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Sample records for duct principal cells

  1. Lithium Impairs Kidney Development and Inhibits Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3β in Collecting Duct Principal Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgaard, Gitte; Madsen, Kirsten; Marcussen, Niels

    on serine9 (pGSK-3β)and subsequent epithelial to mesenchymal dedifferentiation (EMT). GSK-3β immunoreactive protein was associated with collecting ducts in developing and adult human and rat kidney. Total GSK-3β protein abundance was stable in medulla while it decreased in cortex in the postnatal period...

  2. A nicardipine-sensitive Ca2+ entry contributes to the hypotonicity-induced increase in [Ca2+]i of principal cells in rat cortical collecting duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komagiri, You; Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Kubokawa, Manabu

    2011-01-01

    We examined the mechanisms involved in the [Ca(2+)](i) response to the extracellular hypotonicity in the principal cells of freshly isolated rat cortical collecting duct (CCD), using Fura-2/AM fluorescence imaging. Reduction of extracellular osmolality from 305 (control) to 195 mosmol/kgH(2)O (hypotonic) evoked transient increase in [Ca(2+)](i) of principal cells of rat CCDs. The [Ca(2+)](i) increase was markedly attenuated by the removal of extracellular Ca(2+)(.) The application of a P(2) purinoceptor antagonist, suramin failed to inhibit the hypotonicity-induced [Ca(2+)](i) increase. The [Ca(2+)](i) increase in response to extracellular hypotonicity was not influenced by application of Gd(3+) and ruthenium red. On the other hand, a voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel inhibitor, nicardipine, significantly reduced the peak amplitude of [Ca(2+)](i) increase in the principal cells. In order to assess Ca(2+) entry during the hypotonic stimulation, we measured the quenching of Fura-2 fluorescence intensity by Mn(2+). The hypotonic stimulation enhanced quenching of Fura-2 fluorescence by Mn(2+), indicating that a Ca(2+)-permeable pathway was activated by the hypotonicity. The hypotonicity-mediated enhancement of Mn(2+) quenching was significantly inhibited by nicardipine. These results strongly suggested that a nicardipine-sensitive Ca(2+) entry pathway would contribute to the mechanisms underlying the hypotonicity-induced [Ca(2+)](i) elevation of principal cells in rat CCD.

  3. PPARγ-Induced Stimulation of Amiloride-Sensitive Sodium Current in Renal Collecting Duct Principal Cells is Serum and Insulin Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Chraïbi

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Thiazolidinediones (TZDs, such as rosiglitazone or pioglitazone, are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ agonists currently used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. However, their clinical applicability is limited by common and severe side effects including strong water retention, edema and cardiac stroke. The precise mechanisms leading to these disorders are not clearly understood and remain controversial. While the nature of the disorders due to TZDs points to an increase in ENaC-mediated sodium reabsorption in the aldosterone-sensitive distal nephron, some studies suggested that this channel was not targeted by PPARγ agonists. Methods: Mouse cortical collecting duct cells were incubated in different types of culture medium and treated with or without rosiglitazone. Transepithelial Na+ current was measured and the changes in SGK and Nedd4 expression were determined by immunoblotting. Results: Herein we demonstrate that rosiglitazone stimulates the amiloride-sensitive transepithelial sodium current in Collecting Duct Principal Cells after 3h and 24h treatment. This activation was dependent of both serum and insulin in culture medium and was mediated by SGK1/Nedd4-2 pathway stimulation. In these conditions, rosiglitazone induced SGK1 expression, Nedd4-2 phosphorylation and thus abolished ubiquitylation and internalization of ENaC channels. This mechanism explains most of the side effects of thiazolidinediones previously observed in humans and animals. Conclusion: Our data show an increase in transepithelial sodium amiloride-sensitive current induced by a PPARγ agonist in presence of serum and insulin, thus confirming some in-vitro and in-vivo experiments while providing explanations for previous conflicting findings.

  4. Hypotonicity causes actin reorganization and recruitment of the actin-binding ERM protein moesin in membrane protrusions in collecting duct principal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamma, G.; Procino, G.; Svelto, M.; Valenti, G.

    2007-01-01

    Hypotonicity-induced cell swelling is characterized by a modification in cell architecture associated with actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family proteins are important signal transducers during actin reorganization regulated by the monomeric G proteins of the Rho famil

  5. Hypotonicity causes actin reorganization and recruitment of the actin-binding ERM protein moesin in membrane protrusions in collecting duct principal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamma, G.; Procino, G.; Svelto, M.; Valenti, G.

    2007-01-01

    Hypotonicity-induced cell swelling is characterized by a modification in cell architecture associated with actin cytoskeleton remodeling. The ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family proteins are important signal transducers during actin reorganization regulated by the monomeric G proteins of the Rho famil

  6. Changes in cellular composition of kidney collecting duct cells in rats with lithium-induced NDI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Birgitte Mønster; Marples, David; Kim, Young-Hee; Wang, Weidong; Frøkiaer, Jørgen; Nielsen, Søren

    2004-04-01

    Lithium treatment for 4 wk caused severe polyuria, dramatic downregulation in aquaporin-2 (AQP-2) expression, and marked decrease in AQP-2 immunoreactivity with the appearance of a large number of cells without AQP-2 labeling in the collecting ducts after lithium treatment. Surprisingly, this was not all due to an increase in AQP-2-negative principal cells, because double immunolabeling revealed that the majority of the AQP-2-negative cells displayed [H(+)]ATPase labeling, which identified them as intercalated cells. Moreover, multiple [H(+)]ATPase-labeled cells were adjacent, which was never seen in control rats. Quantitation confirmed a significant decrease in the fraction of collecting duct cells that exhibited detectable AQP-2 labeling compared with control rats: in cortical collecting ducts, 40 +/- 3.4 vs. 62 +/- 1.8% of controls (P diet following 4 wk on a lithium-containing diet. In conclusion, lithium treatment not only decreased AQP-2 expression, but dramatically and reversibly reduced the fraction of principal cells and altered the cellular organization in collecting ducts. These effects are likely to be important in lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

  7. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kowal, Justyna Magdalena; Yegutkin, G.G.; Novak, Ivana

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, our...... aim was to reveal whether pancreatic duct cells release ATP locally and whether they enzymatically modify extracellular nucleotides/sides. Second, we wished to explore which physiological and pathophysiological factors may be important in these processes. Using a human pancreatic duct cell line, Capan......-1, and online luminescence measurement, we detected fast ATP release in response to pH changes, bile acid, mechanical stress and hypo-osmotic stress. ATP release following hypo-osmotic stress was sensitive to drugs affecting exocytosis, pannexin-1, connexins, maxi-anion channels and transient...

  8. ATP release, generation and hydrolysis in exocrine pancreatic duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, J M; Yegutkin, G G; Novak, I

    2015-12-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) regulates pancreatic duct function via P2Y and P2X receptors. It is well known that ATP is released from upstream pancreatic acinar cells. The ATP homeostasis in pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, has not yet been examined. First, our aim was to reveal whether pancreatic duct cells release ATP locally and whether they enzymatically modify extracellular nucleotides/sides. Second, we wished to explore which physiological and pathophysiological factors may be important in these processes. Using a human pancreatic duct cell line, Capan-1, and online luminescence measurement, we detected fast ATP release in response to pH changes, bile acid, mechanical stress and hypo-osmotic stress. ATP release following hypo-osmotic stress was sensitive to drugs affecting exocytosis, pannexin-1, connexins, maxi-anion channels and transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 4 (TRPV4) channels, and corresponding transcripts were expressed in duct cells. Direct stimulation of intracellular Ca(2+) and cAMP signalling and ethanol application had negligible effects on ATP release. The released ATP was sequentially dephosphorylated through ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase2) and ecto-5'-nucleotidase/CD73 reactions, with respective generation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine and their maintenance in the extracellular medium at basal levels. In addition, Capan-1 cells express counteracting adenylate kinase (AK1) and nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) enzymes (NME1, 2), which contribute to metabolism and regeneration of extracellular ATP and other nucleotides (ADP, uridine diphosphate (UDP) and uridine triphosphate (UTP)). In conclusion, we illustrate a complex regulation of extracellular purine homeostasis in a pancreatic duct cell model involving: ATP release by several mechanisms and subsequent nucleotide breakdown and ATP regeneration via counteracting nucleotide

  9. Cell type-specific glycoconjugates of collecting duct cells during maturation of the rat kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthöfer, H

    1988-08-01

    The ontogeny of lectin-positive epithelial cell types and the maturation of polarized expression of the glycocalyx of the collecting ducts (CD) of the rat kidney were studied from samples of 18th-day fetal and neonatal kidneys of various ages. Lectins from Dolichos biflorus (DBA) and Vicia villosa (VVA), with preferential affinity to principal cells, stained virtually all CD cells of the fetal kidneys. However, within two days postnatally, the number of cells positive for DBA and VVA decreased to amounts found in the adult kidneys. Moreover, a characteristic change occurred rapidly after birth in the intracellular polarization of the reactive glycoconjugates, from a uniform plasmalemmal to a preferentially apical staining. In contrast, lectins from Arachis hypogaea (PNA), Maclura pomifera (MPA) and Lotus tetragonolobus (LTA), reacting indiscriminatively with principal and intercalated cells of adult kidneys, stained most CD cells in the fetal kidneys, and failed to show any postnatal change in the amount of positive cells or in the intracellular polarization. The immunocytochemical tests for (Na + K)-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA II) revealed the characteristic postnatal decrease in the amount of principal cells and simultaneous increase in the amount of CA II rich intercalated cells. DBA and VVA reactive cells also decreased postnatally, paralleling the changes observed in the (Na + K)-ATPase positive principal cells. The present results suggest that the expression of the cell type-specific glycocalyx of principal and intercalated cells is developmentally regulated, undergoes profound changes during maturation, and is most likely associated with electrolyte transport phenomena.

  10. Effect of herpesvirus infection on pancreatic duct cell secretion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Péter Hegyi; András Varró; Mária K Kovács; Mike A Gray; Barry E Argent; Zsolt Boldogk(o)i; Balázs (O)rd(o)g; Zoltán Rakonczai Jr; Tamás Takács; János Lonovics; Annamária Szabolcs; Réka Sári; András Tóth; Julius G Papp

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of acute infection caused by herpesvirus (pseudorabies virus, PRV) on pancreatic ductal secretion.METHODS: The virulent Ba-DupGreen (BDG) and nonvirulent Ka-RREpOlacgfp (KEG) genetically modified strains of PRV were used in this study and both of them contain the gene for green fluorescent protein (GFP). Small intra/interlobular ducts were infected with BDG virus (107 PFU/mL for 6 h) or with KEG virus (1010 PFU/mL for 6 h), while non-infected ducts were incubated only with the culture media. The ducts were then cultured for a further 18 h.The rate of HCO3- secretion [base efflux -J(B-)] was determined from the buffering capacity of the cells and the initial rate of intracellular acidification (1) after sudden blockage of basolateral base loaders with dihydro-4,4,-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2,-disulfonic acid (500 μmol/L)and amiloride (200 μmol/L), and (2) after alkali loading the ducts by exposure to NH4Cl. All the experiments were performed in HCO3--buffered Ringer solution at 37 ℃ (n = 5ducts for each experimental condition). Viral structural proteins were visualized by immunohistochemistry. Virallyencoded GFP and immunofluorescence signals were recorded by a confocal laser scanning microscope.RESULTS: The BDG virus infected the majority of accessible cells of the duct as judged by the appearance of GFP and viral antigens in the ductal cells. KEG virus caused a similarly high efficiency of infection. After blockage of basolateral base loaders, BDG infection significantly elevated -J(B-) 24 h after the infection, compared to the non-infected group. However, KEG infection did not modify -J(B-). After alkali loading the ducts, -J(B-) was significantly elevated in the BDG group compared to the control group 24 h after the infection. As we found with the inhibitor stop method, no change was observed in the group KEG compared to the non-infected group.CONCLUSION: Incubation with the BDG or KEG strains of PRV results in an effective

  11. Experimental study on inhibitory effect of bridgy duct of hepatic artery on apoptosis of liver and bile duct cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongwei Lu; Yiming Li; Hong Ji; Jinkai Xu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether the method of bridgy duct established between the recipient's spleen artery and the donor's gastroduodenal artery could inhibit the apoptosis of liver and bile duct cells caused by hepatic artery ischemia.Methods: Twenty-four mongrel dogs from Xi'an area were used to establish simplified models of dog orthotopic liver transplantation and divided into three groups randomly: HAI group (hepatic artery ischemia group),BBB group (bypassing the blood by a bridgy duct) and control group. After cold perfusion, The samples were collected from liver and bile duct in each group at different time and fixed in glutaraldehyde and 4% polyformaldehyde respectively. At last, the apoptosis of liver and bile duct cells were observed and the apoptotic indexes were calculated. Results: Two hours after cold perfusion, apoptotic phenomenon was common in HAI group, rare in BBB group, while no apoptotic phenomenon was observed in control group. TUNEL staining showed that there was no significant difference in apoptotic index among the three groups immediately after cold perfusion. However, with time going, the apoptotic cells were increased in three groups, and the difference in apoptotic index was significant among three groups (P < 0.01 ). Conclusion: Bridgy duct of hepatic artery can inhibit the apoptosis of liver and bile duct cells caused by HAI significantly.

  12. Cigarette Smoking Impairs Pancreatic Duct Cell Bicarbonate Secretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadiyala, Vivek; Lee, Linda S; Banks, Peter A; Suleiman, Shadeah; Paulo, Joao A; Wang, Wei; Rosenblum, Jessica; Sainani, Nisha I; Mortele, Koenraad; Conwell, Darwin L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare pancreatic duct cell function in smokers (current and past) and never smokers by measurement of secretin-stimulated peak bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3−]) in endoscopic collected pancreatic fluid (PF). Methods This retrospective study was cross-sectional in design, recording demographic information (age, gender, etc.), smoking status (former, current, never), alcohol intake, clinical data (imaging, endoscopy), and laboratory results (peak PF [HCO3−]) from subjects evaluated for pancreatic disease at a tertiary pancreas center. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis (SAS Version 9.2, Cary, NC, USA) was performed to assess the relationship between cigarette smoking and secretin-stimulated pancreatic fluid bicarbonate concentration. Results A total of 131 subjects underwent pancreatic fluid collection (endoscopic pancreatic function test, ePFT) for bicarbonate analysis: 25.2% (33 out of 131) past smokers, 31.3% (41 out of 131) current smokers, and 43.5% (57 out of 131) were never smokers. Measures of Association The mean peak PF [HCO3−] in never smokers (81.3±18.5 mEq/L) was statistically higher (indicating better duct cell function) when compared to past smokers (66.8±24.7 mEq/L, P=0.005) and current smokers (70.0±20.2 mEq/L, P=0.005). However, the mean peak [HCO3−] in past smokers was not statistically different from that in current smokers (P=0.575), and therefore, the two smoking groups were combined to form a single “smokers cohort”. When compared to the never smokers, the smokers cohort was older (P=0.037) and had a greater proportion of subjects with definite chronic pancreatitis imaging (P=0.010), alcohol consumption ≥20 g/day (P=0.012), and abnormal peak PF [HCO3-] (P<0.001). Risk-Based Estimates Cigarette smoking (risk ratio, RR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3–3.5; P<0.001), diagnosis of definite chronic pancreatitis imaging (RR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.6–3.2; P<0.001) and alcohol consumption ≥20 g/day (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1

  13. Zebrafish sox9b is crucial for hepatopancreatic duct development and pancreatic endocrine cell regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manfroid, Isabelle; Ghaye, Aurélie; Naye, François; Detry, Nathalie; Palm, Sarah; Pan, Luyuan; Ma, Taylur P; Huang, Wei; Rovira, Meritxell; Martial, Joseph A; Parsons, Michael J; Moens, Cecilia B; Voz, Marianne L; Peers, Bernard

    2012-06-15

    Recent zebrafish studies have shown that the late appearing pancreatic endocrine cells are derived from pancreatic ducts but the regulatory factors involved are still largely unknown. Here, we show that the zebrafish sox9b gene is expressed in pancreatic ducts where it labels the pancreatic Notch-responsive cells previously shown to be progenitors. Inactivation of sox9b disturbs duct formation and impairs regeneration of beta cells from these ducts in larvae. sox9b expression in the midtrunk endoderm appears at the junction of the hepatic and ventral pancreatic buds and, by the end of embryogenesis, labels the hepatopancreatic ductal system as well as the intrapancreatic and intrahepatic ducts. Ductal morphogenesis and differentiation are specifically disrupted in sox9b mutants, with the dysmorphic hepatopancreatic ducts containing misdifferentiated hepatocyte-like and pancreatic-like cells. We also show that maintenance of sox9b expression in the extrapancreatic and intrapancreatic ducts requires FGF and Notch activity, respectively, both pathways known to prevent excessive endocrine differentiation in these ducts. Furthermore, beta cell recovery after specific ablation is severely compromised in sox9b mutant larvae. Our data position sox9b as a key player in the generation of secondary endocrine cells deriving from pancreatic ducts in zebrafish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Sodium selectivity of semicircular canal duct epithelial cells

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    Harbidge Donald G

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sodium absorption by semicircular canal duct (SCCD epithelial cells is thought to contribute to the homeostasis of the volume of vestibular endolymph. It was previously shown that the epithelial cells could absorb Na+ under control of a glucocorticoid hormone (dexamethasone and the absorptive transepithelial current was blocked by amiloride. The most commonly-observed target of amiloride is the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC, comprised of the three subunits α-, β- and γ-ENaC. However, other cation channels have also been observed to be sensitive in a similar concentration range. The aim of this study was to determine whether SCCD epithelial cells absorb only Na+ or also K+ through an amiloride-sensitive pathway. Parasensory K+ absorption could contribute to regulation of the transduction current through hair cells, as found to occur via vestibular transitional cells [S. H. Kim and D. C. Marcus. Regulation of sodium transport in the inner ear. Hear.Res. doi:10.1016/j.heares.2011.05.003, 2011]. Results We determined the molecular and functional expression of candidate cation channels with gene array (GEO GSE6197, whole-cell patch clamp and transepithelial recordings in primary cultures of rat SCCD. α-, β- and γ-ENaC were all previously reported as present. The selectivity of the amiloride-sensitive transepithelial and cell membrane currents was observed in Ussing chamber and whole-cell patch clamp recordings. The cell membrane currents were carried by Na+ but not K+, but the Na+ selectivity disappeared when the cells were cultured on impermeable supports. Transepithelial currents across SCCD were also carried exclusively by Na+. Conclusions These results are consistent with the amiloride-sensitive absorptive flux of SCCD mediated by a highly Na+-selective channel, likely αβγ-ENaC. These epithelial cells therefore absorb only Na+ via the amiloride-sensitive pathway and do not provide a parasensory K+ efflux from the

  15. Characterization of Insulin-Immunoreactive Cells and Endocrine Cells Within the Duct System of the Adult Human Pancreas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Yu, Lan; Zou, Xia; Zhao, Hailu

    2016-01-01

    The adult pancreatic duct system accommodates endocrine cells that have the potential to produce insulin. Here we report the characterization and distribution of insulin-immunoreactive cells and endocrine cells within the ductal units of adult human pancreas. Sequential pancreas sections from 12 nondiabetic adults were stained with biomarkers of ductal epithelial cells (cytokeratin 19), acinar cells (amylase), endocrine cells (chromogranin A; neuron-specific enolase), islet hormones (insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide), cell proliferation (Ki-67), and neogenesis (CD29). The number of islet hormone-immunoreactive cells increased from large ducts to the terminal branches. The insulin-producing cells outnumbered endocrine cells reactive for glucagon, somatostatin, or pancreatic polypeptide. The proportions of insulin-immunoreactive count compared with local islets (100% as a baseline) were 1.5% for the main ducts, 7.2% for interlobular ducts, 24.8% for intralobular ducts, 67.9% for intercalated ducts, and 348.9% for centroacinar cells. Both Ki-67- and CD29-labeled cells were predominantly localized in the terminal branches around the islets. The terminal branches also showed cells coexpressing islet hormones and cytokeratin 19. The adult human pancreatic ducts showed islet hormone-producing cells. The insulin-reactive cells predominantly localized in terminal branches where they may retain potential capability for β-cell neogenesis.

  16. Can Analgesic-abuse Nephropathy is a Fertile Groundfor for Rare Collecting Duct (Bellini Duct) Renal Cell Carcinoma or Merely a Coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhorawat, R; Beniwal, P; Malhotra, V

    2016-01-01

    Nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs have been implicated as nephrotoxic drugs, causing both acute and chronic adverse effects that range from reversible ischemia to chronic kidney disease and urothelial tumors to renal cell carcinoma specially papillary subtype. We report one case of collecting duct (Bellini duct) renal cell carcinoma in patient with analgesic-abuse nephropathy. This young individual was suffering from ankylosing spondylitis since the age of 16 years and was consuming diclofenac and paracetamol (acetaminophen) combination for >15 years. He developed hypertension, secondary glomerulopathy, chronic kidney disease and collecting duct renal cell carcinoma.

  17. Can analgesic-abuse nephropathy is a fertile groundfor rare collecting duct (bellini duct renal cell carcinoma or merely a coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Jhorawat

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs have been implicated as nephrotoxic drugs, causing both acute and chronic adverse effects that range from reversible ischemia to chronic kidney disease and urothelial tumors to renal cell carcinoma specially papillary subtype. We report one case of collecting duct (Bellini duct renal cell carcinoma in patient with analgesic-abuse nephropathy. This young individual was suffering from ankylosing spondylitis since the age of 16 years and was consuming diclofenac and paracetamol (acetaminophen combination for >15 years. He developed hypertension, secondary glomerulopathy, chronic kidney disease and collecting duct renal cell carcinoma.

  18. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K channels...

  19. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K channels in pan...

  20. Plasticity of adult human pancreatic duct cells by neurogenin3-mediated reprogramming.

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    Nathalie Swales

    Full Text Available AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Duct cells isolated from adult human pancreas can be reprogrammed to express islet beta cell genes by adenoviral transduction of the developmental transcription factor neurogenin3 (Ngn3. In this study we aimed to fully characterize the extent of this reprogramming and intended to improve it. METHODS: The extent of the Ngn3-mediated duct-to-endocrine cell reprogramming was measured employing genome wide mRNA profiling. By modulation of the Delta-Notch signaling or addition of pancreatic endocrine transcription factors Myt1, MafA and Pdx1 we intended to improve the reprogramming. RESULTS: Ngn3 stimulates duct cells to express a focused set of genes that are characteristic for islet endocrine cells and/or neural tissues. This neuro-endocrine shift however, is incomplete with less than 10% of full duct-to-endocrine reprogramming achieved. Transduction of exogenous Ngn3 activates endogenous Ngn3 suggesting auto-activation of this gene. Furthermore, pancreatic endocrine reprogramming of human duct cells can be moderately enhanced by inhibition of Delta-Notch signaling as well as by co-expressing the transcription factor Myt1, but not MafA and Pdx1. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The results provide further insight into the plasticity of adult human duct cells and suggest measurable routes to enhance Ngn3-mediated in vitro reprogramming protocols for regenerative beta cell therapy in diabetes.

  1. Differential response of human fetal smooth muscle cells from arterial duct to retinoid acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-hui WU; Shao-jun XU; Jian-ying TENG; Wei WU; Du-yun YE; Xing-zhong WU

    2008-01-01

    Aim:The aim of the present study was to understand the role of retinoic acid (RA) in the development of isolated patent ductus arteriosus and the features of arterial duct-derived vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Methods:The VSMC were isolated, and the biological characteristics and the response to RA were investi-gated in the arterial duct, aorta, and pulmonary artery VSMC from 6 human embry-onic samples. Western blotting, immunostaining, and cell-based ELISA were em-ployed to analyze the proliferation regulation of VSMC. Results:The VSMC from the arterial duct expressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) at a signifi-cantly lower rate than those from the aorta and pulmonary artery, but expressed a higher level of Bax and Bcl-2. The expression level of PCNA or Bcl-2 was associ-ated with the embryonic age. The effects of RA on the VSMC from the arterial duct were quite different from those from the aorta and pulmonary artery. In arterial duct VSMC, RA stimulated PCNA expression, but such stimulation could be sup-pressed by CD2366, an antagonist of nuclear retinoid receptor activation. In aorta or pulmonary artery VSMC, the expression response of PCNA to RA was insignificant. The ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 decreased in arterial duct VSMC after RA treatment due to the significant inhibition of Bax expression. Conclusion:The VSMC from the arterial duct possessed distinct biological behaviors. RA might be important in the development of ductus arteriosus VSMC.

  2. Can Analgesic-abuse Nephropathy is a Fertile Groundfor for Rare Collecting Duct (Bellini Duct) Renal Cell Carcinoma or Merely a Coincidence?

    OpenAIRE

    Jhorawat, R.; Beniwal, P.; Malhotra, V.

    2016-01-01

    Nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs have been implicated as nephrotoxic drugs, causing both acute and chronic adverse effects that range from reversible ischemia to chronic kidney disease and urothelial tumors to renal cell carcinoma specially papillary subtype. We report one case of collecting duct (Bellini duct) renal cell carcinoma in patient with analgesic-abuse nephropathy. This young individual was suffering from ankylosing spondylitis since the age of 16 years and was consuming diclofena...

  3. Can analgesic-abuse nephropathy is a fertile groundfor rare collecting duct (bellini duct) renal cell carcinoma or merely a coincidence?

    OpenAIRE

    Jhorawat, R.; Beniwal, P.; Malhotra, V.

    2016-01-01

    Nonsteroid antiinflammatory drugs have been implicated as nephrotoxic drugs, causing both acute and chronic adverse effects that range from reversible ischemia to chronic kidney disease and urothelial tumors to renal cell carcinoma specially papillary subtype. We report one case of collecting duct (Bellini duct) renal cell carcinoma in patient with analgesic-abuse nephropathy. This young individual was suffering from ankylosing spondylitis since the age of 16 years and was consuming diclofena...

  4. Quantitative Proteomics Identifies Vasopressin-Responsive Nuclear Proteins in Collecting Duct Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Schenk, Laura K.; Bolger, Steven J.; Luginbuhl, Kelli; Gonzales, Patricia A.; Rinschen, Markus M.; Yu, Ming-Jiun; Hoffert, Jason D.; Pisitkun, Trairak; Knepper, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Vasopressin controls transport in the renal collecting duct, in part, by regulating transcription. This complex process, which can involve translocation and/or modification of transcriptional regulators, is not completely understood. Here, we applied a method for large-scale profiling of nuclear proteins to quantify vasopressin-induced changes in the nuclear proteome of cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells. Using stable isotope labeling and tandem mass spectrometry, we quantified 3987 nucl...

  5. Mixed Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinoma and Adenocarcinoma with Spindle Cell and Clear Cell Features in the Extrahepatic Bile Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wysocki

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas, spindle cell carcinomas, and clear cell carcinomas are all rare tumors in the biliary tract. We present the first case, to our knowledge, of an extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma composed of all three types. A 65-year-old man with prior cholecystectomy presented with painless jaundice, vomiting, and weight loss. CA19-9 and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP were elevated. Cholangioscopy revealed a friable mass extending from the middle of the common bile duct to the common hepatic duct. A bile duct excision was performed. Gross examination revealed a 3.6 cm intraluminal polypoid tumor. Microscopically, the tumor had foci of conventional adenocarcinoma (CK7-positive and CA19-9-postive surrounded by malignant-appearing spindle cells that were positive for cytokeratins and vimentin. Additionally, there were separate areas of large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (LCNEC. Foci of clear cell carcinoma merged into both the LCNEC and the adenocarcinoma. Tumor invaded through the bile duct wall with extensive perineural and vascular invasion. Circumferential margins were positive. The patient’s poor performance status precluded adjuvant therapy and he died with recurrent and metastatic disease 5 months after surgery. This is consistent with the reported poor survival rates of biliary mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinomas.

  6. Pancreatic duct cell carcinoma with positive {sup 111}In octreotide uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurhal, N.S.; Bruckner, H.W. [The Mount Sinai Medical Center, Instanbul (Turkey). Detp. of Medicine, Div. of Neoplastic Diseases

    2000-06-01

    Duct cell adenocarcinomas may produce neuroendocrine markers, such as pancreatic polypeptide, gastrin and gastrin releasing hormones. A 53 year old patient, with a history of insulin dependent diabetes, was found to have a pancreatic mass which was later pathologically demonstrated to be a duct cell adenocarcinoma. The tumor produced elevated circulating neuroendocrine markers specifically gastrin and pancreatic polypeptides. An {sup 111} In Octreotide imaging showed definite uptake of Octreotide by the tumor. The patient was subsequently treated with somatostatin analog which resulted in the reduction of some of the circulating endocrine markers. The patient had essentially six months of asymptomatic clinical remission but then she relapsed. Octreotide scanning could be useful for selected patients with pathologic diagnosis of duct cell adenocarcinoma, because some tumors may have neuroendocrine features and can be imaged, and might even respond to somatostatin analog therapy.

  7. Plasticity of adult human pancreatic duct cells by neurogenin3-mediated reprogramming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swales, Nathalie; Martens, Geert A; Bonné, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Duct cells isolated from adult human pancreas can be reprogrammed to express islet beta cell genes by adenoviral transduction of the developmental transcription factor neurogenin3 (Ngn3). In this study we aimed to fully characterize the extent of this reprogramming and intended to improve it....

  8. Effect of vasoactive intestinal peptide, carbachol and other agonists on the membrane voltage of pancreatic duct cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pahl, C; Novak, I

    1993-01-01

    The regulation of pancreatic exocrine secretion involves hormonal, neural and neurohormonal components. Many agonists are known to be effective in pancreatic acinar cells, but less is known about the ducts. Therefore, we wanted to investigate the influence of various agonists on isolated perfused...... pancreatic ducts and, as a physiological response, we measured the basolateral membrane voltage of the duct cells (Vbl) with microelectrodes. Pancreatic ducts were dissected from pancreas of normal rats and bathed in a HCO(3-)(-containing solution. Under control conditions, the average Vbl was between -50...

  9. Collecting Duct Renal Cell Carcinoma Found to Involve the Collecting System During Partial Nephrectomy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew C Harbin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC is a rare and aggressive form of renal cell carcinoma (RCC arising from the principal cells of the collecting duct.  One third of cases present with metastatic disease, but many present in a manner similar to conventional RCC or urothelial carcinoma (UC.  We discuss a case of CDC which presented as a small mass at the cortico-medullary junction, and was discovered at robotic partial nephrectomy (RPN to be grossly involving the collecting system. A 62-year-old man presented with a small renal mass suspicious for RCC, which was found on computed tomography (CT after an episode of gross hematuria.  After thorough workup, RPN was attempted; however, intraoperatively the mass was found to be involving the collecting system.  Radical nephroureterectomy was performed, and the pathology report revealed CDC.  CDC is a rare and aggressive form of RCC.  While many cases are metastatic at diagnosis, most patients present with the incidental finding of a small renal mass.  There are no reports of a CDC involving the collecting system at RPN after negative ureteroscopy preoperatively.  The adjuvant therapeutic options for CDC are limited, and long term survival is poor.    

  10. Ultrastructure of the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic duct in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, J

    1994-01-01

    The ultrastructure of the epithelial cells of the endolymphatic duct in the rat is described, following vascular perfusion-fixation of live, anaesthetised and artificially respirated animals. The animals were fixed by means of a pressure feed-back controlled peristaltic pump and an isotonic perfu...

  11. A fatal case of primary basaloid squamous cell carcinoma in the intrahepatic bile ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Johan; Grunnet, Mie; Hasselby, Jane Preuss

    2014-01-01

    of diagnosis but expired 20 months after surgery with epidural, lung, and spine metastasis. In addition to the unusual clinical presentation, the diagnosis of the liver tumor was that of a primary basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the intrahepatic bile ducts, an entity with only one previous report...

  12. Characterization of pancreatic stem cells derived from adult human pancreas ducts by fluorescence activated cell sorting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Tso Lin; Shih-Hwa Chiou; Chung-Lan Kao; Yi-Ming Shyr; Chien-Jen Hsu; Yih-Wen Tarng; Larry L-T Ho; Ching-Fai Kwok; Hung-Hai Ku

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To isolate putative pancreatic stem cells (PSCs)from human adult tissues of pancreas duct using serumfree, conditioned medium. The characterization of surface phenotype of these PSCs was analyzed by flow cytometry. The potential for pancreatic lineage and the capability of β-cell differentiation in these PSCs were evaluated as well.METHODS: By using serum-free medium supplemented with essential growth factors, we attempted to isolate the putative PSCs which has been reported to express nestin and pdx-1. The MatrigelTM was employed to evaluate the differential capacity of isolated cells. Dithizone staining, insulin content/secretion measurement, and immunohistochemistry staining were used to monitor the differentiation. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS)was used to detect the phenotypic markers of putative PSCs.RESULTS: A monolayer of spindle-like cells was cultivated. The putative PSCs expressed pdx-1 and nestin.They were also able to differentiate into insulin-, glucagon-, and somatostatin-positive cells. The spectrum of phenotypic markers in PSCs was investigated; a similarity was revealed when using human bone marrow-derived stem cells as the comparative experiment, such as CD29,CD44, CD49, CD50, CD51, CD62E, PDGFR-α, CD73 (SH2),CD81, CD105(SH3).CONCLUSION: In this study, we successfully isolated PSCs from adult human pancreatic duct by using serumfree medium. These PSCs not only expressed nestin and pdx-1 but also exhibited markers attributable to mesenchymal stem cells. Although work is needed to elucidate the role of these cells, the application of these PSCs might be therapeutic strategies for diabetes mellitus.

  13. Collecting duct-derived cells display mesenchymal stem cell properties and retain selective in vitro and in vivo epithelial capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Joan; Ariunbold, Usukhbayar; Suhaimi, Norseha; Sunn, Nana; Guo, Jinjin; McMahon, Jill A; McMahon, Andrew P; Little, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    We previously described a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like population within the adult mouse kidney that displays long-term colony-forming efficiency, clonogenicity, immunosuppression, and panmesodermal potential. Although phenotypically similar to bone marrow (BM)-MSCs, kidney MSC-like cells display a distinct expression profile. FACS sorting from Hoxb7/enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP) mice identified the collecting duct as a source of kidney MSC-like cells, with these cells undergoing an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition to form clonogenic, long-term, self-renewing MSC-like cells. Notably, after extensive passage, kidney MSC-like cells selectively integrated into the aquaporin 2-positive medullary collecting duct when microinjected into the kidneys of neonatal mice. No epithelial integration was observed after injection of BM-MSCs. Indeed, kidney MSC-like cells retained a capacity to form epithelial structures in vitro and in vivo, and conditioned media from these cells supported epithelial repair in vitro. To investigate the origin of kidney MSC-like cells, we further examined Hoxb7(+) fractions within the kidney across postnatal development, identifying a neonatal interstitial GFP(lo) (Hoxb7(lo)) population displaying an expression profile intermediate between epithelium and interstitium. Temporal analyses with Wnt4(GCE/+):R26(tdTomato/+) mice revealed evidence for the intercalation of a Wnt4-expressing interstitial population into the neonatal collecting duct, suggesting that such intercalation may represent a normal developmental mechanism giving rise to a distinct collecting duct subpopulation. These results extend previous observations of papillary stem cell activity and collecting duct plasticity and imply a role for such cells in collecting duct formation and, possibly, repair.

  14. Lithium causes g2 arrest of renal principal cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, T. de; Alsady, M.; Jaklofsky, M.T.; Otte-Holler, I.; Baumgarten, R.; Giles, R.H.; Deen, P.M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Vasopressin-regulated expression and insertion of aquaporin-2 channels in the luminal membrane of renal principal cells is essential for urine concentration. Lithium affects urine concentrating ability, and approximately 20% of patients treated with lithium develop nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (ND

  15. Proteomic profiling of nuclear fractions from native renal inner medullary collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Christina M; Grady, Cameron; Medvar, Barbara; Emamian, Milad; Sandoval, Pablo C; Zhao, Yue; Yang, Chin-Rang; Jung, Hyun Jun; Chou, Chung-Lin; Knepper, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    The control of renal water excretion occurs in part by regulation of transcription in response to vasopressin in cells of the collecting duct. A systems biology-based approach to understanding transcriptional control in renal collecting duct cells depends on knowledge of what transcription factors and other regulatory proteins are present in the cells' nuclei. The goal of this article is to report comprehensive proteomic profiling of cellular fractions enriched in nuclear proteins from native inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells of the rat. Multidimensional separation procedures and state-of-the art protein mass spectrometry produced 18 GB of spectral data that allowed the high-stringency identification of 5,048 proteins in nuclear pellet (NP) and nuclear extract (NE) fractions of biochemically isolated rat IMCD cells (URL: https://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/IMCD_Nucleus/). The analysis identified 369 transcription factor proteins out of the 1,371 transcription factors coded by the rat genome. The analysis added 1,511 proteins to the recognized proteome of rat IMCD cells, now amounting to 8,290 unique proteins. Analysis of samples treated with the vasopressin analog dDAVP (1 nM for 30 min) or its vehicle revealed 99 proteins in the NP fraction and 88 proteins in the NE fraction with significant changes in spectral counts (Fisher exact test, P < 0.005). Among those altered by vasopressin were seven distinct histone proteins, all of which showed decreased abundance in the NP fraction, consistent with a possible effect of vasopressin to induce chromatin remodeling. The results provide a data resource for future studies of vasopressin-mediated transcriptional regulation in the renal collecting duct.

  16. Duck hepatitis B virus replication in primary bile duct epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J Y; Culvenor, J G; Angus, P; Smallwood, R; Nicoll, A; Locarnini, S

    2001-08-01

    Primary cultures of intrahepatic bile duct epithelial (IBDE) cells isolated from duckling livers were successfully grown for studies of duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV). The primary IBDE cells were characterized by immunohistochemistry using CAM 5.2, a cytokeratin marker which was shown to react specifically to IBDE cells in duck liver tissue sections and in primary cultures of total duck liver cells. Immunofluorescence assay using anti-duck albumin, a marker for hepatocytes, revealed that these IBDE cultures did not appear to contain hepatocytes. A striking feature of these cultures was the duct-like structures present within each cell colony of multilayered IBDE cells. Normal duck serum in the growth medium was found to be essential for the development of these cells into duct-like structures. When the primary cultures of duck IBDE cells were acutely infected with DHBV, dual-labeled confocal microscopy using a combination of anti-DHBV core proteins and CAM 5.2 or a combination of anti-pre-S1 proteins and CAM 5.2 revealed that the IBDE cell colonies contained DHBV proteins. Immunoblot analysis of these cells showed that the DHBV pre-S1 and core proteins were similar to their counterparts in infected primary duck hepatocyte cultures. Southern blot analysis of infected IBDE preparations using a digoxigenin-labeled positive-sense DHBV riboprobe revealed the presence of hepadnavirus covalently closed circular (CCC) DNA, minus-sense single-stranded (SS) DNA, double-stranded linear DNA, and relaxed circular DNA. The presence of minus-sense SS DNA in the acutely infected IBDE cultures is indicative of DHBV reverse transcriptase activity, while the establishment of a pool of viral CCC DNA reveals the ability of these cells to maintain persistent infection. Taken collectively, the results from this study demonstrated that primary duck IBDE cells supported hepadnavirus replication as shown by the de novo synthesis of DHBV proteins and DNA replicative intermediates.

  17. Fluvastatin modulates renal water reabsorption in vivo through increased AQP2 availability at the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procino, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Claudia; Carmosino, Monica; Tamma, Grazia; Milano, Serena; De Benedictis, Leonarda; Mola, Maria Grazia; Lazo-Fernandez, Yoskaly; Valenti, Giovanna; Svelto, Maria

    2011-11-01

    X-linked nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (XNDI), a severe pathological condition characterized by greatly impaired urine-concentrating ability of the kidney, is caused by inactivating mutations in the V2 vasopressin receptor (V2R) gene. The lack of functional V2Rs prevents vasopressin-induced shuttling of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels to the apical plasma membrane of kidney collecting duct principal cells, thus promoting water reabsorption from urine to the interstitium. At present, no specific pharmacological therapy exists for the treatment of XNDI. We have previously reported that the cholesterol-lowering drug lovastatin increases AQP2 membrane expression in renal cells in vitro. Here we report the novel finding that fluvastatin, another member of the statins family, greatly increases kidney water reabsorption in vivo in mice in a vasopressin-independent fashion. Consistent with this observation, fluvastatin is able to increase AQP2 membrane expression in the collecting duct of treated mice. Additional in vivo and in vitro experiments indicate that these effects of fluvastatin are most likely caused by fluvastatin-dependent changes in the prenylation status of key proteins regulating AQP2 trafficking in collecting duct cells. We identified members of the Rho and Rab families of proteins as possible candidates whose reduced prenylation might result in the accumulation of AQP2 at the plasma membrane. In conclusion, these results strongly suggest that fluvastatin, or other drugs of the statin family, may prove useful in the therapy of XNDI.

  18. Quantitative phosphoproteomics in nuclei of vasopressin-sensitive renal collecting duct cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bolger, Steven J.; Hurtado, Patricia A. Gonzales; Hoffert, Jason D.; Saeed, Fahad; Pisitkun, Trairak; Knepper, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Vasopressin regulates transport across the collecting duct epithelium in part via effects on gene transcription. Transcriptional regulation occurs partially via changes in phosphorylation of transcription factors, transcriptional coactivators, and protein kinases in the nucleus. To test whether vasopressin alters the nuclear phosphoproteome of vasopressin-sensitive cultured mouse mpkCCD cells, we used stable isotope labeling and mass spectrometry to quantify thousands of phosphorylation sites...

  19. Epiregulin is critical for the acinar cell regeneration of the submandibular gland in a mouse duct ligation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Koichi; Arai, Hideo; Okudera, Michisato; Yamamura, Takashi; Oki, Hidero; Komiyama, Kazuo

    2014-05-01

    Acinar cell regeneration from tubular structures has been reported to occur in duct-deligated salivary glands. However, the detailed process of acinar cell regeneration has not been clarified. We have developed a mouse duct ligation model to clarify the mechanisms underlying acinar cell regeneration, and we analyzed the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligands using the model. We studied these ligands expressions in the course of acinar cell regeneration using immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR methods. In the duct-ligated portion of the submandibular gland (SMG) that underwent atrophy, newly formed acinar cells were observed arising from the tubular structures after the release of the duct obstruction. The constitutive expression of EGFR was observed by immunohistochemistry in both the duct-ligated and duct-deligated animals as well as in normal controls. The EGFR phosphorylation detected on the tubular structures after duct ligation paralleled the acinar cell regeneration. RT-PCR showed an increase in the epiregulin and heparin-binding EGF levels from day 0 to day 3 after the release of the duct obstruction. The EGF level was increased only after day 7. In vitro, cultured cells isolated from ligated SMGs proliferated and produced EGF ligands following the addition of epiregulin to the culture medium. These findings suggest that the tubular structures localized in an atrophic gland are the source of acinar cell regeneration of the salivary gland. The induction of EGF ligands, in particular epiregulin, may play an important role in acinar cell regeneration in this model.

  20. Salivary duct carcinoma with striking neutrophil-tumor cell cannibalism

    OpenAIRE

    Payam Arya; Khalbuss, Walid E.; Monaco, Sara E.; Liron Pantanowitz

    2011-01-01

    Cannibalism of neutrophils by tumor cells has previously been reported in certain carcinomas, lymphoma and melanoma. Tumor cannibalism is believed to serve as a tumor-immune escape mechanism, associated with high-grade aggressive cancers with a significantly increased metastatic potential. This interesting phenomenon has not been previously documented in association with salivary gland tumors. We report, for the first time, striking neutrophil-tumor cell cannibalism associated with a high gra...

  1. Adrenoceptors in renal medullary collecting duct (RMCD) cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, D.; Garg, L.C. (Univ. of Florida, Gainesville (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Recently, the authors have reported that specific, saturable and high affinity alpha{sub 1} adrenoceptors, linked to phosphoinositide messenger system, are present in the RMCD cells. In order to determine if alpha{sub 2} adrenoceptors are also present in RMCD cells, the authors measured the specific binding of ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine, an d{sub 2} adrenergic antagonist, to RMCD cells isolated from the inner medulla of the rabbit kidney. Binding of ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine to the homogenates of RMCD cells was measured in the absence (total binding) and the presence (non-specific binding) of 100 {mu}M phentolamine. The specific binding (the difference between total and non-specific binding) was measured at various concentrations of ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine. The interpolated values (fmol/mg protein) are from a curve generated using the EBDA program to analyze data from 3 animals. The apparent K{sub d} and B{sub max} of({sup 3}H)rauwolscine was 3.56 nM and 29 fmol/mg, respectively. Yohimbine inhibited binding of ({sup 3}H)rauwolscine with an IC{sub 50} of 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} M. Prazosin which was much less effective in displacing ({sup 3}H) rauwolscine, had a IC{sub 50} of 10{sup {minus}5} M. The authors conclude that in addition to alpha{sub 1} adrenoceptors, the specific, saturable and high affinity alpha{sub 2} adrenoceptors are also present on RMCD cells.

  2. The Water Permeability Reduction After Successive Hypo-Osmotic Shocks in Kidney Principal Cells is Apically Regulated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov E. Katkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Renal principal cells maintain their intracellular water and electrolyte content despite significant fluctuations of the extracellular water and salt concentrations. Their water permeability decreases rapidly (within a few seconds after successive hypo-osmotic shocks. Our aim was to investigate the contribution of the apical and basolateral surface to this effect and the potential influence of fast reduction in AQP-2, -3 or -4 plasma membrane content. Methods: Rat principal cells of kidney collecting duct fragments underwent hypo-osmotic challenge applied apically or basolaterally and the regulatory volume decrease (RVD was measured by the calcein quenching method. The AQP -2, -3 and -4 content of the plasma membrane fraction was quantified by Western blotting. Results: The hypo-osmotic shock applied apically causes rapid swelling with high apparent water permeability and fast RVD. An identical successive shock after 15-20 sec causes significantly lower swelling rate with 3-fold reduction in apparent water permeability. This reaction is accompanied by AQP2 decrease in the plasma membrane while AQP3 and AQP4 are unaffected. The contribution of the basolateral cell surface to RVD is significantly lower than the apical. Conclusion: These results indicate that in principal cells the effective mechanism of RVD is mainly regulated by the apical cell plasma membrane.

  3. Quantitative proteomics identifies vasopressin-responsive nuclear proteins in collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Laura K; Bolger, Steven J; Luginbuhl, Kelli; Gonzales, Patricia A; Rinschen, Markus M; Yu, Ming-Jiun; Hoffert, Jason D; Pisitkun, Trairak; Knepper, Mark A

    2012-06-01

    Vasopressin controls transport in the renal collecting duct, in part, by regulating transcription. This complex process, which can involve translocation and/or modification of transcriptional regulators, is not completely understood. Here, we applied a method for large-scale profiling of nuclear proteins to quantify vasopressin-induced changes in the nuclear proteome of cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells. Using stable isotope labeling and tandem mass spectrometry, we quantified 3987 nuclear proteins and identified significant changes in the abundance of 65, including previously established targets of vasopressin signaling in the collecting duct. Vasopressin-induced changes in the abundance of the transcription factors JunB, Elf3, Gatad2b, and Hmbox1; transcriptional co-regulators Ctnnb1 (β-catenin) and Crebbp; subunits of the Mediator complex; E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4; nuclear transport regulator RanGap1; and several proteins associated with tight junctions and adherens junctions. Bioinformatic analysis showed that many of the quantified transcription factors have putative binding sites in the 5'-flanking regions of genes coding for the channel proteins Aqp2, Aqp3, Scnn1b (ENaCβ), and Scnn1g (ENaCγ), which are known targets of vasopressin. Immunoblotting demonstrated that the increase in β-catenin in nuclear fractions was accompanied by an even larger increase in its phosphorylated form (pSer552). The findings provide a new online database resource for nuclear proteomics (http://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/mNPD/) and generate new hypotheses regarding vasopressin-mediated transcriptional regulation in the collecting duct.

  4. Matrix metalloproteinase-14 mediates formation of bile ducts and hepatic maturation of fetal hepatic progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otani, Satoshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kakinuma, Sei, E-mail: skakinuma.gast@tmd.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department for Liver Disease Control, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Kamiya, Akihide [Institute of Innovative Science and Technology, Tokai University, Isehara (Japan); Goto, Fumio; Kaneko, Shun; Miyoshi, Masato; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Asano, Yu; Kawai-Kitahata, Fukiko; Nitta, Sayuri; Nakata, Toru; Okamoto, Ryuichi; Itsui, Yasuhiro; Nakagawa, Mina; Azuma, Seishin [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Asahina, Yasuhiro [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Department for Liver Disease Control, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo (Japan); Yamaguchi, Tomoyuki [Division of Stem Cell Therapy, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Koshikawa, Naohiko [Division of Cancer Cell Research, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Seiki, Motoharu [Medical School, Kanazawa University, Kanazawa (Japan); Nakauchi, Hiromitsu [Division of Stem Cell Therapy, Institute of Medical Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); and others

    2016-01-22

    Fetal hepatic stem/progenitor cells, called hepatoblasts, play central roles in liver development; however, the molecular mechanisms regulating the phenotype of these cells have not been completely elucidated. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 is a type I transmembrane proteinase regulating pericellular proteolysis of the extracellular matrix and is essential for the activation of several MMPs and cytokines. However, the physiological functions of MMP-14 in liver development are unknown. Here we describe a functional role for MMP-14 in hepatic and biliary differentiation of mouse hepatoblasts. MMP-14 was upregulated in cells around the portal vein in perinatal stage liver. Formation of bile duct-like structures in MMP-14–deficient livers was significantly delayed compared with wild-type livers in vivo. In vitro biliary differentiation assays showed that formation of cholangiocytic cysts derived from MMP-14–deficient hepatoblasts was completely impaired, and that overexpression of MMP-14 in hepatoblasts promoted the formation of bile duct-like cysts. In contrast, the expression of molecules associated with metabolic functions in hepatocytes, including hepatic nuclear factor 4α and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase, were significantly increased in MMP-14–deficient livers. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases were significantly upregulated in MMP-14–deficient livers. We demonstrate that MMP-14–mediated signaling in fetal hepatic progenitor cells promotes biliary luminal formation around the portal vein and negatively controls the maturation of hepatocytes. - Highlights: • Loss of MMP-14 delayed formation of bile duct-like structures in perinatal liver. • Overexpression of MMP-14 in hepatobalsts promoted the biliary formation in vitro. • Loss of MMP-14 promoted hepatocyte maturation of hepatoblasts in vivo. • MMP-14–mediated signaling regulates terminal differentiation of

  5. Paclitaxel augments cytotoxic effect of photodynamic therapy using verteporfin in gastric and bile duct cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seungwoo; Hong, Sung Pil; Oh, Tae Yoon; Bang, Seungmin; Chung, Jae Bock; Song, Si Young

    2008-07-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) shows a limited antitumor effect in treating gastrointestinal tumors because of improper light penetration or insufficient photosensitizer uptake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of PDT combined with paclitaxel on in vitro cancer cells. In vitro photodynamic therapy was performed in gastric cancer cells (NCI-N87) and bile duct cancer cells (YGIC-6B) using verteporfin (2 ug mL(-1)) and a PTH light source (1 000 W, Oriel Co.) with 665-675 nm narrow band pass filter. Cytotoxicity was compared using the MTT assay between cancer cells treated with PDT alone or pretreated with paclitaxel (IC(25)). Apoptotic changes were evaluated using DAPI staining, DNA fragmentation analysis, Annexin V-FITC apoptosis assay, cell cycle analysis, and western blots for cytochrome c, Bax, and Bid. The PDT-induced cytotoxicity was potentiated by pretreating with low dose paclitaxel (P cancer therapy.

  6. GP2-expressing cells in the conjunctiva and tear ducts of mice: identification of a novel type of cells in the squamous stratified epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Shunsuke; Kishimoto, Ayuko; Mutoh, Mami; Takahashi-Iwanaga, Hiromi; Iwanaga, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    GP2 is a membrane-associated secretory protein originally identified in zymogen granules of pancreatic acinar cells. Recently, this glycoprotein has attracted attention as a marker substance of M cells of Peyer's patches and for its involvement in the selective uptake of pathological bacteria via M cells. When we stained the conjunctiva and tear ducts of mice using a GP2 antibody, all goblet cells in the squamous stratified epithelium of the conjunctiva were intensely immunolabeled, while goblet cells in the intestine and airway were devoid of the immunoreactivity, indicating that the conjunctiva contains a special type of goblet cell. Further immunostaining for GP-2 labeled dispersed cells of peculiar shapes within the stratified squamous epithelium in the lacrimal canaliculi, lacrimal sac, and nasolacrimal duct. The GP2-immunoreactive cells in the tear duct projected arched or branched processes toward the basement membrane. Electron-microscopically, immunogold particles for GP2 outlined the basolateral plasma membrane of both the conjuntival goblet cells and the peculiarly shaped cells in the tear duct. Intracellularly, GP2 products of the goblet cells were localized around secretory granules in the apical cytoplasm and those of the tear duct cells inside the vesicles. The luminal contents close to apical plasma membrane were heavily labeled with immunogold particles, suggesting an exocytosis-based targeting of GP2 to the plasma membrane and its release into the lumen. The possible function of GP2 in tear ducts is discussed in relation to a defense system against invasive microoranisms and antigens.

  7. What Is Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the liver. Types of bile duct cancer by cell type Bile duct cancers can also be divided ... Our Volunteers More ACS Sites Bookstore Shop Cancer Atlas Press Room Cancer Statistics Center Volunteer Learning Center ...

  8. Investigation and characterization of the duct cell-enriching process during serum-free suspension and monolayer culture using the human exocrine pancreas fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Tino; Heremans, Yves; Heimberg, Harry; Pipeleers, Daniel; Madsen, Ole D; Serup, Palle; Heller, R Scott

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to characterize a serum-free culture system resulting in highly enriched duct cells from human exocrine pancreas. In addition, we tested the effect of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on endothelial cell proliferation and endocrine differentiation of the duct cells. The exocrine pellet fraction was cultivated in suspension followed by monolayer culture. Time course analysis of multiple acinar and duct cell markers was performed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. The effects of VEGF and placental growth factor on the quantities of endothelial, duct, and endocrine cells and fibroblasts were investigated using computerized imaging analysis. Suspension culture of the exocrine material efficiently enriched the cultures for duct cells. Frequent acinar cell death as well as cell selective adherence of acinar cells to the culture dish was the underlying cause of the enrichment. Confocal microscopy demonstrated the virtual absence of cells coexpressing duct cell- and acinar cell-specific markers. The endothelial immunoreactivity of the suspension culture system could be increased 2-fold by VEGF treatment, yet no effect was observed on endocrine cell numbers. We have characterized a serum-free in vitro culture system to enrich human duct cells and further show that the contribution of acinoductal transdifferentiation to the enrichment of duct cells is negligible.

  9. [Intra-Abdominal Germ Cell Tumor in Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishima, Takao; Harada, Jiro; Kawa, Gen; Sakurai, Takanori; Okada, Takuya

    2016-08-01

    A 46-year-old man was admitted to hospital presenting with a lower abdominal mass. The patient's testes were not palpable in the scrotum, and the levels of lactic dehydrogenase, α-fetoprotein and human chorionic gonadotropin were all elevated. Enhanced computed tomography revealed that the lumen of the mass had penetrated the prostate. Pathological analysis of biopsy tissue indicated that the mass was a seminoma. Residual tumor resection was performed after chemotherapy. On histological examination, the lumen proved to be a Mullerian structure. Our diagnosis was an intra-abdominal germ cell tumor and persistent Mullerian duct syndrome.

  10. Role of AQP2 during apoptosis in cortical collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flamenco, Pilar; Galizia, Luciano; Rivarola, Valeria; Fernandez, Juan; Ford, Paula; Capurro, Claudia

    2009-04-01

    A major hallmark of apoptosis is cell shrinkage, termed apoptotic volume decrease, due to the cellular outflow of potassium and chloride ions, followed by osmotically obliged water. In many cells, the ionic pathways triggered during the apoptotic volume decrease may be similar to that observed during a regulatory volume decrease response under hypotonic conditions. However, the pathways involved in water loss during apoptosis have been largely ignored. It was recently reported that in some systems this water movement is mediated via specific water channels (aquaporins). Nevertheless, it is important to identify whether this is a ubiquitous aspect of apoptosis as well as to define the mechanisms involved. The aim of the present work was to investigate the role of aquaporin-2 during apoptosis in renal-collecting duct cells. We evaluated the putative relationship between aquaporin-2 expression and the activation of the ionic pathways involved in the regulatory volume response. Apoptosis was induced by incubating cells with a hypertonic solution or with cycloheximide in two cortical collecting duct cell lines: one not expressing aquaporins and the other stably transfected with aquaporin-2. Typical features of apoptosis were evaluated with different approaches and the water permeability was measured by fluorescence videomicroscopy. Our results show that the rate of apoptosis is significantly increased in aquaporin-2 cells and it is linked to the rapid activation of volume-regulatory potassium and chloride channels. Furthermore, the water permeability of cells expressing aquaporin-2 was strongly reduced during the apoptotic process and it occurs before DNA degradation. These results let us propose that under apoptotic stimulation aquaporin-2 would act as a sensor leading to a co-ordinated activation of specific ionic channels for potassium and chloride efflux, resulting in both more rapid cell shrinkage and more rapid achievement of adequate levels of ions necessary to

  11. Identification of Interstitial Cajal-Like Cells in the Human Thoracic Duct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briggs Boedtkjer, Donna; Rumessen, Jüri; Baandrup, Ulrik;

    2012-01-01

    Interstitial Cajal-like cells (ICLCs) are speculated to be pacemakers in smooth muscle tissues. While the human thoracic duct (TD) is spontaneously active, the origin of this activity is unknown. We hypothesized that ICLCs could be present in the TD and using histological techniques, immunohistoc...... spindle shapes. Confocal imaging with calcium-dependent fluorophores corroborated cell morphology and localization observed in fixed tissues. Lymphatic ICLCs thus constitute a significant cell type of the human TD and physically interact with lymphatic SMCs......., immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence we have investigated the presence of ICLCs, protein markers for ICLCs and the cellular morphology of the human TD. Transmission electron microscopy was employed to investigate ultrastructure. Methylene blue staining, calcium-dependent fluorophores and confocal microscopy...

  12. Nicotine Alters the Proteome of Two Human Pancreatic Duct Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulo, Joao A

    2015-01-01

    Context Cigarette smoking is a known risk factor of pancreatic disease. Nicotine - a major cigarette tobacco component - can traffic through the circulatory system and may induce fibrosis and metastasis, hallmarks of chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic adenocarcinoma, respectively. However, at the biomolecular level, particularly in pancreatic research, the effects of nicotine remain unresolved. Methods The effects of nicotine on the proteomes of two pancreatic duct cell lines–an immortalized normal cell line (HPNE) and a cancer cell line (PanC1)- were investigated using mass spectrometry-based proteomics. For each cell line, the global proteomesof cells exposed to nicotine for 24 hrswere compared with untreated cells in triplicate using 6-plex tandem mass tag-based isobaric labeling techniques. Results Over 5,000 proteins were detectedper cell line. Of these, over 900 proteins were differentially abundant with statistical significance (corrected p-value <0.01) upon nicotine treatment, 57 of which were so in both cell lines. Amyloid precursor protein, previously observed to increase expression in pancreatic stellate cells when exposed to nicotine, was also up-regulated in both cell lines.In general, the two cell lines varied in the classes of proteins altered by nicotine treatment, supporting published evidence that nicotine may play different roles in the initiation and progression of pancreatic disease. Conclusions Understanding the underlying mechanisms associating nicotine with pancreatic function is paramount to intervention aiming to retard, arrest, or ameliorate pancreatic disease. PMID:25262714

  13. Efficient β-cell regeneration by a combination of neogenesis and replication following β-cell ablation and reversal of pancreatic duct ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Ergeng; Lee, Seung-Hee; Levine, Fred

    2013-11-01

    Achieving efficient β-cell regeneration is a major goal of diabetes research. Previously, we found that a combination of β-cell ablation and pancreatic duct ligation led to β-cell regeneration by direct conversion from α-cells. Here, we studied the effect of surgical reversal of the duct ligation, finding that there was a wave of β-cell replication following reversal. The combination of β-cell neogenesis prior to reversal of the duct ligation and β-cell replication following reversal resulted in efficient β-cell regeneration and eventual recovery of function. This provides an important proof of principle that efficient β-cell regeneration is possible, even from a starting point of profound β-cell ablation. This has important implications for efforts to promote β-cell regeneration.

  14. TLR4 facilitates translocation of bacteria across renal collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassin, Cécilia; Vimont, Sophie; Cluzeaud, Françoise; Bens, Marcelle; Goujon, Jean-Michel; Fernandez, Béatrice; Hertig, Alexandre; Rondeau, Eric; Arlet, Guillaume; Hornef, Mathias W; Vandewalle, Alain

    2008-12-01

    Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) are the most frequent causes of urinary tract infections and pyelonephritis. Renal medullary collecting duct (MCD) cells are the intrarenal site to which UPEC strains prefer to adhere and initiate an inflammatory response, but the ability of UPEC strains to translocate across impermeant MCD cells has not been demonstrated definitively. Here, several UPEC strains adhered to the apical surface and translocated across confluent murine inner MCD cells grown on filters. UPEC strains expressing cytolytic and vacuolating cytotoxins disrupted the integrity of cell layers, whereas noncytolytic UPEC strains passed through the cell layers without altering tight junctions. Apical-to-basal transcellular translocation was dramatically reduced after extinction of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and the lipid raft marker caveolin-1 by small interfering RNA. Furthermore, disruption of lipid raft integrity by filipin III and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin significantly reduced both the transcellular translocation of UPEC across murine inner MCD cell layers and the stimulation of proinflammatory mediators. Bacterial translocation was also significantly reduced in primary cultures of TLR4-deficient mouse MCD cells compared with MCD cells from wild-type mice. Benzyl alcohol, an anesthetic that enhances membrane fluidity, favored the recruitment of caveolin-1 in lipid rafts and increased the translocation of UPEC across cultured TLR4-deficient MCD cells. These findings demonstrate that the transcellular translocation of UPEC strains across impermeant layers of MCD cells may occur through lipid rafts via a TLR4-facilitated process.

  15. Intercalated duct cell is starting point in development of pancreatic ductal carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Toshikazu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although it is well known that the pancreatic ductal carcinoma may develop having a relationship to the mucous gland hyperplasia (MGH with atypia (PanIN-1B by PanIN system, the starting point of this atypical MGH is unclear. To know it, we examined the pancreas tissue using many methods described below. Methods 1. Twenty-seven surgically resected pancreas tissue specimens, including pancreatic ductal carcinomas (PDC, chronic pancreatitis and normal pancreas, were investigated using immunohistochemical stainings for MUC1, MUC6, 45M1, Ki67 and p53. 2. DNA extraction and analysis of K-ras mutation at codon 12 using microdissection method: The paraffin blocks with 16 regions including the intercalated duct cell (IC adjacant to the atypical MGH were prepared for DNA extraction. Mutation of K-ras codon 12 was analized and compared in enriched polymerase chain reaction-enzyme-linked minisequence assay (PCR-ELMA. Results 1. In the normal pancreas, although no positive cell was seen in 45M1, p53, Ki67, the cytoplasm of IC were always positive for MUC1 and sometimes positive for MUC6. In the pancreas with fibrosis or inflammation, MGH was positive for MUC6 and 45M1. And atypical MGH was positive for MUC1, MUC6 and 45M1. Some IC adjacent to the atypical MGH was positive for Ki67 as well as atypical MGH. The carcinoma cells in all cases of PDC were diffusely positive for MUC1, 45M1, p53 and Ki67, and focally positive for MUC6. 2. In K-ras mutation, we examined the regions including IC adjacent to the atypical MGH, because the immunohistochemical apomucin stainings of these regions resembled those of PDC as decribed above. And K-ras mutation was confirmed in 12 of 16 regions (75%. All mutations were a single mutation, in 6 regions GTT was detected, in 4 regions GAT was detected and in 2 region AGT was detected. Conclusion Some intercalated duct cell may be the starting point of the pancreatic ductal carcinoma, because the exhibitions of

  16. Malignant tumors of Stensen's duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, M; Gould, A R; Miller, R L; Johnson, J A

    1999-01-01

    A rare case of squamous cell carcinoma arising in Stensen's duct is reported. The literature concerning malignant neoplasia originating in this site is reviewed, with attention given to the histopathologic diversity of neoplasms occurring in the duct, criteria for determination of origin in the duct, and outcomes of therapy.

  17. Purinergic receptors and calcium signalling in human pancreatic duct cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette R; Krabbe, Simon; Novak, Ivana

    2008-01-01

    Purinergic receptors regulate various processes including epithelial transport. There are several studies on P2 receptors in pancreatic ducts of various species, but relatively little is known about these receptors in human tissue. The aim of this study was to identify purinergic receptors in human......ATP, commonly used to stimulate P2X7 receptors, elicited non-oscillatory and transient Ca(2+) responses. Ivermectin, a potentiator of P2X4 receptors, increased Ca(2+) signals evoked by ATP. The single cell Ca(2+) measurements indicated functional expression of P2Y2 and other P2Y receptors, and notably...... expression of P2X4 and P2X7 receptors. Expression of P2Y2, P2X4 and P2X7 receptors was confirmed by immunocytochemistry. This fingerprint of P2 receptors in human pancreatic duct models forms the basis for studying effect of nucleotides on ion and fluid secretion, as well as on Ca(2+) and tissue homeostasis...

  18. Collecting duct renal cell carcinoma with the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis: An autopsy case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Yasuda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 57-year-old Japanese man visited our hospital with a moist cough. Chest radiographic imaging showed a left hilar shadow. Adenocarcinoma cells were found on cytologic screening of fresh sputum. Although multiple metastases including brain were detected, no tumor was observed in the kidneys. The patient underwent whole-brain irradiation and chemotherapy for advanced-stage lung cancer. One month before his death, carcinomatous meningitis was detected. Hyponatremia, hypo-osmolality, and hypertonic urine suggested the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis. Restricting water intake improved the hyponatremia; however, he developed fever and hematuria. Despite systemic administration of an antibacterial drug, he died. Primary tumor in the lung was absent, but adenocarcinoma of the right kidney was evident on autopsy. Lectin histochemical analysis of the carcinoma revealed its distal nephron origin, confirming collecting duct carcinoma. Severe carcinomatous meningitis, which is possibly caused the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis, was observed, with no cancer involvement of the pituitary gland and hypothalamus.

  19. Granular cell tumor of the common bile duct: A Japanese case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junko Saito; Michiko Kitagawa; Hiroshi Kusanagi; Nobuyasu Kano; Eiji Ishii; SO Nakaji; Nobuto Hirata

    2012-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) of the biliary system is rare.It is reported that it occurs more commonly in young black women.We report here our seldom experience of a Japanese case in whom icterus was found as a first symptom just after a caesarean operation.A 36-year-old Japanese woman developed icterus after delivery by the Caesarean operation.A surgical operation was performed without can deny that there was a tumor-related change in a bile duct as a result of examination for various images.As a result of pathological evaluation,GCT was diagnosed.By the preoperative organization biomicroscopy result,it was not able to be attachd a right diagnosis.It was thought that this tumor,although rare,should be considered as one of the causes of biliary stenosis in the younger population.

  20. Reconstituting development of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia from primary human pancreas duct cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghyeob; Snyder, Emily R.; Liu, Yinghua; Gu, Xueying; Wang, Jing; Flowers, Brittany M.; Kim, Yoo Jung; Park, Sangbin; Szot, Gregory L.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Longacre, Teri A.; Kim, Seung K.

    2017-01-01

    Development of systems that reconstitute hallmark features of human pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanINs), the precursor to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, could generate new strategies for early diagnosis and intervention. However, human cell-based PanIN models with defined mutations are unavailable. Here, we report that genetic modification of primary human pancreatic cells leads to development of lesions resembling native human PanINs. Primary human pancreas duct cells harbouring oncogenic KRAS and induced mutations in CDKN2A, SMAD4 and TP53 expand in vitro as epithelial spheres. After pancreatic transplantation, mutant clones form lesions histologically similar to native PanINs, including prominent stromal responses. Gene expression profiling reveals molecular similarities of mutant clones with native PanINs, and identifies potential PanIN biomarker candidates including Neuromedin U, a circulating peptide hormone. Prospective reconstitution of human PanIN development from primary cells provides experimental opportunities to investigate pancreas cancer development, progression and early-stage detection. PMID:28272465

  1. The adenosine A2B receptor is involved in anion secretion in human pancreatic duct Capan-1 epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Inagaki, A.; Novak, Ivana;

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine modulates a wide variety of biological processes via adenosine receptors. In the exocrine pancreas, adenosine regulates transepithelial anion secretion in duct cells and is considered to play a role in acini-to-duct signaling. To identify the functional adenosine receptors and Cl− chann...

  2. Distinct α-intercalated cell morphology and its modification by acidosis define regions of the collecting duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkerson, Jeffrey M.; Schwaderer, Andrew L.; Nakamori, Aya

    2015-01-01

    During metabolic acidosis, the cortical collecting duct (CCD) of the rabbit reverses the polarity of bicarbonate flux from net secretion to net absorption, and this is accomplished by increasing the proton secretory rate by α-intercalated cells (ICs) and decreasing bicarbonate secretion by β-ICs. To better characterize dynamic changes in H+-secreting α-ICs, we examined their morphology in collecting ducts microdissected from kidneys of normal, acidotic, and recovering rabbits. α-ICs in defined axial regions varied in number and basolateral anion exchanger (AE)1 morphology, which likely reflects their relative activity and function along the collecting duct. Upon transition from CCD to outer medullary collecting duct from the outer stripe to the inner stripe, the number of α-ICs increases from 11.0 ± 1.2 to 15.4 ± 1.11 and to 32.0 ± 1.3 cells/200 μm, respectively. In the CCD, the basolateral structure defined by AE1 typically exhibited a pyramidal or conical shape, whereas in the medulla the morphology was elongated and shallow, resulting in a more rectangular shape. Furthermore, acidosis reversibly induced α-ICs in the CCD to acquire a more rectangular morphology concomitant with a transition from diffusely cytoplasmic to increased basolateral surface distribution of AE1 and apical polarization of B1-V-ATPase. The latter results are consistent with the supposition that morphological adaptation from the pyramidal to rectangular shape reflects a transition toward a more “active” configuration. In addition, α-ICs in the outer medullary collecting duct from the outer stripe exhibited cellular morphology strikingly similar to dendritic cells that may reflect a newly defined ancillary function in immune defense of the kidney. PMID:26084929

  3. Poorly Differentiated Adenocarcinoma with Signet-ring Cell Carcinoma of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct in a 42-year-old Japanese Female: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakanishi,Kuniaki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma without papilla or tubule formation of the extrahepatic bile duct is rare. Here we present a case (a 42-year-old Japanese woman without either pancreatobiliary maljunction or liver disease. The patient had obstructive jaundice. Imaging studies revealed a bile duct tumor obstructing the common bile duct and invading the surrounding tissues. Pathologic examination revealed a dense periductal growth of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma containing signet-ring cells, but without papilla or tubule formation in the extrahepatic bile duct. The tumor cells directly invaded the pancreatic parenchyma and the portal vein. In the extrahepatic bile duct, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma may be established as a distinct clinicopathologic entity if the tumors are characterized by:1 the absence of papilla or tubule formation, 2 Asian preponderance, 3 occurrence at a younger age than is usual for patients with biliary cancers, and 4 an aggressive mural invasiveness.

  4. Basket and basal-duct cells in domestic animals: different cytokeratin expression and shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zedda, M; Farina, V

    1996-12-01

    Cytokeratins (CKs) are a multigenic family of proteins constituting intermediate filaments in epithelia, indicated in humans by the numbers 1-20. Different cell-types can be immunocytochemically identified on the grounds of their CK expression. This investigation was designed to study CK expression of basket cells (BCs) and basal-duct cells (BDCs) in some domestic animals. Frozen sections of mammary and major salivary glands from cows, sheep, pigs and rabbits were treated using the immunofluorescent method, using as monoclonal antibodies clones CK-E3, CKB1, KS-1A3, and LDS-68, respectively, revealing the human CKs 17, 14, 13, 7. BCs surrounding acini and BDCs were stained by CK 17 antibody only in the rabbit. CK 14 was detectable in both cell types in cows, sheep and pigs, except in the case of bovine salivary BCs. CK 13 was revealed in BCs and BDCs of all mammary glands and also rabbit salivary glands. In the salivary glands of the other species, only BDCs were stained. CK 7 gave unreliable results in all the species and cell types examined. Interestingly, in the rabbit, also BDCs are basket-like in shape. The antibodies employed showed different staining depending on species and gland. On the grounds of immunoreactivity and shape, BCs and BDCs can be considered the same cell type in the rabbit. In the other species, they appear to be different, since BDCs may express additional CKs and are triangular-shaped, whereas BCs are truly basket-like. It is worth noting that clone KS-1A3 in the rabbit and CKB1 in the sheep and pig can be considered markers of the basket/ basal system.

  5. The relationship between histologic grades of invasive carcinoma of breast ducts and mast cell infiltration

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    Ashraf Fakhrjou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breast carcinoma is the most prevalent tumors among women. Transformation of inflated cells in immune response leads to increase in inflammatory cells such as macrophages, mast cells (MC and fibroblasts. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between grades of invasive carcinoma of the breast ducts and MC infiltration around tumoral cells. Methods: During the present study, 75 female patients suffering from invasive ductal carcinoma who underwent surgery or diagnostic biopsy during 2010 and 2013 in Educational-Medical centers of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, were included in the study. Based on Bloom-Richardson grading system, 25 cases were selected from each grade. To better observe of MCs, samples were stained by Toluidine blue and MCs were counted in 10 40 × 10 fields. Results: The mean age was 47.56 ± 10.84 and the number of MCs was between 6 and 96 and their overall average was 43.01. Average count of MCs in grade 1, 2 and 3 were 15.92 ± 10.07, 45.32 ± 10.47, and 67.8 ± 20.70, respectively. There was a significant relationship between the number of MCs and increase in disease grade (P < 0.001. With increasing grade of malignancy, the number of MCs had grown. No significant relationship was observed between age and grade of disease or age and number of MC. Conclusion: According to obtained results, number of MC around tumoral cells increased significantly with an increase in the grade of disease. In order to treat in thefirst stages of the disease, recognizing primary changes in the stroma of cells could be helpful.

  6. Adaptation to alkalosis induces cell cycle delay and apoptosis in cortical collecting duct cells: role of Aquaporin-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivarola, Valeria; Flamenco, Pilar; Melamud, Luciana; Galizia, Luciano; Ford, Paula; Capurro, Claudia

    2010-08-01

    Collecting ducts (CD) not only constitute the final site for regulating urine concentration by increasing apical membrane Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression, but are also essential for the control of acid-base status. The aim of this work was to examine, in renal cells, the effects of chronic alkalosis on cell growth/death as well as to define whether AQP2 expression plays any role during this adaptation. Two CD cell lines were used: WT- (not expressing AQPs) and AQP2-RCCD(1) (expressing apical AQP2). Our results showed that AQP2 expression per se accelerates cell proliferation by an increase in cell cycle progression. Chronic alkalosis induced, in both cells lines, a time-dependent reduction in cell growth. Even more, cell cycle movement, assessed by 5-bromodeoxyuridine pulse-chase and propidium iodide analyses, revealed a G2/M phase cell accumulation associated with longer S- and G2/M-transit times. This G2/M arrest is paralleled with changes consistent with apoptosis. All these effects appeared 24 h before and were always more pronounced in cells expressing AQP2. Moreover, in AQP2-expressing cells, part of the observed alkalosis cell growth decrease is explained by AQP2 protein down-regulation. We conclude that in CD cells alkalosis causes a reduction in cell growth by cell cycle delay that triggers apoptosis as an adaptive reaction to this environment stress. Since cell volume changes are prerequisite for the initiation of cell proliferation or apoptosis, we propose that AQP2 expression facilitates cell swelling or shrinkage leading to the activation of channels necessary to the control of these processes.

  7. Diagnosis of pancreatic cancer by cytology and telomerase activity in exfoliated cells obtained by pancreatic duct brushing during endoscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Xiong Zhou; Jie-Fei Huang; Hong Zhang; Jian-Ping Chen

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Telomerase activity is reported to be speciifc and frequent in human pancreatic cancer. We conducted this study to assess the usefulness of monitoring telomerase activity in exfoliated cells obtained by pancreatic duct brushing during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. METHODS:Exfoliated cells obtained by pancreatic duct brushing during ERCP from 21 patients (18 with pancreatic cancer, 3 with chronic pancreatitis) were examined. Telomerase activity was detected by polymerase chain reaction and telomeric repeat ampliifcation protocol assay (PCR-TRAP-ELISA). RESULTS:D450 values of telomerase activity were 0.446± 0.2700 in pancreatic cancer and 0.041±0.0111 in chronic pancreatitis. 77.8% (14/18) of patients with pancreatic cancer had cells with telomerase activity. None of the samples from patients with chronic pancreatitis showed telomerase activity, when the cutoff value of telomerase activity was set at 2.0. Cytological examination showed cancer cells in 66.7%(12/18) of the patients. CONCLUSIONS:Telomerase activity may be an early malignant event in pancreatic cancer development. Cytology and telomerase activity in cells obtained by pancreatic duct brushing may complement each other for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

  8. Retinoic acid receptor-dependent, cell-autonomous, endogenous retinoic acid signaling and its target genes in mouse collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yuen Fei; Wilson, Patricia D; Unwin, Robert J; Norman, Jill T; Arno, Matthew; Hendry, Bruce M; Xu, Qihe

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin A is necessary for kidney development and has also been linked to regulation of solute and water homeostasis and to protection against kidney stone disease, infection, inflammation, and scarring. Most functions of vitamin A are mediated by its main active form, all-trans retinoic acid (tRA), which binds retinoic acid receptors (RARs) to modulate gene expression. We and others have recently reported that renal tRA/RAR activity is confined to the ureteric bud (UB) and collecting duct (CD) cell lineage, suggesting that endogenous tRA/RARs primarily act through regulating gene expression in these cells in embryonic and adult kidney, respectively. To explore target genes of endogenous tRA/RARs, we employed the mIMCD-3 mouse inner medullary CD cell line, which is a model of CD principal cells and exhibits constitutive tRA/RAR activity as CD principal cells do in vivo. Combining antagonism of RARs, inhibition of tRA synthesis, exposure to exogenous tRA, and gene expression profiling techniques, we have identified 125 genes as candidate targets and validated 20 genes that were highly regulated (Dhrs3, Sprr1a, and Ppbp were the top three). Endogenous tRA/RARs were more important in maintaining, rather than suppressing, constitutive gene expression. Although many identified genes were expressed in UBs and/or CDs, their exact functions in this cell lineage are still poorly defined. Nevertheless, gene ontology analysis suggests that these genes are involved in kidney development, renal functioning, and regulation of tRA signaling. A rigorous approach to defining target genes for endogenous tRA/RARs has been established. At the pan-genomic level, genes regulated by endogenous tRA/RARs in a CD cell line have been catalogued for the first time. Such a catalogue will guide further studies on molecular mediators of endogenous tRA/RARs during kidney development and in relation to renal defects associated with vitamin A deficiency.

  9. Genes and Proteins Differentially Expressed during In Vitro Malignant Transformation of Bovine Pancreatic Duct Cells

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    R. Jesnowski

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic carcinoma has an extremely bad prognosis due to lack of early diagnostic markers and lack of effective therapeutic strategies. Recently, we have established an in vitro model recapitulating the first steps in the carcinogenesis of the pancreas. SV40 large T antigen-immortalized bovine pancreatic duct cells formed intrapancreatic adenocarcinoma tumors on k-rasmut transfection after orthotopic injection in the nude mouse pancreas. Here we identified genes and proteins differentially expressed in the course of malignant transformation using reciprocal suppression subtractive hybridization and 2D gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, respectively. We identified 34 differentially expressed genes, expressed sequence tags, and 15 unique proteins. Differential expression was verified for some of the genes or proteins in samples from pancreatic carcinoma. Among these genes and proteins, the majority had already been described either to be influenced by a mutated ras or to be differentially expressed in pancreatic adenocarcinoma, thus proving the feasibility of our model. Other genes and proteins (e.g., BBC1, GLTSCR2, and rhoGDlα, up to now, have not been implicated in pancreatic tumor development. Thus, we were able to establish an in vitro model of pancreatic carcinogenesis, which enabled us to identify genes and proteins differentially expressed during the early steps of malignant transformation.

  10. Characterization of H+ and HCO3- transporters in CFPAC-1 human pancreatic duct cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zoltán Rakonczay Jr; Amy Fearn; Péter Hegyi; Imre Boros; Michael A Gray; Barry E Argent

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To characterize H+ and HCO3- transporters in polarized CFPAC-1 human pancreatic duct cells, which were derived from a cystic fibrosis patient with the AF508 CFTR mutation.METHODS: CFPAC-1 cells were seeded at high density onto permeable supports and grown to confluence. The cells were loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorescent dye BCECF, and mounted into a perfusion chamber, which allowed the simultaneous perfusion of the basolateral and apical membranes. Transmembrane base flux was calculated from the changes in intracellular pH and the buffering capacity of the cells.RESULTS: Our results showed differential permeability to HCO3-/CO2 at the apical and basolateral membranes of CFPAC-1 cells. Na+/HCO3- co-transporters (NBCs)and Cl-/HCO3- exchangers (Aes) were present on the basolateral membrane, and Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) on both the apical and basolateral membranes of the cells. Basolateral HCO3- uptake was sensitive to variations of extracellular K+ concentration, the membrane permeable carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors acetazolamide (100 μmol/L) and ethoxyzolamide (100μmol/L), and was partially inhibited by H2-DIDS (600μmol/L). The membrane-impermeable CA inhibitor 1-N-(4-sulfamoylphenylethyl)-2,4,6-trimethylpyridine perchlorate did not have any effect on HCO3- uptake.The basolateral AE had a much higher activity than that in the apical membrane, whereas there was no such difference with the NHE under resting conditions.Also, 10 μmol/L forskolin did not significantly influence Cl-/HCO3- exchange on the apical and basolateral membranes. The administration of 250 μmol/L H2-DIDS significantly inhibited the basolateral AE. Amiloride (300μmol/L) completely inhibited NHEs on both membranes of the cells. RT-PCR revealed the expression of pNBC1,AE2, and NHE1 mRNA.CONCLUSION: These data suggest that apart from the lack of CFTR and apical Cf/HCO3- exchanger activity,CFPAC-1 cells express similar H+ and HCO3- transporters to those observed in native animal

  11. Formative cell divisions: principal determinants of plant morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolarkiewicz, Michalina; Dhonukshe, Pankaj

    2013-03-01

    Formative cell divisions utilizing precise rotations of cell division planes generate and spatially place asymmetric daughters to produce different cell layers. Therefore, by shaping tissues and organs, formative cell divisions dictate multicellular morphogenesis. In animal formative cell divisions, the orientation of the mitotic spindle and cell division planes relies on intrinsic and extrinsic cortical polarity cues. Plants lack known key players from animals, and cell division planes are determined prior to the mitotic spindle stage. Therefore, it appears that plants have evolved specialized mechanisms to execute formative cell divisions. Despite their profound influence on plant architecture, molecular players and cellular mechanisms regulating formative divisions in plants are not well understood. This is because formative cell divisions in plants have been difficult to track owing to their submerged positions and imprecise timings of occurrence. However, by identifying a spatiotemporally inducible cell division plane switch system applicable for advanced microscopy techniques, recent studies have begun to uncover molecular modules and mechanisms for formative cell divisions. The identified molecular modules comprise developmentally triggered transcriptional cascades feeding onto microtubule regulators that now allow dissection of the hierarchy of the events at better spatiotemporal resolutions. Here, we survey the current advances in understanding of formative cell divisions in plants in the context of embryogenesis, stem cell functionality and post-embryonic organ formation.

  12. Increased secretion of insulin and proliferation of islet {beta}-cells in rats with mesenteric lymph duct ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagino, Ko; Yokozawa, Junji; Sasaki, Yu; Matsuda, Akiko; Takeda, Hiroaki [Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Kawata, Sumio, E-mail: Sumio_Kawata@pref.hyogo.lg.jp [Department of Gastroenterology, Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata University, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Hyogo Prefectural Nishinomiya Hospital, 13-9 Rokutanji-cho, Nishinomiya 662-0918 (Japan)

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insulin secretion was increased during the OGTT or IVGTT in mesenteric lymph duct-ligated rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proliferation of islet {beta}-cells was upregulated in lymph duct-ligated rats. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mesenteric lymph duct flow has a role in glucose metabolism. -- Abstract: Background and aims: It has been suggested that intestinal lymph flow plays an important role in insulin secretion and glucose metabolism after meals. In this study, we investigated the influence of ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct on glucose metabolism and islet {beta}-cells in rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (10 weeks old) were divided into two groups: one underwent ligation of the mesenteric lymph duct above the cistern (ligation group), and the other underwent a sham operation (sham group). After 1 and 2 weeks, fasting plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, triglyceride, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and the active form of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were measured. At 2 weeks after the operation, the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) were performed. After the rats had been sacrificed, the insulin content of the pancreas was measured and the proliferation of {beta}-cells was assessed immunohistochemically using antibodies against insulin and Ki-67. Results: During the OGTT, the ligation group showed a significant decrease in the plasma glucose concentration at 120 min (p < 0.05) and a significant increase in the plasma insulin concentration by more than 2-fold at 15 min (p < 0.01). On the other hand, the plasma GIP concentration was significantly decreased at 60 min (p < 0.01) in the ligated group, while the active form of GLP-1 showed a significantly higher level at 90 min (1.7-fold; p < 0.05) and 120 min (2.5-fold; p < 0.01). During the IVGTT, the plasma insulin concentration in the ligation group was significantly higher at 2

  13. Dendritic Cells Regulate Treg-Th17 Axis in Obstructive Phase of Bile Duct Injury in Murine Biliary Atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Jun; Li, Kang; Yang, Li; Tang, Shao-Tao; Wang, Xin-Xing; Cao, Guo-Qing; Li, Shuai; Lei, Hai-Yan; Zhang, Xi

    2015-01-01

    Several cell types are considered to be effector cells in bile duct injury in rhesus rotavirus (RRV)-induced experimental biliary atresia (BA). Here, we identified an increased T helper 17 (Th17) cell population in a BA mode. By depleting the Th17 cells, the BA symptoms (onset of jaundice, acholic stools and retarded growth) were attenuated and the survival rate was improved. Furthermore, we found that in mice with BA, the percentage of CD4+CD25highFoxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells decreased along with the increased percentage of Th17 cells. However, the absolute numbers of Treg and Th17 cells were both increased in liver of RRV-injected mice compared to saline-injected mice. The proportion of Th17 cells at 7 days post-infection was decreased if Treg cells isolated from normal adult mice, but not Treg cells from the livers of mice with BA, were intraperitoneally transferred on day 5 of life. In vitro experiments also showed that Treg cells from mice with BA had a diminished suppressive effect on Th17 cell generation. To determine the mechanisms, we investigated the production of cytokines in the liver. The level of IL-6, which has been shown to be abundantly secreted by activated dendritic cells (DCs), was remarkably elevated. Importantly, in a Treg/Th17 cell suppression assay, IL-6 was demonstrated to paralyze the Treg cells' suppressive effect on Th17 cells and eventually the unrestrained increase of Th17 cells contributed to bile duct injury. In conclusion, the DC-regulated Treg-Th17 axis, probably in conjunction with other effector T cells, aggravates progressive inflammatory injury at the time of ductal obstruction.

  14. CD44 is the principal cell surface receptor for hyaluronate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruffo, A; Stamenkovic, I; Melnick, M; Underhill, C B; Seed, B

    1990-06-29

    CD44 is a broadly distributed cell surface protein thought to mediate cell attachment to extracelular matrix components or specific cell surface ligands. We have created soluble CD44-immunoglobulin fusion proteins and characterized their reactivity with tissue sections and lymph node high endothelial cells in primary culture. The CD44 target on high endothelial cells is sensitive to enzymes that degrade hyaluronate, and binding of soluble CD44 is blocked by low concentrations of hyaluronate or high concentrations of chondroitin 4- and 6-sulfates. A mouse anti-hamster hyaluonate receptor antibody reacts with COS cells expressing hamster CD44 cDNA. In sections of all tissues examined, including lymph nodes and Peyer's patches, predigestion with hyaluronidase eliminated CD44 binding.

  15. Purified human pancreatic duct cell culture conditions defined by serum-free high-content growth factor screening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinne A Hoesli

    Full Text Available The proliferation of pancreatic duct-like CK19+ cells has implications for multiple disease states including pancreatic cancer and diabetes mellitus. The in vitro study of this important cell type has been hampered by their limited expansion compared to fibroblast-like vimentin+ cells that overgrow primary cultures. We aimed to develop a screening platform for duct cell mitogens after depletion of the vimentin+ population. The CD90 cell surface marker was used to remove the vimentin+ cells from islet-depleted human pancreas cell cultures by magnetic-activated cell sorting. Cell sorting decreased CD90+ cell contamination of the cultures from 34±20% to 1.3±0.6%, yielding purified CK19+ cultures with epithelial morphology. A full-factorial experimental design was then applied to test the mitogenic effects of bFGF, EGF, HGF, KGF and VEGF. After 6 days in test conditions, the cells were labelled with BrdU, stained and analyzed by high-throughput imaging. This screening assay confirmed the expected mitogenic effects of bFGF, EGF, HGF and KGF on CK19+ cells and additionally revealed interactions between these factors and VEGF. A serum-free medium containing bFGF, EGF, HGF and KGF led to CK19+ cell expansion comparable to the addition of 10% serum. The methods developed in this work should advance pancreatic cancer and diabetes research by providing effective cell culture and high-throughput screening platforms to study purified primary pancreatic CK19+ cells.

  16. Loss of canonical Smad4 signaling promotes KRAS driven malignant transformation of human pancreatic duct epithelial cells and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Leung

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in North America. Activating KRAS mutations and Smad4 loss occur in approximately 90% and 55% of PDAC, respectively. While their roles in the early stages of PDAC development have been confirmed in genetically modified mouse models, their roles in the multistep malignant transformation of human pancreatic duct cells have not been directly demonstrated. Here, we report that Smad4 represents a barrier in KRAS-mediated malignant transformation of the near normal immortalized human pancreatic duct epithelial (HPDE cell line model. Marked Smad4 downregulation by shRNA in KRAS (G12V expressing HPDE cells failed to cause tumorigenic transformation. However, KRAS-mediated malignant transformation occurred in a new HPDE-TGF-β resistant (TβR cell line that completely lacks Smad4 protein expression and is resistant to the mito-inhibitory activity of TGF-β. This transformation resulted in tumor formation and development of metastatic phenotype when the cells were implanted orthotopically into the mouse pancreas. Smad4 restoration re-established TGF-β sensitivity, markedly increased tumor latency by promoting apoptosis, and decreased metastatic potential. These results directly establish the critical combination of the KRAS oncogene and complete Smad4 inactivation in the multi-stage malignant transformation and metastatic progression of normal human HPDE cells.

  17. Curved-Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Je Hyun Baekt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical study is conducted on the fully-developed laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a square duct rotating about a perpendicular axis to the axial direction of the duct. At the straight duct, the rotation produces vortices due to the Coriolis force. Generally two vortex cells are formed and the axial velocity distribution is distorted by the effect of this Coriolis force. When a convective force is weak, two counter-rotating vortices are shown with a quasi-parabolic axial velocity profile for weak rotation rates. As the rotation rate increases, the axial velocity on the vertical centreline of the duct begins to flatten and the location of vorticity center is moved near to wall by the effect of the Coriolis force. When the convective inertia force is strong, a double-vortex secondary flow appears in the transverse planes of the duct for weak rotation rates but as the speed of rotation increases the secondary flow is shown to split into an asymmetric configuration of four counter-rotating vortices. If the rotation rates are increased further, the secondary flow restabilizes to a slightly asymmetric double-vortex configuration. Also, a numerical study is conducted on the laminar flow of an incompressible viscous fluid in a 90°-bend square duct that rotates about axis parallel to the axial direction of the inlet. At a 90°-bend square duct, the feature of flow by the effect of a Coriolis force and a centrifugal force, namely a secondary flow by the centrifugal force in the curved region and the Coriolis force in the downstream region, is shown since the centrifugal force in curved region and the Coriolis force in downstream region are dominant respectively.

  18. Induction of pancreatic duct cells of neonatal rats into insulin-producing cells with fetal bovine serum: A natural protocol and its use for patch clamp experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    San-Hua Leng; Fu-Er Lu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To induce the pancreatic duct cells into endocrine cells with a new natural protocol for electrophysiological study.METHODS: The pancreatic duct cells of neonatal rats were isolated, cultured and induced into endocrine oells with 15% fetal bovine serum for a period of 20 d. During this period, insulin secretion, MTT value, and morphological change of neonatal and adult pancreatic islet cells were comparatively investigated. Pancreatic β-cells were identified by morphological and electrophysiological characteristics, while ATP sensitive potassium channels(KATP), voltage-dependent potassium channels (KV), and voltage-dependent calcium channels (KCA) in β-cells were identified by patch clamp technique.RESULTS: After incubation with fetal bovine serum, the neonatal duct cells budded out, changed from duct-like cells into islet clusters. In the first 4 d, MTT value and insulin secretion increased slowly (MTT value from 0.024±0.003 to0.028±0.003, insulin secretion from 2.6±0.6to 3.1±0.8 mIU/L). Then MTT value and insulin secretion increased quickly from d 5 to d 10 (MTT value from 0.028±0.003 to 0.052±0.008, insulin secretion from 3.1±0.8to 18.3±2.6 mIU/L), then reached high plateau (MTT value >0.052±0.008, insulin secretion >18.3±2.6 mIU/L).In contrast, for the isolated adult pancreatic islet cells,both insulin release and MTT value were stable in the first 4 d (MTT value from 0.029±0.01 to 0.031±0.011,insulin secretion from 13.9±3.1 to 14.3±3.3 mIU/L), but afterwards they reduced gradually (MTT value <0.031±0.011, insulin secretion <8.2±1.5 mIU/L), and the pancrearic islet cells became dispersed, broken or atrophied correspondingly. The differentiated neonatal cells were identified as pancreatic islet cells by dithizone staining method, and pancreatic β-cells were further identified by both morphological features and electrophysiological characteristics, i.e. the existence of recording currents from KATP KV, and KCA.CONCLUSION: Islet

  19. Activation of the Metabolic Sensor AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Inhibits Aquaporin-2 Function in Kidney Principal Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Bataineh, Mohammad M; Li, Hui; Ohmi, Kazuhiro;

    2016-01-01

    not prevent AQP2 apical accumulation in response to the AVP analog desmopressin (dDAVP). Prolonged AMPK activation prevented AQP2 cell membrane accumulation in response to forskolin in mouse collecting duct mpkCCDc14 cells. Moreover, AMPK inhibition accelerated hypotonic lysis of Xenopus oocytes expressing...

  20. Squamous cell carcinoma originating from a thyroglossus duct cyst; Plattenepithelkarzinom der Schilddruese ausgehend von einer Ductus thyreoglossus Zyste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kresnik, E. [Nuklearmedizinische Abt., LKH Klagenfurt (Austria); Gallowitsch, H.J. [Nuklearmedizinische Abt., LKH Klagenfurt (Austria); Ploeb, J. [Nuklearmedizinische Abt., LKH Klagenfurt (Austria); Gomez, I. [Nuklearmedizinische Abt., LKH Klagenfurt (Austria); Mikosch, P. [Nuklearmedizinische Abt., LKH Klagenfurt (Austria); Dinges, H.P. [Pathologisches Inst., LKH Klagenfurt (Austria); Lind, P. [Nuklearmedizinische Abt., LKH Klagenfurt (Austria)

    1995-04-01

    A 73 y old female was found to suffer from a squamous cell carcinoma with a focal thymus-like differentiation in a thyroglossal duct cyst. A neoplasma of this type in a goitre with Graves` disease is extremely rare. Sonographic, radiological, scintigraphic and microscopic findings are discussed. (orig.) [Deutsch] Es wird ueber eine 73jaehrige Patientin mit dem sehr seltenen Fall eines Karzinoms berichtet, das sich in einer Ductus thyreoglossus-Zyste innerhalb einer Struma diffusa et nodosa entwickelt hatte. Zusaetzlich bestand eine Immunthyreopathie Typ Basedow. Sonographische, roentgenologische, szintigraphische und histologische Befunde werden vorgestellt. (orig.)

  1. Undifferentiated (Anaplastic Carcinoma of the Pancreas with Osteoclast-Like Giant Cells Showing Various Degree of Pancreas Duct Involvement. A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlad Maksymov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Context Undifferentiated (anaplastic carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells is exceedingly rare. The prognosis of undifferentiated carcinoma is worse than that of poorly differentiated ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas; however, undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells might have a more favorable prognosis. Case report We report the case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells, showing an intraductal growth pattern with various degree of pancreas duct involvement in the different areas. As a result, we were able to demonstrate the entire spectrum of changes, ranging from the early, minimal intraluminal growth to the partial or complete occlusion of the branches of the main pancreatic duct, and finally invasion and formation of the large necrotic/degenerated cysts. Conclusions Our findings support the epithelial origin of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells. In early stages, the affected pancreatic duct epithelium was intermingled with nonepithelial component and had an immunoprofile distinctive from the epithelial lining of the uninvolved (normal pancreatic ducts. Distinctive immunoprofile (CK 5/6, p63 and p53 positive of the epithelial component and p63 and p53 positivity of the nonepithelial component should be explained and further investigated in the similar cases. Our findings support prior assertions that undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells may develop from carcinoma in situ within the main pancreatic duct or its branches

  2. Ion Transport in Human Pancreatic Duct Epithelium, Capan-1 Cells, Is Regulated by Secretin, VIP, Acetylcholine, and Purinergic Receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jing; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to establish a solid model of polarized epithelium for human pancreatic ducts, where electrical parameters could be measured as indicators of ion transport. Further, we aimed to determine functional expression of several receptors, in particular, puriner......OBJECTIVES: The objective of the study was to establish a solid model of polarized epithelium for human pancreatic ducts, where electrical parameters could be measured as indicators of ion transport. Further, we aimed to determine functional expression of several receptors, in particular......, purinergic receptors, and determine their effects on ion transport. METHODS: Human adenocarcinoma cell line Capan-1 cells were grown on permeable supports and set in Ussing chambers for electrophysiological recordings. Transepithelial voltage (Vte), resistance, and short-circuit currents (Isc) were measured...... in response to agonists. RESULTS: Secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), acetylcholine, forskolin, ionomycin, adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), uridine 5'-triphosphate (UTP), 3'-O-(4-benzoyl)benzoyl ATP, and adenosine induced lumen negative Vte and Isc. These changes were consistent with anion...

  3. AQP2 exocytosis in the renal collecting duct -- involvement of SNARE isoforms and the regulatory role of Munc18b.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procino, G.; Barbieri, C.; Tamma, G.; Benedictis, L De; Pessin, J.E.; Svelto, M.; Valenti, G.

    2008-01-01

    Vasopressin regulates the fusion of the water channel aquaporin 2 (AQP2) to the apical membrane of the renal collecting-duct principal cells and several lines of evidence indicate that SNARE proteins mediate this process. In this work MCD4 renal cells were used to investigate the functional role of

  4. CT and MR imaging of multilocular acinar cell cystadenoma: comparison with branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMNs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delavaud, Christophe; Assignies, Gaspard d' ; Vilgrain, Valerie; Vullierme, Marie-Pierre [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Radiologie, Clichy (France); Cros, Jerome [Hopital Beaujon, Service d' Anatomopathologie, Clichy (France); Ruszniewski, Philippe; Hammel, Pascal; Levy, Philippe [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Pancreato-Gastro-Enterologie, Clichy (France); Couvelard, Anne [Hopital Bichat, Service d' Anatomopathologie, Paris (France); Sauvanet, Alain; Dokmak, Safi [Hopital Beaujon, Service de Chirurgie Hepato-Pancreato-Biliaire, Clichy (France)

    2014-09-15

    To describe CT and MR imaging findings of acinar cell cystadenoma (ACC) of the pancreas and to compare them with those of branch duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (BD-IPMN) to identify distinctive elements. Five patients with ACC and the 20 consecutive patients with histologically proven BD-IPMN were retrospectively included. Clinical and biological information was collected and histological data reviewed. CT and MR findings were analysed blinded to pathological diagnosis in order to identify imaging diagnostic criteria of ACC. Patients with ACC were symptomatic in all but one case and were younger than those with BD-IPMN (p = 0.006). Four radiological criteria allowed for differentiating ACC from IPMN: five or more cysts, clustered peripheral small cysts, presence of cyst calcifications and absence of communication with the main pancreatic duct (p < 0.05). Presence of at least two or three of these imaging criteria had a strong diagnostic value for ACC with a sensitivity of 100 % and 80 % and a specificity of 85 % and 100 %, respectively. Preoperative differential diagnosis between ACC and BD-IPMN can be achieved using a combination of four CT and/or MR imaging criteria. Recognition of ACC patients could change patient management and lead to more conservative treatment. (orig.)

  5. Frequent infiltration of S-100 protein+ CCR5+ immature dendritic cells in damaged bile ducts of primary biliary cirrhosis compared to cholangiocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsui H

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hiroko Mitsui,1,2 Hiroya Ohtake,1 Rintaro Ohe,1 Mitsunori Yamakawa1 1Department of Pathological Diagnostics, 2Department of Gastroenterology, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata, Japan Abstract: Dendritic cells (DCs are professional antigen presenting cells that initiate immune responses. We evaluated the relationship between DC infiltration, chemokines/chemokine receptors, and bile duct damage in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC, compared to cases of cholangiocellular carcinoma arising from the bile duct. Immunohistochemistry revealed significantly more S-100 protein+ DCs infiltrating the epithelial layer of bile ducts in PBC than in chronic hepatitis C or control neonatal livers. Furthermore, a higher number of S-100 protein+ DCs, but not fascin+ or DC lysosomal associated membrane protein+ mature DCs, were found in the epithelial layer of the damaged bile ducts of the PBC liver. CC-chemokine receptor (CCR 5+ immature DCs frequently accumulated in the portal area in PBC. CCR5 mRNA was also detected in liver tissues from PBC patients by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. In situ hybridization revealed the expression of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α and MIP-1ß mRNA in the epithelial cells of damaged bile ducts. However, no CD1a+ immature DCs were found in any of the PBC or chronic hepatitis C specimens or in neonatal liver, whereas they occurred frequently in the cancer nests of cholangiocellular carcinoma, which expressed MIP-3α and were frequently infiltrated by CCR6+ DCs. These results indicate that bile ducts damaged by PBC secrete MIP-1α and MIP-1ß, while neoplastic ones secrete MIP-3α. They also suggest that CCR5+ immature DCs attracted by MIP-1α and MIP-1ß may play an important role in the pathogenesis of chronic nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis in PBC. Keywords: chemokines, cholangiocellular carcinoma, chronic nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis, dendritic cell, primary biliary

  6. Subnormothermic ex vivo liver perfusion reduces endothelial cell and bile duct injury after donation after cardiac death pig liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaak, Jan M; Spetzler, Vinzent N; Goldaracena, Nicolas; Boehnert, Markus U; Bazerbachi, Fateh; Louis, Kristine S; Adeyi, Oyedele A; Minkovich, Leonid; Yip, Paul M; Keshavjee, Shaf; Levy, Gary A; Grant, David R; Selzner, Nazia; Selzner, Markus

    2014-11-01

    An ischemic-type biliary stricture (ITBS) is a common feature after liver transplantation using donation after cardiac death (DCD) grafts. We compared sequential subnormothermic ex vivo liver perfusion (SNEVLP; 33°C) with cold storage (CS) for the prevention of ITBS in DCD liver grafts in pig liver transplantation (n = 5 for each group). Liver grafts were stored for 10 hours at 4°C (CS) or preserved with combined 7-hour CS and 3-hour SNEVLP. Parameters of hepatocyte [aspartate aminotransferase (AST), international normalized ratio (INR), factor V, and caspase 3 immunohistochemistry], endothelial cell (EC; CD31 immunohistochemistry and hyaluronic acid), and biliary injury and function [alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin, and bile lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)] were determined. Long-term survival (7 days) after transplantation was similar between the SNEVLP and CS groups (60% versus 40%, P = 0.13). No difference was observed between SNEVLP- and CS-treated animals with respect to the peak of serum INR, factor V, or AST levels within 24 hours. CD31 staining 8 hours after transplantation demonstrated intact EC lining in SNEVLP-treated livers (7.3 × 10(-4) ± 2.6 × 10(-4) cells/μm(2)) but not in CS-treated livers (3.7 × 10(-4) ± 1.3 × 10(-4) cells/μm(2) , P = 0.03). Posttransplant SNEVLP animals had decreased serum ALP and serum bilirubin levels in comparison with CS animals. In addition, LDH in bile fluid was lower in SNEVLP pigs versus CS pigs (14 ± 10 versus 60 ± 18 μmol/L, P = 0.02). Bile duct histology revealed severe bile duct necrosis in 3 of 5 animals in the CS group but none in the SNEVLP group (P = 0.03). Sequential SNEVLP preservation of DCD grafts reduces bile duct and EC injury after liver transplantation. © 2014 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  7. Adult stem cells from the hyaluronic acid-rich node and duct system differentiate into neuronal cells and repair brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung J; Park, Sang H; Kim, Yu I; Hwang, Sunhee; Kwon, Patrick M; Han, In S; Kwon, Byoung S

    2014-12-01

    The existence of a hyaluronic acid-rich node and duct system (HAR-NDS) within the lymphatic and blood vessels was demonstrated previously. The HAR-NDS was enriched with small (3.0-5.0 μm in diameter), adult stem cells with properties similar to those of the very small embryonic-like stem cells (VSELs). Sca-1(+)Lin(-)CD45(-) cells were enriched approximately 100-fold in the intravascular HAR-NDS compared with the bone marrow. We named these adult stem cells "node and duct stem cells (NDSCs)." NDSCs formed colonies on C2C12 feeder layers, were positive for fetal alkaline phosphatase, and could be subcultured on the feeder layers. NDSCs were Oct4(+)Nanog(+)SSEA-1(+)Sox2(+), while VSELs were Oct4(+)Nanog(+)SSEA-1(+)Sox2(-). NDSCs had higher sphere-forming efficiency and proliferative potential than VSELs, and they were found to differentiate into neuronal cells in vitro. Injection of NDSCs into mice partially repaired ischemic brain damage. Thus, we report the discovery of potential adult stem cells that may be involved in tissue regeneration. The intravascular HAR-NDS may serve as a route that delivers these stem cells to their target tissues.

  8. Mammary Duct Ectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tenderness or inflammation of the clogged duct (periductal mastitis). Mammary duct ectasia most often occurs in women ... that's turned inward (inverted) A bacterial infection called mastitis also may develop in the affected milk duct, ...

  9. Lesão complexa da via biliar principal: a ligadura como opção associada a colecistojejunostomia Common bile duct injury: ligation and cholecystojejunostomy as surgical option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizenando Vieira Starling

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of distal common bile duct injury. Ligation of the bile duct and a bypass cholecystojejunostomy were chosen as treatment. Diagnosis of blunt traumatic injury to the extrahepatic biliary ducts may be difficult due to the benign nature of initial bile peritonitis. Surgical treatment for associated abdominal injuries usually makes the diagnosis possible. One of the challenges in the treatment of these injuries relates to the small diameter of the, usually, normal common bile duct. Primary repair and T tube drainage is the best option for non-complex injuries. End-to-end anastomosis and, preferentially, biliary-enteric anastomosis are the best surgical options for more complex injuries. Severe injuries have high complication rates, especially when the distal portion of the common bile duct is affected. Early leaks and late strictures are likely to develop in these situations. Cholecistojejunostomy and ligation of the injuried common bile duct are good surgical options for complex injuries. They carry a low complication rate and consequently low morbidity.

  10. Perisomatic GABAergic synapses of basket cells effectively control principal neuron activity in amygdala networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veres, Judit M; Nagy, Gergő A; Hájos, Norbert

    2017-01-01

    Efficient control of principal neuron firing by basket cells is critical for information processing in cortical microcircuits, however, the relative contribution of their perisomatic and dendritic synapses to spike inhibition is still unknown. Using in vitro electrophysiological paired recordings we reveal that in the mouse basal amygdala cholecystokinin- and parvalbumin-containing basket cells provide equally potent control of principal neuron spiking. We performed pharmacological manipulations, light and electron microscopic investigations to show that, although basket cells innervate the entire somato-denditic membrane surface of principal neurons, the spike controlling effect is achieved primarily via the minority of synapses targeting the perisomatic region. As the innervation patterns of individual basket cells on their different postsynaptic partners show high variability, the impact of inhibitory control accomplished by single basket cells is also variable. Our results show that both basket cell types can powerfully regulate the activity in amygdala networks predominantly via their perisomatic synapses. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20721.001 PMID:28060701

  11. Functional characterization of the vertebrate primary ureter: Structure and ion transport mechanisms of the pronephric duct in axolotl larvae (Amphibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prehn Lea R

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three kidney systems appear during vertebrate development: the pronephroi, mesonephroi and metanephroi. The pronephric duct is the first or primary ureter of these kidney systems. Its role as a key player in the induction of nephrogenic mesenchyme is well established. Here we investigate whether the duct is involved in urine modification using larvae of the freshwater amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl as model. Results We investigated structural as well as physiological properties of the pronephric duct. The key elements of our methodology were: using histology, light and transmission electron microscopy as well as confocal laser scanning microscopy on fixed tissue and applying the microperfusion technique on isolated pronephric ducts in combination with single cell microelectrode impalements. Our data show that the fully differentiated pronephric duct is composed of a single layered epithelium consisting of one cell type comparable to the principal cell of the renal collecting duct system. The cells are characterized by a prominent basolateral labyrinth and a relatively smooth apical surface with one central cilium. Cellular impalements demonstrate the presence of apical Na+ and K+ conductances, as well as a large K+ conductance in the basolateral cell membrane. Immunolabeling experiments indicate heavy expression of Na+/K+-ATPase in the basolateral labyrinth. Conclusions We propose that the pronephric duct is important for the subsequent modification of urine produced by the pronephros. Our results indicate that it reabsorbs sodium and secretes potassium via channels present in the apical cell membrane with the driving force for ion movement provided by the Na+/K+ pump. This is to our knowledge the first characterization of the pronephric duct, the precursor of the collecting duct system, which provides a model of cell structure and basic mechanisms for ion transport. Such information may be important in understanding

  12. Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk by Aberrant Methylation in Mammary Duct Lavage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-07-01

    DNA was extracted from two aneuploid tumor cells lines ( cervical cancer cell line HeLa [13] and breast cancer cell line HCC1806 [14]), two diploid...Breast Cancer Res Treat 2000;61:139–43. [4] Kersting M, Friedl C, Kraus A, Behn M, Pankow W, Schuermann M. Differential frequencies of p16 (INK4a) promoter...DAMD17-01-1-0421 TITLE: Prediction of Breast Cancer Risk by Aberrant Methylation in Mammary Duct Lavage PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR

  13. Differential GABAergic and glycinergic inputs of inhibitory interneurons and Purkinje cells to principal cells of the cerebellar nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husson, Zoé; Rousseau, Charly V; Broll, Ilja; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich; Dieudonné, Stéphane

    2014-07-09

    The principal neurons of the cerebellar nuclei (CN), the sole output of the olivo-cerebellar system, receive a massive inhibitory input from Purkinje cells (PCs) of the cerebellar cortex. Morphological evidence suggests that CN principal cells are also contacted by inhibitory interneurons, but the properties of this connection are unknown. Using transgenic, tracing, and immunohistochemical approaches in mice, we show that CN interneurons form a large heterogeneous population with GABA/glycinergic phenotypes, distinct from GABAergic olive-projecting neurons. CN interneurons are found to contact principal output neurons, via glycine receptor (GlyR)-enriched synapses, virtually devoid of the main GABA receptor (GABAR) subunits α1 and γ2. Those clusters account for 5% of the total number of inhibitory receptor clusters on principal neurons. Brief optogenetic stimulations of CN interneurons, through selective expression of channelrhodopsin 2 after viral-mediated transfection of the flexed gene in GlyT2-Cre transgenic mice, evoked fast IPSCs in principal cells. GlyR activation accounted for 15% of interneuron IPSC amplitude, while the remaining current was mediated by activation of GABAR. Surprisingly, small GlyR clusters were also found at PC synapses onto principal CN neurons in addition to α1 and γ2 GABAR subunits. However, GlyR activation was found to account for <3% of the PC inhibitory synaptic currents evoked by electrical stimulation. This work establishes CN glycinergic neurons as a significant source of inhibition to CN principal cells, forming contacts molecularly distinct from, but functionally similar to, Purkinje cell synapses. Their impact on CN output, motor learning, and motor execution deserves further investigation.

  14. Characterization of two novel cell lines with distinct heterogeneity derived from a single human bile duct carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinghan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intratumoral heterogeneity reflects subclonal diversity and accounts for a variety of clinically defined phenotypes including the development of drug resistance and recurrence. However, intratumoral heterogeneity of bile duct carcinoma (BDC is rarely studied. METHODS: Two highly heterogeneous cell lines named EH-CA1a and EH-CA1b were established from a primary tumor tissue of a pathologically proven BDC. Distinct heterogeneity and underlying mechanisms of two cell lines in karyotype, colony formation, tumorgenicity, and sensitivity to chemoradiotherapy were intensively studied. RESULTS: Both cell lines showed typical morphology of cancer cells. EH-CA1a cells grew as free-floating aggregates, while EH-CA1b cells grew adherently as a monolayer. EH-CA1a cells had higher cloning efficiencies and were able to keep proliferating under hypoxic condition. Coincidentally, hypoxia-induced factor-1α (HIF1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF mRNA were significantly higher in EH-CA1a cells than in EH-CA1b cells. Both cell lines were tumorigenic in nude mouse, however, EH-CA1a cells showed more aggressive characteristics. Most importantly, the EH-CA1a cells showed much more resistance against radiation and chemotherapy with gemcitabine. Metastasis-related genes including matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, MMP-9, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT markers such as Vimentin, Snail, and Twist, are more highly expressed in EH-CA1a cells than in EH-CA1b cells. Moreover, the percentage of cells expressing cancer stem cell-like marker, CD133, in EH-CA1a cells is much higher than that in EH-CA1b cells. Moreover, knockdown of CD133 in both EH-CA1a and EH-CA1b cells significantly reduced their invasive potential and increased their sensitivities to radiation and gemcitabine, suggesting the differential expression of CD133 protein may partially account for the difference in malignancy between these two cancer cells. CONCLUSION: Establishment

  15. Antiproliferation and apoptosis induced by tamoxifen in human bile duct carcinoma QBC939 cells via upregulated p53 expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Peng; Kang, Jin-He; Li, Hua-Liang [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Hu, Su-Xian [First Hospital Attached to Fujian Medical University, Xiamen 361004 (China); Lian, Hui-Hui; Qiu, Ping-Ping; Zhang, Jian [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Li, Wen-Gang, E-mail: lwg11861@163.com [First Hospital Attached to Fujian Medical University, Xiamen 361004 (China); Chen, Qing-Xi, E-mail: chenqx@xmu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Cell Biology and Tumor Cell Engineering, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Key Laboratory for Chemical Biology of Fujian Province, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China)

    2009-07-24

    Tamoxifen (TAM) is a nonsteroidal antiestrogen that has been used in the treatment of breast cancer for over 30 years. Recently, it was shown that TAM also has efficacy on gastrointestinal neoplasms such as hepatocarcinoma and pancreatic carcinoma, and that the chemopreventive activities of TAM might be due to its abilities to inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis. In the present study, we investigated the effects of tamoxifen on growth and apoptosis in the human bile duct carcinoma (BDC) cell line QBC939 using MTT assay, inverted microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, classic DNA fragmentation agarose gel electrophoresis assay, PI single- and FITC/PI double-staining flow cytometry, and Western blotting. Our data revealed that TAM could significantly inhibit growth and induce apoptosis in QBC939 cells. Increased expression of p53 was observed in TAM-treated cells, indicating that p53 might play an important role in TAM-induced apoptosis in QBC939 cells. These results provide significant insight into the anticarcinogenic action of TAM on BDC.

  16. In vitro expansion and differentiation of rat pancreatic duct-derived stem cells into insulin secreting cells using a dynamicthree-dimensional cell culture system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, X C; Liu, H; Li, H; Cheng, Y; Yang, L; Liu, Y F

    2016-06-27

    In this study, a dynamic three-dimensional cell culture technology was used to expand and differentiate rat pancreatic duct-derived stem cells (PDSCs) into islet-like cell clusters that can secrete insulin. PDSCs were isolated from rat pancreatic tissues by in situ collagenase digestion and density gradient centrifugation. Using a dynamic three-dimensional culture technique, the cells were expanded and differentiated into functional islet-like cell clusters, which were characterized by morphological and phenotype analyses. After maintaining 1 x 108 isolated rat PDSCs in a dynamic three-dimensional cell culture for 7 days, 1.5 x 109 cells could be harvested. Passaged PDSCs expressed markers of pancreatic endocrine progenitors, including CD29 (86.17%), CD73 (90.73%), CD90 (84.13%), CD105 (78.28%), and Pdx-1. Following 14 additional days of culture in serum-free medium with nicotinamide, keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), and b fibroblast growth factor (FGF), the cells were differentiated into islet-like cell clusters (ICCs). The ICC morphology reflected that of fused cell clusters. During the late stage of differentiation, representative clusters were non-adherent and expressed insulin indicated by dithizone (DTZ)-positive staining. Insulin was detected in the extracellular fluid and cytoplasm of ICCs after 14 days of differentiation. Additionally, insulin levels were significantly higher at this time compared with the levels exhibited by PDSCs before differentiation (P cell culture system, PDSCs can be expanded in vitro and can differentiate into functional islet-like cell clusters.

  17. Effect of secretin and inhibitors of HCO3-/H+ transport on the membrane voltage of rat pancreatic duct cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Pahl, C

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the effect of secretin on the electrophysiological response of pancreatic ducts. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of lipid-soluble buffers and inhibitors of HCO3-/H+ transport. Ducts obtained from fresh rat pancreas were perfused in vitro. Secreti...

  18. Relationship between the GH-IGFs axis and the proliferation of bile duct cancer cell line QBC939 in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Hua Cai; Yue-Ming Sun; Jian-Feng Bai; Yi Shi; Han-Lin Zhao; Yi Miao

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND:In recent years, recombined human growth hormone (rhGH) has been increasingly used in patients to help them recover from operation. But GH, as a mitogen, can promote cell renewal and increase malignant transformation. In the current study, we assessed the proliferation of a bile duct cancer cell line (QBC939) in vitro with GH and explored the possible relationship with the axis of GH-IGFs (insulin-like growth factors). METHODS:QBC939 cells in the exponential growth stage were harvested and divided into an experimental group (GH group) and a control group (NS group). The GH group was divided into four sub-groups according to the dose of GH and culture time (50μg/L for 2 hours, 50μg/L for 24 hours, 100μg/L for 2 hours, 100μg/L for 24 hours). The NS group was divided into two sub-groups (NS for 2 hours and NS for 24 hours). After 2 or 24 hours, IGF-1 and IGF-2 were detected using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The QBC939 cells cultured for 24 hours with two GH concentrations were made into single cell suspensions and samples underwent subsequent cell cycle evaluation. Messenger RNA of IGF-1 and IGF-2 receptor (IGF-1RmRNA and IGF-2RmRNA) were tested with the method of in situ hybridization. RESULTS:There was no statistically signiifcant difference between the GH and NS groups after 2 hours of culture (P>0.05). But after 24 hours of culture, GH stimulated cell growth in vitro and also elevated the percentage in S phase and the proliferation index (P CONCLUSION:GH can stimulate QBC939 cell growth and proliferation in vitro and the mechanism is most likely by the GH-IGF-1-IGF-1R axis.

  19. Vasopressin-regulated miRNAs and AQP2-targeting miRNAs in kidney collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Eun; Jung, Hyun Jun; Lee, Yu-Jung; Kwon, Tae-Hwan

    2015-04-01

    Mature microRNA (miRNA) acts as an important posttranscriptional regulator. We aimed to profile vasopressin-responsive miRNAs in kidney inner medullary collecting duct cells and to identify aquaporin-2 (AQP2)-targeting miRNAs. Microarray chip assay was carried out in inner medullary collecting duct tubule suspensions from rat kidneys in the absence or presence of desmopressin (dDAVP) stimulation (10(-9) M, 2 h). The results demonstrated 19 miRNAs, including both precursor and mature miRNAs, as potential candidates that showed significant changes in expression after dDAVP stimulation (P 1.3-fold changes in expression on the microarray (miR-127, miR-1, miR-873, miR-16, miR-206, miR-678, miR-496, miR-298, and miR-463) were further examined by quantitative real-time PCR, and target genes of the selected miRNAs were predicted. Next, to identify AQP2-targeting miRNAs, in silico analysis was performed. Four miRNAs (miR-32, miR-137, miR-216a, and miR-216b) target the 3'-untranslated region of rat AQP2 mRNA. Target seed regions of miR-32 and miR-137 were also conserved in the 3'-untranslated region of mouse AQP2 mRNA. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunoblot analysis demonstrated that dDAVP-induced AQP2 expression was significantly attenuated in mpkCCDc14 cells when cells were transfected with miRNA mimics of miR-32 or miR-137. Moreover, luciferase reporter assay demonstrated a significant decrease of AQP2 translation in mpkCCDc14 cells transfected with miRNA mimics of miR-32 or miR-137. The present study provides novel insights into the regulation of AQP2 by RNA interference; however, vasopressin-regulated miRNAs did not include miR-32 or miR-137, indicating that the interaction of miRNAs with the AQP2 regulatory pathway requires further analysis. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Phospholipase D is involved in the formation of Golgi associated clathrin coated vesicles in human parotid duct cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Brito de Souza

    Full Text Available Phospholipase D (PLD has been implicated in many cellular functions, such as vesicle trafficking, exocytosis, differentiation, and proliferation. The aim of this study was to characterize the role of PLD in HSY cells, a human cell line originating from the intercalated duct of the parotid gland. As the function and intracellular localization of PLD varies according to cell type, initially, the intracellular localization of PLD1 and PLD2 was determined. By immunofluorescence, PLD1 and PLD2 both showed a punctate cytoplasmic distribution with extensive co-localization with TGN-46. PLD1 was also found in the nucleus, while PLD2 was associated with the plasma membrane. Treatment of cells with the primary alcohol 1-butanol inhibits the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcoline by PLD thereby suppressing phosphatidic acid (PA production. In untreated HSY cells, there was only a slight co-localization of PLD with the clathrin coated vesicles. When HSY cells were incubated with 1-butanol the total number of clathrin coated vesicles increased, especially in the juxtanuclear region and the co-localization of PLD with the clathrin coated vesicles was augmented. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed that the number of Golgi-associated coated vesicles was greater. Treatment with 1-butanol also affected the Golgi apparatus, increasing the volume of the Golgi saccules. The decrease in PA levels after treatment with 1-butanol likewise resulted in an accumulation of enlarged lysosomes in the perinuclear region. Therefore, in HSY cells PLD appears to be involved in the formation of Golgi associated clathrin coated vesicles as well as in the structural maintenance of the Golgi apparatus.

  1. Computer aided classification of cell nuclei in the gastrointestinal tract by volume and principal axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagstetter, Ann M.; Camp, Jon J.; Lurken, Matthew S.; Szurszewski, Joseph H.; Farrugia, Gianrico; Gibbons, Simon J.; Robb, Richard A.

    2007-03-01

    Normal function of the gastrointestinal tract involves the coordinated activity of several cell types Human disorders of motor function of the gastrointestinal tract are often associated with changes in the number of these cells. For example, in diabetic patients, abnormalities in gastrointestinal transit are associated with changes in nerves and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), two key cells that generate and regulate motility. ICC are cells of mesenchymal origin that function as pacemakers and amplify neuronal signals in the gastrointestinal tract. Quantifying the changes in number of specific cell types in tissues from patients with motility disorders is challenging and requires immunolabeling for specific antigens. The shape of nuclei differs between the cell types in the wall of the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore the objective of this study was to determine whether cell nuclei can be classified by analyzing the 3D morphology of the nuclei. Furthermore, the orientation of the long axis of nuclei changes within and between the muscle layers. These features can be used to classify and differentially label the nuclei in confocal volume images of the tissue by computing the principal axis of the coordinates of the set of voxels forming each nucleus and thereby to identify cells by their nuclear morphology. Using this approach, we were able to separate and quantify nuclei in the smooth muscle layers of the tissue. Therefore we conclude that computer-aided classification of cell nuclei can be used to identify changes in the cell types expressed in gastrointestinal smooth muscle.

  2. Taxonomic separation of hippocampal networks: principal cell populations and adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roelof Maarten evan Dijk

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available While many differences in hippocampal anatomy have been described between species, it is typically not clear if they are specific to a particular species and related to functional requirements or if they are shared by species of larger taxonomic units. Without such information, it is difficult to infer how anatomical differences may impact on hippocampal function, because multiple taxonomic levels need to be considered to associate behavioral and anatomical changes. To provide information on anatomical changes within and across taxonomic ranks, we present a quantitative assessment of hippocampal principal cell populations in 20 species or strain groups, with emphasis on rodents, the taxonomic group that provides most animals used in laboratory research. Of special interest is the importance of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in species-specific adaptations relative to other cell populations. Correspondence analysis of cell numbers shows that across taxonomic units, phylogenetically related species cluster together, sharing similar proportions of principal cell populations. CA3 and hilus are strong separators that place rodent species into a tight cluster based on their relatively large CA3 and small hilus while non-rodent species (including humans and non-human primates are placed on the opposite side of the spectrum. Hilus and CA3 are also separators within rodents, with a very large CA3 and rather small hilar cell populations separating mole-rats from other rodents that, in turn, are separated from each other by smaller changes in the proportions of CA1 and granule cells. When adult neurogenesis is included, the relatively small populations of young neurons, proliferating cells and hilar neurons become main drivers of taxonomic separation within rodents. The observations provide challenges to the computational modeling of hippocampal function, suggest differences in the organization of hippocampal information streams in rodent and non

  3. Identification of interstitial cajal-like cells in the human thoracic duct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boedtkjer, Donna Briggs; Rumessen, Jüri; Baandrup, Ulrik

    2013-01-01

    interstitial cells observed: fibroblasts, mast cells, macrophages and pericytes. Lymphatic ICLCs were localized to the subendothelial region of the wall as well as in intimate association with smooth muscle bundles throughout the media. ICLCs were morphologically distinct with multiple processes and also...

  4. B Cell Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia Presenting as a Bile Duct Stricture Diagnosed With Cholangioscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartel, Michael J.; Jiang, Liuyan; Lukens, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Indeterminate biliary strictures represent a diagnostic challenge requiring further work-up, which encompasses a variety of diagnostic modalities. We report a very rare case of B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia presenting as a biliary stricture following remission of acute myeloid leukemia, which was initially treated with allogenic stem cell transplant. After multiple diagnostic modalities were implemented with no success, the use of cholangioscopy-guided biopsies was the key for the final diagnosis.

  5. Hair cell regeneration or the expression of related factors that regulate the fate specification of supporting cells in the cochlear ducts of embryonic and posthatch chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingling; Jin, Ran; Xu, Jincao; Ji, Yubin; Zhang, Meiguang; Zhang, Xuebo; Zhang, Xinwen; Han, Zhongming; Zeng, Shaoju

    2016-02-01

    Hair cells in posthatch chickens regenerate spontaneously through mitosis or the transdifferentiation of supporting cells in response to antibiotic injury. However, how embryonic chicken cochleae respond to antibiotic treatment remains unknown. This study is the first to indicate that unlike hair cells in posthatch chickens, the auditory epithelium was free from antibiotic injury (25-250 mg gentamicin/kg) in embryonic chickens, although FITC-conjugated gentamicin actually reached embryonic hair cells. Next, we examined and counted the cells and performed labeling for BrdU, Sox2, Atoh1/Math1, PV or p27(kip1) (triple or double labeling) in the injured cochlea ducts after gentamicin treatment at 2 h (h), 15 h, 24 h, 2 days (d), 3 d and 7 d after BrdU treatment in posthatch chickens. Our results indicated that following gentamicin administration, proliferating cells (BrdU+) were labeled for Atoh1/Math1 in the damaged areas 3d after gentamicin administration, whereas hair cells (PV+) renewed through mitosis (BrdU+) or direct transdifferentiation (BrdU-) were evident only after 5 d of gentamicin administration. In addition, Sox2 expression was up-regulated in triggered supporting cells at an early stage of regeneration, but stopped at the advent of mature hair cells. Our study also indicated that p27(kip1) was expressed in both hair cells and supporting cells but was down-regulated in a subgroup of the supporting cells that gave rise to hair cells. These data and the obtained dynamic changes of the cells labeled for BrdU, Sox2, Atoh1/Math1, PV or p27(kip1) are useful for understanding supporting cell behaviors and their fate specification during hair cell regeneration.

  6. Prognostic Impact of CD163+ Macrophages in Tumor Stroma and CD8+ T-Cells in Cancer Cell Nests in Invasive Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Takuya; Yoshizawa, Tadashi; Hirai, Hideaki; Seino, Hiroko; Morohashi, Satoko; Wu, Yunyan; Wakiya, Taiichi; Kimura, Norihisa; Kudo, Daisuke; Ishido, Keinosuke; Toyoki, Yoshikazu; Kijima, Hiroshi; Hakamada, Kenichi

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the clinicopathological influence of tumor-infiltrating cluster of differentiation (CD) 163(+) macrophages and CD8(+) T-cells, and to clarify the prognostic effects of these cells in patients with invasive extrahepatic bile duct cancer (EHBC). The numbers of CD8(+) T-cells in cancer cell nests and CD163(+) macrophages in tumor stroma were evaluated using immunohistochemistry in 101 resected EHBC specimens. Correlations with clinicopathological variables and overall survival were analyzed. Perihilar EHBC and perineural invasion were significantly associated with a low number of tumor-infiltrating CD8(+) T-cells. Poorly- differentiated histology and nodal metastasis were significantly associated with a high number of tumor-infiltrating CD163(+) macrophages. A combination of high number of CD8(+) T-cells and low number of CD163(+) macrophages was independently related to better overall survival in the whole patient cohort (hazard ratio=0.127, pCD163(+) macrophages in tumor stroma and CD8(+) T-cells in cancer cell nests have a prognostic impact in patients with EHBC following resection and also after adjuvant chemotherapy. Copyright© 2017 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Adult islets cultured in collagen gel transdifferentiate into duct-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Lu; Ya-Peng Gu; Xia Xu; Mei-Lian Liu; Ping Xie; Hui-Ping Song

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To establish a model of islet-ductal cell bansdifferentiation to identify the transdifferentiated cells. METHODS: Collagen was extracted from rat tail at first. Purified rat islets were divided into three groups, embedded in collagen gel and incubated respectively in DMEM/F12 alone (control group), DMEM/F12 plus epidermal growth factor (EGF), DMEM/F12 plus EGF and cholera toxin (CT). Transdifferentiation was proved by microscopy, RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and RIA.RESULTS: Islets embedded in collagen gel plus EGF and CT were cystically transformed and could express new gene cytokeratin 19 while still maintaining the expression of insulin and Pdx-1 genes. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the protein of cytokeratin 19 was only expressed in the third group. The insulin content secreted by islets in thethird group decreased significantly during the transdifferentiation.CONCLUSION: CT is a crucial factor for the islet-ductal cell transdifferentiation.

  8. Pharmacological activity of Kaempferia parviflora extract against human bile duct cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leardkamolkarn, Vijittra; Tiamyuyen, Sunida; Sripanidkulchai, Bung-orn

    2009-01-01

    A crude ethanol extract of Kaemperia parviflora Wall. Ex Baker and a purified compound, 5,7,4-trimethoxyflavone (KP.8.10), were evaluated for pharmacological effects on human cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (HuCCA-1 and RMCCA-1). The cells were incubated with various concentrations of extract for various time periods and metabolic activity (MTT assay) was assessed for cell viability. The results showed a dose-dependent effect of both crude ethanol extract and the pure compound. CC50s for the crude extract on HuCCA-1 and RMCCA-1 cells were 46.1 microg/ml and 62.0 microg/ml, respectively. Values for the pure compound could not be determined because of solubility problems. Interestingly, K. parviflora ethanol extract and KP.8.10 at low concentrations (10-20 microg/ml and 2.5-5 microg/ml, respectively) markedly reduced rhHGF-induced invasion by HuCCA-1 and RMCCA-1 cells across matrix-coated transwell plates. Higher concentrations of K. parviflora ethanol extract (60 and 80 microg/ml) and KP.8.10 (20 microg /ml) dramatically changed the cellular morphology and caused death in both cell types. KP.8.10 further exhibited progressive action via caspase-3 mitochondrial enzyme activation, enhancing cellular toxicity in a time-dose dependent fashion. Therefore, 5,7,4-trimethoxyflavone appeared to be a bioactive component of K. parviflora extract capable of exerting anti-cancer action. The results suggested a benefit of this edible plant in prevention and treatment of cholangiocarcinoma.

  9. Differential modulation of intracellular Ca2+ responses associated with calcium-sensing receptor activation in renal collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Giovanna; Mira, Annalisa; Mastrofrancesco, Lisa; Lasorsa, Domenica Rita; Ranieri, Marianna; Svelto, Maria

    2010-01-01

    In this work, we studied G protein-coupled Extracellular Calcium Sensing Receptor (CaR) signaling in mouse cortical collecting duct cells (MCD4) expressing endogenous CaR. Intracellular [Ca(2+)] measurements performed with real time video imaging revealed that CaR stimulation with 5 mM Ca(2+), 300 μM Gd(3+) and with 10 μM of specific allosteric modulator NPS-R 568, all resulted in an increase in [Ca(2+)](i) although displaying different features. Specifically, Ca(2+) as well as stimulation with NPS-R 568 induced a rapid peak of [Ca(2+)](i) while stimulation with Gd(3+) induced transient intracellular Ca(2+) oscillations. PLC inhibition completely abolished any [Ca(2+)](i) increase after stimulation with CaR agonists. Inhibition of Rho or Rho kinase (ROK) abolished [Ca(2+)](i) oscillations induced by Gd(3+), while the peak induced by high Ca(2+) was similar to control. Conversely, emptying the intracellular calcium stores abolished the response to Gd(3+). On the other hand, the inhibition of calcium influx did not alter calcium changes. We conclude that in our cell model, CaR stimulation with distinct agonists activates two distinct transduction pathways, both PLC-dependent. The transient cytosolic Ca(2+) oscillations produced by Gd(3+) are modulated by Rho-Rho kinase signaling, whereas the rapid peak of intracellular Ca(2+) in response to 5 mM [Ca(2+)](o) is mainly due to PLC/IP3 pathway activation. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. PCA 4 DCA: The Application Of Principal Component Analysis To The Dendritic Cell Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Gu, Feng; Oates, Robert; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    As one of the newest members in the ?field of arti?cial immune systems (AIS), the Dendritic Cell Algorithm (DCA) is based on behavioural models of natural dendritic cells (DCs). Unlike other AIS, the DCA does not rely on training data, instead domain or expert knowledge is required to predetermine the mapping between input signals from a particular instance to the three categories used by the DCA. This data preprocessing phase has received the criticism of having manually over-?tted the data to the algorithm, which is undesirable. Therefore, in this paper we have attempted to ascertain if it is possible to use principal component analysis (PCA) techniques to automatically categorise input data while still generating useful and accurate classication results. The integrated system is tested with a biometrics dataset for the stress recognition of automobile drivers. The experimental results have shown the application of PCA to the DCA for the purpose of automated data preprocessing is successful.

  11. Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome of mixed anatomical variant (combined male and female type with mixed germ cell tumor of left intra-abdominal testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Mohapatra

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS is a rare form of internal male pseudohermaphroditism characterized by retention of Müllerian duct derivatives in a phenotypically and karyotypically male patient. Deficiency of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH secretion or resistance to AMH action due to defective AMH-II receptor is presumed to cause such syndrome in the majority of cases. About 158 PMDS cases have been reported so far, out of which 31 cases are associated with testicular neoplasms. Herein, we describe an interesting case of young male initially diagnosed and treated for inguinal hernia, but finally diagnosed as “PMDS of mixed anatomical variant (combined male and female type with mixed germ cell tumor of left intra-abdominal testis” comprising components of seminoma and yolk sac tumor and treated successfully.

  12. Protein kinase D stabilizes aldosterone-induced ERK1/2 MAP kinase activation in M1 renal cortical collecting duct cells to promote cell proliferation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McEneaney, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Aldosterone elicits transcriptional responses in target tissues and also rapidly stimulates the activation of protein kinase signalling cascades independently of de novo protein synthesis. Here we investigated aldosterone-induced cell proliferation and extra-cellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1\\/2) mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase signalling in the M1 cortical collecting duct cell line (M1-CCD). Aldosterone promoted the proliferative growth of M1-CCD cells, an effect that was protein kinase D1 (PKD1), PKCdelta and ERK1\\/2-dependent. Aldosterone induced the rapid activation of ERK1\\/2 with peaks of activation at 2 and 10 to 30 min after hormone treatment followed by sustained activation lasting beyond 120 min. M1-CCD cells suppressed in PKD1 expression exhibited only the early, transient peaks in ERK1\\/2 activation without the sustained phase. Aldosterone stimulated the physical association of PKD1 with ERK1\\/2 within 2 min of treatment. The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist RU28318 inhibited the early and late phases of aldosterone-induced ERK1\\/2 activation, and also aldosterone-induced proliferative cell growth. Aldosterone induced the sub-cellular redistribution of ERK1\\/2 to the nuclei at 2 min and to cytoplasmic sites, proximal to the nuclei after 30 min. This sub-cellular distribution of ERK1\\/2 was inhibited in cells suppressed in the expression of PKD1.

  13. Induction of natural killer cell activity of thoracic duct lymphocytes by polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C)) or interferon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresa, K L; Korngold, R; Murasko, D M

    1985-04-01

    Natural killer (NK) cell activity of thoracic duct lymphocytes (TDL) was examined in normal mice and in mice treated with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly(I:C) and interferon (IFN). TDL from mice treated with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) expressed little or no NK cell activity against YAC-1 target cells at effector-to-target ratios of up to 200:1, even after in vitro treatment with murine L-cell IFN. In contrast, TDL from poly(I:C)- or IFN-treated mice expressed significant NK activity, which correlated with the significantly higher NK activity of splenocytes from these mice compared to the NK activity of splenocytes from PBS-treated mice. These data indicate that although TDL from normal mice express no detectable NK cell activity, NK cell activity can be induced in TDL by in vivo treatment with poly(I:C) or IFN.

  14. Early bile duct cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jae Myung Cha; Myung-Hwan Kim; Se Jin Jang

    2007-01-01

    Bile duct cancers are frequently diagnosed as advanced diseases. Over half of patients with advanced bile duct cancer present with unresectable malignancies and their prognosis has been very poor even after curative resections. Although there has been a need to diagnose bile duct cancer at its early stage, it has been a difficult goal to achieve due to our lack of knowledge regarding this disease entity. Early bile duct cancer may be defined as a carcinoma whose invasion is confined within the fibromuscular layer of the extrahepatic bile duct or intrahepatic large bile duct without distant metastasis irrespective of lymph node involvement. Approximately 3%-10% of resected bile duct cancers have been reported to be early cancers in the literature. The clinicopathological features of patients with early bile duct cancer differ from those of patients with advanced bile duct cancer, with more frequent asymptomatic presentation, characteristic histopathological findings,and excellent prognosis. This manuscript is organized to emphasize the need for convening an international consensus to develop the concept of early bile duct cancer.

  15. Effect of vagus nerve stimulation on the secretory-granule volume of the principal cells of the mouse gallbladder epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlin, T; Hulliger, M; Axelsson, H

    1979-07-01

    Experiments in mice were performed in order to investigate whether vagal activity could affect glycoprotein secretion from gallbladder principal cells. This cell type was studied with the electron microscope in control animals and after electric stimulation of the right or left nervus vagus. The volume density of glycoprotein containing granules was determined using morphometry. It was found that stimulation of the left vagus nerve significantly reduced the relative cellular volume of secretory granules in the principal cells of the gallbladder. Right vagus stimulation was accompanied by a weak but insignificant increase in secretory granule content. It is suggested that the left vagus nerve may exert a direct influence on glycoprotein secretion from gallbladder principal cells.

  16. Bile Duct Adenoma with Oncocytic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. Johannesen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Bile duct adenomas are benign bile duct proliferations usually encountered as an incidental finding. Oncocytic bile duct neoplasms are rare and the majority are malignant. A 61-year-old male with a diagnosis of colorectal adenocarcinoma was undergoing surgery when a small white nodule was discovered on the surface of the right lobe of his liver. This lesion was composed of cytologically bland cells arranged in tightly packed glands. These cells were immunopositive for cytokeratin 7, negative for Hep Par 1, contained mucin, and had a Ki67 proliferation index of 8%. The morphology, immunophenotype, presence of mucin, and normal appearing bile ducts, as well as the increased Ki67 proliferation rate, were consistent with a bile duct adenoma with oxyphilic (oncocytic change. Oncocytic tumors in the liver are rare; the first described in 1992. Only two bile duct adenomas with oncocytic change have been reported and neither of them had reported mucin production or the presence of normal appearing bile ducts within the lesion.

  17. Collision tumor of the kidney composed of clear cell carcinoma and collecting duct carcinoma:report of a case with unusual morphology and clinical follow-up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rhonda Burch-Smith; Nizar M Tannir; Erika Resetkova; Pheroze Tamboli; Priya Rao

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 67-year-old female who presented with a large renal mass. Gross examination of the nephrectomy specimen demonstrated a 6-cm renal mass that invaded into the renal sinus and perinephric fat. Histologic examination revealed two distinct tumor types. The first type was a conventional (clear cell) renal cell carcinoma that was of low nuclear grade and comprised the minority of the overall tumor. The second type was a high-grade collecting duct carcinoma with glandular/tubular differentiation and composed the majority of the tumor. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated distinctive patterns of the two tumor types, thus confirming two distinct lineages. Five months postoperatively, the patient developed metastasis to the lungs and right hilar lymph node region. A fine needle aspiration of a lung nodule demonstrated a metastatic, poorly differentiated carcinoma, similar to the colecting duct carcinoma component in the kidney. Colision tumors of the kidney are rare with fewer than 10 cases reported in the literature. Our report further expands the spectrum of this rare phenomenon.

  18. Serotonin Regulates the Firing of Principal Cells of the Subiculum by Inhibiting a T-type Ca(2+) Current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Anders V; Jensen, Camilla S; Crépel, Valérie

    2017-01-01

    and calcium imaging, we demonstrate that 5-HT2C receptors reduce bursting activity by inhibiting a low-threshold calcium current mediated by T-type Ca(2+) channels in principal cells of the subiculum. In addition, we show that the activation of this novel pathway decreases bursting activity and the occurrence...

  19. Thiazolidinediones alter growth and epithelial cell integrity, independent of PPAR-γ and MAPK activation, in mouse M1 cortical collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrallah, Rania; Clark, Jordan; Corinaldi, Jaime; Paris, Geneviève; Miura, Pedro; Jasmin, Bernard J; Hébert, Richard L

    2010-05-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ is highly expressed in the collecting duct (CD), yet little is known about the effects of PPAR-γ ligands, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), on CD cell structure and function. M1 mouse cortical CD cells were treated with 5 μM troglitazone (TRO) and rosiglitazone (ROSI). First, growth was measured by [(3)H]thymidine and [(3)H]leucine incorporation, as well as analysis of cyclin D1 and the CDK inhibitor p27 by Western blot. [(3)H]thymidine incorporation was reduced by 56 and 24% by TRO and ROSI at 6 h, and [(3)H]leucine by 21 and 10%. A similar growth inhibition was also observed after 24 h for thymidine, but leucine was reduced by 48 and 24%, respectively. Likewise, cyclin D1 was diminished 60% by TRO, and p27 was elevated 1.6- and 1.7-fold in response to TRO and ROSI. Next, epithelial cell integrity was assessed by measuring different markers by Western blot analysis. While fibronectin and α-smooth muscle actin levels were unchanged, by 24 h E-cadherin was decreased by 50%, and β-catenin levels were reduced 2- and 1.5-fold in response to TRO and ROSI, respectively. GW9662, a PPAR-γ antagonist, did not reverse any of the TZD responses in M1 cells. Of interest, phosho-p38 levels were also elevated 2-fold in response to TRO and 2.3-fold to ROSI, but MAPK inhibition by PD98059 or SB203580 caused an additive inhibition of cell growth and did not alter E-cadherin or β-catenin in response to TZDs. Finally, apoptotic death was assessed by Western blot, but cleaved caspase-3 levels were unchanged from 15 min to 24 h in response to TZDs, and TRO did not affect cell viability or reactive oxygen species generation. Our data suggest that TZDs cause a disruption of M1 cell integrity that is preceded by an inhibition of cell growth. This response is independent of p38 or PPAR-γ activation.

  20. Morphology of the testes and epididymal ducts in the pampas cat Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Mehanna

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The pampas cat Leopardus colocolo (Molina, 1782 is a species of the Felidae family, widely distributed in South America, included on CITES Appendix II and classified as Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List, with population trend decreasing. Based on this information, the objective of this study is to describe morphologically the testes and epididymal ducts of pampas cat. The animal, coming from the Federal University of Mato Grosso Zoo, Brazil, had died after anesthesia procedure and the male reproductive system was dissected to collect the testicles. The samples taken were fragmented and histologically examined. From the microscopic analysis of the testes were identified: vaginal and tunica albuginea, formed by dense connective tissue modeled with large amount of collagen fibers. The tunica albuginea fibrous septa emits into the body. The seminiferous tubules are coiled and coated internally by spermatogenic epithelium consisting of Sertoli cells, surrounded by a basement membrane in the presence of myoid cells. The interstitial tissue between the seminiferous tubules, is composed of loose connective tissue, blood and lymph vessels, and Leydig cells in polyhedral shape. The epididymal ducts showed pseudostratified columnar epithelium with secretory cells of which stereocilia design, situated on a basement membrane filled by myoid cells. This epithelium has principal and basal cells, the main cell design stereocilia toward the lumen of the epididymal duct.

  1. Chloride and potassium conductances of cultured human sweat ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Pedersen, P S; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the ion conductances, in particular those for Cl- and K+, of human sweat duct cells grown in primary culture. Sweat duct cells from healthy individuals were grown to confluence on a dialysis membrane, which was then mounted in a mini-Ussing chamber...

  2. Na(+)/H(+) exchange regulatory factor 1 is required for ROMK1 K(+) channel expression in the surface membrane of cultured M-1 cortical collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Mayanagi, Taira; Sobue, Kenji; Kubokawa, Manabu

    2017-07-22

    The ROMK1 K(+) channel, a member of the ROMK channel family, is the major candidate for the K(+) secretion pathway in the renal cortical collecting duct (CCD). ROMK1 possesses a PDZ domain-binding motif at its C-terminus that is considered a modulator of ROMK1 expression via interaction with Na(+)/H(+) exchange regulatory factor (NHERF) 1 and NHERF2 scaffold protein. Although NHERF1 is a potential binding partner of the ROMK1 K(+) channel, the interaction between NHERF1 and K(+) channel activity remains unclear. Therefore, in this study, we knocked down NHERF1 in cultured M-1 cells derived from mouse CCD and investigated the surface expression and K(+) channel current in these cells after exogenous transfection with EGFP-ROMK1. NHERF1 knockdown resulted in reduced surface expression of ROMK1 as indicated by a cell biotinylation assay. Using the patch-clamp technique, we further found that the number of active channels per patched membrane and the Ba(2+)-sensitive whole-cell K(+) current were decreased in the knockdown cells, suggesting that reduced K(+) current was accompanied by decreased surface expression of ROMK1 in the NHERF1 knockdown cells. Our results provide evidence that NHERF1 mediates K(+) current activity through acceleration of the surface expression of ROMK1 K(+) channels in M-1 cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Amputation neuroma mimics common hepatic duct carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, N; Todoroki, T; Kawamoto, T; Inagawa, S; Yoshida, S; Fukao, K

    2000-01-01

    Most amputation neuromas of the biliary tract occur in the cystic duct stump after cholecystectomy and are asymptomatic. However, when they arise in the main hepatic duct and are associated with obstructive jaundice, it is difficult to distinguish them from carcinoma. We describe a case in which preoperative differential diagnosis was difficult. A 60-year-old man was admitted to the Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, with a chief complaint of jaundice. Cholangiography showed an irregularly elevated nodular lesion on the lateral wall of the common hepatic duct and multiple floating stones in the choledochus. Ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed one-sided regional thickening of the common hepatic duct associated with dilatation of the intrahepatic and extrahepatic bile ducts. Carbohydrate antigen 19-9 level was markedly elevated to 11,200 IU/mL in the bile juice, but was only 38 IU/mL in the serum, below the limit of abnormality. Cholangioscopy showed papillary tumor with coarse granular surface mimicking papillary carcinoma, but biopsy revealed no malignancy. The patient underwent hepaticocholedochus resection. Although the macroscopic finding from the surgical specimens was papillary carcinoma of the common hepatic duct penetrating to the hepatoduodenal ligament, histopathological examination revealed an amputation neuroma consisting of hypertrophic nerve tissues and giant cells containing foreign bodies, probably as a consequence of a previous cholecystectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful and the patient has been living well for the 5 years since the resection.

  4. Malformations of the epididymis, incomplete regression of the mesonephric tubules and hyperplasia of Leydig cells in canine persistence of Müllerian duct syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Ana; Monteagudo, Luis V; Díaz-Otero, Angel; Lebrero, M Eugenia; Tejedor, M Teresa; Falceto, M Victoria; Whyte, Jaime; Gallego, Margarita

    2009-10-01

    Persistence of the Müllerian duct syndrome (PMDS) is a rare form of pseudohermaphroditism characterized by the presence of uterus and oviducts in otherwise normally differentiated SRY-positive 78 XY canine males. Undescended testicles are also common. We report a case of a male PMDS dog with a uterus and bilateral cryptorchidism. The dog had an incomplete regression of the mesonephric tubules. As a consequence of this an abnormally enlarged head of the epididymis was observed. In addition, an extreme reduction in size of both the body and the tail was found. Microscopic examination of both testicles revealed bilateral hyperplasia of Leydig cells. The progesterone blood level was measured by ELISA and was found to be abnormally high (3.18 ng/ml) compared to that of normal male dogs (lower than 1 ng/ml). Three months after surgical removal of the internal genitalia, the serum progesterone, testosterone and oestradiol levels were normal for a castrated male dog.

  5. Prostaglandin E2 induces chloride secretion through crosstalk between cAMP and calcium signaling in mouse inner medullary collecting duct cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopal, Madhumitha; Thomas, Sheela V.; Kathpalia, Paru P.; Chen, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Under conditions of high dietary salt intake, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production is increased in the collecting duct and promotes urinary sodium chloride (NaCl) excretion; however, the molecular mechanisms by which PGE2 increases NaCl excretion in this context have not been clearly defined. We used the mouse inner medullary collecting duct (mIMCD)-K2 cell line to characterize mechanisms underlying PGE2-regulated NaCl transport. When epithelial Na+ channels were inhibited, PGE2 exclusively stimulated basolateral EP4 receptors to increase short-circuit current (IscPGE2). We found that IscPGE2 was sensitive to inhibition by H-89 and CFTR-172, indicating that EP4 receptors signal through protein kinase A to induce Cl− secretion via cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Unexpectedly, we also found that IscPGE2 was sensitive to inhibition by BAPTA-AM (Ca2+ chelator), 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB) (inositol triphosphate receptor blocker), and flufenamic acid (FFA) [Ca2+-activated Cl− channel (CACC) inhibitor], suggesting that EP4 receptors also signal through Ca2+ to induce Cl− secretion via CACC. Additionally, we observed that PGE2 stimulated an increase in Isc through crosstalk between cAMP and Ca2+ signaling; BAPTA-AM or 2-APB inhibited a component of IscPGE2 that was sensitive to CFTR-172 inhibition; H-89 inhibited a component of IscPGE2 that was sensitive to FFA inhibition. Together, our findings indicate that PGE2 activates basolateral EP4 receptors and signals through both cAMP and Ca2+ to stimulate Cl− secretion in IMCD-K2 cells. We propose that these signaling pathways, and the crosstalk between them, may provide a concerted mechanism for enhancing urinary NaCl excretion under conditions of high dietary NaCl intake. PMID:24284792

  6. Ultrasound appearance of chronic mammary duct ectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchesne, N. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: nathalie_duchesne_22@yahoo.ca; Skolnik, S. [Univ. of Toronto, Dept. of Family Medicine, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Bilmer, S. [Ottawa Hospital, Dept. of Radiology, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    Mammary duct ectasia (MDE), also called periductal mastitis, mammary dysplasia, or plasma cell mastitis, is a benign condition of the mammary gland first described by Haagensen in 1951. The etiology of MDE is unknown and its pathogenesis still controversial; the periductal inflammation could be either the cause or the result of dilated damaged ducts. The process is usually bilateral and asymptomatic, with only a small percentage of patients presenting with symptoms that may include long course of tumour formation, usually subareolar breast lumps, nipple discharge, nipple retraction, mastalgia, and mammary abscess or fistulas. Mammographic presentation of MDE is well known; its features include periductal calcification, benign intraductal calcification, and retroareolar duct dilatation. The periductal calcification results from dystrophic calcification and forms calcified rings or very dense, oval, elongated calcifications, each with a central lucency representing the dilated duct. Intraductal calcifications of duct ectasia represent inspissated intraductal material and are typically of uniform high density, often needle-like, and occasionally branching. Occasionally, there are no mammographic findings, and the diagnosis must rely on sonographic features. Appearance of MDE on ultrasonography (US) depends on the stage of the disease and the contents of the dilated ducts. The acute presentation has been demonstrated in the literature more often than has its chronic counterpart. In the former, duct content can vary from anechoic to isoechoic with surrounding fatty tissue. In chronic MDE, episodes of inflammation are longer. This tends to result in secretions that have a more solid, cheesy texture, partly due to cholesterol crystals, foam cells, and inflammatory cells. For both types of MDE, the appearance can mimic high-grade ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) on US. In this essay, 2 chronic MDE cases are presented and their US appearance discussed. Our goal is to explore

  7. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, Dave [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-07

    "9A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences; 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs; 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  8. Extracellular GTP is a potent water-transport regulator via aquaporin 5 plasma-membrane insertion in M1-CCD epithelial cortical collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancinelli, Rosa; La Rovere, Rita Maria Laura; Fulle, Stefania; Miscia, Sebastiano; Marchisio, Marco; Pierdomenico, Laura; Lanuti, Paola; Procino, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Claudia; Svelto, Maria; Fanò-Illic, Giorgio; Pietrangelo, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular GTP is able to modulate some specific functions in neuron, glia and muscle cell models as it has been demonstrated over the last two decades. In fact, extracellular GTP binds its specific plasma membrane binding sites and induces signal transduction via [Ca(2+)]i increase. We demonstrate, for the first time, that extracellular GTP is able to modulate cell swelling in M1-CCD cortical collecting duct epithelial cells via upregulation of aquaporin 5 (AQP5) expression. We used videoimaging, immunocitochemistry, flow cytometry, confocal techniques, Western blotting and RT-PCR for protein and gene expression analysis, respectively. We demonstrate that AQP5 mRNA is up-regulated 7 h after the GTP exposure in the cell culture medium, and its protein level is increased after 12-24 h. We show that AQP5 is targeted to the plasma membrane of M1-CCD cells, where it facilitates cell swelling, and that the GTP-dependent AQP5 up-regulation occurs via [Ca(2+)]i increase. Indeed, GTP induces both oscillating and transient [Ca(2+)]i increase, and specifically the oscillating kinetic appears to be responsible for blocking cell cycle in the S-phase while the [Ca(2+)]i influx, with whatever kinetic, seems to be responsible for inducing AQP5 expression. The role of GTP as a regulator of AQP5-mediated water transport in renal cells is of great importance in the physiology of renal epithelia, due to its possible physiopathological implications. GTP-dependent AQP5 expression could act as osmosensor. In addition, the data presented here suggest that GTP might play the same role in other tissues where rapid water transport is required for cell volume regulation and maintenance of the homeostasis. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Extracellular GTP is a Potent Water-Transport Regulator via Aquaporin 5 Plasma-Membrane Insertion in M1-CCD Epithelial Cortical Collecting Duct Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Mancinelli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Extracellular GTP is able to modulate some specific functions in neuron, glia and muscle cell models as it has been demonstrated over the last two decades. In fact, extracellular GTP binds its specific plasma membrane binding sites and induces signal transduction via [Ca2+]i increase. We demonstrate, for the first time, that extracellular GTP is able to modulate cell swelling in M1-CCD cortical collecting duct epithelial cells via upregulation of aquaporin 5 (AQP5 expression. Methods: We used videoimaging, immunocitochemistry, flow cytometry, confocal techniques, Western blotting and RT-PCR for protein and gene expression analysis, respectively. Results: We demonstrate that AQP5 mRNA is up-regulated 7 h after the GTP exposure in the cell culture medium, and its protein level is increased after 12-24 h. We show that AQP5 is targeted to the plasma membrane of M1-CCD cells, where it facilitates cell swelling, and that the GTP-dependent AQP5 up-regulation occurs via [Ca2+]i increase. Indeed, GTP induces both oscillating and transient [Ca2+]i increase, and specifically the oscillating kinetic appears to be responsible for blocking cell cycle in the S-phase while the [Ca2+]i influx, with whatever kinetic, seems to be responsible for inducing AQP5 expression. Conclusion: The role of GTP as a regulator of AQP5-mediated water transport in renal cells is of great importance in the physiology of renal epithelia, due to its possible physiopathological implications. GTP-dependent AQP5 expression could act as osmosensor. In addition, the data presented here suggest that GTP might play the same role in other tissues where rapid water transport is required for cell volume regulation and maintenance of the homeostasis.

  10. Characterization of primary cilia and Hedgehog signaling during development of the human pancreas and in human pancreatic duct cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sonja K; Møllgård, Kjeld; Clement, Christian A

    2008-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling controls pancreatic development and homeostasis; aberrant Hh signaling is associated with several pancreatic diseases. Here we investigated the link between Hh signaling and primary cilia in the human developing pancreatic ducts and in cultures of human pancreatic duct...

  11. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark Raymond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 μm were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on the

  12. Particle deposition in ventilation ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sippola, Mark R.

    2002-09-01

    Exposure to airborne particles is detrimental to human health and indoor exposures dominate total exposures for most people. The accidental or intentional release of aerosolized chemical and biological agents within or near a building can lead to exposures of building occupants to hazardous agents and costly building remediation. Particle deposition in heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems may significantly influence exposures to particles indoors, diminish HVAC performance and lead to secondary pollutant release within buildings. This dissertation advances the understanding of particle behavior in HVAC systems and the fates of indoor particles by means of experiments and modeling. Laboratory experiments were conducted to quantify particle deposition rates in horizontal ventilation ducts using real HVAC materials. Particle deposition experiments were conducted in steel and internally insulated ducts at air speeds typically found in ventilation ducts, 2-9 m/s. Behaviors of monodisperse particles with diameters in the size range 1-16 {micro}m were investigated. Deposition rates were measured in straight ducts with a fully developed turbulent flow profile, straight ducts with a developing turbulent flow profile, in duct bends and at S-connector pieces located at duct junctions. In straight ducts with fully developed turbulence, experiments showed deposition rates to be highest at duct floors, intermediate at duct walls, and lowest at duct ceilings. Deposition rates to a given surface increased with an increase in particle size or air speed. Deposition was much higher in internally insulated ducts than in uninsulated steel ducts. In most cases, deposition in straight ducts with developing turbulence, in duct bends and at S-connectors at duct junctions was higher than in straight ducts with fully developed turbulence. Measured deposition rates were generally higher than predicted by published models. A model incorporating empirical equations based on

  13. The hippocampus of the eastern rock sengi: cytoarchitecture, markers of neuronal function, principal cell numbers and adult neurogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lutz eSlomianka

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The brains of sengis (elephant shrews, order Macroscelidae have long been known to contain a hippocampus that in terms of allometric progression indices is larger than that of most primates and equal in size to that of humans. In this report, we provide descriptions of hippocampal cytoarchitecture in the eastern rock sengi (Elephantulus myurus, of the distributions of hippocampal calretinin, calbindin, parvalbumin and somatostatin, of principal neuron numbers and of cell numbers related to proliferation and neuronal differentiation in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Sengi hippocampal cytoarchitecture is an amalgamation of characters that are found in CA1 of, e.g., guinea pig and rabbits and in CA3 and dentate gyrus of primates. Correspondence analysis of total cell numbers and quantitative relations between principal cell populations relate this sengi to macaque monkeys and domestic pigs, and distinguish the sengi from distinct patterns of relations found in humans, dogs and murine rodents. Calretinin and calbindin are present in some cell populations that also express these proteins in other species, e.g., interneurons at the stratum oriens/alveus border or temporal hilar mossy cells, but neurons expressing these markers are often scarce or absent in other layers. The distributions of parvalbumin and somatostatin resemble those in other species. Normalized numbers of PCNA+ proliferating cells and doublecortin+ differentiating cells of neuronal lineage fall within the overall ranges of murid rodents, but differed from three murid species captured in the same habitat in that fewer doublecortin+ cells relative to PCNA+ were observed . The large and well-differentiated sengi hippocampus is not accompanied by correspondingly sized cortical and subcortical limbic areas that are the main hippocampal sources of afferents and targets of efferents. This points to intrinsic hippocampal information processing as the selective advantage of the large sengi

  14. Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disorders Overview of Gallbladder and Bile Duct Disorders Cholecystitis Gallstones Biliary Pain Without Gallstones Narrowing of the ... ducts are blocked, the gallbladder may become inflamed ( cholecystitis ). Biliary pain without gallstones (acalculous biliary pain) can ...

  15. Principal component analysis uncovers cytomegalovirus-associated NK cell activation in Ph(+) leukemia patients treated with dasatinib.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiyama, K; Kitawaki, T; Sugimoto, N; Sozu, T; Anzai, N; Okada, M; Nohgawa, M; Hatanaka, K; Arima, N; Ishikawa, T; Tabata, S; Onaka, T; Oka, S; Nakabo, Y; Amakawa, R; Matsui, M; Moriguchi, T; Takaori-Kondo, A; Kadowaki, N

    2017-01-01

    Dasatinib treatment markedly increases the number of large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) in a proportion of Ph(+) leukemia patients, which associates with a better prognosis. The lymphocytosis is predominantly observed in cytomegalovirus (CMV)-seropositive patients, yet detectable CMV reactivation exists only in a small fraction of patients. Thus, etiology of the lymphocytosis still remains unclear. Here, we identified NK cells as the dominant LGLs expanding in dasatinib-treated patients, and applied principal component analysis (PCA) to an extensive panel of NK cell markers to explore underlying factors in NK cell activation. PCA displayed phenotypic divergence of NK cells that reflects CMV-associated differentiation and genetic differences, and the divergence was markedly augmented in CMV-seropositive dasatinib-treated patients. Notably, the CMV-associated highly differentiated status of NK cells was already observed at leukemia diagnosis, and was further enhanced after starting dasatinib in virtually all CMV-seropositive patients. Thus, the extensive characterization of NK cells by PCA strongly suggests that CMV is an essential factor in the NK cell activation, which progresses stepwise during leukemia and subsequent dasatinib treatment most likely by subclinical CMV reactivation. This study provides a rationale for the exploitation of CMV-associated NK cell activation for treatment of leukemias.

  16. Isolated Pancreatic Uncinate Duct IPMN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maker, Ajay V; Maker, Vijay K

    2017-04-01

    The ventral pancreas originally forms as an evagination of the common bile duct at 32 days gestation and its duct, the uncinate duct, eventually rotates with the ventral anlage to join the dorsal pancreas and fuse with the main pancreatic duct. Thus, though often considered a "branch" duct of the pancreas, embryologically, the uncinate duct is the "main" pancreatic duct of the ventral pancreas. This concept is not fully addressed in the current definitions of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas (IPMN) where international consensus guidelines consider the main-duct IPMN as high risk for malignancy and most small branch-duct IPMN as low risk for malignancy. Thus, it is important to recognize that isolated uncinate-duct IPMN can occur and, based on its embryologic origin and increased association with high-grade dysplasia and invasive cancer, may be managed conceptually as a main duct type of disease rather than a branch duct until better biomarkers of malignancy are discovered. The images provide an example of this unique disease process.

  17. Segmental Expression of the Bradykinin Type 2 Receptor in Rat Efferent Ducts and Epididymis and Its Role in the Regulation of Aquaporin 91

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belleannée, C.; Silva, N. Da; Shum, W.W.C.; Marsolais, M.; Laprade, R.; Brown, D.; Breton, S.

    2008-01-01

    Water and solute transport in the efferent ducts and epididymis are important for the establishment of the appropriate luminal environment for sperm maturation and storage. Aquaporin 9 (AQP9) is the main water channel in the epididymis, but its regulation is still poorly understood. Components of the kinin-kallikrein system (KKS), leading to the production of bradykinin (BK), are highly expressed in the lumen of the male reproductive tract. We report here that the epididymal luminal fluid contains a significant amount of BK (2 nM). RT-PCR performed on epididymal epithelial cells isolated by laser capture microdissection (LCM) showed abundant BK type 2 receptor (Bdkrb2) mRNA expression but no type 1 receptor (Bdkrb1). Double-immunofluorescence staining for BDKRB2 and the anion exchanger AE2 (a marker of efferent duct ciliated cells) or the V-ATPase E subunit, official symbol ATP6V1E1 (a marker of epididymal clear cells), showed that BDKRB2 is expressed in the apical pole of nonciliated cells (efferent ducts) and principal cells (epididymis). Triple labeling for BDKRB2, AQP9, and ATP6V1E1 showed that BDKRB2 and AQP9 colocalize in the apical stereocilia of principal cells in the cauda epididymidis. While uniform Bdkrb2 mRNA expression was detected in the efferent ducts and along the epididymal tubule, marked variations were detected at the protein level. BDKRB2 was highest in the efferent ducts and cauda epididymidis, intermediate in the distal initial segment, moderate in the corpus, and undetectable in the proximal initial segment and the caput. Functional assays on tubules isolated from the distal initial segments showed that BK significantly increased AQP9-dependent glycerol apical membrane permeability. This effect was inhibited by BAPTA-AM, demonstrating the participation of calcium in this process. This study, therefore, identifies BK as an important regulator of AQP9. PMID:18829705

  18. Resin duct characteristics in the wood of fire-scarred North American conifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelle Arbellay; Markus Stoffel; Elaine K. Sutherland; Kevin T. Smith; Donald A. Falk

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic resin ducts form in xylem and phloem tissue of conifers in response to abiotic wounding, fungal invasion, and insect attack. Little is known about resin duct characteristics in the wood of fire-scarred trees. The aim of this study is to quantify changes in traits of both axial and radial resin ducts, along with those of associated epithelial cells and...

  19. Cornice Duct System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne Place; Chuck Ladd

    2004-10-29

    SYNERGETICS, INC., has designed, developed, and tested an air handling duct system that integrates the air duct with the cornice trim of interior spaces. The device has the advantage that the normal thermal losses from ducts into unconditioned attics and crawl spaces can be totally eliminated by bringing the ducts internal to the conditioned space. The following report details work conducted in the second budget period to develop the Cornice Duct System into a viable product for use in a variety of residential or small commercial building settings. A full-scale prototype has been fabricated and tested in a laboratory test building at the Daylighting Facility at North Carolina State University., Based on the results of that testing, the prototype design as been refined, fabricated, installed, and extensively tested in a residential laboratory house. The testing indicates that the device gives substantially superior performance to a standard air distribution system in terms of energy performance and thermal comfort. Patent Number US 6,511,373 B2 has been granted on the version of the device installed and tested in the laboratory house. (A copy of that patent is attached.) Refinements to the device have been carried through two additional design iterations, with a particular focus on reducing installation time and cost and refining the air control system. These new designs have been fabricated and tested and show substantial promise. Based on these design and testing iterations, a final design is proposed as part of this document. That final design is the basis for a continuation in part currently being filed with the U.5, Patent office.

  20. SOX10-positive salivary gland tumors: a growing list, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of the salivary gland, sialoblastoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, basal cell adenoma/adenocarcinoma, and a subgroup of mucoepidermoid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Min-Shu; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Chang, Yih-Leong

    2016-10-01

    Transcription factor SRY-related HMG-box 10 (SOX10) is an important marker for melanocytic, schwannian, myoepithelial, and some salivary gland tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate SOX10 expression more thoroughly in the salivary gland neoplasms, including mammary analogue secretory carcinoma and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma harboring specific genetic rearrangements. A new rabbit monoclonal anti-SOX10 antibody (clone EP268) was used to examine SOX10 expression in 14 different types of salivary gland tumors. We found that acinic cell carcinoma (AciCC), adenoid cystic carcinoma, mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC), epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma, low-grade salivary duct carcinoma, sialoblastoma, basal cell adenocarcinoma, basal cell adenoma, and pleomorphic adenoma were SOX10 positive. Salivary duct carcinoma, lymphoepithelial carcinoma, hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma, and oncocytoma were SOX10 negative. Earlier, mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) was considered a SOX10-negative tumor. This study identified a subgroup of SOX10-positive MEC cases with characteristic polygonal epithelial cells, pale-to-eosinophilic cytoplasm, and colloid-like dense eosinophilic material. Our data show SOX10 expression can be observed in salivary gland tumors with either one of the 4 cell types: acinic cells, cuboidal ductal cells with low-grade cytologic features, basaloid cells, and myoepithelial cells. In this article we thoroughly evaluated SOX10 expression in salivary gland tumors. SOX10 is useful in the differential diagnosis between myoepithelial carcinoma with clear cell features and hyalinizing clear cell carcinoma. It can also be used to discriminate low-grade salivary duct carcinoma from high-grade ones. Pathologists should be cautious with the interpretation of SOX10 positivity in salivary gland tumors, and correlation with histologic feature is mandatory.

  1. Diverticular bile duct lesion in chronic active hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vyberg, M

    1989-01-01

    Liver needle biopsies from patients with non-A, non-B chronic active hepatitis and so-called abnormal bile duct epithelium were studied with a three-dimensional method. Photographs of bile duct structures in serial sections were transferred to acrylic plates. Five bile duct lesions of a not previ......Liver needle biopsies from patients with non-A, non-B chronic active hepatitis and so-called abnormal bile duct epithelium were studied with a three-dimensional method. Photographs of bile duct structures in serial sections were transferred to acrylic plates. Five bile duct lesions...... cells, but most were larger, with rounded nuclei, prominent nucleoli and abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, sometimes with periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-resistant granules. The lesions were only partly surrounded by a basement membrane. They were all embedded in a tight mononuclear inflammatory...... infiltrate associated with pronounced periportal piecemeal necrosis. In two cases, a germinal center was adjacent to the epithelium. The pathogenesis of the diverticular bile duct lesion is unknown, but the diverticuli probably represent Hering ducts and groups of periportal liver cells which have escaped...

  2. 14 CFR 25.1103 - Induction system ducts and air duct systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system ducts and air duct systems....1103 Induction system ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the first... auxiliary power unit bleed air duct systems, no hazard may result if a duct failure occurs at any...

  3. MiR-21 Regulates TNF-α-Induced CD40 Expression via the SIRT1-NF-κB Pathway in Renal Inner Medullary Collecting Duct Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qinqin; Geng, Yuanwen; Zhao, Meng; Lin, Shuaishuai; Zhu, Qing; Tian, Zhenjun

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies have indicated that microRNA-21 (miR-21) is involved in the inflammatory response in relation to renal disease. Sirtuin1 (SIRT1) exerts renoprotective properties by counteracting inflammation. The activation of CD40 triggers inflammation that participates in renal inflammation and injury. The relationship between miR-21, SIRT1 and CD40, however, remains elusive. Immunohistochemistry, small-interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection, quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting were applied to assess the morphological, functional and molecular mechanisms in primary cultured renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells. TNF-α induced miR-21, CD40 and acetylated-NF-κBp65 (Ac-p65) expressions and reduced SIRT1 expression in IMCD cells. miR-21 mimics increased SIRT1 expression and attenuated Ac-p65 and CD40 expressions in TNF-α-induced IMCD cells, and the corresponding changes were observed with a miR-21 inhibitor. SIRT1 overexpression or activation by SRT1720 diminished TNF-α-induced CD40 and Ac-p65 expressions, which was reversed by SIRT1 siRNA or the inhibitors Ex527 and sirtinol and augmented by pretreatment with NF-κB siRNA. Further study found that the inhibitory effect of miR-21 on Ac-p65 and CD40 expressions was impeded by pretreatment with SIRT1 siRNA. The present study indicates that miR-21 inhibits TNF-α-induced CD40 expression in IMCD cells via the SIRT1-NF-κB signalling pathway, which provides new insight in understanding the anti-inflammatory effect of miR-21. © 2017 The Author(s)Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. 3C DUCT DESIGN METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan-RueiShiu; Feng-ChuOu; Sih-LiChen

    2002-01-01

    A new 3C duct design method is proposed for designing a high quality, energy-efficiency cost-effective air duct system. It not only considers the demand of volume flow rate, but also takes into consideration a number of issues including system pressure balance, noise, vibration, space limitation and total system cost. This new method comprises three major calculation procedures:initial computer-aided design (CAD), computer-aided simulation (CAS) and correction processes (CP). An example is presented in this study to understand the characteristics of 3C method. It shows that 3C duct design method provides a simple computation procedure for an optimum air duct system. It also shortens the design schedule, prevents human calculation errors, and reduces the dependence on designer experience. In addition to apply in a new duct system design, 3C duct design method is also a powerful design tool for the expansion of an existing duct system.

  5. High potassium promotes mutual interaction between (pro)renin receptor and the local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in rat inner medullary collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Chuanming; Fang, Hui; Zhou, Li; Lu, Aihua; Yang, Tianxin

    2016-10-01

    (Pro)renin receptor (PRR) is predominantly expressed in the collecting duct (CD) with unclear functional implication. It is not known whether CD PRR is regulated by high potassium (HK). Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of HK on PRR expression and its role in regulation of aldosterone synthesis and release in the CD. In primary rat inner medullary CD cells, HK augmented PRR expression and soluble PPR (sPRR) release in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which was attenuated by PRR small interfering RNA (siRNA), eplerenone, and losartan. HK upregulated aldosterone release in parallel with an increase of CYP11B2 (cytochrome P-450, family 11, subfamily B, polypeptide 2) protein expression and upregulation of medium renin activity, both of which were attenuated by a PRR antagonist PRO20, PRR siRNA, eplerenone, and losartan. Similarly, prorenin upregulated aldosterone release and CYP11B2 expression, both of which were attenuated by PRR siRNA. Interestingly, a recombinant sPRR (sPRR-His) also stimulated aldosterone release and CYP11B2 expression. Taken together, we conclude that HK enhances a local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), leading to increased PRR expression, which in turn amplifies the response of the RAAS, ultimately contributing to heightened aldosterone release.

  6. Patients with chronic pancreatitis have islet progenitor cells in their ducts, but reversal of overt diabetes in NOD mice by anti-CD3 shows no evidence for islet regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jenny M; O'Reilly, Lorraine; Bland, Chris; Foulis, Alan K; Cooke, Anne

    2007-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to T-cell coreceptors have been shown to tolerise autoreactive T-cells and prevent or even reverse autoimmune pathology. In type 1 diabetes, there is a loss of insulin-secreting beta-cells, and a cure for type 1 diabetes would require not only tolerance induction but also recovery of the functional beta-cell mass. Although we have previously shown that diabetic mice have increased numbers of ductal progenitors in the pancreas, there is no evidence of any increase of insulin-secreting cells in the ducts. In contrast, in the adult human pancreas of patients with chronic pancreatitis, we can demonstrate, in the ducts, increased numbers of insulin-containing cells, as well as cells containing other endocrine and exocrine markers. There are also significantly increased numbers of cells expressing the homeodomain protein, pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1. Anti-CD3 has been shown to reverse overt diabetes in NOD mice; thus, we have used this model to ask whether monoclonal antibody-mediated inhibition of ongoing beta-cell destruction enables islet regeneration to occur. We find no evidence that such monoclonal antibody therapy results in either regeneration of insulin-secreting beta-cells or of increased proliferation of islet beta-cells.

  7. Patterns Prediction of Chemotherapy Sensitivity in Cancer Cell lines Using FTIR Spectrum, Neural Network and Principal Components Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zendehdel, Rezvan; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali; H Shirazi, Farshad

    2012-01-01

    Drug resistance enables cancer cells to break away from cytotoxic effect of anticancer drugs. Identification of resistant phenotype is very important because it can lead to effective treatment plan. There is an interest in developing classifying models of resistance phenotype based on the multivariate data. We have investigated a vibrational spectroscopic approach in order to characterize a sensitive human ovarian cell line, A2780, and its cisplatin-resistant derivative, A2780-cp. In this study FTIR method have been evaluated via the use of principal components analysis (PCA), ANN (artificial neuronal network) and LDA (linear discriminate analysis). FTIR spectroscopy on these cells in the range of 400-4000 cm(-1) showed alteration in the secondary structure of proteins and a CH stretching vibration. We have found that the ANN models correctly classified more than 95% of the cell lines, while the LDA models with the same data sets could classify 85% of cases. In the process of different ranges of spectra, the best classification of data set in the range of 1000-2000 cm(-1) was done using ANN model, while the data set between 2500-3000 cm(-1) was more correctly classified with the LDA model. PCA of the spectral data also provide a good separation for representing the variety of cell line spectra. Our work supports the promise of ANN analysis of FTIR spectrum as a supervised powerful approach and PCA as unsupervised modeling for the development of automated methods to determine the resistant phenotype of cancer classification.

  8. Neurogranin is expressed by principal cells but not interneurons in the rodent and monkey neocortex and hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singec, Ilyas; Knoth, Rolf; Ditter, Margarethe; Volk, Benedikt; Frotscher, Michael

    2004-11-01

    As a substrate of protein kinase C (PKC), neurogranin (NG) is involved in the regulation of calcium signaling and activity-dependent plasticity. Recently, we have shown that, in the rodent cerebellum, NG is exclusively expressed by gamma-aminobutyric acidergic Golgi cells, whereas, in the monkey cerebellum, brush cells were the only neuronal population expressing NG (Singec et al. [2003] J. Comp. Neurol. 459:278-289). In the present study, we analyzed the neocortical and hippocampal expression patterns of NG in adult mouse (C57Bl/6), rat (Wistar), and monkey (Cercopithecus aetiops). By using immunocytochemistry and nonradioactive in situ hybridization, we demonstrate strong NG expression by principal cells in different neocortical layers and in the hippocampus by granule cells of the dentate gyrus and pyramidal neurons of CA1-CA3. In contrast, double-labeling experiments in rodents revealed that neocortical and hippocampal interneurons expressing glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) were consistently devoid of NG. In addition, by using antibodies against parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin, we could demonstrate the absence of NG in interneurons of monkey frontal cortex and hippocampus. Together these findings corroborate the idea of different calcium signaling pathways in excitatory and inhibitory cells that may contribute to different modes of synaptic plasticity in these neurons.

  9. Salivary duct carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breinholt, Helle; Elhakim, Mohammad Talal; Godballe, Christian;

    2016-01-01

    1990 to 2005 were identified. Histological slides were reviewed, and data concerning demographics, tumour site, clinical stage, treatment profiles and follow-up were retrieved. Survival estimates and prognostic factors were evaluated by comparing Kaplan-Meier plots using the Mantel-Haenszel log......-rank test. RESULTS: Salivary duct carcinoma showed an incidence of 0.04/100.000 inhabitants/year. Distant recurrence was seen in 52% of patients. Five-year overall survival, disease-specific survival and recurrence-free survival were 32%, 42% and 35%, respectively. Univariate analyses suggested that overall...... stage (III/IV) and vascular invasion have a negative impact on all survival measures. Involved resection margins correlated with a poorer overall survival and disease-specific survival, whereas adjuvant radiotherapy improved overall survival and recurrence-free survival. CONCLUSIONS: Salivary duct...

  10. Comparative proteomic analysis of kidney distal convoluted tubule and cortical collecting duct cells following long-term hormonal stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Qi; Moller, Hanne; Rosenbaek, Lena Lindtoft

    2017-01-01

    -desamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (dDAVP, 1nM) or angiotensin II (ANGII, 1nM). Cells were harvested, equally pooled and subjected to offline high-pH fractionation based two dimensional LC-MS/MS analysis (Q-Exactive). Identification and quantification of proteins was performed by MaxQuant. Proteins that had...... FDR threshold in one cell type plus the unique proteins in this cell type. These 1025 mpkDCT specific proteins and 1211 mpkCCD specific proteins under the three conditions were subjected to further bioinformatics analyses including Panther and DAVID gene ontology analyses, E3 ligase...

  11. Detection of markers of hepatitis viral infection in the tissue of bile duct carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Hou-bao; QIAN Zhen-yu; WANG Bing-sheng; TONG Sai-xiong

    2008-01-01

    @@ Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an admitted oncogenic virus. Many epidemiological and molecular biological studies have demonstrated that chronic infection with HBV is a major risk factor associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic bile duct cancer.1-4 Compared with hepatocytes and intrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells,extrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells have autoploid in embryogenesis,continuity in anatomy and a similar internal environment.The question arises whether extrahepatic bile duct epithelial cells can receive HBV infection or not? The role of hepatitis viral infection in the pathogenesis of bile duct carcinoma has not yet been clarified.although a causative relationship between HBV or HCV infection and extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma has been reported in the literature.5,6 In this study,we focused on the evidence of hepatitis viral infection in tissue of bile duct carcinoma.

  12. Functional involvement of VAMP/synaptobrevin-2 in cAMP-stimulated aquaporin 2 translocation in renal collecting duct cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouraud, Sabine; Laera, Antonia; Calamita, Giuseppe; Carmosino, Monica; Procino, Giuseppe; Rossetto, Ornella; Mannucci, Roberta; Rosenthal, Walter; Svelto, Maria; Valenti, Giovanna

    2002-09-15

    The involvement of soluble N-ethylmaleimide sensitive factor-attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins in the cAMP-induced exocytosis of aquaporin 2 (AQP2)-containing vesicles was investigated in AQP2-transfected renal CD8 cells. RT-PCR and western blot analysis confirmed the presence of the SNARE homologs VAMP/synaptobrevin-2, syntaxin-1, syntaxin-4 and SNAP-23 in CD8 cells. Tetanus neurotoxin (TeNT) was efficient in cleaving synaptobrevin-like protein both in vitro and in intact CD8 cells incubated with the toxin. TeNT treatment in intact CD8 cells completely abolished cAMP-stimulated AQP2 targeting to the plasma membrane, as assessed by quantification of cell-surface immunoreactivity to an anti-AQP2 antibody raised against a peptide reproducing the extracellular AQP2 C-loop. These results represent the first evidence for the functional involvement of VAMP-2 in cAMP-induced AQP2 exocytosis in renal cells.

  13. Lhx1 is required in Müllerian duct epithelium for uterine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng-Chiu; Orvis, Grant D; Kwan, Kin Ming; Behringer, Richard R

    2014-05-15

    The female reproductive tract organs of mammals, including the oviducts, uterus, cervix and upper vagina, are derived from the Müllerian ducts, a pair of epithelial tubes that form within the mesonephroi. The Müllerian ducts form in a rostral to caudal manner, guided by and dependent on the Wolffian ducts that have already formed. Experimental embryological studies indicate that caudal elongation of the Müllerian duct towards the urogenital sinus occurs in part by proliferation at the ductal tip. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the elongation of the Müllerian duct are currently unclear. Lhx1 encodes a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor that is essential for male and female reproductive tract development. Lhx1 is expressed in both the Wolffian and Müllerian ducts. Wolffian duct-specific knockout of Lhx1 results in degeneration of the Wolffian duct and consequently the non-cell-autonomous loss of the Müllerian duct. To determine the role of Lhx1 specifically in the Müllerian duct epithelium, we performed a Müllerian duct-specific knockout study using Wnt7a-Cre mice. Loss of Lhx1 in the Müllerian duct epithelium led to a block in Müllerian duct elongation and uterine hypoplasia characterized by loss of the entire endometrium (luminal and glandular epithelium and stroma) and inner circular but not the outer longitudinal muscle layer. Time-lapse imaging and molecular analyses indicate that Lhx1 acts cell autonomously to maintain ductal progenitor cells for Müllerian duct elongation. These studies identify LHX1 as the first transcription factor that is essential in the Müllerian duct epithelial progenitor cells for female reproductive tract development. Furthermore, these genetic studies demonstrate the requirement of epithelial-mesenchymal interactions for uterine tissue compartment differentiation.

  14. Direct renin inhibitor aliskiren increases AQP2 expression in renal collecting ducts and improves urinary concentration defect in NDI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Yu; ZHANG Tie-zheng; ZHENG Pei-li; LI Chun-ling; WANG Wei-dong

    2016-01-01

    AIM:The direct renin inhibitor aliskiren displays antihypertensive and antialbuminuric effects in humans and in animal models . Emerging evidence has shown that aliskiren localizes and persists in medullary collecting ducts even after treatment was discontinued . The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether aliskiren regulates renal aquaporin expression and improves urinary concen -trating defect induced by lithium .METHODS:The mice were either fed with normal chow or LiCl diet (40 mmol/kg dry food per day for first 4 days and 20 mmol/kg dry food per day for last 3 days ) for seven days .Some mice were intraperitoneally injected aliskiren ( 50 mg/kg BW per day in saline ) .RESULTS:Mice injected aliskiren developed decreased urine output and increased urine osmolal -ity when compared with controls .Aliskiren significantly increased protein abundance of AQP 2 and phosphorylated-S256 AQP2 in the kidney inner medulla .Immunohistochemistry and immunofluoresence showed increased apical and intracellular labeling of AQP 2 and pS256-AQP2 in collecting duct principal cells of kidneys in mice treated with aliskiren .Aliskiren treatment prevented urinary concen-trating defect in lithium-treated mice , and improved the downregulation of AQP 2 and pS256-AQP2 protein abundance in inner medulla of the kidney .In primary cultured rat inner medulla collecting duct cells , aliskiren dramatically increased AQP 2 protein abundance which was significantly inhibited either by PKA inhibitor H 89 or by adenylyl cyclase inhibitor MDL 12330, indicating an involvement of the cAMP signalling pathway in mediating aliskiren-induced increased AQP 2 expression .CONCLUSION: The direct renin inhibitor aliskiren upregulates AQP 2 protein expression in inner medullary collecting duct principal cells and prevents lithium -induced nephro-genic diabetes insipidus ( NDI) likely via PKA-cAMP pathways .

  15. ß-adrenergic regulation of ion transport in pancreatic ducts: Patch-clamp study of isolated rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I

    1998-01-01

    much smaller effects. At comparable concentrations, it depolarized Vm by a few millivolts. Neither agonist had significant effects on intracellular Ca2+. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first direct evidence that adrenergic stimulation, namely, that of beta-adrenoceptors, controls ion transport....... METHODS: Small intralobular ducts were isolated from rat pancreas and studied in vitro by the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Cell membrane voltages and currents were indicators of cellular ion transport. In some ducts, intracellular Ca2+ activity was measured by fluorescence optical methods. RESULTS...... in pancreatic ducts. Similar to secretin, isoproterenol stimulation leads to opening of luminal Cl- channels, and HCO3- enters the lumen in exchange for Cl-....

  16. The Assessment of Hydrogen Energy Systems for Fuel Cell Vehicles Using Principal Componenet Analysis and Cluster Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogen energy which has been recognized as an alternative instead of fossil fuel has been developed rapidly in fuel cell vehicles. Different hydrogen energy systems have different performances on environmental, economic, and energy aspects. A methodology for the quantitative evaluation and anal......Hydrogen energy which has been recognized as an alternative instead of fossil fuel has been developed rapidly in fuel cell vehicles. Different hydrogen energy systems have different performances on environmental, economic, and energy aspects. A methodology for the quantitative evaluation...... to verify the correctness and accuracy of the principal components (PCs) determined by PCA in this paper. A case including 11 different hydrogen energy systems for fuel cell vehicles has been studied in this paper, and the system using steam reforming of natural gas for hydrogen production, pipeline...... for transportation of hydrogen, hydrogen gas tank for the storage of hydrogen at refueling stations, and gaseous hydrogen as power energy for fuel cell vehicles has been recognized as the best scenario. Also, the clustering results calculated by CA are consistent with those determined by PCA, denoting...

  17. The Metabolism of the Pancreas Carcinogen N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropylAmine by Hamster Pancreas Duct Epithelial Cell Clones; Evidence for Different Metabolic Efficiencies and Response to Cytochrome P450 Inducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolar C

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: We have isolated five stable clones from a primary culture of Syrian golden hamster pancreatic duct epithelial cells and have designated them as CK1 through CK5. DESIGN: Here we describe the ability of two of these, CK1 and CK5, to metabolize the pancreas carcinogen N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropylamine. The metabolism was assessed as the production of mutated V79 cells in a CK cell/V79 co-culture set up. RESULTS: At a dose of 0.1 mM N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropylamine, the CK1 cells produced 82.3 +/- 17.2 mutants/1,000,000 survivors while the CK5 cells produced only 33.2 +/- 10.8 mutants/1,000,000 survivors, both are mean +/- SD (n = 8. Furthermore, both cell types responded differently to two inducers of cytochrome P450 activity, namely Arochlor 1254 and EtOH. Arochlor 1254 treatment did not affect the metabolizing ability of CK1 cells while EtOH treatment resulted in a twofold increase in the mutation frequency. Arochlor and EtOH treatment inhibited the ability of CK5 cells to metabolize N-nitrosobis(2-oxopropylamine. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that the duct epithelium of the pancreas is a multi-cellular tissue and the different cell types within the epithelium have different abilities to metabolize xenobiotic chemicals.

  18. Activation of ENaC in collecting duct cells by prorenin and its receptor PRR: involvement of Nox4-derived hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaohan; Wang, Fei; Liu, Mi; Yang, Kevin T; Nau, Adam; Kohan, Donald E; Reese, Van; Richardson, Russell S; Yang, Tianxin

    2016-06-01

    The collecting duct (CD) has been recognized as an important source of prorenin/renin, and it also expresses (pro)renin receptor (PRR). The goal of this study was to examine the hypothesis that prorenin or renin via PRR regulates epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) activity in mpkCCD cells. Transepithelial Na(+) transport was measured by using a conventional epithelial volt-ohmmeter and was expressed as the calculated equivalent current (Ieq). Amiloride-inhibitable Ieq was used as a reflection of ENaC activity. Administration of prorenin in the nanomolar range induced a significant increase in Ieq that was detectable as early as 1 min, peaked at 5 min, and gradually returned to baseline within 15 min. These changes in Ieq were completely prevented by a newly developed PRR decoy inhibitor, PRO20. Prorenin-induced Ieq was inhibitable by amiloride. Compared with prorenin, renin was less effective in stimulating Ieq Prorenin-induced Ieq was attenuated by apocynin but enhanced by tempol, the latter effect being prevented by catalase. In response to prorenin treatment, the levels of total reactive oxygen species and H2O2 were both increased, as detected by spin-trap analysis and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-Glo H2O2 assay, respectively. Both siRNA-mediated Nox4 knockdown and the dual Nox1/4 inhibitor GKT137892 attenuated prorenin-induced Ieq Overall, our results demonstrate that activation of PRR by prorenin stimulates ENaC activity in CD cells via Nox4-derived H2O2.

  19. Observations on the anterior testicular ducts in snakes with emphasis on sea snakes and ultrastructure in the yellow-bellied sea snake, Pelamis platurus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, David M; Freeborn, Layla R

    2012-03-01

    The anterior testicular ducts of squamates transport sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the ductus deferens. These ducts consist of the rete testis, ductuli efferentes, and ductus epididymis. Many histological and a few ultrastructural studies of the squamate reproductive tract exist, but none concern the Hydrophiidae, the sea snakes and sea kraits. In this study, we describe the anterior testicular ducts of six species of hydrophiid snakes as well as representatives from the Elapidae, Homolapsidae, Leptotyphlopidae, and Uropeltidae. In addition, we examine the ultrastructure of these ducts in the yellow-bellied Sea Snake, Pelamis platurus, only the third such study on snakes. The anterior testicular ducts are similar in histology in all species examined. The rete testis is simple squamous or cuboidal epithelium and transports sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the ductuli efferentes in the extratesticular epididymal sheath. The ductuli efferentes are branched, convoluted tubules composed of simple cuboidal, ciliated epithelium, and many species possess periodic acid-Schiff+ granules in the cytoplasm. The ductus epididymis at the light microscopy level appears composed of pseudostratified columnar epithelium. At the ultrastructural level, the rete testis and ductuli efferentes of P. platurus possess numerous small coated vesicles and lack secretory vacuoles. Apocrine blebs in the ductuli efferentes, however, indicate secretory activity, possibly by a constitutive pathway. Ultrastructure reveals three types of cells in the ductus epididymis of P. platurus: columnar principal cells, squamous basal cells, and mitochondria-rich apical cells. This is the first report of apical cells in a snake. In addition, occasional principal cells possess a single cilium, which has not been reported in reptiles previously but is known in some birds. Finally, the ductus epididymis of P. platurus differs from other snakes that have been studied in possession of apical, biphasic

  20. SIRT1 regulates lipopolysaccharide-induced CD40 expression in renal medullary collecting duct cells by suppressing the TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qin-Qin; Geng, Yuan-Wen; Jiang, Zhong-Wei; Tian, Zhen-Jun

    2017-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that sirtuin1 (SIRT1), an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, exerts a protective effect against inflammatory kidney injury by suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokines production. The co-stimulatory molecule, CD40, is expressed in a variety of inflammatory diseases in the kidney. Here, we aimed to investigate the potential effect of SIRT1 on CD40 expression induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to disclose the underlying mechanisms in renal inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells. mRNA and protein expressions were identified by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot respectively. Subcellular localization of SIRT1 and CD40 were respectively detected by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemical staining. Small-interfering RNA (siRNA) was carried out for mechanism study. LPS reduced SIRT1 expression and up-regulated the expression of CD40, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and phospho-NF-κBp65 (p-NF-κBp65) in time- and concentration-dependent manners. Moreover, SIRT1 overexpression or activation by SRT1720 diminished the expression of CD40, TLR4 and p-NF-κBp65, which was reversed by SIRT1 siRNA or inhibitors Ex527 and sirtinol in LPS-stimulated IMCD cells. In addition, knockdown of TLR4 decreased the expression of CD40 and p-NF-κBp65 in IMCD cells exposed to LPS. Knockdown of NF-κBp65 or NF-κBp65 inhibition by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) reduced LPS-induced CD40 expression in IMCD cells. Importantly, the inhibitory effect of SIRT1 on the expression of CD40 and p-NF-κBp65 was augmented by pre-treating with TLR4 siRNA. Our data indicate that SIRT1 inhibits LPS-induced CD40 expression in IMCD cells by suppressing the TLR4-NF-κB signaling pathway, which might provide novel insight into understanding the protective effect of SIRT1 in kidney. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Protein kinase D1 modulates aldosterone-induced ENaC activity in a renal cortical collecting duct cell line.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McEneaney, Victoria

    2010-08-30

    Aldosterone treatment of M1-CCD cells stimulated an increase in epithelial Na(+) channel (ENaC) alpha-subunit expression that was mainly localized to the apical membrane. PKD1-suppressed cells constitutively expressed ENaCalpha at low abundance, with no increase after aldosterone treatment. In the PKD1-suppressed cells, ENaCalpha was mainly localized proximal to the basolateral surface of the epithelium both before and after aldosterone treatment. Apical membrane insertion of ENaCbeta in response to aldosterone treatment was also sensitive to PKD1 suppression as was the aldosterone-induced rise in the amiloride-sensitive, trans-epithelial current (I(TE)). The interaction of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) with specific elements in the promoters of aldosterone responsive genes is stabilized by ligand interaction and phosphorylation. PKD1 suppression inhibited aldosterone-induced SGK-1 expression. The nuclear localization of MR was also blocked by PKD1 suppression and MEK antagonism implicating both these kinases in MR nuclear stabilization. PKD1 thus modulates aldosterone-induced ENaC activity through the modulation of sub-cellular trafficking and the stabilization of MR nuclear localization.

  2. Angiotensin I conversion to angiotensin II stimulates cortical collecting duct sodium transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komlosi, Peter; Fuson, Amanda L; Fintha, Attila; Peti-Peterdi, János; Rosivall, Laszlo; Warnock, David G; Bell, Phillip Darwin

    2003-08-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) II directly stimulates epithelial sodium channel activity in the rabbit cortical collecting duct. Because Ang I and converting enzyme analogues might be present in the distal nephron, this raises the possibility of intraluminal generation of Ang II. Conversion of Ang I to Ang II was monitored by Ang II-dependent changes in intracellular sodium concentration as a reflection of sodium transport across the apical membrane. This involved imaging-based fluorescence microscopy with sodium-binding benzofuran isophthalate in isolated, perfused, cortical collecting-duct segments from rabbit kidney. Principal and intercalated cells were differentiated by rhodamine-conjugated peanut lectin. Control principal cell intracellular sodium concentration, during perfusion with 25 mmol/L NaCl and zero sodium in the bath plus monensin (10(-5) mol/L) averaged 5.8+/-0.14 mmol/L (n=156). The increase in intracellular sodium concentration, when luminal NaCl was increased from 25 to 150 mmol/L, was elevated by 3.5-fold in the presence of intraluminal Ang I (10(-6) mol/L). Also, the effects of Ang I on sodium transport were not significantly different from the effects of Ang II (10(-9) mol/L). Ang I was used in micromolar concentrations to ensure that there was sufficient substrate available for conversion to Ang II. Inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme with captopril reduced the stimulatory effect of Ang I. These results suggest that intraluminal conversion of Ang I to Ang II can occur in the cortical collecting duct, resulting in enhanced apical sodium entry.

  3. Asymptomatic common bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosseland, A R; Glomsaker, T B

    2000-11-01

    Patients with asymptomatic bile duct stones exhibit typical signs, such as elevated liver function tests, dilated bile ducts on ultrasound, a history of jaundice, or pancreatitis. The incidence of asymptomatic bile duct stones is about 10%, but up to 2% of patients show no signs of the disease. Bile duct stones can be diagnosed by using clinical judgement, scoring systems, or discriminant function tests. Which diagnostic modality is most reliable, cost-effective and safe, varies with different hospitals. Which therapy is most effective, safe and the cheapest also varies with different departments, but in the future an increasing number of departments will use the one-stage laparoscopic approach.

  4. Noise reduction of spiral ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapka, Wojciech; Cempel, Czesław

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents noise reduction (NR) of spiral ducts as a result of computational modeling of acoustic wave propagation. Three-dimensional models were created with the finite element method in COMSOL Multiphysics version 3.3. Nine models of spiral ducts with 1-9 spiral leads were considered. Time-harmonic analysis was used to predict NR, which was shown in spectral and interval frequency bands. Spiral duct performance can be seen as a comparison of NR before and after a change from a circular to a spiral duct.

  5. Gallbladder and bile duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930559 An experimental study on effective hep-atic blood flow and hepatic energy metabolismfollowing acute obstructive cholangitis and bil-iary obstruction.SUN Wenbing (孙文兵),et al.Hepatobili Surg,Center,Southwest Hosp,Chongqing 630000.Chin J Digest 1992;12(5):261—263.The changes of effective hepatic blood flow(E-HBF)and hepatic energy metabolism were stud-ied following acutc obstructive cholangitis(AOC)and bile duct ligation(BDL)in rats.The resultsshowed that EHBF was significantly decreased at24hs after and further decreased at 48hs afterBDL.And EHBF was significantly decreased at

  6. Stopping duct quacks: Longevity of residential duct sealants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.; Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2000-08-01

    Duct leakage has been identified as a major source of energy loss in residential buildings. Most duct leakage occurs at the connections to registers, plenums or branches in the duct system. At each of these connections a method of sealing the duct system is required. Typical sealing methods include tapes or mastics applied around the joints in the system. Field examinations of duct systems have shown that these seals tend to fail over time periods ranging from days to years. We have used several test methods over the last few years to evaluate the longevity of duct sealants when subjected to temperatures and pressures representative of those found in the field. Traditional cloth duct tapes have been found to significantly under-perform other sealants and have been banned from receiving duct tightness credits in California's energy code (California Energy Commission 1998). Our accelerated testing apparatus has been redesigned since its first usage for improved performance. The methodology is currently under consideration by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) as a potential new test method. This report will summarize the set of measurements to date, review the status of the test apparatus and test method, and summarize the applications of these results to codes and standards.

  7. Propagation of sound waves in ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described....

  8. Surgery for Bile Duct (Cholangiocarcinoma) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Situation Bile Duct Cancer Treating Bile Duct Cancer Surgery for Bile Duct Cancer There are 2 general ... also help plan the operation to remove it. Surgery for resectable cancers For resectable cancers, the type ...

  9. Endoscopic ultrasound versus endoscopic retrograde cholangiography for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis: the influence of the size of the stone and diameter of the common bile duct Ecoendoscopia versus colangiografia retrógrada endoscópica para o diagnóstico da coledocolitíase: a influência do tamanho do cálculo e do diâmetro da via biliar principal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Vinicius Silva Ney

    2005-12-01

    group of patients with an intermediate or moderate risk with respect to the likelihood of having common bile duct stones, endoscopic ultrassonography is a better test for the diagnosis of choledocholithiasis when compared to endoscopic retrograde cholangiography mainly for small-sized calculi.RACIONAL: A colangiografia retrógrada endoscópica é método acurado porém invasivo para o diagnóstico da coledocolitíase. A ecoendoscopia também é método bastante eficaz para a detecção de cálculo coledociano e apresenta riscos semelhantes àqueles de uma endoscopia digestiva convencional. OBJETIVOS: Comparar a acurácia da ecoendoscopia e da colangiografia endoscópica para o diagnóstico do cálculo da via biliar principal antes da colecistectomia laparoscópica e analisar a influência do tamanho do cálculo e do calibre da via biliar principal na eficácia diagnóstica da ecoendoscopia. PACIENTES E MÉTODOS: Duzentos e quinze pacientes com colecistolitíase sintomática foram admitidos para colecistectomia laparoscópica. Destes, 68 (31,7% apresentaram dilatação da via biliar extra-hepática à ecografia convencional e/ou alteração de enzimas hepáticas e canaliculares. Foram, então, submetidos a ecoendoscopia e colangiografia endoscópica, seguida de papilotomia, se qualquer um dos métodos sugerisse a presença de coledocolitíase. Após a papilotomia, o maior cálculo foi recuperado e medido. A exploração endoscópica ou cirúrgica da via biliar foi considerada o padrão-ouro para o diagnóstico de coledocolitíase. RESULTADOS: Todos os 68 pacientes foram submetidos a colecistectomia laparoscópica com colangiografia intra-operatória, comprovando-se colecistolitíase neste grupo. A ecoendoscopia foi mais sensível do que a colangiografia endoscópica para a detecção de cálculos coledocianos (97% vs. 67%. Para os cálculos maiores de 4,0 mm, os métodos apresentaram sensibilidades semelhantes (96% vs. 90%. Os resultados da ecoendoscopia não foram

  10. Propagation of sound waves in ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Finn

    2000-01-01

    Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described.......Plane wave propagation in ducts with rigid walls, radiation from ducts, classical four-pole theory for composite duct systems, and three-dimentional waves in wave guides of various cross-sectional shape are described....

  11. Sound propagation through nonuniform ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    Methods of determining the transmission and attenuation of sound propagating in nonuniform ducts with and without mean flows are discussed. The approaches reviewed include purely numerical techniques, quasi-one-dimensional approximations, solutions for slowly varying cross sections, solutions for weak wall undulations, approximation of the duct by a series of stepped uniform cross sections, variational methods and solutions for the mode envelopes.

  12. Intrahepatic Transposition of Bile Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delić, Jasmin; Savković, Admedina; Isaković, Eldar; Marković, Sergije; Bajtarevic, Alma; Denjalić, Amir

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To describe the intrahepatic bile duct transposition (anatomical variation occurring in intrahepatic ducts) and to determine the frequency of this variation. Material and Methods. The researches were performed randomly on 100 livers of adults, both sexes. Main research methods were anatomical macrodissection. As a criterion for determination of variations in some parts of bile tree, we used the classification of Segmentatio hepatis according to Couinaud (1957) according to Terminologia Anatomica, Thieme Stuugart: Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology, 1988. Results. Intrahepatic transposition of bile ducts was found in two cases (2%), out of total examined cases (100): right-left transposition (right segmental bile duct, originating from the segment VIII, joins the left liver duct-ductus hepaticus sinister) and left-right intrahepatic transposition (left segmental bile duct originating from the segment IV ends in right liver duct-ductus hepaticus dexter). Conclusion. Safety and success in liver transplantation to great extent depends on knowledge of anatomy and some common embryological anomalies in bile tree. Variations in bile tree were found in 24–43% of cases, out of which 1–22% are the variations of intrahepatic bile ducts. Therefore, good knowledge on ductal anatomy enables good planning, safe performance of therapeutic and operative procedures, and decreases the risk of intraoperative and postoperative complications. PMID:22550601

  13. Purinergic receptors stimulate Na+/Ca2+ exchange in pancreatic duct cells: possible role of proteins handling and transporting Ca2+

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette R; Krabbe, Simon; Ankorina-Stark, Ieva

    2009-01-01

    Most purinergic receptors activate intracellular Ca(2+) signalling, and in epithelia they stimulate transport of major ions. Aim of the present study on pancreatic ducts was to find whether P2 receptors also regulate cellular Ca(2+) transport, such as that via the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX). Si...

  14. An intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel is important for secretion in pancreatic duct cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, Mikio; Wang, Jing; Hede, Susanne Edeling

    2012-01-01

    Potassium channels play a vital role in maintaining the membrane potential and the driving force for anion secretion in epithelia. In pancreatic ducts, which secrete bicarbonate-rich fluid, the identity of K(+) channels has not been extensively investigated. In this study, we investigated the mol...

  15. Extrahepatic bile duct neurilemmoma mimicking Klatskin tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, Fereshteh; Dorudinia, Atosa; Goravanchi, Farhood; Rahimi, Farzaneh

    2007-04-01

    Neurilemmoma rarely develops in the biliary tree. Here, we report a 39-year-old Iranian woman with neurilemmoma in the extrahepatic bile duct presenting with progressively deepening jaundice. On the basis of clinical and radiological features, this tumor was initially suspected as Klatskin tumor. Histologically, the tumor was a typical neurilemmoma. Immunostaining showed that tumor cells were strongly and diffusely positive for S-100 protein, which supported the diagnosis of neurilemmoma. Neurilemmoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of obstructive jaundice.

  16. Laparoscopic common bile duct exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, M E; Leveillee, R J; McCann, J C; Maini, B S

    1991-10-01

    Operative common bile duct exploration, performed in conjunction with cholecystectomy, has been considered the treatment of choice for choledocholithiasis in the presence of an intact gallbladder. With the advent of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, the management of common bile duct stones has been affected. More emphasis is being placed on endoscopic sphincterotomy and options other than operative common duct exploration. Because of this increasing demand, we have developed a new technique for laparoscopic common bile duct exploration performed in the same operative setting as laparoscopic cholecystectomy. A series of five patients who successfully underwent common bile duct exploration, flexible choledochoscopy with stone extraction, and T-tube drainage, all using laparoscopic technique, is reported. Mean postoperative length of hospital stay was 4.6 days. Outpatient T-tube cholangiography was performed in all cases and revealed normal ductal anatomy with no retained stones. Follow-up ranged from 6 weeks to 4 months, and all patients were asymptomatic and had normal liver function tests.

  17. Ascariasis of the pancreatic duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimovskij, Michail; Dulskas, Audrius; Kraulyte, Zita; Mikalauskas, Saulius

    2015-09-15

    Ascariasis is a common helminthic disease worldwide, although Lithuania and other European countries are not considered endemic areas. The presence of the Ascaris worm in the biliary tree causes choledocholithiasis-like symptoms. We report a case of pancreatic duct ascariasis causing such symptoms. A 73-year-old Lithuanian woman underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) suspecting choledocholithiasis. Contrast injection into the common bile duct demonstrated a slightly dilated biliary tree without any filling defects, and the tail of an Ascaris worm protruding from the opening of the papilla Vater. The worm was captured by a snare but escaped deep into the duct. After a small wirsungotomy the worm was retrieved from the pancreatic duct. The patient received a 150 mg dose of levamisole orally repeated 7 days later and was discharged after complete resolution of symptoms. This first reported sporadic case of pancreatic duct ascariasis in Lithuania was successfully treated with ERCP and Levamisole.

  18. Renal Collecting Duct Cancer: a Report of 2 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiying Zhou

    2005-01-01

    @@ Renal collecting duct cancer is a rare malignant tumor, which accounts for 1% to 2% of epithelial kidney tumors,[1] Its pathological appearance has been easily misdiagnosed as a mammilliform renal cell carcinoma or as other tumors. The malignancy of renal collecting duct cancer is high, with early metastasis and poor prognosis. The clinical data for 2 cases of the tumor are discussed in this report, including reports on the histopathology and the changes in immunohistochemistry.

  19. [Postoperative handling in biliodigestive derivation by iatrogenic bile duct injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, I; Mercado, M A

    2008-01-01

    Bile duct injury is a severe complication related to cholecystectomy, impacting in the long-term quality of life and functional status. Bile duct repair is the first-line treatment for complex injuries. During short-term and long-term postoperative care, it is important to bear in mind the diagnostic tools, both laboratory and imaging, that will be useful to evaluate a possible surgical complication and to plan an adequate therapeutic strategy. In addition, post-surgical classification describes patients according to their complications and clinical course. In this review we describe the principal issues of postoperative care after bile duct repair, highlighting the diagnosis, severity classification and therapeutic approach of acute cholangitis.

  20. Thermo-chemo-radiotherapy for advanced bile duct carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Terumi Kamisawa; Yuyang Tu; Naoto Egawa; Katsuyuki Karasawa; Tadayoshi Matsuda; Kouji Tsuruta; Atsutake Okamoto

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Complete resection of the bile duct carcinoma is sometimes difficult by subepithelial spread in the duct wall or direct invasion of adjacent blood vessels. Nonresected extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma has a dismal prognosis,with a life expectancy of about 6 mo to 1 year. To improve the treatment results of locally advanced bile duct carcinoma, we have been conducting a clinical trial using regional hyperthermia in combination with chemoradiation therapy.METHODS: Eight patients complaining of obstructive jaundice with advanced extrahepatic bile duct underwent thermo-chemo-radiotherapy (TCRT). All tumors were located in the upper bile duct and involved hepatic bifurcation, and obstructed the bile duct completely.Radiofrequency capacitive hyperthermia was administered simultaneously with chemotherapeutic agents once weekly immediately following radiotherapy at 2 Gy.We administered heat to the patient for 40 min after the tumor temperature had risen to 42 ℃. The chemotherapeutic agents employed were cis-platinum (CDDP,50 mg/m2) in combination with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU,800 mg/m2) or methotrexate (MTX, 30 mg/m2) in combination with 5-FU (800 mg/m2). Number of heat treatments ranged from 2 to 8 sessions. The bile duct at autopsy was histologically examined in three patients treated with TCRT.RESULTS: In respect to resolution of the bile duct, there were three complete regression (CR), two partial regression (PR), and three no change (NC). Mean survival was 13.2±10.8 mo (mean±SD). Four patients survived for more than 20 mo. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) tube could be removed in placement of self-expandable metallic stent into the patency-restored bile duct after TCRT. No major side effects occurred. At autopsy, marked hyalinization or fibrosis with necrosis replaced extensively bile duct tumor and wall, in which suppressed cohesiveness of carcinoma cells and degenerative cells were sparsely observed.CONCLUSION: Although the number of cases is

  1. Expression of VAMP-2-like protein in kidney collecting duct intracellular vesicles. Colocalization with Aquaporin-2 water channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, S; Marples, D; Birn, H; Mohtashami, M; Dalby, N O; Trimble, M; Knepper, M

    1995-01-01

    Body water balance is controlled by vasopressin, which regulates Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channels in kidney collecting duct cells by vesicular trafficking between intracellular vesicles and the plasma membrane. To examine the molecular apparatus involved in vesicle trafficking and vasopressin regulation of AQP2 in collecting duct cells, we tested if targeting proteins expressed in the synaptic vesicles, namely vesicle-associated membrane proteins 1 and 2 (VAMP1 and 2), are expressed in kidney collecting duct. Immunoblotting revealed specific labeling of VAMP2 (18-kD band) but not VAMP1 in membrane fractions prepared from kidney inner medulla. Controls using preadsorbed antibody or preimmune serum were negative. Bands of identical molecular size were detected in immunoblots of brain membrane vesicles and purified synaptic vesicles. VAMP2 in kidney membranes was cleaved by tetanus toxin, revealing a tetanus toxin-sensitive VAMP homologue. Similarly, tetanus toxin cleaved VAMP2 in synaptic vesicles. In kidney inner medulla, VAMP2 was predominantly expressed in the membrane fraction enriched for intracellular vesicles, with little or no VAMP2 in the plasma membrane enriched fraction. This was confirmed by immunocytochemistry using semithin cryosections, which showed mainly vesicular labeling in collecting duct principal cells, with no labeling of intercalated cells. VAMP2 immunolabeling colocalized with AQP2 labeling in intracellular vesicles, as determined by immunoelectron microscopy after double immunolabeling of isolated vesicles. Quantitative analysis of 1,310 vesicles revealed a highly significant association of both AQP2 and VAMP2 in the same vesicles (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, the presence of AQP2 in vesicles immunoisolated with anti-VAMP2 antibodies was confirmed by immunoblotting. In conclusion, VAMP2, a component of the neuronal SNARE complex, is expressed in vesicles carrying AQP2, suggesting a role in vasopressin-regulated vesicle trafficking of AQP2

  2. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Zoeller, W. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Mantha, P. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license.

  3. PMR Graphite Engine Duct Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stotler, C. L.; Yokel, S. A.

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to demonstrate the cost and weight advantages that could be obtained by utilizing the graphite/PMR15 material system to replace titanium in selected turbofan engine applications. The first component to be selected as a basis for evaluation was the outer bypass duct of the General Electric F404 engine. The operating environment of this duct was defined and then an extensive mechanical and physical property test program was conducted using material made by processing techniques which were also established by this program. Based on these properties, design concepts to fabricate a composite version of the duct were established and two complete ducts fabricated. One of these ducts was proof pressure tested and then run successfully on a factory test engine for over 1900 hours. The second duct was static tested to 210 percent design limit load without failure. An improved design was then developed which utilized integral composite end flanges. A complete duct was fabricated and successfully proof pressure tested. The net results of this effort showed that a composite version of the outer duct would be 14 percent lighter and 30 percent less expensive that the titanium duct. The other type of structure chosen for investigation was the F404 fan stator assembly, including the fan stator vanes. It was concluded that it was feasible to utilize composite materials for this type structure but that the requirements imposed by replacing an existing metal design resulted in an inefficient composite design. It was concluded that if composites were to be effectively used in this type structure, the design must be tailored for composite application from the outset.

  4. AQP2 exocytosis in the renal collecting duct -- involvement of SNARE isoforms and the regulatory role of Munc18b.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procino, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Claudia; Tamma, Grazia; De Benedictis, Leonarda; Pessin, Jeffrey E; Svelto, Maria; Valenti, Giovanna

    2008-06-15

    Vasopressin regulates the fusion of the water channel aquaporin 2 (AQP2) to the apical membrane of the renal collecting-duct principal cells and several lines of evidence indicate that SNARE proteins mediate this process. In this work MCD4 renal cells were used to investigate the functional role of a set of Q- and R-SNAREs, together with that of Munc18b as a negative regulator of the formation of the SNARE complex. Both VAMP2 and VAMP3 were associated with immunoisolated AQP2 vesicles, whereas syntaxin 3 (Stx3), SNAP23 and Munc18 were associated with the apical plasma membrane. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that Stx3 forms complexes with VAMP2, VAMP3, SNAP23 and Munc18b. Protein knockdown coupled to apical surface biotinylation demonstrated that reduced levels of the R-SNAREs VAMP2 and VAMP3, and the Q-SNAREs Stx3 and SNAP23 strongly inhibited AQP2 fusion at the apical membrane. In addition, knockdown of Munc18b promoted a sevenfold increase of AQP2 fused at the plasma membrane without forskolin stimulation. Taken together these findings propose VAMP2, VAMP3, Stx3 and SNAP23 as the complementary set of SNAREs responsible for AQP2-vesicle fusion into the apical membrane, and Munc18b as a negative regulator of SNARE-complex formation in renal collecting-duct principal cells.

  5. Development and regression of the thyroglossal duct in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Katsuyuki; Bando, Yasuhiko; Sakiyama, Koji; Takizawa, Shota; Sakashita, Hideaki; Kondo, Hisatake; Amano, Osamu

    2015-07-01

    The thyroid anlage develops in the foramen caecum area of the tongue, and migrates through the anterior neck towards its final position in front of the laryngeal cartilages. During migration, the thyroglossal duct, a temporary structure connecting the thyroid anlage and the foramen caecum, is recognized. In the present study, chronological changes and apoptosis in the thyroglossal duct of mice were investigated histochemically using an antibody against Nkx2-1, initially identified as a thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), and the TUNEL reaction in consecutive serial sagittal sections. At embryonic day 10.00 (E10.00), the thyroid anlage was Nkx2-1-immunoreactive and located just below the foramen caecum. As the thyroid anlage descended, the thyroglossal duct was formed at E10.25, being less than 10μm in diameter. By E10.75, the Nkx2-1-positive thyroglossal duct had progressively elongated up to 100μm. At E11.00 the thyroglossal duct began to disappear, beginning in its mid-portion, and finally became invisible at E11.50. At E11.00-12.00, apoptotic cells were found in an area where the thyroglossal duct was partially discontinuous. After E12.00, cartilaginous tissue of the hyoid bone anlage developed in the mid-portion of the area where the thyroglossal duct had regressed. Immunoreactivity for thyroglobulin, a marker of differentiated thyroid endocrine cells, was detected at E13.00. These results strongly suggest that the mouse thyroglossal duct disappears as a result of apoptosis before differentiation of the endocrine thyroid.

  6. 14 CFR 29.1103 - Induction systems ducts and air duct systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. 29.1103 Section 29.1103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF....1103 Induction systems ducts and air duct systems. (a) Each induction system duct upstream of the...

  7. Migratory intralaryngeal thyroglossal duct cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlatti Pradeep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Intralaryngeal thyroglossal duct cysts are rare; a migrating one, rarer still. Such a case may be a cause for confusion and it is important to understand this entity and its typical findings.

  8. TWO NEW DUCT LEAKAGE TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    1998-12-01

    Two variations on the tests for duct leakage currently embodied in ASHRAE Standard 152P (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems) are presented. Procedures are derived for calculating supply and return duct leakage to/from outside using these new variations. Results of these tests are compared with the original ones in Standard 152P on the basis of data collected in three New York State homes.

  9. Duct Leakage Repeatability Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Duct leakage often needs to be measured to demonstrate compliance with requirements or to determine energy or Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) impacts. Testing is often done using standards such as ASTM E1554 (ASTM 2013) or California Title 24 (California Energy Commission 2013 & 2013b), but there are several choices of methods available within the accepted standards. Determining which method to use or not use requires an evaluation of those methods in the context of the particular needs. Three factors that are important considerations are the cost of the measurement, the accuracy of the measurement and the repeatability of the measurement. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the repeatability of the three most significant measurement techniques using data from the literature and recently obtained field data. We will also briefly discuss the first two factors. The main question to be answered by this study is to determine if differences in the repeatability of these tests methods is sufficient to indicate that any of these methods is so poor that it should be excluded from consideration as an allowed procedure in codes and standards.

  10. Measure Guideline: Buried and/or Encapsulated Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Zoeller, W.; Mantha, P.

    2013-08-01

    Buried and/or encapsulated ducts (BEDs) are a class of advanced, energy-efficiency strategies intended to address the significant ductwork thermal losses associated with ducts installed in unconditioned attics. BEDs are ducts installed in unconditioned attics that are covered in loose-fill insulation and/or encapsulated in closed cell polyurethane spray foam insulation. This Measure Guideline covers the technical aspects of BEDs as well as the advantages, disadvantages, and risks of BEDs compared to other alternative strategies. This guideline also provides detailed guidance on installation of BEDs strategies in new and existing homes through step-by-step installation procedures. This Building America Measure Guideline synthesizes previously published research on BEDs and provides practical information to builders, contractors, homeowners, policy analysts, building professions, and building scientists. Some of the procedures presented here, however, require specialized equipment or expertise. In addition, some alterations to duct systems may require a specialized license. Persons implementing duct system improvements should not go beyond their expertise or qualifications. This guideline provides valuable information for a building industry that has struggled to address ductwork thermal losses in new and existing homes. As building codes strengthen requirements for duct air sealing and insulation, flexibility is needed to address energy efficiency goals. While ductwork in conditioned spaces has been promoted as the panacea for addressing ductwork thermal losses, BEDs installations approach - and sometimes exceed - the performance of ductwork in conditioned spaces.

  11. Novel Approach to Bile Duct Damage in Primary Biliary Cirrhosis: Participation of Cellular Senescence and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Sasaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC is characterized by antimitochondrial autoantibodies (AMAs in patients' sera and histologically by chronic nonsuppurative destructive cholangitis in small bile ducts, eventually followed by extensive bile duct loss and biliary cirrhosis. The autoimmune-mediated pathogenesis of bile duct lesions, including the significance of AMAs, triggers of the autoimmune process, and so on remain unclear. We have reported that cellular senescence in biliary epithelial cells (BECs may be involved in bile duct lesions and that autophagy may precede the process of biliary epithelial senescence in PBC. Interestingly, BECs in damaged bile ducts show characteristicsof cellular senescence and autophagy in PBC. A suspected causative factor of biliary epithelial senescence is oxidative stress. Furthermore, senescent BECs may modulate the microenvironment around bile ducts by expressing various chemokines and cytokines called senescence-associated secretory phenotypes and contribute to the pathogenesis in PBC.

  12. Establishing a Large-Animal Model for In Vivo Reprogramming of Bile Duct Cells into Insulin-Secreting Cells to Treat Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Caitlin M; Banga, Anannya; Abrahante, Juan E; Yuan, Ce; Mutch, Lucas A; Janecek, Jody; O'Brien, Timothy; Graham, Melanie L; Dutton, James R

    2017-06-01

    Type 1 diabetes manifests as autoimmune destruction of beta cells requiring metabolic management with an exogenous replacement of insulin, either by repeated injection of recombinant insulin or by transplantation of allogeneic islets from cadaveric donors. Both of these approaches have severe limitations. Repeated insulin injection requires intensive blood glucose monitoring, is expensive, and is associated with decreased quality-of-life measures. Islet transplantation, while highly effective, is severely limited by shortage of donor organs. Clinical translation of beta cells derived from pluripotent stem cells is also not yet a reality, and alternative approaches to solving the replacement of lost beta cell function are required. In vivo direct reprogramming offers an attractive approach to generating new endogenous insulin-secreting cells by permanently altering the phenotype of somatic cells after transient expression of transcription factors. Previously, we have successfully restored control of blood glucose in diabetic mice by reprogramming liver cells into glucose-sensitive insulin-secreting cells after the transient, simultaneous delivery of three transcription factors (Pdx1, Ngn3, and MafA) to the liver of diabetic mice, using an adenoviral vector (Ad-PNM). Establishing a clinically relevant, large-animal model is a critical next step in translating this approach beyond the proof-of-principle stage in rodents and allowing investigation of vector design, dose and delivery, host response to vector infusion, and establishment of suitable criteria for measuring safety and efficacy. In this feasibility study we infused Ad-PNM into the liver of three diabetic cynomolgus macaques via portal vein catheter. Vector presence and cargo gene and protein expression were detected in liver tissue after infusion with no adverse effects. Refinement of immune suppression significantly extended the period of exogenous PNM expression. This pilot study establishes the

  13. Risk Factors associated with Paraurethral Duct Dilatation following Gonococcal Paraurethral Duct Infection in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenge; Zhang, Qingsong; Wang, Lin; Ye, Xun; Jiang, Tingwang

    2016-01-01

    No studies have explored the risk factors for paraurethral duct dilatation following paraurethral duct infection by Neisseria gonorrhoeae in men undergoing ceftriaxone therapy. The present study was performed to explore the risk factors for paraurethral duct dilatation following paraurethral duct infection by N. gonorrhoeae in men undergoing ceftriaxone therapy and thus guide clinical interventions. We compared the demographic, behavioral, and clinical data of men with paraurethral duct infection by N. gonorrhoeae with and without dilatation of the paraurethral duct. Univariate analysis showed significant differences in age, disease course of the infected paraurethral duct, Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the paraurethral duct, and a history of paraurethral duct infection by N. gonorrhoeae between the patient and control groups (Pgonorrhoeae in men. Age, C. trachomatis infection in the paraurethral duct, and a history of paraurethral duct infection by N. gonorrhoeae are also risk factors. Thus, educating patients to undergo timely therapy and treating the C. trachomatis infection may be effective interventions. PMID:27861521

  14. Intracellular pH in rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Hug, M; Greger, R

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of H+ and HCO3- transport in a HCO3- secreting epithelium, pancreatic ducts, we have measured the intracellular pH (pHi) in this tissue using the pH sensitive probe BCECF. We found that exposures of ducts to solutions containing acetate/acetic acid or NH4+/NH3...... buffers (20 mmol/l) led to pHi changes in accordance with entry of lipid-soluble forms of the buffers, followed by back-regulation of pHi by duct cells. In another type of experiment, changes in extracellular pH of solutions containing HEPES or HCO3-/CO2 buffers led to significant changes in pHi that did....... Under some conditions, these exchangers can be invoked to regulate cell pH....

  15. An isolated nasolacrimal duct osteoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Kwon, Jae Hwan

    2013-07-01

    Osteomas of the nose and paranasal sinus are common benign tumors that can extend to surrounding structures and result in orbital or intracranial involvement. Presenting symptoms include facial pain, headache, cerebral symptoms, ocular symptoms, and so on, depending on the location and size of the tumor. They commonly occur within the frontal, ethmoid, maxillary, and sphenoid sinuses; however, there are rare cases of reported osteomas in the nasal cavity, turbinate, or orbit. Our case report describes a patient with nasolacrimal duct osteoma who presented with ipsilateral ocular pain, epiphora, and medial canthal swelling. We performed intranasal dacryocystorhinostomy using a nasal endoscope and removed the lacrimal duct osteoma. This report describes symptoms and management of an isolated nasolacrimal duct stone with a review of the literature.

  16. Adenosine receptors in rat and human pancreatic ducts stimulate chloride transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Hede, Susanne; Hansen, Mette

    2007-01-01

    these could be involved in secretory processes, which involve cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) Cl(-) channels or Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels and [Formula: see text] transporters. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis on rat pancreatic ducts and human duct cell......, plasma membrane of many PANC-1 cells, but only a few CFPAC-1 cells. Taken together, our data indicate that A(2A) receptors open Cl(-) channels in pancreatic ducts cells with functional CFTR. We propose that adenosine can stimulate pancreatic secretion and, thereby, is an active player in the acini...

  17. Glycosylation is important for cell surface expression of the water channel aquaporin-2 but is not essential for tetramerization in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, G.; Koudijs, M.; Balkom, B.W.M. van; Oorschot, V.; Klumperman, J.; Deen, P.M.T.; Sluijs, P. van der

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a pore-forming protein that is required for regulated reabsorption of water from urine. Mutations in AQP2 lead to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, a disorder in which functional AQP2 is not expressed on the apical cell surface of kidney collecting duct principal cells. The

  18. Glycosylation is important for cell surface expression of the water channel aquaporin-2 but is not essential for tetramerization in the endoplasmic reticulum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendriks, G; Koudijs, M; van Balkom, BWM; Oorschot, [No Value; Klumperman, J; Deen, PMT; van der Sluijs, P

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is a pore-forming protein that is required for regulated reabsorption of water from urine. Mutations in AQP2 lead to nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, a disorder in which functional AQP2 is not expressed on the apical cell surface of kidney collecting duct principal cells. The

  19. Fragmentation of common bile duct and pancreatic duct stones by extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ham Gyum [Ansan Junior College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Soon Yong; Lee, Won Hong [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-06-01

    To determine its usefulness and safety of extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy in common bile duct and pancreatic duct stones, we analyzed the results of 13 patients with common bile duct stones and 6 patients with pancreatic duct stones which were removed by endoscopic procedures using the balloon or basket, who was performed the extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy using the ultrasonography for stone localization with a spark gap type Lithotriptor(Dornier MPL 9000, Germany). Fragmentation and complete clearance of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct stones were obtained in 19 of 19 patients(100%). Apart from transient attacks of fever in 2 of 13 patients with common bile duct stones(15%) and mild elevation of serum amylase and lipase in 2 of 6 patients with pancreatic duct stones(33%), no other serious side effects were observed. In our experiences, extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy is a safe and useful treatment for endoscopically unretrievable common bile duct and pancreatic duct stones.

  20. Vitellointestinal Duct Anomalies in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadian, Yogender Singh; Verma, Anjali; Rattan, Kamal Nain; Kajal, Pardeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitellointestinal duct (VID) or omphalomesenteric duct anomalies are secondary to the persistence of the embryonic vitelline duct, which normally obliterates by weeks 5–9 of intrauterine life. Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of a total of 16 patients of symptomatic remnants of vitellointestinal duct from period of Jan 2009 to May 2013. Results: Male to female ratio (M:F) was 4.3:1 and mean age of presentation was 2 months and their mode of presentation was: patent VID in 9 (56.25%) patients, umbilical cyst in 2(12.25%), umbilical granuloma in 2 (12.25%), and Meckel diverticulum as content of hernia sac in obstructed umbilical hernia in 1 (6.25%) patient. Two patients with umbilical fistula had severe electrolyte disturbance and died without surgical intervention. Conclusion: Persistent VID may have varied presentations in infancy. High output umbilical fistula and excessive bowel prolapse demand urgent surgical intervention to avoid morbidity and mortality. PMID:27433448

  1. Fan/Ram Duct Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-10-01

    mwm^mmmt c INPUT I ] H—f TRANSIENT ROUTINE P"" CONTROL """I FAN ] COMPRESSOR MAIN BURNER I DUCT HZ HIGH TURBINE in— LOW TURBINE I...and pressure ratio. 6. Low Turbine Low turbine characteristics, identical In form to those of the high turbine, are shown in figures 27 and 28. 7

  2. Heat and mass transfer characteristics in ducted air-breathing direct methanol fuel cells%空气抽吸式甲醇燃料电池传热与传质特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐蜜; 叶强

    2012-01-01

    空气抽吸式直接甲醇燃料电池不仅具有被动式燃料电池的优点,同时又便于将其串联成电堆提高输出电压.建立以阴极为管道抽吸式结构的直接甲醇燃料电池的三维、两相、非等温稳态数值模型,研究了质子交换膜性能、供给甲醇浓度以及电堆规模对电池性能及燃料利用率的影响.对于保温较好的大电堆,采用低甲醇穿透的改性质子交换膜能同时提升燃料利用率和比功率;此类电堆若采用穿透率低的改性膜,则2mol/L的甲醇浓度就能保证电池在较大的电流密度区间内维持较高的功率与效率.作为影响电池运行温度的重要因素,电堆规模的大小将直接影响质子交换膜种类与甲醇浓度等关键参数的设计与选择.%Ducted air-breathing direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) not only has the advantages of passive fuel cells, but also can be assembled in series easily to raise the output voltage. A three dimensional, steady state, non-isothermal and steady numerical model has been developed for the ducted air-breathing DMFC. The effects of proton exchange membrane (PEM) properties, supplying methanol concentration and the size of cell stack on both the fuel efficiency and cell performance were investigated. The numerical results indicate that using the modified PEM with low methanol crossover, for large cell stack with good thermal insulation, can improve fuel efficiency and power density. High fuel efficiency and power density of such cell stack with modified PEM can be maintained in a wide current density range while using 2 mol/L methanol. As a key factor in determining cell temperature, stack size has great impact on designing and selecting other important parameters, such as PEM properties and methanol concentration.

  3. Do We Know What Causes Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whether it’s bile duct stones, infestation with a parasite, or something else. Scientists are starting to understand how inflammation might lead to certain changes in the DNA of cells, making them grow abnormally and form cancers. DNA is the chemical in each of our ...

  4. Purinoceptors Evoke Different Electrophysiological Responses in Pancreatic Ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hede, S E; Amstrup, Jan; Christoffersen, Bettina C

    1999-01-01

    In epithelia, extracellular nucleotides are often associated with regulation of ion transporters, especially Cl(-) channels. In this study, we investigated which purinoceptors are present in native pancreatic ducts and how they regulate ion transport. We applied whole-cell patch-clamp recordings,...

  5. Electrophysiological evidence for an ATP-gated ion channel in the principal cells of the frog skin epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodin, Birger; Nielsen, Robert

    2000-01-01

    P2X receptor, Na+ absorption, Short circuit current, Cell potential, Microelectrodes, Frog skin, Cytosolic Ca2+......P2X receptor, Na+ absorption, Short circuit current, Cell potential, Microelectrodes, Frog skin, Cytosolic Ca2+...

  6. AQP2 exocytosis in the renal collecting duct – involvement of SNARE isoforms and the regulatory role of Munc18b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procino, Giuseppe; Barbieri, Claudia; Tamma, Grazia; De Benedictis, Leonarda; Pessin, Jeffrey E.; Svelto, Maria; Valenti, Giovanna

    2015-01-01

    Summary Vasopressin regulates the fusion of the water channel aquaporin 2 (AQP2) to the apical membrane of the renal collecting-duct principal cells and several lines of evidence indicate that SNARE proteins mediate this process. In this work MCD4 renal cells were used to investigate the functional role of a set of Q- and R-SNAREs, together with that of Munc18b as a negative regulator of the formation of the SNARE complex. Both VAMP2 and VAMP3 were associated with immunoisolated AQP2 vesicles, whereas syntaxin 3 (Stx3), SNAP23 and Munc18 were associated with the apical plasma membrane. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that Stx3 forms complexes with VAMP2, VAMP3, SNAP23 and Munc18b. Protein knockdown coupled to apical surface biotinylation demonstrated that reduced levels of the R-SNAREs VAMP2 and VAMP3, and the Q-SNAREs Stx3 and SNAP23 strongly inhibited AQP2 fusion at the apical membrane. In addition, knockdown of Munc18b promoted a sevenfold increase of AQP2 fused at the plasma membrane without forskolin stimulation. Taken together these findings propose VAMP2, VAMP3, Stx3 and SNAP23 as the complementary set of SNAREs responsible for AQP2-vesicle fusion into the apical membrane, and Munc18b as a negative regulator of SNARE-complex formation in renal collecting-duct principal cells. PMID:18505797

  7. Functional characterization of the vertebrate primary ureter: Structure and ion transport mechanisms of the pronephric duct in axolotl larvae (Amphibia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugan, Birgitte M; Halberg, Kenneth Agerlin; Jespersen, Åse;

    2010-01-01

    whether the duct is involved in urine modification using larvae of the freshwater amphibian Ambystoma mexicanum (axolotl) as model. Results We investigated structural as well as physiological properties of the pronephric duct. The key elements of our methodology were: using histology, light...... duct system, which provides a model of cell structure and basic mechanisms for ion transport. Such information may be important in understanding the evolution of vertebrate kidney systems and human diseases associated with congenital malformations....

  8. Surface morphology of the endolymphatic duct in the rat. A scanning electron microscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P

    1995-01-01

    Following intracardiac vascular perfusion fixation of 8 rats with glutaraldehyde in a buffered and oxygenated blood substitute, the vestibular aqueduct and endolymphatic duct were opened by microsurgery of the resulting 16 temporal bones. Optimum preservation of the epithelium for scanning electron...... were identified with the scanning electron microscope. A polygonal and oblong epithelial cell was observed in the largest number throughout the duct, and in the juxtasaccular half of the duct, two additional types of epithelial cells were observed. The scanning electron microscopic observations...... microscopy was attained by coating of the specimens with osmium tetroxide and thiocarbohydrazide followed by a continuous dehydration procedure. This technique permitted, for the first time, an investigation of the surface morphology of the epithelial cells in the endolymphatic duct. Three types of cells...

  9. Current surgical treatment for bile duct cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuji Seyama; Masatoshi Makuuchi

    2007-01-01

    Since extrahepatic bile duct cancer is difficult to diagnose and to cure, a safe and radical surgical strategy is needed. In this review, the modes of infiltration and spread of extrahepatic bile duct cancer and surgical strategy are discussed. Extended hemihepatectomy, with or without pancreatoduodenectomy (PD), plus extrahepatic bile duct resection and regional lymphadenectomy has recently been recognized as the standard curative treatment for hilar bile duct cancer. On the other hand, PD is the choice of treatment for middle and distal bile duct cancer. Major hepatectomy concomitant with PD (hepatopancreatoduodenectomy) has been applied to selected patients with widespread tumors. Preoperative biliary drainage (BD) followed by portal vein embolization (PVE) enables major hepatectomy in patients with hilar bile duct cancer without mortality. BD should be performed considering the surgical procedure, especially, in patients with separated intrahepatic bile ducts caused by hilar bile duct cancer. Right or left trisectoriectomy are indicated according to the tumor spread and biliary anatomy. As a result, extended radical resection offers a chance for cure of hilar bile duct cancer with improved resectability, curability, and a 5-year survival rate of 40%. A 5-year survival rate has ranged from 24% to 39% after PD for middle and distal bile duct cancer.

  10. Apparent mesonephric duct (rete anlage) origin for cysts and proliferative epithelial lesions in the mouse ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Gerald G

    2002-01-01

    Ovaries and adjacent parovarian (mesovarial) tissues of CD-1 mice of various ages were examined to characterize cystic and proliferative epithelial lesions of the ovary and parovarian tissues. Ovaries and adjacent tissues from 6 mice each at approximately 3 and 8 months of age were processed for light microscopy and step-sections (50-micron intervals) of the entire tissue were examined. Tissues were collected from 40 mice each at 16 through 24 months of age and 3 step sections per mouse were examined. Mesonephric duct remnants were found in all mice at 3 and 8 months. Ducts were usually in the mesovarial adipose tissue and near or within the ovarian hilus and were often loosely associated with smooth muscle of the mesovarial ligament. The epithelium of the ducts varied from low cuboidal to columnar, occasional individual cells were ciliated, and small papillary configurations of epithelium were occasionally present. Ducts were dilated (> 1 mm) more often in mice at 8 months compared to 3 months, and some were continuous with cystic spaces within the ovaries. As mice aged (16-24 months), dilation and cystic change in ducts and associated compression of ovarian tissue away from the ovarian hilus became common. The epithelium of dilated ducts was generally flattened, but foci of cuboidal to columnar epithelium and/or occasional ciliated cells were present. Many ducts contained foci of hyperplastic and/or hypertrophic epithelium, and papillary projections of epithelium were occasionally found. Some of the latter lesions were consistent with a diagnosis of papillary cystadenoma. Hyperplasia of associated fibromuscular stroma was limited to a few apparently extraovarian ducts. The results of this study indicate that remnant mesonephric ductular structures are common in and adjacent to the ovaries of CD-1 mice. As mice age, these ducts become dilated and, in some, the epithelium becomes hyperplastic and/or hyperptrophic. These mesonephric duct remnants appear to be a

  11. Principal component analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bro, R.; Smilde, A.K.

    2014-01-01

    Principal component analysis is one of the most important and powerful methods in chemometrics as well as in a wealth of other areas. This paper provides a description of how to understand, use, and interpret principal component analysis. The paper focuses on the use of principal component analysis

  12. Elementary School Principal Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Ray

    A review of research linking elementary principal "antecedents" (defined as traits), behaviors, school conditions, and student outcomes furnishes few supportable generalizations. The studies relating principal antecedents with behavior and principal antecedents with organizational variables reveals that the trait theory of leadership has…

  13. [Common bile duct stones and their complications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millat, B; Borie, F

    2000-12-01

    At the time of cholecystectomy for symptomatic cholelithiasis, 7-20% of patients have common bile duct stones. Nearly one third of them are asymptomatic. Routine cholangiography during cholecystectomy allows the diagnosis and treatment of common bile duct stones during the same operation. Selective indication for the diagnosis of common bile duct stones based on the positive predictive value of indicators limits treatment to symptomatic cases. No single indicator is however completely accurate in predicting common bile duct stones and the natural history of asymptomatic cases is uncertain. Endoscopic stone extraction preceding cholecystectomy is not superior to one-stage surgical treatment. Diagnosis and treatment of common bile duct stones are feasible laparoscopically. Complications of common bile duct stones are cholangitis and acute pancreatitis; if severe, they require specific therapeutic approaches.

  14. Fine structure of the endolymphatic duct in the rat. A scanning and transmission electron microscopy study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the surface morphology of the endolymphatic duct epithelium, 8 rats were vascularly perfused with glutaraldehyde in a buffered and oxygenated blood substitute. Optimal preservation of the epithelium for scanning electron microscopy was attained by coating of the specimens with OsO4...... and thiocarbohydrazide followed by a continuous dehydration procedure. Three types of cells were identified with the scanning electron microscope: A polygonal and oblong epithelial cell was observed in the largest number throughout the duct, whereas in the juxta-saccular half of the duct two additional types...... of epithelial cells were observed. The scanning electron microscopical observations are compared and discussed with reference to transmission electron microscopical observations of the endolymphatic duct....

  15. Methods of evaluating cleanliness of ventilation ducts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹勇; 罗运有; 于丹; 甘丽斯

    2009-01-01

    A testing system for evaluating cleanliness of ventilation ducts was constructed. Comparisons of four evaluation methods for quantifying the amount of dust on the inner surface of ventilation ducts are presented. The experimental results show that the wiping by solvent method is more efficient than that by the wiping method,especially used on low cleanliness duct surface. The gravimetric tape method is an efficient method of collecting dust samples on the duct surface with low amounts of dust,particularly used to check the cleanliness level after the cleaning work. The optical method can be set up rapidly and is useful for fieldwork measurements.

  16. GPER1 in sand rat epididymis: Effects of seasonal variations, castration and efferent ducts ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menad, Rafik; Fernini, Meriem; Smaï, Souaâd; Bonnet, Xavier; Gernigon-Spychalowicz, Thérèse; Moudilou, Elara; Khammar, Farida; Exbrayat, Jean-Marie

    2017-08-01

    Estrogen plays a crucial role in regulating epididymal function and development. Estrogen signaling is mediated via two main receptors essentially involved in the genomic regulating pathway: ERα and ERβ. Recent studies revealed the contribution of a novel estrogen receptor involved in the non-genomic pathway: GPER1. This receptor belongs to the family of seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors and it triggers rapid cellular responses. Immuno-histochemical studies and Western Blot analyses were performed to investigate the GPER1 expression in the caput and cauda epididymis of free-ranging fat sand rats (Psammomys obesus) captured during the breeding and resting seasons. We also investigated the effect of castration (C), castration followed by testosterone treatment (C+T), and ligation of the efferent ducts (L). During the breeding season, a marked positive GPER1 immunoreactivity was detected in the cytoplasm of principal cells and basal cells; this signal persisted during the resting season, attenuated however, meanwhile the clear cells were not immuno-reactive. In C animals, the immuno-histochemical staining underwent nuclear translocation. In C+T animals, this response became nuclear and cytoplasmic. In the L group, the expression of the GPER1 was mainly located in the cytoplasm of principal cells and in the nuclei of basal cells; the sperm was also immune-positive in the cauda epididymis. Western blot analysis showed that GPER1 has a molecular weight of 55kDa in the caput and cauda epididymis during the breeding season, and it persisted during the resting season in the caput epididymis with a decrease in the cauda epididymis. These results suggest that GPER1 mediate a specific cellular estrogen signaling with marked differences between the breeding and resting seasons. Experimental groups suggest that testosterone is involved in the regulation of the expression of GPER1, in addition to other estrogen signalization pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  17. Homeostatic Imbalance in Epithelial Ducts and Its Role in Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna A. Rejniak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An epithelial duct is a well-defined multicellular structure composed of tightly packed cells separating and protecting body compartments that are used for enzyme secretion and its transport across the internal. The structural and functional integrity (homeostasis of such ducts is vital in carrying many life functions (breathing, lactation, production of hormones. However, the processes involved in maintaining the homeostatic balance are not yet fully understood. On the other hand, the loss of epithelial tissue architecture, such as filled lumens or ductal disorganization, are among the first symptoms of the emerging epithelial tumors (carcinomas. Using the previously developed biomechanical model of epithelial ducts: IBCell, we investigated how different signals and mechanical stimuli imposed on individual epithelial cells can impact the homeostatic (imbalance and integrity of the whole epithelial tissue. We provide a link between erroneous responses of individual epithelial cells to specific signals and the emerging ductal morphologies characteristic for preinvasive cancers observed in pathology specimens, or characteristic for multicellular structures arising from mutated cells cultured in vitro. We summarize our finding in terms of altered properties of epithelial cell polarization, and discuss the relative importance of various polarization signals on the formation of tumor-like multicellular structures.

  18. Homeostatic imbalance in epithelial ducts and its role in carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejniak, Katarzyna A

    2012-01-01

    An epithelial duct is a well-defined multicellular structure composed of tightly packed cells separating and protecting body compartments that are used for enzyme secretion and its transport across the internal. The structural and functional integrity (homeostasis) of such ducts is vital in carrying many life functions (breathing, lactation, production of hormones). However, the processes involved in maintaining the homeostatic balance are not yet fully understood. On the other hand, the loss of epithelial tissue architecture, such as filled lumens or ductal disorganization, are among the first symptoms of the emerging epithelial tumors (carcinomas). Using the previously developed biomechanical model of epithelial ducts: IBCell, we investigated how different signals and mechanical stimuli imposed on individual epithelial cells can impact the homeostatic (im)balance and integrity of the whole epithelial tissue. We provide a link between erroneous responses of individual epithelial cells to specific signals and the emerging ductal morphologies characteristic for preinvasive cancers observed in pathology specimens, or characteristic for multicellular structures arising from mutated cells cultured in vitro. We summarize our finding in terms of altered properties of epithelial cell polarization, and discuss the relative importance of various polarization signals on the formation of tumor-like multicellular structures.

  19. Measure Guideline: Sealing and Insulating of Ducts in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R.; Puttagunta, S.

    2011-12-01

    This document begins with a discussion on potential cost and performance benefits of duct sealing and insulating. It continues with a review of typical duct materials and components and the overall procedures for assessing and improving the duct system.

  20. Measure Guideline. Sealing and Insulating Ducts in Existing Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This document begins with a discussion on potential cost and performance benefits of duct sealing and insulating. It continues with a review of typical duct materials and components and the overall procedures for assessing and improving the duct system.

  1. Radiated noise of ducted fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, Walter

    The differences in the radiated acoustic fields of ducted and unducted propellers of the same thrust operating under similar conditions are investigated. An FEM model is created for the generation, propagation, and radiation of steady, rotor alone noise and exit guide vane interaction noise of a ducted fan. For a specified number of blades, angular mode harmonic, and rotor angular velocity, the acoustic field is described in a cylindrical coordinate system reduced to only the axial and radial directions. It is found that, contrary to the usual understanding of the Tyler and Sofrin (1962) result, supersonic tip speed rotor noise can be cut off if the tip Mach number is only slightly in excess of unity and if the number of blades is relatively small. If there are many blades, the fundamental angular mode number is large, and the Tyler and Sofrin result for thin annuli becomes more relevant. Shrouding of subsonic tip speed propellers is a very effective means of controlling rotor alone noise.

  2. Principal Ports and Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Principal Port file contains USACE port codes, geographic locations (longitude, latitude), names, and commodity tonnage summaries (total tons, domestic, foreign,...

  3. Comparative morphometric and glycohistochemical studies on the epididymal duct in the donkey (Equus asinus) and dromedary camel (Camelus dromedarius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkafafy, Mohamed; Ebada, Safwat; Rashed, Reda; Attia, Hossam

    2012-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to compare morphometric and glycohistochemical differences in the epididymal duct of the donkey and the dromedary camel. Paraffin-embedded sections from the different regions of the duct (caput, corpus and cauda) of both species were stained conventionally for general histology and histomorphometry and also with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) conjugated lectins for glycohistochemical mapping. Morphometric data (means ± SE) showed that the luminal diameter was widest (1029.76 ± 15.04 μm) in the donkey cauda and narrowest (179.80 ± 3.27 μm) in the camel corpus. The thickness of the peritubular muscle coat had the highest (74.32 ± 1.85 μm) and the lowest (24.32 ± 0.74 μm) values in the donkey cauda and corpus respectively. The greatest (94.44 ± 2.08 μm) and the least (21.48 ± 0.66 μm) values of epithelial height were reported respectively in the camel caput and in the donkey cauda. The length of stereocilia of principal cells in the camel was greatest (21.88 ± 0.57 μm) and lowest (6.68 ± 0.28 μm) in the caput and cauda. Binding sites for only six out of eight lectins could be found. The distribution pattern of binding sites of different lectins showed significant variations in both a species-specific and also region-specific manner. Distinct labeling was found in the Golgi zone, apical cytoplasm and on stereocilia of principal cells in the camel (WGA and DBA) and donkey (DBA) caput region, while other lectins exhibited variable reactivity in the other regions in both species. The basal cells showed variable binding to most of the lectins, however, they displayed distinct binding to WGA and PSA throughout the duct in camel and donkey respectively. In conclusion, both morphometric and glycohistochemical findings displayed regional species-specific and potentially functional relevant characteristics.

  4. Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Carsten M.

    1995-01-01

    An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has-four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

  5. A rare case of bile duct cyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Gang Wang; Shu-Tian Zhang

    2009-01-01

    Choledochal cyst is an uncommon disease usually seen in young women and can be divided into five types. We report a 66-year-old woman who was diagnosed with types Ⅱ and Ⅱ bile duct cyst simultaneously after surgery, which is a rare type of bile duct cyst.

  6. New cannulation method for pancreatic duct cannulation-bile duct guidewire-indwelling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Yuji; Ishihara, Takeshi; Tsuyuguchi, Toshio; Tawada, Katsunobu; Saito, Masayoshi; Kurosawa, Jo; Tamura, Ryo; Togo, Seiko; Mikata, Rintaro; Tada, Motohisa; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    The patient was a 58-year-old male with symptomatic alcoholic chronic pancreatitis. Since a 10 mm calculus was observed in the pancreatic body and abdominal pain occurred due to congestion of pancreatic juice, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was conducted for assessment of the pancreatic duct and treatment of pancreatic calculus. Pancreatogram was slightly and insufficiently obtained by injecting the contrast media via the common channel of the duodenal main papilla. We tried to cannulate selectively into the pancreatic duct for a clear image. However, the selective cannulation of the pancreatic duct was difficult because of instability of the papilla. On the other hand, selective cannulation of the bile duct was relatively easily achieved. Therefore, after the imaging of the bile duct, a guidewire was retained in the bile duct to immobilize the duodenal papilla and cannulation of the pancreatic duct was attempted. As a result, selective pancreatic duct cannulation became possible. It is considered that the bile duct guidewire-indwelling method may serve as one of the useful techniques for cases whose selective pancreatic duct cannulation is difficult (“selective pancreatic duct difficult cannulation case”). PMID:22110840

  7. Pancreatic duct holder for facilitating duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy after pancreatoduodenectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Masanori; Suzuki, Yutaka; Abe, Nobutsugu; Ueki, Hisayo; Masaki, Tadahiko; Mori, Toshiyuki; Atomi, Yutaka

    2009-01-01

    Duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy after pancreatoduodenectomy may be technically difficult, particularly in cases in which the remnant pancreas is soft with a small main pancreatic duct. We devised a pancreatic duct holder for duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy. The holder has a cone-shaped tip. A one-third circle of the tip is cut away, which makes a slit. As the tip is inserted gently into the pancreatic duct, the duct can be adequately expanded. The holder provides a good surgical field for anastomosis. A slit of the tip allows needle insertion. The holder facilitates stitches of the jejunum also. Twelve patients underwent pancreatoduodenectomy, followed by duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy using the holder. The holder allowed 8 or more stitches in duct-to-mucosa anastomosis, even in patients with a small pancreatic duct. No patients developed prolonged pancreatic leakage or pancreatic fistula postoperatively. In conclusion, the pancreatic duct holder is a simple and useful tool for facilitating duct-to-mucosa pancreatojejunostomy.

  8. Bile duct hamartomas (von Mayenburg complexes) mimicking liver metastases from bile duct cancer: MRC findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasuhiko Nagano; Kenichi Matsuo; Katsuya Gorai; Kazuya Sugimori; Chikara Kunisaki; Hideyuki Ike; Katsuaki Tanaka; Toshio Imada; Hiroshi Shimada

    2006-01-01

    We present a case of a 72-year-old man with a common bile duct cancer, who was initially believed to have multiple liver metastases based on computed tomography findings, and in whom magnetic resonance cholangiography (MRC) revealed a diagnosis of bile duct hamartomas. At exploration for pancreaticoduodenectomy, liver palpation revealed disseminated nodules at the surface of the liver. These nodules showed gray-white nodular lesions of about 0.5cm in diameter scattered on the surface of both liver lobes, which were looked like multiple liver metastases from bile duct cancer. Frozen section of the liver biopsy disclosed multiple bile ducts with slightly dilated lumens embedded in the collagenous stroma characteristics of multiple bile duct hamartomas (BDHs). Only two reports have described the MRC features of bile duct hamartomas. Of all imaging procedures, MRC provides the most relevant features for the imaging diagnosis of bile duct hamartomas.

  9. The antiproliferative drug doxorubicin inhibits liver fibrosis in bile duct-ligated rats and can be selectively delivered to hepatic stellate cells in vivo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greupink, R; Bakker, HI; Bouma, W; Reker-Smit, C; Meijer, DKF; Beljaars, L; Poelstra, K

    Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation is a key event in liver fibrosis; therefore, pharmacological intervention with antiproliferative drugs may result in antifibrotic effects. In this article, the antiproliferative effect of three cytostatic drugs was tested in cultured rat HSC. Subsequently,

  10. Regulated acid–base transport in the collecting duct

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    The renal collecting system serves the fine-tuning of renal acid-base secretion. Acid-secretory type-A intercalated cells secrete protons via a luminally expressed V-type H(+)-ATPase and generate new bicarbonate released by basolateral chloride/bicarbonate exchangers including the AE1 anion exchanger. Efficient proton secretion depends both on the presence of titratable acids (mainly phosphate) and the concomitant secretion of ammonia being titrated to ammonium. Collecting duct ammonium excre...

  11. Salivary Duct Cyst: Histo-pathologic Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Vinayachandran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Non-neoplastic cysts of the salivary glands are uncommon and represent 2-5% of all salivary gland lesions. They are mainly mucoceles or salivary duct cysts. Unlike a mucocele, which is surrounded by granulation tissue, the salivary duct cyst is lined by epithelium. Salivary duct cysts are more common in the oral minor salivary glands and rarely occur in the major salivary glands, show a marked predilection for the superficial lobe of the parotid, and represent 10% of all salivary gland cysts. Neoplastic differentiation of the lining of the salivary duct cyst has been reported. We report a case of a salivary duct cyst of the left parotid gland, with a review of radiographic and histopathologic features.

  12. Invasive carcinoma derived from branch duct-type IPMN may be a more aggressive neoplasm than that derived from main duct-type IPMN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, Takehiro; Shima, Yasuo; Kosaki, Takuhiro; Sumiyoshi, Tatsuaki; Kozuki, Akihito; Iiyama, Tastuo; Takezaki, Yuka; Kobayashi, Michiya; Nishimori, Isao; Ogawa, Yasuhiro; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2013-06-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the long-term follow-up results of patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) and to estimate the degree of IPMN malignancy based on pathological and molecular features of resected specimens. The detection rate of IPMN has increased over the last decade; however, the management of this neoplasm remains controversial. This is particularly so for branch duct-type IPMN, which carries a high potential for malignancy and risk of recurrence. We retrospectively reviewed a single institution's prospective pancreatic resection database to identify IPMN patients who underwent pancreatectomy with curative intent. The clinicopathological variables of 100 patients resected for IPMN were analyzed with a detailed review of histopathological results (borderline lesions, non-invasive carcinoma and invasive carcinoma) to determine the grade of IPMN malignancy based on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β/SMAD4 signaling. The incidence of malignant change was significantly higher in patients with main duct-type IPMN (69.7%) compared with branch duct-type IPMN cases (17.9%). However, patients with an invasive carcinoma had a significantly worse outcome if it was derived from branch duct-type IPMN compared with those derived from main duct-type IPMN, and TGF-β mRNA expression was significantly increased in the former patient group. Immunohistochemistry also showed higher numbers of SMAD4-positive cells in patients with carcinoma derived from branch duct-type IPMN. Our results demonstrated that invasive carcinoma derived from branch duct-type IPMN is more aggressive than that derived from main duct-type IPMN, once invasive morphological change takes place. Determining TGF-β and/or SMAD4 status at initial diagnosis may be useful for stratifying IPMN patients into treatment regimens.

  13. Transcriptomic profiling of pancreatic alpha, beta and delta cell populations identifies delta cells as a principal target for ghrelin in mouse islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriaenssens, Alice E; Svendsen, Berit; Lam, Brian Y H;

    2016-01-01

    and delta cells. METHODS: Sst-Cre mice crossed with fluorescent reporters were used to identify delta cells, while Glu-Venus (with Venus reported under the control of the Glu [also known as Gcg] promoter) mice were used to identify alpha and beta cells. Alpha, beta and delta cells were purified using flow...... cytometry and analysed by RNA sequencing. The role of the ghrelin receptor was validated by imaging delta cell calcium concentrations using islets with delta cell restricted expression of the calcium reporter GCaMP3, and in perfused mouse pancreases. RESULTS: A database was constructed of all genes...... expressed in alpha, beta and delta cells. The gene encoding the ghrelin receptor, Ghsr, was highlighted as being highly expressed and enriched in delta cells. Activation of the ghrelin receptor raised cytosolic calcium levels in primary pancreatic delta cells and enhanced somatostatin secretion in perfused...

  14. Principals from Hell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lee Ann

    2006-01-01

    Some principals have personalities that can drive teachers around the bend and back again. Sure, most are wonderful bosses who support teachers in any way, but woe betide teachers if they are unlucky enough to run across one of the six dreaded "problem principals" identified in this article. Teachers do not have to be held hostage by difficult…

  15. Principal Preparation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Kevin

    2008-01-01

    A school principal's job has never been tougher. The accountability movement--culminating with the federal No Child Left Behind law in 2001--has put pressure on principals to improve student performance, resulting in school leaders' transitioning from a more administrative role to becoming more heavily involved in assessment, instruction,…

  16. Hepatic stellate cell-targeted delivery of hepatocyte growth factor transgene via bile duct infusion enhances its expression at fibrotic foci to regress dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narmada, Balakrishnan Chakrapani; Kang, Yuzhan; Venkatraman, Lakshmi; Peng, Qiwen; Sakban, Rashidah Binte; Nugraha, Bramasta; Jiang, Xuan; Bunte, Ralph M; So, Peter T C; Tucker-Kellogg, Lisa; Mao, Hai-Quan; Yu, Hanry

    2013-05-01

    Liver fibrosis generates fibrotic foci with abundant activated hepatic stellate cells and excessive collagen deposition juxtaposed with healthy regions. Targeted delivery of antifibrotic therapeutics to hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) might improve treatment outcomes and reduce adverse effects on healthy tissue. We delivered the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) gene specifically to activated hepatic stellate cells in fibrotic liver using vitamin A-coupled liposomes by retrograde intrabiliary infusion to bypass capillarized hepatic sinusoids. The antifibrotic effects of DsRed2-HGF vector encapsulated within vitamin A-coupled liposomes were validated by decreases in fibrotic markers in vitro. Fibrotic cultures transfected with the targeted transgene showed a significant decrease in fibrotic markers such as transforming growth factor-β1. In rats, dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis is manifested by an increase in collagen deposition and severe defenestration of sinusoidal endothelial cells. The HSC-targeted transgene, administered via retrograde intrabiliary infusion in fibrotic rats, successfully reduced liver fibrosis markers alpha-smooth muscle actin and collagen, accompanied by an increase in the expression of DsRed2-HGF near the fibrotic foci. Thus, targeted delivery of HGF gene to hepatic stellate cells increased the transgene expression at the fibrotic foci and strongly enhanced its antifibrotic effects.

  17. Effect of duct obstruction on structure, elemental composition, and function of rat submandibular glands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagstroem, S.S.; Sagulin, G.B.; Roomans, G.M. (Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden))

    1989-06-01

    Obstruction of salivary glands occurs in association with a number of pathological conditions. It has been suggested that the major changes found in the salivary glands of patients with cystic fibrosis are due to obstruction of the excretory duct by viscous mucus. In the present study, the effect of excretory duct obstruction on structure, elemental composition and function of rat submandibular gland was investigated. Obstruction was effected by infusion of a fast-hardening protein emulsion in the main excretory duct. After 1 week, and more pronounced after 2 weeks of obstruction the number of granular duct cells had decreased in the obstructed gland. X-ray microanalysis showed an increase in Mg, Ca and K, and a decrease in Na levels in the acinar cells, compared to normal glands. The contralateral glands apparently underwent compensatory hypertrophy and showed a similar pattern of changes in elemental composition. The composition of pilocarpine-induced submandibular saliva was neither in the obstructed nor in the contralateral gland significantly different from that in control glands. However, the flow rate was somewhat lower. Hence, increase in cellular Ca levels in submandibular gland acinar cells in cystic fibrosis could be secondary to duct obstruction, but the present study does not support the hypothesis that duct obstruction would result in changes in the composition of saliva.

  18. The adenosine A2B receptor is involved in anion secretion in human pancreatic duct Capan-1 epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Inagaki, A.; Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    by CFTRinh-172, a cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl− channel inhibitor. The adenosine A2B receptor agonist, BAY 60-6583, increased Isc and whole-cell Cl− currents through CFTR Cl− channels, whereas the A2A receptor agonist, CGS 21680, had negligible effects. The A2B receptor....... These results demonstrate that luminal adenosine regulates anion secretion by activating CFTR Cl− channels via adenosine A2B receptors on the luminal membranes of Capan-1 cells. The present study endorses that purinergic signaling is important in the regulation of pancreatic secretion....

  19. AQP5 is expressed in type-B intercalated cells in the collecting duct system of the rat, mouse and human kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procino, Giuseppe; Mastrofrancesco, Lisa; Sallustio, Fabio; Costantino, Vincenzo; Barbieri, Claudia; Pisani, Francesco; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Svelto, Maria; Valenti, Giovanna

    2011-01-01

    We screened human kidney-derived multipotent CD133+/CD24+ ARPCs for the possible expression of all 13 aquaporin isoforms cloned in humans. Interestingly, we found that ARPCs expressed both AQP5 mRNA and mature protein. This novel finding prompted us to investigate the presence of AQP5 in situ in kidney. We report here the novel finding that AQP5 is expressed in human, rat and mouse kidney at the apical membrane of type-B intercalated cells. AQP5 is expressed in the renal cortex and completely absent from the medulla. Immunocytochemical analysis using segment- and cell type-specific markers unambiguously indicated that AQP5 is expressed throughout the collecting system at the apical membrane of type-B intercalated cells, where it co-localizes with pendrin. No basolateral AQPs were detected in type-B intercalated cells, suggesting that AQP5 is unlikely to be involved in the net trans-epithelial water reabsorption occurring in the distal tubule. An intriguing hypothesis is that AQP5 may serve an osmosensor for the composition of the fluid coming from the thick ascending limb. Future studies will unravel the physiological role of AQP5 in the kidney. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Clinical significance of main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography: Single and double duct dilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark D Edge; Maarouf Hoteit; Amil P Patel; Xiaoping Wang; Deborah A Baumgarten; Qiang Cai

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the patients with main pancreatic duct dilation on computed tomography (CT) and thereby to provide the predictive criteria to identify patients at high risk of significant diseases, such as pancreatic cancer, and to avoid unnecessary work up for patients at low risk of such diseases.METHODS: Patients with dilation of the main pancreatic duct on CT at Emory University Hospital in 2002 were identified by computer search. Clinical course and ultimate diagnosis were obtained in all the identified patients by abstraction of their computer database records.RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were identified in this study. Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer were the most common causes of the main pancreatic duct dilation on CT. Although the majority of patients with isolated dilation of the main pancreatic duct (single duct dilation) had chronic pancreatitis, one-third of patients with single duct dilation but without chronic pancreatitis had pancreatic malignancies, whereas most of patients with concomitant biliary duct dilation (double duct dilation) had pancreatic cancer.CONCLUSION: Patients with pancreatic double duct dilation need extensive work up and careful follow up since a majority of these patients are ultimately diagnosed with pancreatic cancer. Patients with single duct dilation, especially such patients without any evidence of chronic pancreatitis, also need careful follow-up since the possibility of pancreatic malignancy, including adenocarcinoma and intraductal papillary mucinous tumors, is still high.

  1. Activity of the principal cells of the olfactory bulb promotes a structural dynamic on the distal dendrites of immature adult-born granule cells via activation of NMDA receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton-Provencher, Vincent; Coté, Daniel; Saghatelyan, Armen

    2014-01-29

    The adult olfactory bulb is continuously supplied with neuronal precursors that differentiate into granule and periglomerular cells. Little is known about the structural dynamic of adult-born granule cells (GCs) at their different maturational stages, the mechanisms controlling the integration of new neurons into the pre-existing neuronal circuitry, or the role of principal cell activity in these processes. We used two-photon time-lapse imaging to reveal a high level of filopodia formation and retraction on the distal dendrites of adult-born GCs at their early maturational stages. This dynamic decreased as the adult-born interneurons matured. Filopodia formation/retraction on the dendrites of adult-born GCs at the early maturational stages depended on the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs). The stimulation of mitral cells using a pattern that mimics activity of these principal neurons to odor presentation promotes the NMDAR-dependent filopodia dynamic of adult-born GCs during their early but not late maturational stages. Moreover, NMDA iontophoresis was sufficient to induce the formation of new filopodia on the distal dendrites of immature adult-born GCs. The maturation of adult-born interneurons was accompanied by a progressive hyperpolarization of the membrane potential and an increased Mg(2+) block of NMDARs. Decreasing the extracellular Mg(2+) concentration led to filopodia formation on the dendrites of mature adult-born GCs following NMDA iontophoresis. Our findings reveal an increased structural dynamic of adult-born GCs during the early stages of their integration into the mouse bulbar circuitry and highlight a critical period during which the principal cells' activity influences filopodia formation/retraction on the dendrites of interneurons.

  2. 体外诱导骨髓间充质干细胞向胆管上皮样细胞分化%In vitro induced differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells into bile duct epithelial-like cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张诚; 杨玉龙; 林美举; 史力军; 张洪威; 李婧伊

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Extrahepatic bile duct and gal bladder epithelial cel s are easily isolated and purified, but bile duct epithelial cel s predispose to lose proliferative capacity under in vitro circumstances. Thus, enough amounts of cel s used for basic studies are hardly acquired, which limits the progression of bile duct repair. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s can be differentiated into hepatocytes, but there have been no reports regarding in vitro induced differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s into bile duct epithelial cel s. OBJECTIVE:To discuss the feasibility of inducing bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s into the bile duct epithelial cel s in vitro, and to find suitable seed cel s for the repair of bile duct injury. METHODS:Rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s were in vitro isolated and purified by whole bone marrow adherent screening in vitro. Passage 3 bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s were cultured with culture medium containing hepatocyte growth factor and epidermal growth factor. The morphological changes of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s were observed under the inverted microscope and CK19 expression was detected by immunofluorescence assay at different time periods. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Under the induction by hepatocyte growth factor and epidermal growth factor, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s gradual y appeared from shuttle-shaped to polygonal or triangular. Immunofluorescence examination showed that CK19 expression appeared in the cel membrane in the 4th week of induction and it was significantly increased in the 6th week. These findings suggest that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s can be induced to differentiate into duct epithelial-like cel s under the combined induction of hepatocyte growth factor and epidermal growth factor, which provides a new thought for bile duct repair with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cel s.%  背景:肝外胆管和胆囊上皮细胞的分离、纯化相对比较容易,但是胆管上

  3. The Human Umbilical Cord: A Novel Substitute for Reconstruction of the Extrahepatic Bile Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong Lu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reconstruction of the extrahepatic bile duct following bile duct injury or defect is one of the most common challenges for hepatobiliary surgeons. There are currently a number of surgical strategies such as biliary-enteric anastomosis, end-to-end anastomosis and autologous tissue substitute. However, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction as well as biliary stricture may occur after surgical anastomosis. Also, insufficient tissue quantity remains a problem associated with the application of tissue substitute. Therefore, considerable attention has been attracted to explore a new replacement material of the bile duct for biliary reconstruction. The human umbilical cord (HUC is abundant in resource and is convenient to collect, including two arteries and one vein, whose diameters are close to that of the common bile duct. In order to reduce immunogenicity (foreign-body reaction, cells and major histocompatibility complex (MHC antigens can be removed from the HUC and the remaining tissue (extracellular matrix, ECM can be used as a scaffold. The HUC provides a rich source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. A current study has demonstrated that MSCs are able to differentiate into biliary epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro with low immunogenicity, which can be used as seed cells. The HUC might be a promising composite material of a scaffold (ECM and seed cells (biliary epithelial cells, for bile duct replacement in situ without removal of sphincter of Oddi, or biliary stricture. In addition, the patients’ own umbilical cord without any foreign-body reaction can be directly banked for possible future use in bile duct reconstruction. Therefore, we hypothesise that the HUC may be a novel substitute for reconstruction of the extrahepatic bile duct.

  4. Paraurethral Skene's duct cyst in a newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moralioğlu, Serdar; Bosnalı, Oktav; Celayir, Ayşenur Cerrah; Şahin, Ceyhan

    2013-01-01

    Paraurethral or Skene's duct cysts are rare causes of interlabial masses in neonates. The diagnosis of Skene's duct cysts in the neonatal period is based on its location, in relation to the urethra, and the demonstration of transitional epithelium in the cyst wall. The distinguishing features of paraurethral cysts are the displacement of urethral meatus by the mass and a cyst containing milky fluid. Thus, we report a case of a Skene's duct cyst in a newborn which was treated by incision and drainage. PMID:24049387

  5. Principal noncommutative torus bundles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Echterhoff, Siegfried; Nest, Ryszard; Oyono-Oyono, Herve

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study continuous bundles of C*-algebras which are non-commutative analogues of principal torus bundles. We show that all such bundles, although in general being very far away from being locally trivial bundles, are at least locally trivial with respect to a suitable bundle version...... of bivariant K-theory (denoted RKK-theory) due to Kasparov. Using earlier results of Echterhoff and Williams, we shall give a complete classification of principal non-commutative torus bundles up to equivariant Morita equivalence. We then study these bundles as topological fibrations (forgetting the group...... action) and give necessary and sufficient conditions for any non-commutative principal torus bundle being RKK-equivalent to a commutative one. As an application of our methods we shall also give a K-theoretic characterization of those principal torus-bundles with H-flux, as studied by Mathai...

  6. Transition duct assembly with modified trailing edge in turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; Schott, Carl Gerard; Ingram, Clint Luigie; Siden, Gunnar Leif; Pierre, Sylvain

    2016-10-04

    Transition duct assemblies for turbine systems and turbomachines are provided. In one embodiment, a transition duct assembly includes a plurality of transition ducts disposed in a generally annular array and comprising a first transition duct and a second transition duct. Each of the plurality of transition ducts includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of each transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct assembly further includes an aerodynamic structure defined by the passages of the first transition duct and the second transition duct. The aerodynamic structure includes a pressure side, a suction side, and a trailing edge, the trailing edge having a modified aerodynamic contour.

  7. Reference values of MRI measurements of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwal, Kriti; Bedoya, Maria A.; Patel, Neal; Darge, Kassa; Anupindi, Sudha A. [University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Rambhatla, Siri J. [Beth Israel Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, Newark, NJ (United States); Sreedharan, Ram R. [University of Pennsylvania, Departments of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging/cholangiopancreatography (MRI/MRCP) is now an essential imaging modality for the evaluation of biliary and pancreatic pathology in children, but there are no data depicting the normal diameters of the common bile duct (CBD) and pancreatic duct. Recognition of abnormal duct size is important and the increasing use of MRCP necessitates normal MRI measurements. To present normal MRI measurements for the common bile duct and pancreatic duct in children. In this retrospective study we searched all children ages birth to 10 years in our MR urography (MRU) database from 2006 until 2013. We excluded children with a history of hepatobiliary or pancreatic surgery. We stratified 204 children into five age groups and retrospectively measured the CBD and the pancreatic duct on 2-D axial and 3-D coronal T2-weighted sequences. We performed statistical analysis, using logistic and linear regressions to detect the age association of the visibility and size of the duct measurements. We used non-parametric tests to detect gender and imaging plane differences. Our study included 204 children, 106 (52%) boys and 98 (48%) girls, with a median age of 33 months (range 0-119 months). The children were distributed into five age groups. The common bile duct was visible in all children in all age groups. The pancreatic duct was significantly less visible in the youngest children, group 1 (54/67, 80.5%; P = 0.003) than in the oldest children, group 5 (22/22, 100%). In group 2 the pancreatic duct was seen in 19/21 (90.4%), in group 3 52/55 (94.5%), and in group 4 39/39 (100%). All duct measurements increased with age (P < 0.001; r-value > 0.423), and the incremental differences between ages were significant. The measurement variations between the axial and coronal planes were statistically significant (P < 0.001); however these differences were fractions of millimeters. For example, in group 1 the mean coronal measurement of the CBD was 2.1 mm and the axial

  8. Transmission of wave energy in curved ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostafinski, W.

    1973-01-01

    A formation of wave energy flow was developed for motion in curved ducts. A parametric study over a range of frequencies determined the ability of circular bends to transmit energy for the case of perfectly rigid walls.

  9. Ducted propagation of chorus waves: Cluster observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Yearby

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ducted propagation of whistler waves in the terrestrial magnetosphere-ionosphere system was discussed and studied long before the first in-situ spacecraft measurements. While a number of implicit examples of the existence of ducted propagation have been found, direct observation of ducts has been hampered by the low sampling rates of measurements of the plasma density. The present paper is based on Cluster observations of chorus waves. The ability to use measurements of the spacecraft potential as a proxy for high time resolution electron density measurements is exploited to identify a number of cases when increased chorus wave power, observed within the radiation belts, is observed simultaneously with density enchantments. It is argued that the observation of ducted propagation of chorus implies modification of numerical models for plasma-wave interactions within the radiation belts.

  10. General Information about Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... duct cancer include jaundice and pain in the abdomen. These and other signs and symptoms may be ... Dark urine . Clay colored stool . Pain in the abdomen . Fever . Itchy skin. Nausea and vomiting . Weight loss ...

  11. Treatment Options for Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... duct cancer include jaundice and pain in the abdomen. These and other signs and symptoms may be ... Dark urine . Clay colored stool . Pain in the abdomen . Fever . Itchy skin. Nausea and vomiting . Weight loss ...

  12. Stages of Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... duct cancer include jaundice and pain in the abdomen. These and other signs and symptoms may be ... Dark urine . Clay colored stool . Pain in the abdomen . Fever . Itchy skin. Nausea and vomiting . Weight loss ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... duct cancer include jaundice and pain in the abdomen. These and other signs and symptoms may be ... Dark urine . Clay colored stool . Pain in the abdomen . Fever . Itchy skin. Nausea and vomiting . Weight loss ...

  14. Nikander's Thesis: Studies on the exocrine ducts of the pancreas and the liver in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Nikander

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available This thesis is based on the following papers, which will be referred to in the next by their Roman numerals:I Nikander, S. 1990. On the anatomy and topography of the pancreas and the pancreatic duct in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.. Rangifer 10: 25-29.II Rahko, T. & Nikander, S. 1990. Macroscopical and microscopical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.. Rangifer 10: 3-8.III Rahko, T. & Nikander, S. 1990. Histochemical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer. Rangifer 10: 9-15.IV Rahko, T. & Nikander, S. 1990. Electron microscopical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer. Rangifer 10: 17-23.V Nikander, S. & Rahko, T. 1990. Ultra-structure of granulated cells in the bile duct of reindeer. Rangifer Special Issue No. 3: 363-367.

  15. INTERIOR DUCT SYSTEM DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, AND PERFORMANCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janet E.R. Mcllvaine; David Beal; Philip Fairey

    2001-10-10

    By removing air distribution and conditioning equipment from unconditioned spaces, homeowners stand to benefit substantially with respect to both energy savings and indoor air quality. Duct leakage introduces: Greater heating and cooling loads from air at extreme temperatures and humidity levels; Outside air and air from unconditioned spaces that may contain air borne contaminants, combustion gases, pollen, mold spores, and/or particles of building materials; and Higher whole-house infiltration/exfiltration rates. Exemplary studies conducted since 1990 have demonstrated the prevalence of duct leakage throughout the United States and measured energy savings of approximately 20% during both heating and cooling seasons from leakage reduction. These all dealt with duct leakage to and/or from unconditioned spaces. In the building science community, leakage within the conditioned space is generally presumed to eliminate the negative consequences of duct leakage with the exception of possibly creating pressure imbalances in the house which relates to higher infiltration and/or exfiltration. The practical challenges of isolating ducts and air handlers from unconditioned spaces require builders to construct an air-tight environment for the ducts. Florida Solar Energy Center researchers worked with four builders in Texas, North Carolina, and Florida who build a furred-down chase located either in a central hallway or at the edges of rooms as an architectural detail. Some comparison homes with duct systems in attics and crawl spaces were included in the test group of more than 20 homes. Test data reveals that all of the duct/AHU systems built inside the conditioned space had lower duct leakage to unconditioned spaces than their conventional counterparts; however, none of the homes was completely free of duct leakage to unconditioned spaces. Common problems included wiring and plumbing penetrations of the chase, failure to treat the chase as an air tight space, and misguided

  16. Effect of shear on duct wall impedance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, M.; Rice, E.

    1973-01-01

    The solution to the equation governing the propagation of sound in a uniform shear layer is expressed in terms of parabolic cylinder functions. This result is used to develop a closed-form solution for acoustic wall impedance which accounts for both the duct liner and the presence of a boundary layer in the duct. The effective wall impedance can then be used as the boundary condition for the much simpler problem of sound propagation in uniform flow.

  17. Gas Explosions Mitigation by Ducted Venting

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    The mitigation of effects of gas and dust explosions within industrial equipment is effective if venting the combustion products to safe location. The presence of relief duct is however likely to increase the severity of the explosion with respect to equipment vented to open atmosphere, due to secondary explosions occurring in the initial sections of duct, frictional drag and inertia of the gas column, acoustic and Helmholtz oscillations. The weights of these phenomena on explosion e...

  18. Energy Conservation Through Duct Leakage Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-26

    Energy Conservation Through Duct Leakage Reduction February 26, 2004 Rich Glatt – Lindab Inc. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Energy Conservation Through Duct Leakage Reduction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Wall – DW that installs like SW - easiest installing DW system on the market – Eliminates the need for costly flanged connections – SMACNA Leakage

  19. A Comparison of Simulation Capabilities for Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, William A [ORNL; Smith, Matt K [ORNL; Gu, Lixing [Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); New, Joshua Ryan [ORNL

    2014-11-01

    Typically, the cheapest way to install a central air conditioning system in residential buildings is to place the ductwork in the attic. Energy losses due to duct-attic interactions can be great, but current whole-house models are unable to capture the dynamic multi-mode physics of the interactions. The building industry is notoriously fragmented and unable to devote adequate research resources to solve this problem. Builders are going to continue to put ducts in the attic because floor space is too expensive to closet them within living space, and there are both construction and aesthetic issues with other approaches such as dropped ceilings. Thus, there is a substantial need to publicly document duct losses and the cost of energy used by ducts in attics so that practitioners, builders, homeowners and state and federal code officials can make informed decisions leading to changes in new construction and additional retrofit actions. Thus, the goal of this study is to conduct a comparison of AtticSim and EnergyPlus simulation algorithms to identify specific features for potential inclusion in EnergyPlus that would allow higher-fidelity modeling of HVAC operation and duct transport of conditioned air. It is anticipated that the resulting analysis from these simulation tools will inform energy decisions relating to the role of ducts in future building energy codes and standards.

  20. Double common bile duct: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srdjan P Djuranovic; Milenko B Ugljesic; Nenad S Mijalkovic; Viktorija A Korneti; Nada V Kovacevic; Tamara M Alempijevic; Slaven V Radulovic; Dragan V Tomic; Milan M Spuran

    2007-01-01

    Double common bile duct (DCBD) is a rare congenital anomaly in which two common bile ducts exist. One usually has normal drainage into the papilla duodeni major and the other usually named accessory common bile duct (ACBD) opens in different parts of upper gastrointestinal tract (stomach, duodenum, ductus pancreaticus or septum). This anomaly is of great importance since it is often associated with biliary lithiasis, choledochal cyst, anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction (APBJ) and upper gastrointestinal tract malignancies. We recently recognized a rare case of DCBD associated with APBJ with lithiasis in better developed common bile duct. The opening site of ACBD was in the pancreatic duct. The anomaly was suspected by transabdominal ultrasonography and finally confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) followed by endoscopic sphincterotomy and stone extraction. According to the literature, the existence of DCBD with the opening of ACBD in the pancreatic duct is most frequently associated with APBJ and gallbladder carcinoma. In case of DCBD, the opening site of ACBD is of greatest clinical importance because of its close implications with concomitant pathology. The adequate diagnosis of this rare anomaly is significant since the operative complications may occur in cases with DCBD which is not recognized prior to surgical treatment.

  1. Global analysis of the effects of the V2 receptor antagonist satavaptan on protein phosphorylation in collecting duct

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffert, Jason D; Pisitkun, Trairak; Saeed, Fahad; Wilson, Justin L; Knepper, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    .... To this end, we carried out a global quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of native rat inner medullary collecting duct cells pretreated with satavaptan or vehicle control followed by the V2...

  2. Repair of a common bile duct defect with a decellularized ureteral graft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yao; Xiong, Xian-Ze; Zhou, Rong-Xing; Deng, Yi-Lei; Jin, Yan-Wen; Lu, Jiong; Li, Fu-Yu; Cheng, Nan-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the feasibility of repairing a common bile duct defect with a decellularized ureteral graft in a porcine model. METHODS Eighteen pigs were randomly divided into three groups. An approximately 1 cm segment of the common bile duct was excised from all the pigs. The defect was repaired using a 2 cm long decellularized ureteral graft over a T-tube (T-tube group, n = 6) or a silicone stent (stent group, n = 6). Six pigs underwent bile duct reconstruction with a graft alone (stentless group). The surviving animals were euthanized at 3 mo. Specimens of the common bile ducts were obtained for histological analysis. RESULTS The animals in the T-tube and stent groups survived until sacrifice. The blood test results were normal in both groups. The histology results showed a biliary epithelial layer covering the neo-bile duct. In contrast, all the animals in the stentless group died due to biliary peritonitis and cholangitis within two months post-surgery. Neither biliary epithelial cells nor accessory glands were observed at the graft sites in the stentless group. CONCLUSION Repair of a common bile duct defect with a decellularized ureteral graft appears to be feasible. A T-tube or intraluminal stent was necessary to reduce postoperative complications. PMID:28082809

  3. Pancreatic duct replication is increased with obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, A E; Galasso, R; Matveyenko, A; Rizza, R A; Dry, S; Butler, P C

    2010-01-01

    In a high-fat-fed rat model of type 2 diabetes we noted increased exocrine duct replication. This is a predisposing factor for pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer, both of which are more common in type 2 diabetes. The aim of the study reported here was to establish if obesity and/or type 2 diabetes are associated with increased pancreatic ductal replication in humans. We obtained pancreas at autopsy from 45 humans, divided into four groups: lean (BMI obese (BMI >27 kg/m(2)); non-diabetic; and with type 2 diabetes. Pancreases were evaluated after immunostaining for the duct cell marker cytokeratin and Ki67 for replication. We show for the first time that both obesity and type 2 diabetes in humans are associated with increased pancreatic ductal replication. Specifically, we report that (1) replication of pancreatic duct cells is increased tenfold by obesity, and (2) lean subjects with type 2 diabetes demonstrate a fourfold increase in replication of pancreatic duct cells compared with their lean non-diabetic controls. Pancreatic duct cell replication is increased in humans in response to both obesity and type 2 diabetes, potentially providing a mechanism for the increased risk of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer in those with obesity and/or type 2 diabetes.

  4. Effect of ZVAD-fmk on hepatocyte apoptosis after bile duct ligation in rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shyr-Ming Sheen-Chen; Hsin-Tsung Ho; Wei-Jen Chen; Hock-Liew Eng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Retention and accumulation of toxic hydrophobic bile salts within hepatocyte may cause hepatocyte toxicity by inducing apoptosis. Apoptosis is a pathway of cell death orchestrated by a family of proteases called caspases. Z-ValAla-Asp (OMe)-fluoromethyl ketone (ZVAD-fmk) is a cellpermeable irreversible inhibitor of caspase. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effect of ZVAD-fmk on hepatocyte apoptosis after bile duct ligation in the rat.METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 250-300 g,were randomized to five groups of five rats each. Group 1 underwent common bile duct ligation and simultaneous treatment with ZVAD-fmk (dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)). Group 2 underwent common bile duct ligation and simultaneous treatment with Z-Phe-Ala-fluoromethyl ketone ( ZFA-fmk, dissolved in DMSO). Group 3 underwent sham operation and simultaneous treatment with the same amount of DMSO. Group 4 underwent sham operation and simultaneous treatment with the same amount of normal saline. Group 5 underwent common bile duct ligation without other manipulation. After three days, liver tissue was harvested for histopathologic analysis and measurements of apoptosis.RESULTS: When compared with sham operation, common bile duct ligation significantly increased hepatocyte apoptosis (P= 0.008) and ductular proliferation (P= 0.007).ZVAD-fmk significantly diminished the increased hepatocyte apoptosis and ductular proliferation after common bile duct ligation (P = 0.008 and P = 0.007, respectively). ZFA did not show the same effects.CONCLUSION: Hepatocyte apoptosis and ductular proliferation significantly increased after common bile duct ligation. ZVAD-fmk effectively diminished the increased hepatocyte apoptosis and ductular proliferation after common bile duct ligation, whereas ZFA-fmk did not.

  5. Radiological study on the change of duct-ligated parotid gland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohnishi, Takashi (Higashi Nippon Gakuen Univ., Tobetsu, Hokkaido (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1994-07-01

    The change of the parotid gland with time following ligation of the main duct was investigated. The duct-ligated parotid gland in rabbit was examined by salivary gland scintigraphy with [sup 99m]Tc-pertechnetate ([sup 99m]TcO[sub 4][sup -]), sialography and microscopic observation. The third day after ligation of the main duct, the outward form of the parotid gland on the static scintigram was not well-defined. On the seventh day, [sup 99m]TcO[sub 4][sup -] accumulation was decreased slightly. On the 14th day, atrophy of the parotid gland occurred. The degree of atrophy produced by ligation increases as the duration of the ligation increases. On the 42nd day, the presence of the parotid gland was not recorded practically. The main duct was dilated on the third day. On the seventh day, the intraglandular ducts were bent and strictured. Disappearance of the peripheral duct and atrophy of the parotid gland parenchyma was observed. On microscopic observation, the intraglandular tributaries and the lumen were dilated on the third day. And the reticular fiber was observed that was irregularly formed in parts. The acinar cells were pressed by large and small dilated lumen on the seventh day. On the 14th day, the collagenous fiber around the acini and the duct was increased still more. In addition, fibrosis of the lobule interspace was observed. The degree of atrophy of the acini and lobule was increased maximally on the 42nd day. These results of the salivary gland scintigraphy closely connected with sialograms and microscopic findings. The parotid gland tissue decreases and changings of the duct system were indicated by these imaging methods in detail. (author).

  6. Superoxide anions are involved in mediating the effect of low K intake on c-Src expression and renal K secretion in the cortical collecting duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babilonia, Elisa; Wei, Yuan; Sterling, Hyacinth; Kaminski, Pawel; Wolin, Michael; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2005-03-18

    We previously demonstrated that low K intake stimulated the expression of c-Src and that stimulation of protein tyrosine kinase inhibited ROMK channel activity (Wei, Y., Bloom, P., Lin, D. H., Gu, R. M., and Wang, W. H. (2001) Am. J. Physiol. 281, F206-F212). Decreases in dietary K content significantly increased O(2)(-) levels and the phosphorylation of c-Jun, a transcription factor, in renal cortex and outer medulla. The role of O(2)(-) and related products such as H(2)O(2) in stimulating the expression of protein tyrosine kinase is suggested by the observation that addition of 50-200 microm H(2)O(2) increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun and the expression of c-Src in M1 cells, a mouse collecting duct principal cell line. The effect of H(2)O(2) on c-Src expression was completely abolished with cyclohexamide or actinomycin D. The treatment of animals on a K-deficient (KD) diet with tempol for 7 days significantly decreased the production of O(2)(-), c-Jun phosphorylation, and c-Src expression. Moreover, low K intake decreased the activity of ROMK-like small conductance channels from 1.37 (control K diet) to 0.5 in the cortical collecting duct and increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK in the renal cortex and outer medulla. In contrast, the tempol treatment not only increased channel activity to 1.1 in the cortical collecting duct but also decreased the tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK from rats on a KD diet. Finally, suppressing O(2)(-) production with tempol significantly increased renal K excretion measured with metabolic cage and lowered the plasma K concentration in comparison with those on a KD diet alone without tempol. We conclude that O(2)(-) and related products play a role in mediating the effect of low K intake on c-Src expression and in suppressing ROMK channel activity and renal K secretion.

  7. Adenylyl cyclase 4 does not regulate collecting duct water and sodium handling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittikulsuth, Wararat; Stuart, Deborah; Kohan, Donald E

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Adenylyl cyclase (AC)-stimulated cAMP is a key mediator of collecting duct (CD) Na and water transport. AC isoforms 3, 4, and 6 are expressed in the CD. Our group demonstrated that AC6, but not AC3, is involved in regulating CD Na and water transport. However, the role of AC4 in such regulation remains unknown. Therefore, we generated mice with loxP-flanked critical exons in the Adcy4 gene and bred with mice expressing the aquaporin-2/Cre recombinase transgene to yield CD principal cell-specific knockout of AC4 (CD AC4 KO). Isolated inner medullary CD showed 100% genomic target gene recombination in CD AC4 KO mice, while microdissected cortical CD and renal papillary AC4 mRNA was significantly reduced in CD AC4 KO mice. CD AC4 KO had no effect on vasopressin (AVP)-stimulated cAMP generation in the inner medulla. Water intake, urine volume, and urine osmolality were similar between CD AC4 KO and control mice during normal or restricted water intake. Sodium intake, urinary Na excretion, and blood pressure on a normal-, high-, or low-Na diet were not affected by CD AC4 KO. Moreover, there were no differences in plasma AVP or plasma renin concentration between CD AC4 KO and control mice. In summary, these data suggest that CD AC4 does not play a role in the physiologic regulation of CD Na and water handling.

  8. Building America Case Study: Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House, Lady's Island, South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-02-01

    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval. The primary research question with buried ducts is potential condensation at the outer jacket of the duct insulation in humid climates during the cooling season. Current best practices for buried ducts rely on encapsulating the insulated ducts with closed-cell spray polyurethane foam insulation to control condensation and improve air sealing. The encapsulated buried duct concept has been analyzed and shown to be effective in hot-humid climates. The purpose of this project is to develop an alternative buried duct system that performs effectively as ducts in conditioned space - durable, energy efficient, and cost-effective - in a hot-humid climate (IECC warm-humid climate zone 3A) with three goals that distinguish this project: 1) Evaluation of design criteria for buried ducts that use common materials and do not rely on encapsulation using spray foam or disrupt traditional work sequences, 2) Establishing design criteria for compact ducts and incorporate those with the buried duct criteria to further reduce energy losses and control installed costs, and 3) Developing HVAC design guidance for performing accurate heating and cooling load calculations for compact buried ducts.

  9. Transduodenal exploration of the common bile duct in patients with nondilated ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratych, R E; Sitzmann, J V; Lillemoe, K D; Yeo, C J; Cameron, J L

    1991-07-01

    Exploration of the small common bile duct can be technically difficult and is associated with a significant risk of ductal injury or late stricture, or both. Transduodenal common duct exploration after sphincteroplasty (TCDE/S) is an alternative method of duct exploration that avoids choledochotomy. Cholecystectomy followed by TCDE/S was performed upon 28 patients with nondilated ducts and suspected choledocholithiasis. Common duct stones were retrieved in 17 patients. Failure to retrieve stones in the remaining 11 patients was attributed to either false-positive results of cholangiography, forceful passage of stones into the duodenum during the initial insertion of a Fogarty catheter through the cystic duct or a false-negative finding at duct exploration. There was no perioperative mortality. Two patients had asymptomatic postoperative hyperamylasemia. One patient had postoperative pancreatitis, hyperbilirubinemia and cholangitis that resolved with antibiotic therapy by the eighth postoperative day. Other complications included wound infection, delayed gastric emptying, pneumonia and otitis media. The over-all morbidity rate was 28.6 per cent. Long term follow-up was obtained in all 28 patients. All patients in the follow-up group are free of recurrent biliary tract disease. TCDE/S appears to be a safe and effective method of exploring the nondilated common bile duct.

  10. The suspensory ligament of the endolymphatic duct in the rat. An ultrastructural study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K; Bretlau, P

    1995-01-01

    sudden increases in intracranial pressure. The capillaries and the aqueductal vein were located in intimate relationship to the epithelial cells. Both types of vessels were provided with fenestrations of the endothelial cells, supporting the proposal that the endolymphatic duct may be involved...

  11. The Principal as CEO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollar, Charlie

    2004-01-01

    They may never grace the pages of The Wall Street Journal or Fortune magazine, but they might possibly be the most important CEOs in our country. They are elementary school principals. Each of them typically serves the learning needs of 350-400 clients (students) while overseeing a multimillion-dollar facility staffed by 20-25 teachers and 10-15…

  12. Strategic Principal Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jake; Woody, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    As communities become increasingly diverse and criticism of traditional public schools intensifies, some states, such as North Carolina, have enacted legislation that encourages alternative forms of schooling. This condition has resulted in new challenges for principals to communicate broadly and often with stakeholders in an effort to build…

  13. The "flying" bile duct: avulsion of the common bile duct in a plane crash survivor.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Blunt trauma is an unusual cause of extrahepatic bile duct injury. This is a case of a 51-year-old gentleman who sustained a significant seatbelt injury in a plane crash. Laparotomy, performed due to persistent abdominal pain, revealed that the common bile duct (CBD) was completely avulsed from the duodenum. Following insertion of drains and transfer to a hepatobiliary centre, the devascularised CBD was excised and replaced with a roux-en-y hepaticojejunostomy. Necrotic tissue was debrided from the pancreatic head. A persistent bile leak developed from the sub-hepatic drain. Repeat laparotomy revealed a bile leak from small ducts on the liver surface. Ligation of the ducts and bioglue sealing of the area were successfully performed. Subsequent to this a pancreatic fistula developed from the main pancreatic duct, which has since resolved. This unusual case illustrates the need for prompt recognition and early repair to optimise outcomes in traumatic CBD injury.

  14. Transurethral resection of the ejaculatory duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paick, J S

    2000-05-01

    Complete bilateral ejaculatory duct obstruction has long been recognized as an uncommon, treatable form of male infertility. Partial ejaculatory duct obstruction reflects a disturbance of ejaculation where sperm quality is impaired during transit through the distal vas deferens and ejaculatory ducts. With the advent and increased use of high-resolution transrectal ultrasonography, abnormalities of the distal ejaculatory ducts related to infertility have been well documented. Although there are no pathognomonic findings associated with ejaculatory duct obstruction, several clinical findings are highly suggestive. In an infertile man with oligospermia or azoospermia with low ejaculate volume, normal secondary sexual characteristics, testes and hormonal profile and dilated seminal vesicles, midline cyst, or calcification on transrectal ultrasonography, ejaculatory duct obstruction is suggested. Of course, other causes of infertility may be concomitantly present and need to be searched for and treated as well. In selected cases, transurethral resection has resulted in marked improvement in semen parameters and pregnancies have been achieved. As is the case with all surgical procedures, proper patient selection and surgical experience are necessary to obtain optimal results. However, it appears that the treatments currently available for relief of ejaculatory obstruction are not optimally effective. Only approximately one half of treated patients will have an improvement in semen parameters and only about one quarter of treated patients will contribute to a pregnancy. What remains to be determined is how to manage the additional nearly 50% of patients who do not benefit from transurethral resection of ejaculatory obstruction. Based on my experience, I suggest that transrectal ultrasonography should be the first diagnostic procedure used when infertile men are suspected of having ejaculatory duct obstruction; however, vasography should still be considered for a more

  15. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mlika

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is an uncommon tumor, highly aggressive. About 200 cases have been reported in the English literature. Pathomorphologically, these tumors showed great similarities to ductal carcinoma of the female breast, which is why they described this tumor as "salivary duct carcinoma." The authors describe a new case of salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland. We present the case of a 50-year-old patient with progressive facial paralysis. The MRI examination of the head showed two ill-defined formations. A malignant tumor was strongly suspected, so that a total left parotidectomy with excision of the adjacent facial nerve and left lymph node dissection was performed. Microscopic examination concluded to a salivary duct carcinoma of the left parotid gland negative with Her2/neu antibody with lymph node metastasis. There were no recurrences or metastases within 3 years of follow-up. Salivary duct carcinoma of the parotid gland is a rare tumor with an aggressive behavior. This is due to its propensity to infiltrate distant organs. The diagnosis is based on microscopic examination. Treatment modalities are non-consensual, but some authors advocate the necessity of aggressive approach, especially in tumors negative with Heur2/neu antibody. This is due to the fact that the overexpression of this antigen was reported to be associated with a poor prognosis.

  16. Characterization of flow in a scroll duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begg, E. K.; Bennett, J. C.

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative, flow visualization study was made of a partially elliptic cross section, inward curving duct (scroll duct), with an axial outflow through a vaneless annular cutlet. The working fluid was water, with a Re(d) of 40,000 at the inlet to the scroll duct, this Reynolds number being representative of the conditions in an actual gas turbine scroll. Both still and high speed moving pictures of fluorescein dye injected into the flow and illuminated by an argon ion laser were used to document the flow. Strong secondary flow, similar to the secondary flow in a pipe bend, was found in the bottom half of the scroll within the first 180 degs of turning. The pressure field set up by the turning duct was strong enough to affect the inlet flow condition. At 90 degs downstream, the large scale secondary flow was found to be oscillatory in nature. The exit flow was nonuniform in the annular exit. By 270 degs downstream, the flow appeared unorganized with no distinctive secondary flow pattern. Large scale structures from the upstream core region appeared by 90 degs and continued through the duct to reenter at the inlet section.

  17. Numerical simulation of flow past circular duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ze-gao YIN; Xian-wei Cao; Hong-da SHI; Jian MA

    2010-01-01

    The Renormalization Group(RNG)k-ε turbulence model and Volume of Fluid(VOF)method were employed to simulate the flow past a circular duct in order to obtain and analyze hydraulic parameters.According to various upper and bottom gap ratios,the force on the duct was calculated.When the bottom gap ratio is 0,the drag force coefficient,lift force coefficient,and composite force reach their maximum values,and the azimuth reaches its minimum.With an increase of the bottom gap ratio from 0 to 1,the drag force coefficient and composite force decrease sharply,and the lift force coefficient does not decreases so much,but the azimuth increases dramatically.With a continuous increase of the bottom gap ratio from 1 upward,the drag force coefficient,lift force coefficient,composite force,and azimuth vary little.Thus,the bottom gap ratio is the key factor influencing the force on the circular duct.When the bottom gap ratio is less than 1,the upper gap ratio has a remarkable influence on the force of the circular duct.When the bottom gap ratio is greater than 1,the variation of the upper gap ratio has little influence on the force of the circular duct.

  18. Morphology of the urogenital papilla and its component ducts in Astyanax altiparanae Garutti & Britski, 2000 (Characiformes: Characidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diógenes Henrique de Siqueira-Silva

    Full Text Available The histological description of the urogenital papilla is an important tool to comprehension of the reproductive mechanisms in fish, as well as a pre-requisite to germ cell transplantation in adult fish, besides to be a good biological indicator to environmental changes. Was performed the histological description of the urogenital papilla and its component ducts in the tetra Astyanax altiparanae. The genital and urinay ducts pass separately throughout most part of its extension, joining in a single duct before opening. In males this opening is asymmetric and seems to have double origin, being completely surrounded by striated muscle fibers, while in females it is symmetric and the muscle fibers does not surround it totally. Spermatic duct and oviduct undergo changes throughout their extension, mainly in the morphology of the surrounding epithelium. In the spermatic duct, squamous epithelial cells change to columnar and cuboid with possible secretory activity, close to testes. In the oviduct, anteriorly epithelial cells are also squamous, however, close to ovary there are lamellae composed by a pseudostratified epithelium with columnar and cuboid cells. The urinary duct is highly similar for both sexes presenting globoid cells, which description is known in mammals, however, rare in fish.

  19. Convolution seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2015-05-26

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface feature for interfacing with an adjacent transition duct. The turbine system further includes a convolution seal contacting the interface feature to provide a seal between the interface feature and the adjacent transition duct.

  20. Post-burn duct carcinoma breast: An unusual case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignancies arising from burn scars though rare are well documented in the literature; squamous cell carcinoma is the most common burn scar neoplasm, and adenocarcinoma is an extremely uncommon and rarely reported tumor in these scars. We hereby report a case of a young woman who presented with a rapidly growing lump in a scar in the mammary region that sustained severe burns 20 years back. It was diagnosed as duct carcinoma breast on cytology and later confirmed on histopathology and immunohistochemistry. The case mandates regular follow-up of patients with post-burn scars, and any lump arising in that region should be promptly investigated.

  1. Effects of double ligation of Stensen's duct on the rabbit parotid gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, O M; Maria, S M; Redman, R S; Maria, A M; Saad El-Din, T A; Soussa, E F; Tran, S D

    2014-04-01

    Salivary gland duct ligation is an alternative to gland excision for treating sialorrhea or reducing salivary gland size prior to tumor excision. Duct ligation also is used as an approach to study salivary gland aging, regeneration, radiotherapy, sialolithiasis and sialadenitis. Reports conflict about the contribution of each salivary cell population to gland size reduction after ductal ligation. Certain cell populations, especially acini, reportedly undergo atrophy, apoptosis and proliferation during reduction of gland size. Acini also have been reported to de-differentiate into ducts. These contradictory results have been attributed to different animal or salivary gland models, or to methods of ligation. We report here a bilateral double ligature technique for rabbit parotid glands with histologic observations at 1, 7, 14, 30, 60 days after ligation. A large battery of special stains and immunohistochemical procedures was employed to define the cell populations. Four stages with overlapping features were observed that led to progressive shutdown of gland activities: 1) marked atrophy of the acinar cells occurred by 14 days, 2) response to and removal of the secretory material trapped in the acinar and ductal lumens mainly between 30 and 60 days, 3) reduction in the number of parenchymal (mostly acinar) cells by apoptosis that occurred mainly between 14-30 days, and 4) maintenance of steady-state at 60 days with a low rate of fluid, protein, and glycoprotein secretion, which greatly decreased the number of leukocytes engaged in the removal of the luminal contents. The main post- ligation characteristics were dilation of ductal and acinar lumens, massive transient infiltration of mostly heterophils (rabbit polymorphonuclear leukocytes), acinar atrophy, and apoptosis of both acinar and ductal cells. Proliferation was uncommon except in the larger ducts. By 30 days, the distribution of myoepithelial cells had spread from exclusively investing the intercalated ducts

  2. Chronic Extrahepatic Bile Duct Dilatation: Sonographic Screening in the Patients with Opioid Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahmand, H.; PourGholami, M.; Fathollah, Sheikh [Rafsanjan University of Medical Sciences, Rafsanjan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    One of the best known side effects of using opium is spasm of the sphincter of Oddi, which may increase the diameter of the extrahepatic bile ducts. Ultrasound is the first imaging modality used for evaluating the biliary system because it is commonly available and noninvasive. The principal objective of this study was to measure the common bile duct (CBD) diameter via ultrasonography in opium addicts and to evaluate the relation between the CBD diameter and the period of addiction. This research was an analytical-cross sectional study that was done on 110 opium addicts that were admitted to a drug treatment center. The diameter of the CBD in these cases was measured by ultrasonography and the results were analyzed with other factors like age, the period of addiction and the laboratory findings. According to the findings, there is a significant increase in the range of the CBD diameter in comparison with normal bile ducts. Also, the mean diameter of the CBD in the different age groups showed a significant difference (p < 0.0001) and there was a significant relation between the CBD diameter and the period of addiction (p < 0.001, r = 0.74); so, with the increased length of the addiction period, the mean CBD diameter increases. Opium addiction is one of the factors that causes extrahepatic bile duct dilatation, so in these cases, if no obstructing lesion was found on ultrasound examination and the serum bilirobine and alkaline phosphatase levels are normal, then further evaluation is not needed.

  3. Canais secretores em Vochysia thyrsoidea Pohl (Vochysiaceae Gum ducts in Vochysia thyrsoidea Pohl (Vochysiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therezinha Isaia Paviani

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a ocorrência de canais secretores de goma nos orgãos vegetativos de Vochysia thyrsoidea Pohl, planta nativa dos cerrados do Brasil Central. Nos estágios iniciais do desenvolvimento, a espécie possui uma tuberosidade formada pelo hipocótilo e pela parte superior da raiz principal. O xilema secundário da parte hipocotilar da tuberosidade apresenta áreas parenquimáticas e canais secretores de goma. Discute-se a possível relação ontogenética entre as áreas parenquimáticas e os canais de goma. Questiona-se a origem traumática dos canais.The occurrence of gum ducts in the vegetative organs of Vochysia thyrsoidea Pohl, a native plant from the "cerrado" vegetation of central Brazil was studied. This species presents a swollen structure, which forms from the hypocotyl and the upper part of the primary root during the early stages of development. The secondary xylem of the hypocotyl part of the swollen structure shows the presence of both parenchymatic zones and gum ducts. The possible ontogenetic relationship between the parenchymatic zones and the gum ducts is discussed in this paper. The traumatic origin of the gum ducts is questioned.

  4. Secretory Duct Structure and Phytochemistry Compounds of Yellow Latex in Mangosteen Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DORLY

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Yellow latex is the main problem in mangosteen agribusiness, because it is one factor lowering the fruit quality. The structure of yellow latex secretory ducts in the flower and fruit as well as in the root, stem and leaf of mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L. seedling and the qualitative phytochemistry of yellow latex were studied. The ducts were branched, canal-like type. They were found in the exocarp, mesocarp, endocarp, aril of the fruit, flower, stem, and leaf. In the fruit, the biggest diameter of the secretory ducts was found in the endocarp. There were continuous secretory ducts from fruit stalk to the fruit. Ultrastructural observation showed that the ducts surrounded by specific epithelial cells, which were living cells containing dense cytoplasm with plastid, mitochondria and golgi apparatus organelles. The qualitative test indicated that the yellow latex collected from stem bark, outer part of fruit, young fruit pericarp, mature aril and young aril contained terpenoid, flavonoid and tannin, but not alkaloid, saponin and steroid, except in the young aril containing the steroid.

  5. FLUID FLOW IN ROTATING HELICAL SQUARE DUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Hua-jun; Zhang Ben-zhao; Zhang Jin-suo

    2003-01-01

    A numerical study is made for a fully developed laminar flow in rotating helical pipes.Due to the rotation, the Coriolis force can also contribute to the secondary flow.The interaction between rotation, torsion, and curvature complicates the flow characteristics.The effects of rotation and torsion on the flow transitions are studied in details.The results show that there are obvious differences between the flow in rotating ducts and in helical ducts without rotation.Certain hitherto unknown flow patterns are found.The effects of rotation and torsion on the friction factor are also examined.Present results show the characteristics of the fluid flow in rotating helical square ducts.

  6. Acoustic energy in ducts - Further observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, W.

    1979-01-01

    The transmission of acoustic energy in uniform ducts carrying uniform flow is investigated with the purpose of clarifying two points of interest. The two commonly used definitions of acoustic 'energy' flux are shown to be related by a Legendre transformation of the Lagrangian density exactly as in deriving the Hamiltonian density in mechanics. In the acoustic case the total energy density and the Hamiltonian density are not the same which accounts for two different 'energy' fluxes. When the duct has acoustically absorptive walls neither of the two flux expressions gives correct results. A reevaluation of the basis of derivation of the energy density and energy flux provides forms which yield consistent results for soft walled ducts.

  7. Stable Principal Component Pursuit

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Zihan; Wright, John; Candes, Emmanuel; Ma, Yi

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the problem of recovering a low-rank matrix (the principal components) from a high-dimensional data matrix despite both small entry-wise noise and gross sparse errors. Recently, it has been shown that a convex program, named Principal Component Pursuit (PCP), can recover the low-rank matrix when the data matrix is corrupted by gross sparse errors. We further prove that the solution to a related convex program (a relaxed PCP) gives an estimate of the low-rank matrix that is simultaneously stable to small entrywise noise and robust to gross sparse errors. More precisely, our result shows that the proposed convex program recovers the low-rank matrix even though a positive fraction of its entries are arbitrarily corrupted, with an error bound proportional to the noise level. We present simulation results to support our result and demonstrate that the new convex program accurately recovers the principal components (the low-rank matrix) under quite broad conditions. To our knowledge, this is...

  8. Robust Principal Component Analysis?

    CERN Document Server

    Candes, Emmanuel J; Ma, Yi; Wright, John

    2009-01-01

    This paper is about a curious phenomenon. Suppose we have a data matrix, which is the superposition of a low-rank component and a sparse component. Can we recover each component individually? We prove that under some suitable assumptions, it is possible to recover both the low-rank and the sparse components exactly by solving a very convenient convex program called Principal Component Pursuit; among all feasible decompositions, simply minimize a weighted combination of the nuclear norm and of the L1 norm. This suggests the possibility of a principled approach to robust principal component analysis since our methodology and results assert that one can recover the principal components of a data matrix even though a positive fraction of its entries are arbitrarily corrupted. This extends to the situation where a fraction of the entries are missing as well. We discuss an algorithm for solving this optimization problem, and present applications in the area of video surveillance, where our methodology allows for th...

  9. Transforming Principal Preparation. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashway, Larry

    In the current climate of accountability, the responsibilities of principals have increased. The new role of principals requires new forms of training, and standards-based reform is generating major changes in principal-preparation programs. This digest examines some of those changes. First, it looks at the effectiveness of principal-preparation…

  10. Xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray combined with laser artificial nasolacrimal duct implantation for nasolacrimal duct obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Zhao Yang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the role of xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray in combination therapy of nasolacrimal duct obstruction and to investigate the effect of nasal inflammation on nasolacrimal duct obstruction. METHODS: Totally 279 patients with nasolacrimal duct obstruction were collected, who received lacrimal passage irrigation, CT angiography for lacrimal passage and nasal endoscope before treated by lacrimal laser forming and artificial nasolacrimal duct implantation combined with xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray. In group A, 137 patients were treated with antibiotic eye drop and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs after operations. In group B, 142 patients were treated with xylometazoline hydrochloride nasal spray besides the same treatment for group A. RESULTS:In the 279 patients 217(77.8%, in which 105 cases(76.6%were in group A and 112 cases(78.9%were in group B, were suffered with nasal inflammation, including nasal mucosal hyperemia, inferior turbinate hypertrophy, middle turbinate hypertrophy. At 3mo after the ducts were drawn, efficacy of group B was 95.8%, which was significant better than that of group A(86.1%, PCONCLUSION: Nasal inflammation was an important factor in the incidence of nasolacrimal duct obstruction, which shoud pay more attention in the process of diagnosis and treatment. Combination therapy could improve the cure rate of nasolacrimal duct obstruction.

  11. Assessment of nuclear nanomorphology marker to improve the detection of malignancy from bile duct biopsy specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Douglas J; Krasinskas, Alyssa M; Uttam, Shikhar; Staton, Kevin; Bista, Rajan; Rizvi, Sumera; Slivka, Adam; Brand, Randall; Liu, Yang

    2014-06-01

    The accurate diagnosis of malignancy from small bile duct biopsy specimens is often challenging. This proof-of-concept study assessed the feasibility of a novel optical technology, spatial-domain low-coherence quantitative phase microscopy (SL-QPM), that assesses nanoscale structural alterations in epithelial nuclei for improving the diagnosis of malignancy in bile duct biopsy specimens. The SL-QPM analysis was performed on standard histology specimens of bile duct biopsy specimens from 45 patients. We analyzed normal cells with benign follow-up, histologically normal cells with pancreaticobiliary malignancy, and malignant epithelial cells. The SL-QPM-derived nuclear nanomorphology marker can not only distinguish benign and malignant epithelial cells but can also detect features of malignancy in those cells normal by light microscopy with a discriminatory accuracy of 0.90. When combining pathology with SL-QPM, the sensitivity is improved to 88.5% from 65.4% of conventional pathology, while maintaining 100% specificity. SL-QPM-derived nuclear nanomorphology markers represent a novel approach for detecting malignancy from histologically normal-appearing epithelial cells, with potential as an adjunctive test in patients with negative or inconclusive pathologic diagnosis on bile duct biopsy specimens. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  12. Percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct strictures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koecher, Martin [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: martin.kocher@seznam.cz; Cerna, Marie [Department of Radiology, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Havlik, Roman [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kral, Vladimir [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Gryga, Adolf [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Duda, Miloslav [Department of Surgery, University Hospital, I.P.Pavlova 6, 775 20 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: To evaluate long-term results of treatment of benign bile duct strictures. Materials and methods: From February 1994 to November 2005, 21 patients (9 men, 12 women) with median age of 50.6 years (range 27-77 years) were indicated to percutaneous treatment of benign bile duct stricture. Stricture of hepatic ducts junction resulting from thermic injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy was indication for treatment in one patient, stricture of hepaticojejunostomy was indication for treatment in all other patients. Clinical symptoms (obstructive jaundice, anicteric cholestasis, cholangitis or biliary cirrhosis) have appeared from 3 months to 12 years after surgery. Results: Initial internal/external biliary drainage was successful in 20 patients out of 21. These 20 patients after successful initial drainage were treated by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage. Sixteen patients were symptoms free during the follow-up. The relapse of clinical symptoms has appeared in four patients 9, 12, 14 and 24 months after treatment. One year primary clinical success rate of treatment for benign bile duct stricture was 94%. Additional two patients are symptoms free after redilatation (15 and 45 months). One patient is still in treatment, one patient died during secondary treatment period without interrelation with biliary intervention. The secondary clinical success rate is 100%. Conclusion: Benign bile duct strictures of hepatic ducts junction or biliary-enteric anastomosis are difficult to treat surgically and endoscopically inaccessible. Percutaneous treatment by balloon dilatation and long-term internal/external drainage is feasible in the majority of these patients. It is minimally invasive, safe and effective.

  13. Classiifcation of iatrogenic bile duct injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Yee Lau; Eric C.H. Lai

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iatrogenic bile duct injury continues to be an important clinical problem, resulting in serious morbidity, and occasional mortality, to patients. The ease of management, operative risk, and outcome of bile duct injuries vary considerably, and are highly dependent on the type of injury and its location. This article reviews the various classiifcation systems of bile duct injury. DATA SOURCES: A Medline, PubMed database search was performed to identify relevant articles using the keywords"bile duct injury", "cholecystectomy", and “classiifcation”. Additional papers were identiifed by a manual search of the references from the key articles. RESULTS: Traditionally, biliary injuries have been classiifed using the Bismuth's classiifcation. This classiifcation, which originated from the era of open surgery, is intended to help the surgeons to choose the appropriate technique for the repair, and it has a good correlation with the ifnal outcome after surgical repair. However, the Bismuth's classiifcation does not encompass the whole spectrum of injuries that are possible. Bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy tends to be more severe than those with open cholecystectomy. Strasberg’s classiifcation made Bismuth’s classiifcation much more comprehensive by including various other types of extrahepatic bile duct injuries. Our group, Bergman et al, Neuhaus et al, Csendes et al, and Stewart et al have also proposed other classiifcation systems to complement the Bismuth's classiifcation. CONCLUSIONS:None of the classiifcation system is universally accepted as each has its own limitation. Hopefully, a universally accepted comprehensive classiifcation system will be published in the near future.

  14. Nonlinear acoustic propagation in rectangular ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Tsai, M.-S.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to obtain a second-order uniformly valid expansion for nonlinear acoustic wave propagation in a rectangular duct whose walls are treated with a nonlinear acoustic material. The wave propagation in the duct is characterized by the unsteady nonlinear Euler equations. The results show that nonlinear materials attenuate sound more than linear materials except at high acoustic frequencies. The nonlinear materials produce higher and combination tones which have higher attenuation rates than the fundamentals. Moreover, the attenuation rates of the fundamentals increase with increasing amplitude.

  15. Inverse potential scattering in duct acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Barbara J; Pike, E Roy; Sharp, David B; Aktosun, Tuncay

    2006-01-01

    The inverse problem of the noninvasive measurement of the shape of an acoustical duct in which one-dimensional wave propagation can be assumed is examined within the theoretical framework of the governing Klein-Gordon equation. Previous deterministic methods developed over the last 40 years have all required direct measurement of the reflectance or input impedance but now, by application of the methods of inverse quantum scattering to the acoustical system, it is shown that the reflectance can be algorithmically derived from the radiated wave. The potential and area functions of the duct can subsequently be reconstructed. The results are discussed with particular reference to acoustic pulse reflectometry.

  16. Preconditioning the Helmholtz Equation for Rigid Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumeister, Kenneth J.; Kreider, Kevin L.

    1998-01-01

    An innovative hyperbolic preconditioning technique is developed for the numerical solution of the Helmholtz equation which governs acoustic propagation in ducts. Two pseudo-time parameters are used to produce an explicit iterative finite difference scheme. This scheme eliminates the large matrix storage requirements normally associated with numerical solutions to the Helmholtz equation. The solution procedure is very fast when compared to other transient and steady methods. Optimization and an error analysis of the preconditioning factors are present. For validation, the method is applied to sound propagation in a 2D semi-infinite hard wall duct.

  17. Flow Investigation inside A Curved Square Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipyaman Gangopadhyay

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an experimental work with measurement of wall static pressure of 90°C shaped Curved duct. The test duct is made up of transparent perspex sheets to facilitate the flow visualization study. The duct has an inlet to exit area ratio of 1.0 with centerline distance of 750 mm. The inlet aspect ratio of the test duct has been fixed at 1.0. The velocities for the proposed investigations are to be measured by using a Pitot tube.Wall pressures are measured with the help of an inclinedmanometer with the inclination of 35°. The manometer had two tubes emanating from it: one left open to the atmosphere and the other connected to the steel pipes attached to the four walls of the curved duct. The difference in the readings helped us calculate the static pressure and thereby the normalized pressure. Wall pressure distribution along the curved and parallel walls of the duct at 0°, 22.5°, 45°, 67.5° and 90° measuring sections was measured. All the experimental data has been processed by an Intel i3 CPU, 3 GB RAM PC and analyzed to give the distribution of static pressure in the square duct.The main purpose of this investigation is to show the development of secondary flow which happens when the flow takes place through the bend in the curvature. This secondary flow arises as a result of a centrifugal force acting when the flow moves through the bend. The investigation is carried out at three different velocities 20 m/s, 40 m/s and 60 m/s. The distribution of normalized pressure which is the ratio of static pressure to the dynamic pressure is mapped and shown in the form of contours by using the software package SURFER.The trend of wall static pressure development on the walls of C shaped duct shows that as the flow proceeds towards the curvature, there exists a high pressure gradient between the outside face and inside face due the centrifugal force acting along the curvature. This shows the bulk shifting of flow towards

  18. Immunoexpression of intermediate filaments and morphological changes in the liver and bile duct of rats infected with Fasciola hepatica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, L; Laszczyńska, M; Masiuk, M; Grabowska, M; Skrzydlewska, E

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the immunoexpression of the intermediate filament proteins, cytokeratin and desmin, and the morphological changes in the liver of rats during experimental fasciolosis at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection. Rats were infected with 30 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. Paraffin sections of the liver were stained using H & E, PAS and azan stains. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed using antibodies against cytokeratin and desmin. The experimental F. hepatica infection led to fibrosis and cirrhosis of the liver, and to inflammation of the common bile ducts. The expression of cytokeratin was increased in the epithelial cells of both the liver bile ductules at 4, 7 and 10 weeks post-infection and in the common bile ducts at 7 and 10 weeks post-infection compared to uninfected rats; expression in the common bile ducts was more intense. The myofibroblasts of the liver and smooth myocytes of the interlobular bile ducts and common bile ducts, showed a slight increase in desmin expression compared to the uninfected rats. The increased expression of cytokeratins in the hyperplastic rat common bile duct epithelium during the biliary phase of fasciolosis at 7 and 10 weeks post-infection may be explained by mechanical irritation by the parasite and an inflammatory reaction in the bile duct epithelium and in periductal fibrous tissue.

  19. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Bile Duct Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... support? Along with these sample questions, be sure to write down some of your own. For instance, you ... Diagnosed? How is Bile Duct Cancer Staged? Survival Statistics for Bile Duct Cancers Resectable Versus Unresectable Bile ...

  20. Higher order mode propagation in nonuniform circular ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y. C.; Ingard, K. U.

    1980-01-01

    This paper presents an analytical investigation of higher order mode propagation in a nonuniform circular duct without mean flow. An approximate wave equation is derived on the assumptions that the duct cross section varies slowly and that mode conversion is negligible. Exact closed form solutions are obtained for a particular class of converging-diverging circular duct which is here referred to as 'circular cosh duct'. Numerical results are presentd in terms of the transmission loss for the various duct shapes and frequencies. The results are applicable to studies of multimodal propagation as well as single mode propagation. The results are also applicable to studies of sound radiation from certain types of contoured inlet ducts, or of sound propagation in a converging-diverging duct of somewhat different shape from a cosh duct.

  1. Is spontaneous closure of a patent arterial duct common?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Julien I E

    2017-01-01

    As closing a patent arterial duct is relatively simple, safe, and successful, most children with a patent arterial duct have it closed soon after diagnosis. The larger ducts are closed to prevent congestive heart failure, pulmonary vascular disease, or aneurysmal dilatation of the ductus, and smaller ducts are closed to prevent infective endocarditis. Consequently, there is no opportunity to determine whether spontaneous closure or diminution in size of the patent arterial duct is common. If the duct does become smaller, flow through it may be so low that no murmur is produced - the silent ductus. The frequency and best management of the silent patent arterial duct are unknown, and we do not know whether these tiny ducts are the last stage before spontaneous closure.

  2. Algebraically growing waves in ducts with sheared mean flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Telionis, D. P.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of the behavior of standing and traveling acoustic waves in a smooth duct with a fluid flow having a sheared mean velocity profile, when the waves grow algebraically as they travel along the duct axis. It is shown that standing waves growing algebraically with the axial distance cannot exist in a smooth duct when the duct wall have a finite resistance. The existence of traveling waves subject to the same law of growth is also dismissed under realistic flow conditions.

  3. Recursive principal components analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegtlin, Thomas

    2005-10-01

    A recurrent linear network can be trained with Oja's constrained Hebbian learning rule. As a result, the network learns to represent the temporal context associated to its input sequence. The operation performed by the network is a generalization of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to time-series, called Recursive PCA. The representations learned by the network are adapted to the temporal statistics of the input. Moreover, sequences stored in the network may be retrieved explicitly, in the reverse order of presentation, thus providing a straight-forward neural implementation of a logical stack.

  4. Principal Contradictions and Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zaibang

    2006-01-01

    @@ The September 11 terrorist attacks are the most notable events that occurred since the end of the Cold War. It is not only a logical outcome of world development post Cold War but is also an important variable influencing world development. In order to evaluate the influence of the development of the international relations in these five years, the international background after the Cold War must be taken into consideration and the characteristics and changes of the three principal contradictions described below need to be understood.

  5. Laser-guided repair of complex bile duct strictures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulik, T. van; Beek, J.; Reuver, P. de; Aronson, D.C.; Delden, O. van; Busch, O.; Gouma, D.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The repair of bile duct strictures (BDS) requires identification of healthy bile duct proximal to the stenosis. Identification may be difficult in complex bile duct injuries after cholecystectomy or partial liver resection. AIM: We describe a technique to identify the prestenotic bile du

  6. Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome (PMDS With Large Intraabdominal Seminoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Della Harigovind

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Mullerian Duct Syndrome, a form of male pseudohermaphroditism is characterized by the presence of the Mullerian duct derivatives in an otherwise phenotypically as well as genotypically normal male. We report a case of large intra abdominal seminoma in a male patient with cryptorchidism, along with persistence of Mullerian duct derivatives (uterus.

  7. A case of fascioliasis in common bile duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ham, Soo Youn; Park, Cheol Min; Chung, Kyu Byung; Lee, Chang Hong; Park, Seung Chul; Choi, Sang Yong; Lim, Han Jong [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-10-15

    A case of Fascioliasis of common bile duct is confirmed by visualization of adult fluke. Fascioliasis caused by Fasciola hepatica, is common parasitic disease in cattle and sheep. Human is an accidental host. ERCP demonstrated irregular linear conglomerated filling defects in common bile duct. Through surgical intervention, we found adult flukes of F. hepatica and adenomatous hyperplasia of common bile duct.

  8. Surgical treatment of congenital biliary duct cyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang De-chun

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is acknowledged that total cyst excision is a safe and ideal surgical treatment for congenital biliary duct cyst, compared to simple internal drainage. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal operation occasion and the effect of laparoscopy on congenital biliary duct cyst based upon total cyst excision. Methods From January 2002 to January 2011, 217 patients were admitted to Southwest Hospital for congenital biliary duct cyst. To determine the optimal surgery occasion, we divided these subjects into three groups, the infant group (age ≤ 3 years, the immaturity group (3 18 years, and then evaluated the feasibility, risk and long-term outcome after surgery in the three groups. To analyze the effect of laparoscopic technique on congenital biliary duct cyst, we divided the patients into the laparoscopy and the open surgery groups. Results Among the three groups, the morbidity from cholangiolithiasis before surgical treatment had obvious discrepancy (p 0.05. Similarly, no significant discrepancy was observed in the morbidity from postoperative complications or long-term postoperative complications (p > 0.05 between the laparoscopic and the open surgery groups. Conclusions We conclude that total cyst excision should be performed as early as possible. The optimal treatment occasion is the infant period, and laparoscopic resection may be a new safe and feasible minimally invasive surgery for this disease.

  9. Idea Bank: Duct Tape Note Twister

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Molly

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author relates how she observed a middle school math teacher deliver a miserable class. She realized that she did the same thing to her music students. To engage her students, she developed "Note Twister," a music reading game using duct tape to form musical notes and the basic premise behind the game, "Twister." She finds…

  10. IDUS for Biliary and Pancreatic Duct Lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takao ltoi

    2008-01-01

    @@ In the recent decade, wire-guided intraductal US(IDUS), which can be passed through the working channel of standard duodenoscopes to provide high-frequency ultrasound images, has been developed as a newly diagnostic tool for biliary and pancreatic duct lesions.

  11. Calcium influx pathways in rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hug, M J; Pahl, C; Novak, I

    1996-01-01

    A number of agonists increase intracellular Ca2+ activity, [Ca2+]i, in pancreatic ducts, but the influx/efflux pathways and intracellular Ca2+ stores in this epithelium are unknown. The aim of the present study was to characterise the Ca2+ influx pathways, especially their pH sensitivity, in nati...

  12. Laser Beam Duct Pressure Controller System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    the axial flow of a conditioning gas within the laser beam duct, by matching the time rate of change of the pressure of the flowing conditioning gas...to the time rate of change of the pressure in the cavity of an operably associated laser beam turret.

  13. Familial occurrence of congenital bile duct dilatation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Congenital bile duct dilatation (CBD) that developed in a parent and son is presented.Familial occurrence of CBD is rare,with only a few male cases having been reported.Since the initial report of CBD occurring in siblings in 1981,a total of 20 cases (10 pairs) have been published as of 2007.Clinical and genetic features of CBD are discussed.

  14. Pyramidal lobe of the thyroid gland and the thyroglossal duct remnant: a study using human fetal sections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanashi, Yoshitaka; Honkura, Yohei; Rodriguez-Vazquez, Jose Francisco; Murakami, Gen; Kawase, Tetsuaki; Katori, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    To investigate developmental changes in the thyroglossal duct, we observed serial sagittal sections of eight embryos (crown-rump length (CRL) 6-12 mm; approximately 5-6 weeks of gestation) as well as serial horizontal or cross-sections of 70 embryos and fetuses (CRL 15-110 mm; 6-15 weeks). In the sagittal sections, the thyroglossal duct was identified as a small sheet or mass of relatively large cells with vacuolization anterior, superior or inferior to the fourth pharyngeal arch artery. However, we found no continuous duct-like structure that reached the thyroid gland. Thus, previous classical schemes might have overestimated the continuity of the duct. Among cross-sections of 70 specimens, we found the thyroglossal duct remnant in only two specimens (CRL 15 mm and 100 mm), in contrast to the pyramidal lobe, which was seen in one-third of the specimens. The duct remnant ran downward along the lateral edge of the hyoid body to reach the anterior aspect of the thyroid cartilage. However, the connection between the pyramidal lobe and the duct remnant was interrupted by the anterior cervical muscles. Therefore, it was unlikely that the thyroglossal duct remnant would more frequently be evident in fetuses than in adults. The highly tortuous course of the duct along the lingual aspect of the hyoid body, which has been reported previously, appeared to become established near term. Descent of the thyroid gland was not evident after the CRL 20 mm stage (6 weeks): the gland appeared to retain its position at the level of the third-sixth cervical vertebrae.

  15. Importance of common bile duct stricture associated with chronic pancreatitis. Diagnosis by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, J A; Carr-Locke, D L; Gallagher, M M

    1981-02-01

    Twenty-one patients with common bile duct strictures associated with chronic pancreatitis are described in whom ERCP was the principal diagnostic method used. In 5 of the 11 patients who had had previous pancreatic or biliary surgery, a common bile duct stricture was overlooked. Nine patients had one or more attacks of cholangitis which were severe in seven and caused death in one. Endoscopically aspirated bile cultures showed heavy gram-negative infection in four patients with previous cholangitis. Two patients developed stones above the strictures, and in one this led to obstruction of a previous cholecystjejunostomy. Although strictures may be discovered at an asymptomatic stage, there should be careful follow-up to detect the appearance of any symptoms or objective signs of stricture progression, when surgery should be offered without delay. Direct biliary-enteric anastomosis is the procedure of choice when possible to relieve symptoms and prevent the potentially life-threatening complications of cholangitis and septicemia.

  16. Autoantibodies Targeting a Collecting Duct-Specific Water Channel in Tubulointerstitial Nephritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landegren, Nils; Pourmousa Lindberg, Mina; Skov, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Tubulointerstitial nephritis is a common cause of kidney failure and may have diverse etiologies. This form of nephritis is sometimes associated with autoimmune disease, but the role of autoimmune mechanisms in disease development is not well understood. Here, we present the cases of three patients...... with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 who developed tubulointerstitial nephritis and ESRD in association with autoantibodies against kidney collecting duct cells. One of the patients developed autoantibodies targeting the collecting duct-specific water channel aquaporin 2, whereas autoantibodies...

  17. Heat Transfer in a Superelliptic Transition Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinsatte, Philip; Thurman, Douglas; Hippensteele, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Local heat transfer measurements were experimentally mapped using a transient liquid-crystal heat transfer technique on the surface of a circular-to-rectangular transition duct. The transition duct had a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.5 and an exit-plane aspect ratio of 3. The crosssectional geometry was defined by the equation of a superellipse. The cross-sectional area was the same at the inlet and exit but varied up to 15 percent higher through the transition. The duct was preheated to a uniform temperature (nominally 64 C) before allowing room temperature air to be suddenly drawn through it. As the surface cooled, the resulting isothermal contours on the duct surface were revealed using a surface coating of thermochromic liquid crystals that display distinctive colors at particular temperatures. A video record was made of the surface temperature and time data for all points on the duct surfaces during each test. Using this surface temperature-time data together with the temperature of the air flowing through the model and the initial temperature of the model wall, the heat transfer coefficient was calculated by employing the classic one-dimensional, semi-infinite wall heat transfer conduction model. Test results are reported for inlet diameter-based Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.4x106 to 2.4x106 and two grid-generated freestream turbulence intensities of about 1 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels, and up to 16 percent, which may be more typical of real engine conditions.

  18. Development of a renal collecting duct homing peptide using phage display

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Per; Peti-Peterdi, Janos

    Homing peptides are useful for in vivo labeling and nonviral gene transfer to selective tissues and cell types. The aim of this project was to develop a renal collecting duct homing peptide. Using phage display, we identified a phage expressing a cyclic 7 amino acid peptide, which was internalize...

  19. Different purinergic receptors lead to intracellular calcium increases in pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, B C; Hug, M J; Novak, I

    1998-01-01

    was nearly doubled with UTP. Moreover, in about one-third of the ducts studied, UTP had no effect on cell Ca2+, while the response to ATP was normal. In further experiments we found that removal of extracellular Mg2+ increased the peak [Ca2+]i evoked in response to ATP. 2'&3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl) ATP (Bz...

  20. Application of difference gel electrophoresis to the identification of inner medullary collecting duct proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffert, J.D.; Balkom, B.W.M. van; Chou, C.L.; Knepper, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we present a standardized approach to purification of native inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells from rat kidney for proteomic analysis and apply the approach to identification of abundant proteins utilizing two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) coupled with m

  1. A New Preparation of Pancreatic Ducts for Patch-Clamp Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, Ivana; Hug, M.J.

    1995-01-01

    parameters, monitored with the whole-cell patch-clamp method, and those in isolated perfused ducts, monitored with the conventional microelectrodes [Novak I, Greger R: Pflügers Arch 1988;411:58-68, 546-553], are comparable. Similar conclusion can be made about the calcium measurements [Hug M, et al: Pflügers...

  2. Model predictions for the WAXS signals of healthy and malignant breast duct biopsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeClair, R. J.

    2014-03-01

    A wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) measurement could potentially be used to determine whether a biopsy of a breast duct is healthy or malignant. A ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) occurs when the epithelial cells lining the wall start to replicate and invade the duct interior. Since cells are composed mainly of water a WAXS signal of DCIS could contain a larger component due to water. A model approximates that a breast duct biopsy consists of connective tissue (c.t.) and cells. For a 2 mm diameter 3.81 mm thick healthy duct biopsy, the volumes in cubic mm are 11.56 c.t. and 0.41 cells whereas 6.64 c.t. and 5.33 cells for DCIS. The differential linear scattering coefficients (μs) for both types of biopsies were calculated using the sum vc.t.μsc.t. + vcellμscell where v denotes fractional volume. The cell was assumed to be composed of water, lipids (fat), and other atoms associated with RNA, DNA, proteins, and carbohydrates. The μscell was calculated using the sum 0.771μswater + 0.023μsfat + 0.206μsother. The μs of c.t., water, and fat were available from literature whereas the independent atomic model approximation was used to calculate values for μsother. A WAXS model provided predictions of the number of 6 degree scattered photons Ns for incident 50 kV beams on healthy and malignant ducts. The sum of Ns between 31.5 <= E <= 45 keV were 1402 and 1529 for respectively the healthy and malignant biopsies. Using Poisson statistics, two Gaussian distributions, and a descision threshold set at their intersection, the false positive and false negative probabilities were 4.7% and 5.0%. This work suggests that DCIS could potentially be diagnosed via energy dispersive WAXS measurements.

  3. The effect of duct surface character on methane explosion propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Bai-quan; YE Qing; JIAN Cong-guang; WU Hai-jin

    2007-01-01

    The effect of duct surface character on methane explosion propagation was experimentally studied and theoretically analyzed. The roughness has effect on methane explosion propagation. The flame propagation velocity and the peak value pressure of methane explosion in rough duct are larger than the parameters in smooth duct. The heat exchange of the surface has effect on methane explosion propagation. The propagation velocity of flame and strength of explosion wave in the duct covered by heat insulation material are larger than those in duct with good heat transmittability.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of extrahepatic bile duct disruption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Yon-Cheong; Wang, Li-Jen; Chen, Chi-Jen [Department of Radiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 5, Fu-Hsing Street, Gueishan, 33333 Taoyuan (Taiwan); Chen, Ray-Jade [Division of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 5, Fu-Hsing Street, Gueishan, 33333 Taoyuan (Taiwan)

    2002-10-01

    Blunt injury of the extrahepatic bile duct is rare and hence a large series of scientific study of its MRI is difficult to perform. We present the MRI and MR cholangiography of a case of blunt extrahepatic bile duct injury proven at surgery. The diagnosis could be established based on MRI findings of an abrupt tapering of the extrahepatic bile duct with a retracted end, a discordant small-caliber proximal duct, massive ascites, and a hematoma in proximity to the bile duct injury. This non-invasive MRI study is a promising imaging modality to evaluate biliary tract injury. (orig.)

  5. Performance Study and CFD Predictions of a Ducted Fan System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrego, Anita I.; Chang, I-Chung; Bulaga, Robert W.; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    An experimental investigation was completed in the NASA Ames 7 by 10-Foot Wind Tunnel to study the performance characteristics of a ducted fan. The goal of this effort is to study the effect of ducted fan geometry and utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to provide a baseline for correlation. A 38-inch diameter, 10-inch chord duct with a five-bladed fixed-pitch fan was tested. Duct performance data were obtained in hover, vertical climb, and forward flight test conditions. This paper will present a description of the test, duct performance results and correlation with CFD predictions.

  6. Transition duct with divided upstream and downstream portions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMahan, Kevin Weston; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Maldonado, Jaime Javier; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Flanagan, James Scott

    2015-07-14

    Turbine systems are provided. In one embodiment, a turbine system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a duct passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The duct passage includes an upstream portion extending from the inlet and a downstream portion extending from the outlet. The turbine system further includes a rib extending from an outer surface of the duct passage, the rib dividing the upstream portion and the downstream portion.

  7. The Skills of Exemplary Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, John E.

    1990-01-01

    NASSP's Assessment Center Project has identified 12 key skills for successful principals: problem analysis, judgment, organizational ability, decisiveness, leadership, sensitivity, stress tolerance, oral communication, written communication, wide-ranging interests, personal motivation, and educational values. Effective principals succeed by…

  8. Dispersion properties of ducted whistlers, generated by lightning discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. L. Pasmanik

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Whistler-mode wave propagation in magnetospheric ducts of enhanced cold plasma density is studied. The case of the arbitrary ratio of the duct radius to the whistler wavelength is considered, where the ray-tracing method is not applicable. The set of duct eigenmodes and their spatial structure are analysed and dependencies of eigenmode propagation properties on the duct characteristics are studied. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the group delay time of one-hop propagation of the whistler wave packet along the duct. We found that, in contrast to the case of a wide duct, the group delay time in a rather narrow duct decreases as the eigenmode number increases. The results obtained are suggested for an explanation of some types of multi-component whistler signals.

  9. Curved Duct Noise Prediction Using the Fast Scattering Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, M. H.; Tinetti, Ana F.; Farassat, F.

    2007-01-01

    Results of a study to validate the Fast Scattering Code (FSC) as a duct noise predictor, including the effects of curvature, finite impedance on the walls, and uniform background flow, are presented in this paper. Infinite duct theory was used to generate the modal content of the sound propagating within the duct. Liner effects were incorporated via a sound absorbing boundary condition on the scattering surfaces. Simulations for a rectangular duct of constant cross-sectional area have been compared to analytical solutions and experimental data. Comparisons with analytical results indicate that the code can properly calculate a given dominant mode for hardwall surfaces. Simulated acoustic behavior in the presence of lined walls (using hardwall duct modes as incident sound) is consistent with expected trends. Duct curvature was found to enhance weaker modes and reduce pressure amplitude. Agreement between simulated and experimental results for a straight duct with hard walls (no flow) was excellent.

  10. Rationale for Measuring Duct Leakage Flows in Large Commercial Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Diamond, Richard C.; Sherman, Max H.

    2005-07-01

    Industry-wide methods of assessing duct leakage are based on duct pressurization tests, and focus on ''high pressure'' ducts. Even though ''low pressure'' ducts can be a large fraction of the system and tend to be leaky, few guidelines or construction specifications require testing these ducts. We report here on the measured leakage flows from ten large commercial duct systems at operating conditions: three had low leakage (less than 5% of duct inlet flow), and seven had substantial leakage (9 to 26%). By comparing these flows with leakage flows estimated using the industry method, we show that the latter method by itself is not a reliable indicator of whole-system leakage flow, and that leakage flows need to be measured.

  11. Increased Expression of TGF-β Signaling Components in a Mouse Model of Fibrosis Induced by Submandibular Gland Duct Ligation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas T Woods

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β is a multi-functional cytokine with a well-described role in the regulation of tissue fibrosis and regeneration in the liver, kidney and lung. Submandibular gland (SMG duct ligation and subsequent deligation in rodents is a classical model for studying salivary gland damage and regeneration. While previous studies suggest that TGF-β may contribute to salivary gland fibrosis, the expression of TGF-β signaling components has not been investigated in relation to mouse SMG duct ligation-induced fibrosis and regeneration following ductal deligation. Following a 7 day SMG duct ligation, TGF-β1 and TGF-β3 were significantly upregulated in the SMG, as were TGF-β receptor 1 and downstream Smad family transcription factors in salivary acinar cells, but not in ductal cells. In acinar cells, duct ligation also led to upregulation of snail, a Smad-activated E-cadherin repressor and regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, whereas in ductal cells upregulation of E-cadherin was observed while snail expression was unchanged. Upregulation of these TGF-β signaling components correlated with upregulation of fibrosis markers collagen 1 and fibronectin, responses that were inhibited by administration of the TGF-β receptor 1 inhibitors SB431542 or GW788388. After SMG regeneration following a 28 day duct deligation, TGF-β signaling components and epithelial-mesenchymal transition markers returned to levels similar to non-ligated controls. The results from this study indicate that increased TGF-β signaling contributes to duct ligation-induced changes in salivary epithelium that correlate with glandular fibrosis. Furthermore, the reversibility of enhanced TGF-β signaling in acinar cells of duct-ligated mouse SMG after deligation indicates that this is an ideal model for studying TGF-β signaling mechanisms in salivary epithelium as well as mechanisms of fibrosis initiation and their resolution.

  12. Deformation quantization of principal bundles

    CERN Document Server

    Aschieri, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    We outline how Drinfeld twist deformation techniques can be applied to the deformation quantization of principal bundles into noncommutative principal bundles, and more in general to the deformation of Hopf-Galois extensions. First we twist deform the structure group in a quantum group, and this leads to a deformation of the fibers of the principal bundle. Next we twist deform a subgroup of the group of authomorphisms of the principal bundle, and this leads to a noncommutative base space. Considering both deformations we obtain noncommutative principal bundles with noncommutative fiber and base space as well.

  13. The pelvic kidney of male Ambystoma maculatum (Amphibia, urodela, ambystomatidae) with special reference to the sexual collecting ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Dustin S; Sever, David M; Aldridge, Robert D

    2010-12-01

    This study details the gross and microscopic anatomy of the pelvic kidney in male Ambystoma maculatum. The nephron of male Ambystoma maculatum is divided into six distinct regions leading sequentially away from a renal corpuscle: (1) neck segment, which communicates with the coelomic cavity via a ventrally positioned pleuroperitoneal funnel, (2) proximal tubule, (3) intermediate segment, (4) distal tubule, (5) collecting tubule, and (6) collecting duct. The proximal tubule is divided into a vacuolated proximal region and a distal lysosomic region. The basal plasma membrane is modified into intertwining microvillus lamellae. The epithelium of the distal tubule varies little along its length and is demarcated by columns of mitochondria with their long axes oriented perpendicular to the basal lamina. The distal tubule possesses highly interdigitating microvillus lamellae from the lateral membranes and pronounced foot processes of the basal membrane that are not intertwined, but perpendicular to the basal lamina. The collecting tubule is lined by an epithelium with dark and light cells. Light cells are similar to those observed in the distal tuble except with less mitochondria and microvillus lamellae of the lateral and basal plasma membrane. Dark cells possess dark euchromatic nuclei and are filled with numerous small mitochondria. The epithelium of the neck segment, pleuroperitoneal funnel, and intermediate segment is composed entirely of ciliated cells with cilia protruding from only the central portion of the apical plasma membrane. The collecting duct is lined by a highly secretory epithelium that produces numerous membrane bound granules that stain positively for neutral carbohydrates and proteins. Apically positioned ciliated cells are intercalated between secretory cells. The collecting ducts anastomose caudally and unite with the Wolffian duct via a common collecting duct. The Wolffian duct is secretory, but not to the extent of the collecting duct

  14. Acoustic Power Transmission Through a Ducted Fan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Envia, Ed

    2016-01-01

    For high-speed ducted fans, when the rotor flowfield is shock-free, the main contribution to the inlet radiated acoustic power comes from the portion of the rotor stator interaction sound field that is transmitted upstream through the rotor. As such, inclusion of the acoustic transmission is an essential ingredient in the prediction of the fan inlet noise when the fan tip relative speed is subsonic. This paper describes a linearized Euler based approach to computing the acoustic transmission of fan tones through the rotor. The approach is embodied in a code called LINFLUX was applied to a candidate subsonic fan called the Advanced Ducted Propulsor (ADP). The results from this study suggest that it is possible to make such prediction with sufficient fidelity to provide an indication of the acoustic transmission trends with the fan tip speed.

  15. Theoretical analysis of HVAC duct hanger systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. D.

    1987-01-01

    Several methods are presented which, together, may be used in the analysis of duct hanger systems over a wide range of frequencies. The finite element method (FEM) and component mode synthesis (CMS) method are used for low- to mid-frequency range computations and have been shown to yield reasonably close results. The statistical energy analysis (SEA) method yields predictions which agree with the CMS results for the 800 to 1000 Hz range provided that a sufficient number of modes participate. The CMS approach has been shown to yield valuable insight into the mid-frequency range of the analysis. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to conduct an analysis of a duct/hanger system in a cost-effective way for a wide frequency range, using several methods which overlap for several frequency bands.

  16. The Relationship between Principals' Managerial Approaches and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Cell phone - +254 724 249 730; Office - +254 065 32369 ... Ultimately, student discipline may be affected. This paper focuses on findings of a study to establish the ... behaviour is an essential variable in enhancing school outcomes (Nasibi, .... Three questionnaires were used to collect data from principals, teachers and.

  17. Le principe roman

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrari, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Fasciné par la figure du physicien allemand Werner Heisenberg (1901-1976), fondateur de la mécanique quantique, inventeur du célèbre "principe d'incertitude" et Prix Nobel de physique en 1932, un jeune aspirant-philosophe désenchanté s'efforce, à l'aube du XXIe siècle, de considérer l'incomplétude de sa propre existence à l'aune des travaux et de la destinée de cet exceptionnel homme de sciences qui incarne pour lui la rencontre du langage scientifique et de la poésie, lesquels, chacun à leur manière, en ouvrant la voie au scandale de l'inédit, dessillent les yeux sur le monde pour en révéler la mystérieuse beauté que ne cessent de confisquer le matérialisme à l'œuvre dans l'Histoire des hommes.

  18. Normothermic machine perfusion reduces bile duct injury and improves biliary epithelial function in rat donor livers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Op den Dries, Sanna; Karimian, Negin; Westerkamp, Andrie C; Sutton, Michael E; Kuipers, Michiel; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke; Ottens, Petra J; Kuipers, Jeroen; Giepmans, Ben N; Leuvenink, Henri G D; Lisman, Ton; Porte, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Bile duct injury may occur during liver procurement and transplantation, especially in livers from donation after circulatory death (DCD) donors. Normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) has been shown to reduce hepatic injury compared to static cold storage (SCS). However, it is unknown whether NMP provides better preservation of bile ducts. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of NMP on bile duct preservation in both DCD and non-DCD livers. DCD and non-DCD livers obtained from Lewis rats were preserved for 3 hours using either SCS or NMP, followed by 2 hours ex vivo reperfusion. Biomarkers of bile duct injury (gamma-glutamyltransferase and lactate dehydrogenase in bile) were lower in NMP-preserved livers compared to SCS-preserved livers. Biliary bicarbonate concentration, reflecting biliary epithelial function, was 2-fold higher in NMP-preserved livers (P < 0.01). In parallel with this, the pH of the bile was significantly higher in NMP-preserved livers (7.63 ± 0.02 and 7.74 ± 0.05 for non-DCD and DCD livers, respectively) compared with SCS-preserved livers (7.46 ± 0.02 and 7.49 ± 0.04 for non-DCD and DCD livers, respectively). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of donor extrahepatic bile ducts demonstrated significantly decreased injury of the biliary epithelium of NMP-preserved donor livers (including the loss of lateral interdigitations and mitochondrial injury). Differences between NMP and SCS were most prominent in DCD livers. Compared to conventional SCS, NMP provides superior preservation of bile duct epithelial cell function and morphology, especially in DCD donor livers. By reducing biliary injury, NMP could have an important impact on the utilization of DCD livers and outcome after transplantation. Liver Transplantation 22 994-1005 2016 AASLD.

  19. Immunohistochemical study on effects of [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation on salivary gland ducts of rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Kazuhiko (Meikai Univ., Sakato, Saitama (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1992-09-01

    Cytokeratin distribution in salivary glands was detected by use of polyclonal antikeratin antiserum (TK) and monoclonal antibodies (KL 1, RGE 53, and RPN 1164). The salivary glands of male rats received either 17.82 Gy or 27.97 Gy [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation in a single exposure and were then compared immunohistochemically with those of normal rats. Polyclonal anti-keratin antiserum (TK), which reacts with 41-65 KD keratins, stained almost all ducts in normal glands. RPN 1164 (no. 8 keratin) staining was negative in intercalated ducts of normal parotid and submandibular glands, but strongly positive in both striated and excretory ducts of these glands. Monoclonal antibody KL 1 (55-57 KD keratins) and RGE 53 (no. 18 keratin) did not bind to any ductal or acinar epithelia. Only in the sublingual gland were acini positive for TK staining, possibly indicating myoepithelial cells. No effects of [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation were apparent regarding keratin distribution in the intercalated in apical cytoplasm by [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation. Also, in the excretory duct, the basal side of the cells exhibited weakened staining following [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation were the most significant in the parotid and the least in the sublingual gland. Also this reaction depended upon the doses of [sup 60]Co used. The present findings suggested that negative or weakened staining at the basal and perinuclear portions of striated duct cells specifically reflects the primary or secondary cell damage produced by [sup 60]Co [gamma] irradiation. Since the distribution of cytoskeletal proteins in the cytoplasm reflects certain pathological conditions, immunohistochemical detection of these proteins seem to have a diagnostic value with respect to cellular injury. (J.P.N.) 77 refs.

  20. Protective effect of gadolinium chloride on early warm ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat bile duct during liver transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Activation of Kupffer cell (KC is acknowledged as a key event in the initiation and perpetuation of bile duct warm ischemia/reperfusion injury. The inhibitory effect of gadolinium chloride (GdCl(3 on KC activation shows potential as a protective intervention in liver injury, but there is less research with regard to bile duct injury. METHODS: Sixty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g were randomly divided into three experimental groups: a sham group (n = 15, a control group (n = 25, and a GdCl(3 group (n = 25. Specimen was collected at 0.5, 2, 6, 12 and 24 h after operation. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and total bilirubin (TBIL of serum were measured. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, Capase-3 activity and soluble Fas (sFas were detected. The pathologic changes of bile duct were observed. Immunochemistry for bile duct Fas was performed. Apoptosis of bile duct cells was evaluated by the terminal UDP nick end labeling assay. RESULTS: GdCl(3 significantly decreased the levels of ALT, ALP and TBIL at 2, 6, 12, and 24 h, and increased serum sFas at 2, 6 and 12 h (P<0.05. TNF-α was lower in the GdCl(3 group than in the control group at 2, 6, 12 and 24 h (P<0.05. Preadministration of GdCl(3 significantly reduced the Caspase-3 activity and bile duct cell apoptosis at 2, 6, 12 and 24 h. After operation for 2, 6 and 12 h, the expression of Fas protein was lower in the GdCl(3 group than in the control group (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: GdCl(3 plays an important role in suppressing bile duct cell apoptosis, including decreasing ALT, ALP, TBIL and TNF-α; suppressing Fas-FasL-Caspase signal transduction during transplantation.

  1. Right anterior segmental hepatic duct emptying directly into the cystic duct in a living donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiguro, Yasunao; Hyodo, Masanobu; Fujiwara, Takehito; Sakuma, Yasunaru; Hojo, Nobuyuki; Mizuta, Koichi; Kawarasaki, Hideo; Lefor, Alan T; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2010-08-07

    A 35-year-old mother was scheduled to be the living donor for liver transplantation to her second son, who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with biliary cirrhosis at the age of 2 years. The operative plan was to recover the left lateral segment of the mother's liver for living donor transplantation. With the use of cholangiography at the time of surgery, we found the right anterior segmental duct (RASD) emptying directly into the cystic duct, and the catheter passed into the RASD. After repairing the incision in the cystic duct, transplantation was successfully performed. Her postoperative course was uneventful. Biliary anatomical variations were frequently encountered, however, this variation has very rarely been reported. If the RASD was divided, the repair would be very difficult because the duct will not dilate sufficiently in an otherwise healthy donor. Meticulous preoperative evaluation of the living donor's biliary anatomy, especially using magnetic resonance cholangiography and careful intraoperative techniques, is important to prevent bile duct injury and avoid the risk to the healthy donor.

  2. Endoscopic management of bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, M V

    1989-09-01

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy is the procedure of choice for choledocholithiasis in patients who have had a cholecystectomy. The bile duct is cleared of stones in about 80 to 90 percent of patients. Available data, largely retrospective, suggest that surgery and endoscopic sphincterotomy are about equal with respect to removal of stones, morbidity, and mortality. Certain technical problems are discussed, including inability to insert the papillotome, the large stone, and problems relating to anatomy such as peripapillary diverticulum and prior gastrectomy. The treatment of patients with bile duct stones who have not had a cholecystectomy, with and without cholelithiasis, is controversial. Endoscopic sphincterotomy without subsequent cholecystectomy is adequate treatment for the majority of patients who are unfit for surgery, even if there are stones in the gallbladder, provided they are asymptomatic after endoscopic removal of stones from the bile ducts. Endoscopic sphincterotomy has been performed in the treatment of gallstone-induced pancreatitis, acute obstructive cholangitis, and sump syndrome. The complication rate for endoscopic sphincterotomy ranges from 6.5 to 8.7 percent, with a mortality rate of 0 to 1.3 percent. The most common serious complications are perforation, hemorrhage, acute pancreatitis, and sepsis.

  3. Endoscopic Management of Difficult Bile Duct Stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ell

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available More than 90% of all common bile duct concrements can be removed via the endoscopic retrograde route via endoscopic sphincterotomy, stone extraction by baskets and balloon catheters, or mechanical lithotripsy. Oversized, very hard or impacted stones, however, often still resist conventional endoscopic therapy. Promising new or improved approaches for the treatment of these stones are intracorporeal or extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Shockwave lithotriptors for extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy are currently available worldwide. However, for the waterbath first generation devices, general anesthesia is required since shockwaves are very painful. Furthermore, an x-ray localization system is essential to visualize the stones after having filled the bile duct over a nasobiliary catheter. An average of two shockwave treatments with additional two to four endoscopic sessions are required. ln tracorporeal lithotripsy promises more comfort and less effort for the patient. Shockwaves are generated either by means of the spark gap principle (electrohydraulic probes or by laser-induced plasma generation. Laser-induced shockwave lithotripsy appears to be more safer, since with dye and solid state lasers, athermal, well-controlled shockwaves can be generateJ without the risks for duct perfo ration (as described for the electrohydraulic system. Furthermore, a recently developed stone-tissue detection system integrated in a new dye laser system enchances the safety of laser-induced lithotripsy. ln consequence, lithotripsy without direct endoscopic control appears possible in selected cases.

  4. Particle deposition in industrial duct bends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Thomas M; Leith, David

    2004-07-01

    A study of particle deposition in industrial duct bends is presented. Particle deposition by size was measured by comparing particle size distributions upstream and downstream of bends that had geometries and flow conditions similar to those used in industrial ventilation. As the interior surface of the duct bend was greased to prevent particle bounce, the results are applicable to liquid drops and solid particles where duct walls are sticky. Factors investigated were: (i) flow Reynolds number (Re = 203 000, 36 000); (ii) particle Reynolds number (10 vertical); and (vii) construction technique (smooth, gored, segmented). Measured deposition was compared with models developed for bends in small diameter sampling lines (Re 20 microm, deposition was slightly greater in the horizontal-to-horizontal orientation than in the horizontal-to-vertical orientation due to gravitational settling. Penetration was not a multiplicative function of bend angle as theory predicts, due to the developing nature of turbulent flow in bends. Deposition in a smooth bend was similar to that in a gored bend; however, a tight radius segmented bend (R0 = 1.7) exhibited much lower deposition. For more gradual bends (3 < R0 < 12), curvature ratio had negligible effect on deposition.

  5. MRI of the biliary and pancreatic ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavone, P.; Laghi, A.; Catalano, C.; Panebianco, V.; Fabiano, S.; Passariello, R. [Dept. of Radiology II, Univ. of Rome ``La Sapienza`` (Italy)

    1999-10-01

    Magnetic resonance Cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) is a non-invasive imaging technique able to provide projectional images of the bile ducts. Different sequences, using both breath-hold and non-breath-hold acquisition techniques, have been employed in order to obtain MRCP images. The authors discuss technical aspects, considering both three-dimensional non-breath-hold techniques and two-dimensional breath-hold, multi-slice and thick slab sequences. Clinical applications of MRCP are evaluated, presenting data from both the literature and personal experience. The main indication for MRCP study is represented by the evaluation of common bile duct obstruction, with the aim of assessing the presence of the obstruction (accuracy 85-100 %) and, subsequently, its level (accuracy 91-100 %) and its cause. The utility of associating conventional MR images to MRCP in malignant strictures, in order to characterize and stage the malignant lesion, is also discussed. Finally, data are presented regarding the indications and the utility of MR-pancreatography in the evaluation of patients with pancreatic duct anomalies and chronic pancreatitis. (orig.) With 9 figs., 39 refs.

  6. 下颌下腺主导管结扎可激活损伤组织中的干/祖细胞%Changes in the activity of stem/progenitor cells in the rat submandibular gland following ligation of the main excretory duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈伟; 黄桂林

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Fewer ethical issues exist in adult stem cells, and some operating technologies are relatively mature. Therefore, to construct tissue-engineered salivary glands using adult stem cells is very attractive and seductive with an extremely important application prospect. OBJECTIVE:To establish a rat model of salivary gland injury by ligation of the main excretory duct of the submandibular gland and to explore the existing feasibility and location of adult stem cells in the injured models. METHODS:The main excretory duct of the right submandibular glands was ligated in Sprague-Dawley rats. After 1 week, rats were kil ed to remove the bilateral glands that were then subject to hematoxylin-eosin staining, PAS glycogen staining and immunohistochemical staining for determination of CK-19, Bcl-2, Ki-67. After that, we compared the normal submandibular gland with the damaged model after ligation of main excretory duct. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The rats showed differences in the volume and mass of the affected and normal submandibular glands. The normal submandibular gland was oval, ruddy, smooth, soft with an intact envelop. After ligation, the injured submandibular gland appeared to have atrophy with dark red in color, irregular morphology, envelop congestion, and rough texture;the surrounding vessels showed compensatory expansion. PAS-positive gland cells disappeared, CK-19-postive smal duct epithelial cells proliferated, and laminin-positive cells that were rarely found in the normal gland existed around the duct. In addition, Bcl-2/Ki-67 positive cells were both increased. These findings indicate that stem/progenitor cells may be located in the periductal area of the submandibular gland;and the model of submandibular gland injury established by ligation of the main excretory duct is effective to activate stem/progenitor cells in the submandibular gland.%背景:成体干细胞的伦理学问题较少,而且某些操作技术比较成熟,利用成体干细

  7. Intraductal Papillary-Mucinous Neoplasm of the Pancreas Penetrating to the Stomach and the Common Bile Duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norihiro Goto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN of the pancreas occasionally penetrates to others organs. We present a case of IPMN penetrating to the stomach and the common bile duct. Case report A 75-year-old man was admitted to the hospital because of epigastric pain. Computed tomography (CT showed a papillary tumor protruding into the markedly dilated main pancreatic duct and splenic vein obstruction. The tumor was diagnosed as IPMN arising in the main duct, but he rejected surgery and he was followed without treatment. One year later, gastroduodenoscopy revealed gastropancreatic fistula and we were able to pass an endoscope through the fistula and directly examine the lumen of the main pancreatic duct and the papillary tumor adjacent to the fistula. Absence of malignant cells on histopathology suggested mechanical penetration rather than invasive penetration. CT showed splenic vein reperfusion due to decreased inner pressure of the main pancreatic duct. Two and a half years later, CT revealed biliopancreatic fistula formation. Endoscope biliary drainage was performed but failed. Despite jaundice, he is still ambulatory and seen in the clinic three years after the first admission. Conclusions We have experienced a case of IPMN penetrating to the stomach and the common bile duct that has taken a slow course. It represents the importance of distinguishing mechanical penetration from invasive penetration as well as mechanical splenic vein obstruction from splenic vein invasion.

  8. A case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas mimicking main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yuichi; Nakamichi, Rei; Kamata, Noriko; Miyake, Hideo; Fujino, Masahiko; Itoh, Shigeki

    2015-03-01

    We report here a rare case of undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas mimicking main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm. In an 80-year-old woman, an approximately 8-mm papillary mass was incidentally detected at the downstream edge of a dilatated main pancreatic duct lumen on CT and MRI. Main pancreatic duct dilatation in the pancreatic body and tail and parenchymal atrophy were observed in the upstream of the mass. Histopathologically, the tumor protruded into the downstream edge of the dilatated main pancreatic duct lumen in the pancreatic body. The tumor cells had highly atypical nuclei and abundant polymorphic structures, and showed positive staining for granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, which led to the diagnosis of undifferentiated carcinoma. A total of 13 cases of undifferentiated carcinoma with intraductal tumor growth have been reported to date. The case report by Bergmann et al. has been the smallest in histopathological specimen, and the present case is the smallest in size detected by radiological images. Since early undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas can resemble those of main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm in cross-sectional images, we have to consider undifferentiated carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of the solitary and papillary mass with low contrast enhancement in early phase in the main pancreatic duct.

  9. Idiopathic chylopericardium treated by percutaneous thoracic duct embolization after failed surgical thoracic duct ligation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, Malachi; Ayyagari, Raj R. [Yale School of Medicine, Yale New Haven Hospital, New Haven, CT (United States); Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology, 789 Howard Avenue, P.O. Box 208042, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Chylopericardium rarely occurs in pediatric patients, but when it does it is most often a result of lymphatic injury during cardiothoracic surgery. Primary idiopathic chylopericardium is especially rare, with few cases in the pediatric literature. We report a 10-year-old boy who presented with primary idiopathic chylopericardium after unsuccessful initial treatment with surgical lymphatic ligation and creation of a pericardial window. Following readmission to the hospital for a right-side chylothorax resulting from the effluent from the pericardial window, he had successful treatment by interventional radiology with percutaneous thoracic duct embolization. This case illustrates the utility of thoracic duct embolization as a less-invasive alternative to surgical thoracic duct ligation, or as a salvage procedure when surgical ligation fails. (orig.)

  10. Renal collecting duct carcinoma: Report of a case with unusual imaging findings regarding renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longwang Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal collecting duct carcinoma (CDC is a rare and aggressive type of renal cell cancer (RCC, which is difficult to confirm before surgery. We present a case of CDC presenting a hypovascular mass on renal CTA and deteriorated renal function of the affected kidney on single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, which are different from the most common RCC, clear cell RCC. Considering these findings, it would be worthwhile investigating the role of CTA and SPECT in CDC diagnosis.

  11. Aberrant bile ducts, 'remnant surface bile ducts,' and peribiliary glands: descriptive anatomy, historical nomenclature, and surgical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gharbawy, Ramadan M; Skandalakis, Lee J; Heffron, Thomas G; Skandalakis, John E

    2011-05-01

    The term "aberrant bile ducts" has been used to designate three heterogeneous groups of biliary structures: (1) bile ducts degenerating or disappearing (unknown etiology, diverse locations); (2) curious biliary structures in the transverse fissure; and (3) aberrant right bile ducts draining directly into the common hepatic duct. We report our observations on these three groups. Twenty-nine fresh human livers of stillborns and adults were injected differentially with colored latex and dissected. Adult livers showed portal venous and hepatic arterial branches, and bile ducts not associated with parenchyma, subjacent to and firmly adherent with the liver capsule: elements of ramifications of normal sheaths were present on the liver's surface. These ramifications, having lost parenchyma associated with them, then sequentially lost their portal branches, bile ducts and arterial branches. This process affected the ramifications of the sheaths in the left triangular ligament, adjacent to the inferior vena cava, in the gallbladder bed and anywhere else on the liver's surface and resulted in the presence of bile ducts accompanied by portal venous and/or hepatic arterial branches and not associated with parenchyma for a period of time. This first group represented normal bile ducts that do not meet the criteria of aberration and could be appropriately designated "remnant surface bile ducts." Such changes were not found in the transverse fissures and review of the literature revealed that the curious biliary structures are the microscopic peribiliary glands. The third group met the criteria of aberration and the anatomy of a representative duct is described.

  12. 乙醇对于豚鼠胰腺导管上皮细胞腔面膜侧 CFTR 介导的 HCO3-分泌的影响%Effect of ethanol on HCO 3- secretion mediated by CFTR from guinea - pig pancreatic duct cells. SONG Ying1,DING Xiang - fu2,WANG

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋莹; 丁相福; 王晓东; 段瑞峰; 石黑洋; 刘佰纯

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of ethanol on HCO3 - secretion induced by CFTR from guinea - pig pancreatic duct cells and to analyse the mechanisms of alcoholic pancreatitis. Methods Interlobular duct segments( diameter,100 ~ 150 μm)were microdissected under a dissection microscope using sharp needles. The lumen of the interlobular duct segment was microperfused. The bath and luminal solutions were modified separately. Intracellular pH(pHi)in the duct cells was estimated by microfluorometry using the pH - sensitive fluoroprobe BCECF. Transepithelial fluxes of HCO3 - were estimated under the anion gradients favoring rapid exchange of intracellular HCO3 - . Results ①When in vitro pancreatic duct pipe cavity,when filled with high concentration of sodium bicarbonate buffer micro pHi from epithelial cells after alkaline pH unit recovery rate was was 0. 048 ± 0. 009 pH unit·min - 1(n = 9),add 1 mm when ethanol pHi decline accelerated significantly(0. 066 ± 0. 005 pH unit·min - 1 ,n = 7,t = 0. 0009,P < 0. 05). ②Luminal application of CFTRinh - 172(10 μM)significantly( P < 0. 05)inhibited apical HCO3 - secretion(0. 039 ± 0. 010 pH unit·min - 1 ,n = 7,t = 0. 001). ③When the duct was stimulated with ethanol,luminal application of CFTRinh - 172 decrease the rate of pHi(0. 054 ± 0. 008 pH unit·min - 1 ,n = 7,t = 0. 0015,P < 0. 05). Conclusion Ethanol stimulated api-cal HCO3 - secretion of guinea - pig pancreatic ducts. The augmentation by ethanol appears to be mediated by CFTR.%目的:通过研究乙醇对于豚鼠胰腺导管上皮细胞腔面膜侧囊性纤维化转膜传导因子( CFTR)介导的碳酸氢根离子(HCO3-)分泌的影响,探讨酒精性胰腺炎的发病机制。方法运用显微解剖技术分离豚鼠胰腺导管(直径100~150μm),使用微灌流技术置换管腔内液体。采用荧光显微测定技术检测细胞内 pH 值变化,并计算出腔面膜侧HCO3-分泌率,进而探讨乙醇在 CFTR 介导的 HCO3-

  13. Right anterior segmental hepatic duct emptying directly into the cystic duct in a living donor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasunao; Ishiguro; Masanobu; Hyodo; Takehito; Fujiwara; Yasunaru; Sakuma; Nobuyuki; Hojo; Koichi; Mizuta; Hideo; Kawarasaki; Alan; T; Lefor; Yoshikazu; Yasuda

    2010-01-01

    A 35-year-old mother was scheduled to be the living donor for liver transplantation to her second son,who suffered from biliary atresia complicated with biliary cirrhosis at the age of 2 years.The operative plan was to recover the left lateral segment of the mother's liver for living donor transplantation.With the use of cholangiography at the time of surgery,we found the right anterior segmental duct(RASD) emptying directly into the cystic duct,and the catheter passed into the RASD.After repairing the inci...

  14. HOXC9 regulates formation of parachordal lymphangioplasts and the thoracic duct in zebrafish via stabilin 2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra J Stoll

    Full Text Available HOXC9 belongs to the family of homeobox transcription factors, which are regulators of body patterning and development. HOXC9 acts as a negative regulator on blood endothelial cells but its function on lymphatic vessel development has not been studied. The hyaluronan receptor homologs stabilin 1 and stabilin 2 are expressed in endothelial cells but their role in vascular development is poorly understood. This study was aimed at investigating the function of HOXC9, stabilin 2 and stabilin 1 in lymphatic vessel development in zebrafish and in endothelial cells. Morpholino-based expression silencing of HOXC9 repressed parachordal lymphangioblast assembly and thoracic duct formation in zebrafish. HOXC9 positively regulated stabilin 2 expression in zebrafish and in HUVECs and expression silencing of stabilin 2 phenocopied the HOXC9 morphant vascular phenotype. This effect could be compensated by HOXC9 mRNA injection in stabilin 2 morphant zebrafish embryos. Stabilin 1 also regulated parachordal lymphangioblast and thoracic duct formation in zebrafish but acts independently of HOXC9. On a cellular level stabilin 1 and stabilin 2 regulated endothelial cell migration and in-gel sprouting angiogenesis in endothelial cells. HOXC9 was identified as novel transcriptional regulator of parachordal lymphangioblast assembly and thoracic duct formation in zebrafish that acts via stabilin 2. Stabilin 1, which acts independently of HOXC9, has a similar function in zebrafish and both receptors control important cellular processes in endothelial cells.

  15. Modification of the FoxP3 transcription factor principally affects inducible T regulatory cells in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Verhagen

    Full Text Available T regulatory (Treg cells expressing the transcription factor FoxP3 play a key role in protection against autoimmune disease. GFP-FoxP3 reporter mice have been used widely to study the induction, function and stability of both thymically- and peripherally-induced Treg cells. The N-terminal modification of FoxP3, however, affects its interaction with transcriptional co-factors; this can alter Treg cell development and function in certain self-antigen specific animal models. Interestingly, Treg cell function can be negatively or positively affected, depending on the nature of the model. In this study, we focused on the effect of the GFP-FoxP3 reporter on Treg cell development and function in the Tg4 mouse model. In this model, T cells express a transgenic T cell receptor (TCR specific for the Myelin Basic Protein (MBP peptide Ac1-9, making the animals susceptible to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, a disease akin to multiple sclerosis in humans. Unlike diabetes-susceptible mice, Tg4 FoxP3(gfp mice did not develop spontaneous autoimmune disease and did not demonstrate augmented susceptibility to induced disease. Concurrently, thymic generation of natural Treg cells was not negatively affected. The induction of FoxP3 expression in naive peripheral T cells was, however, significantly impaired as a result of the transgene. This study shows that the requirements for the interaction of FoxP3 with co-factors, which governs its regulatory ability, differ not only between natural and inducible Treg cells but also between animal models of diseases such as diabetes and EAE.

  16. Principally Left Hereditary and Principally Left Strong Radicals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. Tumurbat; R. Wiegandt

    2001-01-01

    A radical γ is normal if and only if γ is principally left hereditary and principally left strong (i.e., γ(L) = L e A and Lz ∈γ for all z ∈ L imply L γ(A)). Let a radical γ satisfy that A°∈γ and S° A° imply S°∈γ.Then γ is a hereditary normal radical if and only if γ is principally left strong and γ {A | (A, +,◇a) ∈γ a ∈ A}, where the multiplication ◇a is defined by x ◇a y = xay. The Behrens radical class B is the largest principally left hereditary subclass of the Brown-McCoy radical class G. Neither3 nor G is principally left strong.

  17. Unsteady flowfield simulation of ducted prop-fan configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janus, J. M.; Horstman, Howard Z.; Whitfield, David L.

    1992-01-01

    A technique for the simulation of unsteady flows in and around complex rotating machinery is presented. Additional domain decomposition mechanisms are introduced which extend the range of applicability of software developed for the time-accurate simulation of rotating machinery flowfields. The flow models uses the unsteady 3D Euler equations, discretized as a finite-volume method, utilizing a high-resolution approximate Riemann solver for cell interface flux definitions. Multiblock domain decomposition is used to partition the field radially, axially, as well as circumferentially into an ordered arrangement of blocks which exhibit varying degrees of similarity. A general high-order numerical scheme is applied to satisfy the geometric conservation law. Two configurations are presented - ducted single rotation prop-fan and a rotor-deswirl vane combination which form a single stage fan. Comparisons are made to other numerical solutions for these geometries and to available experimental data.

  18. Climate analysis of evaporation ducts in the South China Sea

    OpenAIRE

    McKeon, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Evaporation ducts have important implications for U.S. Naval activities involving electromagnetic propagation. The presence of an evaporation duct can affect naval operations involving communications, surveillance, electronic warfare, and detection of low-flying missiles, surface ships, or submarine periscopes. We conducted a climate scale analysis of evaporation duct heights (EDH) in the northern South China Sea (SCS), including how ...

  19. Omphalomesenteric duct cyst with gastric mocosa: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    Persistance of the omphalomesenteric duct may lead to several anomalies including umblical sinus, umblical cyst, MeckeVs diverticulum or patent omphalomesenteric duct fistula. Clinical manifestations of umblical disorders are usually nonspecific; use of cross-sectional imaging can help identify most of these entities because of their typical locations and distributions in continuity with the other organs and guide therapy. A case of omphalomesenteric duct cyst are presented and analysed toget...

  20. Method for Observing Intravascular BongHan Duct

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, X; Shin, H; Lee, B; Choi, C; Soh, K; Cheun, B; Baik, K; Soh, K; Jiang, Xiaowen; Kim, Hee-kyeong; Shin, Hak-soo; Lee, Byong-chon; Choi, Chunho; Soh, Kyung-soon; Cheun, Byeung-soo; Baik, Ku-youn; Soh, Kwang-sup

    2002-01-01

    A method for observing intra blood vessel ducts which are threadlike bundle of tubules which form a part of the BongHan duct system. By injecting 10% dextrose solution at a vena femoralis one makes the intravascular BongHan duct thicker and stronger to be easily detectable after incision of vessels. The duct is semi-transparent, soft and elastic, and composed of smaller tubules whose diameters are of 10$\\mu$m order, which is in agreement with BongHan theory.

  1. Biliary stenting for management of common bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhuri, G; Sharma, B C; Saraswat, V A; Agarwal, D K; Baijal, S S

    1998-06-01

    Large and multiple common bile duct stones may defy extraction despite an adequate endoscopic papillotomy. We treated 65 patients with symptomatic bile duct stones with endoscopic stents after failed attempts at stone extraction. Of the 65 patients, bile duct stones were extracted in eight at a second attempt, 29 underwent elective surgery and 28 patients were followed with the stent in situ for 21-52 months (median 42 months). During follow up, two patients had recurrent pain and two required surgery. The remaining 24 patients remained asymptomatic. Biliary stenting is a safe and effective mode of treatment for common bile duct stones in patients who have failed stone extraction after endoscopic papillotomy.

  2. Flexible metallic seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2014-04-22

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a flexible metallic seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  3. Experimental investigation of a rapidly rotating turbulent duct flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maartensson, G.E.; Johansson, A.V. [Department of Mechanics, KTH, 10044 Stockholm (Sweden); Gunnarsson, J. [Bombardier Transportation, Vaesteraas (Sweden); Moberg, H. [Alfa Laval, 14780 Tumba (Sweden)

    2002-09-01

    Rapidly rotating duct flow is studied experimentally with Rotation numbers in the interval. To achieve this, in combination with relatively high Reynolds numbers (5,000-30,000 based on the hydraulic radius), water was used as the working medium. Square and rectangular duct cross-sections were used and the angle between the rotation vector and the main axis of the duct was varied. The influence of the rotation on the pressure drop in the duct was investigated and suitable scalings of this quantity were studied. (orig.)

  4. Leaf seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2013-06-11

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a leaf seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  5. CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL DIAGNOSTIC INTRAHEPATIC BILE DUCTS PAUCITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Iryshkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the clinica-morphological features of syndromatic and nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts in pediatric liver transplant recipients. Methods and results. The clinical records were analyzed and histological studies of native livers of 20 children, who had suffered from paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts and to whom liver transplantation were made, were completed. The obtained data indicate higher levels of AST in patients with nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepaticbile ducts (p = 0,023. Ductopenia was the more frequent indication of syndromatic form of paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts (p = 0,01, while ductular proliferations, which form «ductular structure», were discovered more often in nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepaticbile ducts (p = 0,03. The extent of inflammatory-destructive changes was more expressed in nonsyndromatic pauci- ty of intrahepatic bile ducts (p = 0,01. Fibrosis or cirrhosis was formed more often in nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts (p = 0,008. Conclusion. Our results indicate more severe clinical and morphological manifestations in nonsyndromatic paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts. These findings may suggest about heavier liver condition in patient with nonsyndromatic form of paucity of intrahepatic bile ducts

  6. Duct injection technology prototype development: Evaluation of engineering data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    The objective of the Duct Injection Technology Prototype Development Project is to develop a sound design basis for applying duct injection technology as a post-combustion SO{sub 2}emissions control method to existing coal-fired power plants. The necessary engineering design and scale-up criteria will be developed for the commercialization of duct injection technology for the control of SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired boilers in the utility industry. The primary focus of the analyses summarized in this Topical Report is the review of the known technical and economic information associated with duct injection technology. (VC)

  7. Convolution seal for transition duct in turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, James Scott; LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; McMahan, Kevin Weston; Dillard, Daniel Jackson; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray

    2015-03-10

    A turbine system is disclosed. In one embodiment, the turbine system includes a transition duct. The transition duct includes an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The transition duct further includes an interface member for interfacing with a turbine section. The turbine system further includes a convolution seal contacting the interface member to provide a seal between the interface member and the turbine section.

  8. We Need Principals Who Understand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fineman, Sharon

    1981-01-01

    Describes the need for principals to have a greater understanding both of the needs of special education students and of effective ways of handling their problems. Special education survey courses and practical experiences for administrators might help close the gap between principals and special education teachers. (WD)

  9. Time Management for New Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Becoming a principal is a milestone in an educator's professional life. The principalship is an opportunity to provide leadership that will afford students opportunities to thrive in a nurturing and supportive environment. Despite the continuously expanding demands of being a new principal, effective time management will enable an individual to be…

  10. The Effective and Reflective Principal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, John M.

    2013-01-01

    For a "Kappan" issue focusing on the job of the principal, this is an essay from a retired, longtime principal and superintendent. "I have notebooks full of advice that I've collected over the years: tips, mantras, cautions, and quotations appropriate for any occasion," the author says. "I learned to focus less on…

  11. Burnout among Elementary School Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Julie; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Jackson, Sherion H.

    2009-01-01

    As the understanding of burnout continues to be refined, studies that examine school principals and burnout will be helpful to those who provide support to school leaders and are concerned about principal attrition and pending shortages. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between burnout and gender, age, and years experience…

  12. What Principals Think Motivates Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantes, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    How did a graduate class of teachers and principals come to explore what was really important to teachers? They had an idea that they all shared the same values (both teachers and principals) and would agree on what rewards teachers prize. Would administrators rate the motivation rewards the same way the teachers would? To find out, five schools…

  13. The Principal as Formative Coach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidus, Gabrielle; Sadder, Maya

    2011-01-01

    Formative coaching, an approach that uses student work as the foundation for mentoring and professional development, can help principals become more effective instructional leaders. In formative coaching, teaches and coaches analyze student work to determine next steps for instruction. This article shows how a principal can use the steps of the…

  14. Principals and SRO's: Defining Roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Bill

    2001-01-01

    Many principals have recently acquired school resource officers, police officers who are stationed in schools and report to local sheriffs or police chiefs. Working effectively with a resource officer requires that principals and officers understand each other's role and express partnership details in a memorandum of understanding. (MLH)

  15. The Principal as Adult Developer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Sarah L.

    1989-01-01

    Restructuring of the principalship must include the principal's role as an adult developer aware of the inextricable link between teacher growth and student development. Principal and teacher should work together to learn how adults develop, to discover conditions fostering growth, and to encourage each other to face new challenges. (MLH)

  16. Time Management for New Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Becoming a principal is a milestone in an educator's professional life. The principalship is an opportunity to provide leadership that will afford students opportunities to thrive in a nurturing and supportive environment. Despite the continuously expanding demands of being a new principal, effective time management will enable an individual to be…

  17. Innovation Management Perceptions of Principals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakir, Asli Agiroglu

    2016-01-01

    This study is aimed to determine the perceptions of principals about innovation management and to investigate whether there is a significant difference in this perception according to various parameters. In the study, descriptive research model is used and universe is consisted from principals who participated in "Acquiring Formation Course…

  18. Great Principals at Scale: Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikemoto, Gina; Taliaferro, Lori; Fenton, Benjamin; Davis, Jacquelyn

    2014-01-01

    School leaders are critical in the lives of students and to the development of their teachers. Unfortunately, in too many instances, principals are effective in spite of--rather than because of--district conditions. To truly improve student achievement for all students across the country, well-prepared principals need the tools, support, and…

  19. Live 3D image overlay for arterial duct closure with Amplatzer Duct Occluder II additional size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goreczny, Sebstian; Morgan, Gareth J; Dryzek, Pawel

    2016-03-01

    Despite several reports describing echocardiography for the guidance of ductal closure, two-dimensional angiography remains the mainstay imaging tool; three-dimensional rotational angiography has the potential to overcome some of the drawbacks of standard angiography, and reconstructed image overlay provides reliable guidance for device placement. We describe arterial duct closure solely from venous approach guided by live three-dimensional image overlay.

  20. Effectiveness of duct sealing and duct insulation in multi-family buildings. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karins, N.H.; Tuluca, A.; Modera, M.

    1997-07-01

    This research investigated the cost-effectiveness of sealing and insulating the accessible portions of duct systems exposed to unconditioned areas in multifamily housing. Airflow and temperature measurements were performed in 25 apartments served by 10 systems a 9 multi-family properties. The measurements were performed before and after each retrofit, and included apartment airflow (supply and return), duct system temperatures, system fan flow and duct leakage area. The costs for each retrofit were recorded. The data were analyzed and used to develop a prototypical multifamily house. This prototype was used in energy simulations (DOE-2.1E) and air infiltration simulations (COMIS 2.1). The simulations were performed for two climates: New York City and Albany. In each climate, one simulation was performed assuming the basement was tight, and another assuming the basement was leaky. Simulation results and average retrofit costs were used to calculate cost-effectiveness. The results of the analysis indicate that sealing leaks of the accessible ductwork is cost-effective under all conditions simulated (simple payback was between 3 and 4 years). Insulating the accessible ductwork, however, is only cost-effective for buildings with leaky basement, in both climates (simple paybacks were less than 5 years). The simple payback period for insulating the ducts in buildings with tight basements was greater than 10 years, the threshold of cost-effectiveness for this research. 13 refs., 5 figs., 27 tabs.

  1. Radiation of sound from unflanged cylindrical ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartharan, S. L.; Bayliss, A.

    1983-01-01

    Calculations of sound radiated from unflanged cylindrical ducts are presented. The numerical simulation models the problem of an aero-engine inlet. The time dependent linearized Euler equations are solved from a state of rest until a harmonic solution is attained. A fourth order accurate finite difference scheme is used and solutions are obtained from a fully vectorized Cyber-203 computer program. Cases of both plane waves and spin modes are treated. Spin modes model the sound generated by a turbofan engine. Boundary conditions for both plane waves and spin modes are treated. Solutions obtained are compared with experiments conducted at NASA Langley Research Center.

  2. NONLINEAR ELASTICITY OF BLOOD ARTERIAL DUCT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄孟才; 顾忠; 沈俊; 唐复勇

    1991-01-01

    The paper deals with nonlinear elasticity of blood arterial duct, in which the artery is modeled to bea locally triclinic, transverse isotropic, incorapressible, axisymmetric and thickwalled tube with large deformations, The nonlinear coustitutive relationship of arterial tissues is based on the theorv of Green and Adkins. A nonlinear strain energy density function is introduced for nonlinear stress-strain relationship of second order, in which the coefficient of each term is expressed by means of a Lame’s constant, The elasticity constants are nqcessary to describe such a uonlinear finite strain etastieity of the second order, These constants are determined by means of the stress-strain increment theory.

  3. Classification and management of bile duct injuries

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    To review the classification and general guidelines for treatment of bile duct injury patients and their long term results. In a 20-year period, 510 complex circumferential injuries have been referred to our team for repair at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición “Salvador Zubirán” hospital in Mexico City and 198 elsewhere (private practice). The records at the third level Academic University Hospital were analyzed and divided into three periods of time: GI-1990-99 (33 cases...

  4. Superoxide Anions Are Involved in Mediating the Effect of Low K Intake on c-Src Expression and Renal K Secretion in the Cortical Collecting Duct*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babilonia, Elisa; Wei, Yuan; Sterling, Hyacinth; Kaminski, Pawel; Wolin, Michael; Wang, Wen-Hui

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that low K intake stimulated the expression of c-Src and that stimulation of protein tyrosine kinase inhibited ROMK channel activity (Wei, Y., Bloom, P., Lin, D. H., Gu, R. M., and Wang, W. H. (2001) Am. J. Physiol. 281, F206–F212). Decreases in dietary K content significantly increased O2·¯ levels and the phosphorylation of c-Jun, a transcription factor, in renal cortex and outer medulla. The role of O2·¯ and related products such as H2O2 in stimulating the expression of protein tyrosine kinase is suggested by the observation that addition of 50–200 µM H2O2 increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun and the expression of c-Src in M1 cells, a mouse collecting duct principal cell line. The effect of H2O2 on c-Src expression was completely abolished with cyclohexamide or actinomycin D. The treatment of animals on a K-deficient (KD) diet with tempol for 7 days significantly decreased the production of O2·¯, c-Jun phosphorylation, and c-Src expression. Moreover, low K intake decreased the activity of ROMK-like small conductance channels from 1.37 (control K diet) to 0.5 in the cortical collecting duct and increased the tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK in the renal cortex and outer medulla. In contrast, the tempol treatment not only increased channel activity to 1.1 in the cortical collecting duct but also decreased the tyrosine phosphorylation of ROMK from rats on a KD diet. Finally, suppressing O2·¯ production with tempol significantly increased renal K excretion measured with metabolic cage and lowered the plasma K concentration in comparison with those on a KD diet alone without tempol. We conclude that O2·¯ and related products play a role in mediating the effect of low K intake on c-Src expression and in suppressing ROMK channel activity and renal K secretion. PMID:15644319

  5. RSK is a principal effector of the RAS-ERK pathway for eliciting a coordinate promotile/invasive gene program and phenotype in epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doehn, Ulrik; Hauge, Camilla; Frank, Scott R

    2009-01-01

    The RAS-stimulated RAF-MEK-ERK pathway confers epithelial cells with critical motile and invasive capacities during development, tissue regeneration, and carcinoma progression, often via promoting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Many mechanisms by which ERK exerts this control remain...

  6. Principal -bundles on Nodal Curves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Usha N Bhosle

    2001-08-01

    Let be a connected semisimple affine algebraic group defined over . We study the relation between stable, semistable -bundles on a nodal curve and representations of the fundamental group of . This study is done by extending the notion of (generalized) parabolic vector bundles to principal -bundles on the desingularization of and using the correspondence between them and principal -bundles on . We give an isomorphism of the stack of generalized parabolic bundles on with a quotient stack associated to loop groups. We show that if is simple and simply connected then the Picard group of the stack of principal -bundles on is isomorphic to ⊕ , being the number of components of .

  7. Bidirectional infrasonic ducts associated with sudden stratospheric warming events

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assink, J.D.; Waxler, R.; Smets, P.S.M.; Evers, L.G.

    2014-01-01

    In January 2011, the state of the polar vortex in the midlatitudes changed significantly due to a minor sudden stratospheric warming event. As a result, a bidirectional duct for infrasound propagation developed in the middle atmosphere that persisted for 2 weeks. The ducts were due to two zonal wind

  8. Cystic duct closure by sealing with bipolar electrocoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, S; Damgaard, B; Jørgensen, Lars Nannestad;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic duct leakage after cholecystectomy is not uncommon and is a potentially serious complication. The aim of this study was to assess a bipolar sealing system (LigaSure) for closure of the cystic duct. METHODS: The records from consecutive laparoscopic cholecystectomies performed i...

  9. Intracellular pH in rat pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Novak, I; Hug, M; Greger, R

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the mechanism of H+ and HCO3- transport in a HCO3- secreting epithelium, pancreatic ducts, we have measured the intracellular pH (pHi) in this tissue using the pH sensitive probe BCECF. We found that exposures of ducts to solutions containing acetate/acetic acid or NH4+/NH3 buff...

  10. Radiopaque intrahepatic duct stones in plain radiograph: case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Mi Young; Suh, Chang Hae; Park, Chan Sup; Chung, Won Kyun [College of Medicine, Inha University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    We experienced 3 cases of intrahepatic duct stones detected on plain radiographs. The patients had history of multiple episodes of recurrent cholangitis. Radiographic characteristics of these stones included multiple, round or rectangular radiopaque densities surrounded by calcified rim; these densities showed a branching pattern along the intrahepatic ducts.

  11. Sound waves in two-dimensional ducts with sinusoidal walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.

    1974-01-01

    The method of multiple scales is used to analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional hard-walled ducts with sinusoidal walls. For traveling waves, resonance occurs whenever the wall wavenumber is equal to the difference of the wavenumbers of any two duct acoustic modes. The results show that neither of these resonating modes could occur without strongly generating the other.

  12. Sound Radiation Characteristics of a Rectangular Duct with Flexible Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveena Raviprolu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic breakout noise is predominant in flexible rectangular ducts. The study of the sound radiated from the thin flexible rectangular duct walls helps in understanding breakout noise. The current paper describes an analytical model, to predict the sound radiation characteristics like total radiated sound power level, modal radiation efficiency, and directivity of the radiated sound from the duct walls. The analytical model is developed based on an equivalent plate model of the rectangular duct. This model has considered the coupled and uncoupled behaviour of both acoustic and structural subsystems. The proposed analytical model results are validated using finite element method (FEM and boundary element method (BEM. Duct acoustic and structural modes are analysed to understand the sound radiation behaviour of a duct and its equivalence with monopole and dipole sources. The most efficient radiating modes are identified by vibration displacement of the duct walls and for these the radiation efficiencies have been calculated. The calculated modal radiation efficiencies of a duct compared to a simple rectangular plate indicate similar radiation characteristics.

  13. Detection of Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Hepatocytes, Bile Duct Epithelium, and Vascular Elements by in situ Hybridization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, Hubert E.; Stowring, Linda; Figus, Annalena; Montgomery, Carolyn K.; Haase, Ashley T.; Vyas, Girish N.

    1983-11-01

    A radiolabeled probe specific for hepatitis B virus (HBV) nucleotide sequences was hybridized in situ to liver tissue from three patients with chronic hepatitis B. The HBV genome was detected not only in infected hepatocytes but also in bile duct epithelial cells, endothelial cells, and smooth muscle cells. These findings extend the known host cell range for HBV, suggest new mechanisms of viral dissemination, and illustrate the usefulness of in situ hybridization in the study of pathogenesis of HBV infection.

  14. Duct thermal performance models for large commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.

    2003-10-01

    Despite the potential for significant energy savings by reducing duct leakage or other thermal losses from duct systems in large commercial buildings, California Title 24 has no provisions to credit energy-efficient duct systems in these buildings. A substantial reason is the lack of readily available simulation tools to demonstrate the energy-saving benefits associated with efficient duct systems in large commercial buildings. The overall goal of the Efficient Distribution Systems (EDS) project within the PIER High Performance Commercial Building Systems Program is to bridge the gaps in current duct thermal performance modeling capabilities, and to expand our understanding of duct thermal performance in California large commercial buildings. As steps toward this goal, our strategy in the EDS project involves two parts: (1) developing a whole-building energy simulation approach for analyzing duct thermal performance in large commercial buildings, and (2) using the tool to identify the energy impacts of duct leakage in California large commercial buildings, in support of future recommendations to address duct performance in the Title 24 Energy Efficiency Standards for Nonresidential Buildings. The specific technical objectives for the EDS project were to: (1) Identify a near-term whole-building energy simulation approach that can be used in the impacts analysis task of this project (see Objective 3), with little or no modification. A secondary objective is to recommend how to proceed with long-term development of an improved compliance tool for Title 24 that addresses duct thermal performance. (2) Develop an Alternative Calculation Method (ACM) change proposal to include a new metric for thermal distribution system efficiency in the reporting requirements for the 2005 Title 24 Standards. The metric will facilitate future comparisons of different system types using a common ''yardstick''. (3) Using the selected near-term simulation approach

  15. Heat Transfer in Conical Corner and Short Superelliptical Transition Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinsatte, Philip; Thurman, Douglas; Hippensteele, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Local surface heat transfer measurements were experimentally mapped using a transient liquid-crystal heat-transfer technique on the surface of two circular-to-rectangular transition ducts. One has a transition cross section defined by conical corners (Duct 1) and the other by an elliptical equation with changing coefficients (Duct 2). Duct 1 has a length-to-diameter ratio of 0.75 and an exit plane aspect ratio of 1.5. Duct 2 has a length-to-diameter ratio of 1.0 and an exit plane aspect ratio of 2.9. Test results are reported for various inlet-diameter-based Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.45 106 to 2.39 106 and two freestream turbulence intensities of about 1 percent, which is typical of wind tunnels, and up to 16 percent, which may be more typical of real engine conditions.

  16. Hepatobiliary Scan in Infantile Spontaneous Perforation of Common Bile Duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeon, Seok Kil; Ryu, Jong Gul; Lee, Eun Young [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Gil [Taegu Fatima Hospital, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Spontaneous perforation of CBD in infant is a rare but fatal disease. We report a case of bile leakage from common bile duct in 11 months old girl with progressive abdominal distension and vomiting, preoperatively diagnosed by hepatobiliary scan with Tc-99m-DISIDA, which was confirmed by surgery. Operative cholangiogram showed a small perforation at the confluence of cystic duct and common bile duct with mild fusiform dilatation, and no definite abnormality in confluence of the common bile duct and pancreatic duct. Simple drainage of the free peritoneal bilous fluid and T-tube drainage were performed without any evidence of the complication. Patient was inevitable for 6 months OPD follow-up examination.

  17. Extravasation Mucocele Arising from a Lingual Thyroglossal Duct Remnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuhiko Nakahira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although a thyroglossal duct cyst is a congenital anomaly, it can also appear in adults. Despite the presence of embryological remnants, it is still unclear why the cyst should suddenly develop later in life. We report a case of a 46-year-old male with an extravasation mucocele arising from a long-standing lingual thyroglossal duct remnant. MRI demonstrated a lingual cystic lesion near the hyoid bone associated with a suprahyoid tract-like structure masquerading as a thyroglossal duct cyst. However, histopathological examination demonstrated a mucocele secondary to a rupture of a thyroglossal duct remnant with numerous intramural heterotopic salivary glands. We propose a new mechanism of an acquired cystic formation of this congenital disease that excessive production of mucus from heterotopic salivary glands and a physical trauma such as swallowing may lead to extravasation of mucus from the thyroglossal duct.

  18. Main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma of the pancreas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Kensuke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of carcinoma in main-duct intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN is high, and surgical resection is recommended for all patients with a main-duct IPMN. Results A main-duct IPMN with typical imagings including protruding lesions in the dilated main pancreatic duct was resected, but the histology was intraductal papillary mucinous adenoma of the pancreas. Discussion It has been reported that the presence of mural nodules and dilatation of MPD are significantly higher in malignant IPMNs. The presented case had protruding lesions in the dilated main pancreatic duct on endoscopic ultrasonography, but the histology was adenoma. Conclusion Preoperative distinction between benign and malignant IPMNs is difficult.

  19. Cystic duct remnant mucocele in a liver transplant recipient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahlawat, Sushil K. [Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Washington, DC (United States); University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ (United States); Fishbien, Thomas M. [Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology, Washington, DC (United States); Haddad, Nadim G. [Georgetown University Hospital, Department of Surgery, Division of Transplant Surgery, Washington, DC (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Cystic duct remnant mucocele is an extremely rare complication of liver transplantation in children. Surgical correction is usually required for cystic duct remnant mucocele when it causes biliary obstruction. We describe a 14-month-old liver transplant recipient who presented with biliary obstruction 1 month after orthotopic liver transplantation with an end-to-end choledochocholedocal biliary anastomosis for hepatoblastoma. US, CT and cholangiography findings were consistent with mucocele of the allograft cystic duct remnant. Surgery was not needed in our patient because the mucocele and biliary obstruction had resolved on repeat imaging most likely due to guidewire manipulation during cholangiography, resulting in opening of the cystic duct remnant orifice and drainage into the common duct. (orig.)

  20. Principal metals online property data

    CERN Document Server

    Principal Metals is a leading supplier of specialty metals. This database contains complete materials property data on more than 5000 ferrous and non-ferrous materials (chemistry, mechanicals, general description, applications, welding, machining, an

  1. In vivo activity of released cell wall lipids of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin is due principally to trehalose mycolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisel, Rachel E; Sakamoto, Kaori; Russell, David G; Rhoades, Elizabeth R

    2005-04-15

    The hallmark of Mycobacterium-induced pathology is granulomatous inflammation at the site of infection. Mycobacterial lipids are potent immunomodulators that contribute to the granulomatous response and are released in appreciable quantities by intracellular bacilli. Previously we investigated the granulomagenic nature of the peripheral cell wall lipids of Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) by coating the lipids onto 90-microm diameter microspheres that were mixed into Matrigel matrix with syngeneic bone marrow-derived macrophages and injected i.p. into mice. These studies demonstrated that BCG lipids elicit proinflammatory cytokines and recruit leukocytes. In the current study we determined the lipids responsible for this proinflammatory effect. BCG-derived cell wall lipids were fractionated and purified by liquid chromatography and preparative TLC. The isolated fractions including phosphatidylinositol dimannosides, cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, trehalose monomycolate, trehalose dimycolate, and mycoside B. Trehalose dimycolate, when delivered to bone marrow-derived murine macrophages, induced the greatest secretion of IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF-alpha in vitro. Trehalose dimycolate similarly induced the greatest secretion of these proinflammatory cytokines in ex vivo matrices over the course of 12 days. Trehalose monomycolate and dimycolate also induced profound neutrophil recruitment in vivo. Experiments with TLR2 or TLR4 gene-deficient mice revealed no defects in responses to trehalose mycolates, although MyD88-deficient mice manifested significantly reduced cell recruitment and cytokine production. These results demonstrate that the trehalose mycolates, particularly trehalose dimycolate, are the most bioactive lipids in the BCG extract, inducing a proinflammatory cascade that influences granuloma formation.

  2. Gallstones in Ghanaian children with sickle cell disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... common bile duct by nltrasonogrnphy. _ .... gall bladder and bile duct system, pancreas. and the kidneys. Result .... asymptomatic as we felt this would give a more realistic idea ... Stones in the common bile due! in sickle cell disease patients.

  3. Principal modes in fiber amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Moti; Dubinskii, Mark; Friesem, Asher A; Davidson, Nir

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of the state of polarization in single mode and multimode fiber amplifiers are presented. The experimental results reveal that although the state of polarizations at the output can vary over a large range when changing the temperatures of the fiber amplifiers, the variations are significantly reduced when resorting to the principal states of polarization in single mode fiber amplifiers and principal modes in multimode fiber amplifiers.

  4. Principal Fibrations from Noncommutative Spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Giovanni; Suijlekom, Walter Van

    2005-11-01

    We construct noncommutative principal fibrations Sθ7→Sθ4 which are deformations of the classical SU(2) Hopf fibration over the four sphere. We realize the noncommutative vector bundles associated to the irreducible representations of SU(2) as modules of coequivariant maps and construct corresponding projections. The index of Dirac operators with coefficients in the associated bundles is computed with the Connes-Moscovici local index formula. "The algebra inclusion is an example of a not-trivial quantum principal bundle."

  5. Repair of bile duct defect with degradable stent and autologous tissue in a porcine model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Long Liang; Yi-Chen Yu; Kun Liu; Wei-Jia Wang; Jiang-Bo Ying; Yi-Fan Wang; Xiu-Jun Cai

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To introduce and evaluate a new method to repair bile duct defect with a degradable stent and autologous tissues.METHODS:Eight Ba-Ma mini-pigs were used in this study.Experimental models with common bile duct (CBD) defect (0.5-1.0 cm segment of CBD resected) were established and then CBD was reconstructed by duct to duct anastomosis with a novel degradable stent made of poly [sebacic acid-co-(1,3-propanediol)-co-(1,2-propanediol)].In addition,a vascularized greater omentum was placed around the stent and both ends of CBD.Cholangiography via gall bladder was performed for each pig at postoperative months 1 and 3 to rule out stent translocation and bile duct stricture.Complete blood count was examined pre-and post-operatively to estimate the inflammatory reaction.Liver enzymes and serum bilirubin were examined pre-and post-operatively to evaluate the liver function.Five pigs were sacrificed at month 3 to evaluate the healing of anastomosis.The other three pigs were raised for one year for long-term observation.RESULTS:All the animals underwent surgery successfully.There was no intraoperative mortality and no bile leakage during the observation period.The white blood cell counts were only slightly increased on day 14 and month 3 postoperatively compared with that before operation,the difference was not statistically significant (P =0.652).The plasma level of alanine aminotransferase on day 14 and month 3 postoperatively was also not significantly elevated compared with that before operation (P =0.810).Nevertheless,the plasma level of γ-glutamyl transferase was increased after operation in both groups (P =0.004),especially 2 wk after operation.The level of serum total bilirubin after operation was not significantly elevated compared with that before operation (P =0.227),so did the serum direct bilirubin (P =0.759).By cholangiography via gall bladder,we found that the stent maintained its integrity of shape and was still in situ at month 1,and it disappeared

  6. Bile duct emptying in response to fat: a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, D R; Scott, A J

    1990-11-01

    Fatty meal sonography has been suggested to assess patients with biliary pain after cholecystectomy, but the effects of gallbladder removal on biliary dynamics has not been studied prospectively. Before elective cholecystectomy, 25 patients had their common hepatic ducts' diameter measured by ultrasonography before and after a fat stimulus. In 23, tests were repeated 1 month, 1 year, and 5 years after surgery. In preoperative studies, 5 patients showed dilatation after fat and 2 of these had stones in the common bile duct. However, another 4 patients with stones or sludge in the duct did not show dilatation, so that the response to fat was a poor indicator of patients requiring common bile duct exploration. No patient had major symptoms after surgery. At 1 month and 12 months, the response to fat was variable with more than half of those tested showing no decrease in duct size. A more consistent pattern emerged at 5 years, when 14 of 18 patients tested showed a decrease in common hepatic duct after fat; 3 were unchanged and 1 increased by 1 mm. The response to fat was less consistent and more difficult to measure in the common bile duct, even 5 years after operation. It was concluded that not all patients with indications for exploration of the common bile duct on operative cholangiography show a dilatation response to fat on preoperative testing. Also, fatty meal sonography should be used with caution because the response to fat in asymptomatic patients soon after operation is unpredictable, with occasional patients showing dilation without apparent obstruction. Measurement of common hepatic duct is preferred to common bile duct and increases in diameter of 1 mm are probably not significant.

  7. Lacrimal Duct Occlusion Is Associated with Infectious Keratitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guigang; Guo, Jingmin; Liu, Rong; Hu, Weikun; Xu, Lingjuan; Wang, Juan; Cai, Subo; Zhang, Hong; Zhu, Yingting

    2016-01-01

    Background: To explore the prevalence of lacrimal duct obstruction in patients with infectious keratitis, and the necessity of lacrimal duct dredge in the treatment of human infectious keratitis. Methodology/Principle Findings: The design is prospective, non-control case series. Thirty-one eyes from twenty-eight continuous patients with infectious keratitis were included in this study. The presence/absence of lacrimal duct obstruction was determined by the lacrimal duct irrigation test. The diagnosis of infectious keratitis was made based on clinical manifestations, cornea scraping microscopic examination and bacterial/fungus culture. Diagnosis of viral keratitis was set up based on the recurrent history, deep neovascularization and typical outlook of the cornea scar. The treatment of keratitis included drugs, eye drops or surgery, while treatment of chronic dacryocystitis was lacrimal duct dredging with supporting tube implantation surgery. In the thirty-one eyes with infectious keratitis, fifteen suffered from fungal keratitis (48%), two bacterial keratitis (6%), and fourteen viral keratitis (45%). Eleven eyes (35%) from ten patients with infectious keratitis also suffered from lacrimal duct obstruction. In those cases, six eyes also suffered from lower canalicular obstruction, three nasolacrimal duct obstruction and chronic dacryocystitis, one a combination of upper and lower canalicular obstruction, one upper canalicular obstruction. After local and systemic applications of anti-bacterial, anti-viral, anti-fungal and anti-inflammatory drugs, twenty-eight eyes (90%) recovered within three weeks, while the ulceration of three patients required the lacrimal duct dredging and supporting tube implantation surgery for the healing. Conclusions: Herein, we first report that the prevalence of infectious keratitis is closely correlated to the occurrence of lacrimal duct obstruction. When both confirmed, simultaneous treatment of keratitis and lacrimal duct obstruction

  8. A Plug-and-Play Duct System Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, Robert [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Dickson, Bruce [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Grisolia, Anthony [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Rapport, Ari [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-07-10

    This report describes an air distribution system composed of a series of uniformly-sized ducts that terminate in rooms throughout the home and return to a central manifold, similar in fashion to a “home-run” cross-linked polyethylene plumbing system. With a well-designed manifold, each duct receives an equal static pressure potential for airflow from the air handling unit, and the number of needed ducts for each room are simply attached to fittings located on the manifold; in this sense, the system is plug-and-play (PnP). As indicated, all ducts in the PnP system are identical in size and small enough to fit in the ceiling and wall cavities of a house (i.e., less than 3.5-in. outer diameter). These ducts are also more appropriately sized for the lower airflow requirements of modern, energy-efficient homes; therefore, the velocity of the air moving through the duct is between that of conventional duct systems (approximately 700 ft/min) and high-velocity systems (more than 1,500 ft/min) on the market today. The PnP duct system uses semi-rigid plastic pipes, which have a smooth inner wall and are straightforward to install correctly, resulting in a system that has minimal air leakage. However, plastic ducts are currently not accepted by code for use in residential buildings; therefore, the project team considered other duct materials for the system that are currently accepted by code, such as small-diameter, wirehelix, flexible ductwork.

  9. A Plug-and-Play Duct System Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Beach, B. Dickson, A. Grisolia, A. Poerschke, A. Rapport

    2017-07-01

    This report describes an air distribution system composed of a series of uniformly-sized ducts that terminate in rooms throughout the home and return to a central manifold, similar in fashion to a “home-run” cross-linked polyethylene plumbing system. With a well-designed manifold, each duct receives an equal static pressure potential for airflow from the air handling unit, and the number of needed ducts for each room are simply attached to fittings located on the manifold; in this sense, the system is plug-and-play (PnP). As indicated, all ducts in the PnP system are identical in size and small enough to fit in the ceiling and wall cavities of a house (i.e., less than 3.5-in. outer diameter). These ducts are also more appropriately sized for the lower airflow requirements of modern, energy-efficient homes; therefore, the velocity of the air moving through the duct is between that of conventional duct systems (approximately 700 ft/min) and high-velocity systems (more than 1,500 ft/min) on the market today. The PnP duct system uses semi-rigid plastic pipes, which have a smooth inner wall and are straightforward to install correctly, resulting in a system that has minimal air leakage. However, plastic ducts are currently not accepted by code for use in residential buildings; therefore, the project team considered other duct materials for the system that are currently accepted by code, such as small-diameter, wirehelix, flexible ductwork.

  10. Effect of ATP, carbachol and other agonists on intracellular calcium activity and membrane voltage of pancreatic ducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hug, M; Pahl, C; Novak, I

    1994-01-01

    The pancreatic duct has been regarded as a typical cAMP-regulated epithelium, and our knowledge about its Ca2+ homeostasis is limited. Hence, we studied the regulation of intracellular calcium, [Ca2+]i, in perfused rat pancreatic ducts using the Ca(2+)-sensitive probe fura-2. In some experiments we...... also measured the basolateral membrane voltage, Vbl, of individual cells. The resting basal [Ca2+]i was relatively high, corresponding to 263 +/- 28 nmol/l, and it decreased rapidly to 106 +/- 28 nmol/l after removal of Ca2+ from the bathing medium (n = 31). Carbachol increased [Ca2+]i...

  11. Altered collecting duct adenylyl cyclase content in collecting duct endothelin-1 knockout mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohan Donald E

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelin-1 (ET-1 inhibition of vasopressin (AVP-stimulated water reabsorption by the inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD is associated with reduced cAMP accumulation. To determine the effect of ET-1 deficiency, AVP-stimulated cAMP responsiveness was assessed in IMCD from mice with collecting duct-specific deletion of ET-1 (CD ET-1 KO and from control animals. Methods Cyclic AMP production, adenylyl cyclase (AC mRNA, and AC protein were measured in acutely isolated IMCD. Results CD ET-1 KO IMCD had enhanced AVP-stimulated cAMP accumulation. Inhibition of calcium-stimulated AC using BAPTA did not prevent enhanced AVP responsiveness in CD ET-1 KO IMCD. Factors known to be modified by ET-1, including nitric oxide, cyclooxygenase metabolites, and superoxide did not affect the increased AVP responsiveness of CD ET-1 KO IMCD. Differential V2 receptor or G-protein activity was not involved since CD ET-1 KO IMCD had increased cAMP accumulation in response to forskolin and/or cholera toxin. CD ET-1 KO did not affect mRNA or protein levels of AC3, one of the major known collecting duct AC isoforms. However, the other known major collecting duct AC isoform (AC5/6 did have increased protein levels in CD ET-1 KO IMCD, although AC5 (weak signal and 6 mRNA levels were unchanged. Conclusion ET-1 deficiency increases IMCD AC5/6 content, an effect that may synergize with acute ET-1 inhibition of AVP-stimulated cAMP accumulation.

  12. Potential application of in vivo imaging of impaired lymphatic duct to evaluate the severity of pressure ulcer in mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Akira; Sakabe, Jun-Ichi; Tokura, Yoshiki

    2014-02-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a cause of pressure ulcer. However, a mechanism underlying the IR injury-induced lymphatic vessel damage remains unclear. We investigated the alterations of structure and function of lymphatic ducts in a mouse cutaneous IR model. And we suggested a new method for evaluating the severity of pressure ulcer. Immunohistochemistry showed that lymphatic ducts were totally vanished by IR injury, while blood vessels were relatively preserved. The production of harmful reactive oxygen species (ROS) was increased in injured tissue. In vitro study showed a high vulnerability of lymphatic endothelial cells to ROS. Then we evaluated the impaired lymphatic drainage using an in vivo imaging system for intradermally injected indocyanine green (ICG). The dysfunction of ICG drainage positively correlated with the severity of subsequent cutaneous changes. Quantification of the lymphatic duct dysfunction by this imaging system could be a useful strategy to estimate the severity of pressure ulcer.

  13. Attracting Principals to the Superintendency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee Howley

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Responding to a perceived shortage of school superintendents in Ohio as well as elsewhere in the nation, this study examined the conditions of the job that make it attractive or unattractive as a career move for principals. The researchers surveyed a random sample of Ohio principals, receiving usable responses from 508 of these administrators. Analysis of the data revealed that principals perceived the ability to make a difference and the extrinsic motivators (e.g., salary and benefits associated with the superintendency as conditions salient to the decision to pursue such a job. Furthermore, they viewed the difficulties associated with the superintendency as extremely important. Among these difficulties, the most troubling were: (1 increased burden of responsibility for local, state, and federal mandates; (2 need to be accountable for outcomes that are beyond an educator’s control; (3 low levels of board support, and (4 excessive pressure to perform. The researchers also explored the personal and contextual characteristics that predisposed principals to see certain conditions of the superintendency as particularly attractive or particularly troublesome. Only two such characteristics, however, proved to be predictive: (1 principals with fewer years of teaching experience were more likely than their more experienced counterparts to rate the difficulty of the job as important to the decision to pursue a position as superintendent, and (2 principals who held cosmopolitan commitments were more likely than those who did not hold such commitments to view the salary and benefits associated with the superintendency as important. Findings from the study provided some guidance to those policy makers who are looking for ways to make the superintendency more attractive as a career move for principals. In particular, the study suggested that policy makers should work to design incentives that address school leaders’ interest in making a difference at the

  14. Transcatheter stenting of arterial duct in duct-dependent congenital heart disease

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    Đukić Milan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Critical congenital heart diseases (CHD are mostly duct-dependent and require stable systemic-pulmonary communication. In order to maintain patency of the ductus arteriosus (DA, the first line treatment is Prostaglandin E1 and the second step is the surgical creation of aortic-pulmonary shunt. To reduce surgical risk in neonates with the critical CHD, transcatheter stenting of DA can be performed in selected cases. Case Outline. A four-month old infant was diagnosed with the pulmonary artery atresia with ventricular septal defect (PAA/VSD. The left pulmonary artery was perfused from DA, and the right lung through three major aortopulmonary collaterals (MAPCAs. A coronary stent was placed in the long and critically stenotic DA, with final arterial duct diameter of 3.5 mm, and significantly increased blood supply to the left lung. After the procedure, the infant’s status was improved with regard to arterial oxygen saturation, feeding and weight gain. During the follow-up, one year later, aortography revealed in-stent stenosis. The left pulmonary artery, as well as the branches, was well-developed and the decision was made to proceed with further surgical correction. Conclusion. Stenting of DA can be an effective alternative to primary surgical correction in selected patients with duct-dependent CHD.

  15. Development of a new duct leakage test: DeltaQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker,I.S.; Sherman,M.H.; Wempen, J.; Wang, D.; McWilliams, J.A.; Dickerhoff, D.J.

    2001-08-01

    Duct leakage is a key factor in determining energy losses from forced air heating and cooling systems. Several studies (Francisco and Palmiter 1997 and 1999, Andrews et al. 1998, and Siegel et al. 2001) have shown that the duct system efficiency cannot be reliably determined without good estimates of duct leakage. Specifically, for energy calculations, it is the duct leakage air flow to outside at operating conditions that is required. Existing test methods either precisely measure the size of leaks (but not the flow through them at operating conditions), or measure these flows with insufficient accuracy. The DeltaQ duct leakage test method was developed to provide improved estimates of duct leakage during system operation. In this study we developed the analytical calculation methods and the test procedures used in the DeltaQ test. As part of the development process, we have estimated uncertainties in the test method (both analytically and based on field data) and designed automated test procedures to increase accuracy and reduce the contributions of operator errors in performing field tests. In addition, the test has been evaluated in over 100 houses by several research teams to show that it can be used in a wide range of houses and to aid in finding limits or problems in field applications. The test procedure is currently being considered by ASTM as an update of an existing duct leakage standard.

  16. Mechanical properties of the porcine bile duct wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersen Helle

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and Aim The function of the common bile duct is to transport bile from the liver and the gall bladder to the duodenum. Since the bile duct is a distensible tube consisting mainly of connective tissue, it is important to obtain data on the passive mechanical wall properties. The aims of this study were to study morphometric and biomechanical wall properties during distension of the bile duct. Methods Ten normal porcine common bile ducts were examined in vitro. A computer-controlled volume ramp infusion system with concomitant pressure recordings was constructed. A video camera provided simultaneous measurement of outer dimensions of the common bile duct. Wall stresses and strains were computed. Results The common bile duct length increased by 25% from 24.4 ± 1.8 mm at zero pressure to 30.5 ± 2.0 mm at 5 kPa (p (βε - 1. The circumferential stress-strain curve was shifted to the left when compared to the longitudinal stress-strain curve, i.e. the linear constants (α values were different (p 0.5. Conclusion The porcine bile duct exhibited nonlinear anisotropic mechanical properties.

  17. Magnetic Resonance Sialography Findings of Submandibular Ducts Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nezahat Karaca Erdoğan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. We aimed to assess the problem solving capability of magnetic resonance sialography (MR sialography, a noninvasive method for imaging submandibular gland ducts and determining duct-related pathologies, by comparing diseased and healthy cases. Materials and Methods. We conducted radiological assessment on a total of 60 submandibular glands (mean age 44.7 in 20 cases and 10 volunteers. MR sialography examinations were conducted with single-shot fast spin-echo sequence by using a surface coil placed on the submandibular gland. Each gland was evaluated in terms of the length, width and stricture of the main duct, as well as the difference between the intraparenchymal duct width, and the main duct width. Statistical analysis was performed. Results. In the MR sialography the primary duct mean length was determined as 51 mm (40–57 mm in all submandibular glands. On the MR sialography imaging, the visualization ratio of the ductal system of submandibular gland was evaluated in the cases and volunteers. Conclusion. MR sialography is an effective and a noninvasive method in imaging submandibular gland ducts, demonstrating the presence, location and degree of stricture/dilatation, and elucidating the disease etiology.

  18. COPD phenotype description using principal components analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roy, Kay; Smith, Jacky; Kolsum, Umme

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Airway inflammation in COPD can be measured using biomarkers such as induced sputum and Fe(NO). This study set out to explore the heterogeneity of COPD using biomarkers of airway and systemic inflammation and pulmonary function by principal components analysis (PCA). SUBJECTS...... AND METHODS: In 127 COPD patients (mean FEV1 61%), pulmonary function, Fe(NO), plasma CRP and TNF-alpha, sputum differential cell counts and sputum IL8 (pg/ml) were measured. Principal components analysis as well as multivariate analysis was performed. RESULTS: PCA identified four main components (% variance...... associations between the variables within components 1 and 2. CONCLUSION: COPD is a multi dimensional disease. Unrelated components of disease were identified, including neutrophilic airway inflammation which was associated with systemic inflammation, and sputum eosinophils which were related to increased Fe...

  19. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauberg, Soren

    2016-09-01

    Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimizes a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend to imply that the methods only work well when the manifold is mostly flat within the support of the generating distribution. We argue that instead of generalizing linear Euclidean models, it is more fruitful to generalize non-linear Euclidean models. Specifically, we extend the classic Principal Curves from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls of traditional geodesic approaches. We empirically demonstrate the effectiveness of the Riemannian principal curves on several manifolds and datasets.

  20. The most recently discovered carbonic anhydrase, CA XV, is expressed in the thick ascending limb of Henle and in the collecting ducts of mouse kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Saari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Carbonic anhydrases (CAs are key enzymes for physiological pH regulation, including the process of urine acidification. Previous studies have identified seven cytosolic or membrane-bound CA isozymes in the kidney. Recently, we showed by in situ hybridization that the mRNA for the most novel CA isozyme, CA XV, is present in the renal cortex. CA XV is a unique isozyme among mammalian CAs, because it has become a pseudogene in primates even though expressed in several other species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we raised a polyclonal antibody against recombinant mouse CA XV that was produced in a baculovirus/insect cell expression system, and the antibody was used for immunohistochemical analysis in different mouse tissues. Positive immunoreactions were found only in the kidney, where the enzyme showed a very limited distribution pattern. Parallel immunostaining experiments with several other anti-CA sera indicated that CA XV is mainly expressed in the thick ascending limb of Henle and collecting ducts, and the reactions were most prominent in the cortex and outer medulla. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Although other studies have proposed a role for CA XV in cell proliferation, its tightly limited distribution may point to a specialized function in the regulation of acid-base homeostasis.

  1. Flow Development through a Duct and a Diffuser Using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasanta K.Sinha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper an extensive study of rectangular cross-sectioned C-duct and C-diffuser is made by the help of 2-D mean velocity contours. Study of flow characteristics through constant area duct is a fundamental research area of basic fluid mechanics since the concepts of potential flow and frictional losses in conduit flow were established. C-ducts are used in aircraft intakes, combustors, internal cooling systems of gas turbines, ventilation ducts, wind tunnels etc., while diffuser is mechanical device usually made in the form of a gradual conical expander intended to raise the static pressure of the fluid flowing through it. Flow through curved ducts is more complex compared to straight duct due to the curvature of the duct axis and centrifugal forces are induced on the flowing fluid resulting in the development of secondary motion (normal to the primary flow direction which is manifested in the form of a pair of contra-rotating vortices. For a diffuser in addition to the secondary flow, the diverging flow passage, which causes an adverse stream wise pressure gradient, can lead to flow separation. The combined effect may result n non uniformity of total pressure and total pressure loss at the exit. A comparative study of different turbulent models available in the Fluent using y  as guidance in selecting the appropriate grid configuration and turbulence models are done. Standard k-ε model and RSM models are used to solve the closure problem for both the constant area duct and the diffuser. It has been observed that the Standard k-e model predicts the flow through the constant area duct and the diffuser within a reasonable domain ofthe y  range.

  2. Reducing Thermal Losses and Gains With Buried and Encapsulated Ducts in Hot-Humid Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Magee, A.; Zoeller, W.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) monitored three houses in Jacksonville, FL, to investigate the effectiveness of encapsulated and encapsulated/buried ducts in reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in unconditioned attics. Burying ductwork beneath loose-fill insulation has been identified as an effective method of reducing thermal losses and gains from ductwork in dry climates, but it is not applicable in humid climates where condensation may occur on the outside of the duct jacket. By encapsulating the ductwork in closed cell polyurethane foam (ccSPF) before burial beneath loose-fill mineral fiber insulation, the condensation potential may be reduced while increasing the R-value of the ductwork.

  3. Principal Curves on Riemannian Manifolds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauberg, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Euclidean statistics are often generalized to Riemannian manifolds by replacing straight-line interpolations with geodesic ones. While these Riemannian models are familiar-looking, they are restricted by the inflexibility of geodesics, and they rely on constructions which are optimal only...... in Euclidean domains. We consider extensions of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to Riemannian manifolds. Classic Riemannian approaches seek a geodesic curve passing through the mean that optimize a criteria of interest. The requirements that the solution both is geodesic and must pass through the mean tend...... from Hastie & Stuetzle to data residing on a complete Riemannian manifold. We show that for elliptical distributions in the tangent of spaces of constant curvature, the standard principal geodesic is a principal curve. The proposed model is simple to compute and avoids many of the pitfalls...

  4. Infected Thyroglossal Duct Cyst Involving Submandibular Region: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul A. Gandhi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct cyst presents most frequently in the midline of the neck, either at or just below the level of the hyoid bone. They generally manifest as painless neck swelling, and they move on protrusion of tongue and during swallowing. A case of thyroglossal cyst was reported in the left submandibular region in a 14-year-old girl, above the level of hyoid bone; ultrasound examination favored a cystic lesion which moved in a vertical fashion on swallowing whereas fine needle aspiration cytology report was suggestive of simple cystic lesion of thyroglossal cyst. No lymphoid or malignant cells were present. The cyst was excised completely by surgical procedure under general anesthesia. Histopathological analysis revealed thyroglossal cyst showing columnar and flattened epithelium of cyst with focal aggregate of chronic inflammatory cells supported by fibrocollagenous cyst wall. The clinical, ultrasound, and histopathological findings suggested that the lesion was an infected thyroglossal cyst. There was no evidence of recurrence 6 months after surgery.

  5. Flow in Idealised Compliant Human Cystic Duct Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Atabi, M.; Chin, S. B.; Beck, S.; Luo, X. Y.

    The functions of the cystic duct and the role of its complicated geometry (in particular the valves of Heister), in the delivery of bile flow have always been a subject of speculation. This paper reports on an experimental investigation of the flow in idealised, compliant cystic duct models. The valves of Heister were idealised using eight semi-circular alternating baffles fitted inside the compliant tubes. These tubes were arranged in configurations representing the anatomical configurations of real cystic ducts. Models both with and without baffles were tested for comparison. The results show that the valves of Heister seem to play a role in facilitating both the filling and emptying of the gallbladder.

  6. Finite-amplitude waves in cylindrical lined ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayfeh, A. H.; Tsai, M.-S.

    1974-01-01

    A second-order uniformly valid expansion is obtained for nonlinear waves propagating in a cylindrical duct lined with a point-reacting acoustic material that consists of a porous sheet followed by honey-comb cavities and backed by the impervious walls of the duct. The effect of the liner is taken into account by coupling the waves in the duct with those in the liner. As in the two-dimensional case, the nonlinearity increases the attenuation rate at all frequencies except in narrow bandwidths around the resonant frequencies, irrespective of the geometrical dimensions of the liner or the acoustic properties of the porous sheet.

  7. A procedure for the calculation of flow through axisymmetric ducts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Heyns

    1983-03-01

    Full Text Available A procedure for the calculation of flow through axisymmetric ducts as are typically found in turbomachines, is presented. The procedure is based on a streamline curvature method with the governing equations formulated along quasi-orthogonals in the flow field. This formulation allows the procedure to be used for segments of a duct wherein the flow direction is predominantly radial. It is assumed that the flow on specific stream surfaces is isentropic, but normal entropy gradients may exist because of processes which took place upstream of the duct.

  8. Spontaneous common bile duct perforation due to periampullary growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandiaraja Javabal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous common bile duct perforations are an unusual cause of acute abdomen. In spontaneous common bile duct perforation, malignant growth is even rare. It is a rare entity usually reported in infants and children due to congenital anomalies. It is rarely reported in adults. In this case report, a 55 - year - old male patient who was diagnosed as a duodenal perforation in the pre - operative period, but the intra - operative findings was common bile duct perforation due to periampullary growth, is reported

  9. Spontaneous rupture of intrahepatic biliary ducts with biliary peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Unal; Yazici, Pinar; Coker, Ahmet

    2007-01-01

    Spontaneous rupture of intrahepatic biliary ducts is a rare cause of acute abdomen due to biliary peritonitis. We report a 92-year-old woman with 48-h history of upper abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting and peritoneal signs. CT scan showed free fluid in the abdomen and mild dilatation of the common bile duct. Exploratory laparotomy showed bile in the abdominal cavity with leak-age from a ruptured bile duct radicle in segment 3, as confirmed on intraoperative cholangiography. She underwent cholecystectomy, choledochotomy with removal of gallstones, repair of the perforation with primary suture and placement of a T-tube. She had an uneventful recovery.

  10. EFFECT OF AIRFLOW AND HEAT INPUT RATES ON DUCT EFFICIENCY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.W.

    2003-05-28

    Reducing the airflow and heat input rates of a furnace that is connected to a duct system in thermal contact with unconditioned spaces can significantly reduce thermal distribution efficiency. This is a straightforward theoretical calculation based on the increased residence time of the air in the duct at the lower flow rate, which results in greater conduction losses. Experimental tests in an instrumented residential-size duct system have confirmed this prediction. Results are compared with the heat-loss algorithm in ASHRAE Standid 152P. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible remedies for this loss of efficiency in existing systems and optional design strategies in new construction.

  11. Paraurethral Skene′s duct cyst in a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Moralioglu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraurethral or Skene′s duct cysts are rare causes of interlabial masses in neonates. The diagnosis of Skene′s duct cysts in the neonatal period is based on its location, in relation to the urethra, and the demonstration of transitional epithelium in the cyst wall. The distinguishing features of paraurethral cysts are the displacement of urethral meatus by the mass and a cyst containing milky fluid. Thus, we report a case of a Skene′s duct cyst in a newborn which was treated by incision and drainage.

  12. [Inadvertent thoracic duct puncture during right axially central venous cannulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Shingo; Itagaki, Taiga; Adachi, Yushi; Ishii, Yasuhiro; Taniguchi, Midzuki; Doi, Matsuyuki; Sato, Shigehito

    2010-10-01

    A case of inadvertent thoracic duct puncture during right axially central venous cannulation is reported. The catheterization was performed under the real time ultrasound guidance technique and the coronal view image was continuously displayed. After confirming the feelings of venous puncture, clear yellow fluid was aspired into the connected syringe to the needle. Initially, an accidental thoracic puncture with subsequent pleural fluid aspiration was suspected;however, no finding of pleural effusion was observed with ultrasound imaging and computed tomography. Thus, an accidental thoracic duct puncture and the subsequent lymph fluid aspiration were suspected. Even in a right side approach for central venous catheterization, thoracic duct injury might ensure.

  13. BACTERIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION ON Fasciola hepatica AND CATTLE BILIARY DUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Panebianco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the occurrence of bacteria in Fasciola hepatica and into cattle biliary ducts containing the parasite. A total of 24 liver and 58 F. hepatica samples were analysed. In all biliary ducts and in 62,06% of parasite Enterobacteriaceae were isolated. The bacterial specie more frequently isolated from parasite were Citrobacter freundii (34%, Proteus mirabilis (18%, Providencia rettgeri (12%, Staphylococcus spp. (18%, Enterobacter spp. (12%. There doesn’t appear to be a correlation between bacterial specie from parasite and ducts. The Authors conclude with some related inspective consideration.

  14. Transition duct with late injection in turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Pentecost, Ronnie Ray; Flanagan, James Scott; Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-15

    A system for supplying an injection fluid to a combustor is disclosed. The system includes a transition duct comprising an inlet, an outlet, and a passage extending between the inlet and the outlet and defining a longitudinal axis, a radial axis, and a tangential axis. The outlet of the transition duct is offset from the inlet along the longitudinal axis and the tangential axis. The passage defines a combustion chamber. The system further includes a tube providing fluid communication for the injection fluid to flow through the transition duct and into the combustion chamber.

  15. Regulated acid-base transport in the collecting duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Carsten A; Devuyst, Olivier; Bourgeois, Soline; Mohebbi, Nilufar

    2009-05-01

    The renal collecting system serves the fine-tuning of renal acid-base secretion. Acid-secretory type-A intercalated cells secrete protons via a luminally expressed V-type H(+)-ATPase and generate new bicarbonate released by basolateral chloride/bicarbonate exchangers including the AE1 anion exchanger. Efficient proton secretion depends both on the presence of titratable acids (mainly phosphate) and the concomitant secretion of ammonia being titrated to ammonium. Collecting duct ammonium excretion requires the Rhesus protein RhCG as indicated by recent KO studies. Urinary acid secretion by type-A intercalated cells is strongly regulated by various factors among them acid-base status, angiotensin II and aldosterone, and the Calcium-sensing receptor. Moreover, urinary acidification by H(+)-ATPases is modulated indirectly by the activity of the epithelial sodium channel ENaC. Bicarbonate secretion is achieved by non-type-A intercalated cells characterized by the luminal expression of the chloride/bicarbonate exchanger pendrin. Pendrin activity is driven by H(+)-ATPases and may serve both bicarbonate excretion and chloride reabsorption. The activity and expression of pendrin is regulated by different factors including acid-base status, chloride delivery, and angiotensin II and may play a role in NaCl retention and blood pressure regulation. Finally, the relative abundance of type-A and non-type-A intercalated cells may be tightly regulated. Dysregulation of intercalated cell function or abundance causes various syndromes of distal renal tubular acidosis underlining the importance of these processes for acid-base homeostasis.

  16. Principal bundles the classical case

    CERN Document Server

    Sontz, Stephen Bruce

    2015-01-01

    This introductory graduate level text provides a relatively quick path to a special topic in classical differential geometry: principal bundles.  While the topic of principal bundles in differential geometry has become classic, even standard, material in the modern graduate mathematics curriculum, the unique approach taken in this text presents the material in a way that is intuitive for both students of mathematics and of physics. The goal of this book is to present important, modern geometric ideas in a form readily accessible to students and researchers in both the physics and mathematics communities, providing each with an understanding and appreciation of the language and ideas of the other.

  17. Surface analysis the principal techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Vickerman, John C

    2009-01-01

    This completely updated and revised second edition of Surface Analysis: The Principal Techniques, deals with the characterisation and understanding of the outer layers of substrates, how they react, look and function which are all of interest to surface scientists. Within this comprehensive text, experts in each analysis area introduce the theory and practice of the principal techniques that have shown themselves to be effective in both basic research and in applied surface analysis. Examples of analysis are provided to facilitate the understanding of this topic and to show readers how they c

  18. Time-lapse imaging as a tool to investigate contractility of the epididymal duct--effects of cGMP signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mietens

    Full Text Available The well orchestrated function of epididymal smooth muscle cells ensures transit of spermatozoa through the epididymal duct during which spermatozoa acquire motility and fertilizing capacity. Relaxation of smooth muscle cells is mediated by cGMP signaling and components of this pathway are found within the male reproductive tract. Whereas contractile function of caudal parts of the rat epididymal duct can be examined in organ bath studies, caput and corpus regions are fragile and make it difficult to mount them in an organ bath. We developed an ex vivo time-lapse imaging-based approach to investigate the contractile pattern in these parts of the epididymal duct. Collagen-embedding allowed immobilization without impeding contractility or diffusion of drugs towards the duct and therefore facilitated subsequent movie analyses. The contractile pattern was made visible by placing virtual sections through the acquired image stack to track wall movements over time. By this, simultaneous evaluation of contractile activity at different positions of the observed duct segment was possible. With each contraction translating into a spike, drug-induced alterations in contraction frequency could be assessed easily. Peristaltic contractions were also detectable and throughout all regions in the proximal epididymis we found regular spontaneous contractile activity that elicited movement of intraluminal contents. Stimulating cGMP production by natriuretic peptide ANP or inhibiting degradation of cGMP by the phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor sildenafil significantly reduced contractile frequency in isolated duct segments from caput and corpus. RT-PCR analysis after laser-capture microdissection localized the corresponding molecules to the smooth muscle layer of the duct. Our time-lapse imaging approach proved to be feasible to assess contractile function in all regions of the epididymal duct under near physiological conditions and provides a tool to evaluate acute

  19. K+ transport in the mesonephric collecting duct system of the toad Bufo bufo : microelectrode recordings from isolated and perfused tubules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møbjerg, Nadja; Larsen, Erik Hviid; Novak, Ivana

    2002-01-01

    We studied the mechanisms of K(+) transport in cells from isolated and perfused collecting tubules and ducts from the mesonephric kidney of the toad Bufo bufo. Cells were impaled with microelectrodes across the basal cell membrane. The basolateral membrane potential (V(bl)) depolarized upon chang...

  20. Intestinal prolapse through a persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small-bowel obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauleau, Ghislain; Commandeur, Diane; Andro, Christophe; Chapellier, Xavier

    2012-07-11

    Persistent omphalomesenteric duct as a cause of small-bowel obstruction is an exceptional finding. A neonate presented with occlusion due to intestinal prolapse through a persistent omphalomesenteric duct. Remnants of the duct were successfully resected, and the postoperative course was uneventful. We discuss the presentation of omphalomesenteric duct and its management.

  1. Potential candidate cells for constructing tissue-engineered lacrimal duct epithelium:a histological and cytological study in rabbits%潜在候选细胞构建组织工程的泪道上皮:兔的组织学和细胞学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen XIE; Xiu-yi LI; Hong-guang CUI

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Injury and deficiency of the lacrimal duct epithelium (LDE) can lead to a variety of lacrimal diseases. The purpose of this study was to characterize potential candidate cels for constructing a tissue-engineered LDE. Methods: Different areas of the conjunctiva and lacrimal duct tissue were removed from male adult New Zealand white rabbits for histological evaluation. Hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical staining of cy-tokeratin AE1+AE3, cytokeratin 4, Ki-67, and MUC5AC were observed by light microscopy. The surface morphologies of different epithelial tissues and celular structures were examined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Epithelial cels were isolated from tissues and identified by specific markers. In vitro, proliferative ability and Western blot analyses of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) of different epithelial cels cultured in identical environments were investigated and compared. Results: Histologicaly, the epithe-lial specific markers, cytokeratin AE1+AE3 and cytokeratin 4, were expressed in the conjunctiva epithelium and the LDE. Notably, highly proliferative cells stained with Ki-67 were concentrated under the epithelium in a dome structure of the posterior palpebral conjunctiva. Differentiated goblet cels were also found to a lesser extent in this region. Primary palpebral and fornical conjunctival epithelial cells (PFCECs), bulbar conjunctival epithelial cells (BCECs), and lacrimal duct epithelial cels (LDECs) were successfully separated from tissues.In vitro, rabbit PFCECs and LDECs grew faster and expressed more PCNA than BCECs. Conclusions: PFCECs are anatomicaly similar to LDECs. They also have similar morphological characteristics, immune phenotypes, and proliferation features. PFCECs are therefore potential candidate cells to replace LDECs in tissue engineering to treat lacrimal duct diseases.%目的:泪道上皮细胞的损伤和缺陷会导

  2. School Uniforms: Guidelines for Principals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essex, Nathan L.

    2001-01-01

    Principals desiring to develop a school-uniform policy should involve parents, teachers, community leaders, and student representatives; beware restrictions on religious and political expression; provide flexibility and assistance for low-income families; implement a pilot program; align the policy with school-safety issues; and consider legal…

  3. How Principals Support Teacher Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The current standards and accountability regime describes effective teaching as the ability to increase student achievement on standardized tests. This narrow definition of effectiveness can lead principals to create school cultures myopically focused on student achievement data. A "laser-like focus on academic achievement," if employed too…

  4. Anomalous pancreatico-biliary ductal union with cystic dilatation of the bile duct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richer, J P; Faure, J P; Morichau-Beauchant, M; Dugue, T; Maillot, N; Kamina, P; Carretier, M

    1998-01-01

    We report, in an adult, an asymptomatic association between cystic dilation of the bile duct (type IV A in Todani's classification) and anomalous pancreatico-biliary ductal union (APBD) with stones in a long common channel. In APBD, the connection between the common bile duct and the main pancreatic duct is located outside the duodenal wall andis therefore not under the influence of the sphincter of Boyden. An abnormally long common channel is in excess of 15 mm. Two types of convergence anomalies are defined according to whether the bile duct opens into the main pancreatic duct (BP) or the main pancreatic duct into the bile duct (PB). In APBD, there is probably a reverse pressure gradient between the bile and pancreatic ducts, with regurgitation of pancreatic juice into the bile duct, repeated attacks of cholangitis, stenosis and cystic dilatation. A long common channel is associated with a higher incidence of carcinoma of the gall bladder of the bile duct.

  5. Heat Transfer Augmentation in Developing Flow Through a Ribbed Square Duct

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khan R K; Ali M.A.T; Akhanda M.A.R

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study is conducted to investigate the heat transfer augmentation in developing turbulent flow through a ribbed square duct. The duct is made of 16mm thick bakelite sheet. The bottom surface of the ribbed wall having rib pitch to height ratio of 10 is heated by passing a c current to the heater placed under it. The uniform heating is controlled using a digital temperature controller and a variac. The results of ribbed duct are compared with the results of a smooth duct under the same experimental conditions. It is observed that the heat transfer augmentation in ribbed duct is better than that of the smooth duct. At Re=5.0 × 104 , the mean temperature of air flowing through the ribbed duct increases by 2.45 percent over the smooth duct, whereas in the ribbed duct Nusselt number increases by 15.14 percent than that of the smooth duct with a 6 percent increase in pressure drop.

  6. Sound transmission through ducts and aircraft noise prediction, volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, J. J.; Datko, J. T.; Guyton, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    Aircraft engine acoustical lining impedance models, ray acoustics, hydrodynamic modes, and transient analysis of sound propagation in variable area duct studies were applied to aircraft noise prediction. The effects of several duct lining configurations in a TF33 P5 and a CFM56 engined KC-135B aircraft were predicted. The prediction was based on a model corrected to fit flight noise data and modified by including theoretical duct noise attenuation predictions. The transient solution of variable area ducts permitted the prediction of sound propgation in bullet nose inlets for no low and was moderately successful when a potential flow was included with low Mach numbers. Volume 1 contains the technical report and analysis. Volume 2 contains the user's manuals and listings of the computer codes developed.

  7. Scattering matrices in non-uniformly lined ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Ahmet

    2017-02-01

    Sudden area expansion and sudden area contraction in an infinitely long duct with discontinuous locally reacting lining are defined by respective mixed boundary value problems. In the absence of a sudden area change, a separate problem with an infinite duct having bifid lining on its wall is described. Introducing Fourier transform along the duct axis boundary value problems is solved by the well-known Wiener-Hopf technique, and then, corresponding scattering matrices are constructed. To show the proper use of scattering matrices in the case of several discontinuities and also validation and comparison purposes, transmitted field in a duct with an inserted expansion chamber whose walls are treated by acoustically absorbent material is derived by the help of the relevant scattering matrices. A perfect agreement is observed when the transmitted fields are compared numerically with a similar work exists in the literature.

  8. Persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small bowel obstruction in an adult

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haridimos Markogiannakis; Dimitrios Theodorou; Konstantinos G Toutouzas; Panagiotis Drimousis; Sotirios Georgios Panoussopoulos; Stilianos Katsaragakis

    2007-01-01

    An extremely rare case of persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small bowel obstruction is presented. A 20-year-old female patient without medical history presented with colicky abdominal pain, vomiting, absence of passage of gas and feces, and abdominal distension of 24 h duration. Physical examination and blood tests were normal. Abdominal X-ray showed small bowel obstruction.Computed tomography of the abdomen demonstrated dilated small bowel and a band originating from the umbilicus and continuing between the small bowel loops;an omphalomesenteric duct remnant was suspected. In exploratory laparotomy, persistent omphalomesenteric duct causing small bowel obstruction was identified and resected. The patient had an uneventful recovery and was discharged on the 5th postoperative day. Although persistent omphalomesenteric duct is an extremely infrequent cause of small bowel obstruction in adult patients, it should be taken into consideration in patients without any previous surgical history.

  9. Nasolacrimal duct mucocele: case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britto, Fernanda Carneiro Corujeira de; Rosier, Vitor Veloso; Luz, Tovar Vicente; Verde, Raquel Crisóstomo Lima; Lima, Clara Mônica Figueiredo de; Lessa, Marcus Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mucoceles are benign expansive cystic formations, composed of a mucus-secreting epithelium (respiratory or pseudostratified epithelium). Nasolacrimal mucocele occurs in a small proportion of children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and is characterized by a cystic mass in the medial canthus with dilation of the nasolacrimal duct; although dacryocystoceles are rare in adults, they have been reported in patients with trachoma. Objective Discuss clinical aspects, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of mucocele of nasolacrimal duct based on literature review. Resumed Report The authors report a case of bilateral congenital nasolacrimal duct cysts in a 30-year-old man, identified as a tumor in the topography of both lacrimal sacs since birth without associated symptoms. The patient underwent successive surgical treatments, leading to recurrence of the tumor at the right side and recurrent local infections. Conclusion Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy has been increasingly used with good results and success rates similar to the external access.

  10. Design requirement on KALIMER control rod assembly duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, W.; Kang, H. Y.; Nam, C.; Kim, J. O.; Kim, Y. J

    1998-03-01

    This document establishes the design guidelines which are needs for designing the control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER as design requirements. it describes control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER and its requirements that includes functional requirements, performance requirements, interfacing systems, design limits and strength requirements, seismic requirements, structural requirements, environmental requirements, reliability and safety requirements, standard and codes, QA programs, and other requirements. The control rod system consists of three parts, which are drive mechanism, drive-line, and absorber bundle. This report deals with the absorber bundle and its outer duct only because the others are beyond the scope of fuel system design. The guidelines for design requirements intend to be used for an improved design of the control rod assembly duct of the KALIMER. (author). 19 refs.

  11. Nasolacrimal Duct Mucocele: Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britto, Fernanda Carneiro Corujeira de

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Mucoceles are benign expansive cystic formations, composed of a mucus-secreting epithelium (respiratory or pseudostratified epithelium. Nasolacrimal mucocele occurs in a small proportion of children with nasolacrimal duct obstruction and is characterized by a cystic mass in the medial canthus with dilation of the nasolacrimal duct; although dacryocystoceles are rare in adults, they have been reported in patients with trachoma. Objective Discuss clinical aspects, diagnosis, and therapeutic management of mucocele of nasolacrimal duct based on literature review. Resumed Report The authors report a case of bilateral congenital nasolacrimal duct cysts in a 30-year-old man, identified as a tumor in the topography of both lacrimal sacs since birth without associated symptoms. The patient underwent successive surgical treatments, leading to recurrence of the tumor at the right side and recurrent local infections. Conclusion Endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy has been increasingly used with good results and success rates similar to the external access.

  12. Iatrogenic nasolacrimal duct obstruction following tooth extraction in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Sávia Calline C S; Froes, Tilde R; Lange, Rogério Ribas; Machado, Marcello; Pachaly, José Ricardo; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano

    2013-01-01

    A 10-year-old DSH cat was referred for a dental evaluation and extraction procedure. Subsequently, the animal developed an acute onset of ocular discharge. Ophthalmologic examination revealed presence of unilateral ocular mucoid discharge leading to a diagnosis of epiphora secondary to nasolacrimal duct obstruction. Dacryocystorhinography was performed and confirmed the presence of a nasolacrimal duct obstruction, presumably acquired after an invasive dental procedure. Additionally, a vinyl cast in situ study of the nasolacrymal apparatus was performed to demonstrate the route of the nasolacrimal duct in the cat and its relationship to oral dental structures. This report documents an unusual case in which excessive inflammation/edema following tooth extraction caused acute epiphora secondary to extraluminal compression of the distal nasolacrimal duct.

  13. Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ACI proposes a design for a Propulsor (Low Cost/Low Noise Variable Pitch Ducted Fan) that has wide application in all sectors of Aviation. Propulsor hardware of this...

  14. Extrahepatic right hepatic duct diverticulum:a rare entity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eduardo SM Fernandes; Raquel L Bernardo; Moacir M Fernandes; Rogério MC Araújo; Renato Sebbe; Asterio Monte; José F Coelho; Antonio AP Souza; Joaquim Ribeiro Filho

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Douglas described choledochal cysts in 1852 and Todani proposed an anatomy-based classiifcation in 1977. The classiifcation is the most extensively used, but does not include some rare variations. We present a case of hepatic duct diverticulum, one of the variations, and discuss its diagnosis and treatment. METHODS: A 57-year-old woman presented with upper abdominal pain and discomfort associated with nausea and vomiting. She was ifnally diagnosed with cholelithiasis and right hepatic duct diverticulum. RESULT: The patient underwent resection of the hepatic duct diverticulum and cholecystectomy, and was asymptomatic 26 months after surgery. CONCLUSIONS: Hepatic duct diverticulum is a rare form of choledochal cyst, not included in Todani's classiifcation. Todani's classiifcation including this and other uncommon variations of choledochal cysts must be reviewed. The best diagnostic imaging methods and treatment for choledochal cysts must be deifned.

  15. A huge intraductal papillary mucinous carcinoma of the bile duct treated by right trisectionectomy with caudate lobectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Sungho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the bile duct (IPMN-B is believed to show a better clinical course than non-papillary biliary neoplasms, it is important to make a precise diagnosis and to perform complete surgical resection. Case presentation We herein report a case of malignant IPMN-B treated by right trisectionectomy with caudate lobectomy and extrahepatic bile duct resection. Radiologic images showed marked dilatation of the left medial sectional bile duct (B4 resulting in a bulky cystic mass with multiple internal papillary projections. Duodenal endoscopic examination demonstrated very patulous ampullary orifice with mucin expulsion and endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram confirmed marked cystic dilatation of B4 with luminal filling defects. These findings suggested IPMN-B with malignancy potential. The functional volume of the left lateral section was estimated to be 45%. A planned extensive surgery was successfully performed. The remnant bile ducts were also dilated but had no macroscopic intraluminal tumorous lesion. The histopathological examination yielded the diagnosis of mucin-producing oncocytic intraductal papillary carcinoma of the bile duct with poorly differentiated carcinomas showing neuroendocrine differentiation. The tumor was 14.0 × 13.0 cm-sized and revealed no stromal invasiveness. Resection margins of the proximal bile duct and hepatic parenchyma were free of tumor cell. The patient showed no postoperative complication and was discharged on 10th postoperative date. He has been regularly followed at outpatient department with no evidence of recurrence. Conclusion Considering a favorable prognosis of IPMN-B compared to non-papillary biliary neoplasms, this tumor can be a good indication for aggressive surgical resection regardless of its tumor size.

  16. Acoustic propagation in partially choked converging-diverging ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, J. J.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Watson, L. T.

    1982-01-01

    A computer model based on the wave-envelope technique is used to study acoustic propagation in converging-diverging hard walled and lined circular ducts carrying near sonic mean flows. The influences of the liner admittance, boundary layer thickness, spinning mode number, and mean Mach number are considered. The numerical results indicate that the diverging portion of the duct can have a strong reflective effect for partially choked flows.

  17. Compact Buried Ducts in a Hot-Humid Climate House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallay, D. [Home Innovation Research Labs, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A system of compact, buried ducts provides a high-performance and cost-effective solution for delivering conditioned air throughout the building. This report outlines research activities that are expected to facilitate adoption of compact buried duct systems by builders. The results of this research would be scalable to many new house designs in most climates and markets, leading to wider industry acceptance and building code and energy program approval.

  18. Surgical versus endoscopic treatment of bile duct stones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, D J; Vernon, D R; Toouli, J

    2006-01-01

    10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery.......10% to 18% of patients undergoing cholecystectomy for gallstones have common bile duct (CBD) stones. Treatment options for these stones include pre- or post-operative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or open or laparoscopic surgery....

  19. Bile duct hamar tomas-the von Meyenburg complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valdemir José Alegre Salles; Alexandre Marotta; Jorge Miguel Kather Netto; Manlio Basílio Speranzini; Marcos Roberto Martins

    2007-01-01

    Hamartomas of the bile duct (von Meyenburg complex) are benign neoplasms of the liver, constituted histologically cystic dilatations of the bile duct, encompassed by ifbrous stroma. We report a 42-year-old female patient with symptomatic cholecystitis, whose gross and ultrasonic appearance suggestive of multiple liver metastases. Magnetic resonance imaging and liver biopsy are the gold standards for diagnosis of this rare hepatobiliary condition.

  20. A case report of hepatocellular carcinoma in common hepatic duct

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chi Sung; Park, In Ae; Choi, Sang Woon; Chung, Jung Kee [YongDeungPo City Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    We experienced a rare case of intraductal (common hepatic duct) hepatocellular carcinoma. Review of the literature disclosed 30 cases or less in which common duct involvement was a predominant clinical feature. Well demarcated, ovoid filling defect mass in CHD without parenchymal tumor mass was noted in ultrasound, PTC and CT study. The liver was cirrhotic, but {alpha}-fetoprotein level was normal. Differential diagnosis especially with Klatskin tumor is important and thought to be possible.

  1. BETTER DUCT SYSTEMS FOR HOME HEATING AND COOLING.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ANDREWS,J.

    2001-01-01

    This is a series of six guides intended to provide a working knowledge of residential heating and cooling duct systems, an understanding of the major issues concerning efficiency, comfort, health, and safety, and practical tips on installation and repair of duct systems. These guides are intended for use by contractors, system designers, advanced technicians, and other HVAC professionals. The first two guides are also intended to be accessible to the general reader.

  2. Female form of persistent mullerian duct syndrome: Rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Solanki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent Mullerian duct syndrome (PMDS is a rare form of Disorder of sex development in which Mullerian duct derivatives (fallopian tubes, uterus and the proximal vagina are present in an otherwise normally differentiated 46 XY male. In the majority of cases, PMDS is a surprise finding either during orchidopexy or during inguinal hernia repair. We report a case of 4 year child with female type (Type III PMDS. We are discussing the presentation, management and review of the literature.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF A VARIABLE GEOMETRY DUCTED PROPELLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Muszyński

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents preliminary results of experimental research on the variable geometry of a ducted propeller. The purpose of this work is explore the area of ​​application of the ducted propellers of variable geometry. The paper contains the description of a test station and a model, initial tests’ results of some selected geometries intakes and exit vents in comparison with an open propeller.

  4. HVAC; Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning - Aerosol Duct Sealant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Approved for public release: distribution unlimited TDS-NAVFAC-EXWC-PW-1603 Sep 2016 HVAC ; Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning - Aerosol...energy consumption, depending on the HVAC system type and the location of the ducts that were sealed. The cost effectiveness of the technology is...Although several studies have been done on the effectiveness of sealing leaky HVAC ductwork with aerosol duct sealant, few studies have been done on

  5. A case of peribiliary cysts accompanying bile duct carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fumihiko Miura; Tadahiro Takada; Hodaka Amano; Masahiro Yoshida; Takahiro Isaka; Naoyuki Toyota; Keita Wada; Kenji Takagi; Kenichiro Karo

    2006-01-01

    A rare case of peribiliary cysts accompaying bile duct carcinoma is presented. A 54-year-old man was diagnosed as having lower bile duct carcinoma and peribiliary cysts by diagnostic imaging. He underwent pylorus preserving pancreatoduodenectomy. As for the peribiliary cysts, a course of observation was taken.Over surgery due to misdiagnosis of patients with biliary malignancy accompanied by peribiliary cysts should be avoided.

  6. On One-dimensional Sound Analysis of a Duct Network with Helmholtz Resonators

    OpenAIRE

    寺尾, 道仁; Terao, Michihito; 関根, 秀久; Sekine, Hidehisa; 大川, 真平; Okawa, Shinpei; 林, 大志; Hayashi, Daiji

    2002-01-01

    The outer orifice correction for Helmholtz resonators attached to the sidewall ofcircular ducts was studied. For the outer orifice correction when the axis direction ofthe orifice coincides with that of the duct, .explicit expressions were given by Ingard and Rschevkin. But their application to duct sections with duct-sidewall resonators is beyond their premise. An explicit expression ofthe outer orifice correction for duct-sidewall resonators was derived by conducting three-dimensionalbounda...

  7. Note on reflection and transmission coefficients for converging-diverging ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, P. A.

    1981-09-01

    Simple formulas for calculating acoustic reflection and transmission coefficients for converging-diverging ducts are derived; they extend the method of Cho and Ingard to arbitrary, slowly varying ducts. These formulas involve two parameters. The first is a function of duct shape and the second is the ratio of the duct radius downstream of the throat to that upstream of the throat to the upstream of the throat. An extension of the method to include mean flow is made for symmetric ducts.

  8. Focal inhibitory interneuron loss and principal cell hyperexcitability in the rat hippocampus after microinjection of a neurotoxic conjugate of saporin and a peptidase-resistant analog of Substance P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, J L; Sloviter, R S

    2001-07-23

    Episodes of prolonged seizures or head trauma produce chronic hippocampal network hyperexcitability hypothesized to result primarily from inhibitory interneuron loss or dysfunction. The possibly causal role of inhibitory neuron failure in the development of epileptiform pathophysiology remains unclear because global neurologic injuries produce such a multitude of effects. The recent finding that Substance P receptors (SPRs) are expressed exclusively in the rat hippocampus by inhibitory interneurons provided the rationale for attempting to ablate interneurons selectively by using neurotoxic conjugates of SPR ligands and the ribosome inactivating protein saporin that specifically target Substance P receptor-expressing cells. Whereas intrahippocampal microinjection of a conjugate of native SP and saporin produced significant nonspecific damage at concentrations needed to produce even limited selective loss of SPR-positive cells, a conjugate of saporin and the more potent and peptidase-resistant SP analog [Sar(9), Met(O(2))(11)] Substance P (SSP-saporin) caused negligible nonspecific damage at the injection site, and a virtually complete loss of SPR-like immunoreactivity (LI) up to 1 mm from the injection site. Within the SPR depletion zone, immunoreactivities for most GABA-, parvalbumin-, somatostatin-, and cholecystokinin-immunoreactive cells and fibers were eliminated. The few interneurons detectable within the affected zone were devoid of SPR-LI. The apparent loss of interneurons was selective in that calbindin- and glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2) -positive principal cells survived within the affected zone, as did myelinated fibers and the extrinsic calretinin- and tyrosine hydroxylase--immunoreactive terminals of subcortical afferents. An apparent lack of reactive synaptic reorganization in response to interneuron loss was indicated by zinc transporter-3 (ZnT3)-- and beta-synuclein--LI, as well as by Timm staining, all of which revealed relatively normal

  9. Histologic observation of submandibular gland after duct-ligation-damaged and duct reopened in SD rats%SD大鼠下颌下腺主导管结扎损伤及再通后的组织学观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘光华; 陈伟; 张霓霓; 王军胜; 黄桂林

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To observe the histologic changes when the main duct of submandibular gland was ligated and released in SD rats. Methods: The main duct of submandibular gland was reopened after double ligation for 6 days. Some ligated submandibular glands were harvested at day 6 after ligation. Others were reopened and harvested 4, 6, 12 and 24 days after releasing respectively. The histological changes were observed by HE staining and immunohistological staining. Results: After the main duct ligation, acinar cells disappeared with ductal cell proliferation that expressed CK19. The α6β1 , LN positive cells were found in proliferative duct and periductal areas. Acinar cells was appearing at day 6 after release of the ligation. 24 days after releasing, large number of acinar cells expressing amylases, PAS and AQP-5 were formed. Conclusion: After duct ligation, acinar cells disappear and duct epithelium cells proliferate. After release of the ligation, the acinar cells regenerate and the function of the gland recovers.%目的:建立主导管结扎的SD大鼠下颌下腺组织损伤模型,观察主导管结扎及再通后腺体的组织学变化.方法:双重结扎SD大鼠下颌下腺主导管.部分腺体在6 d后摘取;其他腺体于6 d后松开结扎使再通,并于4、6、12、24 d后处死动物,取出腺体.通过HE及免疫组织化学染色观察其组织化学变化.结果:主导管结扎6 d后,腺体中腺泡消失,导管样结构增生,导管细胞表达CK19;在增生导管及周围见α6β1、LN阳性细胞.松开结扎再通的导管在6 d后有成熟的腺泡细胞出现,24 d后有大量成熟腺泡形成,Amylases、PAS(periodic acid-schiff)、AQP-5均在腺泡细胞中表达.结论:导管结扎损伤后腺体腺泡萎缩,导管上皮增生.松开结扎再通后腺泡细胞再生、功能恢复.

  10. Natural convection heat transfer along vertical rectangular ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, M.

    2009-12-01

    Experimental investigations have been reported on steady state natural convection from the outer surface of vertical rectangular and square ducts in air. Seven ducts have been used; three of them have a rectangular cross section and the rest have square cross section. The ducts are heated using internal constant heat flux heating elements. The temperatures along the vertical surface and the peripheral directions of the duct wall are measured. Axial (perimeter averaged) heat transfer coefficients along the side of each duct are obtained for laminar and transition to turbulent regimes of natural convection heat transfer. Axial (perimeter averaged) Nusselt numbers are evaluated and correlated using the modified Rayleigh numbers for laminar and transition regime using the vertical axial distance as a characteristic length. Critical values of the modified Rayleigh numbers are obtained for transition to turbulent. Furthermore, total overall averaged Nusselt numbers are correlated with the modified Rayleigh numbers and the area ratio for the laminar regimes. The local axial (perimeter averaged) heat transfer coefficients are observed to decrease in the laminar region and increase in the transition region. Laminar regimes are obtained at the lower half of the ducts and its chance to appear decreases as the heat flux increases.

  11. [From Langenbuch to Strasberg: the spectrum of bile duct injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercado, Miguel Angel

    2004-01-01

    Bile duct injuries are the main serious complication of laparoscopy cholecystectomy. The frequency of this type of injuries rangers, between 1 to 3 in 1,000 cases and although this rate remains stables, their frequency has increased because of the increasing expansion of the indication of cholecystectomy. Each lesion is the individual in it's features as well as the scenario in which the surgeon faces it. Several classifications have been developed, but that developed by Strasberg most used nowadays. Intraoperative cholangiography has shown evidence in meta analytic studies that diminishes the frequency of lesions but does not abolish them. Conversion from laparoscope's to the open approach with ample and convincent dissection is probably the best maneuver to reduce the frequency of lesions, when any anatomical or technical doubt appears. No patient should be operated in critical condition. In this situation, biliary reconstruction has a secondary role and only drainage of the ducts (percutaneous or surgical) is indicated. Roux en Y hepatoyeyunostomy is the procedure of choice for almost all cases, leaving other types of procedures for selected cases. Transhepatic transanastomotical stents should be used according to the individual status of the patient when small, scared or inflamed ducts are found. High quality anastomosis is obtained when proper ducts are found. Sometimes high dissection of the ducts is needed in order to obtain adequate ducts. Nine of each ten cases are completely rehabilitated, obtaining a good quality of life.

  12. WAVE PROPAGATION in the HOT DUCT of VHTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard Schultz; Jim C. P. Liou

    2013-07-01

    In VHTR, helium from the reactor vessel is conveyed to a power conversion unit through a hot duct. In a hypothesized Depressurized Conduction Cooldown event where a rupture of the hot duct occurs, pressure waves will be initiated and reverberate in the hot duct. A numerical model is developed to quantify the transients and the helium mass flux through the rupture for such events. The flow path of the helium forms a closed loop but only the hot duct is modeled in this study. The lower plum of the reactor vessel and the steam generator are treated as specified pressure and/or temperature boundary to the hot duct. The model is based on the conservation principles of mass, momentum and energy, and on the equations of state for helium. The numerical solution is based on the method of characteristics with specified time intervals with a predictor and corrector algorithm. The rupture sub-model gives reasonable results. Transients induced by ruptures with break area equaling 20%, 10%, and 5% of the duct cross-sectional area are described.

  13. Energy efficient engine: Turbine transition duct model technology report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, K.; Thurlin, R.

    1982-01-01

    The Low-Pressure Turbine Transition Duct Model Technology Program was directed toward substantiating the aerodynamic definition of a turbine transition duct for the Energy Efficient Engine. This effort was successful in demonstrating an aerodynamically viable compact duct geometry and the performance benefits associated with a low camber low-pressure turbine inlet guide vane. The transition duct design for the flight propulsion system was tested and the pressure loss goal of 0.7 percent was verified. Also, strut fairing pressure distributions, as well as wall pressure coefficients, were in close agreement with analytical predictions. Duct modifications for the integrated core/low spool were also evaluated. The total pressure loss was 1.59 percent. Although the increase in exit area in this design produced higher wall loadings, reflecting a more aggressive aerodynamic design, pressure profiles showed no evidence of flow separation. Overall, the results acquired have provided pertinent design and diagnostic information for the design of a turbine transition duct for both the flight propulsion system and the integrated core/low spool.

  14. Iatrogenic injury of an aberrant right posterior sectoral bile duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Cantrell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A 34-year-old woman presented with a history of a previous laparoscopic cholecystectomy, followed within a few days by a formal laparotomy for a suspected bile duct injury. Approximately one week after the laparotomy, she developed a sinus on the anterior abdominal wall that was draining bile. She was then referred to our institution for further management. The earlier surgery was done at another hospital, and these details were not clear. A CT scan, including a CT sinogram, was performed. The sinogram was done by inserting a catheter into the sinus and running in diluted contrast under gravity. CT images showed the sinus tract communicating with a collection in the gallbladder fossa, as well as contrast opacification of the segment 6 and 7 bile ducts. A week later, an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP examination was performed. This showed no filling of the right posterior sectoral ducts but normal opacification of the other ducts. These findings led to the diagnosis of an aberrant right posterior sectoral bile duct that was not identified prior to surgery and that was damaged at the time of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This duct now drained into the gallbladder fossa, causing the collection and draining sinus.

  15. An evaporation duct prediction model coupled with the MM5

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Lin; ZHANG Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    Evaporation duct is an abnormal refractive phenomenon in the marine atmosphere boundary layer. It has been generally accepted that the evaporation duct prominently affects the performance of the electronic equipment over the sea because of its wide distribution and frequent occurrence. It has become a research focus of the navies all over the world. At present, the diagnostic models of the evaporation duct are all based on the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, with only differences in the flux and character scale calculations in the surface layer. These models are applicable to the stationary and uniform open sea areas without considering the alongshore effect. This paper introduces the nonlinear factorav and the gust wind itemwg into the Babin model, and thus extends the evaporation duct diagnostic model to the offshore area under extremely low wind speed. In addition, an evaporation duct prediction model is designed and coupled with the fifth generation mesoscale model (MM5). The tower observational data and radar data at the Pingtan island of Fujian Province on May 25–26, 2002 were used to validate the forecast results. The outputs of the prediction model agree with the observations from 0 to 48 h. The relative error of the predicted evaporation duct height is 19.3% and the prediction results are consistent with the radar detection.

  16. Clinical effect of laparoscopic hepatolobectomy in patients with intrahepatic bile duct stones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Yu; Yan-Xia Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the clinical effect of laparoscopic hepatolobectomy in patients with intrahepatic bile duct stones. Methods:Patients with intrahepatic bile duct stones receiving hepatolobectomy were chosen for study, patients receiving laparoscopic surgery and patients receiving open surgery were screened and enrolled in laparoscopic group and open group respectively, and then degree of stress response, degree of liver damage and Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway function of two groups were compared. Results:At T1 and T2 points in time, stress indicators and Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway function of two groups had no difference;at T3 and T4 points in time, blood sugar, cortisol and angiotensin levels of laparoscopic group were lower, and insulin level as well as Nrf2 and ARE contents were higher;at T4 point in time, 8-OhdG, PCO, CYP1A and CYP3A contents of laparoscopic group were lower. Conclusion: Laparoscopic hepatolobectomy helps to relieve stress response, protect liver cells from damage and enhance Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway function;it’s an ideal method of surgical treatment of intrahepatic bile duct stones.

  17. Measure Guideline: Summary of Interior Ducts in New Construction, Including an Efficient, Affordable Method to Install Fur-Down Interior Ducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, D. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); McIlvaine, J. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fonorow, K. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States); Martin, E. [BA-PIRC, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2011-11-01

    This document illustrates guidelines for the efficient installation of interior duct systems in new housing, including the fur-up chase method, the fur-down chase method, and interior ducts positioned in sealed attics or sealed crawl spaces.

  18. Results of radiation therapy in extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatano, Kazuo; Cho, Keiichi; Okamoto, Moriyo (Chiba Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1992-06-01

    From January 1975 to August 1988, 40 patients with extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma were treated by external irradiation at Chiba University Hospital and the National Medical Center Hospital. Thirty-four patients (male: 20, female: 14) were evaluable. Eighteen patients were postoperative cases because the surgical margin was positive for tumor cells in the postoperative pathological examination; the other 16 were inoperable cases. Survival in postoperative and inoperable cases was not significantly different, with median survival times of 13.8 and 8.1 months, respectively. Survival in the recanalization-positive and negative-groups was significantly different (p<0.05) after irradiation, with median survival times of 13.5 and 6.0 months, respectively. Complications of therapy were recognized in 68% of all cases. They were mainly gastrointestinal symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, erosive gastritis and loss of appetite, but they were not severe. Distant metastasis was recognized in only 4 patients (10%): three had bony metastasis and one had supraclavicular and pulmonary hilar lymph node metastasis. Ninety percent of all cases died from hepatic failure or peritonitis carcinomatosa due to failure to obtain local control by external irradiation. A more effective modality of treatment is necessary to cure these patients. (author).

  19. Obstructed Bile Duct as a Trigger for Microbe's Translocation?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    To assess the potential mechanisms of bacterial translocation in a murine model of obstructive jaundice. Methods: Adult rats were randomized to be operated on for ligation or sham-ligation of the common bile duct. Bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs), liver, spleen, portal blood and systemic circulation and bacterial population levels in the ceca were quantitated after 7 and 14 days. The terminal ilea were histologically examined by light and transmission electron microscopy. Results: Bacterial translocation to the MNLs was seen in both 7 (10/17) and 14 (11/18) day ligated animals, but not found in their corresponding controls (both 0/8). No significant difference in the cecal bacterial population levels was found between the ligated groups and their corresponding control groups, also between the two subgroups that were set up within each ligated group according to the presence or absence of bacteria in the MLNs. In the ligated rats, light microscopy demonstrated subepithelial edema in association with infiltration of flammatory cells and, transmission electron microscopy showed that the enterocytes were injured with abnormal microvilli, swollen mitochondria, unclear endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm with bubble degeneration. However, the ilea from the controls appeared normal. Conclusions: Obstructive jaundice promotes bacterial translocation in rats. The gut mucosal damage rather than the intestinal bacterial overgrowth may play a crucial role in bacterial translocation.

  20. The Mesenteric Lymph Duct Cannulated Rat Model: Application to the Assessment of Intestinal Lymphatic Drug Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevaskis, Natalie L.; Hu, Luojuan; Caliph, Suzanne M.; Han, Sifei; Porter, Christopher J.H.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal lymphatic system plays key roles in fluid transport, lipid absorption and immune function. Lymph flows directly from the small intestine via a series of lymphatic vessels and nodes that converge at the superior mesenteric lymph duct. Cannulation of the mesenteric lymph duct thus enables the collection of mesenteric lymph flowing from the intestine. Mesenteric lymph consists of a cellular fraction of immune cells (99% lymphocytes), aqueous fraction (fluid, peptides and proteins such as cytokines and gut hormones) and lipoprotein fraction (lipids, lipophilic molecules and apo-proteins). The mesenteric lymph duct cannulation model can therefore be used to measure the concentration and rate of transport of a range of factors from the intestine via the lymphatic system. Changes to these factors in response to different challenges (e.g., diets, antigens, drugs) and in disease (e.g., inflammatory bowel disease, HIV, diabetes) can also be determined. An area of expanding interest is the role of lymphatic transport in the absorption of orally administered lipophilic drugs and prodrugs that associate with intestinal lipid absorption pathways. Here we describe, in detail, a mesenteric lymph duct cannulated rat model which enables evaluation of the rate and extent of lipid and drug transport via the lymphatic system for several hours following intestinal delivery. The method is easily adaptable to the measurement of other parameters in lymph. We provide detailed descriptions of the difficulties that may be encountered when establishing this complex surgical method, as well as representative data from failed and successful experiments to provide instruction on how to confirm experimental success and interpret the data obtained. PMID:25866901

  1. Can pancreatic duct-derived progenitors be a source of islet regeneration?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia, Bing [Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Long Jiang Province 150001 (China); Zhan, Xiao-Rong, E-mail: xiaorongzhan@sina.com [Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Long Jiang Province 150001 (China); Yi, Ran [Department of Endocrinology, First Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Long Jiang Province 150001 (China); Yang, Baofeng [Department of Pharmacology, State Key Laboratory of Biomedicine and Pharmacology, Harbin Medical University, Harbin, Hei Long Jiang Province 150001 (China)

    2009-06-12

    The regenerative process of the pancreas is of interest because the main pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus is an inadequate number of insulin-producing {beta}-cells. The functional mass of {beta}-cells is decreased in type 1 diabetes, so replacing missing {beta}-cells or triggering their regeneration may allow for improved type 1 diabetes treatment. Therefore, expansion of the {beta}-cell mass from endogenous sources, either in vivo or in vitro, represents an area of increasing interest. The mechanism of islet regeneration remains poorly understood, but the identification of islet progenitor sources is critical for understanding {beta}-cell regeneration. One potential source is the islet proper, via the dedifferentiation, proliferation, and redifferentiation of facultative progenitors residing within the islet. Neogenesis, or that the new pancreatic islets can derive from progenitor cells present within the ducts has been reported, but the existence and identity of the progenitor cells have been debated. In this review, we focus on pancreatic ductal cells, which are islet progenitors capable of differentiating into islet {beta}-cells. Islet neogenesis, seen as budding of hormone-positive cells from the ductal epithelium, is considered to be one mechanism for normal islet growth after birth and in regeneration, and has suggested the presence of pancreatic stem cells. Numerous results support the neogenesis hypothesis, the evidence for the hypothesis in the adult comes primarily from morphological studies that have in common the production of damage to all or part of the pancreas, with consequent inflammation and repair. Although numerous studies support a ductal origin for new islets after birth, lineage-tracing experiments are considered the 'gold standard' of proof. Lineage-tracing experiments show that pancreatic duct cells act as progenitors, giving rise to new islets after birth and after injury. The identification of differentiated pancreatic ductal

  2. Electron microscopical studies of the common bile duct in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Rahko

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available In a previous publication the authors have described some ultrastructural characteristics of granulated cells in the common bile duct of the reindeer. On the basis of the same material, electron microscopic observations on other tissue elements of bile duct wall are now reported. The surface and glandular epithelium were composed of tall columnar epithelial cells with villous structures on the luminal surfaces. The parietal cytoplasmic membranes of epithelial cells were equipped with intercellular desmosomes while intraepithelial globule leucocytes did not form any junctional complex with other cells. Apical cytoplasmic areas of superficial epithelial cells showed electron-dense small bodies possibly consisting of mucinous substances. The goblet and deep glandular cells, on the other hand, contained numerous large mucin granules with less electron-dense matrices. It appears that their secretions are more abundant than those in superficial epithelial cells which obviously are absorptive as their main function. The nuclei and other cytoplasmic organelles showed profiles similar to those in epithelial cells generally. The lumen of the bile ducts was usually empty or contained fine-granular or amorphous material. An unusual feature was the presence of parts of globule leucocytes or even almost whole cells occurring freely in ductal secretions.Elektronimikroskooppinen tutkimus yhteisen sappikäytävän rakenteesta porolla.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Aikaisemmassa julkaisussa tekijät kuvasivat poron yhteisen sappikäytävän (ductus hepaticus communis seinämän jyväsellisten solujen hienorakennetta. Tässä artikkelissa selostetaan saman aineiston perusteella (6 tervettä teurasporoa elektronimikroskooppisia havaintoja sappikäytäväseinämän muista kudosrakenteista. Sappikäytäväseinämän pinta- ja rauhasepiteeli koostuu korkeista epiteelisoluista. Pinnallisia epiteelisoluja kattavat säännölliset mikrovillukset, ja niillä on vain v

  3. Using Telecommunications for Principals' Professional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Claudia A.; Terry, Patricia D.

    This paper describes the development, operations, and effectiveness of the Principals' Computer Network (PCN)--an experimental program created (1) to allow principals to use their schools' microcomputers to access other principals' solutions to common instructional management problems; (2) to enable principals to request suggestions from their…

  4. Three Principals Who Make a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagor, Richard D.

    1992-01-01

    Principals who are transformative leaders consistently use three building blocks to promote school success: a clear, unified purpose; a common cultural perspective; and a constant push for improvement. In one study, an opinionated, assertive middle school principal; a nurturing, supportive principal; and a high-energy, charismatic principal all…

  5. Extrarenal multiorgan metastases of collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney: A case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Hisao

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Collecting duct carcinoma is a rare type of renal cell carcinoma. The primary is difficult to diagnose on imaging, and metastases are often present on initial presentation. Extensive multiorgan metastases can result in complex presentations that can be difficult to diagnose. Case presentation We present two case reports of multiorgan metastases of collecting duct carcinoma that were autopsy confirmed. The first case was a 55-year-old man who presented with fever and abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography showed enlargement of the right kidney. Pyelonephritis was considered on the basis of laboratory test results and imaging findings. However, multiple cavitary lesions were found on routine chest radiography. These lesions were biopsied, resulting in a histological diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma. A renal tumor was considered. Transitional cell carcinoma was suspected, which proved to be misdiagnosed and chemotherapy was given accordingly. However, this was not effective and the patient died after 2 months. Autopsy demonstrated the primary tumor to be collecting duct carcinoma, with metastases to lung, liver, spleen, bone marrow, right adrenal gland, and para-aortic lymph node. Computed tomography done while the patient was alive detected lung, liver, and para-aortic lymph node metastases. The second case was a 77-year-old man who presented with fever. Pyelonephritis was considered on the basis of the laboratory test results and imaging findings. Antibiotic therapy improved his symptoms and laboratory indicators of inflammation. One year later, he developed backache. Computed tomography revealed a progressively enlarging right renal lesion, multiple liver masses, enlargement of the para-aortic lymph nodes, and multiple osteoblastic and osteoclastic lesions. A renal tumor with multiple metastases was diagnosed. Chemotherapy was given without effect, and the patient died of cardiac failure 1 year later. Autopsy

  6. Anatomic Variations of the Right Hepatic Duct: Results and Surgical Implications from a Cadaveric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Mariolis-Sapsakos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Thorough understanding of biliary anatomy is required when performing surgical interventions in the hepatobiliary system. This study describes the anatomical variations of right bile ducts in terms of branching and drainage patterns, and determines their frequency. Methods. We studied 73 samples of cadaveric material, focusing on the relationship of the right anterior and posterior segmental branches, the way they form the right hepatic duct, and the main variations of their drainage pattern. Results. The anatomy of the right hepatic duct was typical in 65.75% of samples. Ectopic drainage of the right anterior duct into the common hepatic duct was found in 15.07% and triple confluence in 9.59%. Ectopic drainage of the right posterior duct into the common hepatic duct was discovered in 2.74% and ectopic drainage of the right posterior duct into the left hepatic duct in 4.11%. Ectopic drainage of the right anterior duct into the left hepatic ductal system and ectopic drainage of the right posterior duct into the cystic duct was found in 1.37%. Conclusion. The branching pattern of the right hepatic duct was atypical in 34.25% of cases. Thus, knowledge of the anatomical variations of the extrahepatic bile ducts is important in many surgical cases.

  7. Fast Steerable Principal Component Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Zhizhen; Shkolnisky, Yoel; Singer, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy nowadays often requires the analysis of hundreds of thousands of 2D images as large as a few hundred pixels in each direction. Here we introduce an algorithm that efficiently and accurately performs principal component analysis (PCA) for a large set of two-dimensional images, and, for each image, the set of its uniform rotations in the plane and their reflections. For a dataset consisting of $n$ images of size $L \\times L$ pixels, the computational complexity of our a...

  8. Principal chiral model on superspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitev, V.; Schomerus, V. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Quella, T. [Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    2008-09-15

    We investigate the spectrum of the principal chiral model (PCM) on odd-dimensional superspheres as a function of the curvature radius R. For volume-filling branes on S{sup 3} {sup vertical} {sup stroke} {sup 2}, we compute the exact boundary spectrum as a function of R. The extension to higher dimensional superspheres is discussed, but not carried out in detail. Our results provide very convincing evidence in favor of the strong-weak coupling duality between supersphere PCMs and OSP(2S+2 vertical stroke 2S) Gross-Neveu models that was recently conjectured by Candu and Saleur. (orig.)

  9. [Morphological changes in the pancreas after ligation of the excretory duct].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donev, S; Petkov, P; Zhablenska, R; Katala, Zh; Bonafus, R; Fisho, F; Desbal, B

    1994-01-01

    The rabbit pancreatic structure at histological and ultrastructural level, in different intervals after ligature of pancreatic duct, was studied. Changes in the exo- and endocrine parenchyma were observed. Canalicular structures and conjunctive tissue replace the destroyed acinar cells. In some of the islets the B cells are degranulated or necrotic. Some islets contain infiltrations of lymphocytes, macrophages and granulocytes. Cavities formed by necrotic endocrine cells could appear. The A and B cells proliferation is observed in the new-formed clusters of endocrine cells and ductless. The mechanism of this process is similar to that of the islet formation during the embryonic development or in nesidioblastosis, but they are never transformed in the definitive islet of Langerhans.

  10. High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chitwood, Rick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); German, Alea [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-30

    Duct thermal losses and air leakage have long been recognized as prime culprits in the degradation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system efficiency. Both the U.S. Department of Energy’s Zero Energy Ready Home program and California’s proposed 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards require that ducts be installed within conditioned space or that other measures be taken to provide similar improvements in delivery effectiveness (DE). Pacific Gas & Electric Company commissioned a study to evaluate ducts in conditioned space and high-performance attics (HPAs) in support of the proposed codes and standards enhancements included in California’s 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards. The goal was to work with a select group of builders to design and install high-performance duct (HPD) systems, such as ducts in conditioned space (DCS), in one or more of their homes and to obtain test data to verify the improvement in DE compared to standard practice. Davis Energy Group (DEG) helped select the builders and led a team that provided information about HPD strategies to them. DEG also observed the construction process, completed testing, and collected cost data.

  11. Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy of bile duct stones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jong Tae; Kim, Myung Joon; Yoo, Hyung Sik; Suh, Jung Ho; Lee, Moo Sang; Jo, Jang Hwan; Kim, Byung Ro [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    During the past one and half year, we performed ESWL therapy in 13 patients with common bile duct and intrahepatic duct stones, applying Lithostar-R (Siemens co. West Germany) and analyzed their results. In 13 patients, 9 residual common bile duct stones and 7 intrahepatic duct stones were selected postoperatively. The size of stones were ranged from 0.7 cm to 3.5 cm in diameter. 2 stones were multiple and the remained 14 were single in number. The visualization of stones were done with fluoroscopy after the injection of contrast media via cholangiographic T-tube or ERCP. ESWL were applied continuously until stone disintegration was visible, or upto maximum number of 3500 discharge of shock wave. If not disintegrated upto 3500, patients were underwent second or third lithotripsy session with interval of one week. Our results showed that among 9 common bile duct stones, 4 were completely disintegrated and passed out spontaneously, but 3 partially fragmented and removed by the additional procedure. 2 were failed. Among 7 intrahepatic stones, 3 completely and 2 partially were succeeded. One stone partially fragmented were retained without removal and other one were failed. Skin petechia in all patients were revealed on the entry port of shock wave, but no serous complication was not occurred.

  12. Sensor-based navigation of air duct inspection mobile robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyoungchul; Choi, H. J.; Kim, Jae-Seon; Ko, Kuk Won; Cho, Hyungsuck

    2001-02-01

    12 This paper deals with an image sensor system and its position estimation algorithm for autonomous duct cleaning and inspection mobile robots. For the real application, a hierarchical control structure that consists of robot motion controller and image sensor system is designed considering the efficient and autonomous motion behaviors in narrow space such as air ducts. The sensor's system consists of a CCD camera and two laser sources to generate slit beams. The image of the structured lights is used for calculating the geometric parameters of the air ducts which are usually designed with a rectangular section. With the acquired 3D information about the environment, the mobile robot with two differential driving wheels is able to autonomously navigates along the duct path without any human intervention. For real time navigation, the relative position estimation of the robot are performed from 3D image reconstructed by the sensor system. The calibration and image processing methods used for the sensor system are presented with the experimental data. The experimental results show the possibility of the sensor based navigation which is important for effective duct cleaning by small mobile robots.

  13. Measure Guideline: Optimizing the Configuration of Flexible Duct Junction Boxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, R.; Burdick, A.

    2014-03-01

    This measure guideline offers additional recommendations to heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system designers for optimizing flexible duct, constant-volume HVAC systems using junction boxes within Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual D guidance (Rutkowski, H. Manual D -- Residential Duct Systems, 3rd edition, Version 1.00. Arlington, VA: Air Conditioning Contractors of America, 2009.). IBACOS used computational fluid dynamics software to explore and develop guidance to better control the airflow effects of factors that may impact pressure losses within junction boxes among various design configurations (Beach, R., Prahl, D., and Lange, R. CFD Analysis of Flexible Duct Junction Box Design. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, submitted for publication 2013). These recommendations can help to ensure that a system aligns more closely with the design and the occupants' comfort expectations. Specifically, the recommendations described herein show how to configure a rectangular box with four outlets, a triangular box with three outlets, metal wyes with two outlets, and multiple configurations for more than four outlets. Designers of HVAC systems, contractors who are fabricating junction boxes on site, and anyone using the ACCA Manual D process for sizing duct runs will find this measure guideline invaluable for more accurately minimizing pressure losses when using junction boxes with flexible ducts.

  14. Extracorporeal piezoelectric lithotripsy for complicated bile duct stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, J; Adamek, H E; Riemann, J F

    1991-02-01

    Today, common bile duct stones are extracted endoscopically. After endoscopic sphincterotomy, nearly 90% of all stones can be removed with a Dormia basket or a mechanical lithotripter. Problems are encountered if there are larger stones or a duct stenosis. New conservative therapies do serve as an alternative to surgical intervention for those few patients in whom endoscopic measures have failed. Stone fragmentation can be achieved by extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, and remaining fragments can be removed endoscopically. So far, authors of most reports on the successful disintegration of common bile duct stones used the Dornier lithotripter. Stone localization is thus achieved with x-rays, and the shock waves are generated by an underwater spark discharge. We report on our experiences and results with extracorporeal piezoelectric shock wave lithotripsy (EPL) in 19 patients with complicated bile duct stones. With this lithotripter, stones are visualized by ultrasound, and shock waves are produced by a piezoelectric acoustic generator. Fragmentation was achieved in 84.2%, and complete stone removal in 78.9%. These results show that piezoelectric lithotripsy is also a useful method for the treatment of complicated bile duct stones, as has already been proved for the electrohydraulic- and electromagnetic-generated shock waves systems. However, the renunciation of general anesthesia and the need for analgesia or sedation in only 25% of the treatments render this lithotripter system attractive, especially for elderly and frail patients.

  15. Ducts in the Attic? What Were They Thinking? Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, D.; Winkler, J.

    2010-08-01

    As energy-efficiency efforts focus increasingly on existing homes, we scratch our heads about construction decisions made 30, 40, 50-years ago and ask: 'What were they thinking?' A logical follow-on question is: 'What will folks think in 2050 about the homes we're building today?' This question can lead to a lively discussion, but the current practice that we find most alarming is placing ducts in the attic. In this paper, we explore through literature and analysis the impact duct location has on cooling load, peak demand, and energy cost in hot climates. For a typical new home in these climates, we estimate that locating ducts in attics rather than inside conditioned space increases the cooling load 0.5 to 1 ton, increases cooling costs 15% and increases demand by 0.75 kW. The aggregate demand to service duct loss in homes built in Houston, Las Vegas, and Phoenix during the period 2000 through 2009 is estimated to be 700 MW. We present options for building homes with ducts in conditioned space and demonstrate that these options compare favorably with other common approaches to achieving electricity peak demand and consumption savings in homes.

  16. An Exact Transfer Matrix Formulation of Plane Sound Wave Transmission in Inhomogeneous Ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockumaci, E.

    1998-11-01

    The impedance, or the reflection coefficient, of plane sound waves in inhomogeneous ducts satisfies a Riccati equation. The present paper shows that the duct impedance matrix, or the scattering matrix, can be related explicitly to the solutions of the associated linear equation of the Riccati equation for duct impedance, or reflection coefficient, respectively. New exact analytical scattering matrix solutions, which follow as consequences of this connection, are given for two significant duct acoustics problems, namely, the sound transmission in non-uniform ducts carrying an incompressible subsonic low Mach number mean flow transmission of sound in uniform ducts with a full quadratic axial mean temperature gradient.

  17. Parametric functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Peijun; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2017-03-10

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach in functional data analysis to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). Most existing FPCA approaches use a set of flexible basis functions such as B-spline basis to represent the FPCs, and control the smoothness of the FPCs by adding roughness penalties. However, the flexible representations pose difficulties for users to understand and interpret the FPCs. In this article, we consider a variety of applications of FPCA and find that, in many situations, the shapes of top FPCs are simple enough to be approximated using simple parametric functions. We propose a parametric approach to estimate the top FPCs to enhance their interpretability for users. Our parametric approach can also circumvent the smoothing parameter selecting process in conventional nonparametric FPCA methods. In addition, our simulation study shows that the proposed parametric FPCA is more robust when outlier curves exist. The parametric FPCA method is demonstrated by analyzing several datasets from a variety of applications. © 2017, The International Biometric Society.

  18. Interpretable functional principal component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhenhua; Wang, Liangliang; Cao, Jiguo

    2016-09-01

    Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) is a popular approach to explore major sources of variation in a sample of random curves. These major sources of variation are represented by functional principal components (FPCs). The intervals where the values of FPCs are significant are interpreted as where sample curves have major variations. However, these intervals are often hard for naïve users to identify, because of the vague definition of "significant values". In this article, we develop a novel penalty-based method to derive FPCs that are only nonzero precisely in the intervals where the values of FPCs are significant, whence the derived FPCs possess better interpretability than the FPCs derived from existing methods. To compute the proposed FPCs, we devise an efficient algorithm based on projection deflation techniques. We show that the proposed interpretable FPCs are strongly consistent and asymptotically normal under mild conditions. Simulation studies confirm that with a competitive performance in explaining variations of sample curves, the proposed FPCs are more interpretable than the traditional counterparts. This advantage is demonstrated by analyzing two real datasets, namely, electroencephalography data and Canadian weather data.

  19. Great Assistant Principals and the (Great) Principals Who Mentor Them: A Practical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Carole C.; Berry, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Written for principals and assistant principals to read and reflect on together, this book describes the most common challenges facing today's assistant principals--and provides practical solutions. Authors Carole Goodman and Christopher Berry examine how principals and assistant principals can develop the kinds of relationships that serve to meet…

  20. Great Assistant Principals and the (Great) Principals Who Mentor Them: A Practical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Carole C.; Berry, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    Written for principals and assistant principals to read and reflect on together, this book describes the most common challenges facing today's assistant principals--and provides practical solutions. Authors Carole Goodman and Christopher Berry examine how principals and assistant principals can develop the kinds of relationships that serve to meet…