram colhidos no início do estádio de maturação, selecionados, limpos, pré-resfriados (4masculineC por 12 horas e submetidos a diferentes doses de radiação gama, constituindo assim os tratamentos: 1 0,0 kGy, 2 - 0,2 kGy, 3 - 0,4 kGy, 4 - 0,6 kGy, 5 - 0,8 kGy, sendo após armazenados em câmara fria com temperaturas de 0masculineC e 90-95% de UR, por 28 dias. As análises foram realizadas a cada sete dias, determinando-se o aspecto visual dos frutos, a perda de massa fresca, a firmeza de polpa, a acidez total titulável (ATT, os sólidos solúveis totais (STT e a razão STT/ATT. Após 28 dias de armazenamento, verificou-se que os frutos submetidos à dose de 0,4 kGy apresentaram o melhor aspecto visual, as menores perdas de massa fresca, e a maior firmeza de polpa, não ocorrendo, entretanto, variações significativas nos teores de acidez total titulável, sólidos solúveis totais e nos valores da razão SST/ATT.

  1. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong-Gi [Department of Applied Biology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong-Sun, E-mail: yhsuny@naver.co [Department of Food and Nutrition, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20+-3 deg. C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  2. Armazenamento de pêssegos (Prunus persica (L. Batsch, cv. Chiripá, em atmosfera controlada The storaging of peaches cv. Chiripá, in controlled atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILMAR ANTÔNIO NAVA

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar diferentes pressões parciais de O2 e CO2 durante o armazenamento em atmosfera controlada (AC sobre a qualidade físico-química de pêssegos, cv. Chiripá. As pressões parciais de gases avaliadas foram: 0,8kPaO2/3kPaCO2; 1kPaO2/3kPaCO2; 1kPaO2/4kPaCO2; 1kPaO2/5kPaCO2; 2kPaO2/6kPaCO2; 2kPaO2/7kPaCO2, 2kPaO2/8kPaCO2, ar/10kPaCO2 e tratamento-controle, mantido sob armazenamento refrigerado (AR. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições de 20 frutos. As avaliações foram realizadas após 4 e 8 semanas de armazenamento a -0,5ºC ± 0,2ºC, mais 2 dias a 20ºC. Os resultados evidenciaram que o controle de atmosfera reduz a degradação da clorofila da epiderme e a perda de peso, porém tem pouco efeito sobre a firmeza, teor de só lidos solúveis totais (SST e acidez titulável dos frutos. A pressão parcial de 1kPa de O2, associada a 3kPa de CO2, reduz a manifestação dos sintomas de lanosidade durante 8 semanas de armazenamento. A incidência de podridões dos frutos é reduzida quando armazenados sob a condição de 2kPa de O2, associada a 8kPa de CO2. Tanto o armazenamento refrigerado quanto o armazenamento sob atmosfera controlada mantêm boa qualidade dos frutos por quatro semanas a -0,5ºC, mais 2 dias a 20ºC. Oito semanas de armazenamento em AC é um período muito prolongado para uma satisfatória manutenção da qualidade de pêssegos da cultivar Chiripá. A elevada incidência de podridões e de lanosidade são as causas que mais contribuem para a redução da qualidade de pêssegos, cv. Chiripá, durante períodos prolongados de armazenamento.The experiment was carried out with the objective to evaluate different partial pressures of O2 and CO2 in controlled atmosphere storage on the quality 'Chiripá' peaches. The evaluated controlled atmospheres conditions were: 0,8kPaO2/3kPaCO2; 1kPaO2/3kPaCO2; 1kPaO2/4kPaCO2; 1kPaO2/5kPaCO2; 2kPaO2/6kPaCO2; 2kPaO2/7kPaCO2, 2kPaO2/8kPaCO2, air/10kPaCO2 and control treatment in cold storage. The experiment design was entirely randomized with 4 replications of 20 fruits. The evaluations were accomplished after 4 and 8 weeks of storage at -0,5ºC ± 0,2ºC plus 2 days at 20ºC. The results showed that controlled atmosphere reduces the degradation of the chlorophyll and the weight loss, but has a little effect on firmness, soluble solids and acidity. During long term storage 1kPa of O2, associated with 3kPa of CO2, prevents occurence of wooliness. The fruits deterioration was reduced in 2kPa of O2, associated with 8kPa of CO2. The cold storage, as well as controlled atmosphere storage, maintains good fruit quality for 4 weeks at -0,5ºC plus 2 days shelf life. Eight weeks controlled atmosphere storage period is too long to maintain good quality of peaches. The high incidence of rot and wooliness are the main causes that reduce peaches quality, Chiripá cv., during long term storage.

  3. DNA-based identification of Armillaria isolates from peach [Prunus persica (l.) batsch] orchards in méxico state, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruben D. Elias-Roman; Ned B. Klopfenstein; Mee-Sook Kim; Dionicio Alvarado-Rosales; John W. Hanna; Amy L. Ross-Davis; Remigio Anastacio Guzman-Plazola; Guillermo Calderon-Zavala; Antonio Mora-Aguilera

    2013-01-01

    A collaborative project between the Programa de Fitopatología, Colegio de Postgraduados, Texcoco, Edo. de México and the USDA Forest Service-RMRS, Moscow Forest Pathology Laboratory began in 2011 to identify which species of Armillaria are causing widespread and severe damage to the peach orchards from México State, México. We are employing a DNA-based approach in...

  4. The antitussive activity of polysaccharides from Althaea officinalis l., var. Robusta, Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules, and Prunus persica L., Batsch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutovska, M; Nosalova, G; Franova, S; Kardosova, A

    2007-01-01

    The therapy of pathological type of cough presents serious medical problem. The aim of experiments was to investigate polysaccacharide influence on experimentally induced cough. The purified and/or modified polysaccharides from the flowers and plants, characterized by chemical composition and molecular properties were subjected to tests for antitussive activity on cough, induced mechanically in conscious cats of both sexes. The results revealed that the tested polysaccharides exhibited statistically significant cough-suppressing activity, which was noticeably higher than that of the non-narcotic drug used in clinical practice to treat coughing. The most expressive antitussive activity was observed with the polysaccharide from marsh mallow, containing the highest proportion of the uronic acid constituent. Negative influence of the tested compounds on expectoration was negligible when compared to that of codeine. Antitussive activity of various plant polysaccharides was confirmed. These results allow ranging them among prospective antitussive agents (Tab. 2, Fig. 6, Ref. 15) Full Text (Free, PDF) www.bmj.sk.

  5. Inactivation of contaminated fungi and antioxidant effects of peach ( Prunus persica L. Batsch cv Dangeumdo) by 0.5-2 kGy gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Mi-Seon; Kim, Hong-Gi; Yook, Hong-Sun

    2010-04-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5-2 kGy) on the physicochemical properties of peaches was investigated during a 6-day storage at 20±3 °C. Gamma irradiation is able to inactivate the four pathogens, namely Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Rhizopus stolonifer var. stolonifer and Monilinia fructicola in peaches. Hardness significantly decreased with the increment of irradiation dose level whereas soluble solid and total polyphenol contents increased with increment of irradiation dose level. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity of the irradiated peach was higher than that of control, and its activity increased with increment of irradiation dose level. These results suggest that gamma irradiation of peaches improved antioxidant activity, but dramatically affects the hardness throughout the entire storage time.

  6. Study on pharmacokinetics of Amygdalin after oral administration of semen persicae extraction in rat plasma by HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Zhidan; Gao, Wenyuan; Ma, Chaoyi; Liu, Changxiao

    2011-01-01

    Semen Persicae was a traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of diseases such as inflammation and hyperlipemia. Amygdalin was one of the main active ingredients of this traditional Chinese medicine. In this paper, pharmacokinetic study was conducted to obtain pharmacokinetic parameters of amygadalin after oral administration of Semen Persicae extraction in rat plasma. HPLC-UV was used to determine the concentration of amygdalin in rat plasma at different time points after administratio...

  7. 单叶蔷薇Rosa persica Michx瘦果的生态特征和发芽研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺海洋; 上田; 善弘; 黑泽博; 小川良子; 西野

    2007-01-01

    本文对单叶蔷薇(Rosa persica Michx)的瘦果和其他蔷薇种的生态特征、生理机能和发芽进行了实验,尽管冷藏单叶蔷薇(Rosa persica Michx)的瘦果很容易发芽,在单叶蔷薇(Rosa persica Michx)的瘦果中ABA含量非常低,假设这样低的含量影响着易发芽性,单叶蔷薇(Rosa persica Michx)的瘦果的吸胀作用比R.multiflora var.adenochaeta的大很多。花开期的20天后瘦果果皮厚度增加。单叶蔷薇(Rosa persica Michx)的瘦果果皮的外表比R.multiflora var.adenochaeta厚的多,在受精后单叶蔷薇(Rosa persica Michx)外果皮的细胞是放射性(径向的)长形的。而其他种不是长形的。本文还讨论了果皮的结构和发芽的关系。

  8. Bioactivity-guided fractionation identifies amygdalin as a potent neurotrophic agent from herbal medicine Semen Persicae extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  9. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation Identifies Amygdalin as a Potent Neurotrophic Agent from Herbal Medicine Semen Persicae Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanbin Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2. A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway.

  10. Borrelia persica infection in dogs and cats: clinical manifestations, clinicopathological findings and genetic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Halperin, Tamar; Hershko, Yizhak; Kleinerman, Gabriela; Anug, Yigal; Abdeen, Ziad; Lavy, Eran; Aroch, Itamar; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-05-10

    Relapsing fever (RF) is an acute infectious disease caused by arthropod-borne spirochetes of the genus Borrelia. The disease is characterized by recurrent episodes of fever that concur with spirochetemia. The RF borrelioses include louse-borne RF caused by Borrelia recurrentis and tick-borne endemic RF transmitted by argasid soft ticks and caused by several Borrelia spp. such as B. crocidurae, B. coriaceae, B. duttoni, B. hermsii, B. hispanica and B. persica. Human infection with B. persica is transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani and has been reported from Iran, Israel, Egypt, India, and Central Asia. During 2003-2015, five cats and five dogs from northern, central and southern Israel were presented for veterinary care and detected with borrelia spirochetemia by blood smear microscopy. The causative infective agent in these animals was identified and characterized by PCR from blood and sequencing of parts of the flagellin (flab), 16S rRNA and glycerophosphodiester phosphodiestrase (GlpQ) genes. All animals were infected with B. persica genetically identical to the causative agent of human RF. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that DNA sequences from these pet carnivores clustered together with B. persica genotypes I and II from humans and O. tholozani ticks and distinctly from other RF Borrelia spp. The main clinical findings in cats included lethargy, anorexia, anemia in 5/5 cats and thrombocytopenia in 4/5. All dogs were lethargic and anorectic, 4/5 were febrile and anemic and 3/5 were thrombocytopenic. Three dogs were co-infected with Babesia spp. The animals were all treated with antibiotics and the survival rate of both dogs and cats was 80 %. The cat and dog that succumbed to disease died one day after the initiation of antibiotic treatment, while survival in the others was followed by the rapid disappearance of spirochetemia. This is the first report of disease due to B. persica infection in cats and the first case series in dogs. Infection was

  11. Recognition of MIR Data of Semen Armeniacae Amarum and Semen Persicae Using Discrete Wavelet Transformation and BP-Artificial Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Cun-Gui; Yu, Peng; Wu, Chang-Shun; Shou, Jia-Ni

    2012-01-01

    Horizontal attenuation total reflection-Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (HATR-FT-IR) is used to measure the Mid-IR (MIR) of semen armeniacae amarum and its confusable varieties semen persicae. In order to extrude the difference between semen armeniacae amarum and semen persicae, discrete wavelet transformation (DWT) is used to decompose the MIR of semen armeniacae amarum and semen persicae. Two main scales are selected as the feature extracting space in the DWT domain. According ...

  12. Study on Presence of Borrelia persica in Soft Ticks in Western Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Barmaki

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: A molecular survey was conducted to investigate the presence of pathogenic Borrelia persica species caus­ing the tick borne relapsing fever (TBRF in Takistan district Qazvin Province, western Iran. Methods: A number of 1021 soft ticks were collected from 31 villages including previously reported infected and none-infected TBRF cases and individually examined for the presence of B. persica DNA by conventional PCR target­ing the 16S rRNA. Results: A total of 1021 soft ticks of three species of Ornithodouros tholozani (120: 11.75%, O. lahorensis (461: 45.15% and Argas persicus (440: 43.1% were collected and tested against Borrelia infection. Soft ticks were more preva­lent (67% in infected areas than none infected areas. The rate O. tholozani in infected areas was much greater (29 times than none infected areas. Ninety seven percent of soft ticks in none infected areas were of O. tholozani. Six­teen (16.7% ticks of tested (n=95 O. tholozani were infected with B. persica. Three (1.3% out of 205 soft ticks of O. lahorensis were positive for Borrelia sp., and no infection was observed in A. persicus. TaqI RFLP analysis and se­quence analysis of the positive PCR products showed the presence of B. persica. The RFLP analysis showed that the positive ticks of O. lahorensis were infected with unknown Borrelia species. Conclusion: This study showed that although there were no TBRF cases in Takisan, but still infected O. tholozani, the known vector of TBRF, presented in the region. Control measures needs to be fulfilled in Thakisan. 

  13. Salvadora persica agro-ecological suitability for oil production in Argentine dryland salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falasca, Silvia; Pitta-Alvarez, Sandra; del Fresno, Carolina Miranda

    2015-12-15

    One of the major causes of crop stress is soil or water salinity. Thus, selection of the best species for cultivation in semiarid and arid climates is fundamental. Salvadora persica is an evergreen perennial halophyte that can grow under extreme conditions, from very dry environments to highly saline soils. Based on international bibliography, the authors outlined an agro-ecological zoning model to determine the potential cultivation zones for S. persica in Argentina. This model may be applied to any part of the world, using the agro-ecological limits presented in this work. All the maps were developed by the implementation of a geographic information system (GIS) that can be updated by the further incorporation of complementary information, with the consequent improvement of the original database. The overlap of the agroclimatic suitability map on the drylands' saline soils and the drylands' alkaline soils maps, determined the agro-ecological zoning. Since some areas in the agro-ecological zoning can overlap with land that is already assigned for other uses, protected areas, current land use/cover of the different zones, and urban areas maps were incorporated into the GIS and subtracted by a mask. This resulted in the delimitation of "potential cultivation zoning", thus avoiding possible conflicts surrounding the use of land and making the agro-ecological zonation more efficient. There is a broad agro-ecological zone for cultivation of S. persica that extends from Northern Argentina to approximately 41° South latitude, under dry-subhumid to semiarid climates. Lands classified with different degrees of suitability in the potential cultivation zoning could be used for production of this species for energy purposes on lands that are either unsuitable for food production or currently assigned for other purposes. This paper represents pioneering work since there are no previous studies concerning the introduction of S. persica in Argentina.

  14. Effects of 『Persicae Semen』 on the Hyperlipidemia Rats Induced by Triton WR-1339

    OpenAIRE

    Dae-In Kang; Kyeong-Sun Soh; Chan-Gil Jeong; Kwang-Ho Kim

    2004-01-01

    Objective : In order to study effects of 「Persicae Semen」 on the hyperlipidemia rats induced by Triton WR, we have made hyperlipidemia rats by administering Triton WR-1339 for 3 days, then have administered. The results were summerized as follows : 1. The Total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, Free fatty acid, phospholipid and CRF(Cardiak Risk Factor) by hypercholesteremic rats injected by Triton WR-1339 of the herb-Acupuncture group were decreased as compared with those of the ...

  15. Serum biochemical study of major elements of captive Asiatic Lions Panthera leo persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G. Jani

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The serum biochemistry of captive Asiatic Lions Panthera leo persica in India has not been studied in depths. We report here the results of an analysis of a large number of individuals with the aim of providing reference ranges for major serological parameters in male and female Asiatic lions in health and diseases. This information will be of use to zoo veterinarians and pathologists.

  16. Inferring the population structure of Myzus persicae in diverse agroecosystems using microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Juan Antonio; La-Spina, Michelangelo; Guirao, Pedro; Cánovas, Fernando

    2013-08-01

    Diverse agroecosystems offer phytophagous insects a wide choice of host plants. Myzus persicae is a polyphagous aphid common in moderate climates. During its life cycle it alternates between primary and secondary hosts. A spatial genetic population structure may arise due to environmental factors and reproduction modes. The aim of this work was to determine the spatial and temporal genetic population structure of M. persicae in relation to host plants and climatic conditions. For this, 923 individuals of M. persicae collected from six plant families between 2005 and 2008 in south-eastern Spain were genotyped for eight microsatellite loci. The population structure was inferred by neighbour-joining, analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) and Bayesian analyses. Moderate polymorphism was observed for the eight loci in almost all the samples. No differences in the number of alleles were observed between primary and secondary hosts or between geographical areas. The proportion of unique genotypes found in the primary host was similar in the north (0.961 ± 0.036) and the south (0.987 ± 0.013), while in the secondary host it was higher in the north (0.801 ± 0.159) than in the south (0.318 ± 0.063). Heterozygosity excess and linkage disequilibrium suggest a high representation of obligate parthenogens in areas with warmer climate and in the secondary hosts. The F ST-values pointed to no genetic differentiation of M. persicae on the different plant families. F ST-values, AMOVA and Bayesian model-based cluster analyses pointed to a significant population structure that was related to primary and secondary hosts. Differences between primary and secondary hosts could be due to the overrepresentation of parthenogens on herbaceous plants.

  17. Persicasulphide C, a new sulphur-containing derivative from Ferula persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iranshahi, Mehrdad; Noroozi, Saeed; Behravan, Javad; Karimi, Gholamreza; Schneider, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    A new sulphur-containing compound, persicasulphide C, was isolated from the roots of Ferula persica, and its structure was characterised by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy as well as HRMS. In addition, closer inspection of NMR spectra of the previously reported polysulphides (persicasulphides A and B) revealed that their structures are slightly different from those reported. In this article, the correct structures of persicasulphides A and B are also presented.

  18. Evaluation of the anxiolytic effect of Nepeta persica Boiss. in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, S. E.; Mohammadi, A.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of hydroalcoholic extract (HE) of Nepeta persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae) on the elevated plus-maze (EPM) model of anxiety. The extract of arial parts of the plant was administered intraperitoneally to male NMRI mice, at various doses, 30 min before behavioural evaluation. The HE extract of N. persica at the dose of 50 mg kg−1 significantly increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM. This dose of plant extract affected neither animal's locomotor activity nor ketamine-induced sleeping time. The 50 mg kg−1 dose of the plant extract seemed to be the optimal dose in producing the anxiolytic effects, lower or higher doses of the plant produce either sedative or stimulant effects. At 100 mg kg−1, the plant extract increased the locomotor activity. These results suggested that the extract of N. persica at dose of 50 mg kg−1 possess anxiolytic effect with less sedative and hypnotic effects than that of diazepam and causes a non-specific stimulation at 100 mg kg−1. PMID:18604252

  19. Rapid method to screen resistance of potato plants against Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) in the laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Vincent; Saguez, Julien; Vincent, Charles; Giordanengo, Philippe

    2004-12-01

    With the objective to develop a potato, Solanum tuberosum L., resistance program against aphids, we propose a rapid screening method with Myzus persicae (Sulzer) in the laboratory. We aimed to optimize the duration of the whole procedure and to decrease the frequency of measurements. In a first experiment, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) values were compared between adult aphids reared throughout their entire life and adults reared only during a period equivalent to their prereproductive period. No significant differences were observed. In a second experiment, four groups of aphids were distinguished according to the sampling frequency, i.e., those whose biological parameters were evaluated every single, second, third, and fourth day. Except for the fourth-day experiment, the r(m) values estimated on aphids reared on the three potato lines were not significantly different whatever sampling frequency of single, second, or third day used to check aphids. Thus, screening efforts in laboratory can be largely optimized by evaluating adult aphids only during a period equivalent to their prereproductive period and assessing M. persicae populations every third day. Our method is reliable and adapted to screen a large number of potato plants against M. persicae because it allows an average 70% reduction in the time required for the whole experimental process.

  20. Differential aphicidal effects of chitinase inhibitors on the polyphagous homopteran Myzus persicae (Sulzer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguez, Julien; Dubois, Françoise; Vincent, Charles; Laberche, Jean-Claude; Sangwan-Norreel, Brigitte S; Giordanengo, Philippe

    2006-12-01

    Four chitinase inhibitors, cyclo-(Proline-Tyrosine), cyclo-(Histidine-Proline), allosamidin and psammaplin A, were selected for in vitro feeding experiments with the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), under controlled photoperiod and temperature conditions. Artificial diets were used to provide chitinase inhibitors at 10, 50 and 100 microg mL(-1) to M. persicae. Except for cyclo-(Proline-Tyrosine), which did not modify aphid demographic parameters, chitinase inhibitors induced differential aphicidal effects on M. persicae. At all doses, cyclo-(Histidine-Proline) induced significant effects affecting daily fecundity, intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) and doubling time of population. When compared with the control diet, allosamidin decreased nymph survival and daily fecundity, increasing the doubling time of population from 1 to 1.5 days. Psammaplin A was the most toxic inhibitor when delivered via artificial diet, as it induced the death of all aphids reared at 50 and 100 microg mL(-1). The results demonstrate the potential use of chitinase inhibitors as aphid management tools.

  1. The evolution of insecticide resistance in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Chris; Puinean, Alin M; Zimmer, Christoph T; Denholm, Ian; Field, Linda M; Foster, Stephen P; Gutbrod, Oliver; Nauen, Ralf; Slater, Russell; Williamson, Martin S

    2014-08-01

    The peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae is a globally distributed crop pest with a host range of over 400 species including many economically important crop plants. The intensive use of insecticides to control this species over many years has led to populations that are now resistant to several classes of insecticide. Work spanning over 40 years has shown that M. persicae has a remarkable ability to evolve mechanisms that avoid or overcome the toxic effect of insecticides with at least seven independent mechanisms of resistance described in this species to date. The array of novel resistance mechanisms, including several 'first examples', that have evolved in this species represents an important case study for the evolution of insecticide resistance and also rapid adaptive change in insects more generally. In this review we summarise the biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying resistance in M. persicae and the insights study of this topic has provided on how resistance evolves, the selectivity of insecticides, and the link between resistance and host plant adaptation. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Abscisic acid deficiency increases defence responses against Myzus persicae in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillwig, Melissa S; Chiozza, Mariana; Casteel, Clare L; Lau, Siau Ting; Hohenstein, Jessica; Hernández, Enrique; Jander, Georg; MacIntosh, Gustavo C

    2016-02-01

    Comparison of Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) gene expression induced by Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) feeding, aphid saliva infiltration and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment showed a significant positive correlation. In particular, ABA-regulated genes are over-represented among genes that are induced by M. persicae saliva infiltration into Arabidopsis leaves. This suggests that the induction of ABA-related gene expression could be an important component of the Arabidopsis-aphid interaction. Consistent with this hypothesis, M. persicae populations induced ABA production in wild-type plants. Furthermore, aphid populations were smaller on Arabidopsis aba1-1 mutants, which cannot synthesize ABA, and showed a significant preference for wild-type plants compared with the mutant. Total free amino acids, which play an important role in aphid nutrition, were not altered in the aba1-1 mutant line, but the levels of isoleucine (Ile) and tryptophan (Trp) were differentially affected by aphids in wild-type and mutant plants. Recently, indole glucosinolates have been shown to promote aphid resistance in Arabidopsis. In this study, 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate was more abundant in the aba1-1 mutant than in wild-type Arabidopsis, suggesting that the induction of ABA signals that decrease the accumulation of defence compounds may be beneficial for aphids. © 2015 BSPP AND JOHN WILEY & SONS LTD.

  3. Evaluation of the Anxiolytic Effect of Nepeta persica Boiss. in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rabbani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anxiolytic effects of hydroalcoholic extract (HE of Nepeta persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae on the elevated plus-maze (EPM model of anxiety. The extract of arial parts of the plant was administered intraperitoneally to male NMRI mice, at various doses, 30 min before behavioural evaluation. The HE extract of N. persica at the dose of 50 mg kg−1 significantly increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms of the EPM. This dose of plant extract affected neither animal's locomotor activity nor ketamine-induced sleeping time. The 50 mg kg−1 dose of the plant extract seemed to be the optimal dose in producing the anxiolytic effects, lower or higher doses of the plant produce either sedative or stimulant effects. At 100 mg kg−1, the plant extract increased the locomotor activity. These results suggested that the extract of N. persica at dose of 50 mg kg−1 possess anxiolytic effect with less sedative and hypnotic effects than that of diazepam and causes a non-specific stimulation at 100 mg kg−1.

  4. [Use of silicon as inductor of the resistance in potato to Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Flávia B; Moraes, Jair C; dos Santos, Custódio D; Antunes, Cristiana S

    2008-01-01

    The aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is an important pest of potato and causes direct harm, due to the quantity of sap extracted and for being vector of important phytovirus. This work was carried out to evaluate the action of silicon as a resistance inducer of potato to M. persicae. Four treatments were tried: foliar fertilization with silicon acid at 1%; soil fertilization with 250 ml silicic acid solution at 1%; foliar fertilization with silicon acid at 1% + soil fertilization with 250 ml silicic acid solution at 1%; and a control. The treatments were applied thirty days after the explants emergence. Fifteen days after the application of the treatments, feeding preference and some biological aspects of the aphids were evaluated. After, the content of tannins and lignin present in the leaves and the activity of the enzymes peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were also determined. The silicon fertilization did not affect the preference of the aphids; however it reduced fecundity and the rate of population growth of the insects. The lignin percentage increased in the leaves of plants fertilized with silicon via soil and/or foliar and the percentage of tannins increased only in the leaves fertilized via soil plus foliar. The silicon acted as a resistance inducer to M. persicae in potato.

  5. Uso de cuatro extractos organicos para el control del pulgon verde (Myzus persicae Sulz (ING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernán Rodríguez Navas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts of leaves and stems of Neurolaena lobata; leaves, stems and fruits of Momordica charantia, wood of Quassia amara and seeds of Annona muricata, were tested regarding their effectiveness for control of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae. In a first stage, groups of 10 individuals of M. persicae were placed inside petri dishes together with a small and slight piece of synthetic cloth soaked with either substance extracted. Several concentrations were used. After two hours; more than 50% of the individuals had been killed in every petri dish, which allowed all extracts to pass on to the second stage. The second stage consisted of two experiments. The first one was done in spring at a greenhouse day temperature of 10°C,  using only the first three substances, each of them diluted 1:100. The second one was conducted in Summer at about 25°C with the four substances. Distilled water acted as a control in both experiments. Tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum infested with M. persicae were sprayed with the solutions and survivors counted 24 and 72 hours later. In the first experiment Q amara  and M. charantia had 78% and 77% effectiveness respectively, which were statiscally (P< 0.05 higher than that of N. lobata  (63%. In the second experiment, because of the warmer weather, they improved their performance, specially N. lobata (98%. This and A. muricata were found statistically (P< 0.05 higher than the others.

  6. Effect of Natural β-Glucosidase Inhibitors in Reducing Toxicity of Amygdalin in Persicae Semen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Li, Xia; Yang, Honggai; Mao, Xinhui; Wang, Juan; Gao, Wenyuan

    2017-05-01

    Amygdalin can be decomposed into hydrocyanic acid, which is the primary source of Persicae Semen toxicity, by gut flora. Here, the inhibitory activity of β-glucosidase for test herb extracts was first determined and compared. In turn, optimization of the ratio of substrate and inhibitor in vitro and LD50 values of extracts, serum and liver contents of amygdalin in vivo was measured. Lycii Cortex was found to be the best inhibitory activity for β-glucosidase. The ratio of amygdalin-to-Lycii Cortex extract of 7.19:8.18 (mmol L(-1) /mg mL(-1) ) can be relatively suitable for inhibiting β-glucosidase activity in test in vitro reaction system. After mixed with Lycii Cortex extract, the toxicity of Persicae Semen ethanol extract in mice is significantly reduced and more amygdalin can be absorbed into the bloodstream. The study provides useful information for reducing toxicity of Persicae Semen and suggests how to better use these natural β-glucosidase inhibitors in the utilization of glycosides and aglycones. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Genetic Relationships among Prunus mume var. pendula Using AFLP Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Jun; Zhang Qixiang; Ru Guangxin; Mao Qingshan; Yan Xiaolan; Lan Yanping

    2003-01-01

    Genetic relationships among Prunus mume var. pendula were studied by using AFLP markers. 18 accessions representing 14 cultivars ofPrunus murne var. pendula were selected from the germplasm collection at the Research Center of China Mci Flower. Seven Mse I-EcoR I AFLP primer combinations revealed 450 legible bands, and 269 of which were polymorphic markers. A similarity matrix was prepared using the simple matching coefficient of similarity and Nei's (72) distance coefficient. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated the genetic relationships of the cultivars. The information given by AFLP markers was basically consistent with the morphological classification and the evolutionary history of the morphotypes, and roughly supported the new revised classification system for Chinese Mci Cultivars. But there were still several exceptions: 1) the 'Guhong Chuizhi' inserted between the 'Tiaoxue Chuizhi' and the 'Danfen Chuizhi'; 2) the 'Wufu Chuizhi' kept off the Pink Pendant Form, and the 'Moshan Chuizhi' was removed from Viridiflora Pendant Form; 3) the 'Danbi Chuizhi' and the 'Shuangbi Chuizhi' of Viridiflora Pendant Form got together well but fell within the Pink Pendant Form.

  8. Antibacterial efficacy of Salvadora persica as a cleansing teeth towards Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli colonies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erlina Sih Mahanani

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Salvadora persica is a traditional chewing stick for cleaning teeth that it is known Siwak. Several studies have demonstrated the antimicrobial effects of Salvadora persica. Purpose: This study was aimed to examine the effectiveness of Salvadora persica in several modified preparation against the salivary Streptoccocus mutans and Lactobacilli. Methods: A single-blind, randomized clinical trial study with crossover design was used. The study comprised of 5 groups, per group consisted of 14 healthy dental students who had good oral hygiene. Each participant was given 5 intervention to clean their teeth using, electric toothbrush modified with siwak, electric toothbrush with siwak toothpaste (colgate kayu sugi toothpaste, electric toothbrush with general toothpaste (colgate total toothpaste, original siwak chewing stick and normal saline. The wash out periode each intervention was 3 days. Patients’ saliva was used to quantify the levels of Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli using caries risk test (CRT kit from Vivadent. Results: The results showed that there was a reduction in Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacilli risk score after cleansing different intervention except electric toothbrush modified with siwak. However, there was no significant difference for Streptococcus mutans (p=0.158 and Lactobacilli (p=0.396 risk score reduction when comparison was done between the groups. Conclusion: The original siwak chewing stick has antimicrobial effects similar to toothbrushing with general toothpaste and salvadora persica toothpaste. However, electric toothbrush modified with siwak has no effect on microbial reduction.Latar belakang: Salvadora persica adalah pembersih gigi tradisional yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan Siwak. Beberapa penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Salvadora persica memiliki daya antibakteri. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui efektivitas Salvadora persica dalam berbagai bentuk sediaan untuk membersihkan

  9. Sublethal Effects of Cyantraniliprole and Imidacloprid on Feeding Behavior and Life Table Parameters of Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xianyi; He, Yingqin; Wu, Jiaxing; Tang, Yuanman; Gu, Jitao; Ding, Wei; Zhang, Yongqiang

    2016-08-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an agricultural pest that seriously infests many crops worldwide. This study used electrical penetration graphs (EPGs) and life table parameters to estimate the sublethal effects of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid on the feeding behavior and hormesis of M. persicae The sublethal concentrations (LC30) of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid against adult M. persicae were 4.933 and 0.541 mg L(-1), respectively. The feeding data obtained from EPG analysis indicated that the count probes and number of short probes (imidacloprid-treated plants. In addition, the phloem-feeding behavior of M persicae was significantly impaired on fed tobacco plants treated with cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid at LC30 Analysis of life table parameters indicated that the growth and reproduction of F1 generation aphids were significantly affected when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole and imidacloprid. The nymphal period, female longevity, total preoviposition period, and mean generation time were significantly prolonged when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of imidacloprid. By comparison, these parameters were prolonged but not significantly in the cyantraniliprole treatment. The fecundity and gross reproductive rate were significantly increased in the treated groups. Similarly, the net reproductive rate was greater in the treated group than the control group. Our results indicate that treatment with LC30 of imidacloprid and cyantraniliprole would lead to a hormetic response of M. persicae, with higher likelihood of occurrence when initial adults were exposed to LC30 of cyantraniliprole.

  10. Amygdalin isolated from Semen Persicae (Tao Ren) extracts induces the expression of follistatin in HepG2 and C2C12 cell lines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Chuanbin; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    .... The aqueous extracts of seven ISF-1 ingredients including Semen Persicae (Tao Ren) and the S. Persicae-derived fractions were assayed for the induction of follistatin mRNA expression in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells by RT-PCR...

  11. Simple sequence repeat-based assessment of genetic relationships among Prunus rootstocks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turkoglu, Z; Bilgener, S; Ercisli, S; Bakir, M; Koc, A; Akbulut, M; Gercekcioglu, R; Gunes, M; Esitken, A

    2010-01-01

    Ten SSR loci, previously developed for Prunus, were analyzed to examine genetic relationships among 23 rootstock candidates for sweet and sour cherries, of the species P. avium, P. cerasus, P. mahaleb, and P. angustifolia...

  12. Screening of natural organic volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. honey: coumarin and vomifoliol as nonspecific biomarkers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jerković, Igor; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Staver, Mladenka Malenica

    2011-01-01

    ...) were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing...

  13. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  14. Physicochemical characterisation of four cherry species (Prunus spp.) grown in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jinping; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-15

    The physicochemical characteristics of four cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus pseudocerasus and Prunus tomentosa) were evaluated. Inter-species variability was greater than intra-species differences. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars, and malic acid was the main organic acid in all species. Combining HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS technologies, total 25 phenolic components were preliminarily identified. P. avium was characterised by high fruit weight, edible proportion, sugar content and low acid content, which made it suitable for fresh eating. P. cerasus was high in acid content and anthocyanins content, making it a good processing species. P. pseudocerasus had rich flavonols varieties and high proportion of hydrocinnamic acids. P. tomentosa was characterised by high total phenolics content (especially flavonols and tannins) and antioxidant activity, indicating a great developmental potential as a health fruit. The results of the present study might provide theoretical guidance for the further development and utilisation of cherries.

  15. Preliminary study on polymorphism of ACO gene in six varieties of sweet cherry ( Prunus avium )%6个甜樱桃品种ACO基因多态性的检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王廿; 张开春; 王晶; 张晓明; 闫国华

    2012-01-01

    乙烯在植物果实成熟过程中起着重要的作用,ACC合酶(1-aminocyclop ropane-1-carboxylic acid synthase,ACS)和ACC氧化酶(1-aminocyclop ropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase,ACO)是植物乙烯生物合成途径的限速酶。通过DNA序列分析,以不同果实成熟期的6个甜樱桃品种(Prunus avium L.)为材料,检测ACO基因的多态性。获得甜樱桃ACO基因约1kh,与桃(Ppersica)ACO基因(GenBank登录号:AF532976)序列的同源性达96%,其预测的氨基酸序列与桃、梅(Pmume)、美洲李(Parmeniaca)和欧洲李(Pdomestica)等ACO的氨基酸序列同源性超过95%。该片段包括4个外显子和4个内含子,内含子符合GT—AT规律。用DNAMAN进行多序列比对分别在内含子2和内含子4内发现2个多态性简单重复序列(AT)n。内含子2有3种片段:即(AT)6、(AT)7和(AT)8;内含子4有2种片段,即(AT)5和(AT)6,组合后共得到4种ACO单倍型。研究在甜樱桃ACO基因座上发现2个SSR标记,为进一步研究4CD基因多态性与果实成熟期相关性奠定基础。%Ethylene plays an important role in ripening of plants. ACC synthease ( 1-aminocyclop ropane- 1-carboxylic acid synthase, ACS) and ACC oxidase (1-aminocyclop ropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidase, ACO) are rate-limiting enzymes in ethylene biosynthesis in plants. DNA sequence analysis was applied to detect the polymorphism of A CO gene in 6 sweet cherry varieties (Prunus avium L.) of different maturity time. The DNA sequences of partial A CO gene about 1 kb were obtained from sweet cherry (P. avium). The identity of these DNA sequences was 96% with A CO of peach (P. persica). The identity of predicted amino acid sequences was 95% with the amino acid sequence of ACO in P. persica, Prunus mume, Prunus armeniaca, and Prunus domestica. These fragments contained four extrons and four introns which has GT-AG sequence. Two SSR markers

  16. Two Types of New Natural Materials for Fruit Vinegar in Prunus Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To increase Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica and P. domestica × P. armeniaca added value; three natural fruit vinegars were designed. The results showed the nutrition of Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca cultivar Fengweimeigui vinegar (T1 had high minerals and microelements, especially the Ca and Mg reached to the 150.00mg/L, 85.40 mg/L, respectively; the vinegar of Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica cultivar Zhongren No.1 (T2 not only have rich Na (2800.00 mg/L, P (123.00 mg/L, but also have plentiful amino acid that content reached to 200.08 mg/L. However, the mixture vinegar (T3 with pulps from Prunus domestica × P. armeniaca and Prunus armeniaca × P. sibirica had the middle nutrient contents, but the property was balanced. We therefore conclude that solid fermentation is a suitable method to preserve nutrients and value-added for Prunus plants fruit, and three types vinegars are suitable for different age people, and the difference nutrient contents and typical characteristic indicate that three vinegars are competitive products in market.

  17. The Effects of Chlorhexidine and Persica Mouthwashes on Colonization of Streptococcus mutans on Fixed Orthodontics O-rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Fereshteh; Danesh Ardakani, Mohammad; Zandi, Hengameh; Heidarzadeh, Hamed; Moshafi, Mohammad Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Fixed orthodontic appliances predispose patients to dental caries. Use of mouthrinses has been introduced as the effective way for reducing dental plaque accumulation. Purpose The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Persica mouthwash and Chlorhexidine (CHX) on colonization of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) on fixed orthodontic O-rings. Materials and Method Thirty patients with fixed orthodontic appliances and proper oral hygiene were randomly provided by CHX and Persica and trained to use these mouthwashes according to the manufacturer’s instruction. Sampling was carried out right before and 4 weeks after mouthrinsing treatment. The mean amounts of S. mutans colonies in these groups were compared. Results Comparison of S. mutans colonization within each group revealed both mouthrinses to be efficient. However, this difference was found to be significant only in CHX group. Conclusion Persica cannot be a good alternative mouthwash and patients on orthodontic treatment are still recommended to use CHX. PMID:25759859

  18. Dinâmica populacional e incidência de moscas-das-frutas e parasitoides em cultivares de pessegueiros (Prunus Persica L. Batsch no município de presidente prudente-sp Population dynamic and occurrence of fruit flies and their parasitoids in peach cultivars (Prunus persica L. Batsch in presidente prudente municipality, sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Nalesso Marangoni Montes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar a dinâmica populacional e registrar a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em cultivares de pessegueiro Tropical, Talismã, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 e Doçura 2, enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos 'Okinawa' e Umê, em Presidente Prudente-SP. Foram realizadas as correlações da dinâmica populacional com a temperatura e a precipitação, e também a infestação com as características químicas dos frutos, Sólidos Solúveis e Acidez Titulável. No período de julho de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, a dinâmica populacional de moscas-das-frutas foi obtida através de coletas semanais de moscas-das-frutas em armadilhas McPhail, e a incidência foi determinada através da coleta de 30 frutos/planta/cultivar. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Ceratitis capitata foi predominante nas cultivares de pessegueiros estudadas. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre população de moscas-das-frutas e as variáveis de temperatura e precipitação, e sólidos solúveis e ácidez titulável. Entre as cultivares de pêssego, Aurora 2 apresentou maior infestação por C. capitata, da ordem de 22 e 23% nos anos 2004 e 2006, respectivamente. Também foi registrada a incidência de Neosilba spp. em frutos de pêssego. Doryctobracon areolatus (Braconidae, Tetrastichus giffardianus (Eulophidae e Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae foram recuperados de pupários de Tephritidae.The objectives of this research were evaluate the population dynamic and diversity of fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritoidea on peach cultivars Tropical, Talisma, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 and Doçura 2, under the rootstocks 'Okinawa' and Umê, in Presidente Prudente, São Paulo, Brazil. The dynamic population of fruit flies was correlated with temperature and precipitation. The fruit fly infestation was correlated with chemical characteristics of fruits. During July 2004 to December 2006, the fruit fly population was monitored weekly using McPhail traps. The natural infestation was estimated from 30 fruits of each cultivar collected per year. The experiment was conducted under randomized design with five replications. Ceratitis capitata was dominant on peach cultivars for the both rootstocks. No significant correlations were detected between the fruit fly densities and the temperature and precipitation, and the variables soluble solids and titratable acidity. Among peach cultivars, Aurora 2 presented the highest infestation by C. capitata, reaching 22% and 23%, in 2004 and 2006, respectively. Neosilba spp. (Lonchaeidae was also recovered from peaches. Doryctobracon areolatus (Braconidae, Tetrastichus giffardianus (Eulophidae and Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae were recovered from Tephritidae pulparium.

  19. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2011-11-01

    In this study the abundance and location of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was determined in the flesh and skin of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivar Durone Nero II during development. PEPCK was not present in young fruit but appeared in both tissues as the fruit increased in size. In these there was no net dissimilation of malic acid, which accounts for the bulk of their organic acid contents when PEPCK was present. To assist in understanding the function of PEPCK, the abundance of a number of other enzymes was determined. These enzymes were aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco). A potential role for PEPCK in the regulation of pH and the utilization of malate in gluconeogenesis in the flesh and skin of cherries is presented.

  20. Influence of cultivar and processing on cherry (Prunus avium) allergenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primavesi, L; Brenna, O V; Pompei, C; Pravettoni, V; Farioli, L; Pastorello, E A

    2006-12-27

    Oral allergy syndrome is an immediate food allergic event that affects lips, mouth, and pharynx, is often triggered by fruits and vegetables, and may be associated with pollinosis. Here, we report on the allergenic pattern of different varieties of cherry (Prunus avium) and results obtained by applying several technological processes to the selected varieties. Whole cherries were submitted to chemical peeling, thermal treatment, and syruping processes, and the relative protein extracts were analyzed by in vitro (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis) and in vivo tests (skin prick test). Electrophoretic analyses demonstrated that there was no marked difference among cherry cultivars. Chemical peeling successfully removed Pru av 3, a lipid transfer protein (LTP) responsible for oral allergy syndrome in patients without pollinosis, leading to the industrial production of cherry hypoallergenic derivatives. Furthermore, the syruping process removed almost all allergenic proteins to whom patients with pollinosis are responsive. In vivo tests confirmed electrophoretic results.

  1. Insecticide resistance mechanisms in the green peach aphid Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae I: A transcriptomic survey.

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    Andrea X Silva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Insecticide resistance is one of the best examples of rapid micro-evolution found in nature. Since the development of the first synthetic insecticide in 1939, humans have invested considerable effort to stay ahead of resistance phenotypes that repeatedly develop in insects. Aphids are a group of insects that have become global pests in agriculture and frequently exhibit insecticide resistance. The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, has developed resistance to at least seventy different synthetic compounds, and different insecticide resistance mechanisms have been reported worldwide. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further characterize this resistance, we analyzed genome-wide transcriptional responses in three genotypes of M. persicae, each exhibiting different resistance mechanisms, in response to an anti-cholinesterase insecticide. The sensitive genotype (exhibiting no resistance mechanism responded to the insecticide by up-regulating 183 genes primarily ones related to energy metabolism, detoxifying enzymes, proteins of extracellular transport, peptidases and cuticular proteins. The second genotype (resistant through a kdr sodium channel mutation, up-regulated 17 genes coding for detoxifying enzymes, peptidase and cuticular proteins. Finally, a multiply resistant genotype (carrying kdr and a modified acetylcholinesterase, up-regulated only 7 genes, appears not to require induced insecticide detoxification, and instead down-regulated many genes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study suggests strongly that insecticide resistance in M. persicae is more complex that has been described, with the participation of a broad array of resistance mechanisms. The sensitive genotype exhibited the highest transcriptional plasticity, accounting for the wide range of potential adaptations to insecticides that this species can evolve. In contrast, the multiply resistant genotype exhibited a low transcriptional plasticity, even for the expression

  2. Ilarviruses of Prunus spp.: a continued concern for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, V; Aparicio, F; Herranz, M C; Amari, K; Sanchez-Pina, M A; Myrta, A; Sanchez-Navarro, J A

    2012-12-01

    Prunus spp. are affected by a large number of viruses, causing significant economic losses through either direct or indirect damage, which results in reduced yield and fruit quality. Among these viruses, members of the genus Ilarvirus (isometric labile ringspot viruses) occupy a significant position due to their distribution worldwide. Although symptoms caused by these types of viruses were reported early in the last century, their molecular characterization was not achieved until the 1990s, much later than for other agronomically relevant viruses. This was mainly due to the characteristic liability of virus particles in tissue extracts. In addition, ilarviruses, together with Alfalfa mosaic virus, are unique among plant viruses in that they require a few molecules of the coat protein in the inoculum in order to be infectious, a phenomenon known as genome activation. Another factor that has made the study of this group of viruses difficult is that infectious clones have been obtained only for the type member of the genus, Tobacco streak virus. Four ilarviruses, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Prune dwarf virus, Apple mosaic virus, and American plum line pattern virus, are pathogens of the main cultivated fruit trees. As stated in the 9th Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, virions of this genus are "unpromising subjects for the raising of good antisera." With the advent of molecular approaches for their detection and characterization, it has been possible to get a more precise view of their prevalence and genome organization. This review updates our knowledge on the incidence, genome organization and expression, genetic diversity, modes of transmission, and diagnosis, as well as control of this peculiar group of viruses affecting fruit trees.

  3. Experimental study of 『PERSICAE SEMEN』 on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chang-Keun; Kyeong-Sun Soh; Chan-Gil Jeong

    2005-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effects of 「Persicae Semen」(PS) on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats. The blood was induced by Endotoxin injection into the caudal vein of rats and PS group taken a measurement of RBC, Hb, Hct, Platelet, WBC, ESR, CRP. The results were obtained as follows: 1. RBC, Hb, Hct, Platelet, WBC were increased with statistical significance at PS group as compared with those of the control group. 2. ESR, CRP were decreased with statistical sign...

  4. Şeftali (Persica vulgaris Miller yaprak ekstraktının antibakteriyel etkisi

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    Hülya Özpınar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Amaç. Çalışmamızda şeftali (Persica vulgaris Miller yaprak ekstraktının antibakteriyel etkisini tespit etmek amaçlanmıştır. Yöntem. Erzincan Bahçe Bitkileri Araştırma Enstitüsü Gen Bahçesi’nde bulunan Cardinal çeşidi 7 adet şeftali (Persica vulgaris Miller ağacı yaprağı methanol ekstraktı bu amaçla kullanılmıştır. Antibakteriyel etkisinin araştırılmasında cut plug yöntemi kullanılırken Minimum İnhibisyon Konsantrasyonu (MİK, mikrodilüsyon yöntemi ile belirlenmiştir. Bulgular. Bu çalışmada şeftali (Persica vulgaris Miller yaprak ektraktının Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA’a karşı antibakteriyel etkisi belirlenemezken, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O:157 H:7, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Micrococcus luteus ,Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Yersinia enterocolitica bakterilerine karşı ise antibakteriyel etki tespit edilmiştir. En düşük Minimum İnhibisyon Konsantrasyonu Pseudomonas aeruginosa ve Yersinia enterocolitica’da tespit edilirken (0,01 mg/mL, en yüksek konsantrasyon Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O:157 H:7, Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes’de görülmüştür (10 mg/mL. Sonuç. Çalışmamız sonucunda şeftali (Persica vulgaris Miller yaprak ekstraktının antibakteriyel etki spektrumu invitro olarak tespit edilmiş olup bu tür bitkilerden yola çıkılarak yeni antibakteriyel ajanların oluşum sürecinin başlatılabileceği düşünülmektedir.

  5. Improvement of Markov Chain Model for Occurrence Degree Prediction of Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Its Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Guangwei; WANG Xiufang; WANG Xinwei; ZHOU Xiansheng; DONG Xiaowei

    2008-01-01

    For long-term prediction of occurrence degree of tobacco aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer), Markov chain method was used to establish prediction model for occurrence degree of tobacco aphid. With 4 levels of occurrence degree, Markov chain model was established based on the data in 1987-2004. The results indicated that the accuracy for total prediction in 2005-2007 and the back prediction in 1987-2004 reached 88.89% and 85.12%, respectively. The method is simple and feasible for long-term prediction of occurrence degree of tobacco aphid.

  6. Purification and characterization of α-Amylase from Miswak Salvadora persica

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed, Saleh A.; Almulaiky, Yaaser Q.; Youssri M. Ahmed; Al-Bar, Omar AM; Ibrahim, Ibrahim H.

    2014-01-01

    Background The miswak (Salvadora persica) is a natural toothbrush. It is well known that very little information has been reported on enzymes in miswak as medicinal plant. Recently, we study peroxidase in miswak. In the present study, the main goal of this work is to purify and characterize α-amylase from miswak. The second goal is to study the storage stability of α-amylase in toothpaste. Method The purification method included chromatographaphy of miswak α-amylase on DEAE-Sepharose column a...

  7. Diversification of almonds, peaches, plums and cherries - molecular systematics and biogeographic history of Prunus (Rosaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Siew-Wai; Shaw, Joey; Haberle, Rosemarie; Wen, Jun; Potter, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Most previous molecular phylogenetic studies of Prunus have been conducted primarily with crop species and their close relatives. As the center of crop diversity of the genus is in Eurasia, the geographic origin of Prunus has inevitably been inferred to be Eurasia as well. The lesser-known tropical Prunus species have not been well represented in previous phylogenetic reconstructions; therefore, their effects on inferences about the phylogenetic structure and geographic origin of Prunus are uncertain. In this study, we examined the phylogeny of Prunus, including an expanded sampling of species from tropical regions in Southeast Asia and the Americas, using sequences from four plastid markers and the nuclear ribosomal ITS region. A penalized likelihood method was used to estimate the absolute age of Prunus and the timing of infrageneric cladogenic events. The geographic origin of Prunus and ancestral sites of cladogenesis were inferred using the Bayes-DIVA approach. Our results indicate that the modern genus appeared ∼61Myr in eastern Asia and that diversification of all major lineages may have been triggered by the global warming period of the early Eocene. In addition, our molecular dating estimates suggest that the crown clade that includes the temperate deciduous crop species is older than the one that includes the tropical evergreen species, while incongruence between plastid and nuclear phylogenies suggests that the latter lineage originated via an ancient hybridization event. The most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of the temperate crop species was a component of the continuous boreotropical forests of the Northern Hemisphere, while the MRCA of the tropical species represented the last remains of the boreotropical elements and subsequently radiated throughout the Old and New World tropics from refugial areas at lower latitudes. Complex biogeographic histories leading to the present global distribution of the genus were driven by several geologic events

  8. Self-incompatibility of Prunus tenella and evidence that reproductively isolated species of Prunus have different SFB alleles coupled with an identical S-RNase allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surbanovski, Nada; Tobutt, Kenneth R; Konstantinović, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna; Sargent, Daniel J; Stevanović, Vladimir; Bosković, Radovan I

    2007-05-01

    Many species of Prunus display an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (SI), controlled by a single highly polymorphic multigene complex termed the S-locus. This comprises tightly linked stylar- and pollen-expressed genes that determine the specificity of the SI response. We investigated SI of Prunus tenella, a wild species found in small, isolated populations on the Balkan peninsula, initially by pollination experiments and identifying stylar-expressed RNase alleles. Nine P. tenella S-RNase alleles (S(1)-S(9)) were cloned; their sequence analysis showed a very high ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous nucleotide substitutions (K(a)/K(s)) and revealed that S-RNase alleles of P. tenella, unlike those of Prunus dulcis, show positive selection in all regions except the conserved regions and that between C2 and RHV. Remarkably, S(8)-RNase, was found to be identical to S(1)-RNase from Prunus avium, a species that does not interbreed with P. tenella and, except for just one amino acid, to S(11) of P. dulcis. However, the corresponding introns and S-RNase-SFB intergenic regions showed considerable differences. Moreover, protein sequences of the pollen-expressed SFB alleles were not identical, harbouring 12 amino-acid replacements between those of P. tenella SFB(8) and P. avium SFB(1). Implications of this finding for hypotheses about the evolution of new S-specificities are discussed.

  9. Construction of an intra-specific sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) genetic linkage map and synteny analysis with the Prunus reference map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkage maps of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Emperor Francis’ (EF) and the wild forest cherry ‘New York 54’ (NY) were constructed using primarily simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and gene-derived markers with known positions on the Prunus reference map. The success rate for identifying SSR markers...

  10. Evidence for transmission of aphid-pathogenic fungi by migratory flight of Myzus persicae alates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The alates of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, were daily trapped from the air from late October through early January and carried to laboratory for determination of fungal infection by individually rearing them for 7 d on detached cabbage leaves in Petri dishes. Among 760 alates trapped, 266 (35%) were found carrying various fungal pathogens, 87.3% of them died due to mycosis during the first 3-day period of rearing and the rest died in the following two days. Most of the deaths of the alates were attributed to entomophthoralean fungi, taking 94.4%, and the rest were the hyphomycetous fungus Beauveria bassiana. Among the Entomophthorales-killed alates, P. neoaphidis took a proportion of 66.1%, Z. anhuiensis 22.6%, E. planchoniana 9.7%, and N. fresenii 1.6%, respectively. Two alates were found suffering from cross infection of two fungal species, i.e. P. neoaphidis with Z. anhuiensis and N. fresenii, respectively. The results represent the first report on transmission of aphid-pathogenic fungi by M. persicae alates through migratory flight.

  11. Green Approach for the Effective Reduction of Graphene Oxide Using Salvadora persica L. Root (Miswak) Extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mujeeb; Al-Marri, Abdulhadi H.; Khan, Merajuddin; Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Mohri, Nils; Adil, Syed Farooq; Kuniyil, Mufsir; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z.; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Tremel, Wolfgang; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H.

    2015-07-01

    Recently, green reduction of graphene oxide (GRO) using various natural materials, including plant extracts, has drawn significant attention among the scientific community. These methods are sustainable, low cost, and are more environmentally friendly than other standard methods of reduction. Herein, we report a facile and eco-friendly method for the bioreduction of GRO using Salvadora persica L. ( S. persica L.) roots (miswak) extract as a bioreductant. The as-prepared highly reduced graphene oxide (SP-HRG) was characterized using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron (XPS) spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Various results have confirmed that the biomolecules present in the root extract of miswak not only act as a bioreductant but also functionalize the surface of SP-HRG by acting as a capping ligand to stabilize it in water and other solvents. The dispersion quality of SP-HRG in deionized water was investigated in detail by preparing different samples of SP-HRG with increasing concentration of root extract. Furthermore, the dispersibility of SP-HRG was also compared with chemically reduced graphene oxide (CRG). The developed eco-friendly method for the reduction of GRO could provide a better substitute for a large-scale production of dispersant-free graphene and graphene-based materials for various applications in both technological and biological fields such as electronics, nanomedicine, and bionic materials.

  12. Otostegia persica (Lamiaceae: A review on its ethnopharmacology, phytochemistry, and pharmacology

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    Zahra Sadeghi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The current study summarizes the updated information concerning the ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and pharmacology of Otostegia persica Boiss. (Lamiaceae, an endemic medicinal plant in south and southeast of Iran. Materials and Methods: Information was collected through bibliographic investigation from scientific journals, books, theses, reports, and electronic search (databases SCOPUS, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Science Direct. Moreover, documentation from unpublished resources and ethnobotanical surveys has been used. The present review covers the literature available from 2003 to 2013. Results: In traditional systems of medicine, this plant is reputed for treating diabetes, arthritis, gastric discomfort, headache, rheumatism, sedative activities, regulating blood pressure, and hyperlipidemia. Phytochemical screening of active components and mineral element evaluation of this species have been reported. Several types of diterpenoids and flavonols including morin, kaempferol, and quercetin are identified from the plant. Most of the pharmacological activity of this plant resides in its flavonoid fraction which causes antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. Various pharmacological studies on O. persica show antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic, anti-aphid, and hepatoprotective activities. Conclusion: Being an endemic plant of Iran, this species is an important medicinal herb which can be used for various purposes. This review might be helpful for scientists and researchers to find new chemical entities responsible for its claimed traditional uses and discover new lead compounds for diseases mentioned.

  13. Effects of 『Persicae Semen』 on the Hyperlipidemia Rats Induced by Triton WR-1339

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    Dae-In Kang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective : In order to study effects of 「Persicae Semen」 on the hyperlipidemia rats induced by Triton WR, we have made hyperlipidemia rats by administering Triton WR-1339 for 3 days, then have administered. The results were summerized as follows : 1. The Total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, Free fatty acid, phospholipid and CRF(Cardiak Risk Factor by hypercholesteremic rats injected by Triton WR-1339 of the herb-Acupuncture group were decreased as compared with those of the control group, especialy hypercholesteremic rats injected by Triton WR-1339 of the herb-Acupuncture + Acupuncture group were some more decreased as compared with those of the control group 2. The HDL-cholesterol by hypercholesteremic rats injected by Trion WR -1339 of the herb-Acupuncture group were increased as compeared those of control group, especialy hypercholesteremic rats injected by Triton WR-1339 of the herb-Acupuncture + Acupuncture group were some more increased as compared with those of the control group According to the above results, Persicae Semen showed inhibition on decrease of serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and phosholipid contents as well as inhibition on increase of HDL-cholesterol contents in hyperlipidemia

  14. Preference of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, for plants grown in sewage sludges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Culliney, T.W.; Pimentel, D.

    1987-08-01

    Since passage of the Clean Water Act in the 1970s, disposal of the millions of tonnes of sewage sludge generated annually has become a major concern of municipalities throughout the United States. With the range of other disposal options having narrowed in recent years, application of sludge to land is increasingly viewed as a practical and economical means to recycle this waste material. However, sludges from large cities with industries may be contaminated with various toxic chemicals, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), other organic chemicals, such as pesticides, and heavy metals. Sludge application to land thus has the potential adversely to affect biota and the functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. The authors previously demonstrated marked reductions in fecundity and survival of green peach aphids, Myzus persicae, on collard plants, Brassica oleracea var. sabellica, growing in soil treated with chemically contaminated sludge as compared to aphids on plants growing either in soil treated with uncontaminated sludge of soil conventionally fertilized. Reduced plant growth and increased restlessness in aphids in the contaminated sludge treatment were also observed. The purpose of the present study was to examine more closely the influence of sludge contaminants on aphid settling behavior as indicated by differential preference of M. persicae for leaves of its collard host grown under different soil conditions.

  15. Proteomic analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh responses to a generalist sucking pest (Myzus persicae Sulzer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, D-H; Bauwens, J; Delaplace, P; Mazzucchelli, G; Lognay, G; Francis, F

    2015-11-01

    Herbivorous insects can cause severe cellular changes to plant foliage following infestations, depending on feeding behaviour. Here, a proteomic study was conducted to investigate the influence of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) as a polyphagous pest on the defence response of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh after aphid colony establishment on the host plant (3 days). Analysis of about 574 protein spots on 2-DE gels revealed 31 differentially expressed protein spots. Twenty out of these 31 differential proteins were selected for analysis by mass spectrometry. In 12 of the 20 analysed spots, we identified seven and nine proteins using MALDI-TOF-MS and LC-ESI-MS/MS, respectively. Of the analysed spots, 25% contain two proteins. Different metabolic pathways were modulated in Arabidopsis leaves according to aphid feeding: most corresponded to carbohydrate, amino acid and energy metabolism, photosynthesis, defence response and translation. This paper has established a survey of early alterations induced in the proteome of Arabidopsis by M. persicae aphids. It provides valuable insights into the complex responses of plants to biological stress, particularly for herbivorous insects with sucking feeding behaviour.

  16. A new ester coumarin from Ferula Persica wild, indigenous to Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Mehdi; Janani, Mehrnoush

    2015-01-01

    Ferula persica wild (Apiaceae) is a perennial herb indigenous to Iran. It has been used in folk medicine for treatment of diabetes, lowering of blood pressure and for antispasmodic, carminative, laxative and expectorant effects in central Iran. Dried ground roots of F. persica (150 g) were extracted sequentially with n-hexane, dichloromethane and methanol (MeOH), 500 ml each, using a Soxhlet apparatus. The n-hexane extract of the roots (3 g) was subjected to vacuum liquid chromatography on silica gel, eluting with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity: 100% n-hexane-ethyl acetate (EtOAc), to yield a number of fractions, Fraction 4 (80% EtOAc in n-hexane) was further analysed by preparative TLC (mobile phase was 12% acetone in chloroform) to yield a coumarin ester (10.1 mg, Rf = 0.31, blue florescent). The structure of the isolated compound was elucidated by spectroscopic means. The compound is 7-O-(4,8,12 -trihydroxy-4,8,12-trimethyl-tridecanoyl)-coumarin, named, ferulone C as a new natural product.

  17. Annotated expressed sequence tags and xenobiotic detoxification in the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C.C. FIGUEROA; N. PRUNIER-LETERME; C. RISPE; F. SEPULVEDA; E. FUENTES-CONTRERAS; B. SABATER-MUNOZ; J.-C. SIMON; D. TAGU

    2007-01-01

    Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) are phytophagous insects that are importantagricultural pests. The enormous negative economic impacts caused by aphids worldwide arewell known, and are mostly due to their high multiplication rate and the transmission ofphytopathogenic viruses. Aphid management strategies mainly involve chemical treatmentswhich are pollutants and are increasingly inefficient, since aphids have developed multipleinsecticide-resistant mechanisms. Among the most economically important species is thegreen peach aphid Myzuspersicae Sulzer (Aphididae: Macrosiphini), which is able to colonizea wide range of host plants belonging to many different families, and transmits numerous plantviruses. Because of its large prevalence, M. persicae has been the target of massive insecticidetreatments; consequently, it has evolved several insecticide-resistant mechanisms. In thiswork, a collection of expressed genes from M. persicae is presented in order to identify putativegenes involved in xenobiotic detoxification. After cDNA cloning and sequencing, 959expressed sequence tags (EST) were annotated. Most sequences matched known genescorresponded to metabolism proteins (26%), ribosomal proteins (23%) and structural proteins(8%). Among them, several sequences corresponded to proteins putatively involved in sensing,degradation or detoxification of plant xenobiotic products.

  18. Anatomy of Phyllodina persica (Bivalvia: Tellinidae, and its first occurrence in southeastern Brazilian waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cesar Marques

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a detailed anatomy of a rare Western Atlantic tellin, Phyllodina persica, under a comparative scenario. Some characters are shared with other tellinids such as the large hemipalps compared to gills; gills with outer demibranch with a single lamella absent from the pericardial region; the type-V stomach associated with the style sac conjoined with the proximal intestine, and distal intestine presenting a dorsal and ventral group of loops, separated by the transverse muscle. The stomach presents a laterally enlarged typhlosole, although shallow, without flange in the margins. This feature is not found in other tellinid species. Another noteworthy feature in the stomach is the aperture of both caeca, which are larger than the left pouch aperture, and as wide as the style sac aperture. Furthermore, there is an interesting small process in the anterior hinge, and a pair of oblique protractor muscles placed posteriorly to the anterior foot retractor muscle, being a new type of intrinsic muscle described in bivalves. In addition to anatomy, this study presents the southernmost record of P. persica, expanding its distribution to the southeastern region of Brazil.

  19. Insecticidal activity of rhamnolipid isolated from pseudomonas sp. EP-3 against green peach aphid (Myzus persicae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seul Ki; Kim, Young Cheol; Lee, Sunwoo; Kim, Jin Cheol; Yun, Mi Young; Kim, In Seon

    2011-02-09

    Microorganisms capable of growth on oils are potential sources of biopesticides, as they produce complex molecules such as biosurfactants and lipopeptides. These molecules have antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens, but few data are available on their insecticidal activity. The present study describes the insecticidal activity of a rhamnolipid isolated from diesel oil-degrading Pseudomonas sp. EP-3 (EP-3). The treatment of cell-free supernatants of EP-3 grown on glucose-mineral medium for 96 h led to > 80% mortality of aphids (Myzus persicae) within 24 h. Bioassay-guided chromatography coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MADLDI-TOF MS) and (¹H, ¹³C) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analyses was employed to isolate and identify the EP-3 insecticidal metabolites. Dirhamnolipid, with molecular formulas of C₃₂H₅₈O₁₃ and C₃₄H₆₂O₁₃, was identified as a main metabolite exhibiting insecticidal activity against aphids. Dirhamnolipid showed a dose-dependent mortality against aphids, producing about 50% mortality at 40 μg/mL and 100% mortality at 100 μg/mL. Microscopy analyses of aphids treated with dirhamnolipid revealed that dirhamnolipid caused insect death by affecting cuticle membranes. This is the first report of rhamnolipid as an insecticidal metabolite against M. persicae. Rhamnolipid shows potential for use as a pesticide to control agricultural pests.

  20. Analysis of Agromorphological Descriptors to Differentiate between Duke Cherry (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & TurpinRehd. and Its Progenitors: Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L. and Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Análisis de Descriptores Agromorfológicos para Diferenciar entre Cerezo Duke (Prunus x gondouinii (Poit. & Turpin Rehd. y sus Progenitores: Cerezo (Prunus avium L. y Guindo (Prunus cerasus L.

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    Rodrigo Pérez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The rapid identification of the hybrids between sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. is not easy. In order to resolve this problem, 18 Spanish sweet, sour and duke cherry cultivars were surveyed and characterized using 43 agromorphological descriptors evaluated in flowers, leaves, dormant 1-yr-old shoots, fruits, and trees during 2005 and 2006. Based on quantitative parameters, ANOVA and stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA were carried out. For qualitative descriptors, statistical comparisons were done by means of the chi-square (χ2 test. As result of the study, two quantitative (titratable acidity and number of lenticels and six qualitative descriptors (shape of the central and lateral lobes in the internal bracts of the flower fascicles, leaf shape and margin, pubescence in the veins of the lower side of the leaf, and type of sulci of the seed coat were identified as differential parameters in P. avium, P. cerasus and P. x gondouinii(Poit. & Turpin Rehd. Also, another four qualitative descriptors (petal coloration at the end of blooming, leaf stipule type, and seed shape and viability were found to be useful for easy differentiation between sour and duke cherry. None of these parameters has been employed previously to discriminate among sweet, sour and duke cherry.Los híbridos de cerezo (Prunus avium L. y guindo (Prunus cerasus L. no son fáciles de identificar. Para resolver este problema, 18 cultivares de cerezo, guindo y sus híbridos fueron prospectados y caracterizados agromorfológicamente mediante el estudio de 43 descriptores evaluados en flores, hojas, frutos, ramas de 1 año y árbol durante los años 2005 y 2006. En base a los resultados obtenidos del estudio de los diferentes parámetros cuantitativos se realizaron un ANDEVA y un análisis discriminante escalonado (SDA. Los descriptores cualitativos fueron analizados mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado (χ². Como resultado del estudio se identificaron

  1. Location of resistance factors in the leaves of potato and wild tuber-bearing Solanum species to aphyd Myzus persica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alvarez, A.E.; Tjallingii, W.F.; Garzo, E.; Vleeshouwers, V.; Dicke, M.; Vosman, B.

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of electrically recorded feeding behaviour of aphids was combined with colony-development tests to search for sources of resistance to Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) in tuber-bearing Solanum species (Solanaceae), aiming at a reduction of potato leaf roll virus (PLRV) transmi

  2. Analysis of volatile components in herbal pair Semen Persicae-Flos Carthami by GC-MS and chemometric resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiangang; Li, Xiaoru; Lu, Hongmei; Liang, Yizeng

    2012-11-01

    Analysis of volatile components in herbal pair (HP) Semen Persicae-Flos Carthami (SP-FC) was performed by GC-MS coupled with chemometric resolution method (CRM). Furthermore, temperature-programmed retention indices were used together with mass spectra for identification of the volatile components. With the help of CRM, the two-dimensional data obtained from GC-MS instruments were resolved into a pure chromatogram and a mass spectrum of each chemical compound. By use of these methods upon two-dimensional data, 26, 49, and 59 volatile chemical components in essential oils of single herb Semen Persicae, Flos Carthami, and HP SP-FC were determined qualitatively and quantitatively, accounting for 78.42, 81.08, and 82.48% total contents of essential oil of single herb Semen Persicae, Flos Carthami, and HP SP-FC, respectively. It is shown that the accuracy of qualitative and quantitative analysis can be enhanced greatly by means of CRM. It is further demonstrated that the numbers of volatile chemical components of HP SP-FC are almost the addition of those of two single herbs, but the main volatile chemical components of the former are completely different from those of single herb Semen Persicae or Flos Carthami because of chemical reactions and physical changes occurring in the process of decocting two single herbs. This means that chemical components especially pharmacologically active compounds in the recipe might be different from those of single herbs.

  3. Potent anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of methanol fraction of Otostegia persica extract and its components

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    Z. Tofighi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Otostegia persica (Labiatae is an endemic plant of Iran and is used for its anti-inflammatory properties in folk medicine of Sistan and Baluchestan province. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of O. Persica different fractions and identification of the natural compounds from the most active fraction. Methods: Total extract of O. Persica was fractionated with petroleum ether (PE, chloroform (CL, ethyl acetate (EA, n-butanol (BU and methanol (ME. The analgesic activities of different fractions were determined by formalin test. Then, activity of effective fractions was investigated on carrageenan-induced paw edema assay. Finally, the compounds of effective fraction were isolated and their structures were elucidated. Results: Anti-nociceptive activity of EA and BU fractions (100 mg/kg and ME fraction (100 and 200 mg/kg demonstrated significant difference with normal saline during the second phase of the formalin test. ME fraction showed higher analgesic effects in comparison to indomethacin (p0.05. Vicenin-2 and isorhamnetin-3-O-glucoside were elucidated from ME as the effective anti-inflammatory fraction. Conclusion: It was concluded that the existence of flavonoids in O. persica extract could play an important role for its anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects similar to various non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS and inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS.

  4. Differences in the Detoxification Metabolism between Two clonal Lineages of the Aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae Reared on Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. Diferencias en el Metabolismo de Detoxificación entre dos Linajes Clonales del Áfido Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae creados sobre tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

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    Marco A Cabrera-Brandt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Myzus persicae (Sulzer is a highly polyphagous aphid species, with a subspecies (M. persicae nicotianae well adapted to tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.. We evaluated the effect of this host plant on the aphid performance and detoxification enzymes, in order to test the participation of xenobiotic metabolism on the ability of this aphid to overcome the tobacco chemical defences. Two genotypes, one corresponding to the only M. persicae nicotianae genotype reported in Chile on tobacco, and one genotype belonging to M. persicae sensu stricto were reared on tobacco and pepper (Capsicum annuum L., respectively. M. persicae nicotianae showed a significantly higher intrinsic rate of increase (r m on pepper than on tobacco, and M. persicae s.s. performed similarly, but with no reproduction at all on tobacco. In order to evaluate the effect of tobacco on detoxification enzymes, esterases, glutathione S-transferases (GST and cytochrome P-450 monooxygenases (MO were determined in both selected aphid genotypes after 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 h of rearing on tobacco and pepper. M. persicae nicotianae exhibited the higher total esterase activities when reared on tobacco than on pepper after 48 h of rearing, while the activities of GST and MO did not show any significant difference between host-plants and duration of treatment. For M. persicae s.s., no significant differences were observed among host-plants for the studied enzymes. These results suggest a participation of the esterases, on the ability of this M. persicae nicotianae to overcome the tobacco defences.Myzus persicae (Sulzer es un áfido polífago que incluye a Myzus persicae nicotianae, una subespecie altamente adaptada sobre tabaco (Nicotiana tabacum L.. Evaluamos el efecto del tabaco sobre el desempeño biológico y sobre determinadas enzimas de detoxificación en áfidos, para estudiar su participación en la capacidad de M. persicae nicotianae de superar las defensas químicas del tabaco. Dos

  5. Amplification of a cytochrome P450 gene is associated with resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in the aphid Myzus persicae.

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    Alin M Puinean

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The aphid Myzus persicae is a globally significant crop pest that has evolved high levels of resistance to almost all classes of insecticide. To date, the neonicotinoids, an economically important class of insecticides that target nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs, have remained an effective control measure; however, recent reports of resistance in M. persicae represent a threat to the long-term efficacy of this chemical class. In this study, the mechanisms underlying resistance to the neonicotinoid insecticides were investigated using biological, biochemical, and genomic approaches. Bioassays on a resistant M. persicae clone (5191A suggested that P450-mediated detoxification plays a primary role in resistance, although additional mechanism(s may also contribute. Microarray analysis, using an array populated with probes corresponding to all known detoxification genes in M. persicae, revealed constitutive over-expression (22-fold of a single P450 gene (CYP6CY3; and quantitative PCR showed that the over-expression is due, at least in part, to gene amplification. This is the first report of a P450 gene amplification event associated with insecticide resistance in an agriculturally important insect pest. The microarray analysis also showed over-expression of several gene sequences that encode cuticular proteins (2-16-fold, and artificial feeding assays and in vivo penetration assays using radiolabeled insecticide provided direct evidence of a role for reduced cuticular penetration in neonicotinoid resistance. Conversely, receptor radioligand binding studies and nucleotide sequencing of nAChR subunit genes suggest that target-site changes are unlikely to contribute to resistance to neonicotinoid insecticides in M. persicae.

  6. Molecular characterization of Prunus mahaleb L. rootstock canditates by ISSR markers

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    Ozyurt Ibrahim Kursat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus mahaleb is widely used as rootstocks particularly on calcareous and dry soils for both sweet and sour cherry cultivars in Turkey. Genetic diversity and relationships among members of Prunus mahaleb including 29 preselected rootstock candidate accessions from Tokat region in Turkey were investigated by using 15 ISSR markers. The study revealed high genetic diversity among accessions, detecting 138 fragments, of which 103 (75% were polymorphic. The number of polymorphic bands per primer was between 3-13, with average of 6.86. The primers 890 and 891 gave the highest polymorphism ratio (100%. The UPGMA dendrogram and the principal coordinate analysis revealed a clear differentiation among accessions. Reference rootstock, SL-64 clustered separately. The study demonstrates that ISSRs provide promising marker tools in revealing genetic diversity and relationships in Prunus mahaleb rootstock candidate accessions and can contribute to efficient identification, conservation, and utilization of germplasm for rootstock improvement through conventional as well as molecular breeding approaches.

  7. Bioactive and functional properties of sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cásedas, Guillermo; Les, Francisco; Gómez-Serranillos, Maria Pilar; Smith, Carine; López, Víctor

    2016-11-09

    Sour cherry juice (Prunus cerasus) is consumed as a nutritional supplement claiming health effects. The aim of the study was to evaluate the different properties of sour cherry juice in terms of antioxidant activity and inhibition of target enzymes in the central nervous system and diabetes. The content of polyphenols and anthocyanins was quantified. Different experiments were carried out to determine the radical scavenging properties of the juice. The activity of sour cherry juice was also tested in physiological relevant enzymes of the central nervous system (acetylcholinesterase, monoamine oxidase A, tyrosinase) and others involved in type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase, dipeptidyl peptidase-4). Sour cherry juice showed significant antioxidant effects but the activity of the lyophilized juice was not superior to compounds such as ascorbic, gallic or chlorogenic acid. Furthermore, sour cherry juice and one of its main polyphenols known as chlorogenic acid were also able to inhibit monoamine oxidase A and tyrosinase as well as enzymes involved in diabetes. This is the first time that sour cherry juice is reported to inhibit monoamine oxidase A, α-glucosidase and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 in a dose dependent manner, which may be of interest for human health and the prevention of certain diseases.

  8. Screening of solvent dependent antibacterial activity of Prunus domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaqeen, Zahra; Naqvi, Naim-ul-Hasan; Sohail, Tehmina; Rehman, Zakir-ur; Fatima, Nudrat; Imran, Hina; Rehman, Atiqur

    2013-03-01

    Fruit of Prunus domestica was extracted in ethanol. The ethanol extract was further extracted with two solvents ethyl acetate and chloroform. The crude ethanol extract and two fractions (ethyl acetate and chloroform) were screened for their antibacterial activity using the agar well diffusion method .They were tested against nine bacteria; five Gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcuc intermedius, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus) and four Gram negative bacteria (Eschrichia coli, Proteus mirabilis Shigella flexneri, Salmonella typhi and Klebsiela pneumoniae). The susceptibility of microorganisms to all three fractions was compared with each other and with standard antibiotic (Ampicillin) Among all fractions ethyl acetate exhibited highest antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 34.57mm ± 1.3) while ethyl alcohol exhibited least antibacterial activity (average zone of inhibition 17.42mm ± 3.3). Minimum inhibitory concentration of ethanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform fractions was found in the range of 78 μ g/ml to 2500 μ gl/ml against gram positive and gram negative bacteria.

  9. Ascorbic acid metabolism during sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dong; Zhu, Tingting; Ni, Zhiyou; Lin, Lijin; Tang, Yi; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Xun; Wang, Jin; Lv, Xiulan; Xia, Hui

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate metabolism of ascorbic acid (AsA) in sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium 'Hongdeng'), we quantified AsA concentration, cloned sequences involved in AsA metabolism and investigated their mRNA expression levels, and determined the activity levels of selected enzymes during fruit development and maturation. We found that AsA concentration was highest at the petal-fall period (0 days after anthesis) and decreased progressively during ripening, but with a slight increase at maturity. AsA did nevertheless continue to accumulate over time because of the increase in fruit fresh weight. Full-length cDNAs of 10 genes involved in the L-galactose pathway of AsA biosynthesis and 10 involved in recycling were obtained. Gene expression patterns of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP2), L-galactono-1, 4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH), ascorbate peroxidase (APX3), ascorbate oxidase (AO2), glutathione reductase (GR1), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1) were in accordance with the AsA concentration pattern during fruit development, indicating that genes involved in ascorbic acid biosynthesis, degradation, and recycling worked in concert to regulate ascorbic acid accumulation in sweet cherry fruit.

  10. Avaliação de inseticidas no controle de Myzus persicae (sulz. (homoptera: aphididae na cultura da alface Evaluation of insecticides to control Myzus persicae (Sulz (Homoptera: Aphididae on lettuce crop

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    Jeferson Zagonel

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a eficiência de inseticidas no controle de Myzus persicae (Sulz. na cultura da alface, cv. Verônica, em experimento conduzido na UEPG, em 1999. Usou-se delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de thiamethoxam nas doses de 50; 75 e 100 g i.a./ha; imidacloprid na dose de 140 g i.a./ha; pymetrozine na dose de 150 g i.a./ha e testemunha sem pulverização. Os tratamentos foram aplicados nas mudas em bandejas, um dia antes do transplantio. Avaliou-se a fitotoxicidade, o número de pulgões por planta, a porcentagem de plantas com pulgões e a eficiência dos inseticidas. O thiamethoxam nas doses de 50; 75 e 100 g i.a./ha foi eficiente no controle de M. persicae durante todo o ciclo, mostrando eficiência igual ou superior a 98,6%, similar ao imidacloprid. O pymetrozine apresentou eficiência no controle de M. persicae até 21 dias após o transplante das mudas. Os inseticidas não causaram efeitos fitotóxicos nas plantas de alface; além disso, houve produção de plantas com maior massa fresca em relação à testemunha.A field trial was carried out at Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa, State of Paraná, Brazil, in 1999, to evaluate the efficiency of insecticides in controlling Myzus persicae (Sulz on lettuce cv. Veronica. The experimental design was of completely randomized blocks with six treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of thiamethoxam (50; 75 and 100 g i.a/ha imidacloprid (140 g i.a/ha; pymetrozine (150 g i.a/ha and control. The treatments were applied to seedlings grown in polyestyrene trays one day before the transplanting. The fitotoxicity, the number of aphids/plant, the percentage of plants with aphids and the efficiency of the insecticides were evaluated. Thiamethoxan at doses of 50; 75 and 100 g i.a/ha was efficient to control M. persicae from transplanting till 43 days after showing equal or higher efficiency than 98

  11. Microsatellite isolation, linkage group identification and determination of recombination frequency in the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, M A; Sunnucks, P; Wilson, A C; Hales, D F

    2001-06-01

    Fifteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to establish linkage groups and relative rates of recombination in male and female Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) (peach-potato aphid). We cloned nine markers from M. persicae and for these we report primer sequences and levels of allelic diversity and heterozygosity in four Australian M. persicae populations. Of the remaining six loci, four loci, also cloned from M. persicae, were obtained from G. Malarky (Natural History Museum, London) and two loci from Sitobion miscanthi were used. Additionally, the primer sequences of locus M77, a locus monomorphic in M. persicae but polymorphic in the closely related Myzus antirrhinii, are presented. Eleven of the 15 polymorphic markers were autosomal and four were X-linked. A linkage analysis was performed on a European pedigree of aphids containing five families with between seven and 11 offspring each. There was no linkage between any loci in females. In males, several pairwise comparisons yielded no recombinant offspring. With the exception of locus M40, these observations were supported in a linkage analysis performed on larger families produced from Australian M. persicae crosses. Locus M40 showed segregation consistent with involvement in a translocation between autosomes 1 and 3 in European samples but not in the Australian samples. From the Australian crosses we report an absence of recombination in males but high recombination rates in females. One X chromosome and four autosomal linkage groups were identified and tentatively assigned to chromosomes. The relevance of achiasmate meiosis to the evolution of sex is discussed.

  12. Evaluation of the reference genes for expression analysis using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhi-Wei; Liu, Fang-Hua; Tian, Hong-Gang; Zhang, Meng; Guo, Shan-Shan; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2017-04-01

    The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera, Aphididae), is an important cosmopolitan pest. Real time qRT-PCR has been used for target gene expression analysis on M. persicae. Using real time qRT-PCR, the expression levels are normalized on the basis of the reliable reference genes. However, to date, the stability of available reference genes has been insufficient. In this study, we evaluated nine candidate reference genes from M. persicae under diverse experimental conditions. The tested candidate genes were comprehensively ranked based on five alternative methods (RefFinder, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper and the comparative ΔCt method). 18s, Actin and ribosomal protein L27 (L27) were recommended as the most stable reference genes for M. persicae, whereas ribosomal protein L27 (L27) was found to be the least stable reference genes for abiotic studies (photoperiod, temperature and insecticide susceptibility). Our finding not only sheds light on establishing an accurate and reliable normalization of real time qRT-PCR data in M. persicae but also lays a solid foundation for further studies of M. persicae involving RNA interference and functional gene research.

  13. Insecticidal activity of three plants extracts against Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 and their phytochemical screening

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    Billal NIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the use of synthetic pesticides and their negative effects on the environment, leaves extracts of Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh and Rosmarinus officinalis L. were obtained with petroleum ether, ethanol and distilled water as solvents. These extracts were evaluated under laboratory conditions for their insecticidal effect against 3 to 4 days-old Myzus persicae individuals (Homoptera: Aphididae at 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 %. We made observations after 24 hours. Etheric extract of all plants was effective and caused mortalities (100 %, 53 % and 60 % respectively at the highest concentration. However, ethanolic and aqueous extracts did not show any significant insecticidal effect. The phytochemical screening showed the richness of etheric extract in terpenes. The results obtained suggest that we can make bioinsecticides based on leaves etheric extracts from these plants for use in integrated pest management.

  14. Chemical composition and antibacterial activity of the essential oil the leaf of Nepeta persica

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    Soraya AKHSHI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The essential oil from the leaf of Nepeta persica Boiss, analyzed by gas chromatography (GC and gas chromatography (GC/mass spectrometry (MS, were shown to contain 4aα, 7α, 7aβ-nepetalactone (49.46% and 4aα, 7α, 7aα-nepetalactone (14.18%. The other main constituents were n-octane (13.10%, n-decane (3.67% and germacrene-D (2.04%. Antibacterial activities of the leaf oil were evaluated using the micro-dilution broth method. Inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis were recorded. The leaf oil has difference activities against the test microorganisms. The antibacterial property of the essential oil might be ascribed to their high content of nepetalactone isomers.

  15. A review on phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of miswak (Salvadora persica Linn

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    Jamal Akhtar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The miswak is a natural toothbrush made from the twigs of the Salvadora persica (Salvadoraceae. Its use predates the inception of Islam and is frequently advocated in the Hadith (the traditions relating to the life of Prophet Muhammad PBUH . In addition to strengthening the gums, it prevents tooth decay, eliminating toothaches and halt further increase in decay that has already set in. It creates a fragrance in the mouth, eliminates bad odor, improves the sense of taste, and causes the teeth to glow and shine. The other parts of the tree have therapeutic values as corrective, deobstruent, liver tonic, diuretic, analgesic, anthelmintic, astringent, lithontriptic, carminative, diuretic, aphrodisiac, and stomachic. The present review is therefore an effort to give detailed survey of the literature on phytochemistry and pharmacological activities of miswak.

  16. MicroHLPC determination of amygdalin in Semen pruni armeniacae and Semen pruni persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, L Y; Li, B M

    1988-11-01

    The application of micro HPLC to the determination of amygdalin in Semen pruni armeniacae and Semen pruni persicae is described. Amygdalin is separated at ambient temperature on a reversed phase column of U-Finepak SIL C18(150 x 0.5 mm) with methanol + water (25:75 v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 10 microL/min. The results are calculated by the internal standard method. The linear range is 1-7 micrograms. The CV and recovery of pure amygdalin are 1.47% (n = 10) and 98.13%, respectively. The results of analysis are lower than those obtained by TLC, but microHPLC is much simpler, faster, and more sensitive and reproducible than TLC.

  17. Experimental study of 『PERSICAE SEMEN』 on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats

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    Chang-Keun

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was performed to investigate the effects of 「Persicae Semen」(PS on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats. The blood was induced by Endotoxin injection into the caudal vein of rats and PS group taken a measurement of RBC, Hb, Hct, Platelet, WBC, ESR, CRP. The results were obtained as follows: 1. RBC, Hb, Hct, Platelet, WBC were increased with statistical significance at PS group as compared with those of the control group. 2. ESR, CRP were decreased with statistical significance at PS group as compared with those of the control group. It is concluded that PS group has significant effects on the blood injected by Endotoxin in rats. Therefore, PS group seems to be applicable to the diseases related to Endotoxin in clinics.

  18. Light conditions affect the performance of Yponomeuta evonymellus on its native host Prunus padus and the alien Prunus serotina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukowski, A; Giertych, M J; Walczak, U; Baraniak, E; Karolewski, P

    2017-04-01

    The bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus L., is considered an obligatory monophagous insect pest that feeds only on native European Prunus padus L. In recent years, however, increased larval feeding on alien P. serotina Ehrh. has been observed. In both species, general defoliation is extensive for shade grown trees, whereas it is high in P. padus, but very low in P. serotina, when trees are grown in full light conditions. The aim of the present study was to identify how the plant host species and light conditions affect the performance of Y. evonymellus. The influence of host species and light condition on their growth and development, characterized by the parameters of pupation, adult eclosion, body mass, potential fecundity, and wing size, was measured in a 2 × 2 experimental design (two light treatments, two hosts). In comparison with high light (HL) conditions, a greater percentage of pupation and a longer period and less dynamic adult emerge was observed under low light (LL) conditions. The effect of host species on these parameters was not significant. In contrast, mass, fecundity and all of the studied wing parameters were higher in larvae that grazed on P. padus than on P. serotina. Similarly the same parameters were also higher on shrubs in HL as compared with those grown under LL conditions. In general, light conditions, rather than plant species, were more often and to a greater extent, responsible for differences in the observed parameters of insect development and potential fecundity.

  19. Role of Glyco-Persica® in Targeting Diabetes Type 2: an Integrative Approach

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    Dashtdar Mehrab

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine how an integrated approach to type 2 diabetes mellitus treatment could improve glycemic control and immune-potentiating activities adherent to oral hypoglycemic agents along with a botanical compound, among primary care patients. Methods: In this study, we used the self-control and the group-control methods. Candidates meeting the trial conditions were selected from among volunteers who had taken the test substance for 45 days. During the trial, all groups were on a controlled diet; neither were the original medications nor their dosages changed. Results: The results showed that the botanical compound (Glyco-Persica® significantly reduced the main clinical symptoms in diabetes type 2. In the treatment group, 36 of 52 patients (69.23% and in the control group 10 of 52 patients (19.23% showed reduced symptoms, and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05. The fasting blood sugar in the treatment group after treatment compared with that before treatment and with that in the control group after treatment was statistically different (P < 0.05. The post-prandial glucose in the treatment group after treatment was significantly different from that before treatment and from that in the control group after treatment (P < 0.05; the post-prandial blood sugar in the treatment group was reduced by 8.98%. Conclusions: The results revealed that the botanical compound (Glyco-Persica® has significant hypoglycemic properties which affect main clinical symptoms in diabetes type 2. Body weight, blood pressure, heart rate, routine blood, stool and urine tests showed no meaningful negative changes after the course of treatment. There was no significant adverse reaction during the trial.

  20. Efeito da temperatura na biologia de Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae criado em pimentão = Effect of temperature on biology of Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae reared in sweet pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Rodrigues Barbosa

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito de temperaturas constantes e variáveis sobre a biologia de M. persicae em pimentão. As ninfas foram individualizadas em discos foliares de pimentão mantidos em placas de Petri às temperaturas constantes de 15ºC, 20ºC, 25ºC e 30ºC. Em casa de vegetação, as temperaturas foram oscilantes, com média de 24,9ºC, e as ninfas foram colocadas em gaiolas apropriadas e fixadas em folhas de pimentão. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado, com 45 e 30 repetições para os ensaios em laboratório e em casa de vegetação, respectivamente. Ficou evidenciado que as temperaturas constantes de 20ºC e 25ºC foram mais favoráveis para M. persicae, por proporcionarem redução do ciclo biológico e maior fecundidade do que as temperaturas oscilantes em casa de vegetação.The influence of constant and variable temperatures on biology of M. persicae in sweet pepper was evaluated. The nymphs were individualized on pepper leaf discs and maintained in Petri dishes at constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, and 30ºC. In greenhouse the temperature was variable with an average of 24.9ºC and the nymphs were kept in appropriate cages and fixed in sweet pepper leaves. The experimental design was completely randomized with 45 and 30 replicates for the laboratory and greenhouse assays, respectively. It was evidenced that constant temperatures of 20 and 25ºC were more favorable to M. persicae, decreasing the biological cycle and increasing the fecundity, than the oscillatory temperatures in the greenhouse.

  1. Use of silicon as inductor of the resistance in potato to Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae); Uso de silicio como indutor de resistencia em batata a Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Flavia B.; Moraes, Jair C.; Antunes, Cristiana [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Entomologia; Santos, Custodio D. dos [Universidade Federal de Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2008-03-15

    The aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) is an important pest of potato and causes direct harm, due to the quantity of sap extracted and for being vector of important phytovirus. This work was carried out to evaluate the action of silicon as a resistance inducer of potato to M. persicae. Four treatments were tried: foliar fertilization with silicon acid at 1%; soil fertilization with 250 ml silicic acid solution at 1%; foliar fertilization with silicon acid at 1% + soil fertilization with 250 ml silicic acid solution at 1%; and a control. The treatments were applied thirty days after the explants emergence. Fifteen days after the application of the treatments, feeding preference and some biological aspects of the aphids were evaluated. After, the content of tannins and lignin present in the leaves and the activity of the enzymes peroxidase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase were also determined. The silicon fertilization did not affect the preference of the aphids; however it reduced fecundity and the rate of population growth of the insects. The lignin percentage increased in the leaves of plants fertilized with silicon via soil and/or foliar and the percentage of tannins increased only in the leaves fertilized via soil plus foliar. The silicon acted as a resistance inducer to M. persicae in potato. (author)

  2. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  3. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. And Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  4. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Fourie, P.H.; Crous, P.W.

    2010-01-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal

  5. Cloning and characterization of prunus serotina AGAMOUS, a putative flower homeotic gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaomei Liu; Joseph Anderson; Paula Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Members of the AGAMOUS subfamily of MADS-box transcription factors play an important role in regulating the development of reproductive organs in flowering plants. To help understand the mechanism of floral development in black cherry (Prunus serotina), PsAG (a putative flower homeotic identity gene) was isolated...

  6. Can Prunus serotina be genetically engineered for reproductive sterility and insect pest resistance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2014-01-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is a valuable hardwood timber species, and its value highly depends on the wood quality which is often threatened by insect pests. Transgenic black cherry plants that are more resistant to cambial-mining insects may reduce the occurrence of gummosis and have great economic benefits to landowners and the forest products...

  7. Tractor-mounted, GPS-based spot fumigation system manages Prunus replant disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research goal was to use recent advances in global positioning system (GPS) and computer technology to apply just the right amount of fumigant where it is most needed (i.e., in a small target treatment zone in and around each tree replanting site) to control Prunus replant disease (PRD). We deve...

  8. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of palladium nanoparticles from Prunus × yedoensis leaf extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    The eco-friendly production of palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) by Prunus × yedoensis tree leaf extract was studied for the first time. Initial confirmation of PdNP production was confirmed by a color change from light yellow to dark brown. The optimization parameters show that pH 7, 8% leaf extract,...

  9. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  10. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Anthocyanins: effects of juice processing on phenolic compounds and bioavailability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Boyacioglu, D.; Beekwilder, M.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Capanoglu, E.

    2014-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.), has gained growing interest in recent years due to the envisaged health benefits associated with a regular intake of anthocyanins and related polyphenolic compounds. Turkish sour cherries are widely consumed as processed products and are renowned for their high juice

  11. Changes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) antioxidants during nectar processing and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Kamiloglu, S.; Boyacioglu, D.; Vos, de C.H.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) is rich in polyphenols, and like its processed products, is especially rich in anthocyanins. We have applied HPLC, spectrophotometric and on-line antioxidant detection methods to follow the fate of cherry antioxidants during an entire multi-step industrial-scale proce

  12. Industrial processing effects on phenolic compounds in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) fruit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toydemir, G.; Capanoglu, E.; Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Boyacioglu, D.; Hall, R.D.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The processed juice (or nectar) of the sour cherry, Prunus cerasus L., is widely consumed in the Balkan region and Turkey. Sour cherry is known to be rich in polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins and procyanidins. In this work, the effects of processing of sour cherry fruit to nectar on polyp

  13. Quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in Prunus serotina Ehrh. using H-1-NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Pimenta, Lucia P.; Schilthuizen, Menno; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Prunus serotina is native to North America but has been invasively introduced in Europe since the seventeenth century. This plant contains cyanogenic glycosides that are believed to be related to its success as an invasive plant. For these compounds, chromatographic- or spectrometric-ba

  14. A synonymic revision of the Prunus-infesting aphid genus Hyalopterus Koch 1854 (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The three species of Hyalopterus Koch cause economic damage to various stone fruit trees of the genus Prunus L., H. pruni (Geoffroy), H. amygdali (Blanchard), and H. persikonus Miller et al. Although the third species was established recently, it has been suggested that one of the twelve older synon...

  15. Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) : [luuletused] / R. W. Stedingh ; tlk. ja saatesõna: Jüri Talvet

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stedingh, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Kirsipuu (Prunus avium) ; Rubus spectabilis ; Rododendron (Rhododendron macrophyllum) ; Lysuchitum americanum ; Tulp (Tulipa gesneriana) ; Kanada hani (Branta canadensis) ; Metsorava pärastlõuna (Sciurus carolinensis) ; Ohakalind (Spinus tristis) ; Shakespeare'i mälestusmärk (kogust "Stanley pargi süit")

  16. Bacterial cancer of plum trees (prunus domestica), caused by pseudomonas syringae pathovars, in the netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wenneker, M.; Meijer, H.; Maas, F.M.; Bruine, de A.; Vink, P.; Pham, K.T.K.

    2012-01-01

    In the Netherlands, bacterial canker in plum trees (Prunus domestica) is a serious and recent problem in plum production. Bacterial canker, caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (Pss) and pv. morsprunorum (Psm), is a serious disease of stone fruit, and occurs in all major stone fruit producing

  17. Transformation of somatic embryos of Prunus incisa ‘February Pink’ with a visible reporter gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system was developed for the ornamental cherry species Prunus incisa. This system uses both an antibiotic resistance gene (NPTII) and a visible selectable marker, the green fluorescent protein (GFP), to select plants. Cells from leaf and root explants were tr...

  18. Soil feedback and pathogen activity in Prunus serotina throughout its native range

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reinhart, K.O.; Royo, A.A.; Putten, van der W.H.; Clay, K.

    2005-01-01

    1 Oomycete soil pathogens are known to have a negative effect on Prunus serotina seedling establishment and to promote tree diversity in a deciduous forest in Indiana, USA. Here, we investigate whether negative feedbacks operate widely in its native range in eastern USA. 2 In laboratory experiments,

  19. Isolation and characterization of a TERMINAL FLOWER 1 homolog from Prunus serotina Ehrh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying Wang; Paula M. Pijut

    2013-01-01

    Flowering control is one of the several strategies for gene containment of transgenic plants. TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) is known to be involved in the transcriptional repression of genes for inflorescence development. Two TFL1 transcripts with different 3' UTR were cloned from black cherry (Prunus serotina...

  20. Quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in Prunus serotina Ehrh. using 1H-NMR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santos Pimenta, Lucia P.; Schilthuizen, Menno; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    Introduction Prunus serotina is native to North America but has been invasively introduced in Europe since the seventeenth century. This plant contains cyanogenic glycosides that are believed to be related to its success as an invasive plant. For these compounds, chromatographic- or

  1. Molecular characterization of Borrelia persica, the agent of tick borne relapsing fever in Israel and the Palestinian Authority.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracia Safdie

    Full Text Available The identification of the Tick Borne Relapsing Fever (TBRF agent in Israel and the Palestinian Authority relies on the morphology and the association of Borrelia persica with its vector Ornithodoros tholozani. Molecular based data on B. persica are very scarce as the organism is still non-cultivable. In this study, we were able to sequence three complete 16S rRNA genes, 12 partial flaB genes, 18 partial glpQ genes, 16 rrs-ileT intergenic spacers (IGS from nine ticks and ten human blood samples originating from the West Bank and Israel. In one sample we sequenced 7231 contiguous base pairs that covered completely the region from the 5'end of the 16S rRNA gene to the 5'end of the 23S rRNA gene comprising the whole 16S rRNA (rrs, and the following genes: Ala tRNA (alaT, Ile tRNA (ileT, adenylosuccinate lyase (purB, adenylosuccinate synthetase (purA, methylpurine-DNA glycosylase (mag, hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (hpt, an hydrolase (HAD superfamily and a 135 bp 5' fragment of the 23S rRNA (rrlA genes. Phylogenic sequence analysis defined all the Borrelia isolates from O. tholozani and from human TBRF cases in Israel and the West Bank as B. persica that clustered between the African and the New World TBRF species. Gene organization of the intergenic spacer between the 16S rRNA and the 23S rRNA was similar to that of other TBRF Borrelia species and different from the Lyme disease Borrelia species. Variants of B. persica were found among the different genes of the different isolates even in the same sampling area.

  2. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni', a novel taxon associated with X-disease of stone fruits, Prunus spp.: multilocus characterization based on 16S rRNA, secY, and ribosomal protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E; Zhao, Yan; Dally, Ellen L; Lee, Ing-Ming; Jomantiene, Rasa; Douglas, Sharon M

    2013-02-01

    X-disease is one of the most serious diseases known in peach (Prunus persica). Based on RFLP analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences, peach X-disease phytoplasma strains from eastern and western United States and eastern Canada were classified in 16S rRNA gene RFLP group 16SrIII, subgroup A. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the X-disease phytoplasma strains formed a distinct subclade within the phytoplasma clade, supporting the hypothesis that they represented a lineage distinct from those of previously described 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. Nucleotide sequence alignments revealed that all studied X-disease phytoplasma strains shared less than 97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with previously described 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' species. Based on unique properties of the DNA, we propose recognition of X-disease phytoplasma strain PX11CT1(R) as representative of a novel taxon, 'Candidatus Phytoplasma pruni'. Results from nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses of secY and ribosomal protein (rp) gene sequences provided additional molecular markers of the 'Ca. Phytoplasma pruni' lineage. We propose that the term 'Ca. Phytoplasma pruni' be applied to phytoplasma strains whose 16S rRNA gene sequences contain the oligonucleotide sequences of unique regions that are designated in the formally published description of the taxon. Such strains include X-disease phytoplasma and--within the tolerance of a single base difference in one unique sequence--peach rosette, peach red suture, and little peach phytoplasmas. Although not employed for taxon delineation in this work, we further propose that secY, rp, and other genetic loci from the reference strain of a taxon, and where possible oligonucleotide sequences of unique regions of those genes that distinguish taxa within a given 16Sr group, be incorporated in emended descriptions and as part of future descriptions of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma' taxa.

  3. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. and Heldr.) Hayek var. persica (Boiss.) Wagenitz from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zengin, G.; Guler, G.O.; Cakmak, Y.S.; Aktumseka, A.

    2011-07-01

    The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 ig/ml (in the DPPH assay). In the {beta}carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 u3 ({beta}-linolenic acid) by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. (Author).

  4. Antioxidant Activities, Metabolic Profiling, Proximate Analysis, Mineral Nutrient Composition of Salvadora persica Fruit Unravel a Potential Functional Food and a Natural Source of Pharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Asha; Parida, Asish K.; Rangani, Jaykumar; Panda, Ashok

    2017-01-01

    Salvadora persica is a medicinally important plant mainly used in oral hygiene. However, little attention has been given towards the nutritional prominence of this plant. This study encloses the proximate and mineral nutrient contents, amino acid composition, metabolite profiling and antioxidant potential of S. persica fruit. The ripen fruit contained substantial amount of sugars, mineral nutrients, carotenoids, polyphenols and flavonoids. The metabolic profiling of the fruit extract by GC-MS revealed a total of 22 metabolites comprising of sugars, sugar alcohols, organic acids, organic base, and aromatic silica compound. The identified metabolites have been previously reported to have potential antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-hyperglycemic, and antitumor properties. The GC-MS analysis indicated high glucose and glucopyranose (247.62 and 42.90 mg g-1 FW respectively) contents in fruit of S. persica. The fruit extract demonstrated a significantly higher antioxidant and ROS scavenging properties along with high contents of mineral nutrients and essential amino acids. HPLC analysis revealed presence of essential and non-essential amino acid required for healthy body metabolism. The cysteine was found to be in highest amount (733.69 mg 100 g-1 DW) among all amino acids quantified. Specifically, compared to similar medicinal plants, previously reported as a source of non-conventional food and with some of the commercially important fruits, S. persica fruit appears to be a potential source of essential mineral nutrients, amino acids, vitamins (ascorbic acid and carotenoid) and pharmaceutically important metabolites contributing towards fulfilling the recommended daily requirement of these for a healthy human being. This is the first report establishing importance of S. persica fruit as nutraceuticals. The data presented here proposed that fruit of S. persica may be used as functional food or reinvigorating ingredient for processed food to reduce deficiency of nutrients

  5. THE EFFECT OF NUTRIENT MEDIA IN MICROPROPAGATION AND IN VITRO CONSERVATION OF WILD POPULATION OF MAHALEB CHERRY (PRUNUS MAHALEB L.)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Valbona Sota; Efigjeni Kongjika

    2014-01-01

      Shoot tips of Prunus mahaleb L. isolated from wild populations of Zejmen (Lezhe), promising as rootstocks for sweet cherry cultivars, were submitted to in vitro culture to test if micropropagation could be used for their rapid production...

  6. Probiotic effects of beta-glucuronidase on the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherqui, A; Alla, S; Saguez, J; Doury, G; Sangwan-Norreel, B S; Giordanengo, P

    2003-12-01

    beta-glucuronidase (GUS) is a reporter protein commonly expressed in transgenic plants allowing the visualization of the transformed individuals. In our recent work, we showed that consumption of transformed potato plants expressing this GUS enzyme improves performance of the phloem feeding aphid Myzus persicae. Those results led us to the conclusion that the expression of GUS in potato plants might be responsible for the probiotic effect measured in feeding aphids. In the present paper, artificial diets were used to provide active GUS (10 and 500 microg ml(-1)), inactivated heated GUS (500 microg ml(-1)), glucuronic acid (10, 100 and 500 microg ml(-1)), and bovine serum albumin (500 microg ml(-1)) to M. persicae. Our results reveal that these chemicals provided as food intake might influence the biological parameters of this aphid. Experiments showed a probiotic effect of 500 microg ml(-1) GUS diet, resulting in reduced larval mortality, and increased adult reproduction period and fecundity, which led to an increased population growth potential (r(m)=0.17+/-0.01 versus r(m)=0.12+/-0.03 for aphids fed on control diet). A lower amount of added GUS led to fewer variations, biological parameters being only slightly altered (r(m)=0.14+/-0.03). Statistically similar alterations of the biological parameters were obtained when comparing aphids fed on the diet added with inactivated GUS or the non-structural bovine serum albumin protein (r(m)=0.15+/-0.02 and 0.14+/-0.03, respectively). Feeding assays conducted with glucuronic acid supplemented diets enhanced longevity and nymph production of the adult aphids and reduced larval mortality, resulting in r(m)=0.15+/-0.02 for the highest dose (500 microg ml(-1)). Although 100 microg ml(-1) glucuronate diet did not induce any effect on M. persicae (r(m)=0.12+/-0.03), aphids fed on 10 microg ml(-1) glucuronate diet exhibited unexpected reduced demographic parameters (r(m)=0.10+/-0.03). Immuno-histological analysis showed GUS

  7. Breeding rootstocks for Prunus species: Advances in genetic and genomics of peach and cherry as a model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Guajardo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Prunus rootstock is an important choice in optimizing productivity of grafted cultivars. Nevertheless, many Prunus rootstocks are notoriously intolerant to hypoxia which is caused by waterlogging and/or heavy soils. There is no available information to help select Prunus rootstocks that are tolerant to stress conditions such as root hypoxia caused by excess moisture. Information from genetic maps has demonstrated a high level of synteny among Prunus species, and this suggests that they all share a similar genomic structure. It should be possible to identify the genetic determinants involved in tolerance to hypoxia and other traits in Prunus rootstocks by applying methods to identify regions of the genome involved in the expression of important traits; these have been developed mainly in peach which is the model species for the genus. Molecular markers that are tightly linked to major genes would be useful in marker-assisted selection (MAS to optimize new rootstock selection. This article provides insight on the advances in the development of molecular markers, genetic maps, and gene identification in Prunus, mainly in peach; the aim is to provide a general approach for identifying the genetic determinants of hypoxia stress in rootstocks.

  8. Longevidade e parâmetros reprodutivos de Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae sobre berinjela em diferentes temperaturas Longevity and reproductive parameters of Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae on eggplant at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Doniseti Michelotto

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O afídeo Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae é uma das principais pragas de diversas culturas em condições de campo ou em cultivo protegido. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas na longevidade e nos aspectos reprodutivos de M. persicae sobre berinjela (Solanum melongena L.. O experimento foi conduzido sob condições controladas de temperatura (15, 20, 25 e 30°C, umidade relativa do ar (70 ± 10% e fotofase (12 horas. As unidades experimentais consistiram de placas de Petri contendo ágar-água solidificado (1%. Nestas placas, os afídeos foram mantidos individualmente sobre os discos foliares de berinjela (3 cm de diâmetro em uma das temperaturas (tratamentos, com 25 repetições. Foram determinadas as curvas mais ajustadas aos parâmetros biológicos de M. persicae, suas equações de regressão e os respectivos coeficientes de determinação (R². A temperatura influenciou todos os parâmetros avaliados. As durações dos períodos pré-reprodutivo e reprodutivo de M. persicae variaram de 0,46 dia (25°C a 1,12 dia (15°C e de 3,89 dias (25°C a 19,11 dias (15°C, respectivamente. A fecundidade total e diária foi de 17,63 ninfas/fêmea e 4,38 ninfas/fêmea/dia a 25°C; 43,63 ninfas/fêmea e 4,34 ninfas/fêmea/dia a 20°C; 60,65 ninfas/fêmea e 3,15 ninfas/fêmea/dia a 15°C. A 30°C, não houve reprodução. A duração do período pós-reprodutivo variou de 0,89 dia (25°C a 3,72 dias (15°C. A longevidade do afídeo diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura, de 23,95 dias (15°C para 5,06 dias (25°C. Temperaturas entre 15 e 20°C são mais favoráveis a M. persicae.The aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae is one of the main pests in a number of crops both under field and protected conditions. The objective of this work was to study the effect of temperature on longevity and reproductive parameters of M. persicae on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.. The experiment

  9. (E)-β-farnesene synthase genes affect aphid (Myzus persicae) infestation in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiudao; Jones, Huw D; Ma, Youzhi; Wang, Genping; Xu, Zhaoshi; Zhang, Baoming; Zhang, Yongjun; Ren, Guangwei; Pickett, John A; Xia, Lanqin

    2012-03-01

    Aphids are major agricultural pests which cause significant yield losses of the crop plants each year. (E)-β-farnesene (EβF) is the alarm pheromone involved in the chemical communication between aphids and particularly in the avoidance of predation. In the present study, two EβF synthase genes were isolated from sweet wormwood and designated as AaβFS1 and AaβFS2, respectively. Overexpression of AaβFS1 or AaβFS2 in tobacco plants resulted in the emission of EβF ranging from 1.55 to 4.65 ng/day/g fresh tissues. Tritrophic interactions involving the peach aphids (Myzus persicae), predatory lacewings (Chrysopa septempunctata) demonstrated that the transgenic tobacco expressing AaβFS1 and AaβFS2 could repel peach aphids, but not as strongly as expected. However, AaβFS1 and AaβFS2 lines exhibited strong and statistically significant attraction to lacewings. Further experiments combining aphids and lacewing larvae in an octagon arrangement showed transgenic tobacco plants could repel aphids and attract lacewing larvae, thus minimizing aphid infestation. Therefore, we demonstrated a potentially valuable strategy of using EβF synthase genes from sweet wormwood for aphid control in tobacco or other economic important crops in an environmentally benign way.

  10. Investigations of a Possible Chemical Effect of Salvadora persica Chewing Sticks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham Albabtain

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salvadora persica is commonly used chewing sticks in many parts of the world as an oral hygiene tool. This study measured the amount of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC released into the mouth and assessed its retention time in saliva. The study also tested if the released amount of BITC could potentially be antibacterial or cytotoxic. Twelve subjects brushed their teeth with fresh Miswak once, twice, and four times. The amount of BITC in the saliva and in the used brushes was quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antibacterial effect of BITC and Miswak essential oil (MEO was tested against Haemophilus influenzae, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis. The cytotoxic effect on gingival fibroblasts and keratinocytes was tested using MTT. The highest amount of the active compounds was detected in saliva after using the Miswak tip for once and immediately. It significantly decreased when the Miswak tip was used more than once and thus after 10 min. The growth of the tested bacteria was inhibited by MEO and BITC in a dose dependent manner, P. gingivalis being the most sensitive. MTT assay showed that BITC and MEO were cytotoxic towards gingival fibroblasts while oral keratinocytes showed resistance. This study suggests that the Miswak tip should be cut before each use to ensure the maximum effect.

  11. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

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    Nicoletta Faraone

    Full Text Available Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender and Thymus vulgaris (thyme and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  12. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Nicoletta; Hillier, N Kirk; Cutler, G Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  13. Nepetalactone content and antibacterial activity of the essential oils from different parts of Nepeta persica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Ali; Oji, Khodamali

    2010-04-01

    The essential oils from the flower, leaf, stem and root of Nepeta persica Boiss., analyzed by GC and GC/MS, were shown to contain 4abeta,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone (58.5%, 62.3%, 66.2% and 27.1%, respectively), and 4aalpha,7alpha,7abeta-nepetalactone (33.0%, 28.3%, 24.9% and 7.6%, respectively). The other main component of the flower and stem oils was alpha-pinene (3.6% and 4.4%) and of the leaf oil beta-ocimene (3.6%). In the root oil, other main constituents were alpha-pinene (40.4%), alpha-amorphene (5.3%), gamma-cadinene (2.9%), and cis-calamenene (2.5%). Nepetalactone was the major component of the flower, leaf and stem oils, which are thus important sources of nepetalactone. Antibacterial activities of the flower, leaf, stem and root oils were evaluated using the micro-dilution broth method. Inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi and Enterococcus faecalis were recorded. The flower, leaf, stem, and root oils had difference activities against the test microorganisms. The antibacterial property of the essential oils might be ascribed to their high content of nepetalactone isomers.

  14. [Quality assessment and classification of persicae semen based on HPLC-UV fingerprint].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Qi; Liu, Qing-Wang; Ma, Xiao-Hua; Gao, Xiao-Li; Zhou, Jian-Ping

    2014-03-01

    Persicae Semen (PS), a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used for the syndrome of blood stasis in China since the Eastern Han Dynasty. In the present study, we developed an HPLC-UV fingerprint analysis method for the quality control of PS. The HPLC fingerprint was performed on Shimadzu Inertsil C18 column (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 microm) at 35 degrees C. The mobile phases were composed of acetonitrile and water using a gradient elution. The flow rate was 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the detection wavelength was set at 210 nm. The fingerprint method was validated according to the Guidelines for Traditional Chinese Medicine Injection Fingerprint, and applied to determine 41 batches representative herbs collected from Xinjiang of China. The chromatographic peaks were characterized by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS, and nine of them were identified by comparison with the literature and/or reference standards. In order to classify and assess the samples, hierarchical clustering analysis and partial least square discriminant analysis were performed based on the common chromatographic peaks, and the samples were geographically classified into two classes, with six chemical compounds as classification markers which were significantly different between the two classes (P < 0.05).

  15. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Salvadora persica L. and its antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miri, A; Dorani, N; Darroudi, M; Sarani, M

    2016-08-29

    The silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) shows special physicochemical properties, therefore they use many applications such as catalysis, health, electronic and optical. In this study, AgNPs was synthesized using aqueous extract of Salvadora persica bark. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy, Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods. The optimal synthesis condition to prepare nanoparticles was determined as silver nitrate 3 mM, 5 ml of aqueous extract in the room temperature for 1 h. The TEM image of AgNPs showed the formation of spherical, non-uniform nanoparticles of mean size of 50 nm. The antibacterial activity of synthesized AgNPs was evaluated using disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) methods on Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The MIC values of AgNPs were 100 and 400 µg/mL on E. coli and S. aureus, respectively. Also the MBC of AgNPs was 200 µg/mL for E. coli and there was no result observed for S. aureus bacteria. The results showed that synthesized nanoparticles have favorable antibacterial properties.

  16. Seasonal activity of cambium in some tropical trees. 111. Salvadora persica L.

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    G. S. Paliwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal activity of cambium has been investigated in Salvadora persica L., one of the commonest evergrenn tree of northern India, from March, 1974 to February, 1975 in the main stem and the branch. Secondary vascular cambium behaves abnormally on the xylem side, by producing xylem and phloem in succession, resulting in the formation of interxylary phloem. It has a storied (sitratified cambium organization, comprising short fusiform and isodiametric ray initials. The fusiform initials show characteristically beaded cell walls due to the presence of primary pit fields and are uninucleate. These are highly vacuolate during the active period. The cambial activity starts in the month of March, reaches the peak in August and finally slows down in the main stem. In an young branch, however, it is initiated in March-April and reaches the peak in July and then declines till November. It once again showed an upward trend gradually. It appears that the initiation of the combial activity in this tree takes place by a hormone produced in the newly formed leaves, coupled with the high rainfall, enhanced relative humidity, optimum temperature, and short-day conditions. Size measurements for the fusiform initials showed considerable variations during the span of a year. A comparision of the organization of three types of phloem 'normal', 'included' and 'internal' occurring in this plant has also bean presented.

  17. Engineering cherry rootstocks with resistance to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus through RNAi-mediated silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guo-qing; Sink, Kenneth C; Walworth, Aaron E; Cook, Meridith A; Allison, Richard F; Lang, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a major pollen-disseminated ilarvirus that adversely affects many Prunus species. In this study, an RNA interference (RNAi) vector pART27-PNRSV containing an inverted repeat (IR) region of PNRSV was transformed into two hybrid (triploid) cherry rootstocks, 'Gisela 6' (GI 148-1) and 'Gisela 7'(GI 148-8)', which are tolerant and sensitive, respectively, to PNRSV infection. One year after inoculation with PNRSV plus Prune Dwarf Virus, nontransgenic 'Gisela 6' exhibited no symptoms but a significant PNRSV titre, while the transgenic 'Gisela 6' had no symptoms and minimal PNRSV titre. The nontransgenic 'Gisela 7' trees died, while the transgenic 'Gisela 7' trees survived. These results demonstrate the RNAi strategy is useful for developing viral resistance in fruit rootstocks, and such transgenic rootstocks may have potential to enhance production of standard, nongenetically modified fruit varieties while avoiding concerns about transgene flow and exogenous protein production that are inherent for transformed fruiting genotypes.

  18. Aphicidal Activity of Illicium verum Fruit Extracts and Their Effects on the Acetylcholinesterase and Glutathione S-transferases Activities in Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ben-Guo; Wang, Sa; Dou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Su; Li, Mao-Ye; Hua, Ri-Mao; Li, Shi-Guang; Lin, Hua-Feng

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the aphicidal activity and underlying mechanism of Illicium verum Hook. f. that is used as both food and medicine. The contact toxicity of the extracts from I. verum fruit with methyl alcohol (MA), ethyl acetate (EA), and petroleum ether (PE) against Myzus persicae (Sulzer), and the activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) of M. persicae after contact treatment were tested. The results showed that MA, EA, and PE extracts of 1.000 mg/l caused, respectively, M. persicae mortalities of 68.93%, 89.95% and 74.46%, and the LC50 of MA, EA, and PE extracts were 0.31, 0.14 and 0.27 mg/l at 72 h after treatment, respectively; the activities of AChE and GSTs in M. persicae were obviously inhibited by the three extracts, as compared with the control, with strong dose and time-dependent effects, the inhibition rates on the whole reached more than 50.00% at the concentration of 1.000 mg/l at 72 h after treatment. The inhibition of the extracts on AChE and GSTs activities (EA extract > PE extract > MA extract) were correlated with theirs contact toxic effects, so it is inferred that the decline of the metabolic enzymes activities may be one of important reasons of M. persicae death. The study results suggested that I. verum extracts have potential as a eco-friendly biopesticide in integrated pest management against M. persicae.

  19. Amygdalin isolated from Semen Persicae (Tao Ren) extracts induces the expression of follistatin in HepG2 and C2C12 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanbin; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese medicine formulation ISF-1 (also known as Bu-Yang-Huan-Wu-Tang) for post-stroke rehabilitation could increase the expression of growth-regulating protein follistatin by approximately 4-fold. This study aims to identify the active compounds of ISF-1 for the induction of follistatin expression. Active compounds in ISF-1 responsible for induction of follistatin were identified by a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction, HPLC separation and RT-PCR detection. The aqueous extracts of seven ISF-1 ingredients including Semen Persicae (Tao Ren) and the S. Persicae-derived fractions were assayed for the induction of follistatin mRNA expression in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells by RT-PCR. The concentrations of isolated compounds were proportionally normalized to the reported IC50 concentration (5.8 mg/mL) of the formulation ISF-1 in HepG2. The active fractions were characterized by reverse-phase HPLC on a C18 column and identified by mass spectrometry. Three ingredients of ISF-1, namely S. Persicae (Tao Ren), Pheretima (Di Long), and Flos Carthami (Hong Hua), induced the expression of follistatin mRNA. Among these, the ingredient S. Persicae were the most active, and amygdalin from S. Persicae extract was identified as a novel follistatin inducer. Amygdalin stimulated the growth of skeletal muscle cell line C2C12 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Amygdalin isolated from S. Persicae extract in ISF-1 through a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure induced the expression of follistatin in HepG2 and C2C12 cell lines.

  20. Extraction optimization of polyphenols, antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities from Prunus salicina Lindl.

    OpenAIRE

    LI,Yibin; LAI,Pufu; CHEN,Junchen; SHEN,Hengsheng; TANG,Baosha; Wu, Li; WENG,Minjie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Optimization of polyphenols extraction from plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) was evaluated using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken experimental results showed the optimal conditions involved an extraction temperature of 59 °C, a sonication time of 47 min, and an ethanol concentration of 61% respectively. The maximum extraction yield of total polyphenols was 44.74 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dried plum at optimal conditions. Polyphenol extracts exhibited stronger a...

  1. Isolation of flavonoids from the heartwood and resin of Prunus avium and some preliminary biological investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, James; Nair, Jerald J; Bollareddy, Endreddy; Keskar, Kunal; Thorat, Amol; Crankshaw, Denis J; Holloway, Alison C; Khan, Ghaznia; Wright, Gerard D; Ejim, Linda

    2009-12-01

    An investigation of the constituents in heartwood and resin of Prunus avium is reported. A mini-library of structurally diverse flavanones and flavones was screened for human cytochrome P450 1A1, 3A4 and 19 (aromatase) inhibition, and for antifungal activity against a panel of pathogenic fungi. The defensive role of these natural plant flavonoids as antifungal phytoalexins and phytoanticipins is discussed.

  2. Characterization of sour (Prunus cerasus L. and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. varieties with five isozyme systems Caracterização de variedades de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L. e cerejeira (Prunus avium L. em cinco sistemas isoenzimáticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remedios Morales Corts

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Extracts from young leaves of nine sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. and eight sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. varieties, located in the germplasm collection of the 'Direção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior' (Fundão, Portugal, were analysed for five isozyme systems in order to characterise these varieties and detect problems of synonymies and homonymies that frequently present. The sweet and sour cherry varieties analyzed showed low isoenzymatic polymorphism, being PGM and PGI the systems with the highest discrimination power. These systems presented seven and five different zymogrames, respectively. IDH showed four patterns. SKDH and 6-PGD grouped the varieties only into two patterns. The evident and discriminant restrictions of this type of analysis had got results that have only been a complement for agronomical and morphological characterization.Nove extratos de folhas com desenvolvimento encompleto foram obtidos de 9 variedades de cerejeira (Prunus avium L. e 8 de ginjeira (Prunus cerasus L., localizados no campo de germoplasma da "Direcção Regional de Agricultura da Beira Interior" (Fundão, Portugal. Esses extratos foram analisados para 5 sistemas isoenzimáticos a fim de caracterizar essas variedades e simultaneamente detectar sinonímias e homonímias, freqüentes neste tipo de estudos. As variedades de cerejeira e ginjeira analisadas mostraram baixo polimorfismo isoenzimático, sendo que os sistemas PGM e PGI mostraram maior poder de discriminação. Estes sistemas apresentaram 7 e 5 zimogramas diferentes, respectivamente. IDH mostrou 4 padrões. SKDH e 6-PGD agruparam as variedades em 2 padrões. Os evidentes limites discriminatórios desse tipo de análise serviram somente de complemento para a caracterização agronômica e morfológica.

  3. Foliar fertilization with potassium, magnessium and calcium and postharvest fruit quality in plums (prunus domestica l)

    OpenAIRE

    Vangdal, Eivind; Flatland, Sigrid; Mehl, Ingvild

    2010-01-01

    Proceedings of the International Conference “Environmentally friendly and safe technologies for quality of fruit and vegetables”, held in Universidade do Algarve, Faro, Portugal, on January 14-16, 2009. This Conference was a join activity with COST Action 924. Foliar applications of fertilizers are an important part of standard fertilization programmes in apples to optimize the content of nutrients important to growth and fruit quality. In an experiment in plums (Prunus domesti...

  4. Quantitative analysis of amygdalin and prunasin in Prunus serotina Ehrh. using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos Pimenta, Lúcia P; Schilthuizen, Menno; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2014-01-01

    Prunus serotina is native to North America but has been invasively introduced in Europe since the seventeenth century. This plant contains cyanogenic glycosides that are believed to be related to its success as an invasive plant. For these compounds, chromatographic- or spectrometric-based (targeting on HCN hydrolysis) methods of analysis have been employed so far. However, the conventional methods require tedious preparation steps and a long measuring time. To develop a fast and simple method to quantify the cyanogenic glycosides, amygdalin and prunasin in dried Prunus serotina leaves without any pre-purification steps using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy. Extracts of Prunus serotina leaves using CH3 OH-d4 and KH2 PO4 buffer in D2 O (1:1) were quantitatively analysed for amygdalin and prunasin using (1) H-NMR spectroscopy. Different internal standards were evaluated for accuracy and stability. The purity of quantitated (1) H-NMR signals was evaluated using several two-dimensional NMR experiments. Trimethylsilylpropionic acid sodium salt-d4 proved most suitable as the internal standard for quantitative (1) H-NMR analysis. Two-dimensional J-resolved NMR was shown to be a useful tool to confirm the structures and to check for possible signal overlapping with the target signals for the quantitation. Twenty-two samples of P. serotina were subsequently quantitatively analysed for the cyanogenic glycosides prunasin and amygdalin. The NMR method offers a fast, high-throughput analysis of cyanogenic glycosides in dried leaves permitting simultaneous quantification and identification of prunasin and amygdalin in Prunus serotina. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Detection of Self Incompatibility Genotypes in Prunus africana: Characterization, Evolution and Spatial Analysis.

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    Judith Ssali Nantongo

    Full Text Available In flowering plants, self-incompatibility is an effective genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization. Most Prunus tree species exhibit a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI system, in which the pollen phenotype is encoded by its own haploid genome. To date, no identification of S-alleles had been done in Prunus africana, the only member of the genus in Africa. To identify S-RNase alleles and hence determine S-genotypes in African cherry (Prunus africana from Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda, primers flanking the first and second intron were designed and these amplified two bands in most individuals. PCR bands on agarose indicated 26 and 8 different S-alleles for second and first intron respectively. Partial or full sequences were obtained for all these fragments. Comparison with published S-RNase data indicated that the amplified products were S-RNase alleles with very high interspecies homology despite the high intraspecific variation. Against expectations for a locus under balancing selection, frequency and spatial distribution of the alleles in a study plot was not random. Implications of the results to breeding efforts in the species are discussed, and mating experiments are strongly suggested to finally prove the functionality of SI in P. africana.

  6. Detection of Self Incompatibility Genotypes in Prunus africana: Characterization, Evolution and Spatial Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nantongo, Judith Ssali; Eilu, Gerald; Geburek, Thomas; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino

    2016-01-01

    In flowering plants, self-incompatibility is an effective genetic mechanism that prevents self-fertilization. Most Prunus tree species exhibit a homomorphic gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) system, in which the pollen phenotype is encoded by its own haploid genome. To date, no identification of S-alleles had been done in Prunus africana, the only member of the genus in Africa. To identify S-RNase alleles and hence determine S-genotypes in African cherry (Prunus africana) from Mabira Forest Reserve, Uganda, primers flanking the first and second intron were designed and these amplified two bands in most individuals. PCR bands on agarose indicated 26 and 8 different S-alleles for second and first intron respectively. Partial or full sequences were obtained for all these fragments. Comparison with published S-RNase data indicated that the amplified products were S-RNase alleles with very high interspecies homology despite the high intraspecific variation. Against expectations for a locus under balancing selection, frequency and spatial distribution of the alleles in a study plot was not random. Implications of the results to breeding efforts in the species are discussed, and mating experiments are strongly suggested to finally prove the functionality of SI in P. africana.

  7. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodamilans, Bernardo; San León, David; Mühlberger, Louisa; Candresse, Thierry; Neumüller, Michael; Oliveros, Juan Carlos; García, Juan Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01). Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  8. Transcriptomic analysis of Prunus domestica undergoing hypersensitive response to plum pox virus infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Rodamilans

    Full Text Available Plum pox virus (PPV infects Prunus trees around the globe, posing serious fruit production problems and causing severe economic losses. One variety of Prunus domestica, named 'Jojo', develops a hypersensitive response to viral infection. Here we compared infected and non-infected samples using next-generation RNA sequencing to characterize the genetic complexity of the viral population in infected samples and to identify genes involved in development of the resistance response. Analysis of viral reads from the infected samples allowed reconstruction of a PPV-D consensus sequence. De novo reconstruction showed a second viral isolate of the PPV-Rec strain. RNA-seq analysis of PPV-infected 'Jojo' trees identified 2,234 and 786 unigenes that were significantly up- or downregulated, respectively (false discovery rate; FDR≤0.01. Expression of genes associated with defense was generally enhanced, while expression of those related to photosynthesis was repressed. Of the total of 3,020 differentially expressed unigenes, 154 were characterized as potential resistance genes, 10 of which were included in the NBS-LRR type. Given their possible role in plant defense, we selected 75 additional unigenes as candidates for further study. The combination of next-generation sequencing and a Prunus variety that develops a hypersensitive response to PPV infection provided an opportunity to study the factors involved in this plant defense mechanism. Transcriptomic analysis presented an overview of the changes that occur during PPV infection as a whole, and identified candidates suitable for further functional characterization.

  9. Simple sequence repeat-based assessment of genetic relationships among Prunus rootstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkoglu, Z; Bilgener, S; Ercisli, S; Bakir, M; Koc, A; Akbulut, M; Gercekcioglu, R; Gunes, M; Esitken, A

    2010-11-03

    Ten SSR loci, previously developed for Prunus, were analyzed to examine genetic relationships among 23 rootstock candidates for sweet and sour cherries, of the species P. avium, P. cerasus, P. mahaleb, and P. angustifolia. Five genotypes of P. laurocerasus, not used as rootstock, were included in the molecular analysis. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 8 to 12, with a mean of 9, while the number of microsatellite genotypes varied from 8 to 17, indicating that the SSRs were highly informative. The degree of heterozygosity (0.61) was high. Clustering analysis resulted in two main clusters. The first cluster was divided into two subclusters; the first subcluster consisted of P. avium and P. cerasus, and the second subcluster consisted of P. laurocerasus. The second cluster was divided into two subclusters. The first subcluster consisted of P. mahaleb genotypes and the second consisted of P. angustifolia genotypes. The reference rootstocks also clustered with their associated botanical species. Unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean analysis demonstrated that P. laurocerasus genotypes had less genetic variation and that P. avium genotypes were more closely related to P. cerasus. The SSR-based phylogeny was generally consistent with Prunus taxonomy information, suggesting the applicability of SSR analysis for genotyping and phylogenetic studies in the genus Prunus.

  10. Acute toxicity effects of Prunus avium fruit extract and selection of optimum dose against radiation exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Sharma, K; Singh, Smita

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of different doses of the methanolic extract of the fruit pulp of Prunus avium (family Rosaceae), which is used ethno-medicinally for the treatment of various diseases, and to find out the optimal dose of Prunus avium extract against 10 Gy gamma-radiation exposure. To test acute toxicity in mice, different doses of PAE (Prunus avium fruit extract) were given orally for 15 consecutive days, after which the animals were observed for another 15 days; the LD50/15 of the methanolic extract was calculated to be 4.947 gm/kg body weight (b.wt). In optimum dose selection against radiation exposure, oral administration of 450 mg/kg b.wt/d of PAE for 15 consecutive days before exposure to 10 Gy of gamma-radiation was found to afford maximum protection in terms of body weight and survivability of the mice in comparison to other doses.

  11. Comparative analysis of Solanum stoloniferum responses to probing by the green peach aphid Myzus persicae and the potato aphid Macrosiphum euphorbiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adriana E.Alvarez; Viviana G.Broglia; Anahí M.Alberti D'Amato; Doret Wouters; Edwin van der Vossen; Elisa Garzo; W.Fred Tjallingii

    2013-01-01

    Plants protect themselves against aphid attacks by species-specific defense mechanisms.Previously,we have shown that Solanum stoloniferum Schlechtd has resistance factors to Myzus persicae Sulzer (Homoptera:Aphididae) at the epidermal/mesophyll level that are not effective against Macrosiphum euphorbiae Thomas (Homoptera:Aphididae).Here,we compare the nymphal mortality,the pre-reproductive development time,and the probing behavior of M.persicae and M.euphorbiae on S.stoloniferum and Solanum tuberosum L.Furthermore,we analyze the changes in gene expression in S.stoloniferum 96 hours post infestation by either aphid species.Although the M.euphorbiae probing behavior shows that aphids encounter more probing constrains on phloem activities-longer probing and salivation time-on S.stoloniferum than on S.tuberosum,the aphids succeeded in reaching a sustained ingestion of phloem sap on both plants.Probing by M.persicae on S.stoloniferum plants resulted in limited feeding only.Survival of M.euphorbiae and M.persicae was affected on young leaves,but not on senescent leaves of S.stoloniferum.Infestation by M.euphorbiae changed the expression of more genes than M.persicae did.At the systemic level both aphids elicited a weak response.Infestation of S.stoloniferum plants with a large number ofM.persicae induced morphological changes in the leaves,leading to the development of pustules that were caused by disrupted vascular parenchyma and surrounding tissue.In contrast,an infestation by M.euphorbiae had no morphological effects.Both plant species can be regarded as good host for M.euphorbiae,whereas only S.tuberosum is a good host for Mo persicae and S.stoloniferum is not.Infestation of S.stoloniferum by M.persicae or M.euphorbiae changed the expression of a set of plant genes specific for each of the aphids as well as a set of common genes.

  12. Impact of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and natural enemies on Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) infestations in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutard-Hunt, Caroline; Smart, Christine D; Thaler, Jennifer; Nault, Brian A

    2009-12-01

    Management of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in bell pepper, Capsicum annuum L., was explored through a combination of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and endemic biological control in New York in 2006 and 2007. We hypothesized that by using PGPR-treated peppers 1) M. persicae infestations would be reduced via induced resistance, 2) natural enemies would be lured to plants through the elicitation of volatile organic compounds, and 3) yield amount and quality would be improved. Pepper seed was planted in soil containing the PGPR formulation BioYield or untreated soil. Plants were transplanted to field plots and then treated with an insecticide regimen designed to remove or conserve populations of natural enemies. Apterous aphids and natural enemies were counted weekly on plants and pepper fruit were harvested, graded and weighed three times. PGPR did not directly or indirectly reduce aphid densities in either year. In 2006, there were more natural enemies in PGPR-treated plots than untreated ones, but this was probably a density-dependent response to aphid densities rather than a response of natural enemies to volatiles from PGPR-treated plants. For the first harvest date in 2006, yield of all fruit grades, especially the premium Fancy Grade, was 1.7-2.3 times greater in PGPR-treated plots than in untreated plots. However, no differences in yield were observed for the other two harvest dates or overall yield in 2006; no differences in yield among treatments were detected in 2007. Our results suggest that PGPR will not significantly impact M. persicae infestations or natural enemy populations but could enhance yield and quality of pepper fruit in some years.

  13. Potencial de manejo de Myzus persicae com óleo de pinhão manso armazenado em diferentes embalagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Mathias Holtz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Myzus persicae vem provocando prejuízos em diversas hortícolas. A utilização de inseticidas químicos vem proporcionando graves problemas na agricultura e meio ambiente. Métodos alternativos de controle têm-se tornado uma ferramenta eficaz no manejo de pragas, como a utilização de plantas inseticidas. Com o objetivo de reduzir e/ou substituir os agrotóxicos sintéticos por produtos ecologicamente corretos, este trabalho visou estudar a potencialidade inseticida do óleo de Jatropha curcas sobre o pulgão verde da couve, armazenado por 180 dias, em diferentes embalagens. Foram utilizados discos de folhas de couve contendo 10 pulgões, os quais foram imersos em solução de óleo de pinhão manso nas concentrações 0,0; 0,5; 1,0; 2,0 %. A mortalidade variou em função do tempo de armazenamento, concentração e do uso de diferentes tipos de recipientes, ocorrendo interação significativa entre esses fatores. Os polietilenos “pet branco”, “iogurte” e vidro de cor âmbar apresentaram maior mortalidade na concentração de 2 % ao longo do tempo, sendo que a maior mortalidade (99, 100 e 98 % foi obtida no período de 120, 150 e 60 dias de armazenamento, respectivamente. O polietileno “pet verde” também apresentou maior mortalidade na concentração de 2 % até os 150 dias. Essa foi de 100 % no tempo de armazenamento zero e de 14,6 % no tempo de 180 dias, demonstrando, nesse caso, que o tempo de armazenamento em garrafa “pet verde” interfere na ação do óleo sobre M. persicae. Conclui-se que óleo de pinhão manso, mesmo armazenado em diferentes recipientes ao longo do tempo, demonstra potencial no manejo de M. persicae. Palavras-chave: Myzus persicae. Jatropha curcas. Manejo alternativo.

  14. The Control Efficiency of Plant Alcohol Extracts on the Laboratory Populations of Myzus persicae (Sulzer)and Lipaphis erysimi (Kaltenbach)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Qiong; LIANG Guang-wen; ZENG Ling; SHEN Shu-ping

    2002-01-01

    The effects of semiochemicals extracted from 63 species of plants, on peach aphid (Myzus persicae) and mustard aphid (Lipaphis erysimi), were studied in laboratory. The deterrent rate, reproduction deterrent index and the interferential index of population control (ⅡPC) was used to evaluate the efficiency of semiochemicals on population control of the two target aphids. The results showed that the extracts of 34 species of common plants have noticeable effect on both aphid populations, especially, Xanthium sibiricum Petr.Et Widd. and Syngonium podophyllum Schott. These plant extracts could be used to construct the plant protectant to protect crops.

  15. Physiological, Anatomical and Metabolic Implications of Salt Tolerance in the Halophyte Salvadora persica under Hydroponic Culture Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parida, Asish K; Veerabathini, Sairam K; Kumari, Asha; Agarwal, Pradeep K

    2016-01-01

    Salt tolerance mechanism of an extreme halophyte Salvadora persica was assessed by analyzing growth, nutrient uptake, anatomical modifications and alterations in levels of some organic metabolites in seedlings imposed to various levels of salinity (0, 250, 500, and 750 mM NaCl) under hydroponic culture condition. After 21 days of salt treatment, plant height, leaf area, and shoot biomass decreased with increase in salinity whereas the leaf succulence increased significantly with increasing salinity in S. persica. The RWC% of leaf increased progressively in salt-treated seedlings as compared to control. Na(+) contents of leaf, stem and root increased in dose-dependent manner whereas there was no significant changes in K(+) content. There was significant alterations in leaf, stem, and root anatomy by salinity. The thickness of epidermis and spongy parenchyma of leaf increased in salt treated seedlings as compared to control, whereas palisade parenchyma decreased dramatically in extreme salinity (750 mM NaCl). There was a significant reduction in stomatal density and stomatal pore area of leaf with increasing salinity. Anatomical observations of stem showed that the epidermal cells diameter and thickness of cortex decreased by salinity whereas thickness of hypodermal layer, diameter of hypodermal cell, pith area and pith cell diameter increased by high salinity. The root anatomy showed an increase in epidermal thickness by salinity whereas diameters of epidermal cells and xylem vessels decreased. Total soluble sugar content remained unchanged at all levels of salinity whereas reducing sugar content increased by twofold at high salinity (750 mM NaCl). The starch content of leaf decreased progressively in NaCl treated seedlings as compared to control. Total free amino acid content did not change at low salinity (250 mM), whereas it increased significantly at higher salinity (500 and 750 mM NaCl). The proline content increased in NaCl treated seedlings as compared to

  16. Basic RNases of wild almond (Prunus webbii): cloning and characterization of six new S-RNase and one "non-S RNase" genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banović, Bojana; Surbanovski, Nada; Konstantinović, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna

    2009-03-01

    In order to investigate the S-RNase allele structure of a Prunus webbii population from the Montenegrin region of the Balkans, we analyzed 10 Prunus webbii accessions. We detected 10 different S-RNase allelic variants and obtained the nucleotide sequences for six S-RNases. The BLAST analysis showed that these six sequences were new Prunus webbii S-RNase alleles. It also revealed that one of sequenced alleles, S(9)-RNase, coded for an amino acid sequence identical to that for Prunus dulcis S(14)-RNase, except for a single conservative amino acid replacement in the signal peptide region. Another, S(3)-RNase, was shown to differ by only three amino acid residues from Prunus salicina Se-RNase. The allele S(7)-RNase was found to be inactive by stylar protein isoelectric focusing followed by RNase-specific staining, but the reason for the inactivity was not at the coding sequence level. Further, in five of the 10 analyzed accessions, we detected the presence of one active basic RNase (marked PW(1)) that did not amplify with S-RNase-specific DNA primers. However, it was amplified with primers designed from the PA1 RNase nucleotide sequence (basic "non-S RNase" of Prunus avium) and the obtained sequence showed high homology (80%) with the PA1 allele. Although homologs of PA1 "non-S RNases" have been reported in four other Prunus species, this is the first recorded homolog in Prunus webbii. The evolutionary implications of the data are discussed.

  17. A functional genomics approach identifies candidate effectors from the aphid species Myzus persicae (green peach aphid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Jorunn I B; Prince, David; Pitino, Marco; Maffei, Massimo E; Win, Joe; Hogenhout, Saskia A

    2010-11-18

    Aphids are amongst the most devastating sap-feeding insects of plants. Like most plant parasites, aphids require intimate associations with their host plants to gain access to nutrients. Aphid feeding induces responses such as clogging of phloem sieve elements and callose formation, which are suppressed by unknown molecules, probably proteins, in aphid saliva. Therefore, it is likely that aphids, like plant pathogens, deliver proteins (effectors) inside their hosts to modulate host cell processes, suppress plant defenses, and promote infestation. We exploited publicly available aphid salivary gland expressed sequence tags (ESTs) to apply a functional genomics approach for identification of candidate effectors from Myzus persicae (green peach aphid), based on common features of plant pathogen effectors. A total of 48 effector candidates were identified, cloned, and subjected to transient overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana to assay for elicitation of a phenotype, suppression of the Pathogen-Associated Molecular Pattern (PAMP)-mediated oxidative burst, and effects on aphid reproductive performance. We identified one candidate effector, Mp10, which specifically induced chlorosis and local cell death in N. benthamiana and conferred avirulence to recombinant Potato virus X (PVX) expressing Mp10, PVX-Mp10, in N. tabacum, indicating that this protein may trigger plant defenses. The ubiquitin-ligase associated protein SGT1 was required for the Mp10-mediated chlorosis response in N. benthamiana. Mp10 also suppressed the oxidative burst induced by flg22, but not by chitin. Aphid fecundity assays revealed that in planta overexpression of Mp10 and Mp42 reduced aphid fecundity, whereas another effector candidate, MpC002, enhanced aphid fecundity. Thus, these results suggest that, although Mp10 suppresses flg22-triggered immunity, it triggers a defense response, resulting in an overall decrease in aphid performance in the fecundity assays. Overall, we identified aphid

  18. DNA variation and polymorphism in Tunisian plum species (Prunus spp): contribution of flow cytometry and molecular markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Tamarzizt, H; Walker, D; Ben Mustapha, S; Abdallah, D; Baraket, G; Salhi Hannachi, A; Zehdi Azzouzi, S

    2015-01-01

    Plums (Prunus spp) are among the most important stone fruit crops in the world. European (Prunus domestica) and Japanese (Prunus salicina) plums are characterized by different levels of ploidy. Because genetic variability is the prerequisite for any plant-breeding program, we aimed to establish the taxonomic status of Tunisian plums and study their genetic variability. The nuclear DNA content of 45 wild and cultivated Tunisian plums was determined by flow cytometry. Two arbitrary primers (AD10, AD17) were used to elaborate SCAR markers useful to identify plum species. Three wild trees, Zenou 1, Zenou 6, and Zenou 3, which had 2C nuclear DNA contents of 1.99, 2.05, and 2.13 pg, were shown to be hexaploid (2n = 6x = 48), whereas the others were diploid (2n = 2x = 16). These results suggest that the three hexaploid wild plums belong to Prunus insititia, and the others belong to Prunus salicina. No SCAR markers were revealed using the AD10 and AD17 RAPD primers in relation to the ploidy of plums. We note also that AD17 primer appears to be the most informative concerning the genetic diversity. Morphological and pomological traits revealed similarity between introduced and Tunisian plum cultivars. Despite the significant morphological differences found, all the cultivars studied belong to P. salicina. The information obtained in this analysis provided on local plum genetic resources will be helpful to establish a core collection, to evaluate genetic diversity, and to initiate an improvement and selection program.

  19. Wound Healing Potential of Chlorogenic Acid and Myricetin-3-O-β-Rhamnoside Isolated from Parrotia persica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara E. Moghadam

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Wound healing is a complex physiological process that is controlled by a well-orchestrated cascade of interdependent biochemical and cellular events, which has spurred the development of therapeutics that simultaneously target these active cellular constituents. We assessed the potential of Parrotia persica (Hamamelidaceae in wound repair by analyzing the regenerative effects of its two main phenolic compounds, myricetin-3-O-β-rhamnoside and chlorogenic acid. To accomplish this, we performed phytochemical profiling and characterized the chemical structure of pure compounds isolated from P. persica, followed by an analysis of the biological effects of myricetin-3-O-β-rhamnoside and chlorogenic acid on three cell types, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells. Myricetin-3-O-β-rhamnoside and chlorogenic acid exhibited complementary pro-healing properties. The percentage of keratinocyte wound closure as measured by a scratch assay was four fold faster in the presence of 10 µg/mL chlorogenic acid, as compared to the negative control. On the other hand, myricetin-3-O-β-rhamnoside at 10 µg/mL was more effective in promoting fibroblast migration, demonstrating a two-fold higher rate of closure compared to the negative control group. Both compounds enhanced the capillary-like tube formation of endothelial cells in an in vitro angiogenesis assay. Our results altogether delineate the potential to synergistically accelerate the fibroblastic and remodelling phases of wound repair by administering appropriate amounts of myricetin-3-O-β-rhamnoside and chlorogenic acid.

  20. Mp10 and Mp42 from the aphid species Myzus persicae trigger plant defenses in Nicotiana benthamiana through different activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Patricia A; Stam, Remco; Warbroek, Tim; Bos, Jorunn I B

    2014-01-01

    Aphids are phloem-feeding insects that, like other plant parasites, deliver effectors inside their host to manipulate host responses. The Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) candidate effectors Mp10 and Mp42 were previously found to reduce aphid fecundity upon intracellular transient overexpression in Nicotiana benthamiana. We performed functional analyses of these proteins to investigate whether they activate defenses through similar activities. We employed a range of functional characterization experiments based on intracellular transient overexpression in N. benthamiana to determine the subcellular localization of Mp10 and Mp42 and investigate their role in activating plant defense signaling. Mp10 and Mp42 showed distinct subcellular localization in planta, suggesting that they target different host compartments. Also, Mp10 reduced the levels of Agrobacterium-mediated overexpression of proteins. This reduction was not due to an effect on Agrobacterium viability. Transient overexpression of Mp10 but not Mp42 activated jasmonic acid and salicylic acid signaling pathways and decreased susceptibility to the hemibiotrophic plant pathogen Phytophthora capsici. We found that two candidate effectors from the broad-host-range aphid M. persicae can trigger aphid defenses through different mechanisms. Importantly, we found that some (candidate) effectors such as Mp10 interfere with Agrobacterium-based overexpression assays, an important tool to study effector activity and function.

  1. Molecular and Insecticidal Characterization of a Novel Cry-Related Protein from Bacillus Thuringiensis Toxic against Myzus persicae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma, Leopoldo; Muñoz, Delia; Berry, Colin; Murillo, Jesús; Ruiz de Escudero, Iñigo; Caballero, Primitivo

    2014-01-01

    This study describes the insecticidal activity of a novel Bacillus thuringiensis Cry-related protein with a deduced 799 amino acid sequence (~89 kDa) and ~19% pairwise identity to the 95-kDa-aphidicidal protein (sequence number 204) from patent US 8318900 and ~40% pairwise identity to the cancer cell killing Cry proteins (parasporins Cry41Ab1 and Cry41Aa1), respectively. This novel Cry-related protein contained the five conserved amino acid blocks and the three conserved domains commonly found in 3-domain Cry proteins. The protein exhibited toxic activity against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) with the lowest mean lethal concentration (LC50 = 32.7 μg/mL) reported to date for a given Cry protein and this insect species, whereas it had no lethal toxicity against the Lepidoptera of the family Noctuidae Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner), Mamestra brassicae (L.), Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith) and S. littoralis (Boisduval), at concentrations as high as ~3.5 μg/cm2. This novel Cry-related protein may become a promising environmentally friendly tool for the biological control of M. persicae and possibly also for other sap sucking insect pests. PMID:25384108

  2. Molecular and Insecticidal Characterization of a Novel Cry-Related Protein from Bacillus Thuringiensis Toxic against Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Palma

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the insecticidal activity of a novel Bacillus thuringiensis Cry-related protein with a deduced 799 amino acid sequence (~89 kDa and ~19% pairwise identity to the 95-kDa-aphidicidal protein (sequence number 204 from patent US 8318900 and ~40% pairwise identity to the cancer cell killing Cry proteins (parasporins Cry41Ab1 and Cry41Aa1, respectively. This novel Cry-related protein contained the five conserved amino acid blocks and the three conserved domains commonly found in 3-domain Cry proteins. The protein exhibited toxic activity against the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Homoptera: Aphididae with the lowest mean lethal concentration (LC50 = 32.7 μg/mL reported to date for a given Cry protein and this insect species, whereas it had no lethal toxicity against the Lepidoptera of the family Noctuidae Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner, Mamestra brassicae (L., Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith and S. littoralis (Boisduval, at concentrations as high as ~3.5 μg/cm2. This novel Cry-related protein may become a promising environmentally friendly tool for the biological control of M. persicae and possibly also for other sap sucking insect pests.

  3. Effects of Transgenic Tobacco Plants Expressing ACA Gene from Amaranthus caudatus on the Population Development of Myzus persicae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUOHong-Nian; JIAYan-Tao; ZHOUYong-Gang; ZHANGZhen-Shan; OUYANGQing; JIANGYing; TIANYing-Chuan

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the possible function of the agglutinin from Amaranthus caudatus L. (ACA) in plant defending against insect pests, ACA cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR and the 5' and 3' sequences were confirmed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The phloem-specific expression vector of ACA gene, pBCACAc, was constructed based on the plant binary vector pBC438 and transfered into tobacco plants via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method. Results from PCR and Southern blotting analysis showed that AOA gene was integrated into the genomes of transformed plants and the transgene integration varied from one to four estimated copies per genome. Western blotting analysis indicated that ACA gene was transcribed and translated in the transgenic plants. The bioassay of Myzus persicae Sulzer on detached leaves demonstrated that the 78% transgenic tobacco plants displayed an average aphid-resistant rate of more than 75%. Some apterous progeny of M. persicae were found dead on the resistant plants. These results indicate that ACA gene should be an effective aphid-resistant gene and could be valuable for application in crop breeding for aphid resistance.

  4. Divided infraorbital foramen in the lion (Panthera leo): its implications for colonisation history, population bottlenecks, and conservation of the Asian lion (P. l. persica)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamaguchi, N.; Kitchener, A.C.; Driscoll, C.A.; Macdonald, D.W.

    2009-01-01

    A divided infraorbital foramen is an important morphological feature in lion taxonomy and has previously been considered to occur only in the Asian lion, Panthera leo persica. Based on an examination of 498 lion skulls from museum collections in Europe and southern Africa, we report for the first ti

  5. Borrelia persica: In vitro cultivation and characterization via conventional PCR and multilocus sequence analysis of two strains isolated from a cat and ticks from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Sandra; Margos, Gabriele; Overzier, Evelyn; Fingerle, Volker; Baneth, Gad; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2015-09-01

    Borrelia persica, one of the pathogenic agents of tick-borne relapsing fever, is transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani. It causes infections in humans as well as in animals. In this study, we developed a medium, termed Pettenkofer/LMU Bp, for reliable in vitro cultivation. Cell densities up to 5.2×10(7) viable cells/ml were achieved over at least 40 passages. The cultivable B. persica strain isolated from a cat was further analyzed by amplification of the flaB gene using conventional PCR. In addition, seven housekeeping genes (clpA, clpX, pepX, pyrG, recG, rplB and uvrA) of this B. persica strain and a second strain isolated out of pooled ticks from Israel were amplified and the phylogenetic relationships among Borrelia species were analyzed. The results of the conventional PCR and the multilocus sequence analysis confirmed our isolates as B. persica.

  6. Wet fractionation of the succulent halophyte Salicornia sinus-persica, with the aim of low input (water saving) biorefining into bioethanol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alassali, Ayah; Cybulska, Iwona; Galvan, Alejandro Ríos

    2017-01-01

    In this study Salicornia sinus-persica, a succulent halophyte was assessed for its potential to be used as a feedstock for bioethanol production. For such succulent, salty, green biomasses, direct fractionation and fermentation allow for water preservation in the process. Fresh biomass of S. sinus...

  7. Dinâmica populacional e incidência de moscas-das-frutas e parasitoides em cultivares de pessegueiros (Prunus Persica L. Batsch no município de presidente prudente-sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria Nalesso Marangoni Montes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve como objetivos avaliar a dinâmica populacional e registrar a diversidade de moscas-das-frutas (Diptera: Tephritoidea em cultivares de pessegueiro Tropical, Talismã, Aurora 2, Aurora 1, Dourado 2 e Doçura 2, enxertadas sobre os porta-enxertos 'Okinawa' e Umê, em Presidente Prudente-SP. Foram realizadas as correlações da dinâmica populacional com a temperatura e a precipitação, e também a infestação com as características químicas dos frutos, Sólidos Solúveis e Acidez Titulável. No período de julho de 2004 a dezembro de 2006, a dinâmica populacional de moscas-das-frutas foi obtida através de coletas semanais de moscas-das-frutas em armadilhas McPhail, e a incidência foi determinada através da coleta de 30 frutos/planta/cultivar. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Ceratitis capitata foi predominante nas cultivares de pessegueiros estudadas. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre população de moscas-das-frutas e as variáveis de temperatura e precipitação, e sólidos solúveis e ácidez titulável. Entre as cultivares de pêssego, Aurora 2 apresentou maior infestação por C. capitata, da ordem de 22 e 23% nos anos 2004 e 2006, respectivamente. Também foi registrada a incidência de Neosilba spp. em frutos de pêssego. Doryctobracon areolatus (Braconidae, Tetrastichus giffardianus (Eulophidae e Pachycrepoideus vindemmiae (Pteromalidae foram recuperados de pupários de Tephritidae.

  8. Bioactive components of Prunus avium L. black gold (red cherry) and Prunus avium L. stark gold (white cherry) juices, wines and vinegars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budak, Nilgün H

    2017-01-01

    Cherries are one of the most popular fruits, characterized by attractive colour, firmness, appearance and delicious tastes. Cherries are consumed fresh as well as in jams, wine, dried, candy and other processed products. Cherries vary in antioxidant properties and phenolic substances. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of ethanol and acetic acid fermentation on total antioxidant activities and phenolic substances of cherry juice. Total investigation of solids, pH, soluble solids, phenolic substances, ORAC and TEAC of Prunus avium L. cherry juices, macerated cherries wine, and vinegars were analyzed. All samples had 300.1-854.79 mg GAE/L of total phenolic contents, and 6.62-17.97 µmol/mL of ORAC values, and 1.5-5.5 mmol/mL of TEAC. Chlorogenic acid was present in the highest amount P. avium L. black gold vinegar.

  9. Genetic and molecular characterization of three novel S-haplotypes in sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Tatsuya; Potter, Daniel; Tao, Ryutaro; Vieira, Cristina P; Vieira, Jorge; Iezzoni, Amy F

    2008-01-01

    Tetraploid sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) exhibits gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) whereby the specificity of self-pollen rejection is controlled by alleles of the stylar and pollen specificity genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene), respectively. As sour cherry selections can be either self-compatible (SC) or self-incompatible (SI), polyploidy per se does not result in SC. Instead the genotype-dependent loss of SI in sour cherry is due to the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes. The presence of two or more non-functional S-haplotypes within sour cherry 2x pollen renders that pollen SC. Two new S-haplotypes from sour cherry, S(33) and S(34), that are presumed to be contributed by the P. fruticosa species parent, the complete S-RNase and SFB sequences of a third S-haplotype, S(35), plus the presence of two previously identified sweet cherry S-haplotypes, S(14) and S(16) are described here. Genetic segregation data demonstrated that the S(16)-, S(33)-, S(34)-, and S(35)-haplotypes present in sour cherry are fully functional. This result is consistent with our previous finding that 'hetero-allelic' pollen is incompatible in sour cherry. Phylogenetic analyses of the SFB and S-RNase sequences from available Prunus species reveal that the relationships among S-haplotypes show no correspondence to known organismal relationships at any taxonomic level within Prunus, indicating that polymorphisms at the S-locus have been maintained throughout the evolution of the genus. Furthermore, the phylogenetic relationships among SFB sequences are generally incongruent with those among S-RNase sequences for the same S-haplotypes. Hypotheses compatible with these results are discussed.

  10. Melatonin enhances root regeneration, photosynthetic pigments, biomass, total carbohydrates and proline content in the cherry rootstock PHL-C (Prunus avium × Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarropoulou, Virginia; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa; Therios, Ioannis; Koukourikou-Petridou, Magdalene

    2012-12-01

    The present study, investigates the effects of melatonin (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM) on the morphogenic and biochemical responses in the cherry rootstock PHL-C (Prunus avium L. × Prunus cerasus L.), from shoot tip explants. The incorporation of melatonin (0-10 μM) in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, greatly influenced rooting either positively or negatively. Melatonin, irrespective of its concentration, had a negative effect concerning the number of roots. However, application of 0.5 μM melatonin significantly increased the root length; while 1 μM melatonin increased the root length by 2.5 times, and the fresh weight of the roots by 4 times, in comparison to the control. Although 0.05 μM melatonin increased rooting by 11.11%, 5 μM melatonin had a significant reduction on the number, the fresh weight of roots, and the rooting percentage. Melatonin concentration of 0.1 μM resulted in the greatest chlorophyll (a + b) content, and 5-10 μM reduced the chlorophyll concentration by 2 times, compared to the control. The high melatonin concentrations (5 and 10 μM), increased the levels of proline and carbohydrates in leaves by 3-4 times. In the roots, 0.5 μM of melatonin concentration increased the carbohydrate levels by 1.5 times, while 0.05, 0.1 and 1 μM melatonin concentration significantly reduced the proline content.

  11. [Treatment of prostatic disorders with a combination of Prunus africana and benzidamine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Samhan, K

    1980-01-01

    A combination of Prunus africana and benzidamine has been administered to thirty-seven patients suffering from several prostate processes, with a predominance of prostatites and prostate adenoma into first two phases in the male and pseudoprostatism in the female. The patients' ages ranged between 28 and 82 years. Good results were achieved in 90% of the cases and there was perfect tolerance in 85%. The authors explain the methods of study and discuss the results. As there are no toxic or hormone risks, their final conclusion is to recommend this combination for prostate patients before attempting any other solution.

  12. Identification of components of Prunus africana extract that inhibit lipid peroxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, M A; Nowak, D M; Leonova, E; Levin, R M; Longhurst, P A

    1999-11-01

    Extractive and chromatographic separations were performed on V-1326, a chloroform extract from the bark of Prunus africana (also referred to as Pygeum africanum), which is used to treat the symptoms associated with benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). The relative amounts of eleven identified constituents in crude V-1326 and in separated fractions were determined using gas chromatographic analysis. The ability of V-1326 and its separated fractions to inhibit ferrous ion-induced stimulation of lipid peroxidation in microsomal preparations from rabbit livers was evaluated. The extract, V-1326, and fractions containing high levels of myristic acid potently inhibited lipid peroxidation.

  13. Sterols and squalene in apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) kernel oils: the variety as a key factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudzińska, Magdalena; Górnaś, Paweł; Raczyk, Marianna; Soliven, Arianne

    2017-01-01

    The profile of sterols and squalene content in oils recovered from the kernels of 15 apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) varieties were investigated. Nine sterols (campesterol, β-sitosterol, Δ5-avenasterol, 24-methylene-cycloartanol, cholesterol, gramisterol, Δ7-stigmasterol, Δ7-avenasterol and citrostadienol) were identified in apricot kernel oils. The β-sitosterol was the predominant sterol in each cultivar and consisted of 76-86% of the total detected sterols. The content of total sterols and squalene were significantly affected by the variety and ranged between 215.7-973.6 and 12.6-43.9 mg/100 g of oil, respectively.

  14. Isolation and Structure Elucidation of a New Triterpenoid from Prunus cerasoides D. Don

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    Liaqat Ali

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available One new metabolite, prunol (1, belonging to the pentacyclic triterpenoid skeleton was purified from the dichloromethane soluble fraction of the crude ethanolic extract of Prunus cerasoides D. Don. The structure elucidation was accomplished on the basis of one dimensional 1H and 13C NMR and two dimensional HMQC, HMBC, and COSY experiments. The molecular mass was determined by HRFAB-MS, while the major fragments were observed in the EI-MS. The comparative analysis of the NMR spectral data with the known analogues and the NOESY experiments were helpful in assigning the stereo centers in the molecule.

  15. PRUNUS SERRULATA VAR. 'KANZAN' MICROSHOOTS BEHAVIOUR DURING IN VITRO ROOTING AND ACCLIMATIZATION PHASES

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    Magdalena Duţă

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents aspects regarding in vitro rooting and acclimatization percentages of Prunus serrulata var. Kanzan vitroplants. During in vitro rooting stage, good results were obtained using a nutrient medium with the following composition: halved Murashige - Skoog mineral salts, Linsmaier – Skoog vitamins, gibberellic acid (GA 0.1 mg/l, indolelacetic acid (IAA 1.0 mg/l, activated carbon 0.3 mg/l, iron chelate 38 mg/l, 30 g/l dextrose, 7 g/l agar. The substrate recommended for acclimatization of in vitro plants is composed of black peat + perlite (1:1, at pH = 6.0.

  16. Antioxidant capacity and fatty acid profile of Centaurea kotschyi (Boiss. & Heldr. Hayek var. persica (Boiss. Wagenitz from Turkey

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    Aktumsek, Abdurrahman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The antioxidant capacity of the methanolic extract and the fatty acid composition of C. kotschyi var. persica were investigated. Six different chemical methods were used to determine the antioxidant capacity. The fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas chromatography. The IC50 value of the extract was determined as 37.09 μg/ml (in the DPPH assay. In the β-carotene/linoleic acid system, the extract exhibited 65.22% inhibition against linoleic acid oxidation. The amount of total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity were detected as 36.52 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g and 74.93 mg ascorbic acid equivalent (AE/g, respectively. The major fatty acid in the composition of C. kotschyi var. persica was found to be C 18:3 ω3 (α-linolenic acid by GC analysis. The results presented here indicate that C. kotschyi var. persica possess strong antioxidant properties. Therefore, the species can be used as a natural additive in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries.La capacidad antioxidante de extractos metanólicos y composición de ácidos grasos de C. kotschyi var. pérsica fueron investigados. Seis métodos químicos diferentes fueron realizados para la determinación de la capacidad antioxidante. La composición de ácidos grasos fue analizada por cromatografía de gases. Los valores de IC50 de los extractos fueron 37.09 μg/ml (en el ensayo con DPPH. En el sistema β-carotene/ácido linoleico, el extracto mostró un 65.22% de inhibición frente a la oxidación del ácido linoleico. La cantidad total de contenido fenólico y capacidad antioxidante total fueron 36.52 mg equivalentes de ácido gallico (GAE/g y 74.93 mg equivalentes de ácido ascórbico (AE/g, respectivamente. El principal ácidos graso encontrado, por análisis de CG, en C. kotschyi var. pérsica fue el C 18:3 ω3 (ácido α-linolenico. Los resultados presentados aquí indican que C. kotschyi var. pérsica posee unas fuertes propiedades antioxidantes. Adem

  17. Plant extracts in the control of aphids Brevicoryne brassicae (L. and Myzus persicae (SulzerExtratos vegetais no controle dos afídeos Brevicoryne brassicae (L. e Myzus persicae (Sulzer

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    Rafael Reginato Ávila

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Were accomplished the effect of plant extracts of clove basil (Ocimum gratissimum L., horsetail (Equisetum hyemale L., coriander (Coriandrum sativum L. and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. on Brevicoryne brassicae (L., 1758 and Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 aphids in cabbage Brassica oleracea (L.. The treatments consisted of plant extracts prepared fresh and dry (concentrations of 2.5; 5.0; and 10% and the controls insecticide acephate and water. These solutions were sprayed on cabbage discs placed on agar in Petri dishes, containing twenty adult aphids. In sequence, the Petri dishes were sealed with plastic film and this procedure was repeated for the two aphid species studied. The assessment of the number of live nymphs and adults occurred at 1, 12, 24, and 72 hours after installation. The extracts of coriander and tobacco prepared in a concentration of 10% showed toxic effects similar to the organophosphate insecticide acephate, on adults and nymphs of the aphids Brevicoryne brassicae and Myzus persicae. Coriander revealed a promising alternative that deserves detailed studies regarding the performance of its active ingredients and dosage determination in order to provide a safe herbal product to control insects.Avaliou-se o efeito de extratos vegetais de alfavaca-cravo (Ocimum gratissimum L., cavalinha (Equisetum hyemale L., coentro (Coriandrum sativum L. e fumo (Nicotiana tabacum L. sobre os pulgões Brevicoryne brassicae (L., 1758 e Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 em couve Brassica oleracea (L.. Os tratamentos consistiram de extratos vegetais preparados a fresco e seco (nas concentrações de 2,5; 5,0 e 10%, do padrão inseticida acefato e de água. As soluções assim obtidas foram pulverizadas em discos de couve colocados sobre agar em placas de Petri, contendo vinte pulgões adultos. Na sequência, as placas de Petri foram vedadas com filme plástico transparente, sendo este procedimento repetido para as duas espécies de afídeos. A avalia

  18. The Occurrence of Two Species of Entomophthorales (Entomophthoromycota, Pathogens of Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae, in Tunisia

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    Ibtissem Ben Fekih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The natural occurrence of entomophthoralean fungi pathogenic towards aphids on cereal and potato crops was investigated in the years 2009, 2010, and 2011. Infected aphids were sampled in three bioclimatic zones in Tunisia (Beja, Cap bon, and Kairouan and fungal species were determined based on morphological characters such as shape, size, and number of nuclei in the primary conidia. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR on the internal transcribed spacer 1 region (ITS1 was used to verify morphological determination. Both methods gave consistent results and we documented for the first time the natural occurrence of two fungal species from the order Entomophthorales (phylum Entomophthoromycota, Pandora neoaphidis and Entomophthora planchoniana. Both fungi were recorded on the aphid species Sitobion avenae and Myzus persicae on barley ears and potato leaves, respectively. Moreover, natural mixed infections by both species (P. neoaphidis and E. planchoniana were documented on the target aphids. This investigation provides basic information of entomopathogenic fungi infecting economically important aphids in Tunisia.

  19. Purification and characterisation of a 31-kDa chitinase from the Myzus Persicae aphid: a target for hemiptera biocontrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Frédéric; Saguez, Julien; Cherqui, Anas; Vandermoten, Sophie; Vincent, Charles; Versali, Marie-France; Dommès, Jacques; De Pauw, Edwin; Giordanengo, Philippe; Haubruge, Eric

    2012-03-01

    Hydrolytic enzymes involved in chitin degradation are important to allow moulting during insect development. Chitinases are interesting targets to disturb growth and develop alternative strategies to control insect pests. In this work, a chitinase from the aphid Myzus persicae was purified with a 36-fold purification rate in a three step procedure by ammonium sulphate fractionation, anion-exchange chromatography on a DEAE column and on an affinity Concanavalin A column. The purified chitinase purity assessed by 1D and 2D SDS-PAGE revealed a single band and three spots at 31 kDa, respectively. Chitinases were found to have high homologies with Concanavalins A and B, two chitinase-related proteins, a fungal endochitinase and an aphid acetylhydrolase by peptide identification by Maldi-Tof-Tof. The efficiency of two potent chitinase inhibitors, namely allosamidin and psammaplin A, was tested and showed significant rate of enzymatic inhibition.

  20. Development of quantitative extraction method of amygdalin without enzymatic hydrolysis from tonin(Persicae Semen) by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eun-Young; Lee, Sang-Soo; Lee, Je-Hyun; Hong, Seon-Pyo

    2002-08-01

    Tonin(Persicae Semen) is the herb medicine that contains amygdalin as a major ingredient. Amygdalin in water is decomposed into benzaldehyde, HCN, and glucose by emulsin, a hydrolysis enzyme in tonin. A useful and practical method for the optimum extraction condition of amygdalin without enzymatic hydrolysis is required. The extraction yield of amygdalin of natural formula tonin was 0.1% from crude powders, 1.4% from small pieces, 3.5% from half pieces and 2.4% from whole pieces. The extraction yield of amygdalin of outer shell-eliminated tonin was 0.3% from crude powders, 1.4% from small pieces, and 3.5% from half pieces and whole pieces respectively. The extraction yield of amygdalin was most high when using the size larger than half.

  1. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of Prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-gr

  2. Botryosphaeriaceae as potential pathogens of prunus species in South Africa, with descriptions of Diplodia africana and Lasiodiplodia plurivora sp. nov

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, Ulrike; Crous, Pedro W; Fourie, Paul H

    2008-01-01

    Botryosphaeriaceae are common dieback and canker pathogens of woody host plants, including stone fruit trees. In the present study the diversity of members of the Botryosphaeriaceae isolated from symptomatic wood of Prunus species (plum, peach, nectarine and apricot) was determined in stone fruit-gr

  3. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damm, U.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2008-01-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU

  4. Novel Rosaceae plant elicitor peptides as sustainable tools to control Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Prunus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Cristina; Nadal, Anna; Montesinos, Emilio; Pla, Maria

    2017-01-05

    Fruit crops are regarded as important health promoters and constitute a major part of global agricultural production, and Rosaceae species are of high economic impact. Their culture is threatened by bacterial diseases, whose control is based on preventative treatments using compounds of limited efficacy and negative environmental impact. One of the most economically relevant examples is the pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) affecting Prunus spp. The plant immune response against pathogens can be triggered and amplified by plant elicitor peptides (Peps), perceived by specific receptors (PEPRs). Although they have been described in various angiosperms, scarce information is available on Rosaceae species. Here, we identified the Pep precursor (PROPEP), Pep and PEPR orthologues of 10 Rosaceae species and confirmed the presence of the Pep/PEPR system in this family. We showed the perception and elicitor activity of Rosaceae Peps using the Prunus-Xap pathosystem as proof-of-concept. Treatment with nanomolar doses of Peps induced the corresponding PROPEP and a set of defence-related genes in Prunus leaves, and enhanced resistance against Xap. Peps from the same species had the highest efficiencies. Rosaceae Peps could potentially be used to develop natural, targeted and environmentally friendly strategies to enhance the resistance of Prunus species against biotic attackers.

  5. Seed washing, exogenous application of gibberellic acid, and cold stratification enhance the germination of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) seed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javanmard, T.; Zamani, Z.; Keshavarz Afshar, R.; Hashemi, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2014-01-01

    Seed germination in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a slow and lengthy process which has delayed breeding efforts. In this study, seed from ripe fruit of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Lambert’ were collected and, after removing the endocarp, various dormancy-breaking treatments such as seed washing,

  6. Morphological differences among egg nests and adult individuals of Cicadatra persica (Hemiptera, Cicadidae, distributed in Erneh, Syria

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    Marah Dardar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is determining the different patterns of egg nests and the morphological differences between the specimens of Cicadatra persica Kirkalidy, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae distributed in fruit orchards in Erneh located on AL-Sheikh mountain southwest of Syria. The appearance of 80 egg nests was studied, and the results showed that there were two basic patterns of egg nests laid by C. persica, 90% of the egg nests were of the first pattern (consists of several adjacent slits, while 10% of them were of the second pattern (consists of several divergent slits. A random sample consisting of 300 specimens (150 males and 150 females were also studied concentrating on the differences in the color of the supra-antennal plate and in the number of spurs on the tibia of the hind legs. The results showed that there were two basic patterns of individuals based on the differences in the color of supra-antennal plate. The first pattern (individuals with yellow supra-antennal plates, constituted more than 90%, and the second one (individuals with black supra-antennal plates constituted less than 10%. The results also showed that there were 27 different patterns based on the number of spurs on the tibia of the hind legs. One of them was a common pattern (2, 3 whose individuals have 2 spurs on the upper side of the tibia of the hind legs and 3 spurs on the lateral side of the tibia of the hind legs. The total percent of this common pattern was 76%. The other 26 patterns were different from each other, and the total percent of all these different patterns was 24%.

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Salvadora persica L. against Carrageenan Induced Paw Oedema in Rat Relevant to Inflammatory Cytokines

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    Abeer Y. IBRAHIM

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous alcoholic crude extract and ethyl acetate extract of miswak sticks (Salvadora persica L. was investigated in carrageenan induced rat paw oedema in respect to immunological parameters. Adult male sapargue dawely rats were classified into four groups, group I received the vehicle (0.25% gum acacia solution, group II received crude aqueous alcoholic extract orally at 100 mg/kg, group III received ethyl acetate extract (100 mg/kg orally and group IV received indomethacin (20 mg/kg orally, and served as standard reference. The oedema was quantified by measuring the hind paw thickness immediately before subplantar injection, and at 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. Blood samples were withdrawn after the 4th hour of carrageenan induction, centrifuged and sera were used for analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Administration of aqueous alcoholic extract and ethyl acetate extract (100 mg/ml significantly reduced the oedema thickness in a time dependent manner, the inhibition percentage of inflammation was 17% for crude extract and 27% for ethyl acetate extract. Also the two extracts reduced secretion of inflammatory mediators, interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor nercrosis factor-α (TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1 in serum. The ethyl acetate extract shows potent activity to be nearly the same of indomethacin activity on all determined parameters at the last hour of following up. These results may be due to the presence of flavonoids in ethyl acetate extract. Three major flavonoids were isolated from ethyl acetate extract and identified as apigenin rhamnoglucoside, luteolin glucoside and rutin. The experimental study revealed that Salvadora persica extracts display remarkable anti-inflammatory activity.

  8. Coniochaeta (Lecythophora), Collophora gen. nov. and Phaeomoniella species associated with wood necroses of Prunus trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U; Fourie, P H; Crous, P W

    2010-06-01

    Species of the genus Coniochaeta (anamorph: Lecythophora) are known as pathogens of woody hosts, but can also cause opportunistic human infections. Several fungi with conidial stages resembling Lecythophora were isolated from necrotic wood samples of Prunus trees in South Africa. In order to reveal their phylogenetic relationships, these fungi were studied on a morphological and molecular (5.8S nrDNA, ITS-1, ITS-2, GAPDH, EF-1alpha, 28S nrDNA, 18S nrDNA) basis. Some of the isolates were identified as Coniochaeta (Sordariomycetes), including C. velutina and two new species, C. africana and C. prunicola. The majority of the isolates, however, formed pycnidial or pseudopycnidial synanamorphs and were not closely related to Coniochaeta. According to their 28S nrDNA phylogeny, they formed two distinct groups, one of which was closely related to Helotiales (Leotiomycetes). The new genus Collophora is proposed, comprising five species that frequently occur in necrotic peach and nectarine wood, namely Co. africana, Co. capensis, Co. paarla, Co. pallida and Co. rubra. The second group was closely related to Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (Eurotiomycetes), occurring mainly in plum wood. Besides P. zymoides occurring on Prunus salicina, four new species are described, namely P. dura, P. effusa, P. prunicola and P. tardicola. In a preliminary inoculation study, pathogenicity was confirmed for some of the new species on apricot, peach or plum wood.

  9. [Identification of the wild germplasm of Prunus mume based on AFLP markers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingwei; Zhang, Qixiang; Chen, Junyu

    2012-08-01

    Mei (Prunus mume Sieb.et Zucc.) is traditionally not only a famous special ornamental plant but also a fruit tree origined in China. In order to conserve and ultilize scientifically the germplasm resources of wild mei, we identified and analysed the germplasm of mei flower in 65 samples collected from the habitat, using AFLP makers in combination with morphological anaylsis. This study amplified clearly 1 728 polymorphic bands, using the 8- pair-primer of Mse I -EcoR I screened totally from 64 -primer combination. According to the Nei' 72 distance coefficient clustering, all of the formas and varieties used in this study, including Prunus mume var. mume, P. mume, P. mume var. goethartiana, P. mume var. pallescens, P. mume var. microcarpa, P. mume var. cenrnus-sempervirens (newly recoeding variety), P. mume var. cernua, P. mume var. pallidus, P. mume var. taomei, were identified at the point of Nei' 72=0.26. Due to the genetic difference obviously among the formas and varieties, we suggested that wild germplasmtypes of all formas and varieties in P. mume should be conserved in their habitats in the furture.

  10. Geometric correlation of cultural landscape patterns and Prunus domestica L. species leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides the basics for more detailed research on the structures of bionic forms of different plant species and their application in the domain of landscape planning. The aim of this type of research is to expand knowledge of landscape planning with a deeper understanding of different geometric relations present in the existing natural forms. The correlation between structures in nature and structures that are present in contemporary landscape architecture could be established by the congruence with the geometric models from landscape. This paper is focused solely on the geometry of natural forms. The Voronoi diagram was used in order to examine the similarities and to perform a comparative analysis of the Prunus domestica L. leaf geometry and the geometry of cultural landscapes of Central Serbia. The resulting Voronoi diagram shows the similarity based on closed fields, Voronoi cells, which correspond to the nervation of Prunus domestica L. leaf by form. Using the comparative analysis, the geometric interpretation of cultural landscape examples could be linked to the geometric structure of the most frequent fruit tree species.

  11. Root density of cherry trees grafted on prunus mahaleb in a semi-arid region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Gavat, Corina; Chitu, Emil; Oprita, Alexandru; Moale, Cristina; Lamureanu, Gheorghe; Vrinceanu, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    Root density was investigated using the trench method in a cherry (Prunus avium grafted on Prunus mahaleb) orchard with clean cultivation in inter-rows and in-row. Trenches of 1 m width and 1.2 m depth were dug up between neighbouring trees. The objectives of the paper were to clarify the spatial distribution of root density of cherry trees under the soil and climate conditions of the region to expand knowledge of optimum planting distance and orchard management for a broad area of chernozems. Some soil physical properties were significantly worsened in inter-rows versus in-row, mainly due to soil compaction, and there were higher root density values in in-row versus inter-rows. Root density decreased more intensely with soil depth than with distance from trees. The pattern of root density suggests that the cherry tree density and fruit yield could be increased. However, other factors concerning orchard management and fruit yield should also be considered. The results obtained have a potential impact to improve irrigation and fertilizer application by various methods, considering the soil depth and distance from trees to wet soil, in accordance with root development.

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06466-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available .70 2 ( AJ824292 ) Prunus persica EST, clone S417J10. 34 0.87 2 ( CV050606 ) EST 10061 Half...U3_plate25_J06 PU3 Prunus persica cDNA similar t... 34 1.1 2 ( CV052260 ) EST 11708 Half-Ripe Apricot Fruit

  13. Inhibitory activity on type 2 diabetes and hypertension key-enzymes, and antioxidant capacity of Veronica persica phenolic-rich extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi-Rad, M; Tayeboon, G S; Sharifi-Rad, J; Iriti, M; Varoni, E M; Razazi, S

    2016-05-30

    Veronica genus (Plantaginaceae) is broadly distributed in different habitats. In this study, the inhibitory activity of free soluble and conjugated phenolic extracts of Veronica persica on key enzymes associated to type 2 diabetes (α-glucosidase and α-amylase) and hypertension (angiotensin I converting enzyme, ACE) was assessed, as well as their antioxidant power. Our results showed that both the extracts inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and ACE in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, free phenolic extract significantly (Penzyme inhibitory activities of the extracts were not associated with their phenolic content. Anyway, the inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase and ACE, along with the antioxidant capacity of the phenolic-rich extracts, could represent a putative mechanism through which V. persica exerts its antidiabetes and antihypertension effects.

  14. Application of a quantitative 1H-NMR method for the determination of amygdalin in Persicae semen, Armeniacae semen, and Mume fructus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Rie; Nitta, Akane; Nagatsu, Akito

    2014-01-01

    A quantitative (1)H-NMR method (qHNMR) was used to measure the amygdalin content of Persicae semen, Armeniacae semen, and Mume fructus, in each of which amygdalin constitutes a major component. The purity of amygdalin was calculated from the ratio of the intensity of the amygdalin H-2 signal at δ 6.50 ppm in pyridine-d 5 to that of the hexamethyldisilane (HMD) signal at 0 ppm. The HMD concentration was corrected by the International System of Units (SI) traceability with certified reference material (CRM)-grade bisphenol A. qHNMR revealed the amygdalin contents to be 2.72 and 3.13% in 2 lots of Persicae semen, 3.62 and 5.19% in 2 lots of Armeniacae semen, and 0.23% in Mume fructus. Thus, we demonstrated the utility of this method for the quantitative analysis of crude drugs.

  15. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, Zayame Vegette [UNESP; Rezende,Jorge Alberto Marques; Yuki, Valdir Atsushi; Piedade,Sônia Maria de Stefano

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV), to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo). The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more ef...

  16. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Filho, Reinildes; Santos, Ricardo Henrique Silva; Tavares, Wagner de Souza; Leite, Germano Leão Demolin; Wilcken, Carlos Frederico; Serrão, José Eduardo; Zanuncio, José Cola

    2014-01-01

    Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  17. Rice-straw mulch reduces the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae populations on kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reinildes Silva-Filho

    Full Text Available Organic mulches, like peel and rice-straw, besides other materials affect the UV and temperature, which cause a reduction in the aphid arrival. The aim was to evaluate the effect of covering the soil with straw on the populations of the green peach aphid, Myzus persicae on the kale, Brassica oleracea var. acephala plants. The first experiment evaluated the direct effect of the rice-straw mulch and the second its indirect effect on aphid immigration, testing the plant characteristics that could lead to the landing preference of this insect. The third experiment evaluated the direct effect of the mulch on the aphid population. In the second and third experiments, four plants, each in a 14 L polyethylene pot with holes at the bottom, were used in areas with and without soil mulching. These pots were changed between areas, after seven days, to evaluate the effects of this change on the arrival of the winged aphids to the plants. Each plant was covered with anti-aphid gauze and inoculated with one winged M. persicae. Winged and apterous adults of this insect were counted per plant after 15 days. The temperature increased in the mulched plots to a maximum of 21-36°C and to 18-32°C in the plots with or without soil covering, respectively. Plant growth reduced the numbers of the winged aphids landing before and after they were moved to the bare soil plots. The nutrient content was similar in plants in both the mulched and no mulched plots. The population growth of M. persicae was higher in the control than in the mulched plots. This was partially due to temperatures close to 30°C in these plots and changes in the plant physiology. The soil mulching with rice-straw decreased the M. persicae landing, increased the plot temperatures and improved the vegetative growth of the kale plants.

  18. Population growth of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the presence of Linepithema humile and Tapinoma sessile (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Bradford E; Silverman, Jules

    2010-10-01

    Invasive ant species can have dramatic impacts on native ants, through direct predation and by usurping common resources. Most invasive ants and many native ants use honeydew, produced by phloem-sucking hemipterans. Because colonies of invasive ants can become very large after establishment, these ants may facilitate greater hemipteran trophobiont population growth compared with their sympatric native ant counterparts. We examined the population growth of an aphid mutualist, Aphis gossypii, and a nonmutualist, Myzus persicae, exposed to two Dolichoderine ants, Linepithema humile, a globally widespread invasive species, and Tapinoma sessile, a widespread co-occurring native ant, in North America in an enemy-free laboratory study. L. humile worker foraging activity was at least twice that of T. sessile, and populations of the myrmecophile, A. gossypii, were greater when exposed to L. humile than T. sessile, possibly caused, in part, by more frequent encounters with L. humile. L. humile ignored M. persicae when A. gossypii was absent, whereas T. sessile preyed on it. Both ant species preyed on M. persicae when A. gossypii was also present. This suggested that both ants may assess nutritional gains from aphid species (i.e., honeydew versus body tissue), eliminating less productive aphids competing for host plant space. Through their impact on populations of hemipteran mutualists, we suggest that colonies of L. humile and perhaps other invasive ants may acquire more honeydew than native ants, thereby fueling colony growth that leads to numerical dominance and widespread success in introduced environments.

  19. Analysis of differentially expressed genes and adaptive mechanisms of Prunus triloba Lindl. under alkaline stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Yongqing; Li, Qingtian

    2017-01-01

    Prunus triloba Lindl. is a naturally salt-alkaline-tolerant plant with several unique characteristics, and it can be used as the rootstock of Chinese plum (Prunus salicina Lindl.) in saline-alkaline soils. To comprehensively investigate the alkaline acclimation mechanisms in P. triloba, a series of analyses were conducted under alkaline stress, including analyses of the kinetics of molecular and physiological changes, and leaf microstructure. To understand the kinetics of molecular changes under short-term alkaline stress, we used Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform to identify alkaline stress-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in P. triloba. Approximately 53.0 million high-quality clean reads were generated from 59.6 million raw reads, and a total of 124,786 unigenes were obtained after de novo assembly of P. triloba transcriptome data. After alkaline stress treatment, a total of 8948 unigenes were identified as DEGs. Based on these DEGs, a Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis was conducted, suggesting that 28 genes may play an important role in the early alkaline stress response. In addition, analysis of DEGs with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) revealed that pathways were significant at different treatment time points. A significant positive correlation was found between the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) results and the RNA-Seq data for seven alkaline-related genes, confirming the reliability of the RNA-Seq results. Based on physiological analysis of P. triloba in response to long-term alkaline stress, we found that the internal microstructures of the leaves of P. triloba changed to adapt to long-term alkaline stress. Various physiological indexes indicated that the degree of membrane injury increased with increasing duration of alkaline stress, affecting photosynthesis in P. triloba seedlings. This represents the first investigation into the physiology and transcriptome of P. triloba in response to alkaline stress. The results of

  20. PROPAGAÇÃO DO UMEZEIRO (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. POR ESTAQUIA HERBÁCEA PROPAGATION OF JAPANESE APRICOT (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. BY HERBACEOUS CUTTINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NEWTON ALEX MAYER

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização do umezeiro ou damasqueiro-japonês (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. como porta-enxerto de Prunus sp. vem despertando grande interesse em função de sua rusticidade, resistência a pragas e doenças, adaptação e, principalmente, por reduzir o porte de pessegueiros e nectarineiras. Este trabalho foi conduzido no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, e teve por objetivo estudar a propagação vegetativa desta espécie. Para tanto, utilizaram-se estacas herbáceas com 12cm de comprimento dos Clones 02; 05; 10 e 15, provenientes do Programa de Melhoramento Genético do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, submetidas às concentrações de 0 e 2000mg.L-1 de AIB, por cinco segundos. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com 4 repetições de 20 estacas por parcela, esquema fatorial 4 x 2, sendo o fator clone em 4 níveis (Clones 02; 05; 10 e 15 e AIB em 2 níveis (0 e 2000mg.L-1. De acordo com os resultados, verificou-se diferença entre os clones quanto à porcentagem de enraizamento, sendo o Clone 15 significativamente superior ao Clone 02 (93,75% e 78,13%, respectivamente. Os Clones 05 (85,0% e 10 (83,13% comportaram-se como intermediários, não diferindo dos demais. Não houve diferença entre os clones testados quanto à formação de calo, raízes por estaca, comprimento de raízes e porcentagem de estacas brotadas. O ácido indolbutírico na concentração de 2000mg.L-1 favoreceu a emissão de raízes adventícias e aumentou o comprimento das raízes, mas não teve influência na brotação das estacas. Não houve efeito da interação entre os fatores testados para as variáveis analisadas.The use of the japanese apricot (Prunus mume Sieb & Zucc. as rootstock of Prunus sp. has raised a great interest due to its rusticity, resistance to plagues and diseases, adaptation and mainly for reducing the peach and nectarines trees scales. This essay was

  1. Purification, identification and preliminary crystallographic studies of Pru du amandin, an allergenic protein from Prunus dulcis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaur, Vineet; Sethi, Dhruv K.; Salunke, Dinakar M., E-mail: dinakar@nii.res.in [National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110 067 (India)

    2008-01-01

    The purification, identification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of an allergy-related protein, Pru du amandin, from P. dulcis nuts are reported. Food allergies appear to be one of the foremost causes of hypersensitivity reactions. Nut allergies account for most food allergies and are often permanent. The 360 kDa hexameric protein Pru du amandin, a known allergen, was purified from almonds (Prunus dulcis) by ammonium sulfate fractionation and ion-exchange chromatography. The protein was identified by a BLAST homology search against the nonredundant sequence database. Pru du amandin belongs to the 11S legumin family of seed storage proteins characterized by the presence of a cupin motif. Crystals were obtained by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals belong to space group P4{sub 1} (or P4{sub 3}), with unit-cell parameters a = b = 150.7, c = 164.9 Å.

  2. Analysis of phenolic compounds in six Norwegian plum cultivars (Prunus domestica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slimestad, Rune; Vangdal, Eivind; Brede, Cato

    2009-12-01

    Six European plum cultivars ( Prunus domestica L.) grown in Norway have been studied with respect to phenolic composition. Neochlorogenic acid was found to be the most important phenolic acid in all cultivars. Together with other phenolic acids, this compound varied significantly in amount among the cultivars. Cyanidin 3-rutinoside was found to account for >60% of the total anthocyanin content. Minor amounts of flavonols (rutin and quercetin 3-glucoside) were detected in all cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity varied from 814 to 290 micromol of Trolox 100 g(-1) of fresh weight. Measurement of total phenolic content in terms of Prussian blue complex formation revealed a method failure of magnitude order compared to results obtained by HPLC. Comparison of the response factors of a range of phenolic compounds obtained upon analysis by the Prussian blue and Folin-Ciocalteu assays revealed that the latter method returned higher yields in terms of gallic acid (GAE).

  3. Physical and Chemical Properties of Some European Plum Cultivars (Prunus domestica L.

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    Mira Elena IONICA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruits from twelve plum cultivars (Prunus domestica L., were analyzed in terms of physical and chemical characteristics. The fruits trees were grown in a trial at University of Craiova - Fruit Growing Research Station (SCDP Valcea, which is located in Bujoreni, an important Romanian plum production area. Fruits were picked at harvest maturity. Several analyzes were performed, such as fruit linear dimensions, size index, fruit weight, dry matter, soluble solids content, titratable acidity, total anthocyanins, malic, tartaric and citric acids content. The best features in terms of physical and chemical properties proved to be found in ‘Alina’, ‘Alutus’, ‘Tuleu Timpuriu’, ‘Oltenal’ and ‘Renclod Althan’.

  4. Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in the ovary of plum culture (Prunus domestica L.

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    Đorđević Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Unusual behavior of growing pollen tubes in different combinations of pollination was observed in the ovary of the plum (Prunus domestica L. cv 'Čačanska Lepotica'. It primarily refers to several issues, i.e. the curling up of pollen tubes within the micropyle, the growth of two pollen tubes into the nucellus of an ovule, the occurrence of a bundle above the nucellar cap and fluorescence of the part of the embryo sac containing the egg apparatus. Upon the growth of pollen tubes into the nucellus of the ovule, subsequently penetrating pollen tubes form a bundle either above the micropyle entrance or above the nucellus. Branching and bending of pollen tubes by 180o upon their growth into the micropyle was also observed.

  5. Evaluation of enzyme treatment conditions on extraction of anthocyanins from Prunus nepalensis L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swer, Tanya L; Chauhan, Komal; Paul, Prodyut K; Mukhim, C

    2016-11-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of enzyme assisted extraction of anthocyanins from Sohiong fruit (Prunus nepalensis) under varied time, temperature and treatment conditions. Highest anthocyanins yield was obtained by coupling enzymatic treatment along with solvent extraction simultaneously. Additionally, effect of enzyme type, enzyme concentration, reaction time and temperature were evaluated subsequently in following experiments. Cellulase treatment (10% E/S) for 180min at 4°C exhibited highest yield of 984.40±3.84mg C3G/100gdm which accounts to 14.61% higher yield when compared to conventional method (858.84±6.88mg C3G/100gdm). The study provides an economical alternative for commercial extraction of anthocyanins from Sohiong fruit which can be used as a colourant for various food and other products and owing to its antioxidizing properties can be effective for the prevention and treatment of diseases.

  6. Nitric oxide content is associated with tolerance to bicarbonate-induced chlorosis in micropropagated Prunus explants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cellini, Antonio; Corpas, Francisco Javier; Barroso, Juan Bautista; Masia, Andrea

    2011-09-01

    Iron (Fe) chlorosis is a common nutritional deficiency in fruit trees grown in calcareous soils. Grafting on tolerant rootstocks is the most efficient practice to cope with it. In the present work, three Prunus hybrid genotypes, commonly used as peach rootstocks, and one peach cultivar were cultivated with bicarbonate in the growth medium. Parameters describing oxidative stress and the metabolism of reactive nitrogen species were studied. Lower contents of nitric oxide and a decreased nitrosoglutathione reductase activity were found in the most sensitive genotypes, characterized by higher oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant defense. In the peach cultivar, which behaved as a tolerant genotype, a specifically nitrated polypeptide was found. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction optimization of polyphenols, antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities from Prunus salicina Lindl.

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    Yibin LI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Optimization of polyphenols extraction from plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. was evaluated using response surface methodology. The Box-Behnken experimental results showed the optimal conditions involved an extraction temperature of 59 °C, a sonication time of 47 min, and an ethanol concentration of 61% respectively. The maximum extraction yield of total polyphenols was 44.74 mg gallic acid equivalents per gram of dried plum at optimal conditions. Polyphenol extracts exhibited stronger antioxidant activities than Vc by evaluating of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Furthermore, polyphenol extracts (IC50 = 179 g/mL showed obvious inhibitory effects on xanthine oxidase. These findings suggest that polyphenol extracts from P. salicina can be potentially used as natural antioxidant and xanthine oxidase inhibitory agents.

  8. Identification of volatile compounds in thinning discards from plum trees (Prunus salicina Lindl. cultivar Harry Pickstone

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    Rossana Podestá

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Plum (Prunus salicina Lindl. cv. Harry Pickstone, a China indigenous fruit, is widely produced and consumed in countries such as Japan and Brazil. The practice of thinning is common in horticulture and the fruits removed are discarded as waste. Like the great majority of vegetables, these thinning discards also contain essential oils which have not been investigated until the present time. The extraction of the plum thinning discards volatile oil, through the hydrodistillation method, produced a yield of 0.06% (m/m and a total of 21 components were identified, with 11 of them being responsible for 72,9% of the total oil composition. The major compounds determined through GC and GC-MS were Z-α-bisabolene (13.7%, n-hexadecanoic acid (12.7%, phytol (12.7%, and β-caryophyllene (10.4%.

  9. Effects of processing techniques on oxidative stability of Prunus pedunculatus seed oil

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    J. Yan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated the effects of Prunus pedunculatus (P. pedunculatus seed pre-treatment, including microwaving (M, roasting (R, steaming (S and roasting plus steaming (RS on crude oil quality in terms of yield, color change, fatty acid composition, and oxidative stability. The results showed an increase in monounsaturated fatty acid content and oxidative stability of the oils obtained from different processing treatments compared to the oil obtained from raw seeds (RW without processing. The oils, obtained from pretreated seeds, had higher conjugated diene (CD and 2-thiobarbituric acid (2-TBA values, compared to that obtained from RW when stored in a Schaal oven at 65 °C for 168 h. However, polyphenol and tocopherol contents decreased in all oil samples, processed or unprocessed. The effect of pre-treating the seeds was more prominent in the oil sample obtained through the RS technique, and showed higher oxidative stability than the other processed oils and the oil from RW.

  10. Analysis of wild sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. germplasm diversity in south-east Serbia

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    Mratinić Evica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ten wild growing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. genotypes from South-East Serbia with different fruit skin color were analyzed for its phenological, morphological and chemical traits. Agronomic evaluation of germplasm accessions revealed considerable diversity among different accessions for all the characters studied. The analysis of variance revealed significant differences among all genotypes for almost all examined properties. Cluster analysis showed adequate grouping of wild sweet cherry genotypes according to pomological characterization and distinguished them into two distinct groups. The first group had two subgroups and consisted of seven genotypes, while the second one included only three accessions. Despite of the significant differences among genotypes, the total concentration of phenols made a clear separation between the clusters. The level of genetic diversity in these wild sweet cherry genotypes is very high and therefore these trees are useful sources of variability for attributes studied and can be employed in further breeding programs or conservation.

  11. Genetic diversity in wild sweet cherries (Prunus avium) in Turkey revealed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercisli, S; Agar, G; Yildirim, N; Duralija, B; Vokurka, A; Karlidag, H

    2011-06-21

    Wild sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees are abundant in the northern part of Turkey, including the Coruh Valley. We analyzed 18 wild sweet cherry genotypes collected from diverse environments in the upper Coruh Valley in Turkey to determine genetic variation, using 10 SSR primers. These SSR primers generated 46 alleles; the number of alleles per primer ranged from 3 to 7, with a mean of 4.6. The primer PS12A02 gave the highest number of polymorphic bands (N = 7), while CPSCT010, UDAp-401 and UDAp-404 gave the lowest number (N = 3). Seven groups were separated in the dendrogram, although most of the genotypes did not cluster according to phenological and morphological traits. This level of genetic diversity in these wild sweet cherry genotypes is very high and therefore these trees would be useful as breeders for crosses between cultivated sweet cherry and wild genotypes.

  12. Regeneration of transgenic plants of Prunus armeniaca containing the coat protein gene of Plum Pox Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Câmara Machado, M L; da Câmara Machado, A; Hanzer, V; Weiss, H; Regner, F; Steinkellner, H; Mattanovich, D; Plail, R; Knapp, E; Kalthoff, B; Katinger, H

    1992-02-01

    A system was developed which allows the transfer of foreign genes into apricot cultivars. We report the transformation and regeneration of Prunus armeniaca plants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA 4404 containing various binary plasmids, pBinGUSint, carrying the marker gene ß-glucuronidase (GUS) and pBinPPVm, carrying the coat protein gene of Plum Pox Virus (PPV). The marker gene GUS was used for optical evaluation of the efficiency of the transformation system. The coat protein gene of PPV was used to introduce coat protein mediated resistance against one of the most important pathogens of stone fruit trees in Europe and the whole Mediterranean area. This is the first report of the successful integration of a viral coat protein gene into a fruit tree species, opening a new perspective on the control of the disease.

  13. Leaf morphological and physiological adjustments to the spectrally selective shade imposed by anthocyanins in Prunus cerasifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyparissis, A; Grammatikopoulos, G; Manetas, Y

    2007-06-01

    Prunus domestica L. has green leaves, whereas Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. var. atropurpurea has red leaves due to the presence of mesophyll anthocyanins. We compared morphological and photosynthetic characteristics of leaves of these species, which were sampled from shoots grafted in pairs on P. domestica rootstocks, each pair comprising one shoot of each species. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) anthocyanins protect red leaves against photoinhibition; and (2) red leaves display shade characteristics because of light attenuation by anthocyanins. Parameters were measured seasonally, during a period of increasing water stress, which caused a similar drop in shoot water potential in each species. As judged by predawn measurements of maximum PSII yield, chronic photoinhibition did not develop in either species and, despite the anthocyanic screen, the red leaves of P. cerasifera displayed lower light-adapted PSII yields and higher non-photochemical quenching than the green leaves of P. domestica. Thus, it appears that, in this system, anthocyanins afford little photoprotection. As predicted by the shade acclimation hypothesis, red leaves were thinner and had a lower stomatal frequency, area- based CO2 assimilation rate, apparent carboxylation efficiency and chlorophyll a:b ratio than green leaves. However, red leaves were similar to green leaves in conductivity to water vapor diffusion, dry-mass-based chlorophyll concentrations and carotenoid:chlorophyll ratios. The data for red leaves indicate adaptations to a green-depleted, red-enriched shade, rather than a neutral or canopy-like shade. Thus, green light attenuation by anthocyanins may impose a limitation on leaf thickness. Moreover, the selective depletion of light at wavelengths that are preferentially absorbed by PSII and chlorophyll b may lead to adjustments in chlorophyll pigment ratios to compensate for the uneven spectral distribution of internal light. The apparent photosynthetic cost associated with lost photons

  14. Physiological, biochemical and molecular responses in four Prunus rootstocks submitted to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Sergio; Dridi, Jihène; Gutiérrez, Diego; Moret, David; Irigoyen, Juan J; Moreno, María A; Gogorcena, Yolanda

    2013-10-01

    An understanding of the mechanisms that determine plant response to reduced water availability is essential to improve water-use efficiency (WUE) of stone fruit crops. The physiological, biochemical and molecular drought responses of four Prunus rootstocks (GF 677, Cadaman, ROOTPAC 20 and ROOTPAC(®) R) budded with 'Catherina' peach cultivar were studied. Trees were grown in 15-l containers and subjected to a progressive water stress for 26 days, monitoring soil moisture content by time domain reflectometry. Photosynthetic and gas exchange parameters were determined. Root and leaf soluble sugars and proline content were also measured. At the end of the experiment, stressed plants showed lower net photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate, and higher intrinsic leaf WUE (AN/gs). Soluble sugars and proline concentration changes were observed, in both root and leaf tissues, especially in an advanced state of stress. The accumulation of proline in roots and leaves with drought stress was related to the decrease in osmotic potential and increase in WUE, whereas the accumulation of sorbitol in leaves, raffinose in roots and proline in both tissues was related only to the increase in the WUE. Owing to the putative role of raffinose and proline as antioxidants and their low concentration, they could be ameliorating deleterious effects of drought-induced oxidative stress by protecting membranes and enzymes rather than acting as active osmolytes. Higher expression of P5SC gene in roots was also consistent with proline accumulation in the tolerant genotype GF 677. These results indicate that accumulation of sorbitol, raffinose and proline in different tissues and/or the increase in P5SC expression could be used as markers of drought tolerance in peach cultivars grafted on Prunus rootstocks.

  15. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  16. Pomological and technological characteristics of collected selections of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miletić Rade

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A plantation collection containing 32 genotypes selected from spontaneous populations of cherry plum Prunus cerasifera Erhr. was set up in the region of the Eastern Serbian town of Svrljig. The fruit trees budded from Prunus cerasifera seedlings and were planted at 5x4 m spacing on a mild slope of south-western aspect. This study shows the most important characteristics of the 19 selections in the collection, and the average results recorded in the 2000-2003 period. The most significant characteristics of the trees, their productivity, and fruit and stone characteristics are presented. The average coarseness of fruits, i.e. their length, width and thickness, measured 25.0x 24.4x25.0 mm, while stone coarseness was 14.4x10.3x3.6 mm. The average fruit weight was 12.1 g (24.3-4.8 g, and stone weight 0.85 g (2.2-0.3 g. Depending on fruit and stone weight, the mesocarp content was 93% (96.3-90.3%. Taking into consideration the possibility of fruit exploitation for the production of biologically high-quality food, the mesocarp chemical composition was thoroughly examined. The fruits were found to have increased contents of total acids, achieving an average of 3.09% (3.44-2.60%, which was the initial objective of this selection. Total solids content was 13.5% (16.2-10.3%, total soluble solids 12.5% (14.5-9.5% and total sugars 6.00% (11.45-3.14%. Considering these characteristics, the selections that were singled out deserve more attention in terms of preserving their biodiversity, forming a gene bank and commercial cultivation.

  17. The Cytotoxic, Antibacterial and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Crude Extracts of Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua

    KAUST Repository

    Seddek, Ahmed

    2011-12-01

    The discovery of drugs from natural sources has been a rapidly growing science in this era. Plants used for medicinal purposes have been usually studied as rich sources of bioactive chemical compounds that can be used as medications. Several plant-derived drugs have been approved so far. Cancer and infectious diseases have been common targets for the science of drug discovery, due to the high mortality rates caused by these diseases all over the world. Several plant-derived compounds are being marketed now as anti-cancer agents. However, finding novel antimicrobial and anti-cancer compounds has become an important goal to overcome the problems of existing anti-cancer and antimicrobial agents, such as resistance and non-selectivity. In this thesis project, an attempt to find out useful biological activities of the crude extracts of some plants used traditionally for medicinal purposes in Saudi Arabia has been made. Matricaria chamomilla, Salvadora persica and Artemisia annua have been selected for study, based on the literature review performed. These plants were screened for three biological activities; anti-cancer, anti-bacterial and free radical scavenging activities. The experimental part of the study consisted of some common in-vitro techniques, such as cytotoxicity and cell viability assays, disk diffusion assay and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl assay. In addition, the crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla has undergone chemical fractionation and four solvent fractions were obtained using column chromatography. The crude extract of Matricaria chamomilla showed a promising anti-bacterial activity against Escherichia coli and a very promising free radical scavenging activity that was comparable to ascorbic acid, an important anti-oxidant. The four solvent fractions obtained from that extract showed that these activities were produced by more than one compound belonging to different solvent fractions. In addition, the crude extract of Artemisia annua showed

  18. Novel Rosaceae Plant Elicitor Peptides as sustainable tools to control Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni in Prunus spp

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Beltrán, Cristina; Nadal i Matamala, Anna; Montesinos Seguí, Emilio; Pla i de Solà-Morales, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Fruit crops are regarded as important health promoters and constitute a major part of global agricultural production, and Rosaceae species are of high economic impact. Their culture is threatened by bacterial diseases, which control is only based on preventive treatment with compounds with limited efficacy and a negative environmental impact. One of the most economically relevant examples is the pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) affecting Prunus spp. Plant immune response agains...

  19. Cell number regulator genes in Prunus provide candidate genes for the control of fruit size in sweet and sour cherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Franceschi, P; Stegmeir, T; Cabrera, A; van der Knaap, E; Rosyara, U R; Sebolt, A M; Dondini, L; Dirlewanger, E; Quero-Garcia, J; Campoy, J A; Iezzoni, A F

    2013-01-01

    Striking increases in fruit size distinguish cultivated descendants from small-fruited wild progenitors for fleshy fruited species such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Prunus spp. (peach, cherry, plum, and apricot). The first fruit weight gene identified as a result of domestication and selection was the tomato FW2.2 gene. Members of the FW2.2 gene family in corn (Zea mays) have been named CNR (Cell Number Regulator) and two of them exert their effect on organ size by modulating cell number. Due to the critical roles of FW2.2/CNR genes in regulating cell number and organ size, this family provides an excellent source of candidates for fruit size genes in other domesticated species, such as those found in the Prunus genus. A total of 23 FW2.2/CNR family members were identified in the peach genome, spanning the eight Prunus chromosomes. Two of these CNRs were located within confidence intervals of major quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously discovered on linkage groups 2 and 6 in sweet cherry (Prunus avium), named PavCNR12 and PavCNR20, respectively. An analysis of haplotype, sequence, segregation and association with fruit size strongly supports a role of PavCNR12 in the sweet cherry linkage group 2 fruit size QTL, and this QTL is also likely present in sour cherry (P. cerasus). The finding that the increase in fleshy fruit size in both tomato and cherry associated with domestication may be due to changes in members of a common ancestral gene family supports the notion that similar phenotypic changes exhibited by independently domesticated taxa may have a common genetic basis.

  20. Analysis of expressed sequence tags from Prunus mume flower and fruit and development of simple sequence repeat markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Zhihong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expressed Sequence Tag (EST has been a cost-effective tool in molecular biology and represents an abundant valuable resource for genome annotation, gene expression, and comparative genomics in plants. Results In this study, we constructed a cDNA library of Prunus mume flower and fruit, sequenced 10,123 clones of the library, and obtained 8,656 expressed sequence tag (EST sequences with high quality. The ESTs were assembled into 4,473 unigenes composed of 1,492 contigs and 2,981 singletons and that have been deposited in NCBI (accession IDs: GW868575 - GW873047, among which 1,294 unique ESTs were with known or putative functions. Furthermore, we found 1,233 putative simple sequence repeats (SSRs in the P. mume unigene dataset. We randomly tested 42 pairs of PCR primers flanking potential SSRs, and 14 pairs were identified as true-to-type SSR loci and could amplify polymorphic bands from 20 individual plants of P. mume. We further used the 14 EST-SSR primer pairs to test the transferability on peach and plum. The result showed that nearly 89% of the primer pairs produced target PCR bands in the two species. A high level of marker polymorphism was observed in the plum species (65% and low in the peach (46%, and the clustering analysis of the three species indicated that these SSR markers were useful in the evaluation of genetic relationships and diversity between and within the Prunus species. Conclusions We have constructed the first cDNA library of P. mume flower and fruit, and our data provide sets of molecular biology resources for P. mume and other Prunus species. These resources will be useful for further study such as genome annotation, new gene discovery, gene functional analysis, molecular breeding, evolution and comparative genomics between Prunus species.

  1. Multiplicação in vitro dos porta-enxertos de Prunus sp. 'Barrier' e 'Cadaman' In vitro multiplication of 'Barrier' and 'Cadaman' Prunus sp. rootstocks

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    Marcelo Couto

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de estabelecer a melhor concentração de sais do meio MS e da citocinina BAP para a multiplicação dos porta-enxertos de Prunus sp. 'Barrier' e 'Cadaman'. Segmentos nodais foram introduzidos em tubos de ensaio contendo 10 mL de meio de cultura com variações na concentração de sais (MS; ½MS; e 2/3MS combinadas com cinco concentrações de BAP (0; 1,5; 2,5; 3,5 e 4,5 miM. Utilizou-se um fatorial 2x3x5, distribuído em blocos casualizados, compostos por quatro repetições contendo cinco tubos de ensaio cada uma, sendo inoculado um segmento nodal por tubo. As avaliações foram realizadas após cinco semanas de cultivo em ambiente com intensidade luminosa de 20 miE m-2 s-1, fotoperíodo de 16 horas e temperatura de 24 ± 4ºC. Verificou-se maior número médio de gemas e de brotações para a cultivar Barrier. À medida que se reduziu a concentração de sais do meio de cultura, obteve-se maior número de brotações, porém com menor tamanho. As regressões polinomiais das variáveis número de gemas, brotações por explante e comprimento das brotações apresentaram um ajustamento quadrático para níveis de BAP, atingindo os pontos de máximo 31,2 gemas/explante; 4,6 brotações por explante, e 8,1 mm de comprimento nas concentrações 3,3; 3,1, e 3,1 miM de BAP, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to establish the best salt and BAP concentration in MS medium for multiplication of 'Barrier' and 'Cadaman' Prunus sp. rootstocks. Nodal segments were introduced in test tubes with 10 mL of MS medium supplemented with different salt concentrations (MS; ½MS; and 2/3MS arranged with five BAP concentrations (0; 1.5; 2.5; 3.5; and 4.5 muM. It was applied a factorial 2x3x5, in a complete randomized block design with four replications composed by five test tubes each one. It was inoculated one nodal segment for each test tub. The evaluations was carried out after five weeks in room culture with

  2. Infection of host plants by Cucumber mosaic virus increases the susceptibility of Myzus persicae aphids to the parasitoid Aphidius colemani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauck, Kerry E; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C

    2015-06-04

    Plant viruses can profoundly alter the phenotypes of their host plants, with potentially far-reaching implications for ecology. Yet few studies have explored the indirect, host-mediated, effects of plant viruses on non-vector insects. We examined how infection of Cucurbita pepo plants by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) impacted the susceptibility of aphids (Myzus persicae) to attack by the parasitoid wasp Aphidius colemani. In semi-natural foraging assays, we observed higher rates of aphid parasitism on infected plants compared to healthy plants. Subsequent experiments revealed that this difference is not explained by different attack rates on plants differing in infection status, but rather by the fact that parasitoid larvae successfully complete their development more often when aphid hosts feed on infected plants. This suggests that the reduced nutritional quality of infected plants as host for aphids--documented in previous studies--compromises their ability to mount effective defenses against parasitism. Furthermore, our current findings indicate that the aphid diet during parasitoid development (rather than prior to wasp oviposition) is a key factor influencing resistance. These findings complement our previous work showing that CMV-induced changes in host plant chemistry alter patterns of aphid recruitment and dispersal in ways conducive to virus transmission.

  3. Elevated CO2 impacts bell pepper growth with consequences to Myzus persicae life history, feeding behaviour and virus transmission ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dáder, Beatriz; Fereres, Alberto; Moreno, Aránzazu; Trębicki, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) impacts plant growth and metabolism. Indirectly, the performance and feeding of insects is affected by plant nutritional quality and resistance traits. Life history and feeding behaviour of Myzus persicae were studied on pepper plants under ambient (aCO2, 400 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2, 650 ppm), as well as the direct impact on plant growth and leaf chemistry. Plant parameters were significantly altered by eCO2 with a negative impact on aphid’s life history. Their pre-reproductive period was 11% longer and fecundity decreased by 37%. Peppers fixed significantly less nitrogen, which explains the poor aphid performance. Plants were taller and had higher biomass and canopy temperature. There was decreased aphid salivation into sieve elements, but no differences in phloem ingestion, indicating that the diminished fitness could be due to poorer tissue quality and unfavourable C:N balance, and that eCO2 was not a factor impeding feeding. Aphid ability to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was studied by exposing source and receptor plants to ambient (427 ppm) or elevated (612 ppm) CO2 before or after virus inoculation. A two-fold decrease on transmission was observed when receptor plants were exposed to eCO2 before aphid inoculation when compared to aCO2.

  4. Retrospective study of mortality in Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) in the European breeding population between 2000 and 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Olivia; Williams, Jonathan; Nielsen, Rikke Kruse; Masters, Nic

    2017-01-01

    Although the European population of Asiatic lions (Panthera leo persica) has been managed under the European Endangered Species Program (EEP) since 1990, little is known about the health status of the population. This study was designed to characterize mortality for this population through examination of the studbook and other records on 392 Asiatic lions living in the EEP between 2000 and 2014. A total of 270 animals died during the period with 80% of them being under 1 year old. The mortality rate for under 1 year olds was 54%, while the odds of survival of cubs within a litter increased if the dam had had litters previously. Survival to reproductive age was 44%. Post-mortem reports were requested and the cause of death was obtained for 133 animals. Trauma inflicted by a conspecific and lack of care were common causes of death (26% and 22%, respectively) and were also responsible for most of the neonatal mortalities. Congenital defects were responsible for 9% of deaths, although the true prevalence is likely underestimated. A common necropsy protocol for all Asiatic lion collections is needed to facilitate future studies. Zoo Biol. 36:66-73, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Evaluating the anti-plaque efficacy of meswak (Salvadora persica containing dentifrice: A triple blind controlled trial

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    Puneet Gupta

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The growing field of alternative medicine has shown that dentifrices based on plant extracts are available in the market but there is little or no research to prove or refute the efficacy of dentifrices containing combination of herbal components. Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the anti-plaque efficacy of a commercially available Meswak containing dentifrice compared to the conventional dentifrice using a randomized, triple blind, parallel design method. Materials and Methods: A total of 350 subjects were selected. All the subjects (aged 13-54 years were given the test dentifrices, packed in plain white color-coded tubes. The subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily for 2 min with the allocated dentifrice. The total study duration was 4 weeks. Plaque scores were recorded at the baseline, 2 weeks and 4 weeks respectively, using the Turesky modification of the Quigley Hein Plaque Index. Results: The results showed that there were significant differences in the reduction of plaque by the herbal dentifrice, Meswak (Salvadora persica on intra-group and inter-group comparison. Conclusion: It was concluded that further research is required to know the dental benefits of herbal products being incorporated into the commercially available dentifrices.

  6. Colonization of the biomass energy crop miscanthus by the three aphid species, Aphis fabae, Myzus persicae, and Rhopalosiphum padi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulette, Q; Couty, A; Lasue, P; Rambaud, Z C; Ameline, A

    2013-04-01

    Miscanthus is a perennial C4-grass that has received much interest as a potential of impact on the local agroecosytem. In this context, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the potential colonization of this new exotic plant species by three of the main aphid pest species of common crops in Picardie, northern France. In host preference experiments, the two polyphagous aphid species studied, Aphis fabae (Scop) and Myzus persicae (Sulzer), exhibited an xclusive preference for their host plant, whereas the cereal specialist Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) showed no preference between its host plant and miscanthus. When assessed by electrical penetration graph technique, plant tissue probing activity by all three species always was characterized by pathway phases including potential drops that are typically associated to the transmission of noncirculative viruses. Phloem ingestion was observed in 5% of the polyphagous aphid individuals tested and in 20% of the R. padi tested. Aphids kept in clip-cages on miscanthus had a low survival rate and were unable to reproduce. These results demonstrate that miscanthus is not a suitable host for these three main aphid pest species but could act as a potential host for some viruses transmitted in a noncirculative manner and also in a circulative nonpropagative manner. The use of miscanthus as a barrier crop to limit the flow of aphid vectors and their phytoviruses is discussed.

  7. Selective separation of Light green and Safranin O from aqueous solution using Salvadora persica (Miswak powder as a new biosorbent

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    Elhossein A. Moawed

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel solid phase extraction method to remove Light green (acid dye and Safranin O (basic dye using Salvadora persica (Miswak powder as a new biosorbent is described. The adsorption conditions such as contact time, initial dye concentration, pH and temperature were studied by using batch system. After optimization, Miswak showed an excellent removal rate for dyes, the extraction of the dyes was accomplished in a period range of 1–10 min. The adsorption kinetics data were in good agreement with the pseudo-second-order rate model (R2 = 0.98 and the initial sorption rate (h was found to be 0.01 g mmol−1 min−1. The new adsorbent was found to have a maximum adsorption capacity of 17.3 mmol/g. The adsorption isotherms could be adequately described by the Freundlich equation (R2 = 0.91 and the 1/n value is 0.9, which attributed to the heterogeneous surface structure of the Miswak. Study of the variation of the sorption of the tested dyes with temperature yielded values for ΔH, ΔS, and ΔG of −21.0, −0.056.3 and −4.2 kJ mol−1, respectively.

  8. 用叶绿体ndhF和核核糖体ITS序列推断李属(蔷薇科)的系统发育%Phylogenetic inferences in Prunus (Rosaceae) using chloroplast ndhF and nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文军; Scott T. BERGGREN; Chung-Hee LEE; Stefanie ICKERT-BOND; Ting-Shuang YI; Ki-Oug YOO; 谢磊; Joey SHAW; Dan POTTER

    2008-01-01

    Sequences of the chloroplast ndhF gene and the nuclear ribosomal ITS regions are employed to reconstruct the phylogeny of Prunus (Rosaceae), and evaluate the classification schemes of this genus. The two data sets are congruent in that the genera Prunus s.l. and Maddenia form a monophyletic group, with Maddenia nested within Prunus. However, the ndhF data set is incongruent with the ITS data supporting two major groups within Prunus: one consisting of subgenera Laurocerasus (including Pygeum) and Padus as well as the genus Maddenia and another of subgenera Amygdalus, Cerasus, and Prunus. The ITS data, on the other hand, support a clade composed of subgenera Amygdalus and Prunus and Prunus sect. Microcerasus in addition to a paraphyletic grade of subgenera Laurocerasus and Padus (and the genus Maddenia) taxa. In general, the subgeneric classifications of Prunus s.l. are not supported. The ITS and ndhF phylogenies differ mainly in interspecific relationships and the relative position of the Padus/Laurocerasus group. Both ITS and ndhF data sets suggest that the formerly recognized genus Pygeum is polyphyletic and that the distinction of the subgenera Padus and Laurocerasus is not supported. The biogeographic interactions of the temperate and tropical members in the Padus/Laurocera- sus/Maddenia alliance including Pygeum are shown to be highly dynamic and complex.

  9. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash Eficiência dos afídeos Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do Cucumber mosaic virus em infecção simples e mista com dois Potyvirus para abobrinha de moita

    OpenAIRE

    Zayame Vegette Pinto; Jorge Alberto Marques Rezende; Valdir Atsushi Yuki; Sônia Maria de Stefano Piedade

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV), to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo). The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more ef...

  10. Establishing a baseline on the distribution and pattern of occurrence of Salvadora persica L. with meteorological data and assessing its adaptation in the adjacent warmed-up zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Amin U.; Sharif, Faiza; Hamza, Ali

    2016-12-01

    The natural occurrence of Salvadora persica L., stretching from the coastal area of the Arabian sea to northward along the Indus floodplains, was surveyed to document the pattern of its occurrence with the available meteorological record showing increasing trends of frost northwards. Information was compiled from various sources to generate the past and present temperature data in order to establish relationship between the changing temperature factors and the extent of the area available due to climate change over the years for introducing species beyond its range of natural distribution. In addition, the species was experimentally introduced in the warmed-up zones to monitor its performance and to evaluate its adaptability. The reconnaissance survey showed that the natural populations of thorn forest communities with S. persica, as associate, are now surviving only as degraded remnants. Its common occurrence is documented in zones where the mean winter temperatures are above the threshold level of frost, whereas it is rarely found in zones where it drops below this level for a single month, which seems to be its range edge. S. persica does not occur in zones where low temperature could persist for 2 months. Recent temperature data suggests that the month of December has warmed up above the threshold level; therefore, it was expected that correspondingly the range edge of the frost-sensitive species has potentially shifted further northwards. The response of the species introduced at the experimental sites beyond its natural occurrence suggests high survival and growth, demonstrating its adaptability to the new sites beyond its limit of distribution.

  11. Detection of Amino Acids Content in Prunus humilis Bunge and Prunus humilis Bunge Wine by HPLC%H PLC检测欧李和欧李酒中的氨基酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟德华; 骆亚薇; 赵英莲; 李艳

    2015-01-01

    A method for the detection of amino acids content in Prunus humilis Bunge and Prunus humilis Bunge wine by HPLC was estab-lished, which laid the foundation for the research on deep-processing of Prunus humilis Bunge and the change of nitrogen-containing substanc-es in the fermentation process. The samples were derivated by 2,4-2 nitrochlorobenzene, then separated on an C18 column (250 mm×4.6 mm, 5μm) with using a mobile phase of sodium acetate and acetonitrile-water and the flowing rate was 1.0 mL/min with gradient elution. Then 22 amino acids were detected by HPLC with the diode array detector. The correlation coefficient (R2),precision (RSD),limit of detection (LOD) of this method were 0.9903 %~1,1.054 %~2.764 %,0.05~2.95 μg/ mL, and 81.7 %~110.6 % respectively.The recoveries were 81.7 %~110.6%and 78.9%~101.5%in Prunus humilis Bunge juice and in Prunus humilis Bunge wine respectively.Eighteen amino acids were de-tected in both Prunus humilis Bunge and Prunus humilis Bunge wine including seven essential amino acids for human body.The total content of amino acids in Prunus humilis Bunge was 2726 mg/100 g, and the content of some amino acids were higher such as valine 261.0 mg/100 g, leucine 249.5 mg/100 g and isoleucine 242.5 mg/100 g.The total content of amino acids in wine was 3360.36 g/L,however,the content of pro-line and glutamine increased to 63.59%and 11.53%after the fermentation.Such method was simple,stable and reproducible.The rest of the re-agent had no influence on the detection after amino acids were derivated.The method could be applied to detect amino acids in Prunus humilis Bunge and Prunus humilis Bunge wine simultaneously and rapidly.%建立HPLC检测欧李果和欧李酒中氨基酸含量的方法,为研究欧李果深加工和欧李酒发酵过程中含氮类物质的变化奠定基础。以2,4-二硝基氟苯(DNFB)为柱前衍生剂,C18色谱柱(250 mm×4.6 mm,5μm),乙酸钠∶乙腈-水溶液为流动相,流速1.0 mL/min进行

  12. Efficacy of Stigmast-5-en-3β -ol Isolated from Salvadora persica L. as Antihyperlipidemic and Anti-tumor agent: Evidence from animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Iyer

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the anti-hyperlipidemic and anti-tumor effect of ethanolic extract, chloroform fraction and stigmast-5-en-3毬 -ol from stems of Salvadora persica L. Methods: The antihyperlipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of Salvadora persica, its chloroform fraction and isolated components was evaluated in Triton- induced hyperlipidemic rats. Animals were administered with i.p. injection of Triton WR 1339 at dose of 400 mg/kg body weight. After 24 h. of Triton administration the test drugs were administered orally at doses of 200 mg/kg body weight in rats. The ethanolic extract and stigmast-5-en-3毬 -ol from Salvadora persica were further investigated for the tumor take inhibitory activity in hybrid mice (of C57BL strain + Swiss albino strain. Preventive group animals were injected daily with the extract and Stigmast-5-en-3毬 -ol at dose of 50mg/kg body weight i.p. for 10 consecutive days. The animals were observed for the growth of tumor after injection of B16F10 melanoma cells into the dorsal skin of mice. Results: Phytochemical investigation of stems of Salvadora persica resulted in the isolation of stigmast- 5-en-3毬 -ol. The structure of the component has been established on the basis of spectral data analysis. UV 毸 max was found to be 206 nm with a melting point of 138曟 for the isolated component. The stigmast-5-en-3毬 -ol showed inhibition of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoproteins level (LDL, and significantly increased high density lipoprotein level (HDL in Triton- induced hyperlipidemic rats. It suggested marked antihyperlipidemic activity of stigmast-5-en-3毬 -ol at the oral dose of 200mg/kg. Pretreatment with the drug showed delay tumor growth by increasing the Volume Doubling Time (VDT and Growth Delay (GD. The Stigmast-5-en-3毬 -ol had shown better mean survival time. Conclusions: These observations enabled to conclude that supplementation of antioxidants and phytosterols rich food exerts

  13. Immunosuppressive activity of Semen Persicae ethanol extract on specific antibody and cellular response to ovalbumin in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi-Bin; Qin, Feng; Sun, Hong-Xiang

    2006-09-01

    The immunosuppressive activity of the ethanol extract of Semen Persicae (EESP) was studied with respect to specific antibody and cellular response to ovalbumin (OVA) in mice. The effects of EESP on mice splenocyte proliferation in vitro were measured. EESP significantly suppressed concanavalin A (ConA)- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated splenocyte proliferation in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the effects of EESP at three dose levels on the humoral and cellular immune responses in the OVA-immunized mice were examined. ICR Mice were immunized subcutaneously with OVA on day 0 and 14. Starting on the day of immunization, the mice were administered intraperitoneally with EESP at a single dose of 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 mg, and cyclosporin A (CsA, positive drug) at a single dose of 0.1 mg at intervals of 7 days. On day 28, mitogen- and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation and OVA-specific antibody level in serum were measured. EESP significantly decreased ConA-, LPS-, and OVA-induced splenocyte proliferation in the OVA-immunized mice at the dose of 1.0 mg. Meanwhile, the OVA-specific serum IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b antibody levels in the OVA-immunized mice were markedly reduced by EESP in a dose-dependent manner. The results suggest that EESP could suppress the cellular and humoral immune response in mice, and deserve further research to be developed as immunosuppressant.

  14. [Modulating effects of extractum semen Persicae and cultivated Cordyceps hyphae on immuno-dysfunction of inpatients with posthepatitic cirrhosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J L; Liu, C

    1992-04-01

    The treatment of 65 cases (with 20 cases in the control group) of patients with post-hepatic cirrhosis by Extractum Semen Persicae (ESP) and cultivated Cordyceps Hyphae (CH) was reported, and the adjustment of the disorders of both cellular and humoral immune functions was investigated. The results indicated apparently that the restrained cellular immune function, among which the rate of lymphocyte transformation, the NK cell's function, CD8+ and CD4+ cells in the patients' group were lower than those in the healthy group. The CD8+ cell count was positively correlated with lymphocyte transformation rate and the humoral immune hyperfunction revealing that the levels of IgG, IgA, ssIgA and CIC of the patients were abnormally higher than those of healthy subjects, while level of C3 was negatively correlated with that of CIC. After the treatment, rate of transformation, function of NK cell, CD8+, CD4+ cells and the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ improved; levels of IgG, IgA, ssIgA and CIC reduced, while those of C4 and C3 rose. These results revealed the ESP and cultivated CH could modulate the cellular immune function, inhibit the humoral immune hyperfunction and increase serum complement level in patients with post-hepatitic cirrhosis, which were correlated to the improvement of hepatic function. Disorder of immune function was one of the important causes of liver cell necrosis, inflammatory cell infiltration and fibroplastic proliferation. The results showed that the drugs are of some value in the treatment of patients with post-hepatitic cirrhosis.

  15. Transcriptome Analysis of Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae): Insight into Developmental Regulation and Inter-Species Divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rui; Wang, Yujun; Cheng, Yanbin; Zhang, Meiping; Zhang, Hong-Bin; Zhu, Li; Fang, Jichao; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan

    2016-01-01

    Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) are two phylogenetically closely related agricultural pests. While pea aphid is restricted to Fabaceae, green peach aphid feeds on hundreds of plant species from more than 40 families. Transcriptome comparison could shed light on the genetic factors underlying the difference in host range between the two species. Furthermore, a large scale study contrasting gene expression between immature nymphs and fully developed adult aphids would fill a previous knowledge gap. Here, we obtained transcriptomic sequences of green peach aphid nymphs and adults, respectively, using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 2244 genes were found to be differentially expressed between the two developmental stages, many of which were associated with detoxification, hormone production, cuticle formation, metabolism, food digestion, and absorption. When searched against publically available pea aphid mRNA sequences, 13,752 unigenes were found to have no homologous counterparts. Interestingly, many of these unigenes that could be annotated in other databases were involved in the “xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism” pathway, suggesting the two aphids differ in their adaptation to secondary metabolites of host plants. Conversely, 3989 orthologous gene pairs between the two species were subjected to calculations of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions, and 148 of the genes potentially evolved in response to positive selection. Some of these genes were predicted to be associated with insect-plant interactions. Our study has revealed certain molecular events related to aphid development, and provided some insight into biological variations in two aphid species, possibly as a result of host plant adaptation.

  16. Direct and Indirect Impacts of Infestation of Tomato Plant by Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Su; Ridsdill-Smith, James; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2014-01-01

    The impacts of infestation by the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) on sweetpotato whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) settling on tomato were determined in seven separate experiments with whole plants and with detached leaves through manipulation of four factors: durations of aphid infestation, density of aphids, intervals between aphid removal after different durations of infestation and the time of whitefly release, and leaf positions on the plants. The results demonstrated that B. tabaci preferred to settle on the plant leaves that had not been infested by aphids when they had a choice. The plant leaves on which aphids were still present (direct effect) had fewer whiteflies than those previously infested by aphids (indirect effect). The whiteflies were able to settle on the plant which aphids had previously infested, and also could settle on leaves with aphids if no uninfested plants were available. Tests of direct factors revealed that duration of aphid infestation had a stronger effect on whitefly landing preference than aphid density; whitefly preference was the least when 20 aphids fed on the leaves for 72 h. Tests of indirect effects revealed that the major factor that affected whitefly preference for a host plant was the interval between the time of aphid removal after infestation and the time of whitefly release. The importance of the four factors that affected the induced plant defense against whiteflies can be arranged in the following order: time intervals between aphid removal and whitefly release > durations of aphid infestation > density of aphids > leaf positions on the plants. In conclusion, the density of aphid infestation and time for which they were feeding influenced the production of induced compounds by tomatoes, the whitefly responses to the plants, and reduced interspecific competition. PMID:24710393

  17. Transcriptome analysis of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae: Insight into developmental regulation and inter-species divergence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ji

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae and pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum are two phylogenetically closely related agricultural pests. While pea aphid is restricted to Fabaceae, green peach aphid feeds on hundreds of plant species from more than 40 families. Transcriptome comparison could shed light on the genetic factors underlying the difference in host range between the two species. Furthermore, a large scale study contrasting gene expression between immature nymphs and fully developed adult aphids would fill a previous knowledge gap. Here, we obtained transcriptomic sequences of green peach aphid nymphs and adults, respectively, using Illumina sequencing technology. A total of 2,244 genes were found to be differentially expressed between the two developmental stages, many of which were associated with detoxification, hormone production, cuticle formation, metabolism, food digestion and absorption. When searched against publically available pea aphid mRNA sequences, 13,752 unigenes were found to have no homologous counterparts. Interestingly, many of these unigenes that could be annotated in other databases were involved in the xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism pathway, suggesting the two aphids differ in their adaptation to secondary metabolites of host plants. Conversely, 3,989 orthologous gene pairs between the two species were subjected to calculations of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitutions, and 148 of the genes potentially evolved in response to positive selection. Some of these genes were predicted to be associated with insect-plant interactions. Our study has revealed certain molecular events related to aphid development, and provided some insight into biological variations in two aphid species, possibly as a result of host plant adaptation.

  18. Toxicity of chloroform extract of prunus africana stem bark in rats: gross and histological lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathumbi, P K; Mwangi, J W; Mugera, G M; Njiro, S M

    2002-05-01

    Chloroform extract of Prunus africana (Hook f. (Rosaceae) did not cause clinical signs or pathology in rats at daily oral doses of up to 1,000 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The extract caused marked clinical signs, organ damage and a 50% mortality rate at a dose of 3.3 g/kg for 6 days. The main lesions observed at this dose were marked centrilobular hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, diffuse nephrosis, myocardial degeneration, lymphocytic necrosis and neuronal degeneration. The morphological damage in these tissues caused a corresponding rise in blood biochemical parameters namely, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen. The target organs of toxicity of this extract are the liver, kidney and heart. Overt toxicity occurred only after the administration of multiple doses of 3.3 g/kg body weight. These findings confirm the suitability of this extract for therapeutic use, since the doses used in the therapy of prostate gland are much lower than those used in this study and would therefore not be expected to cause pathological changes.

  19. Fine-scale spatial genetic dynamics over the life cycle of the tropical tree Prunus africana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berens, D G; Braun, C; González-Martínez, S C; Griebeler, E M; Nathan, R; Böhning-Gaese, K

    2014-11-01

    Studying fine-scale spatial genetic patterns across life stages is a powerful approach to identify ecological processes acting within tree populations. We investigated spatial genetic dynamics across five life stages in the insect-pollinated and vertebrate-dispersed tropical tree Prunus africana in Kakamega Forest, Kenya. Using six highly polymorphic microsatellite loci, we assessed genetic diversity and spatial genetic structure (SGS) from seed rain and seedlings, and different sapling stages to adult trees. We found significant SGS in all stages, potentially caused by limited seed dispersal and high recruitment rates in areas with high light availability. SGS decreased from seed and early seedling stages to older juvenile stages. Interestingly, SGS was stronger in adults than in late juveniles. The initial decrease in SGS was probably driven by both random and non-random thinning of offspring clusters during recruitment. Intergenerational variation in SGS could have been driven by variation in gene flow processes, overlapping generations in the adult stage or local selection. Our study shows that complex sequential processes during recruitment contribute to SGS of tree populations.

  20. The African cherry (Prunus africana): can lessons be learned from an over-exploited medicinal tree?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, K M

    2003-11-01

    For the last 35 years, the African cherry (Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalm.) has been used in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and other disorders. The bark, from which the treatment is derived, is entirely wild-collected. The major exporters of bark include Cameroon, Madagascar, Equatorial Guinea, and Kenya. Groupe Fournier of France and Indena of Italy produce 86% of the world's bark extract, both for their own products and for the free market. Worldwide exports of dried bark in 2000 have been estimated at 1350-1525 metric tons per year, down from its peak of 3225 tons in 1997. Bark extracts (6370-7225 kg per year) are worth an estimated $4.36 million US dollars per year. In 2000, Plantecam, the largest bark exporter in Africa, closed its extraction factory in Cameroon, due to complex ecological, social, and economic factors. Wild-collection is no longer sustainable (and probably never was) where harvest seriously affects morbidity and mortality rates of harvested populations. Since 1995, it has been included in CITES Appendix II as an endangered species. In this paper, alternatives to wild-collection to meet future market demand are investigated, including conservation practices, enrichment plantings, small- and large-scale production, and protection of genetic resources. The species is at the beginning of a transition from an exclusively wild-collected species to that of a cultivated medicinal tree.

  1. Selection of autochthonous sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. genotypes in Feketić region

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    Radičević Sanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Autochthonous genotypes of fruit species are very important source of genetic variability and valuable material for breeding work. Fruit Research Institute-Čačak has a long tradition of studying autochthonous genotypes of temperate fruits sporadically spread and preserved in some localities in Serbia. Over 2005-2006, the following properties of nine autochthonous sour cherry genotypes grown in Feketic region were investigated: flowering and ripening time, pomological properties, biochemical composition of fruits and field resistance to causal agents of cherry diseases - cherry leaf spot (Blumeriella jaapii (Rehm. v. Arx., shot-hole (Clasterosporium carpophilum (Lév. Aderh. and brown rot (Monilinia laxa /Ader et Ruhl./ Honey ex Whetz.. The genotypes were tested for the presence of Prune dwarf virus and Prunus necrotic ring spot virus. In majority of genotypes fruits were large, with exceptional organoleptical properties, whereas ripening time was in the first ten or twenty days of June. The highest fruit weight was observed in F-1 genotype (8.1 g. The highest soluble solids and total sugars content were found in F- 4 genotype (17.60% and 14.25%, respectively. As for field resistance to causal agents of diseases and good pomo-technological properties, F-1, F-2, F-3, F-7 and F-8 genotypes were singled out. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31064

  2. Changes of quality in the fruits of Prunus mume during deacidification by fermentation with Lactobacillus fermentium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanshan; Xiao, Gengsheng; Xu, Yujuan; Wu, Jijun; Zhang, Yousheng; Chen, Weidong

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of quality attributes of Prunus mume fruits during deacidification using the fermentation of Lactobacillus fermentium. Results of HPLC analysis showed that the sucrose and glucose were dominant sugars, and citric acid was dominant organic acids in P. mume fruits. The level of citric acid reaches 39.3 g/kg, and yet the sucrose and glucose content in the P. mume fruits was very lower, which were 2.16 and 0.66 g/L, respectively. After 8 d of fermentation, sugar and citric acid in the P. mume fruits was completely consumed, and the total phenolics, antioxidant activity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity value), and sarcocarp firmness retained 64.4%, 70.0%, 62.6%, respectively. Also, the viability counts of L. fermentium in fermentation broth increased slowly, which were near 8.0 lg CFU/mL after 8 d of fermentation at 30 °C. Overall, fermentation with L. fermentium can be applied in deacidification of P. mume fruits, and also the fermented P. mume fruits can meet the standard to be further processed into prune or sauces, and the fermentation broth of P. mume fruits with L. fermentium have a good prospect in the development of probiotic beverage.

  3. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

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    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  4. Screening of Natural Organic Volatiles from Prunus mahaleb L. Honey: Coumarin and Vomifoliol as Nonspecific Biomarkers

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    Mladenka Malenica Staver

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME; PDMS/DVB fibre and ultrasonic solvent extraction (USE; solvent A: pentane and diethyl ether (1:2 v/v, solvent B: dichloromethane followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC, GC-MS were used for the analysis of Prunus mahaleb L. honey samples. Screening was focused toward chemical composition of natural organic volatiles to determine if it is useful as a method of determining honey-sourcing. A total of 34 compounds were identified in the headspace and 49 in the extracts that included terpenes, norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives, followed by minor percentages of aliphatic compounds and furan derivatives. High vomifoliol percentages (10.7%–24.2% in both extracts (dominant in solvent B and coumarin (0.3%–2.4% from the extracts (more abundant in solvent A and headspace (0.9%–1.8% were considered characteristic for P. mahaleb honey and highlighted as potential nonspecific biomarkers of the honey’s botanical origin. In addition, comparison with P. mahaleb flowers, leaves, bark and wood volatiles from our previous research revealed common compounds among norisoprenoids and benzene derivatives.

  5. Future Applications of Apricot (Prunus Armeniaca Kaisa ß Galactosidase in Dairy Industry

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    Ansari Shakeel Ahmed

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrates the immobilization of β galactosidase from apricots (Prunus armeniaca kaisa on an inexpensive concanavalin A layered cellulose-alginate hybrid gel. Immobilized β galactosidase retained 78% of the initial activity after crosslinking by glutaraldehyde. It exhibited greater fraction of activity at both acidic and basic pH, and showed broad spectrum temperature optimum as compared to free enzyme. Moreover, immobilized enzyme exhibited higher thermal stability at 60°C and retained 80% of the original enzyme activity in presence of 3% galactose. The crosslinked immobilized enzyme showed improved hydrolysis of lactose from milk and whey in batch processes at 50°C as well as in continuous reactors operated at fl ow rate of 20 mL/h and 30 mL/h even after one month. Moreover, crosslinked adsorbed β galactosidase retained 76% activity even after its sixth repeated use, thereby promoting its use for lactose hydrolysis in various dairy products even for longer durations.

  6. Propagation of the endangered Azorean cherry Prunus azorica using stem cuttings and air layering

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    MOREIRA, O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Prunus azorica (Hort. ex Mouillef. Rivas Mart., Lousã, Fern. Prieto, E. Dias, J.C. Costa &C. Aguiar is an endangered tree endemic to the Azores, with an ecological and ornamentalinterest. The objective of this study was to determine the conditions necessary for thesuccessful propagation of P. azorica by stem cuttings and air-layering. Stem cuttingscollected in March with two apical leaf pairs pruned to 1/3 of their leaf area were submittedto different treatments, including a basal split wound, two rooting mixtures, namely, perlite and peat (1:1 or perlite and natural soil (1:1, and dipping of the base in indole-3-butyric acid (IBA solution at four concentrations (0, 2500, 5000 or 7000 mg/L. After eight weeks 75% rooting was achieved with 75 to 88% survival, without addition of IBA and with split wound using both substrate mixtures. Air layering was conducted in June in branches of adult trees with the addition of 0, 2500 or 3000 mg/L of IBA. After 12 months 100%rooting and survival was recorded in all treatments. Our study thus indicates that P. azorica is a taxon amenable for vegetative propagation by stem cuttings and air layering withoutrequiring addition of IBA to induce rooting. Both methods should be used in order to recover natural populations, when seeds are not available or are available in reduced amounts.

  7. Aroma peculiarities of apricot (Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. and cherry-plum (Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. flowers

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    В. М. Горіна

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the component composition of volatile solutions determining fragrance of the flowers in apricot and cherry-plum varieties and Prunus brigantiaca Vill. x Armeniaca vulgaris Lam. hybrids there are 36 highest hydrocarbons and benzaldehyde that prevail. There are fewer amounts of the solutions which scare bees (benzaldehyde in the fragrance of cherry-plum varieties as compared to the flowers of apricot and hybrids. At the same time, the content of tricosane, pentacosane, docosane, heneycosane, eicosane, nonadecan that probably attract bees is higher in the cherry-plum flowers than in the fragrance of apricot and hybrid flowers. The average three years yield of cherry-plum plants (Nikitska Zhovta 10,7 and Salgirskaya Rumjanaya 28,5 t/ ha is higher than for apricot (Recolte de Schatene 0,3; Rodnik 2,9; Ananasniy Tsurupinsky 7,4 t/ha and hybrids (8110 – 5,2; 8098 – 6,4 t/ha that could be explained with better pollination of flowers and better fruit formation. Prevailing components of flower aroma of these plants    and their possible link with yield of the objects in questions have been analyzed.

  8. [Effect of processing on the antioxidant capacity of the plum (Prunus domestica)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valero, Yolmar; Colina, Jhoana; Ineichen, Emilio

    2012-12-01

    Fruits are considered sources of antioxidant compounds whose properties could impair due to processing. The objective of this work was to determine the effect of blanching and osmotic dehydration on the total polyphenols content, tannins and antioxidant capacity of plums (Prunus domestica) in yellow and red varieties. The total phenolic content in plums was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and tannins were determined by vanillin assay. The antiradical efficiency (AE) and ferric reducing power (FRP) were used to estimate the total antioxidant capacity. The content of total polyphenols and tannins were higher in the red plum. The content of polyphenols in the pulp was higher that the peel while for tannins the opposite was observed in both varieties. The red plum had higher antioxidant capacity. The AE was low and slow kinetics for the two varieties. There was a linear correlation between polyphenols and tannins with antiradical efficiency; however, there was no correlation with the reducing power. The total polyphenols content was increased with blanching, while the tannins and the AE decreased, ferric reducing power is unaffected. For osmotic dehydration, the tannins and the AE were decreased, while the total polyphenols content and ferric reducing power are unaffected. It is recommended the blanched as an alternative to consumption and conservation in the plum.

  9. De novo transcriptome assembly of 'Angeleno' and 'Lamoon' Japanese plum cultivars (Prunus salicina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Máximo; Maldonado, Jonathan; Salazar, Erika; Silva, Herman; Carrasco, Basilio

    2016-09-01

    Japanese plum (Prunus salicina L.) is a fruit tree of the Rosaceae family, which is an economically important stone fruit around the world. Currently, Japanese plum breeding programs combine traditional breeding and plant physiology strategies with genetic and genomic analysis. In order to understand the flavonoid pathway regulation and to develop molecular markers associated to the fuit skin color (EST-SSRs), we performed a next generation sequencing based on Illumina Hiseq2000 platform. A total of 22.4 GB and 21 GB raw data were obtained from 'Lamoon' and 'Angeleno' respectively, corresponding to 85,404,726 raw reads to 'Lamoon' and 79,781,666 to 'Angeleno'. A total of 139,775,975 reads were filtered after removing low-quality reads and trimming the adapter sequences. De novo transcriptome assembly was performed using CLC Genome Workbench software and a total of 54,584 unique contigs were generated, with an N50 of 1343 base pair (bp) and a mean length of 829 bp. This work contributed with a specific Japanese plum skin transcriptome, providing two libraries of contrasting fruit skin color phenotype (yellow and red) and increasing substantially the GB of raw data available until now for this specie.

  10. Nutraceutical Value of Black Cherry Prunus serotina Ehrh. Fruits: Antioxidant and Antihypertensive Properties

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    Francisco J. Luna-Vázquez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In Mexico black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh. fruits are consumed fresh, dried or prepared in jam. Considering the evidence that has linked intake of fruits and vegetables rich in polyphenols to cardiovascular risk reduction, the aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic profile of black cherry fruits and to determine their antioxidant, vasorelaxant and antihypertensive effects. The proximate composition and mineral contents of these fruits were also assessed. Black cherry fruits possess a high content of phenolic compounds and display a significant antioxidant capacity. High-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometric analysis indicated that hyperoside, anthocyanins and chlorogenic acid were the main phenolic compounds found in these fruits. The black cherry aqueous extract elicited a concentration-dependent relaxation of aortic rings and induced a significant reduction on systolic blood pressure in L-NAME induced hypertensive rats after four weeks of treatment. Proximate analysis showed that black cherry fruits have high sugar, protein, and potassium contents. The results derived from this study indicate that black cherry fruits contain phenolic compounds which elicit significant antioxidant and antihypertensive effects. These findings suggest that these fruits might be considered as functional foods useful for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Characterization of Prunus-infecting apricot latent virus-like Foveaviruses: evolutionary and taxonomic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Fater; Marais, Armelle; Faure, Chantal; Barone, Maria; Gentit, Pascal; Candresse, Thierry

    2011-02-01

    The complete genomic sequences of four Prunus-infecting Apricot latent virus (ApLV) like isolates were determined and used to analyze the taxonomic position and variability of these viruses. The results indicate that all isolates show a typical Foveavirus genetic organization. Despite an average 23% nucleotide divergence, they show strong colinearity with only three regions of significant indel variability, in the internal and 3' non-coding regions and variable N-terminal half of the coat protein (CP). Sequence comparisons using the polymerase (Pol) and CP genes provide a conflicting taxonomic picture, with divergence level in the Pol and CP genes suggesting the existence of a single or of two species, respectively. However, a range of considerations argue that all four isolates should likely be considered as belonging to the ApLV species. ApLV is closely related to Apple stem pitting virus and could be considered a sister species to it, with ASPV being specialized to infect members of the Maloideae family and ApLV members of the Prunoideae. Analysis of selection pressures affecting the five open reading frames of ApLV and ASPV identified two regions under strong purifying selection, that coding for the conserved C-terminal half of the CP and the gene coding for the first protein of the triple gene block (TGBp1).

  12. Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Leaves of the Plum Tree (Prunus domestica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erhart, Theresia; Mittelberger, Cecilia; Vergeiner, Clemens; Scherzer, Gerhard; Holzner, Barbara; Robatscher, Peter; Oberhuber, Michael; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2016-11-01

    In cold extracts of senescent leaves of the plum tree (Prunus domestica ssp. domestica), six colorless non-fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were characterized, named Pd-NCCs. In addition, several minor NCC fractions were tentatively classified. The structure of the most polar one of the NCCs, named Pd-NCC-32, featured an unprecedented twofold glycosidation pattern. Three of the NCCs are also functionalized at their 3(2) -position by a glucopyranosyl group. In addition, two of these glycosidated NCCs carry a dihydroxyethyl group at their 18-position. In the polar Pd-NCC-32, the latter group is further glycosidated at the terminal 18(2) -position. Four other major Pd-NCCs and one minor Pd-NCC were identified with five NCCs from higher plants known to belong to the 'epi'-series. In addition, tentative structures were derived for two minor fractions, classified as yellow chlorophyll catabolites, which represented (formal) oxidation products of two of the observed Pd-NCCs. The chlorophyll catabolites in leaves of plum feature the same basic structural pattern as those found in leaves of apple and pear trees.

  13. Lignin is linked to ethyl-carbamate formation in ume (Prunus mume) liqueur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashiguchi, Tomokazu; Izu, Hanae; Sudo, Shigetoshi

    2012-01-01

    Ethyl carbamate concentrations in oak barrel-aged ume (Prunus mume) liqueurs were measured, and possible explanations for elevated levels were examined. The average concentration was 0.30 mg/L, significantly higher than in ume liqueurs not aged in oak (0.08 mg/L). Oak powder extracts were prepared from both untoasted and toasted oak powder by extraction with aqueous ethanol, and these were used to make ume liqueurs. Relative to a no-oak control, the ethyl carbamate concentrations were 3.8 and 11 times higher in the ume liqueur made with the untoasted and toasted oak powder extracts respectively. The extracts were loaded onto a C18 column, washed with water, and eluted with methanol. The (13)C-NMR spectra for the main constituents of the methanol elution fractions were consistent with those for lignin or fragments thereof. The methanol fractions were added to ume liqueur which was stored for 3 months. Relative to a control, the ethyl carbamate concentrations in the 3-month old liqueurs were found to be 1.2 and 4.6 higher for the untoasted oak-powder and the toasted oak-powder respectively. Ethyl carbamate was formed when lignin was added to a 40% aqueous ethanol solution that contained potassium cyanide. These observations suggest that lignin or fragments thereof promote the formation of ethyl carbamate.

  14. Mating patterns, pollen dispersal, and the ecological maternal neighbourhood in a Prunus mahaleb L. population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, C; Arroyo, J M; Godoy, J A; Jordano, P

    2005-05-01

    Gender polymorphism, plant-animal interactions, and environmental heterogeneity are the three important sources of variation in mating system and pollen dispersal patterns. We used progeny arrays and paternity analysis to assess the effects of gender type and density level on variation in mating patterns within a highly isolated population of Prunus mahaleb, a gynodioecious species. All the adult trees in the population were sampled and located. The direct estimate of long-distance insect-mediated pollination events was low ( 250 m) were significantly more frequent among female mother trees. Variation in local tree density also affected pollen pool diversity and intermate distance, with a higher effective number of fathers (k(e)) and longer intermate distances for female trees in low-density patches. A canonical correlation analysis showed significant correlations between mating variables and the maternal ecological neighbourhood. Only the first canonical variable was significant and explained 78% of variation. Outcrossing rates tended to decrease, and the relatedness among the fathers tended to increase, when mother trees grew in dense patches with high cover of other woody species and taller vegetation away from the pine forest edge. We highlight the relevance of considering maternal ecological neighbourhood effects on mating system and gene flow studies as maternal trees act simultaneously as receptors of pollen and as sources of the seeds to be dispersed.

  15. Detection and quantification of the antioxidant melatonin in Montmorency and Balaton tart cherries (Prunus cerasus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, S; Tan, D X; Manchester, L C; Hardeland, R; Reiter, R J

    2001-10-01

    The antioxidant melatonin was recently identified in a variety of edible plants and seeds in high concentrations. In plants, as in animals, melatonin is believed to function as a free radical scavenger and possibly in photoperiodism. In this study, melatonin was detected and quantified in fresh-frozen Balaton and Montmorency tart cherries (Prunus cerasus) using high-performance liquid chromatography. Both cherry species contain high levels of melatonin compared to the melatonin concentrations in the blood of mammals. Montmorency cherries (13.46 +/- 1.10 ng/g) contain approximately 6 times more melatonin than do Balaton cherries (2.06 +/- 0.17 ng/g). Neither the orchard of origin nor the time of harvest influenced the amount of melatonin in fresh cherries. The implication of the current findings is that consuming cherries could be an important source of dietary melatonin inasmuch as melatonin is readily absorbed when taken orally. Also, previously published data and the results presented here show that melatonin is not only endogenously produced but also present in the diet.

  16. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

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    Federica Blando

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L (also called tart cherries contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 μmol TE/100 g FW and a lower one for the callus extract (688 μmol TE/100 g FW.

  17. Nutritional Value and Volatile Compounds of Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Seeds

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    Leticia García-Aguilar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Prunus serotina (black cherry, commonly known in Mexico as capulín, is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases. Particularly, P. serotina seeds, consumed in Mexico as snacks, are used for treating cough. In the present study, nutritional and volatile analyses of black cherry seeds were carried out to determine their nutraceutical potential. Proximate analysis indicated that P. serotina raw and toasted seeds contain mostly fat, followed by protein, fiber, carbohydrates, and ash. The potassium content in black cherry raw and toasted seeds is high, and their protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores suggest that they might represent a complementary source of proteins. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry analysis allowed identification of 59 and 99 volatile compounds in the raw and toasted seeds, respectively. The major volatile compounds identified in raw and toasted seeds were 2,3-butanediol and benzaldehyde, which contribute to the flavor and odor of the toasted seeds. Moreover, it has been previously demonstrated that benzaldehyde possesses a significant vasodilator effect, therefore, the presence of this compound along with oleic, linoleic, and α-eleostearic fatty acids indicate that black cherry seeds consumption might have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

  18. Antioxidant Defenses in Plants with Attention to Prunus and Citrus spp.

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    Milvia Luisa Racchi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This short review briefly introduces the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS as by-products of oxidation/reduction (redox reactions, and the ways in which the antioxidant defense machinery is involved directly or indirectly in ROS scavenging. Major antioxidants, both enzymatic and non enzymatic, that protect higher plant cells from oxidative stress damage are described. Biochemical and molecular features of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX are discussed because they play crucial roles in scavenging ROS in the different cell compartments and in response to stress conditions. Among the non enzymatic defenses, particular attention is paid to ascorbic acid, glutathione, flavonoids, carotenoids, and tocopherols. The operation of ROS scavenging systems during the seasonal cycle and specific developmental events, such as fruit ripening and senescence, are discussed in relation to the intense ROS formation during these processes that impact fruit quality. Particular attention is paid to Prunus and Citrus species because of the nutritional and antioxidant properties contained in these commonly consumed fruits.

  19. Prunus avium: nuclear DNA study in wild populations and sweet cherry cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Carmine; Santoro, Simona; De Simone, Luciana; Cipriani, Guido

    2009-04-01

    The PCR-SSR technique was used to detect nuclear DNA diversity in five wild populations of Prunus avium from deciduous forests in Italy, Slovenia, and Croatia and 87 sweet cherry accessions from different geographical areas that have been maintained in the sweet cherry collection in Italy. This sweet cherry collection includes local accessions from the Campania Region as well as accessions from different countries. Twenty-eight microsatellites, previously developed in this species, generated polymorphic amplification products. Between 2 and 14 alleles were revealed for the polymorphic loci studied, with the expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.045 to 0.831. The total probability of identity was 56.94 x 10-18. A model-based Bayesian clustering analysis identified nine distinct gene pools in cultivated P. avium. The probability that wild populations were assigned to cultivated gene pools indicated that three gene pools accounted for the genomic origin of 53% of P. avium sampled. A dendrogram was generated using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages) based on Nei genetic distance analysis. This dendrogram classified most of the genotypes into one major group with an additional group of five accessions. The results indicate that this set of SSRs is highly informative, and they are discussed in terms of the implications for sweet cherry characterization.

  20. Phenolic compounds in cherry ( Prunus avium ) heartwood with a view to their use in cooperage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández De Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-04-28

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Prunus avium , commonly known as cherry tree, before and after toasting in cooperage were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS. Nonflavonoid (16 compounds) and flavonoid (27 compounds) polyphenols were identified, 12 of them in only a tentative way. The nonflavonoids found were lignin constituents, and their pattern is different compared to oak, since they include compounds such as protocatechuic acid and aldehyde, p-coumaric acid, methyl vanillate, methyl syringate, and benzoic acid, but not ellagic acid, and only a small quantity of gallic acid. In seasoned wood we found a great variety of flavonoid compounds which have not been found in oak wood for cooperage, mainly, in addition to the flavan-3-ols (+)-catechin, a B-type procyanidin dimer, and a B-type procyanidin trimer, the flavanones naringenin, isosakuranetin, and eriodictyol and the flavanonols aromadendrin and taxifolin. Seasoned and toasted cherry wood showed different ratios of flavonoid to nonflavonoid compounds, since toasting results in the degradation of flavonoids, and the formation of nonflavonoids from lignin degradation. On the other hand, the absence of hydrolyzable tannins in cherry wood, which are very important in oak wood, is another particular characteristic of this wood that should be taken into account when considering its use in cooperage.

  1. Evaluation of physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant property of Prunus avium gum exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Hossein; Askari, Gholamreza; Jahanbin, Kambiz; Khodaeian, Faramarz

    2016-12-01

    In this study some physicochemical properties and elemental analysis of Prunus avium gum exudates were investigated. The gum studied had, on average, 75.14% carbohydrate, 11.3% uronic acids, 1.11% protein, 7.53% moisture content (w.b.) and 3.12% ash. Measured values for the angle of repose, Carr's index and Hausner ratio showed the good flow ability for the gum powder. The viscosity of 1% aqueous solution of the gum exhibited a Newtonian type of flow and with pH reduction the swelling index was increased. The average molecular weight of the main polysaccharide fraction was about 1.46×10(5)Da (146kDa). GC analysis showed that the main polysaccharide was composed of four kinds of neutral monosaccharides, namely mannose (Man), arabinose (Ara), galactose (Gal) and xylose (Xyl) with a relative molar ratio of 1.0:14.7:7.1:2.4. FTIR analysis showed the presence of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups and glycosidic linkage. The antioxidant activity of the gum was evaluated by determining DPPH scavenging and total phenolic contents which showed poor antioxidant property.

  2. [Identifying the S genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao-Liu; Chen, Xue-Sen; Shu, Huai-Rui

    2004-10-01

    This report identified S-RNase genes (S genes) of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), presented the sequences of S genes by using a pair of specific primers PruC2 and PruC4R based on the conserved regions C2 and RC4 of Rosaceous S-RNase genes and researched the S gene specific products from the genomic DNAs of different cultivars in which most of the S genotypese were unknown. The bands of PCR were cloned and their sequences were compared in GenBank. Four S genes were defined and the conclusion was made that all the same bands from PCR in the agarose gel had the same length and sequence of nucleic acid and were the same kind of S gene. The lengths of the amplified S genes are as follows: S1 is 677 bp, S3 762 bp, S4 945 bp, S6 456 bp. The S genotypes (S gene genotypes) of the tested self-incompatible cultivars were identified as follows: 'Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Early ruby', as same as 'Van', were S1 S3; 'Jueze', 'Hongfeng' and 'Napoleon' were S3S4; 'Dazi' was S1 S6; 'Changbahong' was S1 S4; 'Elton' was S3S6. The self-compatibile cultivars 'Waiyin No.7' and 'Stella' had the same S genotypes S3 S4'.

  3. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols.

  4. Radioprotection of Swiss albino mice by Prunus avium with special reference to hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisodia, Rashmi; Singh, Smita; Mundotiya, Chaturbhuj; Meghnani, Ekta; Srivastava, Preeti

    2011-01-01

    Prunus avium (family Rosaceae) has been used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of many diseases,but its radioprotective efficacy has hardly been explored. Presence of high anthocyanin content and phenolic compound with good antioxidative capacity has been reported by researchers. Its radioprotective effect against 5, 7, 10, and 12 Gygamma radiation was evaluated by 30 day survival assay. Regression analysis yielded LD(50/30) 5.81 and 9.43Gy for irradiated only and (P. avium fruit extract) PAE + radiation groups, respectively. The dose reduction factor was computed as 1.62. For biochemical and hematological studies, Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: (i) control (vehicle treated), (ii) PAE treated (450 mg kg/day for 15 consequetive days), (iii) irradiated (5 Gy), and (4) PAE + irradiated. The irradiation of animals resulted in a significant elevation of lipid peroxidation and depletion in glutathione and protein levels in blood serum and spleen, which could be significantly checked by administration of PAE. Radiation-induced deficit in blood sugar, cholesterol, and hematological constituents could also be modulated by supplementation of PAE before and after irradiation. The possible prophylactic and therapeutic action noted by P. avium against radiation induced metabolic disorders may be due to synergistic action of various antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, etc., present in the fruit. Further mechanistic studies aimed at identifying the role of major ingredients in the extract are needed.

  5. In vitro plant regeneration from leaves and internode sections of sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Andrea; Jehle, Johannes A

    2005-10-01

    Regeneration of adventitious shoots from leaves and, for the first time, from internode sections were compared and optimized for five economically important sweet cherry cultivars, i.e. "Schneiders", "Sweetheart", "Starking Hardy Giant", "Kordia" and "Regina" (Prunus avium L.). The influence of basal media, carbon source, combination and dosage of phytohormones, ethylene inhibitor such as silver thiosulfate and a 16 h:8 h light:dark photoperiod versus complete darkness were evaluated. Both, DKW/WPM (1:1) and Quoirin/Lepoivre (QL) basal media stimulated organogenesis more than QL/WPM (1:1), Chee and Pool (CP), Murashige Skoog (MS), Driver and Kuniyuki (DKW) or woody plant (WPM) media did. An induction phase in darkness resulted in lower or zero regeneration rates. The best regeneration efficiencies were generally obtained with thidiazuron in combination with indole-3-butyric-acid. The addition of silver thiosulfate resulted in a similar or reduced regeneration efficiency. Significant genotypic variability in adventitious bud formation was evident for both explant sources, leaf and internode section. Adventitious shoots were obtained from 11% of leaf explants and 50% of internode sections indicating that shoot regeneration from internodes was significantly more efficient than from leaves.

  6. Hyperhydricity of Prunus avium shoots cultured on gelrite: a controlled stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Thierry; Kevers, Claire; Gaspar, Thomas; Dommes, Jacques; Deby, Carol; Greimers, Roland; Serteyn, Didier; Deby-Dupont, Ginette

    2004-06-01

    Hyperhydricity is a physiological disorder frequently affecting shoots vegetatively propagated in vitro. Hyperhydric shoots are characterised by a translucent aspect due to a chlorophyll deficiency, a not very developed cell wall and a high water content. Hyperhydricity of Prunus avium shoots was expressed in vitro in one multiplication cycle by replacing the gelling agent agar (normal shoots: NS) by gelrite (hyperhydric shoots: HS). P. avium shoots evolving towards the hyperhydric state produced higher amounts of ethylene, polyamines (PAs) and proline, which are substances considered as stress markers. A higher activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX; EC 1.11.1.9), involved in organic hydroperoxide elimination, suggested an increased production of these compounds in HS. The unchanged free fatty acid composition indicated no HS membrane damages compared to NS. The ploidy level of HS nuclei was not affected, but the bigger size and the lower percentage of nuclei during the S phase suggested a slowing down of the cell cycle. The results argued for a stress response of the HS, but no signs of oxidative damages of lipid membrane and nucleus were observed. The discussion points out paradoxical results in a classical analysis of stress and suggests an alternative way of defense mechanisms in HS, involving homeostatic regulation and controlled degradation processes to maintain integrity and vital functions of the cell.

  7. Influences of Cross Pollination on Pollen Tube Growth and Fruit Set in Zuili Plums (Prunus salicina)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Juan Jia; Feng-Jie He; Cai-Zhen Xiong; Fu-Rong Zhu; Goro Okamoto

    2008-01-01

    Zuill plum (Prunus salicina L.) trees usually set fruit poorly, although they produce high quality fruit. To elucidate the causes of the poor fruit set, pollen tube growth Into pistils and fruit set percentage were investigated after cross-, self- and open-pollination. Ovule development in Zuili pistils was also investigated. Pollen tube penetration into the ovules via the obturator and micropyle was best when Zuili pistils were pollinated by cv. Black Amber (P. domestica) pollen grains, although cross-pollinations with Hongxinli and Miili (P. salicina) pollen were more effective than self- and open-pollination. The fruit set percentage was also highest In pistils pollinated with Black Amber pollen grains. Morphological observation of Zuili pistils revealed that the trees produce "double pistils", developing two ovaries from a basal pistil, at a rate as high as 28%. In such abnormal pistils, most ovules were lacking an embryo sac or were entirely degenerated. The percentage of normally developed ovules was 24.3% and 8.9% in normal and double pistils, respectively. From these results, we conclude that the main causes of poor fruit set of Zuili plums are a lack of effective cross-pollination and the production of high percentages of double pistils in which normally developed ovules are scarcely formed.

  8. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  9. Wound Healing Effects of Prunus yedoensis Matsumura Bark in Scalded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ho Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pruni Cortex has been used to treat asthma, measles, cough, urticaria, pruritus, and dermatitis in traditional Korean medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Prunus yedoensis Matsumura bark methanol extract (PYE on scald-induced dorsal skin wounds in rats. Scalds were produced in Sprague-Dawley rats with 100°C water and treated with 5% and 20% PYE (using Vaseline as a base, silver sulfadiazine (SSD, and Vaseline once a day for 21 days, beginning 24 hours after scald by treatment group allocation. The PYE-treated groups showed accelerated healing from 12 days after scald, demonstrated by rapid eschar exfoliation compared to the control and SSD groups. PYE-treated groups showed higher wound contraction rates and better tissue regeneration in comparison with the control group. Serum analysis showed that transforming growth factor beta 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels remained high or gradually increased up to day 14 in both PYE groups and then showed a sharp decline by day 21, implying successful completion of the inflammatory phase and initiation of tissue regeneration. These findings suggested that PYE is effective in promoting scald wound healing in the inflammation and tissue proliferation stages.

  10. Improving the Sun Drying of Apricots (Prunus armeniaca) with Photo-Selective Dryer Cabinet Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milczarek, Rebecca R; Avena-Mascareno, Roberto; Alonzo, Jérôme; Fichot, Mélissa I

    2016-10-01

    Photo-selective materials have been studied for their effects on the preharvest quality of horticultural crops, but little work has been done on potential postharvest processing effects. The aim of this work was to characterize the effects of 5 different photo-selective acrylic materials (used as the lid to a single-layer sun drying cabinet) on the drying rate and quality of apricots (Prunus armeniaca). Photo-selective cabinet materials that transmit light in the visible portion of the solar spectrum accelerate the apricots' drying rate in both the early period of drying and the course of drying as a whole. These materials do not significantly affect the measured quality metrics during the first day of sun drying. However, when drying is taken to completion, some minor but significant quality differences are observed. Infrared-blocking material produces dried apricot with lower red color, compared to clear, opaque black, and ultraviolet-blocking materials. Clear material produced dried apricot with significantly lower antioxidant activity, compared to black and infrared-blocking materials. Using appropriate photo-selective drying cabinet materials can reduce the required sun drying time for apricots by 1 to 2 d, compared with fully shaded drying. Ultraviolet-blocking material is recommended to maximize drying rate and minimize quality degradation.

  11. Unexpected effects of chitinases on the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) when delivered via transgenic potato plants (Solanum tuberosum Linné) and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saguez, Julien; Hainez, Romaric; Cherqui, Anas; Van Wuytswinkel, Olivier; Jeanpierre, Haude; Lebon, Gaël; Noiraud, Nathalie; Beaujean, Antony; Jouanin, Lise; Laberche, Jean-Claude; Vincent, Charles; Giordanengo, Philippe

    2005-02-01

    With the aim of producing insect-resistant potato plants, internode explants of Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée were transformed with an Agrobacterium strain C58pMP90 containing an insect (Phaedon cochleariae: Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae) chitinase gene and the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) gene as selectable marker, both under the control of the viral CaMV 35S promoter. Three transformed potato lines (CH3, CH5 and CH25) exhibiting the highest chitinolytic activities were selected for feeding experiments with the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), under controlled photoperiod and temperature conditions. Aphids fed on transgenic potato plants showed a reduced pre-reproductive period and an enhanced daily fecundity. Transgenic potato lines did not affect nymphal mortality, but improved several biological parameters related to aphid population's growth. Artificial diets were used to provide active (1, 10, 100 and 500 microg ml(-1)) and inactive (500 microg ml(-1)) bacterial (Serratia marcescens) chitinase to M. persicae. These compounds increased nymph survival at all active chitinase doses when compared to the control diet, while inactive chitinase did not. Although the pre-reproductive period was slightly shortened and the daily fecundity slightly higher, active and inactive chitinase provided as food led a reduction from 1 to 1.5 day population's doubling time. Therefore chitinase activity was responsible for the probiotic effects on aphids. Our results question the relevance of a chitinase-based strategy in the context of potato culture protection.

  12. The NIa-Pro protein of Turnip mosaic virus improves growth and reproduction of the aphid vector, Myzus persicae (green peach aphid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casteel, Clare L; Yang, Chunling; Nanduri, Ananya C; De Jong, Hannah N; Whitham, Steven A; Jander, Georg

    2014-02-01

    Many plant viruses depend on aphids and other phloem-feeding insects for transmission within and among host plants. Thus, viruses may promote their own transmission by manipulating plant physiology to attract aphids and increase aphid reproduction. Consistent with this hypothesis, Myzus persicae (green peach aphids) prefer to settle on Nicotiana benthamiana infected with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and fecundity on virus-infected N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis) is higher than on uninfected controls. TuMV infection suppresses callose deposition, an important plant defense, and increases the amount of free amino acids, the major source of nitrogen for aphids. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon, 10 TuMV genes were over-expressed in plants to determine their effects on aphid reproduction. Production of a single TuMV protein, nuclear inclusion a-protease domain (NIa-Pro), increased M. persicae reproduction on both N. benthamiana and Arabidopsis. Similar to the effects that are observed during TuMV infection, NIa-Pro expression alone increased aphid arrestment, suppressed callose deposition and increased the abundance of free amino acids. Together, these results suggest a function for the TuMV NIa-Pro protein in manipulating the physiology of host plants. By attracting aphid vectors and promoting their reproduction, TuMV may influence plant-aphid interactions to promote its own transmission. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Transcriptomic responses of the aphid Myzus persicae nicotianae Blackman (Hemiptera: Aphididae to insecticides: Analyses in the single Chilean clone of the tobacco aphid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Cabrera-Brandt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tobacco aphid Myzus persicae nicotianae Blackman is a subspecies of the highly polyphagous and agricultural pest Myzus persicae (Sulzer. For its control, insecticide applications are widely used, but resistance to numerous molecules has been reported, displaying at least three insecticide resistance mechanisms, including: (i elevated carboxylesterases (E-Carb, (ii modification of the acetylcholinesterase (MACE, and (iii kdr and super-kdr insensitivity mutations. In Chile, populations of the tobacco aphid are characterized by the presence of a single predominant clone, which is also present in high proportions in other countries of the Americas. This aphid clone exhibits low levels of carboxylesterase activity and is kdr susceptible, but the MACE mechanism of insecticide resistance has not been studied. In order to characterize the tobacco aphid in terms of the MACE mechanism and to identify a preliminary group of aphid genes putatively involved in insecticide resistance, a cDNA microarray was used to study the transcriptomic responses when aphids are sprayed with a carbamate insecticide. The single Chilean clone of the tobacco aphid was characterized as MACE susceptible, but we found 38 transcripts significantly regulated by insecticide exposure (13 up- and 25 down-regulated genes. The expression of six of them was validated by qRT-PCR experiments at several time points (6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, and 42 h after insecticide application. This mutational and transcriptomic characterization of the tobacco aphid responding to insecticide spray opens new hypotheses in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying insecticide resistance.

  14. Pathogenicity of conidia-based preparations of entomopathogenic fungi against the greenhouse pest aphids Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii, and Aulacorthum solani (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandricic, S E; Filotas, M; Sanderson, J P; Wraight, S P

    2014-05-01

    Seeking new isolates of entomopathogenic fungi with greater virulence against greenhouse aphid pests than those currently registered in North America for control of these insects, single-dose screening assays of 44 selected fungal isolates and 4 commercially available strains were conducted against first-instar nymphs of Myzus persicae and Aphis gossypii. The assays identified a number of Beauveria and Metarhizium isolates with virulence equal to or greater than that of the commercial strains against the nymphal aphids, but none exhibited exceptionally high virulence. Virulence of Isaria isolates was unexpectedly low (1000conidia/mm(2)). In dose-response assays, Beauveria ARSEF 5493 proved most virulent against M. persicae and A. gossypii; however, LC50s of this isolate did not differ significantly from those of B. bassiana commercial strain JW-1. Dose-response assays were also conducted with Aulacorthum solani, the first reported evaluations of Beauveria and Metarhizium against this pest. The novel isolate Metarhizium 5471 showed virulence⩾that of Beauveria 5493 in terms of LC25 and LC50, but 5493 produced a steeper dose response (slope). Additional tests showed that adult aphids are more susceptible than nymphs to fungal infection but confirmed that infection has a limited pre-mortem effect on aphid reproduction. Effects of assay techniques and the potential of fungal pathogens as aphid-control agents are discussed.

  15. Interactions between the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) on Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R J; Alencar, J R D C C; Silva, K P; Cividanes, F J; Duarte, R T; Agostini, L T; Polanczyk, R A

    2014-06-01

    The interactions between the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) and the aphid parasitoid Diaeretiella rapae McIntoch (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Nymphs of Myzus persicae Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae) were first exposed to parasitoid females for 24 h and then 0, 24, and 48 h afterwards sprayed with a solution of B. bassiana. Likewise, aphids were also sprayed with B. bassiana and then exposed to parasitoids at 0, 24, and 48 h afterwards. Parasitism rate varied from 13 to 66.5%, and were significantly lower in treatments where the two agents were exposed within a 0-24 h time interval compared with the control (without B. bassiana). Parasitoid emergence was negatively affected in treatments with B. bassiana spraying and subsequent exposure to D. rapae. Decreases in longevity of adult females of the D. rapae F1 generation were observed in treatments with B. bassiana spraying. The application of these two biological control agents can be used in combination on the control of M. persicae, wherein this use requires effective time management to avoid antagonistic interactions.

  16. Insights into the Prunus-Specific S-RNase-Based Self-Incompatibility System from a Genome-Wide Analysis of the Evolutionary Radiation of S Locus-Related F-box Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Takashi; Henry, Isabelle M; Morimoto, Takuya; Tao, Ryutaro

    2016-06-01

    Self-incompatibility (SI) is an important plant reproduction mechanism that facilitates the maintenance of genetic diversity within species. Three plant families, the Solanaceae, Rosaceae and Plantaginaceae, share an S-RNase-based gametophytic SI (GSI) system that involves a single S-RNase as the pistil S determinant and several F-box genes as pollen S determinants that act via non-self-recognition. Previous evidence has suggested a specific self-recognition mechanism in Prunus (Rosaceae), raising questions about the generality of the S-RNase-based GSI system. We investigated the evolution of the pollen S determinant by comparing the sequences of the Prunus S haplotype-specific F-box gene (SFB) with those of its orthologs in other angiosperm genomes. Our results indicate that the Prunus SFB does not cluster with the pollen S of other plants and diverged early after the establishment of the Eudicots. Our results further indicate multiple F-box gene duplication events, specifically in the Rosaceae family, and suggest that the Prunus SFB gene originated in a recent Prunus-specific gene duplication event. Transcriptomic and evolutionary analyses of the Prunus S paralogs are consistent with the establishment of a Prunus-specific SI system, and the possibility of subfunctionalization differentiating the newly generated SFB from the original pollen S determinant.

  17. Estudio preliminar del potencial bioactivo de la Annona cherimola (anona) y Prunus domestica (ciruelo) cultivadas en Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Mirtha Navarro-Hoyos; Ileana Moreira-González; Elizabeth Arnáez-Serrano; Renato Murillo-Masís; Silvia Quesada-Mora; William Zamora-Ramírez; Meliza Cordero-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Los efectos beneficiosos de principios activos como alcaloides, triterpenos y más recientemente de los polifenoles en la nutrición y la salud han incrementado a nivel internacional el consumo de productos naturales reconocidos como fuentes de los mismos, así como la importancia de su caracterización estructural en cuanto a la correlación con su bioactividad. Las especies Annona cherimola (anona) y Prunus domestica (ciruelo), cultivadas en Costa Rica, fueron objeto de la presente investigación...

  18. Physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar contents of 12 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2015-03-01

    Physical characteristics, antioxidant activity and chemical constituents of 12 cultivars (Prunus avium L.) of sweet cherry (Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat) were investigated. Significant differences (P cherries. Four different sugars were observed in the samples and their concentrations ordered as glucose > fructose > sucrose > xylose. Sugar alcohol in the cherries was represented by sorbitol (more than 90%) and its concentration varied between 13.93 and 27.12 g/kg. As a result significant differences were observed among the physical properties and chemical constituents of the cherry cultivars.

  19. Early-screening for resistance to Phytophthora sp.p. in wild cherry clones (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guerri S

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for early selection of wild cherry clones for resistance to Phytophthora sp. is presented. Four Phytophthora species (P. cinnamomi, P. citrophthora, P. megasperma, P. alni were tested in vitro on four micropropagated cherry (Prunus avium clones, obtaining reliable and reproducible results. Variability in clones susceptibilities and in parasite virulence has been evidenced. Phytophthora citrophthora is confirmed to be a dangerous parasite, due to its capability to produce symptoms rapidly and its fitness to Mediterranean environments. On the contrary P. alni does not seem a dangerous parasite for wild cherry.

  20. Identification of phenolic compounds in plum fruits (Prunus salicina L. and Prunus domestica L.) by high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and characterization of varieties by quantitative phenolic fingerprints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Rakesh; Karaköse, Hande; Rühmann, Susanne; Goldner, Katharina; Neumüller, Michael; Treutter, Dieter; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2013-12-11

    Plums (Prunus domestica L. and Prunus salicina L.) are edible fruits mostly consumed in America, China, and Europe. We have used LC-MS(n) to detect and characterize the phenolic compounds in plum varieties. Forty-one phenolics were detected comprising caffeoylquinic acids, feruloylquinic acid, p-coumaroylquinic acids, methyl caffeoylquinates, methyl p-coumaroylquinate, caffeoylshikimic acids, catechin, epicatechin, rutin, esculin, quercetin, quercetin-3-O-hexosides, dimeric proanthocyanidins, trimeric proanthocyanidins, caffeoyl-glucoside, feruloyl-glucoside, p-coumaroyl-glucoside, vanillic acid-glucosides, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-pentosides, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside, quercetin-pentoside-rhamnosides, and 3-p-methoxycinnamoylquinic acid. This is the first time when 3-p-methoxycinnamoylquinic acid is reported in nature. Chlorogenic acids and proanthocyanidins were the major phenolics present in plums. Furthermore, HPLC with DAD and chemical reaction detection was used to generate quantitative phenolic fingerprints from the fruit flesh of 33 plum varieties. The predominant compound was 3-caffeoylquinic acid in nearly all varieties studied; generally, however, the qualitative and quantitative profiles showed high diversity even among closely related progenies.

  1. Efeito do ácido indolbutírico no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de plantas de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl. Effect of indolbutyric acid on the rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus sofrena, Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kersten

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de quatro concentrações de ácido indolbutírico (IBA, no enraizamento de estacas de ramos de ameixeira (Prunus salicina, Lindl., coletadas de plantas tratadas com bórax e sulfato de zinco e controle, executado em quatro épocas. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em viveiros, sob condição de nebulização artificial intermitente. Os resultados obtidos mostram a influência de cultivar, época e concentração de IBA, não sendo verificado efeito de bórax ou sulfato de zinco na percentagem de estacas enraizadas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of four concentrations of indolbutyric acid on the rooting of plum branch cuttings (Prunus salicina, Lindl. collected from plants treated with borax and zinc sulfate, in four periods. The experiments were conducted in a nursery with intermitent artificial mist conditions. The results showed a positive effect of cultivars, periods and IBA concentrations, and there was no effect of either borax or zinc sulfate on rooting of branch cuttings.

  2. Enhanced seed dispersal of Prunus africana in fragmented and disturbed forests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farwig, Nina; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Bleher, Bärbel

    2006-03-01

    Forest destruction and disturbance can have long-term consequences for species diversity and ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal. Understanding these consequences is a crucial component of conserving vulnerable ecosystems. In the heavily fragmented and disturbed Kakamega Forest, western Kenya, we studied seed dispersal of Prunus africana (Rosaceae). In the main forest, five forest fragments, and differently disturbed sites, we quantified the overall frugivore community as an indicator for species diversity. Furthermore, we determined the frugivores on 28 fruiting P. africana trees, estimated seed dispersal, crop size and the general fruit availability of surrounding trees. During the overall frugivore census we recorded 49 frugivorous species; 36 of them were observed visiting P. africana trees and feeding on their fruits. Although overall frugivore species richness was 1.1 times lower in fragments than in main forest sites and 1.02 times higher in highly disturbed than in less disturbed sites, P. africana experienced 1.1 times higher numbers of frugivores in fragments than in main forest sites and 1.5 times higher numbers of frugivores in highly disturbed than in less disturbed sites. Correspondingly, seed dispersal was 1.5 times higher in fragments than in main forest sites and 1.5 times higher in more disturbed than less disturbed sites. Fruit availability of surrounding trees and crop size influenced the number of visitors to some degree. Thus, the number of dispersed seeds seemed to be slightly higher in fragmented and highly disturbed sites. This indicates that loss of single species does not necessarily lead to a decrease of ecosystem services. However, loss of diversity could be a problem in the long term, as a multitude of species might act as buffer against future environmental change.

  3. Composition and antioxidant properties of fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits (Prunus spinosa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Sikora

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available   Aim. Blackthorn (Prunus spinosa L. is quite widespread bush occurring in Poland. Its fruits are easily available food products. The aim of this study was to investigate the basal chemical composition, especially antioxidant compounds in fresh and frozen stored blackthorn fruits. Material  and methods. Research material consisted of blackthorn fruits collected from the wild grown bushes, near Łącko. In the wash-out, dried and stone-loss fruits, the content of dry matter, protein, simple sugars, dietary fibre and ash was determined. The amount of antioxidant compounds was also tested: β-carotene, vitamin C, polyphenols,in this anthocyannins,as well as  antioxidantactivity expressed as an ability to quench free radical ABTS. Analyses were repeated in fruits stored in frozen state for three months. Results.  On the basis of the obtained results, it was observed that concerning basal chemical composition, the blackthorn fruits do not single out among other fruits from Rosaceae family. It was also reported that blackthorn fruits are rich in polyphenolic  compounds, as well as in vitamin C, and those compounds, most probably contribute to their high antioxidant activity, being at the level of 43.6 μmol Trolox/g f.m. Storage in the freezing state reduced the contents of water, fat, dietary fiber and ash, but did not have significant impact on the other compounds. Conclusions. Blackthorn fruits may constitute valuable source for preparations (tincture, wines, and teas, as well as an additive to other fruit processing, as a product of great pro-healthy properties. Freezing process and storage in that state did not significantlyinfluence on nutritive and antioxidant compounds of blackthorn fruits. It may be therefore observed that several months of frozen storage is a good way to make them avail- able for fruit processing and for the consumers, also the off-season.  

  4. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the TCP Gene Family in Prunus mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains. Expression analysis of these PmTCPs indicated that there were diverse expression patterns among different clades. Most TCP genes were predominantly expressed in flower, leaf, and stem, and showed high expression levels in the different stages of flower bud differentiation, especially in petal formation stage and gametophyte development. Genes in TCP-P subfamily had main roles in both flower development and gametophyte development. The CIN genes in double petal cultivars might have key roles in the formation of petal, while they were correlated with gametophyte development in the single petal cultivar. The CYC/TB1 type genes were highly detected in the formation of petal and pistil. The less-complex flower types of P. mume might result from the fact that there were only two CYC type genes present in P. mume and a lack of CYC2 genes to control the identity of flower types. These results lay the foundation for further study on the functions of TCP genes during flower development.

  5. Efficacy study of Prunus amygdalus (almond nuts in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats

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    Kulkarni Kirti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Cognitive disorders such as amnesia, attention deficit and Alzheimer′s disease are emerging nightmares in the field of medicine because no exact cure exists for them, as existing nootropic agents (piractam, tacrine, metrifonate have several limitations. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of Prunus amygdalus (PA nuts on cognitive functions, total cholesterol levels and cholinesterase (ChE activity in scopolamine-induced amnesia in rats. Materials and Methods : The paste of PA nuts was administered orally at three doses (150, 300 and 600 mg/kg for 7 and 14 consecutive days to the respective groups of rats. Piracetam (200 mg/kg was used as a standard nootropic agent. Learning and memory parameters were evaluated using elevated plus maze (EPM, passive avoidance and motor activity paradigms. Brain ChE activity and serum biochemical parameters like total cholesterol, total triglycerides and glucose were evaluated. Results : It was observed that PA at the above-mentioned doses after 7 and 14 days of administration in the respective groups significantly reversed scopolamine (1 mg/kg i.p.-induced amnesia, as evidenced by a decrease in the transfer latency in the EPM task and step-down latency in the passive avoidance task. PA reduced the brain ChE activity in rats. PA also exhibited a remarkable cholesterol and triglyceride lowering property and slight increase in glucose levels in the present study. Conclusion : Because diminished cholinergic transmission and increase in cholesterol levels appear to be responsible for the development of amyloid plaques and dementia in Alzheimer patients, PA may prove to be a useful memory-restorative agent. It would be worthwhile to explore the potential of this plant in the management of Alzheimer′s disease.

  6. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L..

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    Manuel Rubio

    Full Text Available RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925, which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  7. Initial and final fruit set in some plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids under different pollination types

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    Glišić Ivana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of two-year study (2009-2010 of initial and final fruit set in promising plum (Prunus domestica L. hybrids developed at Fruit Research Institute - Čačak, under different pollination conditions. The following hybrids were studied: 38/62/70 (‘Hall’ x ‘California Blue’, 32/21/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’, IV/63/81 (‘Large Sugar Prune’ x ‘Scoldus’, 22/17/87 (‘Čačanska Najbolja’ x ‘Zh'lta Butilcovidna’, 29/29/87 (‘Stanley’ x ‘Scoldus’ and 34/41/87 (‘Valjevka’ x ‘Čačanska Lepotica’. Each of the hybrids was studied both under self- pollination and open pollination. In vitro pollen germination was also performed as well as characteristics of flowering phenophase and flowering abundance. Generally, the results suggest lower flowering abundance in the second year of the study. Pollen germination ranged from averagely 25.31% (29/29/87 to 40.01% (38/62/70. With averagely 31.59% final fruit set under self-pollination and 29.38% under open pollination variants, respectively, hybrid 34/41/87 gave the best results. The lowest performance was observed in hybrid 32/21/87 with 1.61% and 7.69% final fruit set under self- and open pollination variants, respectively. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-31064

  8. Gene Expression Analysis of Plum pox virus (Sharka) Susceptibility/Resistance in Apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Manuel; Ballester, Ana Rosa; Olivares, Pedro Manuel; Castro de Moura, Manuel; Dicenta, Federico; Martínez-Gómez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq has proven to be a very powerful tool in the analysis of the Plum pox virus (PPV, sharka disease)/Prunus interaction. This technique is an important complementary tool to other means of studying genomics. In this work an analysis of gene expression of resistance/susceptibility to PPV in apricot is performed. RNA-Seq has been applied to analyse the gene expression changes induced by PPV infection in leaves from two full-sib apricot genotypes, "Rojo Pasión" and "Z506-7", resistant and susceptible to PPV, respectively. Transcriptomic analyses revealed the existence of more than 2,000 genes related to the pathogen response and resistance to PPV in apricot. These results showed that the response to infection by the virus in the susceptible genotype is associated with an induction of genes involved in pathogen resistance such as the allene oxide synthase, S-adenosylmethionine synthetase 2 and the major MLP-like protein 423. Over-expression of the Dicer protein 2a may indicate the suppression of a gene silencing mechanism of the plant by PPV HCPro and P1 PPV proteins. On the other hand, there were 164 genes involved in resistance mechanisms that have been identified in apricot, 49 of which are located in the PPVres region (scaffold 1 positions from 8,050,804 to 8,244,925), which is responsible for PPV resistance in apricot. Among these genes in apricot there are several MATH domain-containing genes, although other genes inside (Pleiotropic drug resistance 9 gene) or outside (CAP, Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5 and Pathogenesis-related 1 protein; and LEA, Late embryogenesis abundant protein) PPVres region could also be involved in the resistance.

  9. Management of genetic resources in the nursery system of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Proietti R

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of genetic and adaptive traits of reproductive materials used in the nursery system of wild cherry, could be an useful instrument to improve ecological and economic sustainability of plantation ecosystems. This work reports results from a research which the objectives were: 1 to study the genetic variation of a Prunus avium L. Population, used for seed harvesting, through its multi-locus genotypes detected by starch gel electrophoresis; 2 to analyze the level of genetic variation within and among different steps in a commercial nursery system (basic population and sub-populations, seedlings aged S1T1 and S1T2, plantation. Results showed low genetic variation levels of the basic population, similar to a reference system of other 12 wild cherry Italian populations and to other French and Caucasian materials. The genetic distances among Monte Baldo and some closer Lombardy provenances (Area Garda, Bosco Fontana, Valtellina were smaller than the Venice Region populations (Monti Lessini and Asiago. Number of alleles and percentage of polymorphic loci within the complex of Monte Baldo provenance and multiplication materials were similar, whilst a variable value of Fis was noted. Indeed, along with the nursery system until the plantation, heterozygosis initially (S1T1 increased, then decreased proceeding to the plantation. This fluctuation of FIS values could be determined by seed lots characterized initially by higher levels of variation, due to self-incompatibility. In the following steps, a possible selection pressure can affect randomly the genotypic structure of wild cherry by increasing the homozygosity. There is not among population a well defined geographic characterization, as suggested by genetic distances, therefore homogeneous seed harvest could be established an area larger than geographic and administrative borders. On this way we could have reproductive material with a wide genetic base and environmental adaptability. To

  10. Micromorphology of pollen grains of three cultivars of Prunus armeniaca L.

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    Mirosława Chwil

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Pollen grains of various cultivars of Prunus armeniaca L. produce striated sculpture of the exine. These grains are included in the trizonocolporate class. In polar view, pollen grains have a triangular outline, while in equatorial view an elliptical outline. The exine of grains forms a pattern of striae characteristic for a given taxon. Flowers of various P. armeniaca cultivars produce pollen grains with the polar (P and equatorial (E length ranging 31-60 μm and 24-36 μm, respectively. The aim of this study was to determine the micromorphology of pollen grains of three P. armeniaca cultivars – ‘Harcot’, ‘Early Orange’ and ‘Wczesna z Morden’, using light and scanning electron microscopy. A comparative study of the morphological characteristics of pollen grains was carried out to determine their size, shape and exine ornamentation. Observations of pollen grains were performed under a light microscope (Nikon Eclipse 400 and a scanning electron microscope (SEM (Tescan Vega II LMU. In terms of their size, pollen grains of the studied P. armeniaca cultivars were classified as large. Their shape was determined to be prolatum. In equatorial view of pollen grains, the striae run along the polar axis. These structures in the exine are arranged parallel to each other, can be branched or arched. The width of striae ranges from 0.27 μm (‘Early Orange’ to 0.62 μm (‘Harcot’. The largest distances between the striae were found in pollen grains of ‘Harcot’ (0.33 μm, whereas much smaller distances were observed in ‘Early Orange’ and ‘Wczesna z Morden’ (0.13-0.14 μm. In pollen grains of P. armeniaca the tectum is perforated. In an area of 10 μm2, the tectum forms 4-9 perforations with a pore diameter of 0.1-0.6 μm.

  11. Distribution and fine-scale spatial-genetic structure in British wild cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, S P; Cottrell, J E; Moodley, D J; Connolly, T; Russell, K

    2007-05-01

    Insights into the within-population spatial-genetic structure (SGS) of forest tree species, where little is known regarding seed and pollen dispersal patterns, enhance understanding of their ecology and provide information of value in conservation and breeding. This study utilised 13 polymorphic simple sequence repeat loci to investigate the impact of asexual recruitment, management regime and tree size on the development of SGS in wild cherry (Prunus avium L). Only 246 genotypes were identified in the 551 trees sampled, reflecting significant levels of clonal reproduction in both managed and unmanaged populations. Naturally regenerated wild cherry was spatially aggregated under both management regimes. However, in the managed population, sexually derived trees accounted for a greater proportion of the smaller size classes, whereas vegetatively produced trees dominated the smaller size classes in the unmanaged population. High overall SGS values (Sp 0.030-Sp 0.045) were observed when considering only sexually derived genets and kinship coefficients were significant up to the 120 m distance class for both populations. The inclusion of clonal ramets in the analysis significantly increased the overall SGS (Sp 0.089-Sp 0.119) as well as kinship coefficients in the 40-80 m distance classes, illustrating the dramatic impact of vegetative propagation on SGS in this species. Increased spatial aggregation and regeneration appeared to be concomitant with increased SGS in the 40 m distance class in the unmanaged population. Neighbourhood size estimates were relatively small for both populations and kinship coefficients were found to decline with distance under both management regimes, suggesting that common mechanisms may restrict gene dispersal in wild cherry.

  12. [Characteristics of urea 15N absorption, allocation, and utilization by sweet-cherry (Prunus avium L.)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng-Xia; Jiang, Yuan-Mao; Peng, Fu-Tian; Gao, Xiang-Bin; Liu, Bing-Hua; Wang, Hai-Yun; Zhao, Lin

    2008-03-01

    With five-year old 'Zaodaguo' sweet-cherry (Prunus avium L.) as test material, this paper studied the characteristics of its urea 15N absorption, allocation, and utilization when applied before bud-break. The results showed that the Ndff of different organs increased gradually with time, and was higher in fine roots and storage organs at full-blooming stage. At fruit core-hardening stage, the Ndff of long shoots and leaves increased quickly, reaching to 0.72% and 0.59% , respectively. From fruit core-hardening to harvesting stage, the Ndff of fruit had a rapid increase, with the peak (1.78%) at harvesting stage. After harvest, the Ndff of neonatal organs increased slowly while that of storage organs increased quickly. At full-blooming stage, the absorbed 15N in roots was firstly allocated to storage organs, with the highest allocation rate (54.91%) in large roots. At fruit core-hardening stage, the allocation rate in fine roots and storage organs decreased from 85.43% to 55.11%, while that in neonatal branches and leaves increased to 44.89%. At harvesting stage, the allocation rate in different organs had no significant change, but after harvest, the absorbed 15N had a rapid translocation to storage organs, and the allocation rate in fine roots and storage organs reached the highest (72.26%) at flower bud differentiation stage. The 15N allocation rate in neonatal branches and leaves at flower bud differentiation stage was decreased by 19.31%, compared with that at harvesting stage. From full-blooming to flower bud differentiation stage, the utilization rate of urea 15N was increasing, and reached the peak (16.86%) at flower bud differentiation stage.

  13. Dormancy in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. under Mediterranean climatic conditions

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    Ahmed Mahhou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is admitted that the lack of winter chilling is a limiting factor for the cultivation of temperate fruit trees in warm climates. Nevertheless, the characteristics of dormancy in sweet cherry under such conditions are still not fully understood. Therefore, and in order to contribute to the elucidation of these mechanisms, the objective of this work is to evaluate the dormancy of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. under the Mediterranean conditions of Meknes region (Morocco. Evaluation of dormancy behaviour of four varieties was made on the basis of a biological test, known as the « single node cuttings », and histological dissections of flower buds at the time of bud break. The variations of mean time to bud break (MTB were interpreted in terms of the evolution of growth capacity of the buds. The lack of cold affected tree phenological development. The evolution of dormancy in cherry buds showed three phases with variable levels of inertia: the first and third phases being of similar intensity and duration while the second phase was of a high level of inertia (endo-dormancy. The correlative inhibitions of the leaves imposed on the buds continued up to the arrival of continuous low temperatures. The delay in the decrease of inertia reveals insufficient chilling accumulation causing incomplete release from dormancy and low bud break percentage in the orchard. Histological observations showed that vascular connection of flower buds was established during bud break stage. However, flowers showed certain abnormalities, ie low pollen production and malformations of pistils, which limit the possibilities of pollination.

  14. Evaluation of evapotranspiration estimation methods for sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium) in sub-humid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denmirtas, Cigdem; Buyukcangaz, Hakan; Yazgan, Senih; Candogan, Burak Nazmi

    2007-02-01

    This study was carried out in the summer of 2001 in a 3 year old and in the summer of 2002 in a 4 year old sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium, variety Z-900) on Mazzard rootstocks in Bayramic-Canakkale which is located in the west part of Turkey. Micro-sprinkler irrigation was selected as the irrigation method. The trees were subjected to four micro-sprinkler irrigation treatments (T-1, T-2, T-3 and T-4). The water applied in treatment T-3 was considered sufficient to satisfy fully needs of the crop (100% of ETc) and to allow good rooting and tree growth. The water balance relationship was used in estimating ETc. A total of 4 climatological methods were selected for estimating reference crop evapotranspiration on a daily basis. Some of these methods are based on combination theory and others are empirical methods based primarily on solar radiation, temperature ans relative humidity. An attempt was made in the current study to develop regional relationship between the evapotranspiration measured and that estimated by the climatological methods, such as FAO-Penman, Penman-Monteith, FAO-Radiation and FAO-Blaney-Criddle. Performance of the climatological methods in estimating the ETo values as compared to the measured values was evaluated on the basis of root mean square error (RMSE). In 2001, the Penman-Monteith equation gave the best results followed by FAO-Penman, FAO-Radiation and FAO-Blaney-Criddle. In 2002, the Penman-Monteith and FAO-Blaney-Criddle equations gave same results.

  15. Heterozygote excess in a self-incompatible and partially clonal forest tree species -- Prunus avium L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckel, Solenn; Grange, Jérôme; Fernández-Manjarres, Juan F; Bilger, Isabelle; Frascaria-Lacoste, Nathalie; Mariette, Stéphanie

    2006-07-01

    Wild cherry (Prunus avium L.), a partially asexual self-incompatible forest tree, shows heterozygote excess, which is a poorly studied phenomenon. In three natural populations, we found significant heterozygote excess at almost all investigated loci (eight microsatellites and markers for the self-incompatibility locus). We examined four hypotheses to account for this observed heterozygote excess. First, negative F(IS) can result from a lack of selfed progeny in small populations of outcrossing species. A second explanation for negative F(IS) is selection during the life cycle of the most heterozygous individuals. A third explanation is negative assortative mating when reproduction occurs between individuals bearing phenotypes more dissimilar than by chance. The last explanation for negative F(IS) relies on asexual reproduction. Expectations for each hypothesis were tested using empirical data. Patterns of F(IS) differed among loci. Nevertheless, our experimental results did not confirm the small sample size hypothesis. Although one locus is probably under a hitch-hiking effect from the SI locus, we rejected the effect of the self-incompatibility locus for the genome as a whole. Similarly, although one locus showed a clear pattern consistent with the selection of heterozygous individuals, the heterosis effect over the whole genome was rejected. Finally, our results revealed that clonality probably explains significant negative F(IS) in wild cherry populations when considering all individuals. More theoretical effort is needed to develop expectations and hypotheses, and test them in the case of species combining self-incompatibility and partially asexual reproduction.

  16. Effects of elevated CO[sub 2] on growth and chloroplast proteins in Prunus avium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, D.; Oosten, J.-J. van; Besford, R.T. (Horticulture Research International, Littlehampton, Sussex (United Kingdom))

    1994-01-01

    A study was conducted of the growth response of Prunus avium L. Stella (wild cherry) to elevated CO[sub 2]. The associated changes in photosynthetic machinery of the leaf tissue were characterized. Self-pollinated seedlings and mature cuttings (clones) from the same parent plant of P. avium were grown for two consecutive growing seasons (about 60 days each) in ambient or elevated CO[sub 2] with high or low nutrient supply. The degree of acclimation of leaf biochemistry and growth response to elevated CO[sub 2] depended on the plant material (seedling or mature cutting) and nutrient supply. There was little or no growth response to elevated CO[sub 2] in seedlings or cuttings in the low nutrient supply treatments, whereas in both seasons, there was a strongly positive growth response to elevated CO[sub 2] in seedlings and cuttings in the high nutrient supply regimes, resulting in increases in the root/shoot ratio and in carbon allocation to the roots. In contrast, the protein content and activity of ribulose-1,5-biophosphate carboxylase-oxygenase (Rubisco, EC 4.1.1.39) were down regulated in elevated CO[sub 2]. The loss of Rubisco on an area basis in plants in the elevated CO[sub 2] treatments was compensated for at the canopy level by increased leaf area. The loss of Rubisco protein was accompanied by decreases in the contents of chlorophyll and the thylakoid membrane proteins D[sub 1], D[sub 2] and cytochrome f, which are involved in light harvesting and photo-electron transport. It is concluded that in the medium- to long-term, the initial stimulation of biomass production by elevated CO[sub 2] may be increasingly offset by a lower photosynthetic capacity per unit leaf area in perennial plants. 27 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Genome-Wide Identification, Characterization and Expression Analysis of the TCP Gene Family in Prunus mume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuzhen; Xu, Zongda; Zhao, Kai; Yang, Weiru; Cheng, Tangren; Wang, Jia; Zhang, Qixiang

    2016-01-01

    TCP proteins, belonging to a plant-specific transcription factors family, are known to have great functions in plant development, especially flower and leaf development. However, there is little information about this gene family in Prunus mume, which is widely cultivated in China as an ornamental and fruit tree. Here a genome-wide analysis of TCP genes was performed to explore their evolution in P. mume. Nineteen PmTCPs were identified and three of them contained putative miR319 target sites. Phylogenetic and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses of these genes revealed that different types of TCP genes had undergone different evolutionary processes and the genes in the same clade had similar chromosomal location, gene structure, and conserved domains. Expression analysis of these PmTCPs indicated that there were diverse expression patterns among different clades. Most TCP genes were predominantly expressed in flower, leaf, and stem, and showed high expression levels in the different stages of flower bud differentiation, especially in petal formation stage and gametophyte development. Genes in TCP-P subfamily had main roles in both flower development and gametophyte development. The CIN genes in double petal cultivars might have key roles in the formation of petal, while they were correlated with gametophyte development in the single petal cultivar. The CYC/TB1 type genes were highly detected in the formation of petal and pistil. The less-complex flower types of P. mume might result from the fact that there were only two CYC type genes present in P. mume and a lack of CYC2 genes to control the identity of flower types. These results lay the foundation for further study on the functions of TCP genes during flower development. PMID:27630648

  18. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce and adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KN1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a tissue medium lacking cytoki...

  19. Degradation of cyanogenic glycosides of bitter apricot seeds (Prunus armeniaca) by endogenous and added enzymes as affected by heat treatments and particle size.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuncel, G.; Nout, M.J.R.; Brimer, L.

    1998-01-01

    Bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca) seeds (kernels) are by-products of the apricot processing industry. They contain approximately 50-150 μMol/g (dry weight basis) of potentially toxic cyanogenic glycosides, mainly amygdalin and prunasin. The present paper deals with the degradation of these

  20. A fissitunicate ascus mechanism in the Calosphaeriaceae, and novel species of Jattaea and Calosphaeria on Prunus wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, U; Crous, P W; Fourie, P H

    2008-06-01

    During a survey of Prunus wood from South Africa, isolations were made of three presumably Calosphaerialean fungi that formed hyphomycetous, phialidic anamorphs in culture. In order to reveal the phylogenetic relationship of these fungi, they were characterised on a morphological and molecular (LSU and ITS rDNA) basis. Two isolates that formed a teleomorph in culture are newly described as Calosphaeria africana sp. nov. Although asci of Calosphaeria are characterised by having non-amyloid apical rings, two functional wall layers were observed in asci of C. africana, which has hitherto not been observed in any member of the Calosphaeriaceae. However, Calosphaeriaceae (Calosphaeriales, Sordariomycetes) are not closely related to other bitunicate fungi like Dothideomycetes, Chaetothyriales and bitunicate lichens. Possession of two separating wall layers is considered to be a result of both inherited abilities and convergent evolution under a strong selection pressure of the environmental conditions that favour an extension of the ascus. The other two species represented a separate lineage within Calosphaeriaceae, and formed phialophora-like anamorphs. By obtaining the teleomorph in culture, one of them could be identified as a species of Jattaea, described here as Jattaea prunicola sp. nov., while the second, which only produced the anamorph, is named as Jattaea mookgoponga sp. nov. These findings suggest that some species of Jattaea are true members of the Calosphaeriaceae, though the phylogenetic relation of the type, J. algeriensis, remains unknown. Furthermore, it also represents the first report of Jattaea on Prunus wood, and from South Africa.

  1. Selected Wood Properties of Prunus Africana (Hook Grown in Kenya as Possible Reasons for its High Natural Durability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Mburu

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies were carried out on the influence of Prunus africana heartwood extractives on the growth of selected wood decay fungi. Also, wood chemical and mineral content, dimensional stability and anatomical features of P. africana were studied. Heartwood extractives were tested in 100 ppm and 500 ppm concentrations on white, brown rot, and blue stain fungi and growth inhibition was determined as a factor of time. Dimensional stability was determined by computing the swelling coefficient after the blocks were saturated with moisture. Klason lignin, Kürschner cellulose, extractive and ash contents were determined by standard procedures. Infrared analyses were performed using Perkin Elmer FTIR spectrometer. Microscopic examination was performed using an environmental scanning electron microscope. The results showed that the wood is dimensionally stable, and contains 12.7 % extractives, 37.6 % cellulose and 30.4 % lignin. Extractives deposited in vessels are highly soluble in dichloromethane and mainly composed of terpenes. Extractives were able to inhibit the growth of white rot fungi Coriolus versicolor, brown rot fungi Poria placenta and blue stain fungi Aureobasidium pullulans at different concentrations tested and could explain the high durability of Prunus africana wood species.

  2. Inheritance of hetero-diploid pollen S-haplotype in self-compatible tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gu

    Full Text Available The breakdown of self-incompatibility, which could result from the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes or competitive interaction between two different functional S-haplotypes, has been studied extensively at the molecular level in tetraploid Rosaceae species. In this study, two tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus cultivars and one diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium cultivar were used to investigate the ploidy of pollen grains and inheritance of pollen-S alleles. Genetic analysis of the S-genotypes of two intercross-pollinated progenies showed that the pollen grains derived from Chinese cherry cultivars were hetero-diploid, and that the two S-haplotypes were made up of every combination of two of the four possible S-haplotypes. Moreover, the distributions of single S-haplotypes expressed in self- and intercross-pollinated progenies were in disequilibrium. The number of individuals of the two different S-haplotypes was unequal in two self-pollinated and two intercross-pollinated progenies. Notably, the number of individuals containing two different S-haplotypes (S1- and S5-, S5- and S8-, S1- and S4-haplotype was larger than that of other individuals in the two self-pollinated progenies, indicating that some of these hetero-diploid pollen grains may have the capability to inactivate stylar S-RNase inside the pollen tube and grow better into the ovaries.

  3. Inheritance of hetero-diploid pollen S-haplotype in self-compatible tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Chao; Liu, Qing-Zhong; Yang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Khan, Muhammad Awais; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The breakdown of self-incompatibility, which could result from the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes or competitive interaction between two different functional S-haplotypes, has been studied extensively at the molecular level in tetraploid Rosaceae species. In this study, two tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus) cultivars and one diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivar were used to investigate the ploidy of pollen grains and inheritance of pollen-S alleles. Genetic analysis of the S-genotypes of two intercross-pollinated progenies showed that the pollen grains derived from Chinese cherry cultivars were hetero-diploid, and that the two S-haplotypes were made up of every combination of two of the four possible S-haplotypes. Moreover, the distributions of single S-haplotypes expressed in self- and intercross-pollinated progenies were in disequilibrium. The number of individuals of the two different S-haplotypes was unequal in two self-pollinated and two intercross-pollinated progenies. Notably, the number of individuals containing two different S-haplotypes (S1- and S5-, S5- and S8-, S1- and S4-haplotype) was larger than that of other individuals in the two self-pollinated progenies, indicating that some of these hetero-diploid pollen grains may have the capability to inactivate stylar S-RNase inside the pollen tube and grow better into the ovaries.

  4. Endophytic bacteria in plant tissue culture: differences between easy- and difficult-to-propagate Prunus avium genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quambusch, Mona; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Winkelmann, Traud; Bartsch, Melanie

    2014-05-01

    The endophytic bacterial communities of six Prunus avium L. genotypes differing in their growth patterns during in vitro propagation were identified by culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. Five morphologically distinct isolates from tissue culture material were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. To detect and analyze the uncultivable fraction of endophytic bacteria, a clone library was established from the amplified 16S rDNA of total plant extract. Bacterial diversity within the clone libraries was analyzed by amplified ribosomal rDNA restriction analysis and by sequencing a clone for each identified operational taxonomic unit. The most abundant bacterial group was Mycobacterium sp., which was identified in the clone libraries of all analyzed Prunus genotypes. Other dominant bacterial genera identified in the easy-to-propagate genotypes were Rhodopseudomonas sp. and Microbacterium sp. Thus, the community structures in the easy- and difficult-to-propagate cherry genotypes differed significantly. The bacterial genera, which were previously reported to have plant growth-promoting effects, were detected only in genotypes with high propagation success, indicating a possible positive impact of these bacteria on in vitro propagation of P. avium, which was proven in an inoculation experiment.

  5. Origin and dissemination of the pollen-part mutated SC haplotype which confers self-compatibility in apricot (Prunus armeniaca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halász, Júlia; Pedryc, Andrzej; Hegedus, Attila

    2007-01-01

    In China, its centre of origin, apricot (Prunus armeniaca) is self-incompatible. However, most European cultivars are self-compatible. In most cases, self-compatibility is a result of a loss-of-function mutation within the pollen gene (SFB) in the SC haplotype. Controlled pollinations performed in this work revealed that the cross 'Ceglédi óriás' (S8S9)x'Ceglédi arany' (SCS9) set well, as expected, but the reciprocal cross did not. Apricot S8, S9 and SC haplotypes were analysed using a multilevel approach including fruit set evaluation, pollen tube growth analysis, RNase activity assays, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis and DNA sequencing of the S-RNase and SFB alleles. SFB8 was revealed to be the first known progenitor allele of a naturally occurring self-compatibility allele in Prunus, and consequently SC=The first intron of SC-RNase is a phase one intron, indicating its more recent evolutionary origin compared with the second intron. Sequence analysis of different cultivars revealed that more single nucleotide polymorphisms accumulated in SC-RNase than in SFBC. New methods were designed to allow high-throughput analysis of S genotypes of apricot cultivars and selections. S-RNase sequence data from various sources helped to elucidate the putative origin and dissemination of self-compatibility in apricot conferred by the SC haplotype.

  6. Isolation and quantitation of amygdalin in Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb. by HPLC with solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei-Feng; Ding, Ming-Yu; Zheng, Rui

    2005-08-01

    Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb. are traditional Chinese herb medicines that contain amygdalin as their major effective ingredient. In this report, three methods for the extraction of amygdalin from the medicinal materials are compared: ultrasonic extraction by methanol, Soxhlet extraction by methanol, and reflux extraction by water. The results show that reflux extraction water containing 0.1% citric acid is the best option. The optimal reflux is 2.5 h and water bath temperature is 60 degrees C. The solid-phase extraction method using C18 and multiwalled carbon nanotube as adsorbents is established the pretreatment of reflux extract, and the result shows that the two adsorbents have greater adsorptive capacity for amygdalin and good separation effect. In order to quantitate amygdalin in Apricot-kernel and Prunus Tomentosa Thunb., a reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography method using methanol-water (15:85, for 30 min and pure methanol after 30 min) as mobile phase is developed and a good result is obtained.

  7. Experimental epizootiology of Zoophthora anhuiensis (Entomophthorales) against Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) with a description of a modified Gompertz model for aphid epizootics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ming-Guang; Li, Hui-Ping

    2003-11-01

    Epizootiological features of Zoophthora anhuiensis, a fungal pathogen specific to aphids in southern China, were studied in six aptera colonies of Myzus persicae at 16 regimes of temperature (T = 10, 15, 20 and 25 degrees C) and relative humidity (H = 90%, 95%, 98% and 100% RH) with initially infected proportion (Ip) of 0.5 in experiment (Expt) 1 or at a fixed regime of 15 degrees C and 100% RH with a variable Ip of 0.17-1.00 in Expt 2. Mycosis-caused mortalities (Mp) varied with aphid densities (D) over time after colony initiation (t) were well fitted to a Gompertz growth model modified to include the variables T, H, Ip and D in the form of Mp = 91.72exp[-5.282exp[-(0.0095T + 0.0128H/T-0.5407D2/H)t

  8. Metabolite Profiling Reveals a Specific Response in Tomato to Predaceous Chrysoperla carnea Larvae and Herbivore(s)-Predator Interactions with the Generalist Pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errard, Audrey; Ulrichs, Christian; Kühne, Stefan; Mewis, Inga; Mishig, Narantuya; Maul, Ronald; Drungowski, Mario; Parolin, Pia; Schreiner, Monika; Baldermann, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here, we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s)-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites, and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism for the first

  9. Metabolite profiling reveals a specific response in tomato to predaceous Chrysoperla carnea larvae and herbivore(s-predator interactions with the generalist pests Tetranychus urticae and Myzus persicae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrey Errard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch and the aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer both infest a number of economically significant crops, including tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Although used for decades to control pests, the impact of green lacewing larvae Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens on plant biochemistry was not investigated. Here we used profiling methods and targeted analyses to explore the impact of the predator and herbivore(s-predator interactions on tomato biochemistry. Each pest and pest-predator combination induced a characteristic metabolite signature in the leaf and the fruit thus, the plant exhibited a systemic response. The treatments had a stronger impact on non-volatile metabolites including abscisic acid and amino acids in the leaves in comparison with the fruits. In contrast, the various biotic factors had a greater impact on the carotenoids in the fruits. We identified volatiles such as myrcene and α-terpinene which were induced by pest-predator interactions but not by single species, and we demonstrated the involvement of the phytohormone abscisic acid in tritrophic interactions for the first time. More importantly, C. carnea larvae alone impacted the plant metabolome, but the predator did not appear to elicit particular defense pathways on its own. Since the presence of both C. carnea larvae and pest individuals elicited volatiles which were shown to contribute to plant defense, C. carnea larvae could therefore contribute to the reduction of pest infestation, not only by its preying activity, but also by priming responses to generalist herbivores such as T. urticae and M. persicae. On the other hand, the use of C. carnea larvae alone did not impact carotenoids thus, was not prejudicial to the fruit quality. The present piece of research highlights the specific impact of predator and tritrophic interactions with green lacewing larvae, spider mites and aphids on different components of the tomato primary and secondary metabolism

  10. Bioactive constituents in Prunus africana: geographical variation throughout Africa and associations with environmental and genetic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadu, Caroline A C; Parich, Alexandra; Schueler, Silvio; Konrad, Heino; Muluvi, Geoffrey M; Eyog-Matig, Oscar; Muchugi, Alice; Williams, Vivienne L; Ramamonjisoa, Lolona; Kapinga, Consolatha; Foahom, Bernard; Katsvanga, Cuthbert; Hafashimana, David; Obama, Crisantos; Vinceti, Barbara; Schumacher, Rainer; Geburek, Thomas

    2012-11-01

    Prunus africana--an evergreen tree found in Afromontane forests--is used in traditional medicine to cure benign prostate hyperplasia. Different bioactive constituents derived from bark extracts from 20 tree populations sampled throughout the species' natural range in Africa were studied by means of GC-MSD. The average concentration [mg/kgw/w] in increasing order was: lauric acid (18), myristic acid (22), n-docosanol (25), ferulic acid (49), β-sitostenone (198), β-sitosterol (490), and ursolic acid (743). The concentrations of many bark constituents were significantly correlated and concentration of n-docosanol was highly significantly correlated with all other analytes. Estimates of variance components revealed the highest variation among populations for ursolic acid (66%) and the lowest for β-sitosterol (20%). In general, environmental parameters recorded (temperature, precipitation, altitude) for the samples sites were not correlated with the concentration of most constituents; however, concentration of ferulic acid was significantly correlated with annual precipitation. Because the concentration of compounds in bark extracts may be affected by tree size, the diameter of sampled plants at 1.3m tree height (as proxy of age) was recorded. The only relationship with tree diameter was a negative correlation with ursolic acid. Under the assumption that genetically less variable populations have less variable concentrations of bark compounds, correlations between variation parameters of the concentration and the respective genetic composition based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers were assessed. Only variation of β-sitosterol concentration was significantly correlated with haplotypic diversity. The fixation index (F(IS)) was positively correlated with the variation in concentration of ferulic acid. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) indicated a weak geographic pattern. Mantel tests, however, revealed associations between the geographic patterns of bioactive

  11. Estabelecimento e multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Aparecido Lima da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A qualidade genética e sanitária das mudas é de fundamental importância para o sucesso da fruticultura moderna. Para o pessegueiro, a micropropagação vem permitindo a produção clonal massal de plantas, com matrizes e mudas de qualidade genética-sanitária comprovada. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a taxa de sobrevivência de explantes no estabelecimento in vitro, bem como avaliar o potencial de multiplicação in vitro de porta-enxertos de Prunus. Explantes constituídos por ápices caulinares e gemas laterais dos porta-enxertos Capdeboscq e GF677 e da seleção VP411 foram estabelecidos e multiplicados in vitro em meio de cultura de Lepoivre suplementado com BAP (0,5 mg.L-1. A taxa média de sobrevivência para os porta-enxertos foi 62,9% para ápices caulinares e 58,8% para gemas laterais. Ápices caulinares e gemas laterais apresentaram 14,8% e 29,8% de contaminação, respectivamente. O genótipo afetou significativamente as taxas de multiplicação in vitro. Quanto ao número de brotos por explantes, o porta-enxerto Capdeboscq e a seleção VP411 foram superiores ao porta-enxerto GF677, resultando em 14,7; 16,0 e 10,5 brotos, respectivamente. Para a altura média dos brotos, os porta-enxertos Capdeboscq e GF677 foram superiores à seleção VP411 com 9,3; 8,9 e 7,8 mm, respectivamente. O porta-enxerto Capdeboscq foi superior ao porta-enxerto GF677 e à seleção VP411 na variável número de brotos >20 mm com 2,0; 1,3 e 1,0 brotos, respectivamente.

  12. Nestedness in bipartite networks of Thuja plicata, Prunus laurocerasus and Buxus sempervirens and their pathogens

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    Ecaterina Fodor

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The trade with cultivated plants is one of the major pathways for the introduction of invasive species, pathogens included. Based on network analysis, the present study aimed the interaction between several species of cultivated woody perennials found in gardening outlets and nurseries trading with ornamental species and their documented pathogens. Focal species of the host list were Thuja plicata, Buxus sempervirens and Prunus laurocerasus, the selection being based on reported bestselling figures. Bipartite, qualitative, undirected networks were constructed to incorporate woody perennials as hosts and their documented pathogens. The tested network properties were: connectance, node degree distribution, web asymmetry and nestedness. Cluster analysis using Euclidian distance and niche overlap index of Pianka were employed as additional pattern description metrics. The main network containing 33 host species and 112 pathogens was characterized by truncated power law distribution fitting the observed degree distribution of hosts and power law distribution fitting the observed degree distribution of pathogens, low connectance (C = 0.12, intermediate web asymmetry (W = 0.54 and high significant nestedness (N = 0.94. The network containing three focal hosts showed significant lower nestedness (N = 0.54, higher asymmetry (W = 0.94 and higher connectance (C = 0.38. Cluster analysis revealed the separation of focal species distinctly, the majority of other hosts merging in one cluster. Due to the prevalence of specialized pathogens the niche breadth was narrow, with small overlap in resources’ partition (Pianka index = 0.31. Our results showed that a random assembly of hosts (woody ornamentals displayed for sale in retail centers and nurseries could harbor pathogens which attached in a non-random manner, generating a characteristic pathosystem, with distinctive topology. The possible implications of the study consisted in a

  13. Invasion by the Alien Tree Prunus serotina Alters Ecosystem Functions in a Temperate Deciduous Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Raf; Ewald, Michael; Nicolas, Manuel; Piat, Jérôme; Skowronek, Sandra; Lenoir, Jonathan; Hattab, Tarek; Garzón-López, Carol X.; Feilhauer, Hannes; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Rocchini, Duccio; Decocq, Guillaume; Somers, Ben; Van De Kerchove, Ruben; Denef, Karolien; Honnay, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Alien invasive species can affect large areas, often with wide-ranging impacts on ecosystem structure, function, and services. Prunus serotina is a widespread invader of European temperate forests, where it tends to form homogeneous stands and limits recruitment of indigenous trees. We hypotesized that invasion by P. serotina would be reflected in the nutrient contents of the native species' leaves and in the respiration of invaded plots as efficient resource uptake and changes in nutrient cycling by P. serotina probably underly its aggressive invasiveness. We combined data from 48 field plots in the forest of Compiègne, France, and data from an experiment using 96 microcosms derived from those field plots. We used general linear models to separate effects of invasion by P. serotina on heterotrophic soil and litter respiration rates and on canopy foliar nutrient content from effects of soil chemical properties, litter quantity, litter species composition, and tree species composition. In invaded stands, average respiration rates were 5.6% higher for soil (without litter) and 32% higher for soil and litter combined. Compared to indigenous tree species, P. serotina exhibited higher foliar N (+24.0%), foliar P (+50.7%), and lower foliar C:N (−22.4%) and N:P (−10.1%) ratios. P. serotina affected foliar nutrient contents of co-occuring indigenous tree species leading to decreased foliar N (−8.7 %) and increased C:N ratio (+9.5%) in Fagus sylvatica, decreased foliar N:P ratio in Carpinus betulus (−13.5%) and F. sylvatica (−11.8%), and increased foliar P in Pinus sylvestris (+12.3%) in invaded vs. uninvaded stands. Our results suggest that P. serotina is changing nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon cycles to its own advantage, hereby increasing carbon turnover via labile litter, affecting the relative nutrient contents in the overstory leaves, and potentially altering the photosynthetic capacity of the long-lived indigenous broadleaved species. Uncontrolled

  14. Invasion by the Alien Tree Prunus serotina Alters Ecosystem Functions in a Temperate Deciduous Forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerts, Raf; Ewald, Michael; Nicolas, Manuel; Piat, Jérôme; Skowronek, Sandra; Lenoir, Jonathan; Hattab, Tarek; Garzón-López, Carol X; Feilhauer, Hannes; Schmidtlein, Sebastian; Rocchini, Duccio; Decocq, Guillaume; Somers, Ben; Van De Kerchove, Ruben; Denef, Karolien; Honnay, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Alien invasive species can affect large areas, often with wide-ranging impacts on ecosystem structure, function, and services. Prunus serotina is a widespread invader of European temperate forests, where it tends to form homogeneous stands and limits recruitment of indigenous trees. We hypotesized that invasion by P. serotina would be reflected in the nutrient contents of the native species' leaves and in the respiration of invaded plots as efficient resource uptake and changes in nutrient cycling by P. serotina probably underly its aggressive invasiveness. We combined data from 48 field plots in the forest of Compiègne, France, and data from an experiment using 96 microcosms derived from those field plots. We used general linear models to separate effects of invasion by P. serotina on heterotrophic soil and litter respiration rates and on canopy foliar nutrient content from effects of soil chemical properties, litter quantity, litter species composition, and tree species composition. In invaded stands, average respiration rates were 5.6% higher for soil (without litter) and 32% higher for soil and litter combined. Compared to indigenous tree species, P. serotina exhibited higher foliar N (+24.0%), foliar P (+50.7%), and lower foliar C:N (-22.4%) and N:P (-10.1%) ratios. P. serotina affected foliar nutrient contents of co-occuring indigenous tree species leading to decreased foliar N (-8.7 %) and increased C:N ratio (+9.5%) in Fagus sylvatica, decreased foliar N:P ratio in Carpinus betulus (-13.5%) and F. sylvatica (-11.8%), and increased foliar P in Pinus sylvestris (+12.3%) in invaded vs. uninvaded stands. Our results suggest that P. serotina is changing nitrogen, phosphorus, and carbon cycles to its own advantage, hereby increasing carbon turnover via labile litter, affecting the relative nutrient contents in the overstory leaves, and potentially altering the photosynthetic capacity of the long-lived indigenous broadleaved species. Uncontrolled invasion of

  15. Mongolian Almond (Prunus mongolica Maxim: The Morpho-Physiological, Biochemical and Transcriptomic Response to Drought Stress.

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    Jǖgang Wang

    Full Text Available Prunus mongolica Maxim, which is widely established in the Gobi Desert, shows extreme tolerance to drought. However, there is a lack of available transcriptomic resources for this species related to its response to water deficiency. To investigate the mechanisms that allow P. mongolica to maintain growth in extremely arid environments, the response of P. mongolica seedlings to drought stress was analyzed using morphological, physiological, biochemical and high-throughput sequencing approaches. We generated 28,713,735 and 26,650,133 raw reads from no-stress control and drought-stressed P. mongolica seedlings, respectively. In total, we obtained 67,352 transcripts with an average length of 874.44 bp. Compared with the no-stress control, 3,365 transcripts were differentially expressed in the drought-stressed seedlings, including 55.75% (1,876 transcripts up-regulated and 44.25% (1,489 transcripts down-regulated transcripts. The photosynthesis response showed a decreasing tendency under drought stress, but the changes in the levels of hormones (auxins, cytokinins and abscisic acid resulted in the closing of stomata and decreased cell enlargement and division; these changes were effective for promoting P. mongolica survival in Gobi Desert. Next, we analyzed the aquaporin and superoxide dismutase gene families due to their importance in plant resistance to drought stress. We found that all of the plasma membrane intrinsic protein transcripts were down-regulated in the drought-stressed treatment, whereas drought did not affect the expression of nodulin intrinsic protein or small basic intrinsic protein transcripts in P. mongolica seedlings. In addition, activation of iron superoxide dismutase transcription and enhanced transcription of manganese superoxide dismutase were observed in P. mongolica to promote tolerance of drought stress. This study identified drought response genes in P. mongolica seedlings. Our results provide a significant contribution

  16. Ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to Transmit Cucumber mosaic virus in Single and Mixed Infection with Two Potyviruses to Zucchini Squash Eficiência dos afídeos Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do Cucumber mosaic virus em infecção simples e mista com dois Potyvirus para abobrinha de moita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zayame Vegette Pinto

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to investigate the ability of Aphis gossypii and Myzus persicae to transmit Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV singly and mixed with two potyviruses (Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W and Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, to zucchini squash plants (Cucurbita pepo. The results showed that the potyviruses in general were more efficiently transmitted by both species of aphids as compared to CMV. The transmission of PRSV-W, ZYMV and CMV separately was more efficient than in mixture.O objetivo desse trabalho foi estudar a eficiência de Aphis gossypii e Myzus persicae na transmissão do vírus do mosaico do pepino (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV, isoladamente e em mistura com duas espécies de potyvirus (Vírus do mosaico do mamoeiro = Papaya ringspot virus - type W, PRSV-W e Vírus do mosaico amarelo da abobrinha = Zucchini yellow mosaic virus, ZYMV, para planta-testes de abobrinha de moita (Cucurbita pepo. Os dois potyvirus em geral foram transmitidos com mais eficiência pelas duas espécies de afídeos do que o CMV. A transmissão do PRSV-W, ZYMV e CMV, separadamente, foi mais eficiente do que em mistura.

  17. CONTROLE QUÍMICO DO PULGÃO VERDE (Myzus persicae Sulzer, 1776 E DA VAQUINHA (Diabrotica speciosa Germ., 1824 NA CULTURA DO TOMATE RASTEIRO CHEMICAL CONTROL OF THE GREEN PEACH APHID (Myzus persicae, SULZER AND TOMATO LEAF BEETLE (Diabrotica speciosa, GERMAR IN TOMATO PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo Couto

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O efeito de cinco inseticidas aplicados no tomateiro (Lycopersicum sculentum Mill, visando ao controle do pulgão verde, Myzus persicae SULZER e de vaquinha, Diabrotica speciosa GERM, foi testado em um experimento realizado na área experimental do Departamento de Horticultura da Escota de Agronomia da Universidade Federal de Goiás, no período de maio a setembro de 1994. Os tratamentos foram aplicados via pulverização e constaram de Bulldock 125 SC (dosagem de 100 ml/ 100 1 de água; Bulldock 50 CE (25 e 30 ml/100 l de água; Tamaron BR (100 ml/ 100 l de água; Orthene 750 BR (100 ml/ l00 1 de água e Folidol 600 (100 ml/l00 1 de água; e ainda uma testemunha (sem inseticida. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que todos os tratamentos foram eficientes no controle de M. persicae até sete dias após a aplicação. Aos 14 dias após a aplicação, o Bulldock 50 CE na dosagem de 25 ml/ 100 l de água e o Folidol 600 a 100 ml/ 100 l de água não apresentaram eficiência satisfatória. Com relação à D. speciosa, todos esses produtos foram igualmente eficientes até sete dias após aplicação.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Myzus persicae; diabrotica speciosa; tomateiro; controle químico.

    A trial to control the green peach aphid myzus persicae and tomato leaf beetle Diabrotica speciosa was carried out in Goi

  18. Light quality management in fruit orchards: physiological and technological aspects Manejo de la calidad de la luz en huertos frutales: Aspectos fisiológicos y tecnológicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard M. Bastías

    2012-12-01

    embargo, existe poca información acerca de aspectos fisiológicos y tecnológicos sobre el manejo de la calidad de la luz en cultivos frutales. La composición de luz solar cambia ampliamente en la canopia de los huertos, induciendo diferentes respuestas en la planta mediadas por la actividad del fitocromo (PHY y criptocromo (CRY. Una alta proporción de luz roja-lejana (FR en relación a la roja (R, incrementa la elongación de brotes, mientras que la luz azul (B induce un acortamiento de brotes. La luz R y ultravioleta (UV incrementan la síntesis de antocianinas en la piel de los frutos, mientras que la luz FR muestra un efecto negativo. La luz R y B también pueden alterar caracteres morfo-fisiológicos de la hoja en árboles frutales, tales como grosor de la palizada, apertura estomática y contenido de clorofila. Además de mejorar la disponibilidad de la luz fotosintéticamente activa (PAR, el uso de film reflectantes mejora la proporción de luz UV y R, con efectos positivos sobre respuestas mediadas por el PHY (color de fruto, peso de fruto y crecimiento de brotes, como se reportó en manzano (Malus domestica Borkh., duraznero (Prunus persica L. Batsch y cerezo (Prunus avium (L. L.. Las mallas de color alteran ampliamente la composición espectral de la luz con efectos sobre el crecimiento de planta, rendimiento y calidad en huertos de manzano, duraznero, kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa A. Chev. C.F. Liang & A.R. Ferguson y arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum L.. Los mecanismos de las mallas de color parecen estar asociados a procesos fotosintéticos y morfogenéticos regulados por la disponibilidad de PAR, la proporción de luz B/R, y actividad del CRY. La alteración de la calidad de la luz afecta significantemente respuestas de la planta en árboles frutales y podría ser una herramienta útil para el manejo sostenible (ej. bajo uso de químicos y prácticas laboriosas del rendimiento y calidad en huertos modernos.

  19. Protein (Viridiplantae): 583556 [PGDBj - Ortholog DB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 8 3744:2515 3745:2515 ... 171637:492 721805:4831 ... 3754:4831 ... 3760:3380 ... hypothetical protein PRUPE_ppa008794...mg Prunus persica MATVRMIDIAVNFTDGMFKGIYNGKQCHVSDIATVLSRAWTAGVDRIIVTGGSLEESKEALTI

  20. 21 CFR 582.40 - Natural extractives (solvent-free) used in conjunction with spices, seasonings, and flavorings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... source Algae, brown Laminaria spp. and Nereocystis spp. Algae, red Porphyra spp. and Rhodymenia palmata... (see algae, brown). Peach kernel (persic oil) Prunus persica Sieb. et Zucc. Peanut stearine...

  1. Biochemical and haematological changes in rats administered an aqueous extract of Prunus africana stem-bark at various dosage levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathumbi, P K; Mwangi, J W; Njiro, S M; Mugera, G M

    2000-06-01

    An aqueous extract of Prunus africana (Hook. f.) Kalkm. (syn. Pygeum africanum) (Hook. f.) (Rosaceae) was administered daily at dosage rates of 10, 100 and 1,000 mg/kg body mass to randomized groups of Sprague Dawley rats. The extract caused a moderate rise in plasma alanine aminotransferase and creatine kinase mainly at rates of 1,000 mg/kg body mass, but it did not cause any significant variations in haematological parameters or in plasma levels of total proteins, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and blood urea nitrogen at the dosage levels used. There were no overt clinical signs in any of the rats. It was concluded that the extract may contain components that are mildly toxic to the liver and heart of rats after repeated daily oral administrations of 1,000 mg/kg body mass.

  2. Lead residues in eastern tent caterpillars (Malacosoma americanum) and their host plant (Prunus serotina) close to a major highway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W.N.; Moore, J.

    1980-01-01

    Eastern tent caterpillars, Malacosoma americanum (F.) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae and leaves of their host plant, black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh., were collected in May, 1978, at various distances from the Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Prince George's Co., MD, and were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Caterpillars collected within 10 m of the parkway contained 7.1-7.4 ppm lead (dry weight). Caterpillars collected at greater distances from the parkway and from a control area had lead concentrations ca. half as high (2.6-5.3 ppm). Lead concentrations in caterpillars averaged 76% as high as those in leaves and were much lower than concentrations that have been reported in some roadside soil and litter invertebrates

  3. Lead residues in eastern tent caterpillars (Malacosoma americanum) and their host plant (Prunus serotina) close to a major highway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W.N.; Moore, J.

    1980-02-01

    Eastern tent caterpillars, Malacosoma americanum (F.) (Lepidoptera: Lasiocampidae), and leaves of their host plant, black cherry, Prunus serotina Ehrh., were collected in May, 1978, at various distances from the Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Prince George's Co., MD, and were analyzed for lead by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Caterpillars collected within 10 m of the parkway contained 7.1 to 7.4 ppM lead (dry weight). Caterpillars collected at greater distances from the parkway and from a control area had lead concentrations ca. half as high (2.6 to 5.3 ppM). Lead concentrations in caterpillars averaged 76% as high as those in leaves and were much lower than concentrations that have been reported in some roadside soil and litter invertebrates.

  4. Proteomic Comparison of Fruit Ripening between 'Hedelfinger' Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) and Its Somaclonal Variant 'HS'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Espen, Luca; Piagnani, M Claudia

    2016-05-25

    The somaclonal variant HS, from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) 'Hedelfinger' (H), was previously selected for reduced tree vegetative vigor and lesser canopy density. In this work, we compared H and HS fruits at early unripe (green) and full ripe (dark red) stages by biochemical and proteomic approaches. The main biochemical parameters showed that fruit quality was not affected by somaclonal variation. The proteomic analysis identified 39 proteins differentially accumulated between H and HS fruits at the two ripening stages, embracing enzymes involved in several pathways, such as carbon metabolism, cell wall modification, stress response, and secondary metabolism. The evaluation of fruit phenolic composition by mass spectrometry showed that HS sweet cherries have higher levels of procyanidin, flavonol, and anthocyanin compounds. This work provides the first proteomic characterization of fruit ripening in sweet cherry, revealing new positive traits of the HS somaclonal variant.

  5. Effects of Seed Gathering, Sowing Time and Growing Conditions on Wild Cherry (Prunus avium L. Seed Germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şemsettin Kulaç

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild cherry (Prunus avium L., in our forests, can be found either as an individual or as in small groups. Hardness and thickness of seed coat, immature embryo, chemical substances in seed and pericarp are well known problems on germination. In this study, Germination impediment tests have done on seeds that were gathered from KTU campus on three different times, on 10th, 20th and 30th of June 2006, these seeds had sown, 200 of each seed with pericarp and with the ones haven’t have pericarp, in four different germination media (soil, perlite, needle and leaf mould to overcome wild cherry’s germination impediment. The highest germination percentage (82.5 % had found among seeds gathered on 20th of June; these were sown in needle mould and had no pericarp. However, our researches show that seeds with pericarp, gathered on 20th of June have maximum germination percentage of (34 % in leaf mould.

  6. Morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old bare-root seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stjepanović Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents morphological indicators of the quality of one-year-old seedlings of wild cherry (Prunus avium L. with special reference to their correlations. The examined parameters were: length, diameter, weight of the aboveground and underground parts, number of buds, root volume, root length and leaf area. The ratio of heights was determined on the basis of the parameters derived: diameter, and the ratio of aboveground and underground parts of a seedling and the Quality Index. Height and diameter have proven to be good indicators of quality. Root volume has proven to be a better indicator of the quality of seedlings than root length. The weight ratio of the aboveground and underground parts of broadleaved trees in the dry state must be defined in advance, both when the measurements are carried out with and without leaves. The Quality Index has proven to be the most comprehensive morphological indicator of quality.

  7. Antioxidant Activity and Phenolic Content of Sweet Cherries (Prunus Avium L. from West and South-West of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Popescu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A diet rich in fruits and vegetables is associated with a lower incidence of degenerative diseases (such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancers. Currently, most research is focused on the content of polyphenols and antioxidant compounds found in fruit and vegetable. Sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. contain a significant amount of polyphenols and several antioxidants that possess many biological activities such as anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammation properties. In present study were investigated the quantification of total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity in fruits of a number of selected sweet cherry genotypes. Although sweet cherry fruits are a significant source of different phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity of sweet cherries is not related only with the total phenolic content.  

  8. Genome-wide characterization and linkage mapping of simple sequence repeats in mei (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidan Sun

    Full Text Available Because of its popularity as an ornamental plant in East Asia, mei (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. has received increasing attention in genetic and genomic research with the recent shotgun sequencing of its genome. Here, we performed the genome-wide characterization of simple sequence repeats (SSRs in the mei genome and detected a total of 188,149 SSRs occurring at a frequency of 794 SSR/Mb. Mononucleotide repeats were the most common type of SSR in genomic regions, followed by di- and tetranucleotide repeats. Most of the SSRs in coding sequences (CDS were composed of tri- or hexanucleotide repeat motifs, but mononucleotide repeats were always the most common in intergenic regions. Genome-wide comparison of SSR patterns among the mei, strawberry (Fragaria vesca, and apple (Malus×domestica genomes showed mei to have the highest density of SSRs, slightly higher than that of strawberry (608 SSR/Mb and almost twice as high as that of apple (398 SSR/Mb. Mononucleotide repeats were the dominant SSR motifs in the three Rosaceae species. Using 144 SSR markers, we constructed a 670 cM-long linkage map of mei delimited into eight linkage groups (LGs, with an average marker distance of 5 cM. Seventy one scaffolds covering about 27.9% of the assembled mei genome were anchored to the genetic map, depending on which the macro-colinearity between the mei genome and Prunus T×E reference map was identified. The framework map of mei constructed provides a first step into subsequent high-resolution genetic mapping and marker-assisted selection for this ornamental species.

  9. De novo transcriptome assembly and comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in Prunus dulcis Mill. in response to freezing stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Mousavi

    Full Text Available Almond (Prunus dulcis Mill., one of the most important nut crops, requires chilling during winter to develop fruiting buds. However, early spring chilling and late spring frost may damage the reproductive tissues leading to reduction in the rate of productivity. Despite the importance of transcriptional changes and regulation, little is known about the almond's transcriptome under the cold stress conditions. In the current research, we used RNA-seq technique to study the response of the reproductive tissues of almond (anther and ovary to frost stress. RNA sequencing resulted in more than 20 million reads from anther and ovary tissues of almond, individually. About 40,000 contigs were assembled and annotated de novo in each tissue. Profile of gene expression in ovary showed significant alterations in 5,112 genes, whereas in anther 6,926 genes were affected by freezing stress. Around two thousands of these genes were common altered genes in both ovary and anther libraries. Gene ontology indicated the involvement of differentially expressed (DE genes, responding to freezing stress, in metabolic and cellular processes. qRT-PCR analysis verified the expression pattern of eight genes randomly selected from the DE genes. In conclusion, the almond gene index assembled in this study and the reported DE genes can provide great insights on responses of almond and other Prunus species to abiotic stresses. The obtained results from current research would add to the limited available information on almond and Rosaceae. Besides, the findings would be very useful for comparative studies as the number of DE genes reported here is much higher than that of any previous reports in this plant.

  10. The role of polar auxin transport through pedicels of Prunus avium L. in relation to fruit development and retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Else, Mark A; Stankiewicz-Davies, Anna P; Crisp, Carol M; Atkinson, Christopher J

    2004-09-01

    It was investigated whether premature fruit abscission in Prunus avium L. was triggered by a reduction in polar auxin transport (PAT). The capacity of pedicels to transport tritiated IAA ([3H]-IAA) via the PAT pathway was measured at intervals throughout flower and fruit development. The extent of passive diffusion, assessed by concurrent applications of [14C]-benzoic acid ([14C]-BA), was negligible. Transported radioactivity recovered from agar blocks eluted at the same retention time as authentic [3H]-IAA during HPLC fractionation. The capacity for PAT was already high 7 d before anthesis and increased further following the fertilization of flowers at anthesis. PAT intensity was greatest immediately following fertilization and at the beginning of the cell expansion phase of fruit growth; the transport intensity in fruitlets destined to abscind was negligible. The amount of endogenous IAA moving through the PAT pathway was greatest during the first 3 weeks after fertilization and was again high at the beginning of the fruit expansion stage. IAA export in the phloem increased following fertilization then declined below detectable levels. ABA export in the phloem increased markedly during stone formation and at the onset of fruit expansion. TIBA applied to pedicels of fruit in situ promoted fruitlet abscission in 2000 but not in 2001, despite PAT capacity being reduced by over 98% in the treated pedicels. The application of TIBA to pedicels did not affect fruit expansion. The role of PAT and IAA in relation to the development and retention of Prunus avium fruit is discussed.

  11. Diversità funzionale in cloni di ciliegio da legno (Prunus avium L. di provenienza Appennino toscano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Cutini

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Functionality in wild cherry (Prunus avium L. clones of Tuscany Appenines provenances. Results of a research regarding the functionality of already selected wild cherry (Prunus avium L. clones are reported. The main target was to select the genotypes with the best ecological efficiency and less sensible to environmental stress, in order to give concrete indications for arboriculture for wood productions. Starting from 2002, measurements were carried out in the experimental plot of Papiano (Stia, AR, where the following clones with provenance from the Tuscan Apennines were compared: Casina Alpe 1 (A, Casina Alpe 2 (D, Puzzòlo (C, Paradisino (E, Piantata Catenaia (F. Dendrometrical data were collected at the beginning and at the end of each season, in order to evaluate the growth and the individual current increment of the clones. To better characterize the canopies of each clone, measurements of photosynthetic active radiation (PAR and of the leaf area index (LAI where carried out with ceptometers and PCA LAI 2000. In order to evaluate differences between the clones regarding functionality and response to environmental stress, growth and productivity were related to the most important canopy characteristics. Ecological efficiency was calculated for the different clones using the net assimilation rate (NAR. The results show that the clone E has the most developed canopies and the best results in terms of growth. But at the same time it also presents densely branched round canopies and results more sensible to the effects of summer drought. These elements contribute to advise against the use of this clone in future genetic improvement programs and in high quality wood productions. On the contrary, the clones C and A have both good growth characteristics and a better general architecture and are therefore advised for high quality wood productions especially in the same geographic region.

  12. Large-scale climate variability and its effects on mean temperature and flowering time of Prunus and Betula in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormsen, A. K.; Hense, A.; Toldam-Andersen, T. B.; Braun, P.

    2005-08-01

    Large-scale climate variability largely affects average climatic conditions and therefore is likely to influence the phenology of plants. In NW-Europe, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) particularly influences winter climate and, through climate interactions on plants, flowering time of all tree species. In Denmark, like in many other NW-European countries, flowering of most tree species has become earlier since the end of the 1980’s. To quantify a possible relation between NAO and flowering time of tree species, two sources of phenological information from the Copenhagen area (Denmark) were analysed, i.e. pollen counts of the genus Betula and observed first bloom dates of Prunus avium. The Winter NAO explained 29 and 37% of the variation of monthly mean temperature for February and March, respectively. The influence of temperature on flowering time was up to 56% to 60% for the February April mean. A direct correlation of Winter NAO-index and flowering time also revealed a clear relation but the time of influence was earlier (December to February). This was shown to be the likely result of a combination of direct and time-lagged effects of the NAO on air and sea surface temperature. The NAO signal is apparently stored in the North Sea and then influences temperature east up to the Baltic States. It is shown that Denmark is right in the centre of direct and time-lagged effects of the NAO. This offers the possibility of using the NAO-index for predicting flowering time of Prunus avium. The beginning of pollen flow appears to be influenced too much by short-term perturbations of the climate system decreasing the value of the NAO-index for prediction. However, it indicates a close relationship between natural climate variability, measured by the NAO index, and flowering time of tree species for Denmark.

  13. Insecticidal spider venom toxin fused to snowdrop lectin is toxic to the peach-potato aphid, Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Down, Rachel E; Fitches, Elaine C; Wiles, Duncan P; Corti, Paola; Bell, Howard A; Gatehouse, John A; Edwards, John P

    2006-01-01

    The SFI1/GNA fusion protein, comprising of snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA) fused to an insecticidal spider venom neurotoxin (Segestria florentina toxin 1, SFI1) was tested for toxicity against the rice brown planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) and the peach-potato aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer) by incorporation into artificial diets. Significant effects on the mortality of N. lugens were observed, with 100% of the insects fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein diet dead by day 7. The survival of the aphid M. persicae was also reduced when fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein. After 14 days, only 49% of the aphids that were fed on the fusion protein were still alive compared with approximately 90% of the aphids fed on the control diet or on diet containing GNA only. The SFI1/GNA fusion protein also slowed the development of M. persicae, and the reproductive capacity of the aphids fed on the SFI1/GNA fusion protein was severely reduced. The ability of GNA to act as a carrier protein, and deliver the SFI1 neurotoxin to the haemolymph of N. lugens, following oral ingestion, was investigated. The successful delivery of intact SFI1/GNA fusion protein to the haemolymph of these insects was shown by western blotting. Haemolymph taken from the insects that were fed on the fusion protein contained two GNA-immunoreactive proteins of molecular weights corresponding to GNA and to the SFI1/GNA fusion protein.

  14. Different positively selected sites at the gametophytic self-incompatibility pistil S-RNase gene in the Solanaceae and Rosaceae (Prunus, Pyrus, and Malus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Jorge; Morales-Hojas, Ramiro; Santos, Raquel A M; Vieira, Cristina P

    2007-08-01

    In this work we perform a comparative study on the location of positively selected sites (those likely responsible for defining specificity differences) at the S-RNase gene, the pistil component of the gametophytic self-incompatibility system. For Plantaginaceae and Rosaceae (Prunus and Pyrus/Malus) this is the first study of this kind. A clear sign of positive selection was observed for 13, 17, and 27 amino acid sites in Solanaceae, Prunus, and Pyrus/Malus, respectively, using two different methodologies. In Plantaginaceae no clear positively selected sites were identified. Possible reasons for this result are discussed. Indirect experimental evidence suggests that the identified positively selected amino acid sites play a role in specificity determination. The percentage of positively selected sites is similar in Solanaceae and Rosaceae but the location of those sites is different.

  15. Power, policy and the Prunus africana bark trade, 1972-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, A; Anoncho, V F; Sunderland, T

    2016-02-03

    After almost 50 years of international trade in wild harvested medicinal bark from Africa and Madagascar, the example of Prunus africana holds several lessons for both policy and practice in the fields of forestry, conservation and rural development. Due to recent CITES restrictions on P. africana exports from Burundi, Kenya and Madagascar, coupled with the lifting of the 2007 European Union (EU) ban in 2011, Cameroon's share of the global P. africana bark trade has risen from an average of 38% between 1995 and 2004, to 72.6% (658.6 metric tons) in 2012. Cameroon is therefore at the center of this international policy arena. This paper draws upon several approaches, combining knowledge in working with P. africana over a 30-year period with a thorough literature review and updated trade data with "ground-truthing" in the field in 2013 and 2014. This enabled the construction of a good perspective on trade volumes (1991-2012), bark prices (and value-chain data) and the gaps between research reports and practice. Two approaches provided excellent lenses for a deeper understanding of policy failure and the "knowing-doing gap" in the P. africana case. A similar approach to Médard's (1992) analyses of power, politics and African development was taken and secondly, studies of commodity chains that assess the power relations that coalesce around different commodities (Ribot, 1998; Ribot and Peluso, 2003). Despite the need to conserve genetically and chemically diverse P. africana, wild populations are vulnerable, even in several "protected areas" in Burundi, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and in the forest reserves of Madagascar. Secondly, hopes of decentralized governance of this forest product are misplaced due to elite capture, market monopolies and subsidized management regimes. At the current European price, for P. africana bark (US$6 per kg) for example, the 2012 bark quota (658.675t) from Cameroon alone was worth over US$3.9 million, with the majority of

  16. The S haplotype-specific F-box protein gene, SFB, is defective in self-compatible haplotypes of Prunus avium and P. mume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Koichiro; Yamane, Hisayo; Watari, Akiko; Kakehi, Eiko; Ikeda, Kazuo; Hauck, Nathanael R; Iezzoni, Amy F; Tao, Ryutaro

    2004-08-01

    Many Prunus species, including sweet cherry and Japanese apricot, of the Rosaceae, display an S-RNase-based gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI). The specificity of this outcrossing mechanism is determined by a minimum of two genes that are located in a multigene complex, termed the S locus, which controls the pistil and pollen specificities. SFB, a gene located in the S locus region, encodes an F-box protein that has appropriate S haplotype-specific variation to be the pollen determinant in the self-incompatibility reaction. This study characterizes SFBs of two self-compatible (SC) haplotypes, S(4') and S(f), of Prunus. S(4') of sweet cherry is a pollen-part mutant (PPM) that was produced by X-ray irradiation, while S(f) of Japanese apricot is a naturally occurring SC haplotype that is considered to be a PPM. DNA sequence analysis revealed defects in both SFB(4') and SFB(f). A 4 bp deletion upstream from the HVa coding region of SFB(4') causes a frame-shift that produces transcripts of a defective SFB lacking the two hypervariable regions, HVa and HVb. Similarly, the presence of a 6.8 kbp insertion in the middle of the SFB(f) coding region leads to transcripts for a defective SFB lacking the C-terminal half that contains HVa and HVb. As all reported SFBs of functional S haplotypes encode intact SFB, the fact that the partial loss-of-function mutations in SFB are present in SC mutant haplotypes of Prunus provides additional evidence that SFB is the pollen S gene in GSI in Prunus.

  17. Transcriptional dynamics of the developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit: sequencing, annotation and expression profiling of exocarp-associated genes

    OpenAIRE

    Merianne Alkio; Uwe Jonas; Myriam Declercq; Steven van Nocker; Moritz Knoche

    2014-01-01

    The exocarp, or skin, of fleshy fruit is a specialized tissue that protects the fruit, attracts seed dispersing fruit eaters, and has large economical relevance for fruit quality. Development of the exocarp involves regulated activities of many genes. This research analyzed global gene expression in the exocarp of developing sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘Regina’), a fruit crop species with little public genomic resources. A catalog of transcript models (contigs) representing expressed genes...

  18. The effect of different types of rootstock on the quality of maiden trees of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. cv. ‘Regina’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Baryła

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the period 2006–2009 in Lublin, a study was conducted to determine the effect of five types of rootstock: ‘Colt’, ‘F12/1’, sweet cherry (Prunus avium L., ‘GiSelA 5’ and ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry (Prunus mahaleb L., on the growth and quality of maiden sweet cherry trees cv. ‘Regina’ in a commercial nursery. Based on the three-year average, rootstocks were shown to have a significant effect on the investigated quality characteristics of maiden sweet cherry trees. Trees budded on ‘Colt’ vegetative rootstock were characterized by strongest growth and best quality. In each year, they were thicker, higher and better branched than sweet cherries on the rootstock. Under the tested conditions, ‘GiSelA 5’ dwarf rootstock significantly reduced the growth and quality of budded sweet cherry trees in the nursery. During the period 2007–2009, no physiological incompatibility symptoms were observed ‘Regina’ sweet cherry cv. and ‘Piast’ seedling rootstocks. The growth of trees budded on ‘Piast’ mahaleb cherry was poorer than on ‘Colt’ clonal rootstock, but it was stronger than on ‘F12/1’ and Prunus avium L. rootstocks.

  19. 艳红桃果实发育阶段生理指标的变化%Changes in Physiological Indexes of Amygdalus persica in Fruit Development Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰兰; 任艳芳; 何俊瑜; 杨中喜

    2012-01-01

    为探讨桃果实生长发育规律,为栽培措施的制定和最佳采收期的确定提供理论依据,以艳红桃果实为试材,研究了果实发育过程中果实大小、可溶性糖、可滴定酸、超氧化物歧化酶、抗坏血酸、丙二醛含量等的动态变化.结果表明:艳红桃果实单果重与纵横径生长趋势基本一致,果实在盛花后25~55d生长速度缓慢,55d至成熟期间生长迅速,生长趋势表现为明显的双“S”形曲线;在整个生长发育过程中,可溶性糖含量总体呈上升趋势,可滴定酸含量整体表现为下降趋势,抗坏血酸的含量呈先上升后下降而后又上升的趋势;其间,细胞膜脂发生过氧化,表现为丙二醛含量不断上升,且后期升高较快,而超氧化物歧化酶活力则基本保持快速增加的趋势.%In order to discuss the growth rules of peach fruits, provide the theoretical basis for formulating cultural practice and ensuring the best harvest time. Taking A. Persica as experimental materials, the dynamic changes of fruit size and contents of soluble sugar, titratable acid, SOD, Vc and MDA were analyzed. The results showed that the weight of single fruit and fruit length and breadth changed consistently. During fruit development stage, the growth curves of fruit length and breadth were "double S" shapes in A. Persica. The fruits in 25 days to 55 days after blooming date increased slowly, however, 55 days to fruit ripening increased quickly; The soluble sugar level increased with the growth of the fruit; The titratable acid level presented the trend of falling with the growth of the fruit; The contents of Vc presented uptrend at first, and then decreased along with peach fruit development; The MDA content increased with the fruit development, and increased quickly at the ripening stage; The SOD activity increased all the time.

  20. 当归-桃仁药对配伍特点及其效应物质基础研究%Study on the correlation of chemical constituents and activities of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Semen Persicae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立; 段金廒; 唐于平; 钱大玮; 史旭芹; 宿树兰; 胡莹

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Study on the correlation of chemical constituents and activities in different proportions of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Semen Persicae. Methods: Data mining technology was applied on prescription to screening the proportions of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Semen Persicae. HPLC determined the changes of the contents of amygdalin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid in the single and mixed decoction of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Semen Persicae. The experiments of thrombin time, anti-platelet aggregation and scavenging DPPH were evaluated the activities. Results: The top 10 proportions of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Semen Persicae were screening. The contents of amygdalin, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid and ferulic acid were higher than the single decoction of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Semen Persicae. Thrombin time was prolonged, anti-platelet aggregation was increased and the activity of scavenging DPPH was enhanced when compared to the same drug dosage of the single decoction of Semen Persicae. The activity of anti-platelet aggregation was also increased when compared to the same drug dosage of the single decoction of Radix Angelicae Sinensis. Conclusion: Mixed decoction of Radix Angelicae Sinensis and Semen Persicae was rationality. The change of chemical constituents and activities has some correlation, but different proportions have no conspicuous variability.%目的:探讨当归-桃仁药对不同配比的应用特点及其效应物质基础.方法:基于自建的中医方剂数据库,采用关联规则分析方法,挖掘归纳出当归-桃仁药对在方剂中的配伍特点;采用HPLC法分析当归-桃仁药对共煎液与单煎液不同配比中苦杏仁苷、绿原酸、咖啡酸、阿魏酸的含量变化;采用凝血时间、抑制血小板聚集和清除DPPH自由基实验评价配伍效应及其作用特点.结果:挖掘归纳出当归-桃仁药对在方剂中的配伍特点及其出现频度;实验结果表明当

  1. Study on Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi Diversity and Inoculation Effect of Prunus mongolica%蒙古扁桃AMF多样性及其AMF接种效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琚钢; 白淑兰; 盖京苹; 慈忠玲; 方亮

    2011-01-01

    Mycorrhizal status of Prunus mongolica of western Inner Mongolia in the desert region was studied by observing the ectomycorrhiza morphological and the arbuscular mycrrhizal structure of the nutritive root.Ectomycorrhiza colonization was not found in the present study, while arbuscular mycrrhiza colonized quite well, and the highest frequency of colonization was 97%. Eleven arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species of four genera and one uncertain species were identified by the morphologiacal identification of the spores, among which Acaulosopra rehmii and Glomus mosseae were the dominant species. In addition, Glomus mosseae and Glomous versiforme were inoculated on Prunus mongolica, and the result showed that the nutritive root of Prunus mongolica and the Glomus mosseae could form the typical arbuscular mycrrhizal structure as hyphae,vesicles and arbuscular, but not with the Glomous versiforme. Gl