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Sample records for dual resonance model

  1. D-dimensional Conformal Field Theories with anomalous dimensions as Dual Resonance Models

    CERN Document Server

    Mack, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    An exact correspondence is pointed out between conformal field theories in D dimensions and dual resonance models in D' dimensions, where D' may differ from D. Dual resonance models, pioneered by Veneziano, were forerunners of string theory. The analog of scattering amplitudes are called Mellin amplitudes; they depend on complex variables which substitute for the Mandelstam variables on which scattering amplitudes depend. The Mellin amplitudes satisfy exact duality - i.e. meromorphy with simple poles in single variables, and crossing symmetry - and an appropriate form of factorization which is implied by operator product expansions (OPE). Duality is a D-independent property. The positions of the leading poles are given by the dimensions of fields in the OPE; their residues depend on D and determine satellites. Dimensional reduction and induction D goes to D-1 and D+1 are discussed. Dimensional reduction leads to the appearence of Anti de Sitter space.

  2. Full counting statistics in the self-dual interacting resonant level model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Sam T; Bagrets, Dmitry A; Schmitteckert, Peter

    2011-11-11

    We present a general technique to obtain the zero temperature cumulant generating function of the full counting statistics of charge transfer in interacting impurity models out of equilibrium from time-dependent simulations on a lattice. We demonstrate the technique with application to the self-dual interacting resonant level model, where very good agreement between numerical simulations using the density matrix renormalization group and those obtained analytically from the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz is found. We show from the exact form of counting statistics that the quasiparticles involved in transport carry charge 2e in the low bias regime and e/2 in the high bias regime.

  3. Note: Modified π-type Butterworth-Van Dyke model for dual-mode Lamb-wave resonator with precise two-port Y-parameter characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Hong, Yan; Goh, Wang Ling; Mu, Xiaojing

    2016-10-01

    Dual-mode Lamb-wave resonator has become a powerful component for clock reference and sensing applications, enabling efficient compensations of temperature effects, concurrent measurements of multiple environmental parameters, etc. An equivalent circuit model for the dual-mode Lamb-wave resonator is indispensable as it provides a means as well as being an effective tool for evaluating device characteristics and to aid the designing of circuitry for the resonators. This could be the first time ever that an efficient equivalent-circuit model, i.e., modified π-type Butterworth-Van Dyke model for dual-mode Lamb-wave resonators is reported. Evaluated by experiments, this model attains noteworthy agreements on both the magnitudes and phases of Y11 and Y21 of the measurement results. Compared to literature, the proposed model is capable of modeling the dual resonances efficiently. Moreover, this work also proves more accurate when viewing the Y-parameters across a wide frequency range. The gained features of this model are most beneficial for the analysis of the dual-mode Lamb-wave resonator and also for the designing of circuits.

  4. Note: Modified π-type Butterworth-Van Dyke model for dual-mode Lamb-wave resonator with precise two-port Y-parameter characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Hong, Yan; Goh, Wang Ling; Mu, Xiaojing

    2016-10-01

    Dual-mode Lamb-wave resonator has become a powerful component for clock reference and sensing applications, enabling efficient compensations of temperature effects, concurrent measurements of multiple environmental parameters, etc. An equivalent circuit model for the dual-mode Lamb-wave resonator is indispensable as it provides a means as well as being an effective tool for evaluating device characteristics and to aid the designing of circuitry for the resonators. This could be the first time ever that an efficient equivalent-circuit model, i.e., modified π-type Butterworth-Van Dyke model for dual-mode Lamb-wave resonators is reported. Evaluated by experiments, this model attains noteworthy agreements on both the magnitudes and phases of Y11 and Y21 of the measurement results. Compared to literature, the proposed model is capable of modeling the dual resonances efficiently. Moreover, this work also proves more accurate when viewing the Y-parameters across a wide frequency range. The gained features of this model are most beneficial for the analysis of the dual-mode Lamb-wave resonator and also for the designing of circuits.

  5. Comment on "An approximate transfer function for the dual-resonance nonlinear filter model of auditory frequency selectivity" [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2112-21171 (L)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duifhuis, H

    This letter concerns the paper "An approximate transfer function for the dual-resonance nonlinear filter model of auditory frequency selectivity" [E. A. Lopez-Poveda, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 114, 2112-2117 (2003)]. It proposes a correction of the historical framework in which the paper is presented.

  6. Analysis and measurement of the stability of dual-resonator oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaed, Hassan

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the stability of oscillators with dual-resonating tanks. After deriving oscillator models, it is shown that contrary to prior belief, there can be only one stable oscillating state. Sufficient conditions for stable oscillating states are derived and silicon measurement results are used to prove their validity. A fully integrated transmitter for intraocular pressure sensing that leverages the dual-resonator tank is designed and fabricated based on the derived models. An unstable version of the transmitter is also demonstrated to prove the concept of instability in dual-resonator oscillators © 2012 IEEE.

  7. Dual-Schemata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  8. A dual resonant rectilinear-to-rotary oscillation converter for low frequency broadband electromagnetic energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wei; Wang, Ya

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports a dual resonant rectilinear-to-rotary oscillation converter (RROC) for low frequency broadband electromagnetic energy harvesting from ambient vibrations. An approximate theoretical model has been established to integrate the electromechanical coupling into a comprehensive electromagnetic-dynamic model of the dual resonant RROC. Numerical simulation has proved the nature of dual resonances by revealing that both the rectilinear resonance and the rotary resonance could be achieved when the stand-alone rectilinear oscillator (RLO) and the stand-alone rotary oscillator (RTO) were excited independently. Simulation on the magnetically coupled RROC has also shown that the rectilinear resonance and the rotary resonance could be obtained simultaneously in the low-frequency region (2-14 Hz) with well-defined restoring torque (M r ) and the initial rotation angle of the RLO (ψ). The magnetic interaction patterns between the rectilinear and the RTOs have been categorized based on aforementioned simulation results. Both simulation and experimental results have demonstrated broadband output attributing from the dual resonances. Experimental results have also indicated that the RROC could have wide bandwidth in a much lower frequency region (2-8 Hz) even without the rotary resonance as long as the system parameters are carefully tuned. Parameter analysis on different values of M r and ψ are experimentally carried out to provide a quantitative guidance of designing the RROC to achieve an optimal power density.

  9. Experimental study of resonance fiber optic gyroscope employing a dual-ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yue; Wang, Wei

    2016-09-01

    A dual-ring resonator which is available to alter the full width at half maximum (FWHM) without altering the free spectrum range (FSR) for practice applications is analyzed theoretically and set up in practice. The parameters of the dual-ring resonator have been optimized in simulation, the resonance depth and the dynamic range are enhanced. The prototype is set up with single mode fiber of 8 meter and two 95 : 5 couplers for open loop experiment. The FWHM of the dual-ring resonator is demonstrated less than 1.5MHz and the fineness is calculated to be 37 during the frequency sweeping experiment. The frequency locking experiment with demodulation curve method has been accomplished, and the locking time achieves less than 40ms. All these provide a basic reference for optimizing the resonance fiber optic gyro based on dual-ring resonator.

  10. Tunable Dual-band IFA Antenna using LC Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Ni, Nan

    2011-01-01

    A tunable dual-band inverted F antenna (IFA) is presented in this paper. By placing a LC resonator on the radiating arm, dual-band characteristic is achieved. Especially, the capacitor in the resonator is a tunable thin-film BST capacitor, which has a 3.3:1 tuning ratio. The capacitance of the BST capacitors can be tuned by an external DC bias voltage. By varying the capacitance, both the lower band and the upper band of the IFA antenna can be tuned. And the total bandwidth can cover six systems, i.e., GSM-850, GSM-900, GPS, DCS, PCS, and UMTS.

  11. Design of Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Using Dual-Mode Defected Stub Loaded Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechang Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for designing a dual-band bandpass filter (BPF using defected stub loaded resonator (DSLR is presented in this paper. The proposed DSLR consists of two fundamental resonant modes and some resonant characteristics have been investigated by EM software of Ansoft HFSS. Then, based on two coupled DSLRs, a dual-band response BPF that operates at 2.4 GHz and 3.5 GHz is designed and implemented for WLAN and WIMAX application. The first passband is constructed by two lower frequencies of the coupled DSLRs and the second passband is produced by two higher ones; the coupling scheme of them is also given. Finally, the dual-band BPF is fabricated and measured; a good agreement between simulation and measurement is obtained, which verifies the validity of the design methodology.

  12. Dual band metamaterial perfect absorber based on Mie resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Xiaoming; Lan, Chuwen; Li, Bo; Zhou, Ji, E-mail: zhouji@tsinghua.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Bi, Ke [School of Science, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications, Beijing 100876 (China); Zhao, Qian [State Key Lab of Tribology, Department of Precision Instruments and Mechanology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2016-08-08

    We numerically and experimentally demonstrated a polarization insensitive dual-band metamaterial perfect absorber working in wide incident angles based on the two magnetic Mie resonances of a single dielectric “atom” with simple structure. Two absorption bands with simulated absorptivity of 99% and 96%, experimental absorptivity of 97% and 94% at 8.45 and 11.97 GHz were achieved due to the simultaneous magnetic and electric resonances in dielectric “atom” and copper plate. Mie resonances of dielectric “atom” provide a simple way to design metamaterial perfect absorbers with high symmetry.

  13. Dual-frequency resonance-tracking atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Brian J.; Callahan, Clint; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Proksch, Roger

    2007-11-01

    A dual-excitation method for resonant-frequency tracking in scanning probe microscopy based on amplitude detection is developed. This method allows the cantilever to be operated at or near resonance for techniques where standard phase locked loops are not possible. This includes techniques with non-acoustic driving where the phase of the driving force is frequency and/or position dependent. An example of the latter is piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), where the resonant frequency of the cantilever is strongly dependent on the contact stiffness of the tip-surface junction and the local mechanical properties, but the spatial variability of the drive phase rules out the use of a phase locked loop. Combined with high-voltage switching and imaging, dual-frequency, resonance-tracking PFM allows reliable studies of electromechanical and elastic properties and polarization dynamics in a broad range of inorganic and biological systems, and is illustrated using lead zirconate-titanate, rat tail collagen, and native and switched ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate.

  14. Dual-frequency resonance-tracking atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Brian J [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Callahan, Clint [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States); Kalinin, Sergei V [Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Proksch, Roger [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA 93117 (United States)

    2007-11-28

    A dual-excitation method for resonant-frequency tracking in scanning probe microscopy based on amplitude detection is developed. This method allows the cantilever to be operated at or near resonance for techniques where standard phase locked loops are not possible. This includes techniques with non-acoustic driving where the phase of the driving force is frequency and/or position dependent. An example of the latter is piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), where the resonant frequency of the cantilever is strongly dependent on the contact stiffness of the tip-surface junction and the local mechanical properties, but the spatial variability of the drive phase rules out the use of a phase locked loop. Combined with high-voltage switching and imaging, dual-frequency, resonance-tracking PFM allows reliable studies of electromechanical and elastic properties and polarization dynamics in a broad range of inorganic and biological systems, and is illustrated using lead zirconate-titanate, rat tail collagen, and native and switched ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate.

  15. Mapping nanoscale elasticity and dissipation using dual frequency contact resonance AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gannepalli, A; Proksch, R [Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Yablon, D G; Tsou, A H, E-mail: ganil@asylumresearch.com [Corporate Strategic Research, ExxonMobil Research and Engineering, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    2011-09-02

    We report on a technique that simultaneously quantifies the contact stiffness and dissipation of an AFM cantilever in contact with a surface, which can ultimately be used for quantitative nanomechanical characterization of surfaces. The method is based on measuring the contact resonance frequency using dual AC resonance tracking (DART), where the amplitude and phase of the cantilever response are monitored at two frequencies on either side of the contact resonance. By modelling the tip-sample contact as a driven damped harmonic oscillator, the four measured quantities (two amplitudes and two phases) allow the four model parameters, namely, drive amplitude, drive phase, resonance frequency and quality factor, to be calculated. These mechanical parameters can in turn be used to make quantitative statements about localized sample properties. We apply the method to study the electromechanical coupling coefficients in ferroelectric materials and the storage and loss moduli in viscoelastic materials.

  16. Theory and Applications of Surface Plasmon Resonance, Resonant Mirror, Resonant Waveguide Grating, and Dual Polarization Interferometry Biosensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy W. Day

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Biosensors have been used extensively in the scientific community for several purposes, most notably to determine association and dissociation kinetics, protein-ligand, protein-protein, or nucleic acid hybridization interactions. A number of different types of biosensors are available in the field, each with real or perceived benefits over the others. This review discusses the basic theory and operational arrangements of four commercially available types of optical biosensors: surface plasmon resonance, resonant mirror, resonance waveguide grating, and dual polarization interferometry. The different applications these techniques offer are discussed from experiments and results reported in recently published literature. Additionally, recent advancements or modifications to the current techniques are also discussed.

  17. Dual-Resonator Speed Meter for a Free Test Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Braginsky, V B; Khalili, F Ya; Thorne, K S; Braginsky, Vladimir B.; Gorodetsky, Mikhail L.; Khalili, Farid Ya.; Thorne, Kip S.

    2000-01-01

    A description and analysis are given of a ``speed meter'' for monitoring a classical force that acts on a test mass. This speed meter is based on two microwave resonators (``dual resonators''), one of which couples evanescently to the position of the test mass. The sloshing of the resulting signal between the resonators, and a wise choice of where to place the resonators' output waveguide, produce a signal in the waveguide that (for sufficiently low frequencies) is proportional to the test-mass velocity (speed) rather than its position. This permits the speed meter to achieve force-measurement sensitivities better than the standard quantum limit (SQL), both when operating in a narrow-band mode and a wide-band mode. A scrutiny of experimental issues shows that it is feasible, with current technology, to construct a demonstration speed meter that beats the wide-band SQL by a factor 2. A concept is sketched for an adaptation of this speed meter to optical frequencies; this adaptation forms the basis for a possib...

  18. Compact Dual-Band Zeroth-Order Resonance Antenna

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU He-Xiu; WANG Guang-Ming; GONG Jian-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    A novel microstrip zeroth-order resonator (ZOR) antenna and its equivalent circuit model are exploited with two zeroth-order resonances.It is constructed based on a resonant-type composite right/left handed transmission line (CRLH TL) using a Wunderlich-shaped extended complementary single split ring resonator pair (W-ECSSRRP) and a series capacitive gap.The gap either can be utilized for double negative (DNG) ZOR antenna or be removed to engineer a simplified elision-negative ZOR (ENG) antenna.For verification,a DNG ZOR antenna sample is fabricated and measured.Numerical and experimental results agree well with each other,indicating that the omnidirectional radiations occur at two frequency bands which are accounted for by two shunt branches in the circuit model.The size of the antenna is 49% more compact than its previous counterpart.The superiority of WECSSRRP over CSSRRP lies in the lower fundamental resonance of the antenna by 38.2% and the introduction of a higher zeroth-order resonance.%A novel microstrip zeroth-order resonator (ZOR) antenna and its equivalent circuit model are exploited with two zeroth-order resonances. It is constructed based on a resonant-type composite right/left handed transmission line (CRLH TV) using a Wunderlich-shaped extended complementary single split ring resonator pair (W-ECSSRRP) and a series capacitive gap. The gap either can be utilized for double negative (DNG) ZOR antenna or be removed to engineer a simplified elision-negative ZOR (ENG) antenna. For verification, a DNG ZOR antenna sample is fabricated and measured. Numerical and experimental results agree well with each other, indicating that the omnidirectional radiations occur at two frequency bands which are accounted for by two shunt branches in the circuit model. The size of the antenna is 49% more compact than its previous counterpart. The superiority of W-ECSSRRP over CSSRRP lies in the lower fundamental resonance of the antenna by 38.2% and the introduction of a

  19. Study of dual wavelength composite output of solid state laser based on adjustment of resonator parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Nie, Jinsong; Wang, Xi; Hu, Yuze

    2016-10-01

    The 1064nm fundamental wave (FW) and the 532nm second harmonic wave (SHW) of Nd:YAG laser have been widely applied in many fields. In some military applications requiring interference in both visible and near-infrared spectrum range, the de-identification interference technology based on the dual wavelength composite output of FW and SHW offers an effective way of making the device or equipment miniaturized and low cost. In this paper, the application of 1064nm and 532nm dual-wavelength composite output technology in military electro-optical countermeasure is studied. A certain resonator configuration that can achieve composite laser output with high power, high beam quality and high repetition rate is proposed. Considering the thermal lens effect, the stability of this certain resonator is analyzed based on the theory of cavity transfer matrix. It shows that with the increase of thermal effect, the intracavity fundamental mode volume decreased, resulting the peak fluctuation of cavity stability parameter. To explore the impact the resonator parameters does to characteristics and output ratio of composite laser, the solid-state laser's dual-wavelength composite output models in both continuous and pulsed condition are established by theory of steady state equation and rate equation. Throughout theoretical simulation and analysis, the optimal KTP length and best FW transmissivity are obtained. The experiment is then carried out to verify the correctness of theoretical calculation result.

  20. Measurement of vertebral bone marrow lipid profile at 1.5-T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and bone mineral density at dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: correlation in a swine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Leo, Giovanni; Fina, Laura [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milan (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, Unita di Radiologia, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Bone marrow is mainly composed of red (hematopoietic) and yellow (fatty) components. Soon after the birth there is a physiological conversion of the bone marrow from red to yellow, so that the percentage of hematopoietic cells and adipocytes changes with aging. Although bone marrow adipogenesis is a physiologic process involving all mammals, recent studies showed an accelerated marrow adipogenesis associated with several chronic conditions, including osteoporosis [4] and diabetes mellitus. Moreover, this increased marrow fat is accompanied by a decrease in bone density. Marrow fat is therefore increasingly believed to influence the bone microenvironment. Diagnostic tools for quantitative measurement of bone marrow fat and bone mineral density (BMD) include proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and dual-energy Xray absorptiometry (DXA), respectively. Using MRS, an inverse relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content and lumbar BMD has been demonstrated in patients affected with osteoporosis or with diabetes mellitus. In most studies, a quite standard MRS sequence has been used, with short echo times (TE) for the measurement of the bulk methylene. In this study we sought to optimize the MRS sequence in order to try to measure other fat components of the vertebral bone marrow at 1.5 T. For this purpose, we used an animal model that allowed long acquisition times and repeated measures. Moreover, we aimed at estimating in this model the relationship between vertebral bone marrow fat content at proton MRS and BMD at DXA.

  1. A Generalized Approach for the Steady-State Analysis of Dual-Bridge Resonant Converters

    OpenAIRE

    Gao-Yuan Hu; Xiaodong Li; Bo-Yue Luan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a dual-bridge DC/DC resonant converter with a generalized series and parallel resonant tank is analyzed. A general approach based on Fundamental Harmonic Approximation is used to find the universal steady-state solutions. The analysis results for particular resonant tank configurations are exemplified with several typical resonant tank configurations respectively. The corresponded soft-switching conditions are discussed too. To illustrate the usefulness of the generalized appro...

  2. Dual-band plasmonic resonator based on Jerusalem cross-shaped nanoapertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Arif E.; Kaya, Sabri; Mertiri, Alket; Aslan, Ekin; Erramilli, Shyamsunder; Altug, Hatice; Turkmen, Mustafa

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we both experimentally and numerically introduce a dual-resonant metamaterial based on subwavelength Jerusalem cross-shaped apertures. We numerically investigate the physical origin of the dual-resonant behavior, originating from the constituting aperture elements, through finite difference time domain calculations. Our numerical calculations show that at the dual-resonances, the aperture system supports large and easily accessible local electromagnetic fields. In order to experimentally realize the aperture system, we utilize a high-precision and lift-off free fabrication method based on electron-beam lithography. We also introduce a fine-tuning mechanism for controlling the dual-resonant spectral response through geometrical device parameters. Finally, we show the aperture system's highly advantageous far- and near-field characteristics through numerical calculations on refractive index sensitivity. The quantitative analyses on the availability of the local fields supported by the aperture system are employed to explain the grounds behind the sensitivity of each spectral feature within the dual-resonant behavior. Possessing dual-resonances with large and accessible electromagnetic fields, Jerusalem cross-shaped apertures can be highly advantageous for wide range of applications demanding multiple spectral features with strong nearfield characteristics.

  3. Fluorescence and Magnetic Resonance Dual-Modality Imaging-Guided Photothermal and Photodynamic Dual-Therapy with Magnetic Porphyrin-Metal Organic Framework Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Yu-Hao; Chen, Yang; Wang, Man-Man; Wang, Xue-Sheng; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2017-01-01

    Phototherapy shows some unique advantages in clinical application, such as remote controllability, improved selectivity, and low bio-toxicity, than chemotherapy. In order to improve the safety and therapeutic efficacy, imaging-guided therapy seems particularly important because it integrates visible information to speculate the distribution and metabolism of the probe. Here we prepare biocompatible core-shell nanocomposites for dual-modality imaging-guided photothermal and photodynamic dual-therapy by the in situ growth of porphyrin-metal organic framework (PMOF) on Fe3O4@C core. Fe3O4@C core was used as T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) agent. The optical properties of porphyrin were well remained in PMOF, and PMOF was therefore selected for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and fluorescence imaging. Fluorescence and MR dual-modality imaging-guided PTT and PDT dual-therapy was confirmed with tumour-bearing mice as model. The high tumour accumulation of Fe3O4@C@PMOF and controllable light excitation at the tumour site achieved efficient cancer therapy, but low toxicity was observed to the normal tissues. The results demonstrated that Fe3O4@C@PMOF was a promising dual-imaging guided PTT and PDT dual-therapy platform for tumour diagnosis and treatment with low cytotoxicity and negligible in vivo toxicity. PMID:28272454

  4. DUAL RANDOM MODEL OF INCREASING ANNUITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HeWenjiong; ZhangYi

    2001-01-01

    The dual random models about the life insurance and social pension insurance have received considerable attention in the recent articles on actuarial theory and applications. This paper discusses a general kind of increasing annuity based on its force of interest accumulationfunction as a general random process. The dual random model of the present value of the benefits of the increasing annuity has been set, and their moments have been calculated under certainconditions.

  5. Widely tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Liu, Liu; Xue, Weiqi;

    2010-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate tunable microwave phase shifters based on electrically tunable silicon-on-insulator microring resonators. The phase-shifting range and the RF-power variation are analyzed. A maximum phase-shifting range of 0~600° is achieved by utilizing a dual-microring resonator...

  6. Optimization of a fiber grating film sensor based on dual peak resonance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Zheng-tian; Xu Yan-ping; DENG Chuan-lu

    2008-01-01

    Based on the dual peak resonance of long-period fider grating(LPFG),a novel film sensor is presented.in which films sensitive to the surrounding gases are coated on the cladding of the fiber grating region,and the intervals of the dual peak resonant wavelengths change with the film refractive index.According to the coupled-mode theory,a triple-clad numerical model is developed to analyze the relation between the sensitivity S and the thin film optical parameters(the film thickness h3 and the refractive index n3and the fiber grating parameters (the grating period A and the coreindex modulation (o)).By using optimization method,the optimal film optical parameters and the grating structure parameters are obtained.Numerical simulation shows that the sensitivity of this scheme to refractive index of the films is predicted to be more than 10-7.The theomtic analysis provides straightforward foundation for the aetual highly sensitive fdm sensors.

  7. Integrable Deformations of T -Dual σ Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Wulff, Linus

    2016-12-01

    We present a method to deform (generically non-Abelian) T duals of two-dimensional σ models, which preserves classical integrability. The deformed models are identified by a linear operator ω on the dualized subalgebra, which satisfies the 2-cocycle condition. We prove that the so-called homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations are equivalent, via a field redefinition, to our deformed models when ω is invertible. We explain the details for deformations of T duals of principal chiral models, and present the corresponding generalization to the case of supercoset models.

  8. Nonlinear series resonance and standing waves in dual-frequency capacitive discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, De-Qi; Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J.; Wang, You-Nian

    2017-01-01

    It is well-known that the nonlinear series resonance in a high frequency capacitive discharge enhances the electron power deposition and also creates standing waves which produce radially center-high rf voltage profiles. In this work, the dynamics of series resonance and wave effects are examined in a dual-frequency driven discharge, using an asymmetric radial transmission line model incorporating a Child law sheath. We consider a cylindrical argon discharge with a conducting electrode radius of 15 cm, gap length of 3 cm, with a base case having a 60 MHz high frequency voltage of 250 V and a 10 MHz low frequency voltage of 1000 V, with a high frequency phase shift {φ\\text{H}}=π between the two frequencies. For this phase shift there is only one sheath collapse, and the time-averaged spectral peaks of the normalized current density at the center are mainly centered on harmonic numbers 30 and 50 of the low frequency, corresponding to the first standing wave resonance frequency and the series resonance frequency, respectively. The effects of the waves on the series resonance dynamics near the discharge center give rise to significant enhancements in the electron power deposition, compared to that near the discharge edge. Adjusting the phase shift from π to 0, or decreasing the low frequency from 10 to 2 MHz, results in two or more sheath collapses, respectively, making the dynamics more complex. The sudden excitation of the perturbed series resonance current after the sheath collapse results in a current oscillation amplitude that is estimated from analytical and numerical calculations. Self-consistently determining the dc bias and including the conduction current is found to be important. The subsequent slow time variation of the high frequency oscillation is analyzed using an adiabatic theory.

  9. Exclusive J/Psi electroproduction in a dual model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Fiore, L.L. Jenkovszky, V.K. Magas, S. Melis, A. Prokudin

    2009-12-01

    Exclusive J/Psi electroproduction is studied in the framework of the analytic S-matrix theory. The differential and integrated elastic cross sections are calculated using the Modified Dual Amplitude with Mandelstam Analyticity (M-DAMA) model. The model is applied to the description of the available experimantal data and proves to be valid in a wide region of the kinematical variables s, t and Q^2. Our amplitude can be used also as a universal background parametrization for the extraction of tiny resonance signals.

  10. Gap Model for Dual Customer Values

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Lun; TANG Xiaowo

    2008-01-01

    The customer value, the key problem in customer relationship management (CRM), was studied to construct a gap model for dual customer values. A basic description of customer values is given, and then the gaps between products and services in different periods for the customers and companies are analyzed based on the product or service life-cycle. The main factors that influence the perceived customer value were analyzed to define the "recognized value gap" and a gap model for the dual customer values was constructed to supply companies with a tool to analyze existing customer value gaps and improve customer relationship management.

  11. 360° tunable microwave phase shifter based on silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pu, Minhao; Xue, Weiqi; Liu, Liu;

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate tunable microwave phase shifters based on electrically tunable silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonators. A quasi-linear phase shift of 360° with ~2dB radio frequency power variation at a microwave frequency of 40GHz is obtained......We demonstrate tunable microwave phase shifters based on electrically tunable silicon-on-insulator dual-microring resonators. A quasi-linear phase shift of 360° with ~2dB radio frequency power variation at a microwave frequency of 40GHz is obtained...

  12. Refractive index sensing characteristics of dual resonances in rectangular fractal nano-apertures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Ekin; Turkmen, Mustafa

    2015-08-01

    Aperture based sensing platforms can be useful for both gas and bio-sensing applications. In this study, we investigate the refractive index sensing characteristics of dual resonances in rectangular fractal nanoapertures. By taking the advantages coming from its aperture based nature and dual band resonant behavior, one can use this platform to detect two different chemical/bio-molecules simultaneously. For the numerical analysis, we study the rectangular fractal nanoantenna array through the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. We also introduce a fine tuning mechanism for adjusting the resonance frequencies which is important for the sensing applications. Then, we demonstrate the results of refractive index sensitivity tests in order to show the behavior of the structure against the refractive index changes. In these tests, we embed our sensing platform into different cladding media and obtain the refractive index sensing characteristics of dual resonances. Due to the dual-resonant behavior with easily accessible ultra-high-field localization characteristics, the proposed sensing platform can be a good candidate for ultra-sensitive chemical- and bio-sensing applications.

  13. Dual-Retrieval Models and Neurocognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Gomes, C. F. A.; Kenney, A. E.; Gross, C. J.; Taub, E. S.; Spreng, R. N.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in dual-retrieval models of recall make it possible to use clinical data to test theoretical hypotheses about mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD), the most common forms of neurocognitive impairment. Hypotheses about the nature of the episodic memory declines in these diseases, about decline versus sparing of…

  14. Dual-Retrieval Models and Neurocognitive Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainerd, C. J.; Reyna, V. F.; Gomes, C. F. A.; Kenney, A. E.; Gross, C. J.; Taub, E. S.; Spreng, R. N.

    2014-01-01

    Advances in dual-retrieval models of recall make it possible to use clinical data to test theoretical hypotheses about mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD), the most common forms of neurocognitive impairment. Hypotheses about the nature of the episodic memory declines in these diseases, about decline versus sparing of…

  15. Distributed Model Predictive Control via Dual Decomposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biegel, Benjamin; Stoustrup, Jakob; Andersen, Palle

    2014-01-01

    This chapter presents dual decomposition as a means to coordinate a number of subsystems coupled by state and input constraints. Each subsystem is equipped with a local model predictive controller while a centralized entity manages the subsystems via prices associated with the coupling constraints...

  16. Electrostatic energy harvesting device with dual resonant structure for wideband random vibration sources at low frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Wang, Tianyang; Zhang, Ai; Peng, Zhuoteng; Luo, Dan; Chen, Rui; Wang, Fei

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we present design and test of a broadband electrostatic energy harvester with a dual resonant structure, which consists of two cantilever-mass subsystems each with a mass attached at the free edge of a cantilever. Comparing to traditional devices with single resonant frequency, the proposed device with dual resonant structure can resonate at two frequencies. Furthermore, when one of the cantilever-masses is oscillating at resonance, the vibration amplitude is large enough to make it collide with the other mass, which provides strong mechanical coupling between the two subsystems. Therefore, this device can harvest a decent power output from vibration sources at a broad frequency range. During the measurement, continuous power output up to 6.2-9.8 μW can be achieved under external vibration amplitude of 9.3 m/s2 at a frequency range from 36.3 Hz to 48.3 Hz, which means the bandwidth of the device is about 30% of the central frequency. The broad bandwidth of the device provides a promising application for energy harvesting from the scenarios with random vibration sources. The experimental results indicate that with the dual resonant structure, the vibration-to-electricity energy conversion efficiency can be improved by 97% when an external random vibration with a low frequency filter is applied.

  17. A dual-mode microwave resonator for double electron-electron spin resonance spectroscopy at W-band microwave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Igor; Sicoli, Giuseppe; Höbartner, Claudia; Bennati, Marina

    2011-04-01

    We present a dual-mode resonator operating at/near 94 GHz (W-band) microwave frequencies and supporting two microwave modes with the same field polarization at the sample position. Numerical analysis shows that the frequencies of both modes as well as their frequency separation can be tuned in a broad range up to GHz. The resonator was constructed to perform pulsed ELDOR experiments with a variable separation of "pump" and "detection" frequencies up to Δ ν = 350 MHz. To examine its performance, test ESE/PELDOR experiments were performed on a representative biradical system.

  18. Overcoming Depolarizing Resonances with Dual Helical Partial Siberian Snakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H.; Ahrens, L. A.; Bai, M.; Brown, K.; Courant, E. D.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J. W.; Lin, F.; Luccio, A. U.; Mackay, W. W.; Okamura, M.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.; Takano, J.; Tepikian, S.; Tsoupas, N.; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.

    2007-10-01

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is challenging. In a medium energy accelerator, the depolarizing spin resonances are strong enough to cause significant polarization loss but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions and are also not feasible since straight sections usually are too short. Recently, two helical partial Siberian snakes with double pitch design have been installed in the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). With a careful setup of optics at injection and along the energy ramp, this combination can eliminate the intrinsic and imperfection depolarizing resonances otherwise encountered during acceleration to maintain a high intensity polarized beam in medium energy synchrotrons. The observation of partial snake resonances of higher than second order will also be described.

  19. Overcoming depolarizing resonances with dual helical partial Siberian snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H; Ahrens, L A; Bai, M; Brown, K; Courant, E D; Gardner, C; Glenn, J W; Lin, F; Luccio, A U; Mackay, W W; Okamura, M; Ptitsyn, V; Roser, T; Takano, J; Tepikian, S; Tsoupas, N; Zelenski, A; Zeno, K

    2007-10-12

    Acceleration of polarized protons in the energy range of 5 to 25 GeV is challenging. In a medium energy accelerator, the depolarizing spin resonances are strong enough to cause significant polarization loss but full Siberian snakes cause intolerably large orbit excursions and are also not feasible since straight sections usually are too short. Recently, two helical partial Siberian snakes with double pitch design have been installed in the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS). With a careful setup of optics at injection and along the energy ramp, this combination can eliminate the intrinsic and imperfection depolarizing resonances otherwise encountered during acceleration to maintain a high intensity polarized beam in medium energy synchrotrons. The observation of partial snake resonances of higher than second order will also be described.

  20. Algebraic model of baryon resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Bijker, R

    1997-01-01

    We discuss recent calculations of electromagnetic form factors and strong decay widths of nucleon and delta resonances. The calculations are done in a collective constituent model of the nucleon, in which the baryons are interpreted as rotations and vibrations of an oblate top.

  1. Enhanced acoustoelectric coupling in acoustic energy harvester using dual Helmholtz resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiao; Wen, Yumei; Li, Ping; Yang, Aichao; Bai, Xiaoling

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, enhanced acoustoelectric transduction in an acoustic energy harvester using dual Helmholtz resonators has been reported. The harvester uses a pair of cavities mechanically coupled with a compliant perforated plate to enhance the acoustic coupling between the cavity and the plate. The experimental results show that the volume optimization of the second cavity can significantly increase the generated electric voltage up to 400% and raise the output power to 16 times as large as that of a harvester using a single Helmholtz resonator at resonant frequencies primarily related to the plate.

  2. Deformable surface modeling based on dual subdivision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huawei; SUN Hanqiu; QIN Kaihuai

    2005-01-01

    Based on dual Doo-Sabin subdivision and the corresponding parameterization, a modeling technique of deformable surfaces is presented in this paper. In the proposed model, all the dynamic parameters are computed in a unified way for both non-defective and defective subdivision matrices, and central differences are used to discretize the Lagrangian dynamics equation instead of backward differences. Moreover, a local scheme is developed to solve the dynamics equation approximately, thus the order of the linear equation is reduced greatly. Therefore, the proposed model is more efficient and faster than the existing dynamic models. It can be used for deformable surface design, interactive surface editing, medical imaging and simulation.

  3. Modeling noisy resonant system response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Patrick Thomas; Walrath, David Edwin

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, a theory-based model replicating empirical acoustic resonant signals is presented and studied to understand sources of noise present in acoustic signals. Statistical properties of empirical signals are quantified and a noise amplitude parameter, which models frequency and amplitude-based noise, is created, defined, and presented. This theory-driven model isolates each phenomenon and allows for parameters to be independently studied. Using seven independent degrees of freedom, this model will accurately reproduce qualitative and quantitative properties measured from laboratory data. Results are presented and demonstrate success in replicating qualitative and quantitative properties of experimental data.

  4. Dual-scale multimedia dynamic synchronization model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李乃祥

    2009-01-01

    Multimedia synchronization is the key technology in application of distributed multimedia.Solution of synchronization conflicts insides and among streams as well as that of user interaction,synchronization granularity refinement and synchronization precision improvement remain great challenges although great efforts have been invested by the academic circle.The construction method of a dual-scale dynamic synchronous model of multimedia presented in this article realizes multimedia synchronization on two sca...

  5. Dual-wavelength distributed Bragg reflector semiconductor laser based on a composite resonant cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhao, Ling-Juan; Qiu, Ji-Fang; Liu, Yang; Wang, Wei; Lou, Cai-Yun

    2012-09-01

    We report a monolithic integrated dual-wavelength laser diode based on a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) composite resonant cavity. The device consists of three sections, a DBR grating section, a passive phase section, and an active gain section. The gain section facet is cleaved to work as a laser cavity mirror. The other laser mirror is the DBR grating, which also functions as a wavelength filter and can control the number of wavelengths involved in the laser action. The reflection bandwidth of the DBR grating is fabricated to have an appropriate value to make the device work at the dual-wavelength lasing state. We adopt the quantum well intermixing (QWI) technique to provide low-absorption loss grating and passive phase section in the fabrication process. By tuning the injection currents on the DBR and the gain sections, the device can generate 0.596 nm-spaced dual-wavelength lasing at room temperature.

  6. Dual and tri-band bandpass filters based on novel Π-shaped resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian-Kang; Zhu, Wen-Jun; Zhao, Wei

    2014-05-01

    A novel Π-shaped resonator is proposed, and compact dual-band and tri-band bandpass filters that meet IEEE 802.11 application requirements by using the new resonator are designed. The dual-band bandpass filter centres at 2.45 and 5.6 GHz with a simulated passband insertion loss of no more than 0.8 dB, and the tri-band bandpass filter which is got by two-path coupling achieves simulated passband insertion loss of no more than 1.1 dB. The new designs are demonstrated by experiment. The new filters have advantages of simple and compact structures, low passband insertion losses, good frequency selectivity and miniature circuit sizes. All these have prospect to be applied in future wireless communication systems.

  7. Specific survivin dual fluorescence resonance energy transfer molecular beacons for detection of human bladder cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qiang WANG; Jun ZHAO; Jin ZENG; Kai-jie WU; Yu-le CHEN; Xin-ya ng WANG; Luke S CHANG; Da-lin HE

    2011-01-01

    Survivin molecular beacons can be used to detectbladder cancer cells in urine samples non-invasively.The aim of this study is to improve the specificity of detection of bladder cancer cells using survivin dual fluorescence resonance energy transfer molecular beacons (FRET MBs) that have fluorophores forming one donor-acceptor pair.Methods:Survivin-targeting dual fluorescence resonance energy transfer molecular beacons with unique target sequences were designed,which had no overlap with the other genes in the apoptosis inhibitor protein family.Human bladder cancer cell lines 5637,253J and T24,as well as the exfoliated cells in the urine of healthy adults and patients with bladder cancer were examined.Images of cells were taken using a laser scanning confocal fluorescence microscope.For assays using dual FRET MBs,the excitation wavelength was 488 nm,and the emission detection wavelengths were 520+20 nm and 560+20 nm,respectively.Results:The human bladder cancer cell lines and exfoliated cells in the urine of patients with bladder cancer incubated with the survivin dual FRET MBs exhibited strong fluorescence signals.In contrast,no fluorescence was detected in the survivin-negative human dermal fibroblasts-adult (HDF-a) cells or exfoliated cells in the urine of healthy adults incubated with the survivin dual FRET MBs.Conclusion:The results suggest that the survivin dual FRET MBs may be used as a specific and non-invasive method for early detection and follow-up of patients with bladder cancer.

  8. New dual mode gadolinium nanoparticle contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan B Ghaghada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liposomal-based gadolinium (Gd nanoparticles have elicited significant interest for use as blood pool and molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents. Previous generations of liposomal MR agents contained gadolinium-chelates either within the interior of liposomes (core-encapsulated gadolinium liposomes or presented on the surface of liposomes (surface-conjugated gadolinium liposomes. We hypothesized that a liposomal agent that contained both core-encapsulated gadolinium and surface-conjugated gadolinium, defined herein as dual-mode gadolinium (Dual-Gd liposomes, would result in a significant improvement in nanoparticle-based T1 relaxivity over the previous generations of liposomal agents. In this study, we have developed and tested, both in vitro and in vivo, such a dual-mode liposomal-based gadolinium contrast agent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: THREE TYPES OF LIPOSOMAL AGENTS WERE FABRICATED: core-encapsulated, surface-conjugated and dual-mode gadolinium liposomes. In vitro physico-chemical characterizations of the agents were performed to determine particle size and elemental composition. Gadolinium-based and nanoparticle-based T1 relaxivities of various agents were determined in bovine plasma. Subsequently, the agents were tested in vivo for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA studies. Characterization of the agents demonstrated the highest gadolinium atoms per nanoparticle for Dual-Gd liposomes. In vitro, surface-conjugated gadolinium liposomes demonstrated the highest T1 relaxivity on a gadolinium-basis. However, Dual-Gd liposomes demonstrated the highest T1 relaxivity on a nanoparticle-basis. In vivo, Dual-Gd liposomes resulted in the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and contrast-to-noise ratio in CE-MRA studies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The dual-mode gadolinium liposomal contrast agent demonstrated higher particle-based T1 relaxivity, both in vitro and in vivo, compared to either the

  9. Center Frequency Stabilization in Planar Dual-Mode Resonators during Mode-Splitting Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Adham; Soliman, Mina H.

    2017-03-01

    Shape symmetry in dual-mode planar electromagnetic resonators results in their ability to host two degenerate resonant modes. As the designer enforces a controllable break in the symmetry, the degeneracy is removed and the two modes couple, exchanging energy and elevating the resonator into its desirable second-order resonance operation. The amount of coupling is controlled by the degree of asymmetry introduced. However, this mode coupling (or splitting) usually comes at a price. The centre frequency of the perturbed resonator is inadvertently drifted from its original value prior to coupling. Maintaining centre frequency stability during mode splitting is a nontrivial geometric design problem. In this paper, we analyse the problem and propose a novel method to compensate for this frequency drift, based on field analysis and perturbation theory, and we validate the solution through a practical design example and measurements. The analytical method used works accurately within the perturbational limit. It may also be used as a starting point for further numerical optimization algorithms, reducing the required computational time during design, when larger perturbations are made to the resonator. In addition to enabling the novel design example presented, it is hoped that the findings will inspire akin designs for other resonator shapes, in different disciplines and applications.

  10. Center Frequency Stabilization in Planar Dual-Mode Resonators during Mode-Splitting Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Adham; Soliman, Mina H.

    2017-01-01

    Shape symmetry in dual-mode planar electromagnetic resonators results in their ability to host two degenerate resonant modes. As the designer enforces a controllable break in the symmetry, the degeneracy is removed and the two modes couple, exchanging energy and elevating the resonator into its desirable second-order resonance operation. The amount of coupling is controlled by the degree of asymmetry introduced. However, this mode coupling (or splitting) usually comes at a price. The centre frequency of the perturbed resonator is inadvertently drifted from its original value prior to coupling. Maintaining centre frequency stability during mode splitting is a nontrivial geometric design problem. In this paper, we analyse the problem and propose a novel method to compensate for this frequency drift, based on field analysis and perturbation theory, and we validate the solution through a practical design example and measurements. The analytical method used works accurately within the perturbational limit. It may also be used as a starting point for further numerical optimization algorithms, reducing the required computational time during design, when larger perturbations are made to the resonator. In addition to enabling the novel design example presented, it is hoped that the findings will inspire akin designs for other resonator shapes, in different disciplines and applications. PMID:28272422

  11. Patch Antenna based on a Photovoltaic Cell with a Dual resonance Frequency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Baccouch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The present work was to use photovoltaic solar cells in patch antenna structures. The radiating patch element of a patch antenna was replaced by a solar cell. Direct Current (DC generation remained the original feature of the solar cell, but additionally   it was now able to receive and transmit electromagnetic waves. Here, we used a new patch antenna structure based on a photovoltaic solar cell. It was then used to collect photo-generated current as well as Radio Frequency (RF transmission. A mathematical model which would serve the minimization of power losses of the cell and therefore the improvement in the conversion efficiency was studied. A simulation allowed analysing the performance of the antenna, with a silicon material, and testing its parameters such as the reflection coefficient (S11, gain, directivity and radiated power. The performance analysis of the solar cell patch antenna was conducted using Advanced Design System (ADS software. Simulation results for this antenna showed a dual resonance frequency of 5.77 GHz and of 6.18 GHz with an effective return loss of -38.22dB and a gain of 1.59dBi.

  12. Scale Factor Self-Dual Cosmological Models

    CERN Document Server

    dS, U Camara; Sotkov, G M

    2015-01-01

    We implement a conformal time scale factor duality for Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models, which is consistent with the weak energy condition. The requirement for self-duality determines the equations of state for a broad class of barotropic fluids. We study the example of a universe filled with two interacting fluids, presenting an accelerated and a decelerated period, with manifest UV/IR duality. The associated self-dual scalar field interaction turns out to coincide with the "radiation-like" modified Chaplygin gas models. We present an equivalent realization of them as gauged K\\"ahler sigma models (minimally coupled to gravity) with very specific and interrelated K\\"ahler- and super-potentials. Their applications in the description of hilltop inflation and also as quintessence models for the late universe are discussed.

  13. The Gravity Dual of the Ising Model

    CERN Document Server

    Castro, Alejandra; Hartman, Thomas; Maloney, Alexander; Volpato, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate the partition function of three dimensional theories of gravity in the quantum regime, where the AdS radius is Planck scale and the central charge is of order one. The contribution from the AdS vacuum sector can - with certain assumptions - be computed and equals the vacuum character of a minimal model CFT. The torus partition function is given by a sum over geometries which is finite and computable. For generic values of Newton's constant G and the AdS radius L the result has no Hilbert space interpretation, but in certain cases it agrees with the partition function of a known CFT. For example, the partition function of pure Einstein gravity with G=3L equals that of the Ising model, providing evidence that these theories are dual. We also present somewhat weaker evidence that the 3-state and tricritical Potts models are dual to pure higher spin theories of gravity based on SL(3) and E_6, respectively.

  14. Enhanced photoelectric detection of NV magnetic resonances in diamond under dual-beam excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, E.; Londero, E.; Buczak, K.; Hruby, J.; Gulka, M.; Balasubramaniam, Y.; Wachter, G.; Stursa, J.; Dobes, K.; Aumayr, F.; Trupke, M.; Gali, A.; Nesladek, M.

    2017-01-01

    The core issue for the implementation of NV center qubit technology is a sensitive readout of the NV spin state. We present here a detailed theoretical and experimental study of NV center photoionization processes, used as a basis for the design of a dual-beam photoelectric method for the detection of NV magnetic resonances (PDMR). This scheme, based on NV one-photon ionization, is significantly more efficient than the previously reported single-beam excitation scheme. We demonstrate this technique on small ensembles of ˜10 shallow NVs implanted in electronic grade diamond (a relevant material for quantum technology), on which we achieve a cw magnetic resonance contrast of 9%—three times enhanced compared to previous work. The dual-beam PDMR scheme allows independent control of the photoionization rate and spin magnetic resonance contrast. Under a similar excitation, we obtain a significantly higher photocurrent, and thus an improved signal-to-noise ratio, compared to single-beam PDMR. Finally, this scheme is predicted to enhance magnetic resonance contrast in the case of samples with a high proportion of substitutional nitrogen defects, and could therefore enable the photoelectric readout of single NV spins.

  15. String-like dual models for scalar theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bjerrum-Bohr, N. E. J.; Bourjaily, Jacob; Damgaard, Poul H.

    2016-12-01

    We show that all tree-level amplitudes in φ p scalar field theory can be represented as the α ' → 0 limit of an SL(2, ℝ)-invariant, string-theory-like dual model integral. These dual models are constructed according to constraints that admit families of solutions. We derive these dual models, and give closed formulae for all tree-level amplitudes of any φ p scalar field theory.

  16. String-Like Dual Models for Scalar Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Baadsgaard, Christian; Bourjaily, Jacob L; Damgaard, Poul H

    2016-01-01

    We show that all tree-level amplitudes in $\\varphi^p$ scalar field theory can be represented as the $\\alpha'\\to0$ limit of an $SL(2,R)$-invariant, string-theory-like dual model integral. These dual models are constructed according to constraints that admit families of solutions. We derive these dual models, and give closed formulae for all tree-level amplitudes of any $\\varphi^p$ scalar field theory.

  17. Sensitivity and detection limit of dual-waveguide coupled microring resonator biosensors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhixuan Xia; Huaxiang Yi; Yao Chen; Zhiping Zhou

    2009-01-01

    We show that a linear relation exists between the device sensitivity and the quality (Q) factor of a dual-waveguide coupled microring resonator optical biosensor when the optimal conditions are satisfied. We also show that the detection limit depends on the loss coefficient and signal-to-nosie ratio (SNR) of the overall system, rather than the circumference of the ring. For a microring resonator sensor whose Q factor is 20000, the detection limit is found to be about 10-7 with 30-dB SNR, which is in good agreement with reported experimental data. These results indicate that loss reduction is the top priority in the design and fabrication of highly sensitive microring resonator optical biosensors.

  18. Parallel-coupled dual racetrack silicon micro-resonators for quadrature amplitude modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Integlia, Ryan A; Yin, Lianghong; Ding, Duo; Pan, David Z; Gill, Douglas M; Jiang, Wei

    2011-08-01

    A parallel-coupled dual racetrack silicon micro-resonator structure is proposed and analyzed for M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation. The over-coupled, critically coupled, and under-coupled scenarios are systematically studied. Simulations indicate that only the over-coupled structures can generate arbitrary M-ary quadrature signals. Analytic study shows that the large dynamic range of amplitude and phase of a modulated over-coupled structure stems from the strong cross-coupling between two resonators, which can be understood through a delicate balance between the direct sum and the "interaction" terms. Potential asymmetries in the coupling constants and quality factors of the resonators are systematically studied. Compensations for these asymmetries by phase adjustment are shown feasible.

  19. Experimental Study on LTCC Glass-Ceramic Based Dual Segment Cylindrical Dielectric Resonator Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kumar Gangwar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The measured characteristics in C/X bands, including material properties of a dual segment cylindrical dielectric resonator antenna (CDRA fabricated from glass-ceramic material based on B2O3–La2O3–MgO glass and La(Mg0.5Ti0.5O3 ceramic, are reported. The sintering characteristic of the ceramic in presence of glass is determined from contact angle measurement and DTA. The return loss and input impedance versus frequency characteristics and radiation patterns of CDRA at its resonant frequency of 6.31 GHz are studied. The measured results for resonant frequency and return loss bandwidth of the CDRA are also compared with corresponding theoretical ones.

  20. Dual Enrollment in Spanish: One Working Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Melanie; Chambers, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Dual enrollment is now a nation-wide phenomenon as all 50 states currently offer some form of dual-enrollment program to secondary-school students (Karp, Bailey, Hughes, and Fermin 2005). However, dual enrollment itself is often difficult to define as programs vary from school to school (Jordan, Cavalluzzo, and Corallo 2006). Therefore, language…

  1. Dual Enrollment in Spanish: One Working Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Melanie; Chambers, Laura

    2009-01-01

    Dual enrollment is now a nation-wide phenomenon as all 50 states currently offer some form of dual-enrollment program to secondary-school students (Karp, Bailey, Hughes, and Fermin 2005). However, dual enrollment itself is often difficult to define as programs vary from school to school (Jordan, Cavalluzzo, and Corallo 2006). Therefore, language…

  2. Resonant circuit model for efficient metamaterial absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellier, Alexandre; Teperik, Tatiana V; de Lustrac, André

    2013-11-04

    The resonant absorption in a planar metamaterial is studied theoretically. We present a simple physical model describing this phenomenon in terms of equivalent resonant circuit. We discuss the role of radiative and dissipative damping of resonant mode supported by a metamaterial in the formation of absorption spectra. We show that the results of rigorous calculations of Maxwell equations can be fully retrieved with simple model describing the system in terms of equivalent resonant circuit. This simple model allows us to explain the total absorption effect observed in the system on a common physical ground by referring it to the impedance matching condition at the resonance.

  3. Laterally Driven Resonant Pressure Sensor with Etched Silicon Dual Diaphragms and Combined Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Du

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel structure of the resonant pressure sensor is presented in this paper, which tactfully employs intercoupling between dual pressure-sensing diaphragms and a laterally driven resonant strain gauge. After the resonant pressure sensor principle is introduced, the coupling mechanism of the diaphragms and resonator is analyzed and the frequency equation of the resonator based on the triangle geometry theory is developed for this new coupling structure. The finite element (FE simulation results match the theoretical analysis over the full scale of the device. This pressure sensor was first fabricated by dry/wet etching and thermal silicon bonding, followed by vacuum-packaging using anodic bonding technology. The test maximum error of the fabricated sensor is 0.0310%F.S. (full scale in the range of 30 to 190 kPa, its pressure sensitivity is negative and exceeding 8 Hz/kPa, and its Q-factor reaches 20,000 after wafer vacuum-packaging. A novel resonant pressure sensor with high accuracy is presented in this paper.

  4. Laterally Driven Resonant Pressure Sensor with Etched Silicon Dual Diaphragms and Combined Beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaohui; Liu, Yifang; Li, Anlin; Zhou, Zhou; Sun, Daoheng; Wang, Lingyun

    2016-01-26

    A novel structure of the resonant pressure sensor is presented in this paper, which tactfully employs intercoupling between dual pressure-sensing diaphragms and a laterally driven resonant strain gauge. After the resonant pressure sensor principle is introduced, the coupling mechanism of the diaphragms and resonator is analyzed and the frequency equation of the resonator based on the triangle geometry theory is developed for this new coupling structure. The finite element (FE) simulation results match the theoretical analysis over the full scale of the device. This pressure sensor was first fabricated by dry/wet etching and thermal silicon bonding, followed by vacuum-packaging using anodic bonding technology. The test maximum error of the fabricated sensor is 0.0310%F.S. (full scale) in the range of 30 to 190 kPa, its pressure sensitivity is negative and exceeding 8 Hz/kPa, and its Q-factor reaches 20,000 after wafer vacuum-packaging. A novel resonant pressure sensor with high accuracy is presented in this paper.

  5. Frequency-dependent conductivity contrast for tissue characterization using a dual-frequency range conductivity mapping magnetic resonance method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Chauhan, Munish; Kim, Min-Oh; Jeong, Woo Chul; Kim, Hyung Joong; Sersa, Igor; Kwon, Oh In; Woo, Eung Je

    2015-02-01

    Electrical conductivities of biological tissues show frequency-dependent behaviors, and these values at different frequencies may provide clinically useful diagnostic information. MR-based tissue property mapping techniques such as magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) and magnetic resonance electrical property tomography (MREPT) are widely used and provide unique conductivity contrast information over different frequency ranges. Recently, a new method for data acquisition and reconstruction for low- and high-frequency conductivity images from a single MR scan was proposed. In this study, we applied this simultaneous dual-frequency range conductivity mapping MR method to evaluate its utility in a designed phantom and two in vivo animal disease models. Magnetic flux density and B(1)(+) phase map for dual-frequency conductivity images were acquired using a modified spin-echo pulse sequence. Low-frequency conductivity was reconstructed from MREIT data by the projected current density method, while high-frequency conductivity was reconstructed from MREPT data by B(1)(+) mapping. Two different conductivity phantoms comprising varying ion concentrations separated by insulating films with or without holes were used to study the contrast mechanism of the frequency-dependent conductivities related to ion concentration and mobility. Canine brain abscess and ischemia were used as in vivo models to evaluate the capability of the proposed method to identify new electrical properties-based contrast at two different frequencies. The simultaneous dual-frequency range conductivity mapping MR method provides unique contrast information related to the concentration and mobility of ions inside tissues. This method has potential to monitor dynamic changes of the state of disease.

  6. Dual Numbers Approach in Multiaxis Machines Error Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Hrdina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxis machines error modeling is set in the context of modern differential geometry and linear algebra. We apply special classes of matrices over dual numbers and propose a generalization of such concept by means of general Weil algebras. We show that the classification of the geometric errors follows directly from the algebraic properties of the matrices over dual numbers and thus the calculus over the dual numbers is the proper tool for the methodology of multiaxis machines error modeling.

  7. Dual-frequency ferromagnetic resonance to measure spin current coupling in multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adur, Rohan; Du, Chunhui; Wang, Hailong; Manuilov, Sergei A.; Yang, Fengyuan; Hammel, P. Chris

    2014-08-01

    Spin pumping is a method for injecting a pure spin current into a non-magnetic metal (NM) by inducing precession of a neighboring ferromagnet (FM) at its ferromagnetic resonance frequency. A popular method to detect spin current uses the Inverse Spin Hall Effect (ISHE) to convert the spin current to a detectable charge current and hence a voltage. In order to better understand the role of time independent and high frequency contributions to spin pumping, we sought to detect we attempt to detect spin currents by using a second microwave frequency to detect changes in linewidth of a second ferromagnet due to the spin-torque induced by the spin current from the first ferromagnet. This dual resonance is achieved by pairing a custom broadband coplanar transmission line with the high-Q resonant cavity of a commercial electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer. This technique is general enough that it should enable the investigation of spin currents in any FM-NM-FM system, for any orientation of external field, and is not sensitive to voltage artifacts often found in ISHE measurements. We find that the condition for simultaneous resonance generates a dc spin current that is too small to produce a measurable change in linewidth of the second ferromagnet, confirming the dominance of ac spin currents in linewidth enhancement measurements.

  8. Dual-Functional Energy-Harvesting and Vibration Control: Electromagnetic Resonant Shunt Series Tuned Mass Dampers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Lei; Cui, Wen

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel retrofittable approach for dual-functional energy-harvesting and robust vibration control by integrating the tuned mass damper (TMD) and electromagnetic shunted resonant damping. The viscous dissipative element between the TMD and primary system is replaced by an electromagnetic transducer shunted with a resonant RLC circuit. An efficient gradient based numeric method is presented for the parameter optimization in the control framework for vibration suppression and energy harvesting. A case study is performed based on the Taipei 101 TMD. It is found that by tuning the TMD resonance and circuit resonance close to that of the primary structure, the electromagnetic resonant-shunt TMD achieves the enhanced effectiveness and robustness of double-mass series TMDs, without suffering from the significantly amplified motion stroke. It is also observed that the parameters and performances optimized for vibration suppression are close to those optimized for energy harvesting, and the performance is not sensitive to the resistance of the charging circuit or electrical load.

  9. On quantum equivalence of dual $\\sigma$ models $SL(3)$ examples

    CERN Document Server

    Horváth, Z; Palla, L

    1996-01-01

    The equivalence of several $SL(3)$ sigma models and their special Abelian duals is investigated in the two loop order of perturbation theory. The investigation is based on extracting and comparing various $\\beta$ functions of the original and dual models. The role of the discrete global symmetries is emphasized.

  10. On quantum equivalence of dual sigma models: SL(3) examples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horvath, Z. [Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Karp, R.L. [Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Palla, L. [Lorand Eoetvoes Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Inst. for Theoretical Physics

    1997-04-14

    The equivalence of several SL(3) sigma models and their special Abelian duals is investigated in two-loop order of perturbation theory. The investigation is based on extracting and comparing various {beta}-functions of the original and dual models. The role of discrete global symmetries is emphasized. (orig.).

  11. Dual-modality photothermal optical coherence tomography and magnetic-resonance imaging of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker-Schwartz, Jason M; Hong, Tu; Colvin, Daniel C; Xu, Yaqiong; Skala, Melissa C

    2012-03-01

    We demonstrate polyethylene-glycol-coated single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as contrast agents for both photothermal optical coherence tomography (OCT) and magnetic-resonance imaging (MRI). Photothermal OCT was accomplished with a spectral domain OCT system with an amplitude-modulated 750 nm pump beam using 10 mW of power, and T(2) MRI was achieved with a 4.7 T animal system. Photothermal OCT and T(2) MRI achieved sensitivities of nanomolar concentrations to CNTs dispersed in amine-terminated polyethylene glycol, thus establishing the potential for dual-modality molecular imaging with CNTs.

  12. Tunable Plasmonic Band-Pass Filter with Dual Side-Coupled Circular Ring Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A wavelength band-pass filter with asymmetric dual circular ring resonators in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM structure is proposed and numerically simulated. For the interaction of the local discrete state and the continuous spectrum caused by the side-coupled resonators and the baffle, respectively, the transmission spectrum exhibits a sharp and asymmetric profile. By adjusting the radius and material imbedded in one ring cavity, the off-to-on plasmon-induced absorption (PIA optical response can be tunable achieved. In addition, the structure can be easily extended to other similar compact structures to realize the filtering task. Our structures have important potential applications for filters and sensors at visible and near-infrared regions.

  13. A Compact Dual Band Implantable Antenna Based on Split-Ring Resonators with Meander Line Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Emre Yamac

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a dual band implantable split-ring microstrip antenna which operates at MICS (Medical Implant Services and ISM (Industrial, Scientific, and Medical bands is proposed for biotelemetry applications. A miniaturized size of 9.5 mm × 9.5 mm × 1.27 mm was accomplished by using three split-ring resonators and meander lines elements on these resonators. A shorting pin appropriately placed between the patch and ground plane was used for the antenna miniaturization. In addition, three useful metallic paths between the rings provided fine frequency tuning. The proposed split-ring implantable antenna presents 23.5% and 9.3% bandwidth, -48 dB and -24 dB maximum gains, 407 W/kg and 403 W/kg maximum 1-g averaged SAR values at the respective bands. Return loss performance, radiation patterns and SAR values of the antenna design are presented in the paper.

  14. Slow Steps Towards Dual Earner/ Dual Carer Family Model: Why Fathers do not Take Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Karu, Marre; Kasearu, Kairi

    2011-01-01

    "The article looks at the transition of Estonian society towards dual earner/ dual carer family model and focuses on fathers' decision regarding taking their parental leave. Based on theory of planned behaviour by Ajzen, data from 20 qualitative interviews with fathers of small children are analysed to explore the beliefs fathers have when it comes to parental leave. The analysis distinguishes between two images of 'good parenting' that play a role in the fathers' intention to take parental l...

  15. Performance Improvement of Polymer Solar Cells by Surface-Energy-Induced Dual Plasmon Resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mengnan; Shen, Ping; Liu, Yan; Chen, Boyuan; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping; Shen, Liang

    2016-03-09

    The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect of metal nanoparticles (MNPs) is effectively applied on polymer solar cells (PSCs) to improve power conversion efficiency (PCE). However, universality of the reported results mainly focused on utilizing single type of MNPs to enhance light absorption only in specific narrow wavelength range. Herein, a surface-energy-induced dual MNP plasmon resonance by thermally evaporating method was presented to achieve the absorption enhancement in wider range. The differences of surface energy between silver (Ag), gold (Au), and tungsten trioxide (WO3) compared by contact angle images enable Ag and Au prefer to respectively aggregate into isolated islands rather than films at the initial stage of the evaporation process, which was clearly demonstrated in the atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement. The sum of plasmon-enhanced wavelength range induced by both Ag NPs (350-450 nm) and Au NPs (450-600 nm) almost cover the whole absorption spectra of active layers, which compatibly contribute a significant efficiency improvement from 4.57 ± 0.16 to 6.55 ± 0.12% compared to the one without MNPs. Besides, steady state photoluminescence (PL) measurements provide strong evidence that the SPR induced by the Ag-Au NPs increase the intensity of light absorption. Finally, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) reveals that doping Au and Ag causes upper shift of both the work function and valence band of WO3, which is directly related to hole collection ability. We believe the surface-energy-induced dual plasmon resonance enhancement by simple thermally evaporating technique might pave the way toward higher-efficiency PSCs.

  16. Myocardial ischemia evaluation with dual-source computed tomography: comparison with magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Carlos; Vázquez, María; Oca, Roque; Vilar, Manuel; Trinidad, Carmen; Sanmartin, Marcelo

    2013-11-01

    Computed tomography does not accurately determine which coronary lesions lead to myocardial ischemia and consequently further tests are required to evaluate ischemia induction. The aim of this study was to compare diagnostic accuracy between dual-energy computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the assessment of myocardial perfusion and viability in patients suspected of coronary artery disease. A prospective study was performed in 56 consecutive patients (39 men [69.6%]; mean age [standard deviation], 63 [10]; range, 23-81). Computed tomography was performed with the following protocol: 1, adenosine stress perfusion; 2, coronary angiography; and 3, delayed enhancement. Magnetic resonance imaging for the evaluation of stress perfusion and delayed enhancement was performed within 30 days. Two observers in consensus analyzed the perfusion and delayed enhancement images. We studied 952 myocardial segments and 168 vascular territories. In a per-segment analysis, the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of computed tomography compared with magnetic resonance were 76%, 99%, 89%, and 98% for perfusion defects, and 64%, 99%, 82%, and 99% for delayed enhancement, respectively. In a per-vascular territory analysis, the same measures were 78%, 97%, 86%, and 95% for perfusion defects, and 72%, 99%, 93%, and 97% for delayed enhancement, respectively. The mean radiation dose was 8.2 (2) mSv. Dual-source computed tomography may allow accurate and concomitant evaluation of perfusion defects and myocardial viability and analysis of coronary anatomy. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Throughput Measurement of a Dual-Band MIMO Rectangular Dielectric Resonator Antenna for LTE Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, Jamal; Jamaluddin, Mohd Haizal; Ahmad Khan, Aftab; Kamarudin, Muhammad Ramlee; Yen, Bruce Leow Chee; Owais, Owais

    2017-01-13

    An L-shaped dual-band multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (RDRA) for long term evolution (LTE) applications is proposed. The presented antenna can transmit and receive information independently using fundamental TE111 and higher order TE121 modes of the DRA. TE111 degenerate mode covers LTE band 2 (1.85-1.99 GHz), 3 (1.71-1.88 GHz), and 9 (1.7499-1.7849 GHz) at fr = 1.8 GHz whereas TE121 covers LTE band 7 (2.5-2.69 GHz) at fr = 2.6 GHz, respectively. An efficient design method has been used to reduce mutual coupling between ports by changing the effective permittivity values of DRA by introducing a cylindrical air-gap at an optimal position in the dielectric resonator. This air-gap along with matching strips at the corners of the dielectric resonator keeps the isolation at a value more than 17 dB at both the bands. The diversity performance has also been evaluated by calculating the envelope correlation coefficient, diversity gain, and mean effective gain of the proposed design. MIMO performance has been evaluated by measuring the throughput of the proposed MIMO antenna. Experimental results successfully validate the presented design methodology in this work.

  18. SINGULAR ANALYSIS OF BIFURCATION OF NONLINEAR NORMAL MODES FOR A CLASS OF SYSTEMS WITH DUAL INTERNAL RESONANCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣业; 陈予恕; 吴志强

    2002-01-01

    The nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) associated with integrnal resonance can be classified into two kinds: uncoupled and coupled.The bifurcation problem of the coupled NNM of systems with 1: 2: 5 dual internal resonance is in two variables.The singular analysis of it is presented after separating the two variables by taking advantage of Maple algebra, and some new bifurcation patterns are found.Different from the NNMs of systems with single internal resonance, the number of the NNMs of systems with dual internal resonance may be more or less than the number of the degrees of freedom.At last, it is pointed out that bifurcation problems in two variables can be conveniently solved by separating variables as well as using coupling equations.

  19. Refractive index measurement of low concentration solution based on surface plasmon resonance and dual-frequency laser interferometric phase detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qianghua; Zhang, Mengce; Liu, Shuaijie; Luo, Huifu; He, Yongxi; Luo, Jun; Lv, Weiwei

    2017-01-01

    A solution refractive index (SRI) is one of the key parameters to indicate important information of materials such as optical properties, solute composition and so on. Samples are usually made of low concentration solutions, so that some properties and parameters can be determined by detecting SRI variations in chemical or physical reactions. In this connection, a kind of SRI measurement method based on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and dual-frequency laser interferometric phase detection is presented. The theoretical model based on the Kretschmann excitation structure shows the variation of phase difference between p and s polarization components of the reflected light is approximately linear with SRI at the range of 1.333-1.336 RIU. The measurement formula is derived and corresponding experimental system is built based on the heterodyne interference optical path by using a dual-frequency laser. Error analysis shows the maximum value of the measurement uncertainty is less than 3.0  ×  10-5. The experiment results of measuring glycerine solution refractive index agree with the theoretical analysis. Comparison results show the measurement differentia between the presented method and the formula by Abbe refractometer is less than 2.0  ×  10-5.

  20. Dual model of vocational education: Austrian example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomić Milica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual education, as a form of secondary vocational education means that education and practical training are held on two locations - in school and in a company (organization, factory and that these two institutions jointly participate in the realization of vocational education. The paper presents an account of the functioning of dual education in Austria. In that framework special attention was paid to law regulations in this field, the modes of dual education, progression through the system and the perspectives of the young in the labour market. Among the key features of dual education which are, at the same time, considered the factors of its successfulness, the following stand out: active role of social partners in the conceptualization and realization of vocational education; intensive practical training of high quality; systemic interrelatedness of vocational schools and firms where practical training is provided, the compliance of the offer of educational profiles and the needs of labour market; the system of stimulation for the firms that provide professional training for students, clear legislation and the system of professional qualifications. Yet, the challenges of dual educations are not neglected in the paper.

  1. Dynamic Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging without Complications in a Patient with Dual-Chamber Demand Pacemaker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sardanelli, F.; Lupo, P.; Esseridou, A.; Fausto, A.; Quarenghi, M. [Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese, Milan (Italy). Depts. of Radiology, Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology Center

    2006-02-15

    Mammography and ultrasound indicated a cancer of the right breast in a 77-year-old woman with a dual-chamber demand pacemaker. The patient was not pacemaker-dependent. She underwent breast 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (dynamic gradient echo sequence with Gd-DOTA 0.1 mmol/kg). Before the patient entered the MR room, the configuration of the device was changed (the response to magnet was switched from asynchronous to off and the rate-responsive algorithm was disabled). No relevant modifications of heart rhythm or rate were observed during the MR examination. No symptom was reported. Immediately after the examination, the pacemaker interrogation showed neither program changes nor alert warnings. MRI detected a bifocal cancer in the right breast which allowed tailored breast-conserving treatment to be initiated. Histopathology confirmed a bifocal invasive ductal carcinoma.

  2. Note: High-efficiency broadband acoustic energy harvesting using Helmholtz resonator and dual piezoelectric cantilever beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Aichao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Lu, Caijiang; Peng, Xiao; He, Wei; Zhang, Jitao; Wang, Decai; Yang, Feng

    2014-06-01

    A high-efficiency broadband acoustic energy harvester consisting of a compliant-top-plate Helmholtz resonator (HR) and dual piezoelectric cantilever beams is proposed. Due to the high mechanical quality factor of beams and the strong multimode coupling of HR cavity, top plate and beams, the high efficiency in a broad bandwidth is obtained. Experiment exhibits that the proposed harvester at 170-206 Hz has 28-188 times higher efficiency than the conventional harvester using a HR with a piezoelectric composite diaphragm. For input acoustic pressure of 2.0 Pa, the proposed harvester exhibits 0.137-1.43 mW output power corresponding to 0.035-0.36 μW cm(-3) volume power density at 170-206 Hz.

  3. Note: High-efficiency broadband acoustic energy harvesting using Helmholtz resonator and dual piezoelectric cantilever beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Aichao; Li, Ping, E-mail: liping@cqu.edu.cn; Wen, Yumei; Lu, Caijiang; Peng, Xiao; He, Wei; Zhang, Jitao; Wang, Decai; Yang, Feng [Research Center of Sensors and Instruments, College of Optoelectronic Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2014-06-15

    A high-efficiency broadband acoustic energy harvester consisting of a compliant-top-plate Helmholtz resonator (HR) and dual piezoelectric cantilever beams is proposed. Due to the high mechanical quality factor of beams and the strong multimode coupling of HR cavity, top plate and beams, the high efficiency in a broad bandwidth is obtained. Experiment exhibits that the proposed harvester at 170–206 Hz has 28–188 times higher efficiency than the conventional harvester using a HR with a piezoelectric composite diaphragm. For input acoustic pressure of 2.0 Pa, the proposed harvester exhibits 0.137–1.43 mW output power corresponding to 0.035–0.36 μW cm{sup −3} volume power density at 170–206 Hz.

  4. Dual Strip-Excited Dielectric Resonator Antenna with Parasitic Strips for Radiation Pattern Reconfigurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kamran Saleem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel pattern reconfigurable antenna concept utilizing rectangular dielectric resonator antenna (DRA placed over dielectric substrate backed by a ground plane is presented. A dual strip excitation scheme is utilized and both excitation strips are connected together by means of a 50 Ω microstrip feed network placed over the substrate. The four vertical metallic parasitic strips are placed at corner of DRA each having a corresponding ground pad to provide a short/open circuit between the parasitic strip and antenna ground plane, through which a shift of 90° in antenna radiation pattern in elevation plane is achieved. A fractional bandwidth of approximately 40% at center frequency of 1.6 GHz is achieved. The DRA peak realized gain in whole frequency band of operation is found to be above 4 dB. The antenna configuration along with simulation and measured results are presented.

  5. Establishment of animal model of dual liver transplantation in rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    Full Text Available The animal model of the whole-size and reduced-size liver transplantation in both rat and mouse has been successfully established. Because of the difficulties and complexities in microsurgical technology, the animal model of dual liver transplantation was still not established for twelve years since the first human dual liver transplantation has been made a success. There is an essential need to establish this animal model to lay a basic foundation for clinical practice. To study the physiological and histopathological changes of dual liver transplantation, "Y" type vein from the cross part between vena cava and two iliac of donor and "Y' type prosthesis were employed to recanalize portal vein and the bile duct between dual liver grafts and recipient. The dual right upper lobes about 45-50% of the recipient liver volume were taken as donor, one was orthotopically implanted at its original position, the other was rotated 180° sagitally and heterotopically positioned in the left upper quadrant. Microcirculation parameters, liver function, immunohistochemistry and survival were analyzed to evaluate the function of dual liver grafts. No significant difference in the hepatic microcirculatory flow was found between two grafts in the first 90 minutes after reperfusion. Light and electronic microscope showed the liver architecture was maintained without obvious features of cellular destruction and the continuity of the endothelium was preserved. Only 3 heterotopically positioned graft appeared patchy desquamation of endothelial cell, mitochondrial swelling and hepatocytes cytoplasmic vacuolization. Immunohistochemistry revealed there is no difference in hepatocyte activity and the ability of endothelia to contract and relax after reperfusion between dual grafts. Dual grafts made a rapid amelioration of liver function after reperfusion. 7 rats survived more than 7 days with survival rate of 58.3.%. Using "Y" type vein and bile duct prosthesis, we

  6. Stochastic resonance in a financial model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛晓明; 孙锴; 欧阳颀

    2002-01-01

    We report on our model study of stochastic resonance in the stock market using numerical simulation and analysis.In the model, we take the interest rate as the external signal, the randomness of traders' behaviour as the noise, andthe stock price as the output. With computer simulations, we find that the system demonstrates a characteristic ofstochastic resonance as noise intensity varies. An analytical explanation is proposed.

  7. Quality Factor and Radiation Efficiency of Dual-Mode Self-Resonant Spherical Antennas With Lossy Magnetodielectric Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels Vejle; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2014-01-01

    determine the relative mode excitation, as a function of the core material parameters, which ensures self-resonance. For the specific case of a dual-${\\rm TE}_{m1}$ , ${\\rm TM}_{m1}$ dipole antenna of half a wavelength circumference, we show quantitatively, how $Q/e$ and $e$ behave, and can be optimized...

  8. Design, Modelling and Fabrication of a 40-330 Hz Dual-Mass MEMS Gyroscope on Thick-SOI Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rajaraman, V.; Sabageh, I.; French, P.; Pansraud, G.; Cretu, E.

    2011-01-01

    This work reports the design, modelling, fabrication and preliminary functionality testing of a dual-mass MEMS vibratory gyroscope for application in medical instrumentation, among others. The two-framed gyro has drive and sense mode resonance frequencies of 2500Hz and 2830Hz, with its bandwidth tun

  9. Performance evaluation of dual-frequency driving plate ultrasonic motor based on an analytical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yafei; Yang, Ming; Chen, Xuying; He, Wei; Li, Shiyang; Li, Chaodong

    2011-08-01

    An analytical model is presented to explain the effects of dual-frequency drive on the plate ultrasonic motor in this paper. The experimental prototype is a plate ultrasonic motor using single-phase asymmetric excitation, which can work under a single vibration or multiple vibration modes. Based on the linear superposition of vibrations with two different excitation frequencies, an analytical model is established using the classic Coulomb friction model, and the non-load rotation speed and maximum stall torque are deduced. Moreover, some crucial parameters such as preload and dead-zone in dual-frequency superposition model are identified or modified automatically by searching for the maximum correlation coefficient between simulation and experimental data using single-frequency drive. It is found that simulation and experiment results agree well when no excitation frequency component is at resonance.

  10. Nonword reading: comparing dual-route cascaded and connectionist dual-process models with human data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Stephen C; Coltheart, Max; Palethorpe, Sallyanne; Castles, Anne

    2012-10-01

    Two prominent dual-route computational models of reading aloud are the dual-route cascaded (DRC) model, and the connectionist dual-process plus (CDP+) model. While sharing similarly designed lexical routes, the two models differ greatly in their respective nonlexical route architecture, such that they often differ on nonword pronunciation. Neither model has been appropriately tested for nonword reading pronunciation accuracy to date. We argue that empirical data on the nonword reading pronunciation of people is the ideal benchmark for testing. Data were gathered from 45 Australian-English-speaking psychology undergraduates reading aloud 412 nonwords. To provide contrast between the models, the nonwords were chosen specifically because DRC and CDP+ disagree on their pronunciation. Both models failed to accurately match the experiment data, and both have deficiencies in nonword reading performance. However, the CDP+ model performed significantly worse than the DRC model. CDP++, the recent successor to CDP+, had improved performance over CDP+, but was also significantly worse than DRC. In addition to highlighting performance shortcomings in each model, the variety of nonword responses given by participants points to a need for models that can account for this variety.

  11. Integrable deformations of T-dual $\\sigma$ models

    CERN Document Server

    Borsato, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    We present a method to deform (generically non-abelian) T duals of two-dimensional $\\sigma$ models, which preserves classical integrability. The deformed models are identified by a linear operator $\\omega$ on the dualised subalgebra, which satisfies the 2-cocycle condition. We prove that the so-called homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations are equivalent, via a field redefinition, to our deformed models when $\\omega$ is invertible. We explain the details for deformations of T duals of Principal Chiral Models, and present the corresponding generalisation to the case of supercoset models.

  12. Nonlinear dynamical model of an automotive dual mass flywheel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The hysteresis, stick–slip, and rotational speed-dependent characteristics in a basic dual mass flywheel are obtained from a static and a dynamic experiments. Based on the experimental results, a nonlinear model of the transferred torque in this dual mass flywheel is developed, with the overlying form of nonlinear elastic torque and frictional torque. The nonlinearities of stiffness are investigated, deriving a nonlinear model to describe the rotational speed-dependent stiffness. In addition, Bouc–Wen model is used to model the hysteretic frictional torque. Thus, the nonlinear 2-degree-of-freedom system of this dual mass flywheel is set up. Then, the Levenberg–Marquardt method is adopted for the parameter estimation of the frictional torque. Finally, taking the nonlinear stiffness in this model into account, the parameters of Bouc–Wen model are estimated based on the dynamic test data.

  13. Using Live Dual Modeling to Help Preservice Teachers Develop TPACK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Liangyue; Lei, Jing

    2012-01-01

    To help preservice teachers learn about teaching with technology--specifically, technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK)--the researchers designed and implemented a Live Dual Modeling strategy involving both live behavior modeling and cognitive modeling in this study. Using qualitative research methods, the researchers investigated…

  14. An extended dual search space model of scientific discovery learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joolingen, van Wouter R.; Jong, de Ton

    1997-01-01

    This article describes a theory of scientific discovery learning which is an extension of Klahr and Dunbar''s model of Scientific Discovery as Dual Search (SDDS) model. We present a model capable of describing and understanding scientific discovery learning in complex domains in terms of the SDDS fr

  15. Dual absorptive model and np elastic scattering at high energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem

    1980-06-01

    The most recent measurements of the angular distribution and total cross-sections in np elastic scattering at high energies from 70 to 400 GeV/c have been fitted by using the dual absorptive model. Comparison has also been made with the Kane-Siedl model and the simple Regge pole model.

  16. Modelling Strategies for Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristoffer Hougaard

    2009-01-01

    This thesis collects research done on several models for the analysis of functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI) data. Several extensions for unsupervised factor analysis type decompositions including explicit delay modelling as well as handling of spatial and temporal smoothness...

  17. Resonance asymptotics in the generalized Winter model

    CERN Document Server

    Exner, P; Exner, Pavel; Fraas, Martin

    2006-01-01

    We consider a modification of the Winter model describing a quantum particle in presence of a spherical barrier given by a fixed generalized point interaction. It is shown that the three classes of such interactions correspond to three different types of asymptotic behaviour of resonances of the model at high energies.

  18. Resonating models for the electric power market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucheroni, Carlo

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes the economic phenomenon of price spiking in electric power markets and introduces an alternative way to model it. A stochastic FitzHugh-Nagumo dynamics in a special regime is proposed as a basic model for the power market, and an extension of the FitzHugh-Nagumo system is introduced to improve the statistical features of the basic model. Ideas from stochastic and coherence resonance are used to discuss the models.

  19. Equivalent Circuit Model for Thick Split Ring Resonators and Thick Spiral Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Mancera, Laura Maria Pulido

    2014-01-01

    A simple theoretical model which provides circuit parameters and resonance frequency of metallic thick resonators is presented. Two different topologies were studied: the original Pendry's SRR and spiral resonators of two and three turns. Theoretical computations of resonant frequencies are in good agreement with values obtained with a commercial electromagnetic solver. The model could be helpful for designing thick frequency selective surfaces (FSS) based on this types of resonators, so called metasurfaces.

  20. Brown adipose tissue in humans: detection and functional analysis using PET (positron emission tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), and DECT (dual energy computed tomography).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borga, Magnus; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Romu, Thobias; Leinhard, Olof Dahlqvist; Persson, Anders; Nuutila, Pirjo; Enerbäck, Sven

    2014-01-01

    If the beneficial effects of brown adipose tissue (BAT) on whole body metabolism, as observed in nonhuman experimental models, are to be translated to humans, tools that accurately measure how BAT influences human metabolism will be required. This chapter discusses such techniques, how they can be used, what they can measure and also some of their limitations. The focus is on detection and functional analysis of human BAT and how this can be facilitated by applying advanced imaging technology such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and dual energy computed tomography. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exotic baryon resonances in the Skyrme model

    CERN Document Server

    Diakonov, Dmitri

    2008-01-01

    We outline how one can understand the Skyrme model from the modern perspective. We review the quantization of the SU(3) rotations of the Skyrmion, leading to the exotic baryons that cannot be made of three quarks. It is shown that in the limit of large number of colours the lowest-mass exotic baryons can be studied from the kaon-Skyrmion scattering amplitudes, an approach known after Callan and Klebanov. We follow this approach and find, both analytically and numerically, a strong Theta+ resonance in the scattering amplitude that is traced to the rotational mode. The Skyrme model does predict an exotic resonance Theta+ but grossly overestimates the width. To understand better the factors affecting the width, it is computed by several methods giving, however, identical results. In particular, we show that insofar as the width is small, it can be found from the transition axial constant. The physics leading to a narrow Theta+ resonance is briefly reviewed and affirmed.

  2. On the dual equivalence of the self-dual and topologically massive p-form models

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, R; Ribeiro, R F; Wotzasek, C

    2003-01-01

    We study the duality symmetry in p-form models containing a generalized $B_q\\wedge F_{p+1}$ term in spacetime manifolds of arbitrary dimensions. The equivalence between the $B_q\\wedge F_{p+1}$ self-dual ($SD_{B\\wedge F}$) and the $B_q\\wedge F_{p+1}$ topologically massive ($TM_{B\\wedge F}$) models is established using a gauge embedding procedure, including the minimal coupling to conserved charged matter current. The minimal coupling adopted for both tensor fields in the self-dual representation is transformed into a non minimal magnetic like coupling in the topologically massive representation but with the currents swapped. It is known that to establish this equivalence a current-current interaction term is needed to render the matter sector unchanged. We show that both terms arise naturally from the embedding adopted. Comparison with Higgs/Julia-Toulouse duality is established.

  3. Coupling Influence on Signal Readout of a Dual-Parameter LC Resonant System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jijun Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dual-parameter inductive-capacitive (LC resonant sensor is gradually becoming the measurement trend in complex harsh environments; however, the coupling between inductors greatly affects the readout signal, which becomes very difficult to resolve by means of simple mathematical tools. By changing the values of specific variables in a MATLAB code, the influence of coupling between coils on the readout signal is analyzed. Our preliminary conclusions underline that changing the coupling to antenna greatly affects the readout signal, but it simultaneously influences the other signal. When f01=f02, it is better to broaden the difference between the two coupling coefficients k1 and k2. On the other side, when f01 is smaller than f02, it is better to decrease the coupling between sensor inductors k12, in order to obtain two readout signals averaged in strength. Finally, a test system including a discrete capacitor soldered to a printed circuit board (PCB based planar spiral coil is built, and the readout signals under different relative inductors positions are analyzed. All experimental results are in good agreement with the results of the MATLAB simulation.

  4. An ultra-thin dual-band phase-gradient metasurface using hybrid resonant structures for backward RCS reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yongzhi; Wu, Chenjun; Ge, Chenchen; Yang, Jiaji; Pei, Xiaojun; Jia, Fan; Gong, Rongzhou

    2017-05-01

    We introduce and investigate, both experimentally and theoretically, a dual-band phase-gradient metasurface (PGM) to accurately facilitate dual-band beams deflection for electromagnetic waves. The designed PGM is composed of two kinds of split-ring resonators as the basic element of a super cell. These hybrid resonant structures can generate phase gradients at two distinct frequencies, which, in turn, generate appropriately artificial wave vectors that meet the requirements for anomalous reflection in terms of generalized Snell's law. Both simulations and experiments are consistent with the theoretical predictions. Further, this PGM can work at 8.9 and 11.4 GHz frequencies providing a phenomenon of anomalous reflection, which is useful for backward radar cross section reduction.

  5. Anomalous effective lagrangians and vector resonance models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pallante, E.; Petronzio, R.

    1993-01-01

    Chiral lagrangians including vector resonances have been shown to saturate the finite part of some of the counterterms needed to regularize ordinary one-loop effective lagrangians of pseudoscalar interactions with external currents. The equivalence between different models has been discussed in the

  6. Fano resonance in asymmetric-period two-dimensional plasmonic absorbers for dual-band uncooled infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Shinpei; Takagawa, Yousuke; Kimata, Masafumi

    2016-11-01

    The spectral discrimination function of uncooled infrared (IR) sensors has significant advantages for applications such as fire detection, gas analysis, and biological analysis. We have previously demonstrated wavelength-selective uncooled IR sensors using two-dimensional plasmonic absorbers (2-D PLAs) over a wide range spanning the middle- and long-wavelength IR regions. 2-D PLAs are highly promising in terms of practical application due to the ease of fabrication and robustness for structural fluctuations. However, dual-band operation based on this concept has not yet been investigated, even though the ability to absorb in two different wavelength bands is extremely important for object recognition. Thus, a dual-band uncooled IR sensor was developed that employs Fano resonance in the plasmonic structures. To achieve dual-band detection, asymmetric periods in the orthogonal x- and y-directions were introduced into 2-D PLAs. Theoretical investigations predicted an asymmetric absorbance line shape dependent on the polarization attributed to Fano resonance. The spectral responsivity of the developed sensor demonstrated that selective detection occurred in two different wavelength bands due to polarization-dependent Fano resonance. The results obtained in this study will be applicable to the development of advanced sensors capable of multiband detection in the IR region.

  7. White Paper of the Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance on Dual-Energy CT, Part 2: Radiation Dose and Iodine Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, W Dennis; Shuman, William P; Siegel, Marilyn J; Sahani, Dushyant V; Boll, Daniel T; Bolus, David N; De Cecco, Carlo N; Kaza, Ravi K; Morgan, Desiree E; Schoepf, U Joseph; Vrtiska, Terri J; Yeh, Benjamin M; Berland, Lincoln L

    This is the second of a series of 4 white papers that represent Expert Consensus Documents developed by the Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance through its task force on dual-energy computed tomography. This paper, part 2, addresses radiation dose and iodine sensitivity in dual-energy computed tomography.

  8. Accelerating the reconstruction of magnetic resonance imaging by three-dimensional dual-dictionary learning using CUDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiansen Li; Jianqi Sun; Ying Song; Yanran Xu; Jun Zhao

    2014-01-01

    An effective way to improve the data acquisition speed of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is using under-sampled k-space data, and dictionary learning method can be used to maintain the reconstruction quality. Three-dimensional dictionary trains the atoms in dictionary in the form of blocks, which can utilize the spatial correlation among slices. Dual-dictionary learning method includes a low-resolution dictionary and a high-resolution dictionary, for sparse coding and image updating respectively. However, the amount of data is huge for three-dimensional reconstruction, especially when the number of slices is large. Thus, the procedure is time-consuming. In this paper, we first utilize the NVIDIA Corporation's compute unified device architecture (CUDA) programming model to design the parallel algorithms on graphics processing unit (GPU) to accelerate the reconstruction procedure. The main optimizations operate in the dictionary learning algorithm and the image updating part, such as the orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP) algorithm and the k-singular value decomposition (K-SVD) algorithm. Then we develop another version of CUDA code with algorithmic optimization. Experimental results show that more than 324 times of speedup is achieved compared with the CPU-only codes when the number of MRI slices is 24.

  9. International Family Migration and the Dual-Earner Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Martin D.; Nikolka, Till; Poutvaara, Panu

    2017-01-01

    Gender differences in labor force participation are exceptionally small in Nordic countries. We investigate how couples emigrating from Denmark self-select and sort into different destinations and whether couples pursue the dual-earner model, in which both partners work, when abroad. Female labor...

  10. Duals for classical inventory models via generalized geometric programming

    OpenAIRE

    Carlton H. Scott; Thomas R. Jefferson; Soheila Jorjani

    2004-01-01

    Inventory problems generally have a structure that can be exploited for computational purposes. Here, we look at the duals of two seemingly unrelated inventory models that suggest an interesting duality between discrete time optimal control and optimization over an ordered sequence of variables. Concepts from conjugate duality and generalized geometric programming are used to establish the duality.

  11. Dual equivalence in models with higher-order derivatives

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Nascimento, J R S; Ribeiro, R F; Wotzasek, C

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a class of higher-order derivative models in (2,1) space-time dimensions. The models are described by a vector field, and contain a Proca-like mass term which prevents gauge invariance. We use the gauge embedding procedure to generate another class of higher-order derivative models, gauge-invariant and dual to the former class. We also show that the gauge embedding approach works appropriately when the vector field couples with fermionic matter.

  12. A dual-modal magnetic nanoparticle probe for preoperative and intraoperative mapping of sentinel lymph nodes by magnetic resonance and near infrared fluorescence imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhengyang; Chen, Hongwei; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Wang, Liya; Yu, Qiqi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Tiwari, Diana; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2013-07-01

    The ability to reliably detect sentinel lymph nodes for sentinel lymph node biopsy and lymphadenectomy is important in clinical management of patients with metastatic cancers. However, the traditional sentinel lymph node mapping with visible dyes is limited by the penetration depth of light and fast clearance of the dyes. On the other hand, sentinel lymph node mapping with radionucleotide technique has intrinsically low spatial resolution and does not provide anatomic details in the sentinel lymph node mapping procedure. This work reports the development of a dual modality imaging probe with magnetic resonance and near infrared imaging capabilities for sentinel lymph node mapping using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (10 nm core size) conjugated with a near infrared molecule with emission at 830 nm. Accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in sentinel lymph nodes leads to strong T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast that can be potentially used for preoperative localization of sentinel lymph nodes, while conjugated near infrared molecules provide optical imaging tracking of lymph nodes with a high signal to background ratio. The new magnetic nanoparticle based dual imaging probe exhibits a significant longer lymph node retention time. Near infrared signals from nanoparticle conjugated near infrared dyes last up to 60 min in sentinel lymph node compared to that of 25 min for the free near infrared dyes in a mouse model. Furthermore, axillary lymph nodes, in addition to sentinel lymph nodes, can be also visualized with this probe, given its slow clearance and sufficient sensitivity. Therefore, this new dual modality imaging probe with the tissue penetration and sensitive detection of sentinel lymph nodes can be applied for preoperative survey of lymph nodes with magnetic resonance imaging and allows intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping using near infrared optical devices.

  13. Dual equivalence between Self-Dual and Maxwell-Chern-Simons models coupled to dynamical U(1) charged matter

    CERN Document Server

    Anacleto, M A; Nascimento, J R S; Ribeiro, R F; Wotzasek, C

    2001-01-01

    We study the equivalence between the self-dual and the Maxwell-Chern-Simons (MCS) models coupled to dynamical, U(1) charged matter, both fermionic and bosonic. This is done through an iterative procedure of gauge embedding that produces the dual mapping of the self-dual vector field theory into a Maxwell-Chern-Simons version. In both cases, to establish this equivalence a current-current interaction term is needed to render the matter sector unchanged. Moreover, the minimal coupling of the original self-dual model is replaced by a non-minimal magnetic like coupling in the MCS side. Unlike the fermionic instance however, in the bosonic example the dual mapping proposed here leads to a Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory immersed in a field dependent medium.

  14. The space of signed points and the Self Dual Model

    CERN Document Server

    Leal, L C

    2002-01-01

    We study a generalization of the group of loops based on sets of signed points, instead of paths or loops. This geometrical setting incorporates the kinematical constraints of the Sigma Model, inasmuch as the the group of loops does with the Bianchi identities of Yang-Mills theories. We employ an Abelian version of this construction to quantize the Self-Dual Model, which allows us to relate this theory with that of a massless scalar field obeying non-trivial boundary conditions.

  15. Resonant Transmission Line Method for Econophysics models

    CERN Document Server

    Raptis, T E

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper [1304.6846], Racorean introduced a formal similarity of the Black-Sholes stock pricing model with a Schr\\"odinger equation. We use a previously introduced method of a resonant transmission line for arbitrary 2nd order Sturm-Liouville problems to attack the same problem from a different perspective revealing some deep structures in the naturally associated eigenvalue problem.

  16. Finiteness of PST self-dual models

    CERN Document Server

    Monteiro del Cima, O; Sarandy, M S; Cima, Oswaldo M. Del; Piguet, Olivier; Sarandy, Marcelo S.

    2001-01-01

    The Pasti-Sorokin-Tonin model for describing chiral forms is considered at the quantum level. We study the ultraviolet and infrared behaviour of the model in two, four and six dimensions in the framework of algebraic renormalization. The absence of anomalies, as well as the finiteness, up to non-physical renormalizations, are shown in all dimensions analyzed.

  17. Implementation and Investigation of a Compact Circular Wide Slot UWB Antenna with Dual Notched Band Characteristics using Stepped Impedance Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingsong Li

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A coplanar waveguide (CPW fed ultra-wideband (UWB antenna with dual notched band characteristics is presented in this paper. The circular wide slot and circular radiation patch are utilized to broaden the impedance bandwidth of the UWB antenna. The dual notched band functions are achieved by employing two stepped impedance resonators (SIRs which etched on the circular radiation patch and CPW excitation line, respectively. The two notched bands can be controlled by adjusting the dimensions of the two stepped impedance resonators which give tunable notched band functions. The proposed dual notched band UWB antenna has been designed in details and optimized by means of HFSS. Experimental and numerical results show that the proposed antenna with compact size of 32 × 24 mm2, has an impedance bandwidth range from 2.8 GHz to 13.5 Hz for voltage standing-wave ratio (VSWR less than 2, except the notch bands 5.0 GHz - 6.2 GHz for HIPERLAN/2 and IEEE 802.11a (5.1 GHz - 5.9 GHz and 8.0 GHz - 9.3 GHz for satellite and military applications.

  18. A dual porosity model of nutrient uptake by root hairs

    KAUST Repository

    Zygalakis, K. C.

    2011-08-09

    Summary: • The importance of root hairs in the uptake of sparingly soluble nutrients is understood qualitatively, but not quantitatively, and this limits efforts to breed plants tolerant of nutrient-deficient soils. • Here, we develop a mathematical model of nutrient uptake by root hairs allowing for hair geometry and the details of nutrient transport through soil, including diffusion within and between soil particles. We give illustrative results for phosphate uptake. • Compared with conventional \\'single porosity\\' models, this \\'dual porosity\\' model predicts greater root uptake because more nutrient is available by slow release from within soil particles. Also the effect of soil moisture is less important with the dual porosity model because the effective volume available for diffusion in the soil is larger, and the predicted effects of hair length and density are different. • Consistent with experimental observations, with the dual porosity model, increases in hair length give greater increases in uptake than increases in hair density per unit main root length. The effect of hair density is less in dry soil because the minimum concentration in solution for net influx is reached more rapidly. The effect of hair length is much less sensitive to soil moisture. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. Oil/water nano-emulsion loaded with cobalt ferrite oxide nanocubes for photo-acoustic and magnetic resonance dual imaging in cancer: in vitro and preclinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchione, Raffaele; Quagliariello, Vincenzo; Giustetto, Pierangela; Calabria, Dominic; Sathya, Ayyappan; Marotta, Roberto; Profeta, Martina; Nitti, Simone; Silvestri, Niccolò; Pellegrino, Teresa; Iaffaioli, Rosario V; Netti, Paolo Antonio

    2017-01-01

    Dual imaging dramatically improves detection and early diagnosis of cancer. In this work we present an oil in water (O/W) nano-emulsion stabilized with lecithin and loaded with cobalt ferrite oxide (Co0.5Fe2.5O4) nanocubes for photo-acoustic and magnetic resonance dual imaging. The nanocarrier is responsive in in vitro photo-acoustic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) tests. A clear and significant time-dependent accumulation in tumor tissue is shown in in vivo photo-acoustic studies on a murine melanoma xenograft model. The proposed O/W nano-emulsion exhibits also high values of r2/r1 (ranging from 45 to 85, depending on the magnetic field) suggesting a possible use as T2 weighted image contrast agents. In addition, viability and cellular uptake studies show no significant cytotoxicity on the fibroblast cell line. We also tested the O/W nano-emulsion loaded with curcumin against melanoma cancer cells demonstrating a significant cytotoxicity and thus showing possible therapeutic effects in addition to the in vivo imaging. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dual imputation model for incomplete longitudinal data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jolani, S.; Frank, L.E.; Buuren, S. van

    2014-01-01

    Missing values are a practical issue in the analysis of longitudinal data. Multiple imputation (MI) is a well-known likelihood-based method that has optimal properties in terms of efficiency and consistency if the imputation model is correctly specified. Doubly robust (DR) weighing-based methods pro

  1. Enhanced optical transmission through a star-shaped bull's eye at dual resonant-bands in UV and the visible spectral range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Tavakol; Khazaeinezhad, Reza; Jung, Woohyun; Joo, Boram; Kong, Byung-Joo; Oh, Kyunghwan

    2015-07-13

    Dual resonant bands in UV and the visible range were simultaneously observed in the enhanced optical transmission (EOT) through star-shaped plasmonic structures. EOTs through four types of polygonal bull's eyes with a star aperture surrounded by the concentric star grooves were analyzed and compared for 3, 4, 5, and 6 corners, using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. In contrast to plasmonic resonances in the visible range, the UV-band resonance intensity was found to scale with the number of corners, which is related with higher order multipole interactions. Spectral positions and relative intensities of the dual resonances were analyzed parametrically to find optimal conditions to maximize EOT in UV-visible dual bands.

  2. Dual coupling effective band model for polarons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Dominic J. J.; Stamp, Philip C. E.; Berciu, Mona

    2017-01-01

    Nondiagonal couplings to a bosonic bath completely change polaronic dynamics, from the usual diagonally coupled paradigm of smoothly varying properties. We study, using analytic and numerical methods, a model having both diagonal Holstein and nondiagonal Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) couplings. The critical coupling found previously in the pure SSH model, at which the k =0 effective mass diverges, now becomes a transition line in the coupling constant plane—the form of the line depends on the adiabaticity parameter. Detailed results are given for the quasiparticle and ground-state properties, over a wide range of couplings and adiabaticity ratios. The new paradigm involves a destabilization, at the transition line, of the simple Holstein polaron to one with a finite ground-state momentum, but with everywhere a continuously evolving band shape. No "self-trapping transition" exists in any of these models. The physics may be understood entirely in terms of competition between different hopping terms in a simple renormalized effective band theory. The possibility of further transitions is suggested by the results.

  3. Comparison of Aortic Valve Area Measured by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Dual-Source Computed Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruder, O.; Jochims, M.; Jensen, C.; Sabin, G.V. (Dept. of Cardiology and Angiology, Elisabeth Hospital Essen (Germany)); Hunold, P.; Forsting, M.; Barkhausen, J.; Schlosser, T. (Dept. of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Univ. Hospital Essen, Univ. of Duisburg-Essen (Germany))

    2009-07-15

    Background: Aortic valve stenosis is the most common type of valve lesion in Europe and North America. Patient treatment is based on disease severity, which is classified by determining the aortic valve area (AVA). Purpose: To compare dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging for quantifying AVA. Material and Methods: Thirty-two patients, 28 with normal aortic valve function and four with aortic valve stenosis, who underwent DSCT coronary angiography (Somatom Definition; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany), were included in this study. Retrospective ECG-gated contrast-enhanced DSCT scans with dose-reducing tube current modulation were performed, and data sets were reconstructed in 3% steps of the R-R interval (slice thickness 0.75 mm, increment 0.6 mm). Planimetry of the AVA in systole was assessed on cross-sectional images by multiplanar reformations. Within 48 hours, MR was performed with a 1.5T scanner (Magnetom Sonata; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) using a balanced steady-state free-precession cine sequence (repetition/echo time 3/1.5 ms, flip angle 60 deg, spatial resolution 1.4x1.4 mm2). Cine sequences of the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) were obtained in two orthogonal planes, and MR planimetry was performed on cross-sectional images of the aortic valve perpendicular to the LVOT images. Results: AVA assessment by DSCT and MR was feasible in all 32 patients. Mean AVA values determined by DSCT and MR were 4.73+-1.5 cm2 and 4.69+-1.4 cm2, respectively. A strong positive correlation was found between both imaging modalities (R=0.98, P<0.001). Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated an excellent intermodality agreement, with a slight underestimation of AVA by DSCT. The mean difference was -0.04 cm2, with a standard deviation of 0.32 cm2. Conclusion: Retrospective ECG-gated contrast-enhanced DSCT with tube current modulation provides an accurate imaging technique for the assessment of the AVA. Further studies are required to determine

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Dual Intake Transparent Transpired Solar Collector

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Semenou; Rousse, Daniel R.; Brice Le Lostec; Hervé F. Nouanegue; Pierre-Luc Paradis

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, in several types of commercial or institutional buildings, a significant rise of transpired solar collectors used to preheat the fresh air of the building can be observed. Nevertheless, when the air mass flow rate is low, the collector efficiency collapses and a large amount of energy remains unused. This paper presents a simple yet effective mathematical model of a transparent transpired solar collector (TTC) with dual intake in order to remove stagnation problems in the plenum and...

  5. Functional mathematical model of dual pathway AV nodal conduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climent, A M; Guillem, M S; Zhang, Y; Millet, J; Mazgalev, T N

    2011-04-01

    Dual atrioventricular (AV) nodal pathway physiology is described as two different wave fronts that propagate from the atria to the His bundle: one with a longer effective refractory period [fast pathway (FP)] and a second with a shorter effective refractory period [slow pathway (SP)]. By using His electrogram alternance, we have developed a mathematical model of AV conduction that incorporates dual AV nodal pathway physiology. Experiments were performed on five rabbit atrial-AV nodal preparations to develop and test the presented model. His electrogram alternances from the inferior margin of the His bundle were used to identify fast and slow wave front propagations. The ability to predict AV conduction time and the interaction between FP and SP wave fronts have been analyzed during regular and irregular atrial rhythms (e.g., atrial fibrillation). In addition, the role of dual AV nodal pathway wave fronts in the generation of Wenckebach periodicities has been illustrated. Finally, AV node ablative modifications have been evaluated. The model accurately reproduced interactions between FP and SP during regular and irregular atrial pacing protocols. In all experiments, specificity and sensitivity higher than 85% were obtained in the prediction of the pathway responsible for conduction. It has been shown that, during atrial fibrillation, the SP ablation significantly increased the mean HH interval (204 ± 39 vs. 274 ± 50 ms, P AV node mechanisms and should be considered as a step forward in the studies of AV nodal conduction.

  6. A resonance based model of biological evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasco, Achille; Giuliani, Alessandro

    2017-04-01

    We propose a coarse grained physical model of evolution. The proposed model 'at least in principle' is amenable of an experimental verification even if this looks as a conundrum: evolution is a unique historical process and the tape cannot be reversed and played again. Nevertheless, we can imagine a phenomenological scenario tailored upon state transitions in physical chemistry in which different agents of evolution play the role of the elements of a state transition like thermal noise or resonance effects. The abstract model we propose can be of help for sketching hypotheses and getting rid of some well-known features of natural history like the so-called Cambrian explosion. The possibility of an experimental proof of the model is discussed as well.

  7. Modelling and Analysis of Dual-Stator Induction Motors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razik, Hubert; Rezzoug, Abderrezak; Hadiouche, Djafar

    In this paper, the analysis and the modelling of a Dual-Stator Induction Motor (DSIM) are presented. In particular, the effects of the shift angle between its three-phase windings are studied. A complex steady state model is first established in order to analyse its harmonic behavior when it is supplied by a non-sinusoidal voltage source. Then, a new transformation matrix is proposed to develop a suitable dynamic model. In both cases, the study is made using an arbitrary shift angle. Simulation results of its PWM control are also presented and compared in order to confirm our theoretical observations.

  8. A Dual-Bridge LLC Resonant Converter with Fixed-Frequency PWM Control for Wide Input Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiaofeng, Sun; Li, Xiaohua; Shen, Yanfeng;

    2017-01-01

    . Compared with the traditional pulse frequency modulation (PFM) controlled HB/FB LLC resonant converter, the voltage gain range is independent of the quality factor and the magnetizing inductor has little influence on the voltage gain, which can simplify the parameter selection process and benefit...... the design of magnetic components as well. Over the full load range, zero voltage switching (ZVS) and zero current switching (ZCS) can be achieved for primary switches and secondary rectifier diodes, respectively. Detailed analysis on the modulation schedule and operating principle of the proposed converter......This paper proposes a dual-bridge (DB) LLC resonant converter for wide input applications. The topology is an integration of a half-bridge (HB) LLC circuit and a full-bridge (FB) LLC circuit. The fixed-frequency PWM control is employed and a range of twice the minimum input voltage can be covered...

  9. Theoretical modeling of a self-referenced dual mode SPR sensor utilizing indium tin oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sachin K.; Verma, Roli; Gupta, Banshi D.

    2016-06-01

    A prism based dual mode SPR sensor was theoretically modeled to work as a self-referenced sensor in spectral interrogation scheme. Self-referenced sensing was achieved by sandwiching an indium tin oxide thin film in between the prism base and the metal layer. The proposed sensor possesses two plasmon modes similar to long and short range SPRs (LR- and SR-SPRs) and we have analogically used LRSPR and SRSPR for them. However, these modes do not possess usual long range character due to the losses introduced by the imaginary part of indium tin oxide (ITO) dielectric function. One of the two plasmon modes responds to change in analyte refractive index while the other remains fixed. The influence of various design parameters on the performance of the sensor was evaluated. The performance of the proposed sensor was compared, via control simulations, with established dual mode geometries utilizing silicon dioxide (SiO2), Teflon AF-1600 and Cytop. The design parameters of the established geometries were optimized to obtain self-referenced sensing operation. Trade-offs between the resonance spectral width, minimum reflectivity, shift in resonance wavelength and angle of incidence were examined for optimal design. The present study will be useful in the fabrication of self-referenced sensors where the ambient conditions are not quite stable.

  10. Dual Superconductivity in Abelian Higgs Model of QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajput, B. S.

    2017-04-01

    The study of generalized field associated with Abelian dyons has been undertaken and it has been demonstrated that topologically, a non-Abelian gauge theory is equivalent to a set of Abelian gauge theories supplemented by dyons which undergo condensation leading to confinement and consequently to superconducting model of QCD vacuum, where the Higgs field plays the role of a regulator only. Constructing the effective action for dyonic field in Abelian projection of QCD, it has been demonstrated that any charge (electrical or magnetic) of dyon screens its own direct potential to which it minimally couples and anti-screens the dual potential leading to dual superconductivity in accordance with generalized Meissner effect. In this Abelian projection of QCD an Abelian Higgs model (AHM) has been successfully constructed and it has been shown to incorporate dual superconductivity and confinement as the consequence of dyonic condensation. It has been demonstrated that in AHM t' Hooft loop creates the string (AHM-string) around which the monopole current under London limit leads to vanishing coherence length in the chromo-magnetic superconductor. It has also been shown that in London limit the squared density of monopole current around AHM-string has a maximum at the distance of the order of penetration length.

  11. Slow Steps towards Dual Earner/Dual Carer Family Model: Why Do Fathers Not Take Parental Leave

    OpenAIRE

    Marre Karu; Kairi Kasearu

    2011-01-01

    The article looks at the transition of Estonian society towards dual earner/dual carer family model and focuses on fathers’ decision regarding taking their parental leave. Based on theory of planned behaviour by Ajzen, data from 20 qualitative interviews with fathers of small children are analysed to explore the beliefs fathers have when it comes to parental leave. The analysis distinguishes between two images of ‘good parenting’ that play a role in the fathers’ intention to take parental lea...

  12. [Dual neural circuit model of reading and writing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Makoto

    2011-08-01

    In the hypothetical neural circuit model of reading and writing that was initially proposed by Dejerine and subsequently confirmed by Geschwind, the left angular gyrus was considered as a unique center for processing letters. Japanese investigators, however, have repeatedly pointed out that this angular gyrus model cannot fully explain the disturbances observed in reading and writing Kanji letters in Japanese patients with various types of alexia with or without agraphia. In 1982, I proposed a dual neural circuit model of reading and writing Japanese on the basis of neuropsychological studies on the various types of alexia with or without agraphia without aphasia. This dual neural circuit model proposes that apart from the left angular gyrus which was thought to be a node for phonological processing of letters, the left posterior inferior temporal area, also acts as a node for semantic processing of letters. Further investigations using O15-PET activation on normal subjects revealed that the left middle occipital gyrus (area 19 of Brodmann) and the posterior portion of the left inferior temporal gyrus (area 37 of Brodmann) are the cortical areas responsible for reading Japanese letters; the former serving for phonological reading and the latter for semantic reading. This duality of the neural circuit in processing letters was later applied to explain disturbances in reading English, and was finally accepted as a valid model for other alphabetic letter systems too.

  13. Constraining groundwater modeling with magnetic resonance soundings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Marie; Favreau, Guillaume; Nazoumou, Yahaya; Cappelaere, Bernard; Massuel, Sylvain; Legchenko, Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is a noninvasive geophysical method that allows estimating the free water content and transmissivity of aquifers. In this article, the ability of MRS to improve the reliability of a numerical groundwater model is assessed. Thirty-five sites were investigated by MRS over a ∼5000 km(2) domain of the sedimentary Continental Terminal aquifer in SW Niger. Time domain electromagnetic soundings were jointly carried out to estimate the aquifer thickness. A groundwater model was previously built for this section of the aquifer and forced by the outputs from a distributed surface hydrology model, to simulate the observed long-term (1992 to 2003) rise in the water table. Uncertainty analysis had shown that independent estimates of the free water content and transmissivity values of the aquifer would facilitate cross-evaluation of the surface-water and groundwater models. MRS results indicate ranges for permeability (K = 1 × 10(-5) to 3 × 10(-4) m/s) and for free water content (w = 5% to 23% m(3) /m(3) ) narrowed by two orders of magnitude (K) and by ∼50% (w), respectively, compared to the ranges of permeability and specific yield values previously considered. These shorter parameter ranges result in a reduction in the model's equifinality (whereby multiple combinations of model's parameters are able to represent the same observed piezometric levels), allowing a better constrained estimate to be derived for net aquifer recharge (∼22 mm/year).

  14. Holographic Model of Dual Superconductor for Quark Confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Tsung-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    We show that a hairy black hole solution can provide a holographically dual description of quark confinement. There exists a one-parameter sensible metric which receives the backreaction of matter contents in the holographic action, where the scalar and gauge field are responsible for the condensation of chromomagnetic monopoles. This model features a preconfining phase triggered by second-order monopole condensation and a first-order confinement/deconfinement phase transition. To confirm the confinement, the quark-antiquark potential is calculated by probing a QCD string in both phases. At last, contribution from Kaluza-Klein monopoles in the confining phase is discussed.

  15. Parameterized reduced-order models using hyper-dual numbers.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fike, Jeffrey A.; Brake, Matthew Robert

    2013-10-01

    The goal of most computational simulations is to accurately predict the behavior of a real, physical system. Accurate predictions often require very computationally expensive analyses and so reduced order models (ROMs) are commonly used. ROMs aim to reduce the computational cost of the simulations while still providing accurate results by including all of the salient physics of the real system in the ROM. However, real, physical systems often deviate from the idealized models used in simulations due to variations in manufacturing or other factors. One approach to this issue is to create a parameterized model in order to characterize the effect of perturbations from the nominal model on the behavior of the system. This report presents a methodology for developing parameterized ROMs, which is based on Craig-Bampton component mode synthesis and the use of hyper-dual numbers to calculate the derivatives necessary for the parameterization.

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Dual Intake Transparent Transpired Solar Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Semenou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, in several types of commercial or institutional buildings, a significant rise of transpired solar collectors used to preheat the fresh air of the building can be observed. Nevertheless, when the air mass flow rate is low, the collector efficiency collapses and a large amount of energy remains unused. This paper presents a simple yet effective mathematical model of a transparent transpired solar collector (TTC with dual intake in order to remove stagnation problems in the plenum and ensure a better thermal efficiency and more heat recovery. A thermal model and a pressure loss model were developed. Then, the combined model was validated with experimental data from the Solar Rating and Certification Corporation (SRCC. The results show that the collector efficiency can be up to 70% and even 80% regardless of operating conditions. The temperature gain is able to reach 20°K when the solar irradiation is high.

  17. Magnetic resonance urography by virtual reality modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beigi, Navid; Sangild, Thomas; Terkildsen, Søren Vorre; Deding, Dorthe; Stødkilde-Jørgensen, Hans; Pedersen, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to create a 3D visualization of the urinary tract by a novel virtual reality approach, and to evaluate the usefulness of this method for papillary classification as compared with 2D urogram obtained by maximum intensity projection (MIP). In one healthy pig, magnetic resonance urography was performed using a T1-weighted 3D gradient echo pulse sequence. Post-processing was performed by means of an MIP algorithm and by using 3D virtual reality modelling, followed by manual classification of papillae as being either simple or compound. The 2D MIP urogram demonstrated 6 simple and 6 compound papillae, whereas the 3D urogram demonstrated 5 simple and 7 compound papillae. In both urograms, some papillae were unsuccessfully classified. The possibility of using virtual reality devices allowed 3D rotation and offered additional diagnostic information. However, further studies should reveal its feasibility in diseased kidneys.

  18. Design and analysis of a dual-axis resonator fiber-optic gyroscope employing a single source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnoji, Prerana Dabral; Nayak, Jagannath

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, design of a resonator fiber-optic gyroscope comprised of a single laser source and two optical fiber resonator rings is presented. A typical gyroscope measures angular rotation around a fixed axis, whereas the proposed design can sense simultaneous rotation about two orthogonal axes. Two variants of the design are proposed and analyzed using a mathematical model based on Jones matrix methodology.

  19. Generalized self-dual Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Higgs model

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; da Hora, E; Menezes, R

    2012-01-01

    We present a consistent BPS framework for a generalized Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Higgs model. The overall model, including its self-dual potential, depends on three different functions, h(|{\\phi}|,N), w(|{\\phi}|) and G(|{\\phi}|), which are functions of the scalar fields only. The BPS energy is proportional to the magnetic flux when w(|{\\phi}|) and G(|{\\phi}|) are related to each other by a differential constraint. We present an explicit non-standard model and its topologically non-trivial static configurations, which are described by the usual radially symmetric profile. Finally, we note that the non-standard results behave in a similar way as their standard counterparts, as expected, reinforcing the consistence of the overall construction.

  20. Generalized self-dual Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Higgs model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazeia, D.; Casana, R.; da Hora, E.; Menezes, R.

    2012-06-01

    We present a consistent Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) framework for a generalized Maxwell-Chern-Simons-Higgs model. The overall model, including its self-dual potential, depends on three different functions, h(|ϕ|,N), w(|ϕ|), and G(|ϕ|), which are functions of the scalar fields only. The BPS energy is proportional to the magnetic flux when w(|ϕ|) and G(|ϕ|) are related to each other by a differential constraint. We present an explicit nonstandard model and its topologically nontrivial static configurations, which are described by the usual radially symmetric profile. Finally, we note that the nonstandard results behave in a similar way as their standard counterparts, as expected, reinforcing the consistence of the overall construction.

  1. A dual modelling of evolving political opinion networks

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Ru

    2012-01-01

    We present the result of a dual modeling of opinion network. The model complements the agent-based opinion models by attaching to the social agent (voters) network a political opinion (party) network having its own intrinsic mechanisms of evolution. These two sub-networks form a global network which can be either isolated from or dependent on the external influence. Basically, the evolution of the agent network includes link adding and deleting, the opinion changes influenced by social validation, the political climate, the attractivity of the parties and the interaction between them. The opinion network is initially composed of numerous nodes representing opinions or parties which are located on a one dimensional axis according to their political positions. The mechanism of evolution includes union, splitting, change of position and of attractivity, taken into account the pairwise node interaction decaying with node distance in power law. The global evolution ends in a stable distribution of the social agent...

  2. The dual systems model: Review, reappraisal, and reaffirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth P. Shulman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the dual systems perspective, risk taking peaks during adolescence because activation of an early-maturing socioemotional-incentive processing system amplifies adolescents’ affinity for exciting, pleasurable, and novel activities at a time when a still immature cognitive control system is not yet strong enough to consistently restrain potentially hazardous impulses. We review evidence from both the psychological and neuroimaging literatures that has emerged since 2008, when this perspective was originally articulated. Although there are occasional exceptions to the general trends, studies show that, as predicted, psychological and neural manifestations of reward sensitivity increase between childhood and adolescence, peak sometime during the late teen years, and decline thereafter, whereas psychological and neural reflections of better cognitive control increase gradually and linearly throughout adolescence and into the early 20s. While some forms of real-world risky behavior peak at a later age than predicted, this likely reflects differential opportunities for risk-taking in late adolescence and young adulthood, rather than neurobiological differences that make this age group more reckless. Although it is admittedly an oversimplification, as a heuristic device, the dual systems model provides a far more accurate account of adolescent risk taking than prior models that have attributed adolescent recklessness to cognitive deficiencies.

  3. The dual systems model: Review, reappraisal, and reaffirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Elizabeth P; Smith, Ashley R; Silva, Karol; Icenogle, Grace; Duell, Natasha; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2016-02-01

    According to the dual systems perspective, risk taking peaks during adolescence because activation of an early-maturing socioemotional-incentive processing system amplifies adolescents' affinity for exciting, pleasurable, and novel activities at a time when a still immature cognitive control system is not yet strong enough to consistently restrain potentially hazardous impulses. We review evidence from both the psychological and neuroimaging literatures that has emerged since 2008, when this perspective was originally articulated. Although there are occasional exceptions to the general trends, studies show that, as predicted, psychological and neural manifestations of reward sensitivity increase between childhood and adolescence, peak sometime during the late teen years, and decline thereafter, whereas psychological and neural reflections of better cognitive control increase gradually and linearly throughout adolescence and into the early 20s. While some forms of real-world risky behavior peak at a later age than predicted, this likely reflects differential opportunities for risk-taking in late adolescence and young adulthood, rather than neurobiological differences that make this age group more reckless. Although it is admittedly an oversimplification, as a heuristic device, the dual systems model provides a far more accurate account of adolescent risk taking than prior models that have attributed adolescent recklessness to cognitive deficiencies.

  4. Resonance decay effect on conserved number fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas model

    CERN Document Server

    Mishra, D K; Netrakanti, P K; Mohanty, A K

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of charged secondaries coming from resonance decay on the net-baryon, net-charge and net-strangeness fluctuations in high energy heavy-ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model. We emphasize the importance of including weak decays along with other resonance decays in the HRG, while comparing with the experimental observables. The effect of kinematic cuts on resonances and primordial particles on the conserved number fluctuations are also studied. The HRG model calculations with the inclusion of resonance decays and kinematical cuts are compared with the recent experimental data from STAR and PHENIX experiments. We find a good agreement between our model calculations and the experimental measurements for both net-proton and net-charge distributions.

  5. Effect of resonance decay on conserved number fluctuations in a hadron resonance gas model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, D. K.; Garg, P.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Mohanty, A. K.

    2016-07-01

    We study the effect of charged secondaries coming from resonance decay on the net-baryon, net-charge, and net-strangeness fluctuations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions within the hadron resonance gas (HRG) model. We emphasize the importance of including weak decays along with other resonance decays in the HRG, while comparing with the experimental observables. The effect of kinematic cuts on resonances and primordial particles on the conserved number fluctuations are also studied. The HRG model calculations with the inclusion of resonance decays and kinematical cuts are compared with the recent experimental data from STAR and PHENIX experiments. We find good agreement between our model calculations and the experimental measurements for both net-proton and net-charge distributions.

  6. Optical gain from vertical Ge-on-Si resonant-cavity light emitting diodes with dual active regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Guangyang; Wang, Jiaqi; Huang, Zhiwei; Mao, Yichen; Li, Cheng; Huang, Wei; Chen, Songyan; Lai, Hongkai; Huang, Shihao

    2017-09-01

    Vertical resonant-cavity light emitting diodes with dual active regions consisting of highly n-doped Ge/GeSi multiple quantum wells (MQWs) and a Ge epilayer are proposed to improve the light emitting efficiency. The MQWs are designed to optically pump the underlying Ge epilayer under electric injection. Abundant excess carriers can be optically pumped into the Γ valley of the Ge epilayer apart from electric pumping. With the combination of a vertical cavity, the efficiency of the optical-pumping process was effectively improved due to the elongation of the optical length in the cavity. With the unique feature, optical gain from the Ge epilayer is observed between 1625 and 1700 nm at injection current densities of >1.528 kA/cm2. The demonstration of optical gain from the Ge epilayer indicates that this strategy can be generally useful for Si-based light sources with indirect band materials.

  7. Manganese (II) Chelate Functionalized Copper Sulfide Nanoparticles for Efficient Magnetic Resonance/Photoacoustic Dual-Modal Imaging Guided Photothermal Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Renfa; Jing, Lijia; Peng, Dong; Li, Yong; Tian, Jie; Dai, Zhifei

    2015-01-01

    The integration of diagnostic and therapeutic functionalities into one nanoplatform shows great promise in cancer therapy. In this research, manganese (II) chelate functionalized copper sulfide nanoparticles were successfully prepared using a facile hydrothermal method. The obtained ultrasmall nanoparticles exhibit excellent photothermal effect and photoaoustic activity. Besides, the high loading content of Mn(II) chelates makes the nanoparticles attractive T1 contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In vivo photoacoustic imaging (PAI) results showed that the nanoparticles could be efficiently accumulated in tumor site in 24 h after systematic administration, which was further validated by MRI tests. The subsequent photothermal therapy of cancer in vivo was achieved without inducing any observed side effects. Therefore, the copper sulfide nanoparticles functionalized with Mn(II) chelate hold great promise as a theranostic nanomedicine for MR/PA dual-modal imaging guided photothermal therapy of cancer.

  8. Simultaneous, inherently temperature and strain insensitive bio-sensors based on dual-resonance long-period gratings

    CERN Document Server

    Tripathi, Saurabh Mani; Bock, Wojtek J; Mikulic, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Addressing the temperature and strain induced cross-talks simultaneously, we propose an inherently strain and temperature insensitive fiber-optic bio-sensor. The insensitivity has been achieved by properly adjusting the dopants and their concentrations in the optical fiber core region, and by optimizing the grating period and the strength of concatenated dual-resonance long-period-gratings. The simulations have been carried out using the same fiber parameters as used in our earlier experimental studies, which matched excellently with the experimental results. The proposed sensor has a theoretical refractive-index sensitivity of 4607 nm/RIU, which can be used to detect changes as small as 2.2 x10^-7 in ambient refractive indices using a detection system with spectral resolution of 1 pm. Our work finds application in developing precision biosensors with inherent insensitivity towards temperature and axial strain fluctuations. The sensor is currently under fabrication at our lab.

  9. Three-neutron resonance trajectories for realistic interaction models

    CERN Document Server

    Lazauskas, R

    2005-01-01

    Three-neutron resonances are searched using realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction models. Resonance pole trajectories were explored by artificially binding three-neutron and then gradually removing additional interaction. The final pole positions for three-neutron states up to $|J|$=5/2 finish in the fourth energy quadrant with Re(E)$\\leqslant0$ before additional interaction is removed. This study shows that realistic nucleon-nucleon interaction models exclude possible existence of observable three-neutron resonances.

  10. A Dual-Mode Bandpass Filter with Multiple Controllable Transmission-Zeros Using T-Shaped Stub-Loaded Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual-mode broadband bandpass filter (BPF with multiple controllable transmission-zeros using T-shaped stub-loaded resonators (TSSLRs is presented. Due to the symmetrical plane, the odd-even-mode theory can be adopted to characterize the BPF. The proposed filter consists of a dual-mode TSSLR and two modified feed-lines, which introduce two capacitive and inductive source-load (S-L couplings. Five controllable transmission zeros (TZs can be achieved for the high selectivity and the wide stopband because of the tunable amount of coupling capacitance and inductance. The center frequency of the proposed BPF is 5.8 GHz, with a 3 dB fraction bandwidth of 8.9%. The measured insertion and return losses are 1.75 and 28.18 dB, respectively. A compact size and second harmonic frequency suppression can be obtained by the proposed BPF with S-L couplings.

  11. Optical and acoustic sensing using Fano-like resonances in dual phononic and photonic crystal plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoudache, Samira [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri, B.P. 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria); Moiseyenko, Rayisa [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, DTU Physics, Building 309, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Pennec, Yan, E-mail: yan.pennec@univ-lille1.fr; Rouhani, Bahram Djafari [Institut d' Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologie, Université de Lille 1, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq (France); Khater, Antoine [Institut des Molécules et Matériaux du Mans (IMMM), UMR CNRS 6283, l' UNAM, Université du Maine, 72085 Le Mans (France); Lucklum, Ralf [Institute of Micro and Sensor Systems (IMOS), Otto-von-Guericke-University, P.O. Box 4120, D-39016 Magdeburg (Germany); Tigrine, Rachid [Laboratoire de Physique et Chimie Quantique, Université Mouloud Mammeri, B.P. 17 RP, 15000 Tizi-Ouzou (Algeria)

    2016-03-21

    We perform a theoretical study based on the transmissions of optical and acoustic waves normally impinging to a periodic perforated silicon plate when the embedded medium is a liquid and show the existence of Fano-like resonances in both cases. The signature of the resonances appears as well-defined asymmetric peaks in the phononic and photonic transmission spectra. We show that the origin of the Fano-like resonances is different with respect to the nature of the wave. In photonic, the origin comes from guided modes in the photonic plate while in phononic we show that it comes from the excitation of standing waves confined inside the cavity coming from the deformation of the water/silicon edges of the cylindrical inclusion. We finally use these features for sensing and show ultra-sensitivity to the light and sound velocities for different concentrations of analytes.

  12. INVESTIGATION OF A RESIDUAL VERTICAL INSTRINSIC RESONANCES WITH DUAL PARTIAL SIBERIAN SNAKES IN THE AGS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIN,F.; LEE, S.Y.; AHRENS, L.A.; BAI, M.; BROWN, K.; COURANT, E.D.; ET AL.

    2007-06-25

    Two partial helical dipole snakes were found to be able to overcome all imperfection and intrinsic spin resonances provided that the vertical betatron tunes were maintained in the spin tune gap near the integer 9. Recent vertical betatron tune scan showed that the two weak resonances at the beginning of the acceleration cycle may be the cause of polarization loss. This result has been confirmed by the vertical polarization profile measurement, and spin tracking simulations. Possible cure of the remaining beam polarization is discussed.

  13. Electrostatic modelling of dual frequency rf plasma discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, P C; Ellingboe, A R; Turner, M M [Plasma Research Laboratory, National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology and School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2004-08-01

    Particle-in-cell simulations have been used to study the nature of dual frequency plasma discharges. It is observed that both the ion flux on to the electrodes and the ion bombardment energy on to the electrodes can be controlled independently. There are two separate regimes in which this occurs. At large electrode separation, the ion current is controlled by varying the total discharge current, J{sub lf} + J{sub hf}. At small electrode separations, the ion flux can be controlled by varying the high frequency power source. In both regimes, the energy of the ions bombarding the electrodes is then determined by the low frequency voltage. A consequence of using dual frequencies to power the device is that the sheath width increases linearly as the low frequency power source is increased. This results in the dimensions of the bulk plasma decreasing, causing the electron temperature to increase for devices with electrode separations that are of comparable size to the electrode separation. In order to better understand the underlying physics involved within these devices an analytical global model has been developed which can explain many of the characteristics observed in the simulations.

  14. A model for ferrite-loaded transversely biased coaxial resonators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acar, Öncel; Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Johansen, Tom Keinicke

    2013-01-01

    This work describes a simple model for shortened coaxial cavity resonators with transversely biased ferrite elements. The ferrite allows the resonance frequency to be tuned, and the presented model provides a method of approximately calculating these frequencies to generate the tuning curve...

  15. Dual resonant frequencies effects on an induction-based oil palm fruit sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Noor Hasmiza; Misron, Norhisam; Mohd Sidek, Roslina; Aris, Ishak; Wakiwaka, Hiroyuki; Tashiro, Kunihisa

    2014-11-19

    As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB). Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB). A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA). To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  16. Dual Resonant Frequencies Effects on an Induction-Based Oil Palm Fruit Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noor Hasmiza Harun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available As the main exporter in the oil palm industry, the need to improve the quality of palm oil has become the main interest among all the palm oil millers in Malaysia. To produce good quality palm oil, it is important for the miller to harvest a good oil palm Fresh Fruit Bunch (FFB. Conventionally, the main reference used by Malaysian harvesters is the manual grading standard published by the Malaysian Palm Oil Board (MPOB. A good oil palm FFB consists of all matured fruitlets, aged between 18 to 21 weeks of antheses (WAA. To expedite the harvesting process, it is crucial to implement an automated detection system for determining the maturity of the oil palm FFB. Various automated detection methods have been proposed by researchers in the field to replace the conventional method. In our preliminary study, a novel oil palm fruit sensor to detect the maturity of oil palm fruit bunch was proposed. The design of the proposed air coil sensor based on the inductive sensor was further investigated mainly in the context of the effect of coil diameter to improve its sensitivity. In this paper, the sensitivity of the inductive sensor was further examined with a dual flat-type shape of air coil. The dual air coils were tested on fifteen samples of fruitlet from two categories, namely ripe and unripe. Samples were tested within 20 Hz to 10 MHz while evaluations on both peaks were done separately before the gap between peaks was analyzed. A comparative analysis was conducted to investigate the improvement in sensitivity of the induction-based oil palm fruit sensor as compared to previous works. Results from the comparative study proved that the inductive sensor using a dual flat-type shape air coil has improved by up to 167%. This provides an indication in the improvement in the coil sensitivity of the palm oil fruit sensor based on the induction concept.

  17. Equivalent-Circuit Model for the Thickness-Shear Mode Resonator with a Viscoelastic Film Near Film Resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BANDEY, HELEN L.; BROWN, MARK J.; CERNOSEK, RICHARD W.; HILLMAN, A. ROBERT; MARTIN, STEPHEN J.

    1999-09-16

    We derive a lumped-element, equivalent-circuit model for the thickness shear mode (TSM) resonator with a viscoelastic film. This modified Butterworth-Van Dyke model includes in the motional branch a series LCR resonator, representing the quartz resonance, and a parallel LCR resonator, representing the film resonance. This model is valid in the vicinity of film resonance, which occurs when the acoustic phase shift across the film is an odd multiple of {pi}/2 radians. This model predicts accurately the frequency changes and damping that arise at resonance and is a reasonable approximation away from resonance. The elements of the model are explicitly related to film properties and can be interpreted in terms of elastic energy storage and viscous power dissipation. The model leads to a simple graphical interpretation of the coupling between the quartz and film resonances and facilitates understanding of the resulting responses. These responses are compared with predictions from the transmission-line and the Sauerbrey models.

  18. A Compact High-Pass Filter Using Hybrid Microstrip/Nonuniform CPW with Dual-Mode Resonant Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel and miniature high-pass filter (HPF based on a hybrid-coupled microstrip/nonuniform coplanar waveguide (CPW resonator is proposed in this article, in which the designed CPW has exhibited a wideband dual-mode characteristic within the desired high-pass frequency range. The implemented filter consists of the top microstrip coupled patches and the bottom modified nonuniformly short-circuited CPW resonator. Simulated results from the electromagnetic (EM analysis software and measured results from a vector network analyzer (VNA show a good agreement. A designed and fabricated prototype filter having a 3 dB cutoff frequency (fc of 5.78 GHz has shown an ultrawide high-pass behavior, which exhibits the highest passband frequency exceeding 4.0fc under the minimum insertion loss (IL 0.75 dB. The printed circuit board (PCB area of the filter is approximately 0.062λg×0.093λg, where λg is the guided wavelength at fc.

  19. Application of Dual Model to Animal Feed Formulation Optimizing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Ben-hai; LUO Qing-yao; PANG Zhi-hong

    2003-01-01

    This study introduced a dual model on an original linear programming to obtain those shadowprices of resources that take part in optimizing. Of feed formulation, the shadow prices of nutrient resourcesshow their influencing degree on a diet last cost when increasing or decreasing expected diet nutrient values.The higher the shadow price of one nutrient resource, the more obvious its influencing action on a diet lastcost. When the shadow price of a kind of resource equals "zero", it means that reaching of this nutrient valuedoes not have influence on a special diet last cost within a particular value range. At the same time, this paperdiscussed the future development direction of feed formulation optimizing techniques in China.

  20. Dynamical model of electroweak pion production in the resonance region

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, T; Kubodera, K; Lee, T S H

    2006-01-01

    In this report, we will briefly review the dynamical model of pion electroweak production reactions in the $\\Delta$ resonance region and report on our study of neutrino-nucleus reactions based on this model.

  1. Resonances and fluctuations in the statistical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrieri Giorgio

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We describe how the study of resonances and fluctuations can help constrain the thermal and chemical freezeout properties of the fireball created in heavy ion collisions. This review is based on [1–5

  2. Microvascular obstruction on delayed enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, compared with myocardial {sup 201}Tl and {sup 123}I-BMIPP dual SPECT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Hiroaki [Department of Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Department of Cardiology, Kainan Hospital, Yatomi (Japan); Isobe, Satoshi, E-mail: sisobe@med.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Sakai, Shinichi [Department of Cardiology, Kainan Hospital, Yatomi (Japan); Yamada, Takashi [Department of Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan); Watanabe, Naoki; Miura, Manabu [Department of Cardiology, Kainan Hospital, Yatomi (Japan); Uchida, Yasuhiro; Kanashiro, Masaaki; Ichimiya, Satoshi [Department of Cardiology, Yokkaichi Municipal Hospital, Yokkaichi (Japan); Okumura, Takahiro; Murohara, Toyoaki [Department of Cardiology, Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine, Nagoya (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The percentage infarct size (%IS) was significantly greater in the microvascular obstruction (MO) group than in the non-MO group. • The percentage mismatch score (%MMS) on dual scintigraphy significantly correlated with the %IS and the percentage MO. • The %MMS was significantly greater in the non-MO group than in the MO group, and was an independent predictor for MO. - Abstract: Background: The hypo-enhanced regions within the hyper-enhanced infarct areas detected by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging reflect microvascular obstruction (MO) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The combined myocardial thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl)/iodine-123-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid ({sup 123}I-BMIPP) dual single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a useful tool for detecting myocardial reversibility after AMI. We evaluated whether MO could be an early predictor of irreversible myocardial damage in comparison with {sup 201}Tl and {sup 123}I-BMIPP dual SPECT findings in AMI patients. Methods: Sixty-two patients with initial AMI who successfully underwent coronary revascularization were enrolled. MO was defined by CMR imaging. Patients were divided into 2 groups as follows: MO group (n = 32) and non-MO group (n = 30). Scintigraphic defect scores were calculated using a 17-segment model with a 5-point scoring system. The mismatch score (MMS) was calculated as follows: the total sum of (Σ) {sup 123}I-BMIPP defect score minus Σ{sup 201}Tl defect score. The percentage mismatch score (%MMS) was calculated as follows: MMS/(Σ{sup 123}I-BMIPP score) × 100 (%). Results: The percentage infarct size (%IS) was significantly greater in the MO group than in the non-MO group (32.2 ± 13.8% vs. 18.3 ± 12.1%, p < 0.001). The %MMS significantly correlated with the %IS and the percentage MO (r = −0.26, p = 0.03; r = −0.45, p < 0.001, respectively). The %MMS was significantly greater in the non-MO group than in the MO group (45.4

  3. SU(5) monopoles and the dual standard model

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, H; Liu, Hong; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    1997-01-01

    We find the spectrum of magnetic monopoles produced in the symmetry breaking SU(5) \\rightarrow [SU(3)\\times SU(2)\\times U(1)']/Z_6 by constructing classical bound states of the fundamental monopoles. The spectrum of monopoles is found to correspond to the spectrum of one family of standard model fermions and hence, is a starting point for constructing the dual standard model. At this level, however, there is an extra monopole state - the ``diquark'' monopole - with no corresponding standard model fermion. If the SU(3) factor now breaks down to Z_3, the monopoles with non-trivial SU(3) charge get confined by strings in SU(3) singlets. Another outcome of this symmetry breaking is that the diquark monopole becomes unstable (metastable) to fragmentation into fundamental monopoles and the one-one correspondence with the standard model fermions is restored. We discuss the fate of the monopoles if the [SU(2)\\times U(1)']/Z_2 factor breaks down to U(1)_Q by a Higgs mechanism as in the electroweak model. Here we find ...

  4. Two Mode Resonator and Contact Model for Standing Wave Piezomotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B.; Blanke, Mogens; Helbo, J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a model for a standing wave piezoelectric motor with a two bending mode resonator. The resonator is modelled using Hamilton's principle and the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The contact is modelled using the Lagrange Multiplier method under the assumption of slip and it is showed how...... to solve the set of differential-algebraic equations. Detailled simulations show resonance frequencies as function of the piezoelement's position, tip trajectories and contact forces. The paper demonstrates that contact stiffness and stick should be included in such model to obtain physically realistic...

  5. The Linked Dual Representation model of vocal perception and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean eHutchins

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The voice is one of the most important media for communication, yet there is a wide range of abilities in both the perception and production of the voice. In this article, we review this range of abilities, focusing on pitch accuracy as a particularly informative case, and look at the factors underlying these abilities. Several classes of models have been posited describing the relationship between vocal perception and production, and we review the evidence for and against each class of model. We look at how the voice is different from other musical instruments and review evidence about both the association and the dissociation between vocal perception and production abilities. Finally, we introduce the Linked Dual Representation model, a new approach which can account for the broad patterns in prior findings, including trends in the data which might seem to be countervailing. We discuss how this model interacts with higher-order cognition and examine its predictions about several aspects of vocal perception and production.

  6. Dyon Condensation and Dual Superconductivity in Abelian Higgs Model of QCD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Rajput

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Constructing the effective action for dyonic field in Abelian projection of QCD, it has been demonstrated that any charge (electrical or magnetic of dyon screens its own direct potential to which it minimally couples and antiscreens the dual potential leading to dual superconductivity in accordance with generalized Meissner effect. Taking the Abelian projection of QCD, an Abelian Higgs model, incorporating dual superconductivity and confinement, has been constructed and its representation has been obtained in terms of average of Wilson loop.

  7. Modeling laser brightness from cross porro prism resonators

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available . In this study a cross Porro prism resonator is considered; crossed Porro prism resonators have been known for some time, but until recently have not been modeled as a complete physical optics system that allows the modal output to be determined as a function...

  8. Modelling a singly resonant, intracavity ring optical parametric oscillator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchhave, Preben; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Wei, Hou;

    2003-01-01

    We study theoretically and experimentally the dynamics of a single-frequency, unidirectional ring laser with an intracavity nonlinear singly resonant OPO-crystal in a coupled resonator. We find for a range of operating conditions good agreement between model results and measurements of the laser ...

  9. Optical and acoustic sensing using Fano-like resonances in dual phononic and photonic crystal plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amoudache, Samira; Moiseyenko, Rayisa; Pennec, Yan;

    2016-01-01

    -defined asymmetric peaks in the phononic and photonic transmission spectra. We show that the origin of the Fano-like resonances is different with respect to the nature of the wave. In photonic, the origin comes from guided modes in the photonic plate while in phononic we show that it comes from the excitation...... of standing waves confined inside the cavity coming from the deformation of the water/silicon edges of the cylindrical inclusion. We finally use these features for sensing and show ultra-sensitivity to the light and sound velocities for different concentrations of analytes....

  10. Design and analysis of dual ring resonator based 2D-photonic crystal WDDM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, K.; Robinson, S.; Kumar, D. Sriram

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, four channel 2D Photonic Crystal (PC) based Wavelength Division Demultiplexer (WDDM) using 2D-Photonic Crystal is proposed and designed. The important functional parameters of the proposed demultiplexer such as transmission efficiency, Q factor and resonant wavelength are analyzed. The Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) method and Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) method are employed to calculate the photonic band gap and normalized output spectrum of the proposed demultiplexer. The average transmission efficiency and Q factor of this proposed device is about 93% and 781, respectively. The overall size of the demultiplexer is around 681 µm2 which will be suitable for integrated optics for future all optical networks.

  11. Dual Modality Photothermal Optical Coherence Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Carbon Nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Tucker – Schwartz, Jason M.; Hong, Tu; Colvin, Daniel C.; Xu, Yaqiong; Skala, Melissa C.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate polyethylene glycol coated single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as contrast agents for both photothermal optical coherence tomography (OCT) and magnetic resonance imaging. Photothermal OCT was accomplished with a spectral domain OCT system with an amplitude modulated 750 nm pump beam using 10 mW of power, and T2 MR imaging was achieved with a 4.7 T animal system. Photothermal OCT and T2 MR imaging achieved sensitivities of nM concentrations to CNTs dispersed in amine terminate...

  12. Mathematical Modeling of Subthreshold Resonant Properties in Pyloric Dilator Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Vazifehkhah Ghaffari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Various types of neurons exhibit subthreshold resonance oscillation (preferred frequency response to fluctuating sinusoidal input currents. This phenomenon is well known to influence the synaptic plasticity and frequency of neural network oscillation. This study evaluates the resonant properties of pacemaker pyloric dilator (PD neurons in the central pattern generator network through mathematical modeling. From the pharmacological point of view, calcium currents cannot be blocked in PD neurons without removing the calcium-dependent potassium current. Thus, the effects of calcium ICa and calcium-dependent potassium IKCa currents on resonant properties remain unclear. By taking advantage of Hodgkin-Huxley-type model of neuron and its equivalent RLC circuit, we examine the effects of changing resting membrane potential and those ionic currents on the resonance. Results show that changing the resting membrane potential influences the amplitude and frequency of resonance so that the strength of resonance (Q-value increases by both depolarization and hyperpolarization of the resting membrane potential. Moreover, hyperpolarization-activated inward current Ih and ICa (in association with IKCa are dominant factors on resonant properties at hyperpolarized and depolarized potentials, respectively. Through mathematical analysis, results indicate that Ih and IKCa affect the resonant properties of PD neurons. However, ICa only has an amplifying effect on the resonance amplitude of these neurons.

  13. Mathematical modeling of subthreshold resonant properties in pyloric dilator neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazifehkhah Ghaffari, Babak; Kouhnavard, Mojgan; Aihara, Takeshi; Kitajima, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Various types of neurons exhibit subthreshold resonance oscillation (preferred frequency response) to fluctuating sinusoidal input currents. This phenomenon is well known to influence the synaptic plasticity and frequency of neural network oscillation. This study evaluates the resonant properties of pacemaker pyloric dilator (PD) neurons in the central pattern generator network through mathematical modeling. From the pharmacological point of view, calcium currents cannot be blocked in PD neurons without removing the calcium-dependent potassium current. Thus, the effects of calcium (I(Ca)) and calcium-dependent potassium (I(KCa)) currents on resonant properties remain unclear. By taking advantage of Hodgkin-Huxley-type model of neuron and its equivalent RLC circuit, we examine the effects of changing resting membrane potential and those ionic currents on the resonance. Results show that changing the resting membrane potential influences the amplitude and frequency of resonance so that the strength of resonance (Q-value) increases by both depolarization and hyperpolarization of the resting membrane potential. Moreover, hyperpolarization-activated inward current (I(h)) and I(Ca) (in association with I(KCa)) are dominant factors on resonant properties at hyperpolarized and depolarized potentials, respectively. Through mathematical analysis, results indicate that I h and I(KCa) affect the resonant properties of PD neurons. However, I(Ca) only has an amplifying effect on the resonance amplitude of these neurons.

  14. Stochastic and coherence resonance in an in silico neural model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Alan W L; Bardakjian, Berj L

    2004-05-01

    We show that it is possible for chaotic systems to display the main features of stochastic and coherence resonance. In particular, a model of coupled nonlinear oscillators which emulates the transmembrane voltage activities in CA3 neurons, operating in a chaotic regime and in the presence of noise, can exhibit coherence resonance and stochastic resonance. Certain firing frequencies become more "rhythmic" for some optimal values of noise intensity. The effect of noise in different coupling pathways is investigated. We found that the effect of coherence resonance and stochastic resonance are more prominent if noise is presented in either electric field or gap junction coupling pathways. Frequency sensitivity of the model is investigated as a preliminary step in illustrating the principles of possible epileptic seizure control strategies using "chaos control" concepts. Significant effects of stochastic resonance are observed in the 4-8 Hz range. Weaker effects can be found in the 1-4 Hz and 8-10 Hz ranges whereas 0.5 Hz does not exhibit any resonance phenomenon. Our results suggest that: (a) Stochastic resonance could enhance the intrinsic 4-8 Hz rhythms in CA3 neurons more prominently via field coupling pathways. It could also help explain why some reported seizure control strategies using pulse-trains would only be effective at 0.5 Hz. (b) Stochastic resonance-like behavior can occur in the gamma range only if noise is presented via chemical synaptic pathways.

  15. Twinlike models for self-dual Maxwell-Higgs theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Hora, E. da [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica; Menezes, R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Rio Tinto, PB (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas

    2012-07-01

    Full text: We present the development of a coherent first-order theoretical framework that allows for the existence of twinlike models in the context of a generalized self-dual Maxwell-Higgs theories. Here, the generalized model is controlled by two dimensionless functions, h (|{phi}|) and w (|{phi}|) , which are functions of the Higgs field only. Furthermore, these functions are assumed to be positive, in order to avoid problems with the energy of the overall model. In this context, for a given constraint between h (|{phi}|), w (|{phi}|) and the symmetry breaking Higgs potential V (|{phi}|), we found BPS equations by minimizing the generalized total energy. Here, even in the presence of non-trivial choices to h (|{phi}|), w (|{phi}|) and V (|{phi}|), the resulting equations mimic the standard first-order ones. Therefore, given the usual finite-energy boundary conditions, the generalized model engenders the very same topologically non-trivial configurations as the standard Maxwell-Higgs theory. The energy of such configurations is bounded from below, this bound being equal to the magnetic flux, which is quantized according the winding number, as expected. Even in this case, it is important to note that the generalized model is not a parametrization of the usual Maxwell-Higgs one. We study the resulting BPS configurations via the canonical radially symmetric Ansatz, and we found electrically non-charged time-independent vortex solutions which engender the very same magnetic field. In this sense, since this field is related to the topological stability of the usual vortex configurations, we believe the stability of the generalized model can be achieve in the same way. We use a combination of theoretical and numerical techniques to show that different choices to h (|{phi}|) and w (|{phi}|) engender different energy densities, even in the presence of the very same field solutions. In this case, we show that all these densities give the very same total energy. (author)

  16. Infinitesimal dividing modeling method for dual suppliers inventory model with random lead times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Pengcheng; Song Shiji; Wu Cheng

    2009-01-01

    As one of the basic inventory cost models, the (Q, r) inventory cost model of dual suppliers with random procurement lead time is mostly formulated by using the concepts of "effective lead time" and "lead time demand", which may lead to an imprecise inventory cost. Through the real-time statistic of the inventory quantities, this paper considers the precise (Q, r) inventory cost model of dual supplier procurement by using an infinitesimal dividing method. The traditional modeling method of the inventory cost for dual supplier procurement includes complex procedures. To reduce the complexity effectively, the presented method investigates the statistics properties in real-time of the inventory quantities with the application of the infinitesimal dividing method. It is proved that the optimal holding and shortage costs of dual supplier procurement are less than those of single supplier procurement respectively. With the assumption that both suppliers have the same distribution of lead times, the convexity of the cost function per unit time is proved. So the optimal solution can be easily obtained by applying the classical convex optimization methods. The numerical examples are given to verify the main conclusions.

  17. Poisson-Lie T-duals of the bi-Yang-Baxter models

    CERN Document Server

    Klimcik, C

    2016-01-01

    We prove the conjecture of Sfetsos, Siampos and Thompson that suitable analytic continuations of the Poisson-Lie T-duals of the bi-Yang-Baxter sigma models coincide with the recently introduced generalized lambda models.

  18. Acoustic resonances in HID lamps: model and measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, John [Philips Lighting BV, Lightlabs, Mathildelaan 1, 5600 JM Eindhoven (Netherlands); Baumann, Bernd; Wolff, Marcus [Hamburg University of Applied Sciences, Institute for Physical Sensors, Berliner Tor 21, 20099 Hamburg (Germany); Bhosle, Sounil [Universite Paul Sabatier, Toulouse (France); Valdivia Barrientos, Ricardo, E-mail: john.hirsch@philips.co [National Nuclear Research Institute, Highway Mexico-Toluca s/n, La Marquesa, Ocoyoacac, CP 52750 (Mexico)

    2010-06-16

    A finite element model including plasma simulation is used to calculate the amplitude of acoustic resonances in HID lamps in a 2D axisymmetric geometry. Simulation results are presented for different operation parameters and are compared with experimental data.

  19. Waveguide Model for Thick Complementary Split Ring Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Pulido-Mancera, Laura Maria

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a very simple analytical model for the design of Frequency Selective Surfaces based on Complementary Split Ring Resonators (CSRR) within the microwave range. Simple expressions are provided for the most important geometrical parameters of the model, yielding an accurate description of the CSRR resonance frequency and avoiding full-wave numerical simulations. Besides, a qualitative description of the band-pass filter behavior of these structures is described, considering its high quality factor Q.

  20. Stochastic gradient algorithm for a dual-rate Box-Jenkins model based on auxiliary model and FIR model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing CHEN; Rui-feng DING

    2014-01-01

    Based on the work in Ding and Ding (2008), we develop a modifi ed stochastic gradient (SG) parameter estimation algorithm for a dual-rate Box-Jenkins model by using an auxiliary model. We simplify the complex dual-rate Box-Jenkins model to two fi nite impulse response (FIR) models, present an auxiliary model to estimate the missing outputs and the unknown noise variables, and compute all the unknown parameters of the system with colored noises. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method is effective.

  1. Dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator based channel drop filter using two-dimensional photonic crystal structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar, E-mail: mayurchhipa1@gmail.com [Deptt. of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Government Engineering College Ajmer Rajasthan INDIA (India); Dusad, Lalit Kumar [Rajasthan Technical University Kota, Rajasthan (India)

    2016-05-06

    In this paper channel drop filter (CDF) is designed using dual curved photonic crystal ring resonator (PCRR). The photonic band gap (PBG) is calculated by plane wave expansion (PWE) method and the photonic crystal (PhC) based on two dimensional (2D) square lattice periodic arrays of silicon (Si) rods in air structure have been investigated using finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The number of rods in Z and X directions is 21 and 20 respectively with lattice constant 0.540 nm and rod radius r = 0.1 µm. The channel drop filter has been optimized for telecommunication wavelengths λ = 1.591 µm with refractive indices 3.533. In the designed structure further analysis is also done by changing whole rods refractive index and it has been observed that this filter may be used for filtering several other channels also. The designed structure is useful for CWDM systems. This device may serve as a key component in photonic integrated circuits. The device is ultra compact with the overall size around 123 µm{sup 2}.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry of the lumbar spine in professional wrestlers and untrained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, M; Sheng, J; Kang, Z; Zou, L; Guo, J; Sun, P

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relation between bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT) and bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine in male professional wrestlers and healthy untrained men. A total of 14 wrestlers (22.9±3.4 years) and 11 controls (24.4±1.6 years) were studied cross-sectionally. Body composition and BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Magnetic resonance imaging of the lumbar spine was examined in a sagittal T1-weighted (T1-w) spin-echo (SE) sequence. The averaged bone marrow signal intensity (SI) of L2-L4 was related to the signal of an adjacent nondegenerative disk. Mean SI of T1-w SE in wrestlers was lower than controls (P=0.001), indicating L2-L4 BMAT in wrestlers was lower compared to controls. L2-L4 BMD in wrestlers was higher than controls (PBMAT and BMD was confirmed in this relatively small subject sample with narrow age range, which implies that exercise training is an important determinant of this association.

  3. Magnetic nanoparticles with dual functional properties: drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Tapan K; Richey, John; Strand, Michelle; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra L; Flask, Chris A; Labhasetwar, Vinod

    2008-10-01

    There is significant interest in recent years in developing magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) having multifunctional characteristics with complimentary roles. In this study, we investigated the drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) properties of our novel oleic acid-coated iron-oxide and pluronic-stabilized MNPs. The drug incorporation efficiency of doxorubicin and paclitaxel (alone or in combination) in MNPs was 74-95%; the drug release was sustained and the incorporated drugs had marginal effects on physical (size and zeta potential) and magnetization properties of the MNPs. The drugs in combination incorporated in MNPs demonstrated highly synergistic antiproliferative activity in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The T2 relaxivity (r(2)) was higher for our MNPs than Feridex IV, whereas the T1 relaxivity (r(1)) was better for Feridex IV than for our MNPs, suggesting greater sensitivity of our MNPs than Feridex IV in T2 weighted imaging. The circulation half-life (t(1/2)), determined from the changes in the MRI signal intensity in carotid arteries in mice, was longer for our MNPs than Feridex IV (t(1/2)=31.2 vs. 6.4 min). MNPs with combined characteristics of MRI and drug delivery could be of high clinical significance in the treatment of various disease conditions.

  4. New self-dual $k$-generalized Abelian-Higgs models

    CERN Document Server

    Casana, R; Santos, A C

    2015-01-01

    We have shown the existence of self-dual solutions in new Maxwell-Higgs scenarios whose gauge field possess $k$-generalized dynamics, i.e., the kinetic part of the gauge action being highly nonlinear. We have implemented the BPS formalism providing highly nonlinear generalized self-dual equations whose solutions possess a total energy proportional to the magnetic flux. However, there is a key condition which allows to express the self-dual equations in a form mathematically similar those arising in the Maxwell-Higgs model. Under such a key condition, we have analyzed the general properties of the self-dual axially symmetric vortices. We have observed the generalization modifies the vortex core, the magnetic field amplitude and the bosonic masses but the total energy remains proportional to the quantized magnetic flux. Finally, we have established a prescription which allows to obtain different $k$-generalized Abelian Higgs models providing self-dual configurations.

  5. White Paper of the Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance on Dual-Energy CT, Part 1: Technology and Terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Marilyn J; Kaza, Ravi K; Bolus, David N; Boll, Daniel T; Rofsky, Neil M; De Cecco, Carlo N; Foley, W Dennis; Morgan, Desiree E; Schoepf, U Joseph; Sahani, Dushyant V; Shuman, William P; Vrtiska, Terri J; Yeh, Benjamin M; Berland, Lincoln L

    This is the first of a series of 4 white papers that represent Expert Consensus Documents developed by the Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance through its task force on dual-energy computed tomography (DECT). This article, part 1, describes the fundamentals of the physical basis for DECT and the technology of DECT and proposes uniform nomenclature to account for differences in proprietary terms among manufacturers.

  6. [The Study of Characteristics of Cladding-Reduced Coated Long-Period Fiber Grating Based on Mode Transition and Dual Peak Resonance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jin-long; Gu, Zheng-tian

    2015-11-01

    Based on coupled-mode theory, the mode transition of the high-order cladding modes in a coated long-period tiber grating (LPFG) has been studied firstly; the mode transition region and non-mode transition region of high-order cladding modes are divided. The response characteristic of cladding mode effective index with increasing the overlay thickness is analyzed; the shift of resonant wavelength in the mode transition region will be larger than that in the non-mode transition region. Further, the changes of the resonant wavelength of some high-order cladding modes with grating period are investigated when the cladding radius are different, the shift between two resonant wavelengths of dual peak in the mode transition region is bigger than that in non-mode transition region when the cladding radius are uniform. And the shift between two resonant wavelengths of dual peak will be increased by the decrease of the cladding radius in both mode transition and non-mode transition regions. Finally, the response characteristics of film refractive index of coated LPFG are investigated for a high-order cladding mode while the cladding radius are different and the overlay thickness is located in mode transition region and non-transition mode region, then the optimized design scheme is come up with. The higher sensitivity dual-peak sensor of coated LPFG than the traditional dual-peak sensor will be obtained when the overlay thickness and refractive index is located in the mode transition region and the grating period close to the phase matching turning points. Further, the resolution power of coated LPFG sensor will further be improved by the appropriate reducing of the cladding radius.

  7. Microvascular obstruction on delayed enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance imaging after acute myocardial infarction, compared with myocardial (201)Tl and (123)I-BMIPP dual SPECT findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hiroaki; Isobe, Satoshi; Sakai, Shinichi; Yamada, Takashi; Watanabe, Naoki; Miura, Manabu; Uchida, Yasuhiro; Kanashiro, Masaaki; Ichimiya, Satoshi; Okumura, Takahiro; Murohara, Toyoaki

    2015-08-01

    The hypo-enhanced regions within the hyper-enhanced infarct areas detected by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging reflect microvascular obstruction (MO) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The combined myocardial thallium-201 ((201)Tl)/iodine-123-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid ((123)I-BMIPP) dual single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a useful tool for detecting myocardial reversibility after AMI. We evaluated whether MO could be an early predictor of irreversible myocardial damage in comparison with (201)Tl and (123)I-BMIPP dual SPECT findings in AMI patients. Sixty-two patients with initial AMI who successfully underwent coronary revascularization were enrolled. MO was defined by CMR imaging. Patients were divided into 2 groups as follows: MO group (n=32) and non-MO group (n=30). Scintigraphic defect scores were calculated using a 17-segment model with a 5-point scoring system. The mismatch score (MMS) was calculated as follows: the total sum of (Σ) (123)I-BMIPP defect score minus Σ(201)Tl defect score. The percentage mismatch score (%MMS) was calculated as follows: MMS/(Σ(123)I-BMIPP score)×100 (%). The percentage infarct size (%IS) was significantly greater in the MO group than in the non-MO group (32.2±13.8% vs. 18.3±12.1%, p<0.001). The %MMS significantly correlated with the %IS and the percentage MO (r=-0.26, p=0.03; r=-0.45, p<0.001, respectively). The %MMS was significantly greater in the non-MO group than in the MO group (45.4±42.4% vs. 13.3±28.0%, p=0.001), and was an independent predictor for MO (OR 0.97, 95%CI 0.94-0.99, p=0.02). Our results reconfirm that, in comparison with myocardial dual scintigraphy, MO is an important structural abnormality. CMR imaging is useful for the early detection of irreversible myocardial damage after AMI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A Prototype-Based Resonance Model of Rhythm Categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Bååth

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Categorization of rhythmic patterns is prevalent in musical practice, an example of this being the transcription of (possibly not strictly metrical music into musical notation. In this article we implement a dynamical systems' model of rhythm categorization based on the resonance theory of rhythm perception developed by Large (2010. This model is used to simulate the categorical choices of participants in two experiments of Desain and Honing (2003. The model accurately replicates the experimental data. Our results support resonance theory as a viable model of rhythm perception and show that by viewing rhythm perception as a dynamical system it is possible to model central properties of rhythm categorization.

  9. A prototype-based resonance model of rhythm categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bååth, Rasmus; Lagerstedt, Erik; Gärdenfors, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Categorization of rhythmic patterns is prevalent in musical practice, an example of this being the transcription of (possibly not strictly metrical) music into musical notation. In this article we implement a dynamical systems' model of rhythm categorization based on the resonance theory of rhythm perception developed by Large (2010). This model is used to simulate the categorical choices of participants in two experiments of Desain and Honing (2003). The model accurately replicates the experimental data. Our results support resonance theory as a viable model of rhythm perception and show that by viewing rhythm perception as a dynamical system it is possible to model central properties of rhythm categorization.

  10. Slow Steps towards Dual Earner/Dual Carer Family Model: Why Do Fathers Not Take Parental Leave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marre Karu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article looks at the transition of Estonian society towards dual earner/dual carer family model and focuses on fathers’ decision regarding taking their parental leave. Based on theory of planned behaviour by Ajzen, data from 20 qualitative interviews with fathers of small children are analysed to explore the beliefs fathers have when it comes to parental leave. The analysis distinguishes between two images of ‘good parenting’ that play a role in the fathers’ intention to take parental leave. First, there is an image of an outcome-oriented ‘project manager’ affected by failure anxiety, and second, there is a much more relaxed image of a ‘good parent’ as a ‘companion’ who values everyday contact and a close relationship with the child(ren.

  11. Tracking stochastic resonance curves using an assisted reference model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderón Ramírez, Mario; Rico Martínez, Ramiro [Departamento de Ingeniería Química, Instituto Tecnológico de Celaya, Av. Tecnológico y A. García Cubas S/N, Celaya, Guanajuato, 38010 (Mexico); Ramírez Álvarez, Elizeth [Nonequilibrium Chemical Physics, Physik-Department, TU-München, James-Franck-Str. 1, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Parmananda, P. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400 076 (India)

    2015-06-15

    The optimal noise amplitude for Stochastic Resonance (SR) is located employing an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) reference model with a nonlinear predictive capability. A modified Kalman Filter (KF) was coupled to this reference model in order to compensate for semi-quantitative forecast errors. Three manifestations of stochastic resonance, namely, Periodic Stochastic Resonance (PSR), Aperiodic Stochastic Resonance (ASR), and finally Coherence Resonance (CR) were considered. Using noise amplitude as the control parameter, for the case of PSR and ASR, the cross-correlation curve between the sub-threshold input signal and the system response is tracked. However, using the same parameter the Normalized Variance curve is tracked for the case of CR. The goal of the present work is to track these curves and converge to their respective extremal points. The ANN reference model strategy captures and subsequently predicts the nonlinear features of the model system while the KF compensates for the perturbations inherent to the superimposed noise. This technique, implemented in the FitzHugh-Nagumo model, enabled us to track the resonance curves and eventually locate their optimal (extremal) values. This would yield the optimal value of noise for the three manifestations of the SR phenomena.

  12. Nanoparticles in magnetic resonance imaging: from simple to dual contrast agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estelrich, Joan; Sánchez-Martín, María Jesús; Busquets, Maria Antònia

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become one of the most widely used and powerful tools for noninvasive clinical diagnosis owing to its high degree of soft tissue contrast, spatial resolution, and depth of penetration. MRI signal intensity is related to the relaxation times (T1, spin–lattice relaxation and T2, spin–spin relaxation) of in vivo water protons. To increase contrast, various inorganic nanoparticles and complexes (the so-called contrast agents) are administered prior to the scanning. Shortening T1 and T2 increases the corresponding relaxation rates, 1/T1 and 1/T2, producing hyperintense and hypointense signals respectively in shorter times. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio can be improved with the acquisition of a large number of measurements. The contrast agents used are generally based on either iron oxide nanoparticles or ferrites, providing negative contrast in T2-weighted images; or complexes of lanthanide metals (mostly containing gadolinium ions), providing positive contrast in T1-weighted images. Recently, lanthanide complexes have been immobilized in nanostructured materials in order to develop a new class of contrast agents with functions including blood-pool and organ (or tumor) targeting. Meanwhile, to overcome the limitations of individual imaging modalities, multimodal imaging techniques have been developed. An important challenge is to design all-in-one contrast agents that can be detected by multimodal techniques. Magnetoliposomes are efficient multimodal contrast agents. They can simultaneously bear both kinds of contrast and can, furthermore, incorporate targeting ligands and chains of polyethylene glycol to enhance the accumulation of nanoparticles at the site of interest and the bioavailability, respectively. Here, we review the most important characteristics of the nanoparticles or complexes used as MRI contrast agents. PMID:25834422

  13. An Analytic Model for Buoyancy Resonances in Protoplanetary Disks

    CERN Document Server

    Lubow, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    Zhu, Stone, and Rafikov (2012) found in 3D shearing box simulations a new form of planet-disk interaction that they attributed to a vertical buoyancy resonance in the disk. We describe an analytic linear model for this interaction. We adopt a simplified model involving azimuthal forcing that produces the resonance and permits an analytic description of its structure. We derive an analytic expression for the buoyancy torque and show that the vertical torque distribution agrees well with results of Athena simulations and a Fourier method for linear numerical calculations carried out with the same forcing. The buoyancy resonance differs from the classic Lindblad and corotation resonances in that the resonance lies along tilted planes. Its width depends on damping effects and is independent of the gas sound speed. The resonance does not excite propagating waves. At a given large azimuthal wavenumber k_y > 1/h (for disk thickness h), the buoyancy resonance exerts a torque over a region that lies radially closer to...

  14. Analytical Model of Planar Double Split Ring Resonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, Viktor

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on accurate modelling of microstrip double split ring resonators. The impedance matrix representation for coupled lines is applied for the first time to model the SRR, resulting in excellent model accuracy over a wide frequency range. Phase compensation is implemented to take...

  15. Asymptotic-bound-state model for Feshbach resonances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiecke, T.G.; Goosen, M.R.; Walraven, J.T.M.; Kokkelmans, S.J.J.M.F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an asymptotic-bound-state model which can be used to accurately describe all Feshbach resonance positions and widths in a two-body system. With this model we determine the coupled bound states of a particular two-body system. The model is based on analytic properties of the two-body

  16. Functional magnetic porous silica for T 1-T 2 dual-modal magnetic resonance imaging and pH-responsive drug delivery of basic drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Zhang, Run; Guo, Yi; Zhang, Cheng; Zhao, Wei; Xu, Zhiping; Whittaker, Andrew K.

    2016-12-01

    A smart magnetic-targeting drug carrier γ-Fe2O3@p-silica comprising a γ-Fe2O3 core and porous shell has been prepared and characterized. The particles have a uniform size of about 60 nm, and a porous shell of thickness 3 nm. Abundant hydroxyl groups and a large surface area enabled the γ-Fe2O3@p-silica to be readily loaded with a large payload of the basic model drug rhodamine B (RB) (up to 73 mg g-1). Cytotoxicity assays of the γ-Fe2O3@p-silica particles indicated that the particles were biocompatible and suitable for carrying drugs. It was found that the RB was released rapidly at pH 5.5 but at pH 7.4 the rate and extent of release was greatly attenuated. The particles therefore demonstrate an excellent pH-triggered drug release. In addition, the γ-Fe2O3@p-silica particles could be tracked by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A clear dose-dependent contrast enhancement in both T 1-weighted and T 2-weighted MR images indicated the potential of the γ-Fe2O3@p-silica particles to act as dual-mode T 1 and T 2 MRI contrast agents.

  17. In Vivo Magnetic Resonance and Fluorescence Dual-Modality Imaging of Tumor Angiogenesis in Rats Using GEBP11 Peptide Targeted Magnetic Nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tao; Wang, Yabin; Wang, Jiinda; Han, Dong; Ma, Sai; Cao, Jianbo; Li, Xiujuan; Zhang, Ran; Qiao, Hongyu; Liang, Jimin; Liu, Gang; Yang, Bo; Liang, Shuhui; Nie, Yongzhan; Wu, Kaichun; Li, Jiayi; Cao, Feng

    2016-05-01

    Angiogenesis is an essential process for tumor progression. Tumor vasculature-targeting peptides have shown great potential for use in cancer imaging and therapy. Our previous studies have shown that GEBP11, a novel vasculature-specific binding peptide that exhibits high affinity and specificity to tumor angiogenesis, is a promising candidate for the diagnosis and targeted radiotherapy of gastric cancer. In the present study, we developed a novel magnetic resonance and fluorescence (MR/Fluo) dual-modality imaging probe by covalently coupling 2,3-dimercaptosuccinnic acid-coated paramagnetic nanoparticles (DMSA-MNPs) and Cy5.5 to the GEBP11 peptide. The probe Cy5.5-GEBP11-DMSA-MNPs (CGD-MNPs), with a hydrodynamic diameter of 82.8 ± 6.5 nm, exhibited good imaging properties, high stability and little cytotoxicity. In vivo MR/Fluo imaging revealed that CGD-MNPs were successfully applied to visualize tumor angiogenesis in SGC-7901 xenograft mouse models. Prussian blue and CD31 immunohistochemical staining confirmed that CGD-MNPs co-localized with tumor blood vessels. In conclusion, CGD-MNPs are promising candidates for use as MR and fluorescence imaging probes for visualizing gastric cancer angiogenesis in vivo.

  18. Nanoparticles in magnetic resonance imaging: from simple to dual contrast agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estelrich J

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Joan Estelrich,1,2 María Jesús Sánchez-Martín,1 Maria Antònia Busquets1,2 1Departament de Fisicoquímica, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain; 2Institut de Nanociència I Nanotecnologia (IN2UB, Barcelona, Catalonia, SpainAbstract: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI has become one of the most widely used and powerful tools for noninvasive clinical diagnosis owing to its high degree of soft tissue contrast, spatial resolution, and depth of penetration. MRI signal intensity is related to the relaxation times (T1, spin–lattice relaxation and T2, spin–spin relaxation of in vivo water protons. To increase contrast, various inorganic nanoparticles and complexes (the so-called contrast agents are administered prior to the scanning. Shortening T1 and T2 increases the corresponding relaxation rates, 1/T1 and 1/T2, producing hyperintense and hypointense signals respectively in shorter times. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio can be improved with the acquisition of a large number of measurements. The contrast agents used are generally based on either iron oxide nanoparticles or ferrites, providing negative contrast in T2-weighted images; or complexes of lanthanide metals (mostly containing gadolinium ions, providing positive contrast in T1-weighted images. Recently, lanthanide complexes have been immobilized in nanostructured materials in order to develop a new class of contrast agents with functions including blood-pool and organ (or tumor targeting. Meanwhile, to overcome the limitations of individual imaging modalities, multimodal imaging techniques have been developed. An important challenge is to design all-in-one contrast agents that can be detected by multimodal techniques. Magnetoliposomes are efficient multimodal contrast agents. They can simultaneously bear both kinds of contrast and can, furthermore, incorporate targeting ligands and chains of polyethylene glycol to enhance the accumulation of

  19. Mathematical Modeling of Subthreshold Resonant Properties in Pyloric Dilator Neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Vazifehkhah Ghaffari, Babak; Kouhnavard, Mojgan; Aihara, Takeshi; Kitajima, Tatsuo

    2015-01-01

    Various types of neurons exhibit subthreshold resonance oscillation (preferred frequency response) to fluctuating sinusoidal input currents. This phenomenon is well known to influence the synaptic plasticity and frequency of neural network oscillation. This study evaluates the resonant properties of pacemaker pyloric dilator (PD) neurons in the central pattern generator network through mathematical modeling. From the pharmacological point of view, calcium currents cannot be blocked in PD neur...

  20. Dual permeability FEM models for distributed fiber optic sensors development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar-López, Juan Pablo; Bogaard, Thom

    2017-04-01

    Fiber optic cables are commonly known for being robust and reliable mediums for transferring information at the speed of light in glass. Billions of kilometers of cable have been installed around the world for internet connection and real time information sharing. Yet, fiber optic cable is not only a mean for information transfer but also a way to sense and measure physical properties of the medium in which is installed. For dike monitoring, it has been used in the past for detecting inner core and foundation temperature changes which allow to estimate water infiltration during high water events. The DOMINO research project, aims to develop a fiber optic based dike monitoring system which allows to directly sense and measure any pore pressure change inside the dike structure. For this purpose, questions like which location, how many sensors, which measuring frequency and which accuracy are required for the sensor development. All these questions may be initially answered with a finite element model which allows to estimate the effects of pore pressure change in different locations along the cross section while having a time dependent estimation of a stability factor. The sensor aims to monitor two main failure mechanisms at the same time; The piping erosion failure mechanism and the macro-stability failure mechanism. Both mechanisms are going to be modeled and assessed in detail with a finite element based dual permeability Darcy-Richards numerical solution. In that manner, it is possible to assess different sensing configurations with different loading scenarios (e.g. High water levels, rainfall events and initial soil moisture and permeability conditions). The results obtained for the different configurations are later evaluated based on an entropy based performance evaluation. The added value of this kind of modelling approach for the sensor development is that it allows to simultaneously model the piping erosion and macro-stability failure mechanisms in a time

  1. Application of the dual reciprocity boundary element method for numerical modelling of solidification process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Majchrzak

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The dual reciprocity boundary element method is applied for numerical modelling of solidification process. This variant of the BEM is connected with the transformation of the domain integral to the boundary integrals. In the paper the details of the dual reciprocity boundary element method are presented and the usefulness of this approach to solidification process modelling is demonstrated. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations are shown.

  2. Analysis of Sharp Resonance Synchronization Stability for the Dual Motor Exciting Nonlinear System%双电机激励非线性系统锐共振同步稳定性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小号; 刘杰; 刘劲涛; 姚兆

    2009-01-01

    针对双激励电动机在振动筛中的同步驱动问题,在建立双电动机激励单质体非线性系统的动力学模型基础上,分析系统在锐共振(共振频率比z=0.95~1.05)情况下,双激振电动机作反向同步回转的振动同步性及同步稳定性,推导出双激振电动机在平衡奇点处的振动同步稳定性条件.通过数值仿真,在不同初始条件下对双激振电动机的同步性影响因素进行了讨论,对推导的同步稳定性条件的正确性进行了验证.研究结果为进一步开发高效的锐共振振动机械提供了理论支持和实验依据.%According to the synchronous driving problem of dual exciting motors in vibrating screen which was used in agricultures and industries, to establish the dynamic model of single-mass nonlinear system which was driven by dual exciting motors, the vibration synchronization and synchronous stability of dual exciting motors which were rotated in opposite directions had been researched by theoretical method, under system sharp resonance conditions (resonant frequency ratio z=0. 95 ~ 1.05). And the necessary conditions of vibration synchronization stability were deduced while the dual exciting motors moving at the balance singular point. Using the numerical simulation, the influence factors of vibration synchronization for dual exciting motors were discussed under different initial conditions, and the validation of synchronous stability theory was investigated. This research provides the theoretical fundamental and test basis for further exploitation of efficient and energy - saving sharp resonance shaker.

  3. Quantitative assessment of left ventricular function with dual-source CT in comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: initial findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busch, S.; Johnson, T.R.C.; Wintersperger, B.J.; Minaifar, N.; Bhargava, A.; Rist, C.; Reiser, M.F.; Becker, C.; Nikolaou, K. [University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging and echocardiography are currently regarded as standard modalities for the quantification of left ventricular volumes and ejection fraction. With the recent introduction of dual-source computedtomography (DSCT), the increased temporal resolution of 83 ms should also improve the assessment of cardiac function in CT. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of DSCT in the assessment of left ventricular functional parameters with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as standard of reference. Fifteen patients (two female, 13 male; mean age 50.8 {+-} 19.2 years) underwent CT and MRI examinations on a DSCT (Somatom Definition; Siemens Medical Solutions, Forchheim, Germany) and a 3.0-Tesla MR scanner (Magnetom Trio; Siemens Medical Solutions), respectively. Multiphase axial CT images were analysed with a semiautomatic region growing algorithms (Syngo Circulation; Siemens Medical Solutions) by two independent blinded observers. In MRI, dynamic cine loops of short axis slices were evaluated with semiautomatic contour detection software (ARGUS; Siemens Medical Solutions) independently by two readers. End-systolic volume (ESV), end-diastolic volume (EDV), ejection fraction (EF) and stroke volume (SV) were determined for both modalities, and correlation coefficient, systematic error, limits of agreement and inter-observer variability were assessed. In DSCT, EDV and ESV were 135.8 {+-} 41.9 ml and 54.9 {+-} 29.6 ml, respectively, compared with 132.1 {+-} 40.8 ml EDV and 57.6 {+-} 27.3 ml ESV in MRI. Thus, EDV was overestimated by 3.7 ml (limits of agreement -46.1/+53.6), while ESV was underestimated by 2.6 ml (-36.6/+31.4). Mean EF was 61.6 {+-} 12.4% in DSCT and 57.9 {+-} 9.0% in MRI, resulting in an overestimation of EF by 3.8% with limits of agreement at -14.7 and +22.2%. Rank correlation rho values were 0.81 for EDV (P = 0.0024), 0.79 for ESV (P = 0.0031) and 0.64 for EF (P = 0.0168). The kappa value of inter

  4. Modeling of the nonlinear resonant response in sedimentary rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ten Cate, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shankland, Thomas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vakhnenko, Vyacheslav O [NON LANL; Vakhnenko, Oleksiy [NON LANL

    2009-04-03

    We suggest a model for describing a wide class of nonlinear and hysteretic effects in sedimentary rocks at longitudinal bar resonance. In particular, we explain: hysteretic behaviour of a resonance curve on both its upward and downward slopes; linear softening of resonant frequency with increase of driving level; gradual (almost logarithmic) recovery of resonant frequency after large dynamical strains; and temporal relaxation of response amplitude at fixed frequency. Starting with a suggested model, we predict the dynamical realization of end-point memory in resonating bar experiments with a cyclic frequency protocol. These theoretical findings were confirmed experimentally at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Sedimentary rocks, particularly sandstones, are distinguished by their grain structure in which each grain is much harder than the intergrain cementation material. The peculiarities of grain and pore structures give rise to a variety of remarkable nonlinear mechanical properties demonstrated by rocks, both at quasistatic and alternating dynamic loading. Thus, the hysteresis earlier established for the stress-strain relation in samples subjected to quasistatic loading-unloading cycles has also been discovered for the relation between acceleration amplitude and driving frequency in bar-shaped samples subjected to an alternating external drive that is frequency-swept through resonance. At strong drive levels there is an unusual, almost linear decrease of resonant frequency with strain amplitude, and there are long-term relaxation phenomena such as nearly logarithmic recovery (increase) of resonant frequency after the large conditioning drive has been removed. In this report we present a short sketch of a model for explaining numerous experimental observations seen in forced longitudinal oscillations of sandstone bars. According to our theory a broad set of experimental data can be understood as various aspects of the same internally consistent pattern. Furthermore

  5. Loss-improved electroacoustical modeling of small Helmholtz resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starecki, Tomasz

    2007-10-01

    Modeling of small Helmholtz resonators based on electroacoustical analogies often results in significant disagreement with measurements, as existing models do not take into account some losses that are observed in practical implementations of such acoustical circuits, e.g., in photoacoustic Helmholtz cells. The paper presents a method which introduces loss corrections to the transmission line model, resulting in substantial improvement of simulations. Values of the loss corrections obtained from comparison of frequency responses of practically implemented resonators with computer simulations are presented in tabular and graphical form. A simple analytical function that can be used for interpolation or extrapolation of the loss corrections for other dimensions of the Helmholtz resonators is also given. Verification of such a modeling method against an open two-cavity Helmholtz structure shows very good agreement between measurements and simulations.

  6. Effect of geometry in frequency response modeling of nanomechanical resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, M. Nasr; Yilmaz, M.; Sonne, M. R.; Hattel, J. H.; Alaca, B. Erdem

    2016-06-01

    The trend towards nanomechanical resonator sensors with increasing sensitivity raises the need to address challenges encountered in the modeling of their mechanical behavior. Selecting the best approach in mechanical response modeling amongst the various potential computational solid mechanics methods is subject to controversy. A guideline for the selection of the appropriate approach for a specific set of geometry and mechanical properties is needed. In this study, geometrical limitations in frequency response modeling of flexural nanomechanical resonators are investigated. Deviation of Euler and Timoshenko beam theories from numerical techniques including finite element modeling and Surface Cauchy-Born technique are studied. The results provide a limit beyond which surface energy contribution dominates the mechanical behavior. Using the Surface Cauchy-Born technique as the reference, a maximum error on the order of 50 % is reported for high-aspect ratio resonators.

  7. Determination of trace uranium by resonance fluorescence method coupled with photo-catalytic technology and dual cloud point extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiekang; Li, Guirong; Han, Qian

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, two kinds of salophens (Sal) with different solubilities, Sal1 and Sal2, have been respectively synthesized, and they all can combine with uranyl to form stable complexes: [UO22 +-Sal1] and [UO22 +-Sal2]. Among them, [UO22 +-Sal1] was used as ligand to extract uranium in complex samples by dual cloud point extraction (dCPE), and [UO22 +-Sal2] was used as catalyst for the determination of uranium by photocatalytic resonance fluorescence (RF) method. The photocatalytic characteristic of [UO22 +-Sal2] on the oxidized pyronine Y (PRY) by potassium bromate which leads to the decrease of RF intensity of PRY were studied. The reduced value of RF intensity of reaction system (ΔF) is in proportional to the concentration of uranium (c), and a novel photo-catalytic RF method was developed for the determination of trace uranium (VI) after dCPE. The combination of photo-catalytic RF techniques and dCPE procedure endows the presented methods with enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. Under optimal conditions, the linear calibration curves range for 0.067 to 6.57 ng mL- 1, the linear regression equation was ΔF = 438.0 c (ng mL- 1) + 175.6 with the correlation coefficient r = 0.9981. The limit of detection was 0.066 ng mL- 1. The proposed method was successfully applied for the separation and determination of uranium in real samples with the recoveries of 95.0-103.5%. The mechanisms of the indicator reaction and dCPE are discussed.

  8. Magnetically engineered Cd-free quantum dots as dual-modality probes for fluorescence/magnetic resonance imaging of tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ke; Jing, Lihong; Liu, Chunyan; Hou, Yi; Gao, Mingyuan

    2014-02-01

    Magnetically engineered Cd-free CuInS2@ZnS:Mn quantum dots (QDs) were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as potential dual-modality probes for fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tumors in vivo. The synthesis of Mn-doped core-shell structured CuInS2@ZnS mainly comprised three steps, i.e., the preparation of fluorescent CuInS2 seeds, the particle surface coating of ZnS, and the Mn-doping of the ZnS shells. Systematic spectroscopy studies were carried out to illustrate the impacts of ZnS coating and the following Mn-doping on the optical properties of the QDs. In combination with conventional fluorescence, fluorescence excitation, and time-resolved fluorescence measurements, the structure of CuInS2@ZnS:Mn QDs prepared under optimized conditions presented a Zn gradient CuInS2 core and a ZnS outer shell, while Mn ions were mainly located in the ZnS shell, which well balanced the optical and magnetic properties of the resultant QDs. For the following in vivo imaging experiments, the hydrophobic CuInS2@ZnS:Mn QDs were transferred into water upon ligand exchange reactions by replacing the 1-dodecanethiol ligand with dihydrolipoic acid-poly(ethylene glycol) (DHLA-PEG) ligand. The MTT assays based on HeLa cells were carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the current Cd-free CuInS2@ZnS:Mn QDs for comparing with that of water soluble CdTe QDs. Further in vivo fluorescence and MR imaging experiments suggested that the PEGylated CuInS2@ZnS:Mn QDs could well target both subcutaneous and intraperitoneal tumors in vivo.

  9. Determination of trace uranium by resonance fluorescence method coupled with photo-catalytic technology and dual cloud point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiekang; Li, Guirong; Han, Qian

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, two kinds of salophens (Sal) with different solubilities, Sal1 and Sal2, have been respectively synthesized, and they all can combine with uranyl to form stable complexes: [UO2(2+)-Sal1] and [UO2(2+)-Sal2]. Among them, [UO2(2+)-Sal1] was used as ligand to extract uranium in complex samples by dual cloud point extraction (dCPE), and [UO2(2+)-Sal2] was used as catalyst for the determination of uranium by photocatalytic resonance fluorescence (RF) method. The photocatalytic characteristic of [UO2(2+)-Sal2] on the oxidized pyronine Y (PRY) by potassium bromate which leads to the decrease of RF intensity of PRY were studied. The reduced value of RF intensity of reaction system (ΔF) is in proportional to the concentration of uranium (c), and a novel photo-catalytic RF method was developed for the determination of trace uranium (VI) after dCPE. The combination of photo-catalytic RF techniques and dCPE procedure endows the presented methods with enhanced sensitivity and selectivity. Under optimal conditions, the linear calibration curves range for 0.067 to 6.57ngmL(-1), the linear regression equation was ΔF=438.0 c (ngmL(-1))+175.6 with the correlation coefficient r=0.9981. The limit of detection was 0.066ngmL(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied for the separation and determination of uranium in real samples with the recoveries of 95.0-103.5%. The mechanisms of the indicator reaction and dCPE are discussed.

  10. Fermi resonance-algebraic model for molecular vibrational spectra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯喜文; 董世海; 谢汨; 马中骐

    1999-01-01

    A Fermi resonance-algebraic model is proposed for molecular vibrations, where a U(2) algebra is used for describing the vibrations of each bond, and Fermi resonances between stretching and bending modes are taken into account. The model for a bent molecule XY2 and a molecule XY3 is successfully applied to fitting the recently observed vibrational spectrum of the water molecule and arsine (AsH3), respectively, and the results are compared with those of other models. Calculations show that algebraic approaches can be used as an effective method to describe molecular vibrations with small standard deviations.

  11. Topological self-dual configurations in a Lorentz-violating gauged O(3) sigma model

    CERN Document Server

    Casana, R; Ferreira, M M

    2015-01-01

    We have studied the existence of topological BPS or self-dual configurations in a Lorentz-violating gauged O(3) nonlinear sigma model, where CPT-even Lorentz-violating (LV) terms were introduced in both the gauge and {\\sigma}-field sectors. Such as it happens in the usual gauged {\\sigma}-model, purely magnetic self-dual configurations are allowed, maintaining some qualitative features of the standard ones. In a more involved configuration, Lorentz-violation provides new self-dual magnetic solutions carrying electric field but null total electric charge. In both cases, the total energy of the self-dual configurations turns out proportional to the topological charge of the model and to the LV parameters introduced in the {\\sigma}-sector. It is shown that the LV terms yield magnetic flux reversion as well.

  12. Topological self-dual configurations in a Lorentz-violating gauged O (3 ) sigma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, R.; Farias, C. F.; Ferreira, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the existence of topological Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield or self-dual configurations in a Lorentz-violating gauged O (3 ) nonlinear sigma model, where C P T -even Lorentz-violating (LV) terms were introduced in both the gauge and σ -field sectors. As happens in the usual gauged σ model, purely magnetic self-dual configurations are allowed, maintaining some qualitative features of the standard ones. In a more involved configuration, Lorentz violation provides new self-dual magnetic solutions carrying an electric field but a null total electric charge. In both cases, the total energy of the self-dual configurations turns out to be proportional to the topological charge of the model and to the LV parameters introduced in the σ sector. It is shown that the LV terms yield magnetic flux reversion as well.

  13. A new three-dimensional electromechanical impedance model for an embedded dual-PZT transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dansheng; Li, Zhi; Zhu, Hongping

    2016-07-01

    In the past twenty years, the electromechanical (EM) impedance technique has been investigated extensively in the mechanical, aviation and civil engineering fields. Many different EM impedance models have been proposed to characterize the interaction between the surface-bonded PZT transducer and the host structure. This paper formulates a new three-dimensional EM impedance model characterizing the interaction between an embedded circle dual-PZT transducer and the host structure based on the effective impedance concept. The proposed model is validated by experimental results from a group of smart cement cubes, in which three circle dual-PZT transducers are embedded respectively. In addition, a new EM impedance measuring method for the dual-PZT transducer is also introduced. In the measuring method, only a common signal generator and an oscilloscope are needed, by which the exciting and receiving voltage signals are obtained respectively. Combined with fast Fourier transform the EM impedance signatures of the dual-PZT transducers are obtained.

  14. The research on the modeling of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Shaoxiang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to now there is no specialized,efficient,general-purpose modeling method of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair.In this paper,based on the spatial meshing theory,a parameterized mathematical model of the dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair is established,which is simplified as a digitized modeling method based on six basic parameters of the worm gear pair.Virtual machining modeling plug-in programming is achieved through the solidworks development platform.The results show that this modeling method can make the hourglass worm modeling more convenient,accurate and fast.

  15. The research on the modeling of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Shaoxiang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to now there is no specialized,efficient,general-purpose modeling method of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair.In this paper,based on the spatial meshing theory,a parameterized mathematical model of the dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair is established,which is simplified as a digitized modeling method based on six basic parameters of the worm gear pair.Virtual machining modeling plug-in programming is achieved through the solidworks development platform.The results show that this modeling method can make the hourglass worm modeling more convenient,accurate and fast.

  16. 3D modeling of dual wind-up extensional rheometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Kaijia; Román Marín, José Manuel; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2010-01-01

    Fully three-dimensional numerical simulations of a dual wind-up drum rheometer of the Sentmanat Extensional Rheometer (SER; Sentmanat, 2004 [1]) or the Extensional Viscosity Fixture (EVF; Garritano and Berting, 2006 [2]) type have been performed. In the SER and EVF a strip of rectangular shape is...

  17. Direct Evidence for a Dual Process Model of Deductive Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Brunet, Marie-Laurence; Thompson, Valerie; Brisson, Janie

    2013-01-01

    In 2 experiments, we tested a strong version of a dual process theory of conditional inference (cf. Verschueren et al., 2005a, 2005b) that assumes that most reasoners have 2 strategies available, the choice of which is determined by situational variables, cognitive capacity, and metacognitive control. The statistical strategy evaluates inferences…

  18. Model: A Dual Focused Intervention for Depression and Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaught, Eileen; Wodarski, John S.

    1996-01-01

    Describes how adolescents are affected by depression and alcohol dependence and offers a treatment plan for a dual diagnosis. The plan consists of an adolescent group and family program to facilitate and maintain behavioral changes in treatment. The benefits of this treatment and rationale for its application are discussed. (LSR)

  19. Solving the sign problems of the massless lattice Schwinger model with a dual formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christof Gattringer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We derive an exact representation of the massless Schwinger model on the lattice in terms of dual variables which are configurations of loops, dimers and plaquette occupation numbers. When expressed with the dual variables the partition sum has only real and positive terms also when a chemical potential or a topological term are added – situations where the conventional representation has a complex action problem. The dual representation allows for Monte Carlo simulations without restrictions on the values of the chemical potential or the vacuum angle.

  20. Solving the sign problems of the massless lattice Schwinger model with a dual formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Gattringer, Christof; Sazonov, Vasily

    2015-01-01

    We derive an exact representation of the massless Schwinger model on the lattice in terms of dual variables which are configurations of loops, dimers and plaquette occupation numbers. When expressed with the dual variables the partition sum has only real and positive terms also when a chemical potential or a topological term are added -- situations where the conventional representation has a complex action problem. The dual representation allows for Monte Carlo simulations without restrictions on the values of the chemical potential or the vacuum angle.

  1. Electromagnetic Form Factors of Hadrons in Dual-Large $N_c$ QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Dominguez, C A

    2010-01-01

    In this talk, results are presented of determinations of electromagnetic form factors of hadrons (pion, proton, and $\\Delta(1236)$) in the framework of Dual-Large $N_c$ QCD (Dual-$QCD_\\infty$). This framework improves considerably tree-level VMD results by incorporating an infinite number of zero-width resonances, with masses and couplings fixed by the dual-resonance (Veneziano-type) model.

  2. Electro-thermo-mechanical model for bulk acoustic wave resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocas, Eduard; Collado, Carlos; Mateu, Jordi; Orloff, Nathan D; Aigner, Robert; Booth, James C

    2013-11-01

    We present the electro-thermo-mechanical constitutive relations, expanded up to the third order, for a BAW resonator. The relations obtained are implemented into a circuit model, which is validated with extensive linear and nonlinear measurements. The mathematical analysis, along with the modeling, allows us to identify the dominant terms, which are the material temperature derivatives and two intrinsic nonlinear terms, and explain, for the first time, all observable effects in a BAW resonator by use of a unified physical description. Moreover, the terms that are responsible for the second-harmonic generation and the frequency shift with dc voltage are shown to be the same.

  3. Dual random circuit breaker network model with equivalent thermal circuit network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwanyong; Yoon, Seong Jun; Choi, Woo Young

    2014-02-01

    A SPICE-based dual random circuit breaker (RCB) network model with an equivalent thermal circuit network has been proposed in order to emulate resistance switching (RS) of unipolar resistive random access memory (RRAM). The dual RCB network model consists of the electrical RCB network model for the forming and set operations and the equivalent thermal circuit network model for the reset operation. In addition, the proposed model can explain the effects of heat dissipation on the memory and threshold RS with the variation in electrode thickness.

  4. Duality equivalence between nonlinear self-dual and topologically massive models

    CERN Document Server

    Ilha, A; Ilha, Anderson; Wotzasek, Clovis

    2001-01-01

    In this report we study the dual equivalence between the generalized self-dual (SD) and topologically massive (TM) models. To this end we linearize the model using an auxiliary field and apply a gauge embedding procedure to construct a gauge equivalent model. We clearly show that, under the above conditions, a nonlinear SD model always has a duality equivalent TM action.The general result obtained is then particularized for a number of examples, including the Born-Infeld-Chern-Simons (BICS) model recently discussed in the literature.

  5. Cornering diphoton resonance models at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Backović, Mihailo; Mariotti, Alberto; Sessolo, Enrico Maria; Spannowsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We explore the ability of the high luminosity LHC to test models which can explain the 750 GeV diphoton excess. We focus on a wide class of models where a 750 GeV singlet scalar couples to Standard Model gauge bosons and quarks, as well as dark matter. Including both gluon and photon fusion production mechanisms, we show that LHC searches in channels correlated with the diphoton signal will be able to probe wide classes of diphoton models with $\\mathcal{L} \\sim 3000\\, \\text{fb}^{-1}$ of data. Furthermore, models in which the scalar is a portal to the dark sector can be cornered with as little as $\\mathcal{L} \\sim 30\\, \\text{fb}^{-1}$.

  6. Cornering diphoton resonance models at the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backović, Mihailo [Center for Cosmology, Particle Physics and Phenomenology (CP3),Universite Catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Kulkarni, Suchita [Institute of High Energy Physics, Austrian Academy of Sciences,Nikolsdorfergasse 18, 1050 Vienna (Austria); Mariotti, Alberto [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel,and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Sessolo, Enrico Maria [National Centre for Nuclear Research,Hoża 69, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Spannowsky, Michael [Institute for Particle Physics Phenomenology, Department of Physics,Durham University, Durham, DH13LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-02

    We explore the ability of the high luminosity LHC to test models which can explain the 750 GeV diphoton excess. We focus on a wide class of models where a 750 GeV singlet scalar couples to Standard Model gauge bosons and quarks, as well as dark matter. Including both gluon and photon fusion production mechanisms, we show that LHC searches in channels correlated with the diphoton signal will be able to probe wide classes of diphoton models with L∼3000 fb{sup −1} of data. Furthermore, models in which the scalar is a portal to the dark sector can be cornered with as little as L∼30 fb{sup −1}.

  7. A 5-DOF Model for Aeroengine Spindle Dual-rotor System Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Qinghua; DENG Sier; TENG Hongfei

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops a five degrees of freedom (5-DOF) model for aeroengine spindle dual-rotor system dynamic analysis.In this system, the dual rotors are supported on two angular contact ball bearings and two deep groove ball bearings, one of the latter-mentioned bearings works as the inter-shaft bearing.Driven by respective motors, the dual rotors have different co-rotating speeds.The proposed model mathematically formulates the nonlinear displacements, elastic deflections and contact forces of beatings with consideration of 5-DOF and coupling of dual rotors.The nonlinear equations of motions of dual rotors with 5-DOF are solved using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg algorithm.In order to investigate the effect of the introduced 5-DOF and nonlinear dynamic bearing model, we compare the proposed model with two models: the 3-DOF model of this system only considering three translational degrees of freedom (Gupta, 1993, rotational freedom is neglected); the 5-DOF model where the deep groove ball bearings are simplified as linear elastic spring (Guskov, 2007).The simulation results verify Gupta's prediction (1993) and show that the rotational freedom of rotors and nonlinear dynamic model of bearings have great effect on the system dynamic simulation.The quantitative results are given as well.

  8. Compartmental modelling for magnetic resonance renography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sourbron, Steven

    2010-01-01

    A basic formalism is presented for generating and interpreting compartmental models for dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI data in the kidney. A graphical convention is introduced to represent and design compartmental models in a transparent and physically intuitive manner. A systematic system of notations and a simple set of rules allows direct translation of the graphical representation into a mathematical solution. The rules are derived from the physical principle of mass conservation, and the interpretation provided by the general tracer-kinetic theory of linear and stationary systems. The power of the formalism is illustrated using examples of models that have been proposed in the literature on perfusion MRI, and by generating a number of advanced models that may be of use in the kidney.

  9. A model realizing inverse seesaw and resonant leptogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, Mayumi; Takahashi, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    We construct a model realizing the inverse seesaw mechanism. The model has two types of gauge singlet fermions in addition to right-handed neutrinos. A required Majorana mass scale (keV scale) for generating the light active neutrino mass in the conventional inverse seesaw can be naturally explained by a "seesaw" mechanism between the two singlet fermions in our model. We find that our model can decrease the magnitude of hierarchy among mass parameters by $\\mathcal{O}(10^4)$ from that in the conventional inverse seesaw model. We also show that a successful resonant leptogenesis occurs for generating the baryon asymmetry of the universe in our model. The desired mass degeneracy for the resonant leptogenesis can also be achieved by the "seesaw" between the two singlet fermions.

  10. Self-assembled dual-modality contrast agents for non-invasive stem cell tracking via near-infrared fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong; Tan, Yan; Xie, Lisi; Yang, Lei; Zhao, Jing; Bai, Jingxuan; Huang, Ping; Zhan, Wugen; Wan, Qian; Zou, Chao; Han, Yali; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-09-15

    Stem cells hold great promise for treating various diseases. However, one of the main drawbacks of stem cell therapy is the lack of non-invasive image-tracking technologies. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging have been employed to analyse cellular and subcellular events via the assistance of contrast agents, the sensitivity and temporal resolution of MRI and the spatial resolution of NIRF are still shortcomings. In this study, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals and IR-780 dyes were co-encapsulated in stearic acid-modified polyethylenimine to form a dual-modality contrast agent with nano-size and positive charge. These resulting agents efficiently labelled stem cells and did not influence the cellular viability and differentiation. Moreover, the labelled cells showed the advantages of dual-modality imaging in vivo.

  11. 基于双共振的涡街信号检测方法%A method based on dual-resonance to detect vortex shedding signals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑俊; 林敏

    2014-01-01

    A coupled bistable system was composed of a controlled system and a control system by means of nonlinear coupling.The dual-resonance characteristics of the coupled bistable system under a controlling signal action were analyzed.A method based on dual-resonance to enhance stochastic resonance was proposed,and the method was applied to detect vortex shedding signals.Numerical simulations and experimental results showed that with a controlling signal added to the control system,adjusting signal frequency can excite resonances of the system to enhance stochastic resonance of the controlled system substantially;the output power spectral values of the system at the eigen-frequencies increase obviously,and weak signals of vortex shedding submerged in noise can be detected effectively.%耦合双稳系统由控制系统和被控系统经非线性方式耦合而成。分析了控制信号作用下耦合双稳系统的双共振特性,提出了基于双共振的随机共振增强方法,并将该方法应用于涡街流量信号的检测。数值仿真和实验结果表明,改变控制信号的频率可在控制系统中产生共振,进而增强被控系统中的随机共振,系统输出功率谱在特征频率处的谱值显著提高,从而准确检测出噪声背景中的微弱涡街信号。

  12. Resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to realize...... theoretical consciousness through historical narrative ‘in practice’, by discussing selected historical topics from Western cultural history, within the disciplines of history, literature, visual arts, musicology, archaeology, philosophy, and theology. The title Resonances indicates the overall perspective...

  13. In vivo magnetic resonance and fluorescence dual imaging of tumor sites by using dye-doped silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Haeyun; Lee, Chaedong [Seoul National University, Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Gi-Eun [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Quan, Bo [Seoul National University, Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyuck Jae [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Asan Medical Center (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Jung Sun [Seoul National University, Department of Transdisciplinary Studies, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology, Smart Humanity Convergence Center (Korea, Republic of); Piao, Yuanzhe, E-mail: parkat9@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University, Program in Nano Science and Technology, Graduate School of Convergence Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    The difficulty in delineating tumor is a major obstacle for better outcomes in cancer treatment of patients. The use of single-imaging modality is often limited by inadequate sensitivity and resolution. Here, we present the synthesis and the use of monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles coated with fluorescent silica nano-shells for fluorescence and magnetic resonance dual imaging of tumor. The as-synthesized core–shell nanoparticles were designed to improve the accuracy of diagnosis via simultaneous tumor imaging with dual imaging modalities by a single injection of contrast agent. The iron oxide nanocrystals (∼11 nm) were coated with Rhodamine B isothiocyanate-doped silica shells via reverse microemulsion method. Then, the core–shell nanoparticles (∼54 nm) were analyzed to confirm their size distribution by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic laser scattering. Photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to characterize the fluorescent property of the dye-doped silica shell-coated nanoparticles. The cellular compatibility of the as-prepared nanoparticles was confirmed by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay and the potential as a dual-imaging contrast agent was verified by in vivo fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging. The experimental results show that the uniform-sized core–shell nanoparticles are highly water dispersible and the cellular toxicity of the nanoparticles is negligible. In vivo fluorescence imaging demonstrates the capability of the developed nanoparticles to selectively target tumors by the enhanced permeability and retention effects and ex vivo tissue analysis was corroborated this. Through in vitro phantom test, the core/shell nanoparticles showed a T2 relaxation time comparable to Feridex{sup ®} with smaller size, indicating that the as-made nanoparticles are suitable for imaging tumor. This new dual-modality-nanoparticle approach has promised for enabling more accurate tumor imaging.

  14. In vivo magnetic resonance and fluorescence dual imaging of tumor sites by using dye-doped silica-coated iron oxide nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Haeyun; Lee, Chaedong; Nam, Gi-Eun; Quan, Bo; Choi, Hyuck Jae; Yoo, Jung Sun; Piao, Yuanzhe

    2016-02-01

    The difficulty in delineating tumor is a major obstacle for better outcomes in cancer treatment of patients. The use of single-imaging modality is often limited by inadequate sensitivity and resolution. Here, we present the synthesis and the use of monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles coated with fluorescent silica nano-shells for fluorescence and magnetic resonance dual imaging of tumor. The as-synthesized core-shell nanoparticles were designed to improve the accuracy of diagnosis via simultaneous tumor imaging with dual imaging modalities by a single injection of contrast agent. The iron oxide nanocrystals ( 11 nm) were coated with Rhodamine B isothiocyanate-doped silica shells via reverse microemulsion method. Then, the core-shell nanoparticles ( 54 nm) were analyzed to confirm their size distribution by transmission electron microscopy and dynamic laser scattering. Photoluminescence spectroscopy was used to characterize the fluorescent property of the dye-doped silica shell-coated nanoparticles. The cellular compatibility of the as-prepared nanoparticles was confirmed by a trypan blue dye exclusion assay and the potential as a dual-imaging contrast agent was verified by in vivo fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging. The experimental results show that the uniform-sized core-shell nanoparticles are highly water dispersible and the cellular toxicity of the nanoparticles is negligible. In vivo fluorescence imaging demonstrates the capability of the developed nanoparticles to selectively target tumors by the enhanced permeability and retention effects and ex vivo tissue analysis was corroborated this. Through in vitro phantom test, the core/shell nanoparticles showed a T2 relaxation time comparable to Feridex® with smaller size, indicating that the as-made nanoparticles are suitable for imaging tumor. This new dual-modality-nanoparticle approach has promised for enabling more accurate tumor imaging.

  15. Poisson-Lie T-duals of the bi-Yang-Baxter models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimčík, Ctirad

    2016-09-01

    We prove the conjecture of Sfetsos, Siampos and Thompson that suitable analytic continuations of the Poisson-Lie T-duals of the bi-Yang-Baxter sigma models coincide with the recently introduced generalized λ-models. We then generalize this result by showing that the analytic continuation of a generic σ-model of ;universal WZW-type; introduced by Tseytlin in 1993 is nothing but the Poisson-Lie T-dual of a generic Poisson-Lie symmetric σ-model introduced by Klimčík and Ševera in 1995.

  16. A Dual-Process Model of the Alcohol-Behavior Link for Social Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Antony C.; Albery, Ian P.

    2009-01-01

    A dual-process model of the alcohol-behavior link is presented, synthesizing 2 of the major social-cognitive approaches: expectancy and myopia theories. Substantial evidence has accrued to support both of these models, and recent neurocognitive models of the effects of alcohol on thought and behavior have provided evidence to support both as well.…

  17. Logical Reasoning versus Information Processing in the Dual-Strategy Model of Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2017-01-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based strategies such as mental model theory and statistical strategies underlying probabilistic models. The dual-strategy model, proposed by Verschueren, Schaeken, & d'Ydewalle (2005a, 2005b), which suggests that people might have access to both…

  18. Modeling of Ad-hoc and Infrastructure Dual Mode Mobile Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Hung Chen; Hui-Nien Hung; Yi-Bing Lin; Nan-Fu Peng

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates a mobile telecommunications system that supports both ad hoc and infrastructure mode operations. Based on analytic and simulation models, our study investigates how base station (BS) and ad hoc channel capacity, and the mobility and locality of mobile stations affect the performance of a dual mode system. We show that a dual mode system can significantly outperform a single mode (infrastructure) system when the degree of locality is high. Furthermore, a dual mode system can support much faster mobile users with less BS channels in comparison to an infrastructure mode system. Our study quantitatively identifies the threshold value for the number of ad hoc channels such that beyond this threshold, increasing ad hoc channel capacity will not improve the performance of a dual mode system.

  19. Stochastic resonance in the Weidlich model of public opinion formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinec, Peter

    1997-02-01

    As a prototypical nonlinear sociological system we study the Weidlich model of public opinion formation. At an optimal value of the collective climate parameter (which plays the role of noise for this system) we have found a maximal value of signal-to-noise ratio and a largest amplification of a periodic external preference factor which are the characteristics of stochastic resonance.

  20. Model-Independent Simplified Limits on Resonances at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chivukula, R Sekhar; Mohan, Kirtimaan; Simmons, Elizabeth H

    2016-01-01

    In the earliest stages of evaluating new collider data, especially if a small excess may be present, it would be useful to have a method for comparing the data with entire classes of models, to get an immediate sense of which classes could conceivably be relevant. In this paper, we propose a method that applies when the new physics invoked to explain the excess corresponds to the production and decay of a single, relatively narrow, $s$-channel resonance. A simplifed model of the resonance allows us to convert an estimated signal cross section into model-independent bounds on the product of the branching ratios corresponding to production and decay. This quickly reveals whether a given class of models could possibly produce a signal of the required size at the LHC. Our work sets up a general framework, outlines how it operates for resonances with different numbers of production and decay modes, and analyzes cases of current experimental interest, including resonances decaying to dibosons, diphotons, dileptons,...

  1. HCMT models of optical microring-resonator circuits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohmeyer, Manfred

    2010-01-01

    Circuits of dielectric integrated optical microring resonators are addressed through a two-dimensional hybrid analytical/numerical coupled mode theory (HCMT) model. Analytical modes of all straight and curved cores form templates for the optical fields of the entire circuits. Our variational techniq

  2. Dynamical squeezing enhancement in the off-resonant Dicke model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, D; Chavez, A; Chumakov, S M; Klimov, A B [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad de Guadalajara, Revolucion 1500, 44420, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2004-01-01

    We show that the maximum atomic squeezing that can be achieved in the vacuum off-resonant Dicke model (governed by the effective Hamiltonian {approx} S{sub z}{sup 2}) can be essentially enhanced by applying a sequence of {pi}/2 pulses at certain time moments. The major effect is obtained after the first pulse.

  3. LOW ACTIVATION JOINING OF SIC/SIC COMPOSITES FOR FUSION APPLICATIONS: MODELING DUAL-PHASE MICROSTRUCTURES AND DISSIMILAR MATERIAL JOINTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henager, Charles H.; Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Kurtz, Richard J.; Ferraris, M.; Katoh, Y.

    2016-03-31

    Finite element continuum damage models (FE-CDM) have been developed to simulate and model dual-phase joints and cracked joints for improved analysis of SiC materials in nuclear environments. This report extends the analysis from the last reporting cycle by including results from dual-phase models and from cracked joint models.

  4. White Paper of the Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance on Dual-Energy CT, Part 3: Vascular, Cardiac, Pulmonary, and Musculoskeletal Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cecco, Carlo N; Schoepf, U Joseph; Steinbach, Lynne; Boll, Daniel T; Foley, W Dennis; Kaza, Ravi K; Bolus, David N; Morgan, Desiree E; Sahani, Dushyant V; Shuman, William P; Siegel, Marilyn J; Vrtiska, Terri J; Yeh, Benjamin M; Berland, Lincoln L

    2017-01-01

    This is the third of a series of 4 white papers that represent Expert Consensus Documents developed by the Society of Computed Body Tomography and Magnetic Resonance through its Task Force on dual-energy computed tomography. This paper, part 3, describes computed tomography angiography and thoracic, cardiac, vascular, and musculoskeletal clinical applications. At the end of the discussion of each application category (vascular, cardiac, pulmonary, and musculoskeletal), we present our consensus opinions on the current clinical utility of the application and opportunities for further research.

  5. Helicopter air resonance modeling and suppression using active control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, M. D.; Friedmann, P. P.

    1991-01-01

    A coupled rotor/fuselage helicopter analysis with the important effects of blade torsional flexibility, unsteady aerodynamics, and forward flight is presented. Using this mathematical model, a nominal configuration is selected with an air resonance instability throughout most of its flight envelope. A multivariable compensator is then designed using two swashplate inputs and a single-body roll rate measurement. The controller design is based on the linear quadratic Gaussian technique and the loop transfer recovery method. The controller is shown to suppress the air resonance instability throughout a wide range of helicopter loading conditions and forward flight speeds.

  6. Self-Dual Vortices in Abelian Higgs Models with Dielectric Function on the Noncommutative Plane

    CERN Document Server

    Fuertes, W García

    2014-01-01

    We show that Abelian Higgs Models with dielectric function defined on the noncommutative plane enjoy self-dual vorticial solutions. By choosing a particular form of the dielectric function, we provide a family of solutions whose Higgs and magnetic fields interpolate between the profiles of the noncommutative Nielsen-Olesen and Chern-Simons vortices. This is done both for the usual $U(1)$ model and for the $SU(2)\\times U(1)$ semilocal model with a doublet of complex scalar fields. The variety of known noncommutative self-dual vortices which display a regular behaviour when the noncommutativity parameter tends to zero results in this way considerably enlarged.

  7. No-ghost theorem for the Pomeron sector of the dual model

    CERN Document Server

    Olive, D

    1973-01-01

    The Pomeron sector of the dual model comprises a spectrum of states obtained by factorizing the residues of poles occurring in a certain channel (with vacuum quantum numbers) of the orientable non-planar single loop graphs of the conventional dual model considered in 26 space-time dimensions. The authors show that the spectrum of Pomeron states which couple between external physical particle states are transverse and hence positive definite and thus ghost-free. The same states also factorize the Virasoro-Shapiro model which now appears very likely to be the scattering theory of Pomeron ground states. (17 refs).

  8. Modelling Brain Tissue using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Tim Bjørn

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion MRI, or diffusion weighted imaging (DWI), is a technique that measures the restricted diffusion of water molecules within brain tissue. Different reconstruction methods quantify water-diffusion anisotropy in the intra- and extra-cellular spaces of the neural environment. Fibre tracking...... models then use the directions of greatest diffusion as estimates of white matter fibre orientation. Several fibre tracking algorithms have emerged in the last few years that provide reproducible visualizations of three-dimensional fibre bundles. One class of these algorithms is probabilistic...... be used. Within a two year period, no statistical inter- or intra-brain difference in the diffusion coefficient was found in perfusion fixated minipig brains. However, a decreasing tendency in the diffusion coefficient was found at the last time points about 24 months post mortem and might be explained...

  9. Integrated Hydrogeophysical and Hydrogeologic Driven Parameter Upscaling for Dual-Domain Transport Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Flach; Mary Harris; Susan Hubbard; Camelia Knapp; Mike Kowalsky; Maggie Millings; John Shafer; Mike Waddell

    2006-06-01

    Our research project is motivated by the observations that conventional characterization approaches capture only a fraction of heterogeneity affecting field-scale transport, and that conventional modeling approaches, which use this sparse data, typically do not successfully predict long term plume behavior with sufficient accuracy to guide remedial strategies. Our working hypotheses are that improved prediction of contaminant transport can be achieved using a dual-domain transport approach and field-scale characterization approaches. Our overall objectives are to: (1) develop a dual-domain modeling approach using the TOUGH2 family of codes that incorporates the key interactions between mobile and immobile transport regions that are expected to play a role in long term plume behavior; (2) develop a facies-based multi-scale characterization approach that utilizes log, crosshole, and surface-based characterization information and that is guided by the parameterization needs of the dual domain modeling; and (3) evaluate the approaches by applying them to the prediction of plume behavior at the P-Area at the Savannah River Site (Figure 1). Our three-year project scope includes development of multi-scale characterization and dual-domain modeling approach and field-scale data acquisition (Year 1); Numerical simulations and field-scale characterization (Year 2); and Plume transport simulations and exploration of optimal dual-domain parameters (Year 3).

  10. A Dual Coding Theoretical Model of Decoding in Reading: Subsuming the LaBerge and Samuels Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadoski, Mark; McTigue, Erin M.; Paivio, Allan

    2012-01-01

    In this article we present a detailed Dual Coding Theory (DCT) model of decoding. The DCT model reinterprets and subsumes The LaBerge and Samuels (1974) model of the reading process which has served well to account for decoding behaviors and the processes that underlie them. However, the LaBerge and Samuels model has had little to say about…

  11. DRC: a dual route cascaded model of visual word recognition and reading aloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coltheart, M; Rastle, K; Perry, C; Langdon, R; Ziegler, J

    2001-01-01

    This article describes the Dual Route Cascaded (DRC) model, a computational model of visual word recognition and reading aloud. The DRC is a computational realization of the dual-route theory of reading, and is the only computational model of reading that can perform the 2 tasks most commonly used to study reading: lexical decision and reading aloud. For both tasks, the authors show that a wide variety of variables that influence human latencies influence the DRC model's latencies in exactly the same way. The DRC model simulates a number of such effects that other computational models of reading do not, but there appear to be no effects that any other current computational model of reading can simulate but that the DRC model cannot. The authors conclude that the DRC model is the most successful of the existing computational models of reading.

  12. A Dual-Stage Two-Phase Model of Selective Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubner, Ronald; Steinhauser, Marco; Lehle, Carola

    2010-01-01

    The dual-stage two-phase (DSTP) model is introduced as a formal and general model of selective attention that includes both an early and a late stage of stimulus selection. Whereas at the early stage information is selected by perceptual filters whose selectivity is relatively limited, at the late stage stimuli are selected more efficiently on a…

  13. Dual Mission: An Innovative Field Model for Training Social Work Students for Work with Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber, Katherine; Chavkin, Nancy Feyl; Biggs, Mary Jo Garcia

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive article explores a collaborative model that blends the dual missions of training social work students to work with military personnel, veterans, and their families while serving student veterans on campus. The model consists of 2 main components: (1) a nationally recognized service component for providing academic, health and…

  14. Beyond dual-process models: A categorisation of processes underlying intuitive judgement and decision making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glöckner, A.; Witteman, C.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Intuitive-automatic processes are crucial for making judgements and decisions. The fascinating complexity of these processes has attracted many decision researchers, prompting them to start investigating intuition empirically and to develop numerous models. Dual-process models assume a clear distinc

  15. Knock prediction for dual fuel engines by using a simplified combustion model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费少梅; 刘震涛; 严兆大

    2003-01-01

    The present work used a methane-air mixture chemical kinetics scheme consisting of 119 elementary reaction steps and 41 chemical species to develop a simplified combustion model for prediction of the knock in dual fuel engines. Calculated values by the model for natural gas operation showed good agreement with corresponding experimental values over a broad range of operating conditions.

  16. Reliable dual tensor model estimation in single and crossing fibers based on jeffreys prior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Yang (Jianfei); D.H.J. Poot; M.W.A. Caan (Matthan); Su, T. (Tanja); C.B. Majoie (Charles); L.J. van Vliet (Lucas); F. Vos (Frans)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractPurpose This paper presents and studies a framework for reliable modeling of diffusion MRI using a data-acquisition adaptive prior. Methods Automated relevance determination estimates the mean of the posterior distribution of a rank-2 dual tensor model exploiting Jeffreys prior (JARD).

  17. Dual Mission: An Innovative Field Model for Training Social Work Students for Work with Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selber, Katherine; Chavkin, Nancy Feyl; Biggs, Mary Jo Garcia

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive article explores a collaborative model that blends the dual missions of training social work students to work with military personnel, veterans, and their families while serving student veterans on campus. The model consists of 2 main components: (1) a nationally recognized service component for providing academic, health and…

  18. Applications of Magnetic Resonance in Model Systems: Cancer Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L. Evelhoch

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of information regarding the metabolism and pathophysiology of individual tumors limits, in part, both the development of new anti-cancer therapies and the optimal implementation of currently available treatments. Magnetic resonance [MR, including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR] provides a powerful tool to assess many aspects of tumor metabolism and pathophysiology. Moreover, since this information can be obtained nondestructively, pre-clinical results from cellular or animal models are often easily translated into the clinic. This review presents selected examples of how MR has been used to identify metabolic changes associated with apoptosis, detect therapeutic response prior to a change in tumor volume, optimize the combination of metabolic inhibitors with chemotherapy and/or radiation, characterize and exploit the influence of tumor pH on the effectiveness of chemotherapy, characterize tumor reoxygenation and the effects of modifiers of tumor oxygenation in individual tumors, image transgene expression and assess the efficacy of gene therapy. These examples provide an overview of several of the areas in which cellular and animal model studies using MR have contributed to our understanding of the effects of treatment on tumor metabolism and pathophysiology and the importance of tumor metabolism and pathophysiology as determinants of therapeutic response.

  19. Nonlinear dynamic modeling and resonance tuning of Galfenol vibration absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheidler, Justin J.; Dapino, Marcelo J.

    2013-08-01

    This paper investigates the semi-active control of a magnetically-tunable vibration absorber’s resonance frequency. The vibration absorber that is considered is a metal-matrix composite containing the magnetostrictive material Galfenol (FeGa). A single degree of freedom model for the nonlinear vibration of the absorber is presented. The model is valid under arbitrary stress and magnetic field, and incorporates the variation in Galfenol’s elastic modulus throughout the composite as well as Galfenol’s asymmetric tension-compression behavior. Two boundary conditions—cantilevered and clamped-clamped—are imposed on the composite. The frequency response of the absorber to harmonic base excitation is calculated as a function of the operating conditions to determine the composite’s capacity for resonance tuning. The results show that nearly uniform controllability of the vibration absorber’s resonance frequency is possible below a threshold of the input power amplitude using weak magnetic fields of 0-8 kA m-1. Parametric studies are presented to characterize the effect on resonance tunability of Galfenol volume fraction and Galfenol location within the composite. The applicability of the results to composites of varying geometry and containing different Galfenol materials is discussed.

  20. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Characterize a Rodent Model of Covert Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Sheryl Lyn

    Covert stroke (CS) comprises lesions in the brain often associated by risk factors such as a diet high in fat, salt, cholesterol and sugar (HFSCS). Developing a rodent model for CS incorporating these characteristics is useful for developing and testing interventions. The purpose of this thesis was to determine if magnetic resonance (MR) can detect brain abnormalities to confirm this model will have the desired anatomical effects. Ex vivo MR showed brain abnormalities for rats with the induced lesions and fed the HFSCS diet. Spectra acquired on the fixed livers had an average percent area under the fat peak relative to the water peak of (20+/-4)% for HFSCS and (2+/-2)% for control. In vivo MR images had significant differences between surgeries to induce the lesions (p=0.04). These results show that applying MR identified abnormalities in the rat model and therefore is important in the development of this CS rodent model.

  1. Terbium-doped gadolinium oxide nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in liquid for use as a fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging dual-modal contrast agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Chen, Min; Yang, Chuan; Liu, Jun; Luo, Ningqi; Yang, Guowei; Chen, Dihu; Li, Li

    2015-01-14

    Dual-modal lanthanide-doped gadolinium nanoparticles (NPs), which exhibit an excellent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) spatial resolution and high fluorescence imaging (FI) sensitivity, have attracted tremendous attention in biotechnology and nanomedicine applications. In this paper, terbium (Tb) ion doped gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3:Tb) NPs with varied Tb concentrations were synthesized by a laser ablation in liquid (LAL) method. The characterization of the structure, morphology, and composition shows that these NPs are spherical with excellent crystallinity. The effects of Tb ion concentration on the visible green fluorescence and longitudinal relaxivity were investigated, indicating that the fluorescence properties were significantly influenced by the Tb ion concentration, but all samples were still efficient T1-weighted contrast agents. Furthermore, the optimum Tb doping concentration was determined to be 1%. The cell viability, cellular fluorescence imaging and in vivo MRI of this dual-modal nano-probe were studied, with the results revealing that the Gd2O3:Tb NPs did not have a significant cytotoxic effect, making them good candidates for use as a dual-modal contrast agent for MRI and fluorescence imaging.

  2. Dual-mode T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent based on ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and in vivo application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegafaw, Tirusew; Xu, Wenlong; Wasi Ahmad, Md; Baeck, Jong Su; Chang, Yongmin; Bae, Ji Eun; Chae, Kwon Seok; Kim, Tae Jeong; Lee, Gang Ho

    2015-09-01

    A new type of dual-mode T1 and T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent based on mixed lanthanide oxide nanoparticles was synthesized. Gd3+ (8S7/2) plays an important role in T1 MRI contrast agents because of its large electron spin magnetic moment resulting from its seven unpaired 4f-electrons, and Dy3+ (6H15/2) has the potential to be used in T2 MRI contrast agents because of its very large total electron magnetic moment: among lanthanide oxide nanoparticles, Dy2O3 nanoparticles have the largest magnetic moments at room temperature. Using these properties of Gd3+ and Dy3+ and their oxide nanoparticles, ultrasmall mixed gadolinium-dysprosium oxide (GDO) nanoparticles were synthesized and their potential to act as a dual-mode T1 and T2 MRI contrast agent was investigated in vitro and in vivo. The D-glucuronic acid coated GDO nanoparticles (davg = 1.0 nm) showed large r1 and r2 values (r2/r1 ≈ 6.6) and as a result clear dose-dependent contrast enhancements in R1 and R2 map images. Finally, the dual-mode imaging capability of the nanoparticles was confirmed by obtaining in vivo T1 and T2 MR images.

  3. Dual electrospray ionization source for confident generation of accurate mass tags using liquid chromatography Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Angelito I; Muddiman, David C; Bergen, H Robert; Craighead, James R; Burke, Michael J; Caskey, Patrick E; Allan, Jonathan A

    2003-07-15

    Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) has rapidly established a prominent role in proteomics because of its unparalleled resolving power, sensitivity and ability to achieve high mass measurement accuracy (MMA) simultaneously. However, space-charge effects must be quantitatively, routinely, and confidently corrected because they are known to profoundly influence MMA. We argue that the most effective way to account for space-charge effects is to introduce an internal mass calibrant (IMC) using a dual electrospray ionization (ESI) source where the IMC is added from a separate ESI emitter. The major disadvantage of our initial dual ESI source to achieve high MMA, and arguably the only one, was the time required to switch between the analyte emitter and IMC emitter (i.e., >300 ms). While this "switching time" was acceptable for direct infusion experiments, it did not lend itself to high-throughput applications or when conducting on-line liquid separations. In this report, we completely redesigned the dual ESI source and demonstrate several key attributes. First, the new design allows for facile alignment of ESI emitters, undetectable vibration, and the ability to extend to multiple emitters. Second, the switching time was reduced to IMC to be accumulated "simultaneously" in the external ion reservoir and injected as a single ion packet into the ion cyclotron resonance cell, eliminating the need for a separate accumulation and ion injection event for the IMC. Third, by using a high concentration of the IMC, the residence time on this emitter could be reduced to approximately 80 ms, allowing for more time spent accumulating analyte ions of significantly lower concentration. Fourth, multiplexed on-line separations can be carried out providing increased throughput. Specifically, the new dual ESI source has demonstrated its ability to produce a stable ion current over a 45-min time period at 7 T resulting in mass accuracies of 1.08 ppm +/- 0

  4. State of charge modeling of lithium-ion batteries using dual exponential functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ting-Jung; Lee, Kung-Yen; Huang, Chien-Kang; Chen, Jau-Horng; Chiu, Wei-Li; Huang, Chih-Fang; Wu, Shuen-De

    2016-05-01

    A mathematical model is developed by fitting the discharging curve of LiFePO4 batteries and used to investigate the relationship between the state of charge and the closed-circuit voltage. The proposed mathematical model consists of dual exponential terms and a constant term which can fit the characteristics of dual equivalent RC circuits closely, representing a LiFePO4 battery. One exponential term presents the stable discharging behavior and the other one presents the unstable discharging behavior and the constant term presents the cut-off voltage.

  5. Laser resonance ionization scheme development for tellurium and germanium at the dual Ti:Sa–Dye ISOLDE RILIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day Goodacre, T., E-mail: thomas.day.goodacre@cern.ch [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); School of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Fedorov, D. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, 188350 Gatchina (Russian Federation); Fedosseev, V.N.; Forster, L.; Marsh, B.A. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Rossel, R.E. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität, D-55099 Mainz (Germany); Faculty of Design, Computer Science and Media, Hochschule RheinMain, Wiesbaden (Germany); Rothe, S.; Veinhard, M. [CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-09-11

    The resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) is the principal ion source of the ISOLDE radioactive beam facility based at CERN. Using the method of in-source laser resonance ionization spectroscopy, a transition to a new autoionizing state of tellurium was discovered and applied as part of a three-step, three-resonance, photo-ionization scheme. In a second study, a three-step, two-resonance, photo-ionization scheme for germanium was developed and the ionization efficiency was measured at ISOLDE. This work increases the range of ISOLDE RILIS ionized beams to 31 elements. Details of the spectroscopy studies are described and the new ionization schemes are summarized.

  6. Laser resonance ionization scheme development for tellurium and germanium at the dual Ti:Sa–Dye ISOLDE RILIS

    CERN Document Server

    Day Goodacre, T.; Fedosseev, V.N.; Forster, L.; Marsh, B.A.; Rossel, R.E.; Rothe, S.; Veinhard, M.

    2016-01-01

    The resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) is the principal ion source of the ISOLDE radioactive beam facility based at CERN. Using the method of in-source laser resonance ionization spectroscopy, a transition to a new autoionizing state of tellurium was discovered and applied as part of a three-step, three-resonance, photo-ionization scheme. In a second study, a three-step, two-resonance, photo-ionization scheme for germanium was developed and the ionization efficiency was measured at ISOLDE. This work increases the range of ISOLDE RILIS ionized beams to 31 elements. Details of the spectroscopy studies are described and the new ionization schemes are summarized.

  7. Laser resonance ionization scheme development for tellurium and germanium at the dual Ti:Sa-Dye ISOLDE RILIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day Goodacre, T.; Fedorov, D.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Forster, L.; Marsh, B. A.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Veinhard, M.

    2016-09-01

    The resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) is the principal ion source of the ISOLDE radioactive beam facility based at CERN. Using the method of in-source laser resonance ionization spectroscopy, a transition to a new autoionizing state of tellurium was discovered and applied as part of a three-step, three-resonance, photo-ionization scheme. In a second study, a three-step, two-resonance, photo-ionization scheme for germanium was developed and the ionization efficiency was measured at ISOLDE. This work increases the range of ISOLDE RILIS ionized beams to 31 elements. Details of the spectroscopy studies are described and the new ionization schemes are summarized.

  8. Topological B-Model on Weighted Projective Spaces and Self-Dual Models in Four Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, A D; Popov, Alexander D.; Wolf, Martin

    2004-01-01

    It was recently shown by Witten on the basis of several examples that the topological B-model whose target space is a Calabi-Yau (CY) supermanifold is equivalent to holomorphic Chern-Simons (hCS) theory on the same supermanifold. Moreover, for the supertwistor space CP^{3|4} as target space, it has been demonstrated that hCS theory on CP^{3|4} is equivalent to self-dual N=4 super Yang-Mills (SYM) theory in four dimensions. We consider as target spaces for the B-model the weighted projective spaces WCP^{3|2}(1,1,1,1|p,q) with two fermionic coordinates of weight p and q, respectively - which are CY supermanifolds for p+q=4 - and discuss hCS theory on them. By using twistor techniques, we obtain certain field theories in four dimensions which are equivalent to hCS theory. These theories turn out to be self-dual truncations of N=4 SYM theory or of its twisted (topological) version.

  9. The Dual Half-Edge—A Topological Primal/Dual Data Structure and Construction Operators for Modelling and Manipulating Cell Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Boguslawski

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing need for building models that permit interior navigation, e.g., for escape route analysis. This paper presents a non-manifold Computer-Aided Design (CAD data structure, the dual half-edge based on the Poincaré duality that expresses both the geometric representations of individual rooms and their topological relationships. Volumes and faces are expressed as vertices and edges respectively in the dual space, permitting a model just based on the storage of primal and dual vertices and edges. Attributes may be attached to all of these entities permitting, for example, shortest path queries between specified rooms, or to the exterior. Storage costs are shown to be comparable to other non-manifold models, and construction with local Euler-type operators is demonstrated with two large university buildings. This is intended to enhance current developments in 3D Geographic Information Systems for interior and exterior city modelling.

  10. Dual geometric worm algorithm for two-dimensional discrete classical lattice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Peter; Sørensen, Erik S.; Alet, Fabien

    2004-07-01

    We present a dual geometrical worm algorithm for two-dimensional Ising models. The existence of such dual algorithms was first pointed out by Prokof’ev and Svistunov [N. Prokof’ev and B. Svistunov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 160601 (2001)]. The algorithm is defined on the dual lattice and is formulated in terms of bond variables and can therefore be generalized to other two-dimensional models that can be formulated in terms of bond variables. We also discuss two related algorithms formulated on the direct lattice, applicable in any dimension. These latter algorithms turn out to be less efficient but of considerable intrinsic interest. We show how such algorithms quite generally can be “directed” by minimizing the probability for the worms to erase themselves. Explicit proofs of detailed balance are given for all the algorithms. In terms of computational efficiency the dual geometrical worm algorithm is comparable to well known cluster algorithms such as the Swendsen-Wang and Wolff algorithms, however, it is quite different in structure and allows for a very simple and efficient implementation. The dual algorithm also allows for a very elegant way of calculating the domain wall free energy.

  11. Dynamics of dual prism adaptation: relating novel experimental results to a minimalistic neural model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Arévalo

    Full Text Available In everyday life, humans interact with a dynamic environment often requiring rapid adaptation of visual perception and motor control. In particular, new visuo-motor mappings must be learned while old skills have to be kept, such that after adaptation, subjects may be able to quickly change between two different modes of generating movements ('dual-adaptation'. A fundamental question is how the adaptation schedule determines the acquisition speed of new skills. Given a fixed number of movements in two different environments, will dual-adaptation be faster if switches ('phase changes' between the environments occur more frequently? We investigated the dynamics of dual-adaptation under different training schedules in a virtual pointing experiment. Surprisingly, we found that acquisition speed of dual visuo-motor mappings in a pointing task is largely independent of the number of phase changes. Next, we studied the neuronal mechanisms underlying this result and other key phenomena of dual-adaptation by relating model simulations to experimental data. We propose a simple and yet biologically plausible neural model consisting of a spatial mapping from an input layer to a pointing angle which is subjected to a global gain modulation. Adaptation is performed by reinforcement learning on the model parameters. Despite its simplicity, the model provides a unifying account for a broad range of experimental data: It quantitatively reproduced the learning rates in dual-adaptation experiments for both direct effect, i.e. adaptation to prisms, and aftereffect, i.e. behavior after removal of prisms, and their independence on the number of phase changes. Several other phenomena, e.g. initial pointing errors that are far smaller than the induced optical shift, were also captured. Moreover, the underlying mechanisms, a local adaptation of a spatial mapping and a global adaptation of a gain factor, explained asymmetric spatial transfer and generalization of prism

  12. Hodological resonance, hodological variance, psychosis and schizophrenia: A hypothetical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Brian eLawrie Birkett

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is a disorder with a large number of clinical, neurobiological, and cognitive manifestations, none of which is invariably present. However it appears to be a single nosological entity. This article considers the likely characteristics of a pathology capable of such diverse consequences. It is argued that both deficit and psychotic symptoms can be manifestations of a single pathology. A general model of psychosis is proposed in which the informational sensitivity or responsivity of a network ("hodological resonance" becomes so high that it activates spontaneously, to produce a hallucination, if it is in sensory cortex, or another psychotic symptom if it is elsewhere. It is argued that this can come about because of high levels of modulation such as those assumed present in affective psychosis, or because of high levels of baseline resonance, such as those expected in deafferentation syndromes associated with hallucinations, for example, Charles Bonnet. It is further proposed that schizophrenia results from a process (probably neurodevelopmental causing widespread increases of variance in baseline resonance; consequently some networks possess high baseline resonance and become susceptible to spontaneous activation. Deficit symptoms might result from the presence of networks with increased activation thresholds. This hodological variance model is explored in terms of schizo-affective disorder, transient psychotic symptoms, diathesis-stress models, mechanisms of antipsychotic pharmacotherapy and persistence of genes predisposing to schizophrenia. Predictions and implications of the model are discussed. In particular it suggests a need for more research into psychotic states and for more single case-based studies in schizophrenia.

  13. Study of the interplay between magnetic shear and resonances using Hamiltonian models for the magnetic field lines

    CERN Document Server

    Firpo, Marie-Christine; 10.1063/1.3562493

    2011-01-01

    The issue of magnetic confinement in magnetic fusion devices is addressed within a purely magnetic approach. Using some Hamiltonian models for the magnetic field lines, the dual impact of low magnetic shear is shown in a unified way. Away from resonances, it induces a drastic enhancement of magnetic confinement that favors robust internal transport barriers (ITBs) and stochastic transport reduction. When low-shear occurs for values of the winding of the magnetic field lines close to low-order rationals, the amplitude thresholds of the resonant modes that break internal transport barriers by allowing a radial stochastic transport of the magnetic field lines may be quite low. The approach can be applied to assess the robustness versus magnetic perturbations of general (almost) integrable magnetic steady states, including non-axisymmetric ones such as the important single helicity steady states. This analysis puts a constraint on the tolerable mode amplitudes compatible with ITBs and may be proposed as a possibl...

  14. Refinement of the tripartite influence model for men: dual body image pathways to body change behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L

    2011-06-01

    Although muscularity and body fat concerns are central to conceptualizing men's body image, they have not been examined together within existing structural models. This study refined the tripartite influence model (Thompson, Heinberg, Altabe, & Tantleff-Dunn, 1999) by including dual body image pathways (muscularity and body fat dissatisfaction) to engagement in muscular enhancement and disordered eating behaviors, respectively, and added dating partners as a source of social influence. Latent variable structural equation modeling analyses supported this quadripartite model in 473 undergraduate men. Nonsignificant paths were trimmed and two unanticipated paths were added. Muscularity dissatisfaction and body fat dissatisfaction represented dual body image pathways to men's engagement in muscularity enhancement behaviors and disordered eating behaviors, respectively. Pressures to be mesomorphic from friends, family, media, and dating partners made unique contributions to the model. Internalization of the mesomorphic ideal, muscularity dissatisfaction, and body fat dissatisfaction played key meditational roles within the model.

  15. Game Perspectives of DEA Models and Their Duals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a series of two-person games, which lead to various DEA models. The relationship between the DEA models and the games is explicit in our setting, although the Nash equilibrium solutions do not generally exist. Besides the classic DEA models, we also establish an explicit relationship between the games and some extended DEA models, such as free disposable hull DEA models and “negative” or “inverted” DEA models.

  16. An Image Fusion Method Based on NSCT and Dual-channel PCNN Model

    OpenAIRE

    Nianyi Wang; Yide Ma; Weilan Wang; Shijie Zhou

    2014-01-01

    NSCT is one of useful multiscale geometric analysis tools, which takes full advantage of geometric regularity of image intrinsic structures. The dual-channel PCNN is a simplified PCNN model, which can process multiple images by a single PCNN. This saves time in the process of image fusion and cuts down computational complexity. In this paper, we present a new image fusion scheme based on NSCT and dual-channel PCNN. Firstly, the fusion rules of subband coefficients of NSCT are discussed. For t...

  17. Self-Dual Chern-Simons Solitons and Generalized Heisenberg Ferromagnet Models

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, P; Oh, Phillial

    1996-01-01

    We consider the (2+1)-dimensional gauged Heisenberg ferromagnet model coupled with the Chern-Simons gauge fields. Self-dual Chern-Simons solitons, the static zero energy solution saturating Bogomol'nyi bounds, are shown to exist when the generalized spin variable is valued in the Hermitian symmetric spaces G/H. By gauging the maximal torus subgroup of H, we obtain self-dual solitons which satisfy vortex-type nonlinear equations thereby extending the two dimensional instantons in a nontrivial way. An explicit example for the CP(N) case is given.

  18. Genetic and Environmental Bases of Reading and Spelling: A Unified Genetic Dual Route Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Timothy C.; Castles, Anne; Luciano, Michelle; Wright, Margaret J.; Coltheart, Max; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2007-01-01

    We develop and test a dual-route model of genetic effects on reading aloud and spelling, based on irregular and non-word reading and spelling performance assessed in 1382 monozygotic and dizygotic twins. As in earlier research, most of the variance in reading was due to genetic effects. However, there were three more specific conclusions: the…

  19. Protesters as "passionate economists" : A dynamic dual pathway model of approach coping with collective disadvantage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, Martijn; Leach, Colin Wayne; Spears, Russell

    To explain the psychology behind individuals' motivation to participate in collective action against collective disadvantage (e.g., protest marches), the authors introduce a dynamic dual pathway model of approach coping that integrates many common explanations of collective action (i.e., group

  20. A Dual Process Motivational Model of Ambivalent Sexism and Gender Differences in Romantic Partner Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G.; Overall, Nickola C.

    2011-01-01

    We tested a dual process motivational model of ambivalent sexism and gender differences in intimate partner preferences. Meta-analysis of 32 samples (16 with men, 16 with women; N = 5,459) indicated that Benevolent Sexism (BS) in women was associated with greater preferences for high-resource partners (r = 0.24), whereas Hostile Sexism (HS) in men…

  1. Acting in solidarity : Testing an extended dual pathway model of collective action by bystander group members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saab, Rim; Tausch, Nicole; Spears, Russell; Cheung, Wing-Yee

    2015-01-01

    We examined predictors of collective action among bystander group members in solidarity with a disadvantaged group by extending the dual pathway model of collective action, which proposes one efficacy-based and one emotion-based path to collective action (Van Zomeren, Spears, Fischer, & Leach, 2004)

  2. Experimental evidence for a dual pathway model analysis of coping with the climate crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zomeren, Martijn; Spears, Russell; Leach, Colinn Wayne

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments examined the psychological power of fear and group efficacy beliefs to increase environmental action intentions against the climate crisis Extending a dual pathway model of coping with collective disadvantage results showed evidence for emotion-focused approach coping Environmental a

  3. Applicability of the Dual-Factor Model of Mental Health for College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Katie; Dowdy, Erin; Jones, Camille; Furlong, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the utility of a dual-factor model of mental health in which the concepts of mental illness and mental wellness are integrated. Life satisfaction, emotional symptoms, personal adjustment, and clinical symptoms were assessed with a sample of 240 college students. Participants were organized into four groups based on levels of…

  4. An engineering treatise on the CARE II dual mode and coverage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model used to calculate the reliability of any dual-mode, spare-switching computer system was described, and some illustrative examples were presented. The possibility of extending the resultant computer program further was also examined, enabling it, in particular, to accommodate computer configurations involving more than two modes of operation.

  5. How to Use COMSOL Multiphysics for coupled dual-permeability hydrological and slope stability modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, W.; Bogaard, T.A.; Bakker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Preferential flow paths, such as cracks, macropores, fissures, pipes etc. are common features of highly heterogeneous slopes. During intense rainstorms, preferential flow has a significant influence on subsurface flow and slope stability. Dual-permeability models are widely used to simulate

  6. How to Use COMSOL Multiphysics for coupled dual-permeability hydrological and slope stability modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shao, W.; Bogaard, T.A.; Bakker, M.

    2014-01-01

    Preferential flow paths, such as cracks, macropores, fissures, pipes etc. are common features of highly heterogeneous slopes. During intense rainstorms, preferential flow has a significant influence on subsurface flow and slope stability. Dual-permeability models are widely used to simulate preferen

  7. The dual pathway to creativity model : Creative ideation as a function of flexibility and persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijstad, B.A.; De Dreu, C.K.W.; Rietzschel, E.F.; Baas, M.

    2010-01-01

    The dual pathway to creativity model argues that creativity-the generation of original and appropriate ideas-is a function of cognitive flexibility and cognitive persistence, and that dispositional or situational variables may influence creativity either through their effects on flexibility, on pers

  8. Longitudinal Study of a Dual-Factor Model of Mental Health in Chinese Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Junmei; Qin, Yi; Gao, Miaomiao; Hai, Man

    2017-01-01

    By incorporating psychopathology and subjective well-being (SWB), the dual-factor model of mental health (DFM) can comprehensively measure psychological health. We examined the utility of the DFM among 1,293 Chinese adolescents (Grades 7-12). Furthermore, we examined the dynamics of mental health group membership via a two-wave longitudinal study…

  9. Vertical and dual-axis vibration of the seated human body: Nonlinearity, cross-axis coupling, and associations between resonances in transmissibility and apparent mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Guangtai; Qiu, Yi; Griffin, Michael J.

    2012-12-01

    The vertical apparent mass of the human body exhibits nonlinearity, with the principal resonance frequency reducing as the vibration magnitude increases. Measures of the transmission of vibration to the spine and the pelvis have suggested complex modes are responsible for the dominant resonance during vertical excitation, but the modes present with dual-axis excitation have not been investigated. This study was designed to examine how the apparent mass and transmissibility of the human body depend on the magnitude of vertical excitation and the addition of fore-and-aft excitation, and the relation between the apparent mass and the transmissibility of the body. The movement of the body (over the first, fifth and twelfth thoracic vertebrae, the third lumbar vertebra, and the pelvis) in the fore-and-aft and vertical directions (and in pitch at the pelvis) was measured in 12 male subjects sitting with their hands on their laps during random vertical vibration excitation (over the range 0.25-20 Hz) at three vibration magnitudes (0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 m s-2 rms). At the highest magnitude of vertical excitation (1.0 m s-2 rms) the effect of adding fore-aft vibration (at 0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 m s-2 rms) was investigated. The forces in the vertical and fore-and-aft directions on the seat surface were also measured so as to calculate apparent masses. Resonances in the apparent mass and transmissibility to the spine and pelvis in the fore-and-aft and vertical directions, and pitch transmissibility to the pelvis, shifted to lower frequencies as the magnitude of vertical excitation increased and as the magnitude of the additional fore-and-aft excitation increased. The nonlinear resonant behaviour of the apparent mass and transmissibility during dual-axis vibration excitation suggests coupling between the principal mode associated with vertical excitation and the cross-axis influence of fore-and-aft excitation. The transmissibility measures are consistent with complex modes

  10. Joint Pricing and Purchasing Decisions for the Dual-Channel Newsvendor Model with Partial Information

    OpenAIRE

    Jixiang Zhou; Yong Wang; Xiaoming Yan

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a joint pricing and purchasing problem for the dual-channel newsvendor model with the assumption that only the mean and variance of the demand are known. The newsvendor in our model simultaneously distributes a single product through traditional retail and Internet. A robust optimization approach that maximizes the worst-case profit is adapted under the aforementioned conditions to model demand uncertainty and linear clearing functions that characterize the relationship between...

  11. Dual lattice representations for O(N and CP(N−1 models with a chemical potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falk Bruckmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We derive dual representations for O(N and CP(N−1 models on the lattice. In terms of the dual variables the partition sums have only real and positive contributions also at finite chemical potential. Thus the complex action problem of the conventional formulation is overcome and using the dual variables Monte Carlo simulations are possible at arbitrary chemical potential.

  12. Modeling of dual gradient elution in ion exchange and mixed-mode chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi Feng; Schmidt, Michael; Graalfs, Heiner; Hafner, Mathias; Frech, Christian

    2015-10-23

    Protein retention using dual gradient elution in ion exchange- and mixed-mode chromatography can be modeled using the combination of a modified Yamamoto's LGE model and a conversion term to correlate the elution salt concentration and pH at any given gradient slope. Incorporation of the pH dependence of the binding charges into the model also provides some insights on the dual effects of salt and pH in protein-ligand interaction. The fitted thermodynamic parameters (ΔGP(0)/RT, ΔGS(0)/RT, number of charged amino acids involved in binding) of the dual gradient elution data using lysozyme and mAbs on SP Sepharose(®) FF, Eshmuno(®) HCX, and Capto(®) MMC ImpRes were consistent to the results of mono gradient data. This gives rise to an approach to perform thermodynamic modeling of protein retention in ion exchange- and mixed-mode chromatography by combining both salt and pH gradient into a single run of dual gradient elution which will increase time and cost efficiency. The dual gradients used in this study encompassed a wide range of pH (4-8) and NaCl concentrations (0-1M). Curve fits showed that ΔGP(0)/RT is protein type and ligand dependent. ΔGS(0)/RT is strongly dependent on the stationary phase but not the protein. For mAb04 on mixed-mode resin Capto(®) MMC, ΔGS(0)/RT is 5-6 times higher than the result reported for the same protein on cation exchanger Fractogel(®) EMD SO3(-) (S).

  13. Predicting Anticancer Drug Responses Using a Dual-Layer Integrated Cell Line-Drug Network Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiqian Zhang

    Full Text Available The ability to predict the response of a cancer patient to a therapeutic agent is a major goal in modern oncology that should ultimately lead to personalized treatment. Existing approaches to predicting drug sensitivity rely primarily on profiling of cancer cell line panels that have been treated with different drugs and selecting genomic or functional genomic features to regress or classify the drug response. Here, we propose a dual-layer integrated cell line-drug network model, which uses both cell line similarity network (CSN data and drug similarity network (DSN data to predict the drug response of a given cell line using a weighted model. Using the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia (CCLE and Cancer Genome Project (CGP studies as benchmark datasets, our single-layer model with CSN or DSN and only a single parameter achieved a prediction performance comparable to the previously generated elastic net model. When using the dual-layer model integrating both CSN and DSN, our predicted response reached a 0.6 Pearson correlation coefficient with observed responses for most drugs, which is significantly better than the previous results using the elastic net model. We have also applied the dual-layer cell line-drug integrated network model to fill in the missing drug response values in the CGP dataset. Even though the dual-layer integrated cell line-drug network model does not specifically model mutation information, it correctly predicted that BRAF mutant cell lines would be more sensitive than BRAF wild-type cell lines to three MEK1/2 inhibitors tested.

  14. Semianalytical Solution of the Nonlinear Dual-Porosity Flow Model with the Quadratic Pressure Gradient Term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang-Tao Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonlinear dual-porosity flow model, specifically considering the quadratic pressure gradient term, wellbore storage coefficient, well skin factor, and interporosity flow of matrix to natural fractures, was established for well production in a naturally fractured formation and then solved using a semianalytical method, including Laplace transform and a transformation of the pressure function. Analytical solution of the model in Laplace space was converted to numerical solution in real space using Stehfest numerical inversion. Nonlinear flow process for well production in a naturally fractured formation with different external boundaries was simulated and analyzed using standard pressure curves. Influence of the quadratic pressure gradient coefficient on pressure curves was studied qualitatively and quantitatively in conditions of a group of fixed model parameters. The research results show that the semianalytical modelling method is applicable in simulating the nonlinear dual-porosity flow behavior.

  15. Prediction models for performance and emissions of a dual fuel CI engine using ANFIS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Adarsh Rai; P Srinivasa Pai; B R Shrinivasa Rao

    2015-04-01

    Dual fuel engines are being used these days to overcome shortage of fossil fuels and fulfill stringent exhaust gas emission regulations. They have several advantages over conventional diesel engines. In this context, this paper makes use of experimental results obtained from a dual fuel engine for developing models to predict performance and emission parameters. Conventional modelling efforts to understand the relationships between the input and the output variables, requires thermodynamic analysis which is complex and time consuming. As a result, efforts have been made to use artificial intelligence modelling techniques like fuzzy logic, Artificial Neural Network (ANN), Genetic Algorithm (GA), etc. This paper uses a neuro fuzzy modelling technique, Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) for developing prediction models for performance and emission parameter of a dual fuel engine. Percentage load, percentage Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Injection Timing (IT) have been used as input parameters, whereas output parameters include Brake Specific Energy Consumption (BSEC), Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), Exhaust Gas Temperature (EGT) and smoke. In order to further improve the prediction accuracy of the model, GA has been used to optimize ANFIS. GA optimized ANFIS gives higher prediction accuracy of more than 90% for all parameters except for smoke, where there is a substantial improvement from 46.67% to 73.33%, when compared to conventional ANFIS model.

  16. Modeling the Responses of TSM Resonators under Various Loading Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandey, H.L.; Cernosek, R.W.; Hillman, A.R.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-12-04

    We develop a general model that describes the electrical responses of thickness shear mode resonators subject to a variety of surface loadkgs. The model incorporates a physically diverse set of single component loadings, including rigid solids, viscoelastic media and fluids (Newtonian or Maxwellian). The model allows any number of these components to be combined in any configuration. Such multiple loadings are representative of a variety of physical situations encountered in electrochemical and other liquid phase applications, as well as gas phase applications. In the general case, the response of the composite is not a linear combination of the individual component responses. We discuss application of the model in a qualitative diagnostic fashion, to gain insight into the nature of the interracial structure, and in a quantitative fashion, to extract appropriate physical parameters, such as liquid viscosity and density and polymer shear moduli.

  17. Model-Based Iterative Reconstruction for Dual-Energy X-Ray CT Using a Joint Quadratic Likelihood Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruoqiao; Thibault, Jean-Baptiste; Bouman, Charles A; Sauer, Ken D; Hsieh, Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray CT (DECT) has the potential to improve contrast and reduce artifacts as compared to traditional CT. Moreover, by applying model-based iterative reconstruction (MBIR) to dual-energy data, one might also expect to reduce noise and improve resolution. However, the direct implementation of dual-energy MBIR requires the use of a nonlinear forward model, which increases both complexity and computation. Alternatively, simplified forward models have been used which treat the material-decomposed channels separately, but these approaches do not fully account for the statistical dependencies in the channels. In this paper, we present a method for joint dual-energy MBIR (JDE-MBIR), which simplifies the forward model while still accounting for the complete statistical dependency in the material-decomposed sinogram components. The JDE-MBIR approach works by using a quadratic approximation to the polychromatic log-likelihood and a simple but exact nonnegativity constraint in the image domain. We demonstrate that our method is particularly effective when the DECT system uses fast kVp switching, since in this case the model accounts for the inaccuracy of interpolated sinogram entries. Both phantom and clinical results show that the proposed model produces images that compare favorably in quality to previous decomposition-based methods, including FBP and other statistical iterative approaches.

  18. Dual pairs and jetlet methods for ideal incompressible fluid models in $n\\geq 2$ dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Cotter, C J; Holm, D D; Jacobs, H O; Meier, D M

    2015-01-01

    We review the role of dual pairs in mechanics and use them to derive particle-like solutions to regularized incompressible fluid systems. These dual pairs result from the action of diffeomorphisms on point particles (essentially by moving the points). We then augment our dual pairs by considering the action of diffeomorphisms on Taylor series, also known as jets. The augmented dual pairs induce a hierarchy of particle-like solutions and conservation laws with particles carrying a copy of a jet group. We call these augmented particles jetlets. The jet groups serve as finite-dimensional models of the diffeomorphism group itself, and so the jetlet particles serve as a finite-dimensional model of the self-similarity exhibited by ideal incompressible fluids. The conservation law associated to jetlet solutions is shown to be a shadow of Kelvin's circulation theorem. Finally, we study the dynamics of infinite time particle mergers. We prove that two merging particles at the zeroth level in the hierarchy yield dynami...

  19. Subthreshold current model of fully depleted dual material gate SOI MOSFET

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Dual material gate SOI MOSFET with asymmetrical halo can suppress short channel effect and increase carriers transport efficiency. The analytical model of its subthreshold drain current is derived based on the explicit solution of two-dimensional Poisson's equation in the depletion region. The model takes into consideration the channel length modulation effect and the contribution of the back channel current component. Its validation is verified by comparision with two dimensional device simulator MEDICI.

  20. On the Theory of Resonances in Non-Relativistic QED and Related Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abou Salem, Walid K.; Faupin, Jeremy; Froehlich, Juerg;

    We study the mathematical theory of quantum resonances in the standard model of non-relativistic QED and in Nelson's model. In particular, we estimate the survival probability of metastable states corresponding to quantum resonances and relate the resonances to poles of an analytic continuation...

  1. Polydopamine-based coordination nanocomplex for T1/T2 dual mode magnetic resonance imaging-guided chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Ai, Kelong; Liu, Jianhua; Ren, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Chunhuan; Lu, Lehui

    2016-01-01

    Despite the progress in the design and synthesis of theranostic agents, limitations on efficiency and safety offer significant room for improvement in these agents. Inspired by the natural binding ability of polydopamine nanospheres (PDAs) with iron ion, a simple and versatile synthesis strategy is developed to prepare biodegradable coordination polymer (CP) encapsulated PDAs nanocomplex (PDAs@CPx, x = 3, 6, 9). We found that the PDAs@CP3 can serve as a T1/T2 dual mode contrast agent (DMCA) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which possesses high longitudinal (r1 = 7.524 mM(-1) s(-1)) and transverse (r2 = 45.92 mM(-1) s(-1)) relaxivities. In this system, benefitting from the high photothermal conversion efficiency derived from PDAs, DOX loaded PDAs@CP3 nanocomplex is able to not only destroy the tumor directly by heat, but also stimulate the chemotherapy by enabling NIR-responsive on demand delivery of DOX. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example exploring the potential of PDAs@CPx nanocomplex for T1/T2 dual mode MRI-guided chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy. This work extends the currently available theranostic agents, and opens up new avenues to rationally design the high-performance T1/T2 DMCA.

  2. 3D Printing of Biocompatible Acellular Auricular Implant Using Dual Scaled Hydrid Technology Combining Fused Deposition Modeling with Electrospinning

    OpenAIRE

    Rezenda, R; Sabado, M; Kasjanovs, V; Baptista, L.; da Silva, K; Noritomi, P; Sena, F.; Wen, X.; Da Silva, J; Mironov, V.

    2013-01-01

    The dual-scaled hydrid scaffold fabrication technology based on combination of 3D printing (fused deposition modeling) and electrospining have been recently introduced. We report here the design, fabrication, mechanical testing, in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility testing of novel auricular implants for treatment microtia fabricated by dual scaled hydbrid scaffold fabrication technology.

  3. Δ - Δ resonance in the nonrelativistic quark model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cvetič, M.; Golli, B.; Mankoč-Borštnik, N.; Rosina, M.

    1980-06-01

    The Δ - Δ resonance is treated in the nonrelativistic quark model. The trial wave function is a colour singlet including N-N, Δ - Δ and coloured baryon channels. The effective Δ - Δ potential is repulsive at all distances for T=0, S=1, L=0,2,4 while for T=3, S=0, L=0 and T=0, S=3, L=0 it has a minimum. The GCM calculation gives for the latter state the binding emergy ∼ -40 MeV.

  4. Modeling of Self-Pumped Singly Resonant Optical Parametric Oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Chengxian

    2016-01-01

    A model of the steady-state operating, self-pumped singly resonant optical parametric oscillator (SPSRO) has been developed. The characteristics of quasi three-level laser gain medium pumped longitudinally have been taken into account. The characteristics of standing wave cavity, reabsorption losses, focusing Gaussian beams of the pump laser, fundamental laser and signal wave have been considered in the analyses. Furthermore, The power characteristics of threshold and efficiency have been analyzed, employing a Yb3+-doped periodically poled lithium niobate co-doped with MgO (Yb3+:MgO:PPLN) as the medium of laser gain and second-order nonlinear crystal.

  5. Fluctuations and entropy in models of quantum optical resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, S. J. D.; Knight, P. L.

    1988-09-01

    We use variances, entropy, and the Shannon entropy to analyse the fluctuations and quantum evolution of various simple models of quantum optical resonance. We discuss at length the properties of the single-mode radiation field coupled to a single two-level atom, and then extend our analysis to describe the micromaser in which a cavity mode is repeatedly pumped by a succession of atoms passing through the cavity. We also discuss the fluctuations in the single-mode laser theory of Scully and Lamb.

  6. On the dual equivalence of the self-dual and topologically massive $B\\wedge F$ models coupled to dynamical fermionic matter

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, R; Ribeiro, R F; Wotzasek, C

    2002-01-01

    We study the equivalence between the $B\\wedge F$ self-dual ($SD_{B\\wedge F}$) and the $B\\wedge F$ topologically massive ($TM_{B\\wedge F}$) models including the coupling to dynamical, U(1) charged fermionic matter. This is done through an iterative procedure of gauge embedding that produces the dual mapping. In the interactive cases, the minimal coupling adopted for both vector and tensor fields in the self-dual representation is transformed into a non minimal magnetic like coupling in the topologically massive representation but with the currents swapped. It is known that to establish this equivalence a current-current interaction term is needed to render the matter sector unchanged. We show that both terms arise naturally from the embedding procedure.

  7. On two-parameter models of photon cross sections: application to dual-energy CT imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jeffrey F; Li, Sicong; Devic, Slobodan; Whiting, Bruce R; Lerma, Fritz A

    2006-11-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the theoretically achievable accuracy in estimating photon cross sections at low energies (20-1000 keV) from idealized dual-energy x-ray computed tomography (CT) images. Cross-section estimation from dual-energy measurements requires a model that can accurately represent photon cross sections of any biological material as a function of energy by specifying only two characteristic parameters of the underlying material, e.g., effective atomic number and density. This paper evaluates the accuracy of two commonly used two-parameter cross-section models for postprocessing idealized measurements derived from dual-energy CT images. The parametric fit model (PFM) accounts for electron-binding effects and photoelectric absorption by power functions in atomic number and energy and scattering by the Klein-Nishina cross section. The basis-vector model (BVM) assumes that attenuation coefficients of any biological substance can be approximated by a linear combination of mass attenuation coefficients of two dissimilar basis substances. Both PFM and BVM were fit to a modern cross-section library for a range of elements and mixtures representative of naturally occurring biological materials (Z = 2-20). The PFM model, in conjunction with the effective atomic number approximation, yields estimated the total linear cross-section estimates with mean absolute and maximum error ranges of 0.6%-2.2% and 1%-6%, respectively. The corresponding error ranges for BVM estimates were 0.02%-0.15% and 0.1%-0.5%. However, for photoelectric absorption frequency, the PFM absolute mean and maximum errors were 10.8%-22.4% and 29%-50%, compared with corresponding BVM errors of 0.4%-11.3% and 0.5%-17.0%, respectively. Both models were found to exhibit similar sensitivities to image-intensity measurement uncertainties. Of the two models, BVM is the most promising approach for realizing dual-energy CT cross-section measurement.

  8. Analysis of Chaotic Resonance in Izhikevich Neuron Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobukawa, Sou; Nishimura, Haruhiko; Yamanishi, Teruya; Liu, Jian-Qin

    2015-01-01

    In stochastic resonance (SR), the presence of noise helps a nonlinear system amplify a weak (sub-threshold) signal. Chaotic resonance (CR) is a phenomenon similar to SR but without stochastic noise, which has been observed in neural systems. However, no study to date has investigated and compared the characteristics and performance of the signal responses of a spiking neural system in some chaotic states in CR. In this paper, we focus on the Izhikevich neuron model, which can reproduce major spike patterns that have been experimentally observed. We examine and classify the chaotic characteristics of this model by using Lyapunov exponents with a saltation matrix and Poincaré section methods in order to address the measurement challenge posed by the state-dependent jump in the resetting process. We found the existence of two distinctive states, a chaotic state involving primarily turbulent movement and an intermittent chaotic state. In order to assess the signal responses of CR in these classified states, we introduced an extended Izhikevich neuron model by considering weak periodic signals, and defined the cycle histogram of neuron spikes as well as the corresponding mutual correlation and information. Through computer simulations, we confirmed that both chaotic states in CR can sensitively respond to weak signals. Moreover, we found that the intermittent chaotic state exhibited a prompter response than the chaotic state with primarily turbulent movement.

  9. Models of occupational medicine practice: an approach to understanding moral conflict in "dual obligation" doctors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamin, Jacques

    2013-08-01

    In the United Kingdom (UK), ethical guidance for doctors assumes a therapeutic setting and a normal doctor-patient relationship. However, doctors with dual obligations may not always operate on the basis of these assumptions in all aspects of their role. In this paper, the situation of UK occupational physicians is described, and a set of models to characterise their different practices is proposed. The interaction between doctor and worker in each of these models is compared with the normal doctor-patient relationship, focusing on the different levels of trust required, the possible power imbalance and the fiduciary obligations that apply. This approach highlights discrepancies between what the UK General Medical Council guidance requires and what is required of a doctor in certain roles or functions. It is suggested that using this modelling approach could also help in clarifying the sources of moral conflict for other doctors with "dual obligations" in their various roles.

  10. Coupled mode parametric resonance in a vibrating screen model

    CERN Document Server

    Slepyan, Leonid I

    2013-01-01

    We consider a simple dynamic model of the vibrating screen operating in the parametric resonance (PR) mode. This model was used in the course of designing and setting of such a screen in LPMC. The PR-based screen compares favorably with conventional types of such machines, where the transverse oscillations are excited directly. It is characterized by larger values of the amplitude and by insensitivity to damping in a rather wide range. The model represents an initially strained system of two equal masses connected by a linearly elastic string. Self-equilibrated, longitudinal, harmonic forces act on the masses. Under certain conditions this results in transverse, finite-amplitude oscillations of the string. The problem is reduced to a system of two ordinary differential equations coupled by the geometric nonlinearity. Damping in both the transverse and longitudinal oscillations is taken into account. Free and forced oscillations of this mass-string system are examined analytically and numerically. The energy e...

  11. Transmission resonance Raman spectroscopy: experimental results versus theoretical model calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, Alicia G; González Ureña, Ángel

    2012-10-01

    A laser spectroscopic technique is described that combines transmission and resonance-enhanced Raman inelastic scattering together with low laser power (view, a model for the Raman signal dependence on the sample thickness is also presented. Essentially, the model considers the sample to be homogeneous and describes the underlying physics using only three parameters: the Raman cross-section, the laser-radiation attenuation cross-section, and the Raman signal attenuation cross-section. The model was applied successfully to describe the sample-size dependence of the Raman signal in both β-carotene standards and carrot roots. The present technique could be useful for direct, fast, and nondestructive investigations in food quality control and analytical or physiological studies of animal and human tissues.

  12. Self-dual configurations in Abelian Higgs models with k-generalized gauge field dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, R.; Cavalcante, A.; da Hora, E.

    2016-12-01

    We have shown the existence of self-dual solutions in new Maxwell-Higgs scenarios where the gauge field possesses a k-generalized dynamic, i.e., the kinetic term of gauge field is a highly nonlinear function of F μν F μν . We have implemented our proposal by means of a k-generalized model displaying the spontaneous symmetry breaking phenomenon. We implement consistently the Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield formalism providing highly nonlinear self-dual equations whose solutions are electrically neutral possessing total energy proportional to the magnetic flux. Among the infinite set of possible configurations, we have found families of k-generalized models whose self-dual equations have a form mathematically similar to the ones arising in the Maxwell-Higgs or Chern-Simons-Higgs models. Furthermore, we have verified that our proposal also supports infinite twinlike models with | ϕ|4-potential or | ϕ|6-potential. With the aim to show explicitly that the BPS equations are able to provide well-behaved configurations, we have considered a test model in order to study axially symmetric vortices. By depending of the self-dual potential, we have shown that the k-generalized model is able to produce solutions that for long distances have a exponential decay (as Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen vortices) or have a power-law decay (characterizing delocalized vortices). In all cases, we observe that the generalization modifies the vortex core size, the magnetic field amplitude and the bosonic masses but the total energy remains proportional to the quantized magnetic flux.

  13. Self-dual configurations in Abelian Higgs models with k-generalized gauge field dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casana, R.; Cavalcante, A. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão,65080-805, São Luís, Maranhão (Brazil); Hora, E. da [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Maranhão,65080-805, São Luís, Maranhão (Brazil); Coordenadoria Interdisciplinar de Ciência e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal do Maranhão,65080-805, São Luís, Maranhão (Brazil)

    2016-12-14

    We have shown the existence of self-dual solutions in new Maxwell-Higgs scenarios where the gauge field possesses a k-generalized dynamic, i.e., the kinetic term of gauge field is a highly nonlinear function of F{sub μν}F{sup μν}. We have implemented our proposal by means of a k-generalized model displaying the spontaneous symmetry breaking phenomenon. We implement consistently the Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield formalism providing highly nonlinear self-dual equations whose solutions are electrically neutral possessing total energy proportional to the magnetic flux. Among the infinite set of possible configurations, we have found families of k-generalized models whose self-dual equations have a form mathematically similar to the ones arising in the Maxwell-Higgs or Chern-Simons-Higgs models. Furthermore, we have verified that our proposal also supports infinite twinlike models with |ϕ|{sup 4}-potential or |ϕ|{sup 6}-potential. With the aim to show explicitly that the BPS equations are able to provide well-behaved configurations, we have considered a test model in order to study axially symmetric vortices. By depending of the self-dual potential, we have shown that the k-generalized model is able to produce solutions that for long distances have a exponential decay (as Abrikosov-Nielsen-Olesen vortices) or have a power-law decay (characterizing delocalized vortices). In all cases, we observe that the generalization modifies the vortex core size, the magnetic field amplitude and the bosonic masses but the total energy remains proportional to the quantized magnetic flux.

  14. Analytical 1-D dual-porosity equivalent solutions to 3-D discrete single-continuum models. Application to karstic spring hydrograph modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Cornaton, F

    2011-01-01

    One dimensional analytical porosity-weighted solutions of the dual-porosity model are derived, providing insights on how to relate exchange and storage coefficients to the volumetric density of the high-permeability medium. It is shown that porosity-weighted storage and exchange coefficients are needed when handling highly heterogeneous systems - such as karstic aquifers - using equivalent dual-porosity models. The sensitivity of these coefficients is illustrated by means of numerical experiments with theoretical karst systems. The presented 1-D dual-porosity analytical model is used to reproduce the hydraulic responses of reference 3-D karst aquifers, modelled by a discrete single-continuum approach. Under various stress conditions, simulation results show the relations between the dual-porosity model coefficients and the structural features of the discrete single-continuum model. The calibration of the equivalent 1-D analytical dual-porosity model on reference hydraulic responses confirms the dependence of ...

  15. One dimensional modeling of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Putera Adam; Fawzi, Mas; Ismail, Muammar Mukhsin; Osman, Shahrul Azmir

    2017-04-01

    Some of the previous studies have shown that the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) in diesel engines potentially produce engine performance improvement and exhaust gas emission reduction, especially nitrogen oxides, unburned hydrocarbons, and carbon dioxide. On the other hand, there are other researchers who claimed that the use of CNG increases exhaust gas emissions, particularly nitrogen oxides. In this study, a one-dimensional model of a diesel-CNG dual fuel engine was made based on a 4-cylinder 2.5L common rail direct injection diesel engine. The software used is GT-Power, and it was used to analyze the engine performance and exhaust gas emissions of several diesel-CNG dual fuel blend ratios, i.e. 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50. The effect of 100%, 75%, 50% engine loads on the exhaust gas emissions were also studied. The result shows that all diesel-CNG fuel blends produces higher brake torque and brake power at engine speed of 2000-3000 rpm compared with 100% diesel. The 50:50 diesel-CNG blend produces the highest brake torque and brake power, but also has the highest brake specific fuel consumption. As a higher percentage of CNG added to the dual fuel blend, unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide emission increased while carbon dioxide emission decreased. The nitrogen oxides emission concentration is generally unaffected by any change of the dual fuel ratio.

  16. Duality Equivalence Between Self-Dual And Topologically Massive Non-Abelian Models

    CERN Document Server

    Ilha, A

    2001-01-01

    The non-abelian version of the self-dual model proposed by Townsend, Pilch and van Nieuwenhuizen presents some well known difficulties not found in the abelian case, such as well defined duality operation leading to self-duality and dual equivalence with the Yang-Mills-Chern-Simons theory, for the full range of the coupling constant. These questions are tackled in this work using a distinct gauge lifting technique that is alternative to the master action approach first proposed by Deser and Jackiw. The master action, which has proved useful in exhibiting the dual equivalence between theories in diverse dimensions, runs into trouble when dealing with the non-abelian case apart from the weak coupling regime. This new dualization technique on the other hand, is insensitive of the non-abelian character of the theory and generalize straightforwardly from the abelian case. It also leads, in a simple manner, to the dual equivalence for the case of couplings with dynamical fermionic matter fields. As an application, ...

  17. Dual states estimation of a subsurface flow-transport coupled model using ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    Modeling the spread of subsurface contaminants requires coupling a groundwater flow model with a contaminant transport model. Such coupling may provide accurate estimates of future subsurface hydrologic states if essential flow and contaminant data are assimilated in the model. Assuming perfect flow, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) can be used for direct data assimilation into the transport model. This is, however, a crude assumption as flow models can be subject to many sources of uncertainty. If the flow is not accurately simulated, contaminant predictions will likely be inaccurate even after successive Kalman updates of the contaminant model with the data. The problem is better handled when both flow and contaminant states are concurrently estimated using the traditional joint state augmentation approach. In this paper, we introduce a dual estimation strategy for data assimilation into a one-way coupled system by treating the flow and the contaminant models separately while intertwining a pair of distinct EnKFs, one for each model. The presented strategy only deals with the estimation of state variables but it can also be used for state and parameter estimation problems. This EnKF-based dual state-state estimation procedure presents a number of novel features: (i) it allows for simultaneous estimation of both flow and contaminant states in parallel; (ii) it provides a time consistent sequential updating scheme between the two models (first flow, then transport); (iii) it simplifies the implementation of the filtering system; and (iv) it yields more stable and accurate solutions than does the standard joint approach. We conducted synthetic numerical experiments based on various time stepping and observation strategies to evaluate the dual EnKF approach and compare its performance with the joint state augmentation approach. Experimental results show that on average, the dual strategy could reduce the estimation error of the coupled states by 15% compared with the

  18. A Multilevel Testlet Model for Dual Local Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Hong; Kamata, Akihito; Wang, Shudong; Jin, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The applications of item response theory (IRT) models assume local item independence and that examinees are independent of each other. When a representative sample for psychometric analysis is selected using a cluster sampling method in a testlet-based assessment, both local item dependence and local person dependence are likely to be induced.…

  19. Modeling biofilms with dual extracellular electron transfer mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renslow, Ryan; Babauta, Jerome; Kuprat, Andrew; Schenk, Jim; Ivory, Cornelius; Fredrickson, Jim; Beyenal, Haluk

    2013-01-01

    Electrochemically active biofilms have a unique form of respiration in which they utilize solid external materials as terminal electron acceptors for their metabolism. Currently, two primary mechanisms have been identified for long-range extracellular electron transfer (EET): a diffusion- and a conduction-based mechanism. Evidence in the literature suggests that some biofilms, particularly Shewanella oneidensis, produce the requisite components for both mechanisms. In this study, a generic model is presented that incorporates the diffusion- and the conduction-based mechanisms and allows electrochemically active biofilms to utilize both simultaneously. The model was applied to S. oneidensis and Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilms using experimentally generated data found in the literature. Our simulation results show that 1) biofilms having both mechanisms available, especially if they can interact, may have a metabolic advantage over biofilms that can use only a single mechanism; 2) the thickness of G. sulfurreducens biofilms is likely not limited by conductivity; 3) accurate intrabiofilm diffusion coefficient values are critical for current generation predictions; and 4) the local biofilm potential and redox potential are two distinct parameters and cannot be assumed to have identical values. Finally, we determined that simulated cyclic and squarewave voltammetry based on our model are currently not capable of determining the specific percentages of extracellular electron transfer mechanisms in a biofilm. The developed model will be a critical tool for designing experiments to explain EET mechanisms. PMID:24113651

  20. Dorsal column steerability with dual parallel leads using dedicated power sources: a computational model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dongchul; Gillespie, Ewan; Bradley, Kerry

    2011-02-10

    In spinal cord stimulation (SCS), concordance of stimulation-induced paresthesia over painful body regions is a necessary condition for therapeutic efficacy. Since patient pain patterns can be unique, a common stimulation configuration is the placement of two leads in parallel in the dorsal epidural space. This construct provides flexibility in steering stimulation current mediolaterally over the dorsal column to achieve better pain-paresthesia overlap. Using a mathematical model with an accurate fiber diameter distribution, we studied the ability of dual parallel leads to steer stimulation between adjacent contacts on dual parallel leads using (1) a single source system, and (2) a multi-source system, with a dedicated current source for each contact. The volume conductor model of a low-thoracic spinal cord with epidurally-positioned dual parallel (2 mm separation) percutaneous leads was first created, and the electric field was calculated using ANSYS, a finite element modeling tool. The activating function for 10 um fibers was computed as the second difference of the extracellular potential along the nodes of Ranvier on the nerve fibers in the dorsal column. The volume of activation (VOA) and the central point of the VOA were computed using a predetermined threshold of the activating function. The model compared the field steering results with single source versus dedicated power source systems on dual 8-contact stimulation leads. The model predicted that the multi-source system can target more central points of stimulation on the dorsal column than a single source system (100 vs. 3) and the mean steering step for mediolateral steering is 0.02 mm for multi-source systems vs 1 mm for single source systems, a 50-fold improvement. The ability to center stimulation regions in the dorsal column with high resolution may allow for better optimization of paresthesia-pain overlap in patients.

  1. Dual of 3-dimensional pure SU(2) Lattice Gauge Theory and the Ponzano-Regge Model

    CERN Document Server

    Anishetty, R; Sharatchandra, H S; Mathur, M; Anishetty, Ramesh; Cheluvaraja, Srinath; Mathur, Manu

    1993-01-01

    By carrying out character expansion and integration over all link variables, the partition function of 3-dimensional pure SU(2) lattice gauge theory is rewritten in terms of 6j symbols. The result is Ponzano-Regge model of 3-dimensional gravity with a term that explicitly breaks general coordinate invariance. Conversely, we show that dual of Ponzano-Regge model is an SU(2) lattice gauge theory where all plaquette variables are constrained to the identity matrix and therefore the model needs no further regularization. Our techniques are applicable to other models with non-abelian symmetries in any dimension and provide duality transform for the partition function.

  2. A multiple fractal model for estimating permeability of dual-porosity media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Liu, Richeng; Jiang, Yujing

    2016-09-01

    A multiple fractal model that considers the fractal properties of both porous matrices and fracture networks is proposed for the permeability of dual-porosity media embedded with randomly distributed fractures. In this model, the aperture distribution is verified to follow the fractal scaling law, and the porous matrix is assumed to comprise a bundle of tortuous capillaries that also follow the fractal scaling law. Analytical expressions for fractal aperture distribution, total flow rate, total equivalent permeability, and dimensionless permeability are established, where the dimensionless permeability is defined as the ratio of permeability of the porous matrices to that of the fracture networks. The dimensionless permeability is closely correlated to the structural parameters (i.e., α, θ, Dtf, Dtp, De, Dp, emax, λmax) of the dual-porosity media, and it is more sensitive to the fractal dimension for the size distribution of fracture aperture than to that for the size distribution of pore/capillary diameter. The maximum pore/capillary diameter has a greater impact on the dimensionless permeability than that of the maximum fracture aperture. The dimensionless permeability of fracture networks constructed by the fractal aperture distribution has close values with those of models with lognormal aperture distribution. The proposed multiple fractal model does not involve any empirical constants that do not have clear physical meanings, which could serve as a quick estimation method for assessing permeability of dual-porosity media.

  3. Investigation of degenerate dual-pump phase sensitive amplifier using multi-wave model

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Weilin; Labidi, Tarek; Bretenaker, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Operation of a degenerate dual-pump phase sensitive amplifier (PSA) is thoroughly numerically investigated using a multi-wave model, taking into account high-order waves associated with undesired four-wave mixing (FWM) processes. More accurate phase-sensitive signal gain spectra are obtained compared to the conventional 3-wave model, leading to the precise optimization of the pump configuration in a dual-pump PSA. The signal gain spectra, as well as the phase sensitivity, are obtained and interpreted by investigating the dominant FWM processes in terms of corresponding phase matching. Moreover, the relation between dispersion slope and gain spectra is revealed, permitting the application-oriented arbitrary tailoring of the gain spectra by manipulating the dispersion profile and pump wavelength allocation.

  4. A Dual Hesitant Fuzzy Multigranulation Rough Set over Two-Universe Model for Medical Diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Li, Deyu; Yan, Yan

    2015-01-01

    In medical science, disease diagnosis is one of the difficult tasks for medical experts who are confronted with challenges in dealing with a lot of uncertain medical information. And different medical experts might express their own thought about the medical knowledge base which slightly differs from other medical experts. Thus, to solve the problems of uncertain data analysis and group decision making in disease diagnoses, we propose a new rough set model called dual hesitant fuzzy multigranulation rough set over two universes by combining the dual hesitant fuzzy set and multigranulation rough set theories. In the framework of our study, both the definition and some basic properties of the proposed model are presented. Finally, we give a general approach which is applied to a decision making problem in disease diagnoses, and the effectiveness of the approach is demonstrated by a numerical example.

  5. A dual phase lag model on photothermal interaction in an unbounded semiconductor medium with cylindrical cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Ibrahim A.

    2016-09-01

    In the present paper, the theory of generalized photo-thermoelasticity under dual phase lag model has been applied to study the coupled thermal, plasma and elastic waves on unbounded semiconductor medium with cylindrical cavity. The bounding surface of the cavity is traction free and loaded thermally by exponentially decaying pulse boundary heat flux. By using Laplace transform and the eigenvalue approach methodology, the solutions of all variables have been obtained analytically. Numerical computations have been done for silicon-like semiconductor material, and the results are displayed graphically to show the difference between the dual phase lag (DPL) model, Lord and Shulman’s theory (LS) and the classical dynamical coupled theory (CT).

  6. Monte Carlo markovian modeling of modal competition in dual-wavelength semiconductor lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusseau, Laurent; Philippe, Fabrice; Jean-Marie, Alain

    2014-03-01

    Monte Carlo markovian models of a dual-mode semiconductor laser with quantum well (QW) or quantum dot (QD) active regions are proposed. Accounting for carriers and photons as particles that may exchange energy in the course of time allows an ab initio description of laser dynamics such as the mode competition and intrinsic laser noise. We used these models to evaluate the stability of the dual-mode regime when laser characteristics are varied: mode gains and losses, non-radiative recombination rates, intraband relaxation time, capture time in QD, transfer of excitation between QD via the wetting layer. . . As a major result, a possible steady-sate dualmode regime is predicted for specially designed QD semiconductor lasers thereby acting as a CW microwave or terahertz-beating source whereas it does not occur for QW lasers.

  7. Resonant cavity light-emitting diodes: modeling, design, and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Mihail M.; Sipila, Pekko; Vilokkinen, Ville; Toikkanen, L.; Melanen, Petri; Saarinen, Mika J.; Orsila, Seppo; Savolainen, Pekka; Toivonen, Mika; Pessa, Markus

    2000-02-01

    Monolithic top emitting resonant cavity light-emitting diodes operating in the 650 and 880 nm ranges have been prepared using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy growth. Transfer matrix based modeling together with a self- consistent model have been sued to optimize the devices' performances. The design of the layer structure and doping profile was assisted by computer simulations that enabled many device improvements. Among the most significant ones intermediate-composition barrier-reduction layers were introduced in the DBR mirrors for improving the I-V characteristics and the cavity and mirrors were detuned aiming at maximum extraction efficiency. The fabricated devices showed line widths below 15 nm, CW light power output of 8 and 22.5 mW, and external quantum efficiencies of 3 percent and 14.1 percent in the 650 nm and 880 nm ranges, respectively - while the simulations indicate significant performance improvement possibilities.

  8. The transverse-momentum distribution in the central region in a phenomenological dual model

    CERN Document Server

    Bebel, D

    1974-01-01

    A phenomenological dual amplitude for double pomeron exchange is evaluated for the transverse-momentum distribution at x=0. It shows an exp(-bp/sub perpendicular to /) dependence for low p/sub perpendicular to / values and a subsequent flattening-off for larger p/sub perpendicular to /. The results are compared with ISR data. Some analogies to the statistical bootstrap model are discussed. (14 refs).

  9. DUAL RANDOM MODEL OF INCREASING LIFE INSURANCE FOR MULTIPLE-LIFE STATUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYi; HeWenjiong

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the dual random model of increasing life insurance for multiple-life status is discussed. The rnth moment of the present value of benefits are calculated and the respective expressions of the moments under joint life status or last- survivor status are presented.Fur-thermore,the limiting distribution of average cost of a portfolio of increasing life insurance for multiple-life status is studied.

  10. Integrated Hydrogeophysical and Hydrogeologic Driven Parameter Upscaling for Dual-Domain Transport Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Flach; Mary Harris; Susan Hubbard; Camelia Knapp; Mike Kowalsky; Maggie Millings; John Shafer; Mike Waddell

    2006-06-01

    Our research project is motivated by the observations that conventional characterization approaches capture only a fraction of heterogeneity affecting field-scale transport, and that conventional modeling approaches, which use this sparse data, typically do not successfully predict long term plume behavior with sufficient accuracy to guide remedial strategies. Our working hypotheses are that improved prediction of contaminant transport can be achieved using a dual-domain transport approach and field-scale characterization approaches.

  11. On a Class of Dual Risk Model with Dependence based on the FGM Copula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Dong

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider an extension to a dual model under a barrier strategy, in which the innovation sizes depend on the innovation time via the FGM copula. We first derive a renewal equation for the expected total discounted dividends until ruin. Some differential equations and closed-form expressions are given for exponential innovation sizes. Then the optimal dividend barrier and the Laplace transform of the time to ruin are considered. Finally, a numerical example is given.

  12. Pulse shape control in a dual cavity laser: numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yashkir, Yuri

    2006-04-01

    We present a numerical model of the laser system for generating a special shape of the pulse: a steep peak at the beginning followed by a long pulse tail. Laser pulses of this nature are required for various applications (laser material processing, optical breakdown spectroscopy, etc.). The laser system consists of two "overlapped" cavities with different round-trip times. The laser crystal, the Q-switching element, the back mirror, and the output coupler are shared. A shorter pulse is generated in a short cavity. A small fraction of this pulse is injected into the long cavity as a seed. It triggers generation of the longer pulse. The output emission from this hybrid laser produces a required pulse shape. Parameters of the laser pulse (ratios of durations and energies of short- and long- pulse components) can be controlled through cavity length and the output coupler reflection. Modelling of the laser system is based on a set of coupled rate equations for dynamic variables of the system: the inverse population in an active laser media and photon densities in coupled cavities. Numerical experiments were provided with typical parameters of a Nd:YAG laser to study the system behaviour for different combinations of parameters.

  13. Dynamic modeling of dual-arm cooperating manipulators based on Udwadia–Kalaba equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Liu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Dual-arm cooperating manipulators subject to a certain constraint brought about by the desired trajectory and geometric constraint show high nonlinearity and coupling in their dynamic characteristic. Therefore, it is hard to build dynamical equation with traditional Lagrange equation. The Udwadia–Kalaba equation presents a new idea of dynamic modeling of multi-body systems. However, the dynamic modeling of the unconstrained systems still depends on the traditional Lagrange equation and is quite tedious for dual-arm cooperating manipulators. A generalized dynamical equation of multi-link planar manipulators is thus presented and proven to make modeling conveniently. The constraint relationship is established from a new perspective, and the dynamical equation of dual-arm cooperating manipulator subject to the desired trajectory is acquired with the Udwadia–Kalaba equation. The simple approach overcomes the disadvantage of obtaining dynamical equation from traditional Lagrange equation by Lagrange multiplier. The simulation results of varying law of the joint angles and the motion path of the bar prove that the dynamical equation established by this method conforms to reality.

  14. A dual flowing continuum approach to model denitrification experiments in porous media colonized by biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Frederick; Porel, Gilles; Chatelier, Marion

    2013-07-01

    We present a modeling exercise of solute transport and biodegradation in a coarse porous medium widely colonized by a biofilm phase. Tracer tests in large laboratory columns using both conservative (fluorescein) and biodegradable (nitrate) solutes are simulated by means of a dual flowing continuum approach. The latter clearly distinguishes concentrations in a flowing porous phase from concentrations conveyed in the biofilm. With this conceptual setting, it becomes possible to simulate the sharp front of concentrations at early times and the flat tail of low concentrations at late times observed on the experimental breakthrough curves. Thanks to the separation of flow in two phases at different velocities, dispersion coefficients in both flowing phases keep reasonable values with some physical meaning. This is not the case with simpler models based on a single continuum (eventually concealing dead-ends), for which inferred dispersivity may reach the unphysical value of twice the size of the columns. We also show that the behavior of the dual flowing continuum is mainly controlled by the relative fractions of flow passing in each phase and the rate of mass transfer between phases. These parameters also condition the efficiency of nitrate degradation, the degradation rate in a well-seeded medium being a weakly sensitive parameter. Even though the concept of dual flowing continuum appears promising for simulating transport in complex porous media, its inversion onto experimental data really benefits from attempts with simpler models providing a rough pre-evaluation of parameters such as porosity and mean fluid velocity in the system.

  15. Modeling brain resonance phenomena using a neural mass model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Spiegler

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation with rhythmic light flicker (photic driving plays an important role in the diagnosis of schizophrenia, mood disorder, migraine, and epilepsy. In particular, the adjustment of spontaneous brain rhythms to the stimulus frequency (entrainment is used to assess the functional flexibility of the brain. We aim to gain deeper understanding of the mechanisms underlying this technique and to predict the effects of stimulus frequency and intensity. For this purpose, a modified Jansen and Rit neural mass model (NMM of a cortical circuit is used. This mean field model has been designed to strike a balance between mathematical simplicity and biological plausibility. We reproduced the entrainment phenomenon observed in EEG during a photic driving experiment. More generally, we demonstrate that such a single area model can already yield very complex dynamics, including chaos, for biologically plausible parameter ranges. We chart the entire parameter space by means of characteristic Lyapunov spectra and Kaplan-Yorke dimension as well as time series and power spectra. Rhythmic and chaotic brain states were found virtually next to each other, such that small parameter changes can give rise to switching from one to another. Strikingly, this characteristic pattern of unpredictability generated by the model was matched to the experimental data with reasonable accuracy. These findings confirm that the NMM is a useful model of brain dynamics during photic driving. In this context, it can be used to study the mechanisms of, for example, perception and epileptic seizure generation. In particular, it enabled us to make predictions regarding the stimulus amplitude in further experiments for improving the entrainment effect.

  16. Modelling of Dual-Junction Solar Cells including Tunnel Junction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Amine

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Monolithically stacked multijunction solar cells based on III–V semiconductors materials are the state-of-art of approach for high efficiency photovoltaic energy conversion, in particular for space applications. The individual subcells of the multi-junction structure are interconnected via tunnel diodes which must be optically transparent and connect the component cells with a minimum electrical resistance. The quality of these diodes determines the output performance of the solar cell. The purpose of this work is to contribute to the investigation of the tunnel electrical resistance of such a multi-junction cell through the analysis of the current-voltage (J-V characteristics under illumination. Our approach is based on an equivalent circuit model of a diode for each subcell. We examine the effect of tunnel resistance on the performance of a multi-junction cell using minimization of the least squares technique.

  17. Fluctuations, response, and resonances in a simple atmospheric model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritsun, Andrey; Lucarini, Valerio

    2017-06-01

    We study the response of a simple quasi-geostrophic barotropic model of the atmosphere to various classes of perturbations affecting its forcing and its dissipation using the formalism of the Ruelle response theory. We investigate the geometry of such perturbations by constructing the covariant Lyapunov vectors of the unperturbed system and discover in one specific case-orographic forcing-a substantial projection of the forcing onto the stable directions of the flow. This results into a resonant response shaped as a Rossby-like wave that has no resemblance to the unforced variability in the same range of spatial and temporal scales. Such a climatic surprise corresponds to a violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, in agreement with the basic tenets of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The resonance can be attributed to a specific group of rarely visited unstable periodic orbits of the unperturbed system. Our results reinforce the idea of using basic methods of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics and high-dimensional chaotic dynamical systems to approach the problem of understanding climate dynamics.

  18. Analytical Modeling of Electric Field Distribution in Dual Material Junctionless Surrounding Gate MOSFETs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Suveetha Dhanaselvam

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, electric field distribution of the junctionless dual material surrounding gate MOSFETs (JLDMSG is developed. Junctionless is a device that has similar characteristics like junction based devices, but junctionless has a positive flatband voltage with zero electric field. In Surrounding gate MOSFETs gate material surrounds the channel in all direction , therefore it can overcome the short channel effects effectively than other devices. In this paper, surface potential and electric field distribution is modelled. The proposed surface potential model is compared with the existing central potential model. It is observed that the short channel effects (SCE is reduced and the performance is better than the existing method.

  19. Modelling of the dual frequency capacitive sheath in the intermediate pressure range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, P C [Plasma Research Laboratory, National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology and School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland); Robiche, J [Laboratoire de Physique et Technologie des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau 91 128 Cedex (France); Turner, M M [Plasma Research Laboratory, National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology and School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2004-05-21

    The nonlinearity of the plasma sheath in dual frequency capacitively coupled reactors is investigated for frequencies well above the ion plasma frequency. This work focuses on the behaviour of the voltage and the sheath width with respect to the driving current source and the collisionality regime. For typical plasma processing applications, the gas pressure ranges from a few milliTorrs to hundreds of milliTorrs, and the ion dynamics span different collisional regimes. To describe these different ion dynamics, we have used a collisionless model and a variable mobility model. The sheath widths and the voltages obtained from these two models have then been compared.

  20. The dividend function in the jump-diffusion dual model with barrier dividend strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bo; WU Rong

    2008-01-01

    A dual model of the perturbed classical compound Poisson risk model is considered under a constant dividend barrier.A new method is used in deriving the boundary condition of the equation for the expectation function by studying the local time of a related process.We obtain the expression for the expected discount dividend function in terms of those in the corresponding perturbed compound Poisson risk model without barriers.A special case in which the gain size is phase-type distributed is illustrated.We also consider the existence of the optimal dividend level.

  1. Weak Dual Pairs and Jetlet Methods for Ideal Incompressible Fluid Models in n ≥ 2 Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, C. J.; Eldering, J.; Holm, D. D.; Jacobs, H. O.; Meier, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    We review the role of dual pairs in mechanics and use them to derive particle-like solutions to regularized incompressible fluid systems. In our case we have a dual pair resulting from the action of diffeomorphisms on point particles (essentially by moving the points). We then augment our dual pair by considering the action of diffeomorphisms on Taylor series, also known as jets. The augmented weak dual pairs induce a hierarchy of particle-like solutions and conservation laws with particles carrying a copy of a jet group. We call these augmented particles jetlets. The jet groups serve as finite-dimensional models of the diffeomorphism group itself, and so the jetlet particles serve as a finite-dimensional model of the self-similarity exhibited by ideal incompressible fluids. The conservation law associated to jetlet solutions is shown to be a shadow of Kelvin's circulation theorem. Finally, we study the dynamics of infinite time particle mergers. We prove that two merging particles at the zeroth level in the hierarchy yield dynamics which asymptotically approach that of a single particle in the first level in the hierarchy. This merging behavior is then verified numerically as well as the exchange of angular momentum which must occur during a near collision of two particles. The resulting particle-like solutions suggest a new class of meshless methods which work in dimensions n ≥ 2 and which exhibit a shadow of Kelvin's circulation theorem. More broadly, this provides one of the first finite-dimensional models of self-similarity in ideal fluids.

  2. Religion, fertility and genes: a dual inheritance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowthorn, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Religious people nowadays have more children on average than their secular counterparts. This paper uses a simple model to explore the evolutionary implications of this difference. It assumes that fertility is determined entirely by culture, whereas subjective predisposition towards religion is influenced by genetic endowment. People who carry a certain ‘religiosity’ gene are more likely than average to become or remain religious. The paper considers the effect of religious defections and exogamy on the religious and genetic composition of society. Defections reduce the ultimate share of the population with religious allegiance and slow down the spread of the religiosity gene. However, provided the fertility differential persists, and people with a religious allegiance mate mainly with people like themselves, the religiosity gene will eventually predominate despite a high rate of defection. This is an example of ‘cultural hitch-hiking’, whereby a gene spreads because it is able to hitch a ride with a high-fitness cultural practice. The theoretical arguments are supported by numerical simulations. PMID:21227968

  3. Probabilistic conditional reasoning: Disentangling form and content with the dual-source model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Beller, Sieghard

    2016-08-01

    The present research examines descriptive models of probabilistic conditional reasoning, that is of reasoning from uncertain conditionals with contents about which reasoners have rich background knowledge. According to our dual-source model, two types of information shape such reasoning: knowledge-based information elicited by the contents of the material and content-independent information derived from the form of inferences. Two experiments implemented manipulations that selectively influenced the model parameters for the knowledge-based information, the relative weight given to form-based versus knowledge-based information, and the parameters for the form-based information, validating the psychological interpretation of these parameters. We apply the model to classical suppression effects dissecting them into effects on background knowledge and effects on form-based processes (Exp. 3) and we use it to reanalyse previous studies manipulating reasoning instructions. In a model-comparison exercise, based on data of seven studies, the dual-source model outperformed three Bayesian competitor models. Overall, our results support the view that people make use of background knowledge in line with current Bayesian models, but they also suggest that the form of the conditional argument, irrespective of its content, plays a substantive, yet smaller, role.

  4. Self-dual soliton solutions in a Chern-Simons-CP(1) model with a nonstandard kinetic term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casana, Rodolfo; Sourrouille, Lucas

    2014-07-01

    A generalization of the Chern-Simons-CP(1) model is considered by introducing a nonstandard kinetic term. For a particular case, of this nonstandard kinetic term, we show that the model support self-dual Bogomol'nyi equations. The Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) energy has a bound proportional to the sum of the magnetic flux and the CP(1) topological charge. The self-dual equations are solved analytically and verified numerically.

  5. 递增年金的双随机模型%DUAL RANDOM MODEL OF INCREASING ANNUITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dual random models about the life insurance and social pension insurance have received considerable attention in the recent articles on actuarial theory and applications. This paper discusses a general kind of increasing annuity based on its force of interest accumulation function as a general random process. The dual random model of the present value of the benefits of the increasing annuity has been set, and their moments have been calculated under certain conditions.

  6. Tests of a Dual-systems Model of Speech Category Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, W Todd; Chandrasekaran, Bharath

    2014-10-01

    In the visual domain, more than two decades of work posits the existence of dual category learning systems. The reflective system uses working memory to develop and test rules for classifying in an explicit fashion. The reflexive system operates by implicitly associating perception with actions that lead to reinforcement. Dual-systems models posit that in learning natural categories, learners initially use the reflective system and with practice, transfer control to the reflexive system. The role of reflective and reflexive systems in second language (L2) speech learning has not been systematically examined. Here monolingual, native speakers of American English were trained to categorize Mandarin tones produced by multiple talkers. Our computational modeling approach demonstrates that learners use reflective and reflexive strategies during tone category learning. Successful learners use talker-dependent, reflective analysis early in training and reflexive strategies by the end of training. Our results demonstrate that dual-learning systems are operative in L2 speech learning. Critically, learner strategies directly relate to individual differences in category learning success.

  7. DualTrust: A Distributed Trust Model for Swarm-Based Autonomic Computing Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maiden, Wendy M.; Dionysiou, Ioanna; Frincke, Deborah A.; Fink, Glenn A.; Bakken, David E.

    2011-02-01

    For autonomic computing systems that utilize mobile agents and ant colony algorithms for their sensor layer, trust management is important for the acceptance of the mobile agent sensors and to protect the system from malicious behavior by insiders and entities that have penetrated network defenses. This paper examines the trust relationships, evidence, and decisions in a representative system and finds that by monitoring the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers rather than the swarming sensors, the trust management problem becomes much more scalable and still serves to protect the swarm. We then propose the DualTrust conceptual trust model. By addressing the autonomic manager’s bi-directional primary relationships in the ACS architecture, DualTrust is able to monitor the trustworthiness of the autonomic managers, protect the sensor swarm in a scalable manner, and provide global trust awareness for the orchestrating autonomic manager.

  8. The dual loop model: its relation to language and other modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eRijntjes

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The current neurobiological consensus of a general dual-loop system scaffolding human and primate brains gives evidence that the dorsal and ventral connections subserve similar functions, independent of the modality and species. However, most current commentators agree that, although bees dance and chimpanzees grunt, these systems of communication differ qualitatively from human language. So why is language in humans unique?We discuss anatomical differences between humans and other animals, the meaning of lesion studies in patients, the role of inner speech, and compare functional imaging studies in language with other modalities in respect to the dual loop model. These aspects might be helpful for understanding what kind of biological system the language faculty is, and how it relates to other systems in our own species and others.

  9. Modeling of discharges in a capacitively coupled dual frequency plasma reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojarov Aleksandar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we have modeled a dual frequency coupled plasma reactor (DF-CCP by using a 1d3v PIC/MCC code. The obtained results apart from their theoretical relevance have practical applications especially for development of plasma reactors and for nanoelectronics. Dual frequency plasmas are used for etching of dielectric interconnect layers with high aspect ratios (contact holes. In the DF-CCP, the density of the plasma is controlled by the high frequency, while the ion energy depends mainly on the potential drop in the sheath, which is controlled by the low frequency. The results of our simulations show the dependence of the energy of the ions arriving at the inner electrode on the voltage of the low frequency generator and how the voltage of the high frequency generator affects the ion flux on the electrode.

  10. Stability and Thermodynamic Restrictions for a Dual-Phase-Lag Thermal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Mauro; Lazzari, Barbara; Tibullo, Vincenzo

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, the seeming inconsistency highlighted by Fabrizio and Lazzari (Stability and second law of thermodynamics in dual-phase-lag heat conduction, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 74 (2014), 484-489) and Quintanilla and Racke (A note on stability of dual-phase-lag heat conduction, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 49 (2007), 1209-1213) for a thermoelastic material, between the thermodynamic restrictions and the stability conditions is studied. Actually, we show as these results are due to the use of different formulations of the thermodynamic principles, which are not always equivalent. So that, we prove by the model considered in the paper that these two formulations do not lead to the same restrictions on the constitutive equations. This analysis allowed us to restore the compatibility by an appropriate and wide representation of the Second Law.

  11. Modeling and Power Flow Analysis for Herringbone Gears Power Dual-Branching Transmission System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofang; Zhu, Yanxiang; Fang, Zongde; Gu, Jiangong

    Based on power dual-branching transmission system of herringbone gears, the mechanical structural model was established. This study represented the simplified algorithm to obtain its power flow situations through formulating the deformation compatibility condition for the linear relationship between the torque and transverse deformation of tooth surface and the torque equilibrium condition. Besides, the effects on the power flow of system were calculated under all kinds of the installation error and processing error of gear pairs. Finally, the power flow situations of dual branches were solved via Programming. A numerical example that illustrated the developed theory was provided. The research results can be applied to analyze the actual application of herringbone gears power split-path transmission system.

  12. Numerical model of electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mironov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Important features of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS operation are accurately reproduced with a numerical code. The code uses the particle-in-cell technique to model the dynamics of ions in ECRIS plasma. It is shown that a gas dynamical ion confinement mechanism is sufficient to provide the ion production rates in ECRIS close to the experimentally observed values. Extracted ion currents are calculated and compared to the experiment for a few sources. Changes in the simulated extracted ion currents are obtained with varying the gas flow into the source chamber and the microwave power. Empirical scaling laws for ECRIS design are studied and the underlying physical effects are discussed.

  13. The inherent complexity in nonlinear business cycle model in resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Junhai [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China) and Tianjin University of Finance and Economics, Tianjin 300222 (China)], E-mail: lzqsly@126.com; Sun Tao; Liu Lixia [School of Management, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Based on Abraham C.-L. Chian's research, we applied nonlinear dynamic system theory to study the first-order and second-order approximate solutions to one category of the nonlinear business cycle model in resonance condition. We have also analyzed the relation between amplitude and phase of second-order approximate solutions as well as the relation between outer excitements' amplitude, frequency approximate solutions, and system bifurcation parameters. Then we studied the system quasi-periodical solutions, annulus periodical solutions and the path leading to system bifurcation and chaotic state with different parameter combinations. Finally, we conducted some numerical simulations for various complicated circumstances. Therefore this research will lay solid foundation for detecting the complexity of business cycles and systems in the future.

  14. Particle modeling of microplasma generated by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholeti, Siva Sashank

    Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) is a technique applied to the spectroscopy of atoms. The REMPI technique typically involves a resonant single or multiple photon absorption to an electronically excited intermediate state followed by another photon which ionizes the atom. Rayleigh scattering of REMPI plasma has given rise to a non-intrusive, time accurate measurement of electron formation and loss, which lead to many applications viz. trace species detection and micro-plasma diagnostics. It is very important to quantify the expansion process and the evolution of energy of electrons and ions. The operation scale of this process is in microns and non continuum nature of the process lead to the use of PIC/MCC scheme to compu- tationally model REMPI technique. This work attempts to understand and analyze the processes taking place during the expansion of REMPI plasma computationally using the PIC/MCC scheme. One dimensional and two dimensional approximations are considered to analyze the REMPI plasma expansion in Argon gas generated by a laser with a focal shape of a prolate ellipsoid. The expansion of the plasma is found to be very sensitive to the initial velocity distribution of the electrons. REMPI plasma expansion is shown to be ambipolar in nature, with the radial expansion more predominant than axial expansion, hence requiring the 2D model. Electron energy distribution functions(EEDFs) are found at various radial locations along with the corresponding mean energies. The deviation of the EEDFs from that of equilibrium Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution is presented both qualitatively and quanti- tatively, indicating the predominant processes at various instances in time.

  15. A dual-scale turbulence model for gas-liquid bubbly flows☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoping Guan; Zhaoqi Li; Lijun Wang⁎; Xi Li; Youwei Cheng

    2015-01-01

    A dual-scale turbulence model is applied to simulate cocurrent upward gas–liquid bubbly flows and validated with available experimental data. In the model, liquid phase turbulence is split into shear-induced and bubble-induced turbulence. Single-phase standard k-εmodel is used to compute shear-induced turbulence and another transport equation is added to model bubble-induced turbulence. In the latter transport equation, energy loss due to interface drag is the production term, and the characteristic length of bubble-induced turbulence, simply the bubble diameter in this work, is introduced to model the dissipation term. The simulated results agree well with experimental data of the test cases and it is demonstrated that the proposed dual-scale turbulence model outperforms other models. Analysis of the predicted turbulence shows that the main part of turbulent kinetic en-ergy is the bubble-induced one while the shear-induced turbulent viscosity predominates within turbulent vis-cosity, especially at the pipe center. The underlying reason is the apparently different scales for the two kinds of turbulence production mechanisms:the shear-induced turbulence is on the scale of the whole pipe while the bubble-induced turbulence is on the scale of bubble diameter. Therefore, the model reflects the multi-scale phe-nomenon involved in gas–liquid bubbly flows.

  16. pH-Responsive Tumor-Targetable Theranostic Nanovectors Based on Core Crosslinked (CCL Micelles with Fluorescence and Magnetic Resonance (MR Dual Imaging Modalities and Drug Delivery Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidan Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of novel theranostic nanovectors is of particular interest in treating formidable diseases (e.g., cancers. Herein, we report a new tumor-targetable theranostic agent based on core crosslinked (CCL micelles, possessing tumor targetable moieties and fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR dual imaging modalities. An azide-terminated diblock copolymer, N3-POEGMA-b-P(DPA-co-GMA, was synthesized via consecutive atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP, where OEGMA, DPA, and GMA are oligo(ethylene glycolmethyl ether methacrylate, 2-(diisopropylaminoethyl methacrylate, and glycidyl methacrylate, respectively. The resulting diblock copolymer was further functionalized with DOTA(Gd (DOTA is 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetrakisacetic acid or benzaldehyde moieties via copper(I-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition (CuAAC chemistry, resulting in the formation of DOTA(Gd-POEGMA-b-P(DPA-co-GMA and benzaldehyde-POEGMA-b-P(DPA-co-GMA copolymers. The resultant block copolymers co-assembled into mixed micelles at neutral pH in the presence of tetrakis[4-(2-mercaptoethoxyphenyl]ethylene (TPE-4SH, which underwent spontaneous crosslinking reactions with GMA residues embedded within the micellar cores, simultaneously switching on TPE fluorescence due to the restriction of intramolecular rotation. Moreover, camptothecin (CPT was encapsulated into the crosslinked cores at neutral pH, and tumor-targeting pH low insertion peptide (pHLIP, sequence: AEQNPIYWARYADWLFTTPLLLLDLALLVDADEGTCG moieties were attached to the coronas through the Schiff base chemistry, yielding a theranostic nanovector with fluorescence and MR dual imaging modalities and tumor-targeting capability. The nanovectors can be efficiently taken up by A549 cells, as monitored by TPE fluorescence. After internalization, intracellular acidic pH triggered the release of loaded CPT, killing cancer cells in a selective manner. On the other hand, the nanovectors labeled with DOTA

  17. Hopf bifurcation analysis in a dual model of Internet congestion control algorithm with communication delay

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Dawei; Luo, Xiaoshu; Liu, Yuliang

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the delay induced Hopf bifurcation in a dual model of Internet congestion control algorithms which can be modeled as a time-delay system described by a one-order delay differential equation (DDE). By choosing communication delay as the bifurcation parameter, we demonstrate that the system loses its stability and a Hopf bifurcation occurs when communication delay passes through a critical value. Moreover, the bifurcating periodic solution of system is calculated by means of perturbation methods. Discussion of stability of the periodic solutions involves the computation of Floquet exponents by considering the corresponding Poincare -Lindstedt series expansion. Finally, numerical simulations for verify the theoretical analysis are provided.

  18. Immediate survival focus: synthesizing life history theory and dual process models to explain substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, George B; Hardesty, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Researchers have recently applied evolutionary life history theory to the understanding of behaviors often conceived of as prosocial or antisocial. In addition, researchers have applied cognitive science to the understanding of substance use and used dual process models, where explicit cognitive processes are modeled as relatively distinct from implicit cognitive processes, to explain and predict substance use behaviors. In this paper we synthesized these two theoretical perspectives to produce an adaptive and cognitive framework for explaining substance use. We contend that this framework provides new insights into the nature of substance use that may be valuable for both clinicians and researchers.

  19. Immediate Survival Focus: Synthesizing Life History Theory and Dual Process Models to Explain Substance Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George B. Richardson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have recently applied evolutionary life history theory to the understanding of behaviors often conceived of as prosocial or antisocial. In addition, researchers have applied cognitive science to the understanding of substance use and used dual process models, where explicit cognitive processes are modeled as relatively distinct from implicit cognitive processes, to explain and predict substance use behaviors. In this paper we synthesized these two theoretical perspectives to produce an adaptive and cognitive framework for explaining substance use. We contend that this framework provides new insights into the nature of substance use that may be valuable for both clinicians and researchers.

  20. Convex relaxation for a 3D spatiotemporal segmentation model using the primal-dual method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-yan WANG; Hui-min YU

    2012-01-01

    A method based on 3D videos is proposed for multi-target segmentation and tracking with a moving viewing system.A spatiotemporal energy functional is built up to perform motion segmentation and estimation simultaneously.To overcome the limitation of the local minimum problem with the level set method,a convex relaxation method is applied to the 3D spatiotemporal segmentation model.The relaxed convex model is independent of the initial condition.A primal-dual algorithm is used to improve computational efficiency.Several indoor experiments show the validity of the proposed method.

  1. Investigating whether it is optimal to make replenishments simultaneously in dual source model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abginehchi, Soheil; Larsen, Christian

    be relaxed. We study a dual source system with non-identical suppliers and model the problem as a semi-Markov decision model, allowing the decision maker the choice whether he will simultaneously issue two orders to both suppliers or he will issue the orders to suppliers at two different times.......In multiple sourcing, when supplier lead times are stochastic it makes sense to split any replenishment order into several smaller orders to pool lead time risks. In literature it is always assumed these orders are issued simultaneously to the suppliers. Here we let this simultaneousness assumption...

  2. Multicanonical analysis of the plaquette-only gonihedric Ising model and its dual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Marco; Johnston, Desmond A.; Janke, Wolfhard

    2014-11-01

    The three-dimensional purely plaquette gonihedric Ising model and its dual are investigated to resolve inconsistencies in the literature for the values of the inverse transition temperature of the very strong temperature-driven first-order phase transition that is apparent in the system. Multicanonical simulations of this model allow us to measure system configurations that are suppressed by more than 60 orders of magnitude compared to probable states. With the resulting high-precision data, we find excellent agreement with our recently proposed nonstandard finite-size scaling laws for models with a macroscopic degeneracy of the low-temperature phase by challenging the prefactors numerically. We find an overall consistent inverse transition temperature of β∞=0.551334(8) from the simulations of the original model both with periodic and fixed boundary conditions, and the dual model with periodic boundary conditions. For the original model with periodic boundary conditions, we obtain the first reliable estimate of the interface tension σ=0.12037(18), using the statistics of suppressed configurations.

  3. Multicanonical analysis of the plaquette-only gonihedric Ising model and its dual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mueller

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional purely plaquette gonihedric Ising model and its dual are investigated to resolve inconsistencies in the literature for the values of the inverse transition temperature of the very strong temperature-driven first-order phase transition that is apparent in the system. Multicanonical simulations of this model allow us to measure system configurations that are suppressed by more than 60 orders of magnitude compared to probable states. With the resulting high-precision data, we find excellent agreement with our recently proposed nonstandard finite-size scaling laws for models with a macroscopic degeneracy of the low-temperature phase by challenging the prefactors numerically. We find an overall consistent inverse transition temperature of β∞=0.551334(8 from the simulations of the original model both with periodic and fixed boundary conditions, and the dual model with periodic boundary conditions. For the original model with periodic boundary conditions, we obtain the first reliable estimate of the interface tension σ=0.12037(18, using the statistics of suppressed configurations.

  4. Multicanonical analysis of the plaquette-only gonihedric Ising model and its dual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Marco, E-mail: Marco.Mueller@itp.uni-leipzig.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Postfach 100 920, D-04009 Leipzig (Germany); Johnston, Desmond A., E-mail: D.A.Johnston@hw.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics and the Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Riccarton, Edinburgh, EH14 4AS, Scotland (United Kingdom); Janke, Wolfhard, E-mail: Wolfhard.Janke@itp.uni-leipzig.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Postfach 100 920, D-04009 Leipzig (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    The three-dimensional purely plaquette gonihedric Ising model and its dual are investigated to resolve inconsistencies in the literature for the values of the inverse transition temperature of the very strong temperature-driven first-order phase transition that is apparent in the system. Multicanonical simulations of this model allow us to measure system configurations that are suppressed by more than 60 orders of magnitude compared to probable states. With the resulting high-precision data, we find excellent agreement with our recently proposed nonstandard finite-size scaling laws for models with a macroscopic degeneracy of the low-temperature phase by challenging the prefactors numerically. We find an overall consistent inverse transition temperature of β{sup ∞}=0.551334(8) from the simulations of the original model both with periodic and fixed boundary conditions, and the dual model with periodic boundary conditions. For the original model with periodic boundary conditions, we obtain the first reliable estimate of the interface tension σ=0.12037(18), using the statistics of suppressed configurations.

  5. The role of anti-resonance frequencies from operational modal analysis in finite element model updating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, D.; Waters, T. P.; Thompson, D. J.; Randall, R. B.; Ford, R. A. J.

    2007-01-01

    Finite element model updating traditionally makes use of both resonance and modeshape information. The mode shape information can also be obtained from anti-resonance frequencies, as has been suggested by a number of researchers in recent years. Anti-resonance frequencies have the advantage over mode shapes that they can be much more accurately identified from measured frequency response functions. Moreover, anti-resonance frequencies can, in principle, be estimated from output-only measurements on operating machinery. The motivation behind this paper is to explore whether the availability of anti-resonances from such output-only techniques would add genuinely new information to the model updating process, which is not already available from using only resonance frequencies. This investigation employs two-degree-of-freedom models of a rigid beam supported on two springs. It includes an assessment of the contribution made to the overall anti-resonance sensitivity by the mode shape components, and also considers model updating through Monte Carlo simulations, experimental verification of the simulation results, and application to a practical mechanical system, in this case a petrol generator set. Analytical expressions are derived for the sensitivity of anti-resonance frequencies to updating parameters such as the ratio of spring stiffnesses, the position of the centre of gravity, and the beam's radius of gyration. These anti-resonance sensitivities are written in terms of natural frequency and mode shape sensitivities so their relative contributions can be assessed. It is found that the contribution made by the mode shape sensitivity varies considerably depending on the value of the parameters, contributing no new information for significant combinations of parameter values. The Monte Carlo simulations compare the performance of the update achieved when using information from: the resonances only; the resonances and either anti-resonance; and the resonances and both

  6. Analysis and modeling of Fano resonances using equivalent circuit elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Bo; Li, Rujiang; Fu, Jiahui; Wu, Qun; Zhang, Kuang; Chen, Wan; Wang, Zhefei; Ma, Ruyu

    2016-08-22

    Fano resonance presents an asymmetric line shape formed by an interference of a continuum coupled with a discrete autoionized state. In this paper, we show several simple circuits for Fano resonances from the stable-input impedance mechanism, where the elements consisting of inductors and capacitors are formulated for various resonant modes, and the resistor represents the damping of the oscillators. By tuning the pole-zero of the input impedance, a simple circuit with only three passive components e.g. two inductors and one capacitor, can exhibit asymmetric resonance with arbitrary Q-factors flexiblely. Meanwhile, four passive components can exhibit various resonances including the Lorentz-like and reversely electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) formations. Our work not only provides an intuitive understanding of Fano resonances, but also pave the way to realize Fano resonaces using simple circuit elements.

  7. An Image Fusion Method Based on NSCT and Dual-channel PCNN Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianyi Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available NSCT is one of useful multiscale geometric analysis tools, which takes full advantage of geometric regularity of image intrinsic structures. The dual-channel PCNN is a simplified PCNN model, which can process multiple images by a single PCNN. This saves time in the process of image fusion and cuts down computational complexity. In this paper, we present a new image fusion scheme based on NSCT and dual-channel PCNN. Firstly, the fusion rules of subband coefficients of NSCT are discussed. For the fusion rule of low frequency coefficients, the maximum selection rule (MSR is used. Then, for the fusion rule of high frequency coefficients, spatial frequency (SF of each high frequency subband is considered as the gradient features of images to motivate dual-channel PCNN networks and generate pulse of neurons. At last, fused image is obtained by using the inverse NSCT transform. In order to show that the proposed method can deal with image fusion, we used two pairs of images as our experimental subjects. The proposed method is compared with other five methods. The performance of various methods is mathematically evaluated by using four image quality evaluation criteria. Experimental comparisons conducted on different fusion methods prove the effectiveness of the proposed fusion method

  8. The Chinese Urban-rural Dual Economic Structure Model and Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiuchuan; XU; Shengping; SHI; Qinghua; HUANG

    2014-01-01

    Based on the characteristics of urban-rural dual economic structure in China,we build a dynamic endogenous urban-rural dual economic model closely linked to China’s reality,and carry out mathematical economics analysis of optimized conditions for urban and rural sectors. The main results show that:(i) The labor growth rate of urban-rural sectors must be greater than the time discount rate,or else there would be a vicious cycle of diminishing returns in the sectors;(ii) The accumulation rate of physical capital and human capital of urban-rural sectors,and the rate of technological progress,need to be greater than the corresponding depreciation rate plus the time discount rate,otherwise there would be a vicious cycle of diminishing returns in the sectors;(iii) The low accumulation rate in the rural sector,and the occurrence of labor outflow,human capital loss and lack of investment,will expand income gap between urban and rural areas,which is a reason for solidification of urban-rural dual economic structure.

  9. Do Dual-Route Models Accurately Predict Reading and Spelling Performance in Individuals with Acquired Alexia and Agraphia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapcsak, Steven Z.; Henry, Maya L.; Teague, Sommer L.; Carnahan, Susan D.; Beeson, Pélagie M.

    2007-01-01

    Coltheart and colleagues (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001; Castles, Bates, & Coltheart, 2006) have demonstrated that an equation derived from dual-route theory accurately predicts reading performance in young normal readers and in children with reading impairment due to developmental dyslexia or stroke. In this paper we present evidence that the dual-route equation and a related multiple regression model also accurately predict both reading and spelling performance in adult neurological patients with acquired alexia and agraphia. These findings provide empirical support for dual-route theories of written language processing. PMID:17482218

  10. Idler-resonant intracavity KTA-based OPO pumped by a dual-loss modulated-Q-switched-laser with AOM and Cr4+:YAG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Junpeng; Zhao, Shengzhi; Yang, Kejian; Zhao, Jia; Li, Guiqiu; Li, Dechun; Li, Tao; Qiao, Wenchao

    2017-06-01

    An idler-resonant KTiOAsO4 (KTA)-based intracavity optical parametric oscillator (IOPO) pumped by a dual-loss-modulated Q-switched laser with an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) and a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber (Cr4+:YAG-SA) has been presented. By utilizing a type-II non-critically phase-matched KTA crystal, signal wave at 1535 nm and idler wave at 3467 nm have been generated. Under an incident pump power of 18.3 W, maximum output powers of 615 mW for signal wave and 228 mW for idler wave were obtained at an AOM modulation rate of 10 kHz, corresponding to a whole optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 4.6%. The shortest pulse widths of signal and idler wave were measured to be 898 ps and 2.9 ns, corresponding to the highest peak powers of 68.4 and 7.9 kW, respectively. In comparison with IOPO pumped by a singly Q-switched laser with an AOM, the IOPO pumped by a doubly Q-switched laser (DIOPO) with an AOM and a Cr4+:YAG-SA can generate signal wave and idler wave with shorter pulse width and higher peak power. By considering the spatial Gaussian distribution of intracavity photon density, a set of coupled rate equations for the idler-resonant DIOPO were built for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The simulation results agreed well with the experimental results.

  11. Modelling and measurement of wear particle flow in a dual oil filter system for condition monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henneberg, Morten; Eriksen, René Lynge; Fich, Jens

    2016-01-01

    Wear debris is an indicator of the health of machinery, and the availability of accurate methods for characterising debris is important. In this work, a dual filter model for a gear oil system is used in conjunction with operational data to indicate three different system operating states. The qu...... particle generation is made possible by model parameter estimation and identification of an unintended lack of filter change. The model may also be used to optimise system and filtration performance, and to enable continuous condition monitoring.......Wear debris is an indicator of the health of machinery, and the availability of accurate methods for characterising debris is important. In this work, a dual filter model for a gear oil system is used in conjunction with operational data to indicate three different system operating states....... The quantity of wear particles in gear oil is analysed with respect to system running conditions. It is shown that the model fits the data in terms of startup “particle burst” phenomenon, quasi-stationary conditions during operation, and clean-up filtration when placed out of operation. In order to establish...

  12. The Influence of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings of Degenerative Disease on Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry Measurements in Middle-Aged Men

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donescu, O.S.; Battie, M.C.; Videman, T. [Faculty of Rehabilitation Medicine and Dept. of Physical Therapy, Univ. of Alberta (Canada)

    2007-02-15

    Purpose: To examine degenerative features based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements at the lumbar spine in relation to dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and to investigate whether bone mineral density (BMD) is reflected in the substitution of bone trabecular structure by fat at the vertebral body level indicated by MRI T1 relaxation time, endplate concavity, and hypertrophic (osteophytes and endplate sclerosis) MRI findings. Material and Methods: The sample for this cross-sectional study was composed of 102 subjects, 35-70 years old, from a population-based cohort. Data collection included DXA in the anterior-posterior projection at the L1-L4 vertebrae and right femoral neck, and MRI of the lumbar spine in the midsagittal plane. Results: Age, vertebral signal intensity, osteophytes, and endplate concavity collectively explained 20% of the variance in spine BMD. Conclusion: The study findings suggest that degenerative findings based on MRI measurements at the lumbar spine have an influence on bone assessment using DXA. Therefore, an overall bone assessment such as DXA might not offer an accurate measure of BMD.

  13. Reproducibility and accuracy of body composition assessments in mice by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and time domain nuclear magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsdottir, Solveig; Carmody, Jill; Boozer, Carol N; Leduc, Charles A; Leibel, Rudolph L

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy and reproducibility of dual-energy absorptiometry (DXA; PIXImus(™)) and time domain nuclear magnetic resonance (TD-NMR; Bruker Optics) for the measurement of body composition of lean and obese mice. SUBJECTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Thirty lean and obese mice (body weight range 19-67 g) were studied. Coefficients of variation for repeated (x 4) DXA and NMR scans of mice were calculated to assess reproducibility. Accuracy was assessed by comparing DXA and NMR results of ten mice to chemical carcass analyses. Accuracy of the respective techniques was also assessed by comparing DXA and NMR results obtained with ground meat samples to chemical analyses. Repeated scans of 10-25 gram samples were performed to test the sensitivity of the DXA and NMR methods to variation in sample mass. RESULTS: In mice, DXA and NMR reproducibility measures were similar for fat tissue mass (FTM) (DXA coefficient of variation [CV]=2.3%; and NMR CV=2.8%) (P=0.47), while reproducibility of lean tissue mass (LTM) estimates were better for DXA (1.0%) than NMR (2.2%) (advantages compared to DXA, such as speed of measurement and the ability to scan unanesthetized animals.

  14. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Phosphocreatine and Determination of BOLD Kinetics in Lower Extremity Muscles using a Dual-Frequency Coil Array.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan; Khegai, Oleksandr; Parasoglou, Prodromos

    2016-07-28

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the unique ability to study metabolic and microvasculature functions in skeletal muscle using phosphorus and proton measurements. However, the low sensitivity of these techniques can make it difficult to capture dynamic muscle activity due to the temporal resolution required for kinetic measurements during and after exercise tasks. Here, we report the design of a dual-nuclei coil array that enables proton and phosphorus MRI of the human lower extremities with high spatial and temporal resolution. We developed an array with whole-volume coverage of the calf and a phosphorus signal-to-noise ratio of more than double that of a birdcage coil in the gastrocnemius muscles. This enabled the local assessment of phosphocreatine recovery kinetics following a plantar flexion exercise using an efficient sampling scheme with a 6 s temporal resolution. The integrated proton array demonstrated image quality approximately equal to that of a clinical state-of-the-art knee coil, which enabled fat quantification and dynamic blood oxygen level-dependent measurements that reflect microvasculature function. The developed array and time-efficient pulse sequences were combined to create a localized assessment of calf metabolism using phosphorus measurements and vasculature function using proton measurements, which could provide new insights into muscle function.

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Phosphocreatine and Determination of BOLD Kinetics in Lower Extremity Muscles using a Dual-Frequency Coil Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ryan; Khegai, Oleksandr; Parasoglou, Prodromos

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the unique ability to study metabolic and microvasculature functions in skeletal muscle using phosphorus and proton measurements. However, the low sensitivity of these techniques can make it difficult to capture dynamic muscle activity due to the temporal resolution required for kinetic measurements during and after exercise tasks. Here, we report the design of a dual-nuclei coil array that enables proton and phosphorus MRI of the human lower extremities with high spatial and temporal resolution. We developed an array with whole-volume coverage of the calf and a phosphorus signal-to-noise ratio of more than double that of a birdcage coil in the gastrocnemius muscles. This enabled the local assessment of phosphocreatine recovery kinetics following a plantar flexion exercise using an efficient sampling scheme with a 6 s temporal resolution. The integrated proton array demonstrated image quality approximately equal to that of a clinical state-of-the-art knee coil, which enabled fat quantification and dynamic blood oxygen level-dependent measurements that reflect microvasculature function. The developed array and time-efficient pulse sequences were combined to create a localized assessment of calf metabolism using phosphorus measurements and vasculature function using proton measurements, which could provide new insights into muscle function.

  16. Accuracy and variability of right ventricular volumes and mass assessed by dual-source computed tomography: influence of slice orientation in comparison to magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Christoph J. [Elisabeth Hospital Essen, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Essen (Germany); Duke University Medical Center, Duke Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Center, Durham, NC (United States); Wolf, Alexander; Eberle, Holger C.; Sabin, Georg V.; Bruder, Oliver [Elisabeth Hospital Essen, Department of Cardiology and Angiology, Essen (Germany); Forsting, Michael; Nassenstein, Kai; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Schlosser, Thomas [University Hospital Essen, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Essen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    To evaluate the accuracy and variability of right ventricular (RV) volumes and mass using dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) and the influence of slice orientation in comparison to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). In 33 patients undergoing cardiac DSCT and CMR, RV parameters were calculated using the short-axis (DSCT, CMR) and axial orientation (DSCT). Intra- and interobserver variability were assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. Short-axis orientation: RV parameters of the two techniques were not statistically different. Axial orientation: RV volumes and mass were significantly overestimated compared with short-axis parameters whereas EF was similar. The short-axis approach resulted in low variability, although the axial orientation had the least amount of intra- and interobserver variability. RV parameters can be more accurately assessed by DSCT compared with CMR using short-axis slice orientation. RV volumes and mass are significantly higher using axial compared with short-axis slices, whereas EF is unaffected. RV parameters derived from both approaches yield high reproducibility. (orig.)

  17. Design of single-polarization coupler based on dual-core photonic band-gap fiber implied in resonant fiber optic gyro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhenlong; Li, Xuyou; Zhang, Chunmei; Ling, Weiwei; Liu, Pan; Xia, Linlin; Yang, Hanrui

    2016-12-01

    A novel (to our knowledge) type of single-polarization (SP) coupler based on a dual-core photonic band-gap fiber (PBF) is proposed. The effects of structure parameters on the performance of this coupler are studied numerically based on the full vector finite element method (FEM). Finally, an optimal design with a length of 0.377 mm at the wavelength of 1.55 μm is achieved, and its implication in PBF-based fiber ring resonator (FRR), the effect of angular misalignment on the SP coupler are analyzed as well. When the SP coupler is incorporated into a PBF-based FRR, it functions as the power splitter and the polarizer simultaneously, and can extinct the secondary eigenstate of polarization (ESOP) propagating in the FRR. The mode field of SP coupler can match with the polarization-maintaining (PM) PBF with ultra-low temperature sensitivity proposed in previous study, and an all PM-PBF based FRR can be established, which is of great significance in suppressing the temperature-related polarization fluctuation and improving the long-term stability for RFOG, and the SP coupler has high angular misalignment tolerance as well.

  18. A versatile and modular quasi optics-based 200 GHz dual dynamic nuclear polarization and electron paramagnetic resonance instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siaw, Ting Ann; Leavesley, Alisa; Lund, Alicia; Kaminker, Ilia; Han, Songi

    2016-03-01

    Solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at higher magnetic fields (>3 T) and cryogenic temperatures (∼2-90 K) has gained enormous interest and seen major technological advances as an NMR signal enhancing technique. Still, the current state of the art DNP operation is not at a state at which sample and freezing conditions can be rationally chosen and the DNP performance predicted a priori, but relies on purely empirical approaches. An important step towards rational optimization of DNP conditions is to have access to DNP instrumental capabilities to diagnose DNP performance and elucidate DNP mechanisms. The desired diagnoses include the measurement of the "DNP power curve", i.e. the microwave (MW) power dependence of DNP enhancement, the "DNP spectrum", i.e. the MW frequency dependence of DNP enhancement, the electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum, and the saturation and spectral diffusion properties of the EPR spectrum upon prolonged MW irradiation typical of continuous wave (CW) DNP, as well as various electron and nuclear spin relaxation parameters. Even basic measurements of these DNP parameters require versatile instrumentation at high magnetic fields not commercially available to date. In this article, we describe the detailed design of such a DNP instrument, powered by a solid-state MW source that is tunable between 193 and 201 GHz and outputs up to 140 mW of MW power. The quality and pathway of the transmitted and reflected MWs is controlled by a quasi-optics (QO) bridge and a corrugated waveguide, where the latter couples the MW from an open-space QO bridge to the sample located inside the superconducting magnet and vice versa. Crucially, the versatility of the solid-state MW source enables the automated acquisition of frequency swept DNP spectra, DNP power curves, the diagnosis of MW power and transmission, and frequency swept continuous wave (CW) and pulsed EPR experiments. The flexibility of the DNP instrument centered around the QO MW

  19. A dual-porosity model for simulating solute transport in oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    A model is described for simulating three-dimensional groundwater flow and solute transport in oil shale and associated geohydrologic units. The model treats oil shale as a dual-porosity medium by simulating flow and transport within fractures using the finite-element method. Diffusion of solute between fractures and the essentially static water of the shale matrix is simulated by including an analytical solution that acts as a source-sink term to the differential equation of solute transport. While knowledge of fracture orientation and spacing is needed to effectively use the model, it is not necessary to map the locations of individual fractures. The computer program listed in the report incorporates many of the features of previous dual-porosity models while retaining a practical approach to solving field problems. As a result the theory of solute transport is not extended in any appreciable way. The emphasis is on bringing together various aspects of solute transport theory in a manner that is particularly suited to the unusual groundwater flow and solute transport characteristics of oil shale systems. (Author 's abstract)

  20. Active open boundary forcing using dual relaxation time-scales in downscaled ocean models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzfeld, M.; Gillibrand, P. A.

    2015-05-01

    Regional models actively forced with data from larger scale models at their open boundaries often contain motion at different time-scales (e.g. tidal and low frequency). These motions are not always individually well specified in the forcing data, and one may require a more active boundary forcing while the other exert less influence on the model interior. If a single relaxation time-scale is used to relax toward these data in the boundary equation, then this may be difficult. The method of fractional steps is used to introduce dual relaxation time-scales in an open boundary local flux adjustment scheme. This allows tidal and low frequency oscillations to be relaxed independently, resulting in a better overall solution than if a single relaxation parameter is optimized for tidal (short relaxation) or low frequency (long relaxation) boundary forcing. The dual method is compared to the single relaxation method for an idealized test case where a tidal signal is superimposed on a steady state low frequency solution, and a real application where the low frequency boundary forcing component is derived from a global circulation model for a region extending over the whole Great Barrier Reef, and a tidal signal subsequently superimposed.

  1. A dual pathway model of daily stressor effects on rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affleck, G; Urrows, S; Tennen, H; Higgins, P; Pav, D; Aloisi, R

    1997-01-01

    This study evaluated the initial promise of a dual-pathway conceptual model linking daily event stressors to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity through changes in immune system activation and mood. Fifty individuals, who were studied on five occasions two weeks apart, reported daily event stressors on the Daily Life Experience Checklist, daily mood on an abbreviated version of the Profile of Mood States-B, and daily joint pain on the Rapid Assessment of Disease Activity in Rheumatology. Serial clinical examinations comprised ratings of joint tenderness and swelling, and blood drawn during exams was analyzed for sedimentation rate (an indicator of systemic inflammation) and soluble interleukin-2 receptors (a marker of immune system activation known to correlate with RA disease activity). Across-person analyses failed to establish links from daily event stressors to either disease activity or composites of joint pain and joint inflammation when associations were adjusted for the effect of neuroticism on self-report measures. Pooled within-person analyses, however, were generally consistent with the relations predicted by the dual-pathway model. Increases in daily event stressors during the week preceding each clinical exam were associated with increased joint pain (regardless of changes in mood). At the same time, increased daily stressors were indirectly associated with decreased joint inflammation through reduction in levels of soluble interleukin-2 receptors. The dual-pathway model, which may be limited to short-term psychological and psychoimmunologic processes, underscores the importance of distinguishing potentially opposing effects of stress on pain versus inflammation in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis.

  2. Dual hit lipopolysaccharide & oleic acid combination induced rat model of acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T N Hagawane

    2016-01-01

    Results: It was noted that the respiratory rate, and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α levels were significantly higher at 4 h in the dual hit group as compared to LPS, OA and control groups. Interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels were significantly higher in the dual hit group as compared to LPS at 8 and 24 h, OA at 8 h and control (at all time intervals group. IL-1β levels were significantly higher in LPS and dual hit groups at all time intervals, but not in OA and control groups. The injury induced in dual hit group was earlier and more sustained as compared to LPS and OA alone. Interpretation & conclusions: The lung pathology and changes in respiration functions produced by the dual hit model were closer to the diagnostic criteria of ALI/ARDS in terms of clinical manifestations and pulmonary injury and the injury persisted longer as compared to LPS and OA single hit model. Therefore, the ARDS model produced by the dual hit method was closer to the diagnostic criteria of ARDS in terms of clinical manifestations and pulmonary injury.

  3. Can Centre Surround Model Explain the Enhancement of Visual Perception through Stochastic Resonance?

    CERN Document Server

    Kundu, Ajanta

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability of centre surround model for simulating the enhancement of contrast sensitivity through stochastic resonance observed in psychophysical experiments. We also show that this model could be used to simulate the contrast sensitivity function through stochastic resonance. The quality of the fit of measured contrast sensitivity function to the simulated data is very good.

  4. Analytical model for double split ring resonators with arbitrary ring width

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Jensen, Thomas; Krozer, Viktor

    2008-01-01

    For the first time, the analytical model for a double split ring resonator with unequal width rings is developed. The proposed models for the resonators with equal and unequal widths are based on an impedance matrix representation and provide the prediction of performance in a wide frequency rang...

  5. DISTANCE MEASURING MODELING AND ERROR ANALYSIS OF DUAL CCD VISION SYSTEM SIMULATING HUMAN EYES AND NECK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Xuanyin; Xiao Baoping; Pan Feng

    2003-01-01

    A dual-CCD simulating human eyes and neck (DSHEN) vision system is put forward. Its structure and principle are introduced. The DSHEN vision system can perform some movements simulating human eyes and neck by means of four rotating joints, and realize precise object recognizing and distance measuring in all orientations. The mathematic model of the DSHEN vision system is built, and its movement equation is solved. The coordinate error and measure precision affected by the movement parameters are analyzed by means of intersection measuring method. So a theoretic foundation for further research on automatic object recognizing and precise target tracking is provided.

  6. SIX SIGMA OPTIMIZATION IN SHEET METAL FORMING BASED ON DUAL RESPONSE SURFACE MODEL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yuqiang; CUI Zhenshan; ZHANG Dongjuan; RUAN Xueyu; CHEN Jun

    2006-01-01

    Iterations in optimization and numerical simulation for the sheet metal forming process may lead to extensive computation. In addition, uncertainties in materials or processing parameters may have great influence on the design quality. A six sigma optimization method is proposed, by combining the dual response surface method (DRSM) and six sigma philosophy, to save computation cost and improve reliability and robustness of parts. Using this method, statistical technology,including the design of experiment and analysis of variance, approximate model and six sigma philosophy are integrated together to achieve improved quality. Two sheet metal forming processes are provided as examples to illustrate the proposed method.

  7. Highly nonlinear wave solutions in a dual to the chiral model

    CERN Document Server

    Rajeev, S G

    2016-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional scalar field theory with a nilpotent current algebra, which is dual to the Principal Chiral Model. The quantum theory is renormalizable and not asymptotically free: the theory is strongly coupled at short distances (encountering a Landau pole). We suggest it can serve as a toy model for $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ theory in four dimensions, just as the principal chiral model is a useful toy model for Yang-Mills theory. We find some classical wave solutions that survive the strong coupling limit and quantize them by the collective variable method. They describe excitations with an unusual dispersion relation $\\omega\\propto|k|^{\\frac{2}{3}}$ . Perhaps they are the "preons" at strong coupling, whose bound states form massless particles over long distances.

  8. Highly nonlinear wave solutions in a dual to the chiral model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeev, S. G.; Ranken, Evan

    2016-05-01

    We consider a two-dimensional scalar field theory with a nilpotent current algebra, which is dual to the Principal Chiral Model. The quantum theory is renormalizable and not asymptotically free; the theory is strongly coupled at short distances (encountering a Landau pole). We suggest it can serve as a toy model for λ ϕ4 theory in four dimensions, just as the principal chiral model is a useful toy model for Yang-Mills theory. We find some classical wave solutions that survive the strong coupling limit and quantize them by the collective variable method. They describe excitations with an unusual dispersion relation ω ∝|k |2/3 . Perhaps they are the "preons" at strong coupling, the bound states of which form massless particles over long distances.

  9. On the dual equivalence of the Born-Infeld-Chern-Simons model coupled to dynamical U(1) charged matter

    CERN Document Server

    Bazeia, D; Nascimento, J R S; Ribeiro, R F; Wotzasek, C

    2001-01-01

    We study the equivalence between a nonlinear self-dual model (NSD) with the Born-Infeld-Chern-Simons (BICS) models using an iterative gauge embedding procedure that produces the duality mapping, including the case where the NSD model is minimally coupled to dynamical, U(1) charged fermionic matter. The duality mapping introduces a current-current interaction term while at the same time the minimal coupling of the original nonlinear self-dual model is replaced by a non-minimal magnetic like coupling in the BICS side.

  10. Modeling dual-scale epidemic dynamics on complex networks with reaction diffusion processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-gang JIN; Yong MIN

    2014-01-01

    The frequent outbreak of severe foodborne diseases (e.g., haemolytic uraemic syndrome and Listeriosis) in 2011 warns of a potential threat that world trade could spread fatal pathogens (e.g., enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli). The epidemic potential from trade involves both intra-proliferation and inter-diffusion. Here, we present a worldwide vegetable trade network and a stochastic computational model to simulate global trade-mediated epidemics by considering the weighted nodes and edges of the network and the dual-scale dynamics of epidemics. We address two basic issues of network structural impact in global epi-demic patterns:(1) in contrast to the prediction of heterogeneous network models, the broad variability of node degree and edge weights of the vegetable trade network do not determine the threshold of global epidemics;(2) a‘penetration effect’, by which community structures do not restrict propagation at the global scale, quickly facilitates bridging the edges between communities, and leads to synchronized diffusion throughout the entire network. We have also defined an appropriate metric that combines dual-scale behavior and enables quantification of the critical role of bridging edges in disease diffusion from widespread trading. The unusual structure mechanisms of the trade network model may be useful in producing strategies for adaptive immunity and reducing international trade frictions.

  11. Dynamic Model and Fault Feature Research of Dual-Rotor System with Bearing Pedestal Looseness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanfei Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a finite element model of dual-rotor system with pedestal looseness stemming from loosened bolts. Dynamic model including bearing pedestal looseness is established based on the dual-rotor test rig. Three-degree-of-freedom (DOF planar rigid motion of loose bearing pedestal is fully considered and collision recovery coefficient is also introduced in the model. Based on the Timoshenko beam elements, using the finite element method, rigid body kinematics, and the Newmark-β algorithm for numerical simulation, dynamic characteristics of the inner and outer rotors and the bearing pedestal plane rigid body motion under bearing pedestal looseness condition are studied. Meanwhile, the looseness experiments under two different speed combinations are carried out, and the experimental results are basically the same. The simulation results are compared with the experimental results, indicating that vibration displacement waveforms of loosened rotor have “clipping” phenomenon. When the bearing pedestal looseness fault occurs, the inner and outer rotors vibration spectrum not only contains the difference and sum frequency of the two rotors’ fundamental frequency but also contains 2X and 3X component of rotor with loosened support, and so forth; low frequency spectrum is more, containing dividing component, and so forth; the rotor displacement spectrums also contain fewer combination frequency components, and so forth; when one side of the inner rotor bearing pedestal is loosened, the inner rotor axis trajectory is drawn into similar-ellipse shape.

  12. Dual conical conducting filament model in resistance switching TiO2 thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Min; Park, Tae Hyung; Hwang, Cheol Seong

    2015-01-19

    The resetting behaviors of Pt/TiO2/Pt resistive switching (RS) cell in unipolar RS operations were studied in detail through an experiment and by modeling. The experiment showed that the apparently highly arbitrary resetting current-voltage (I-V) curves could be grouped into three types: normal, delayed, and abnormal behaviors. A dual conical conducting filament (CF) model was conceived, and their electrothermal behaviors were analytically described from the heat-balance and charge-transport equations. The almost spontaneous resetting behavior of the normal reset could be easily understood from the mutually constructive interference effect between the Joule heating and temperature-dependent resistance effect along the CF. The delayed reset could be explained by the time-dependent increase in the reset voltage during the rest process, which was most probably induced in the more conical-shaped CF. The abnormal reset could be understood from the temporal transfer of oxygen ions near the kink positions of the two different-diameter portions of the more cylindrical CFs, which temporally decreases the overall resistance immediately prior for the actual reset to occur. The accuracy of the dual conical CF model was further confirmed by adopting a more thorough electrothermal simulation package, COMSOL.

  13. More evidence for a dual-process model of conditional reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Forgues, Hugues Lortie; Brunet, Marie-Laurence

    2012-07-01

    Many studies have shown that the deductive inferences that people make have global properties that reflect the statistical information implicit in the premises. This suggests that such reasoning can be explained by a single, underlying probabilistic model. In contrast, the dual process model of conditional reasoning (Verschueren, Schaeken, & d'Ydewalle, 2005b) proposes that people can use either a logical, counterexample-based strategy or a probabilistic one. In two studies, we presented reasoners with sequences of affirmation-of-the-consequent inferences that differed with respect to the statistical properties of the premises, either explicitly or implicitly. As predicted by the dual-process model, an analysis of individual response patterns showed the presence of two distinct strategies, with use of the counterexample strategy being associated with higher levels of abstract-reasoning competence. Use of the counterexample strategy was facilitated by the explicit presentation of counterexample information. In a further study, we then examined explicitly probabilistic inferences. This study showed that although most reasoners made statistically appropriate inferences, the ability to make more-accurate inferences was associated with higher levels of abstract reasoning competence. These results show that deductive inferential reasoning cannot be explained by a single, unitary process and that any analysis of reasoning must consider individual differences in strategy use.

  14. Dual energy CT at the synchrotron: A piglet model for neurovascular research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueltke, Elisabeth, E-mail: e.schultke@usask.ca [University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Kelly, Michael E. [University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Nemoz, Christian [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 rue Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Fiedler, Stefan [European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), Nottkestrasse 85, 22603 Hamburg (Germany); Ogieglo, Lissa [University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Crawford, Paul [Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, North Mymms, Hatfield, Herfordshire AL9 7TA (United Kingdom); Paterson, Jessica; Beavis, Cole [University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Esteve, Francois [CR INSERM U836-Team 6/ESRF, 6 rue Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Brochard, Thierry; Renier, Michel; Requardt, Herwig; Dallery, Dominique; Le Duc, Geraldine [European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF), 6 rue Horowitz, 38043 Grenoble (France); Meguro, Kotoo [University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)

    2011-08-15

    Background: Although the quality of imaging techniques available for neurovascular angiography in the hospital environment has significantly improved over the last decades, the equipment used for clinical work is not always suited for neurovascular research in animal models. We have previously investigated the suitability of synchrotron-based K-edge digital subtraction angiography (KEDSA) after intravenous injection of iodinated contrast agent for neurovascular angiography in radiography mode in both rabbit and pig models. We now have used the KEDSA technique for the acquisition of three-dimensional images and dual energy CT. Materials and methods: All experiments were conducted at the biomedical beamline ID 17 of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). A solid state germanium (Ge) detector was used for the acquisition of image pairs at 33.0 and 33.3 keV. Three-dimensional images were reconstructed from an image series containing 60 single images taken throughout a full rotation of 360{sup o}. CT images were reconstructed from two half-acquisitions with 720 projections each. Results: The small detector field of view was a limiting factor in our experiments. Nevertheless, we were able to show that dual energy CT using the KEDSA technique available at ID 17 is suitable for neurovascular research in animal models.

  15. Dual luminophor pressure-sensitive paint: III. Application to automotive model testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouterman, Martin; Callis, James; Dalton, Larry; Khalil, Gamal; Mébarki, Youssef; Cooper, Kevin R.; Grenier, Michel

    2004-10-01

    Porphyrins play key roles in natural energy conversion systems, including photosynthesis and oxygen transport. Because of their chemical stability, unique optical properties and synthetic versatility, porphyrins are well suited as chemical sensors. One successful application is the use of platinum porphyrin (PtP) in pressure-sensitive paint (PSP). Oxygen in the film quenches luminescence, and oxygen pressure was initially monitored by measuring the ratio of I(wind-off)/I(wind-on). But this ratio is compromised if there is model motion and if the paint layer is inhomogeneous. Furthermore it requires careful monitoring and placement of light sources. Moreover, this method is seriously affected by temperature. The errors caused by model motion and temperature sensitivity are eliminated or greatly reduced using dual luminophor paint. This paper illustrates a successful application of a dual luminophor PSP in auto model testing. The PSP is made from an oxygen sensitive luminophor, Pt tetra(pentafluorophenyl)-porpholactone, which provides Isen, and Mg tetra(pentafluorophenyl)porphine, which provides temperature-sensitive paint (TSP) as the pressure-independent reference. The ratio PSP/TSP in the FIB polymer produced ideal PSP measurements with a very low-temperature dependence of -0.1% °C-1.

  16. A neuron model of stochastic resonance using rectangular pulse trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danziger, Zachary; Grill, Warren M

    2015-02-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is the enhanced representation of a weak input signal by the addition of an optimal level of broadband noise to a nonlinear (threshold) system. Since its discovery in the 1980s the domain of input signals shown to be applicable to SR has greatly expanded, from strictly periodic inputs to now nearly any aperiodic forcing function. The perturbations (noise) used to generate SR have also expanded, from white noise to now colored noise or vibrational forcing. This study demonstrates that a new class of perturbations can achieve SR, namely, series of stochastically generated biphasic pulse trains. Using these pulse trains as 'noise' we show that a Hodgkin Huxley model neuron exhibits SR behavior when detecting weak input signals. This result is of particular interest to neuroscience because nearly all artificial neural stimulation is implemented with square current or voltage pulses rather than broadband noise, and this new method may facilitate the translation of the performance gains achievable through SR to neural prosthetics.

  17. Fluctuations, Response, and Resonances in a Simple Atmospheric Model

    CERN Document Server

    Gritsun, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    We study the response of a simple quasi-geostrophic barotropic model of the atmosphere to various classes of perturbations affecting its forcing and its dissipation using the formalism of the Ruelle response theory. We investigate the geometry of such perturbations using the covariant Lyapunov vectors on the unperturbed system and discover in one specific case - orographic forcing - a substantial projection of the perturbation onto the stable directions of the flow. As a result, we find a clear violation of the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, in agreement with the basic tenets of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. This results into a very strong response in the form of a forced Rossby-like wave that has no resemblance to the natural variability in the same range of spatial and temporal scales. We further analyze such a feature and discover it can be interpreted as resonant response to a specific group of rarely visited unstable periodic orbits of the unperturbed system. Our results reinforce the idea of u...

  18. Quantification of colloidal and aqueous element transfer in soils: The dual-phase mass balance model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Thompson, Aaron; Chadwick, Oliver A.

    2015-01-01

    Mass balance models have become standard tools for characterizing element gains and losses and volumetric change during weathering and soil development. However, they rely on the assumption of complete immobility for an index element such as Ti or Zr. Here we describe a dual-phase mass balance model that eliminates the need for an assumption of immobility and in the process quantifies the contribution of aqueous versus colloidal element transfer. In the model, the high field strength elements Ti and Zr are assumed to be mobile only as suspended solids (colloids) and can therefore be used to distinguish elemental redistribution via colloids from redistribution via dissolved aqueous solutes. Calculations are based upon element concentrations in soil, parent material, and colloids dispersed from soil in the laboratory. We illustrate the utility of this model using a catena in South Africa. Traditional mass balance models systematically distort elemental gains and losses and changes in soil volume in this catena due to significant redistribution of Zr-bearing colloids. Applying the dual-phase model accounts for this colloidal redistribution and we find that the process accounts for a substantial portion of the major element (e.g., Al, Fe and Si) loss from eluvial soil. In addition, we find that in illuvial soils along this catena, gains of colloidal material significantly offset aqueous elemental loss. In other settings, processes such as accumulation of exogenous dust can mimic the geochemical effects of colloid redistribution and we suggest strategies for distinguishing between the two. The movement of clays and colloidal material is a major process in weathering and pedogenesis; the mass balance model presented here is a tool for quantifying effects of that process over time scales of soil development.

  19. Hydroclimatology of Dual-Peak Annual Cholera Incidence: Insights from a Spatially Explicit Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertuzzo, E.; Mari, L.; Righetto, L.; Gatto, M.; Casagrandi, R.; Rodriguez-Iturbe, I.; Rinaldo, A.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera incidence in some regions of the Indian subcontinent may exhibit two annual peaks although the main environmental drivers that have been linked to the disease (e.g. sea surface temperature, zooplankton abundance, river discharge) peak once per year during the summer. An empirical hydroclimatological explanation relating cholera transmission to river flows and to the disease spatial spreading has been recently proposed. We specifically support and substantiate mechanistically such hypothesis by means of a spatially explicit model of cholera transmission. Our framework directly accounts for the role of the river network in transporting and redistributing cholera bacteria among human communities as well as for spatial and temporal annual fluctuations of precipitation and river flows. To single out the single out the hydroclimatologic controls on the prevalence patterns in a non-specific geographical context, we first apply the model to Optimal Channel Networks as a general model of hydrological networks. Moreover, we impose a uniform distribution of population. The model is forced by seasonal environmental drivers, namely precipitation, temperature and chlorophyll concentration in the coastal environment, a proxy for Vibrio cholerae concentration. Our results show that these drivers may suffice to generate dual-peak cholera prevalence patterns for proper combinations of timescales involved in pathogen transport, hydrologic variability and disease unfolding. The model explains the possible occurrence of spatial patterns of cholera incidence characterized by a spring peak confined to coastal areas and a fall peak involving inland regions. We then proceed applying the model to the specific settings of Bay of Bengal accounting for the actual river networks (derived from digital terrain map manipulations), the proper distribution of population (estimated from downscaling of census data based on remotely sensed features) and precipitation patterns. Overall our

  20. Radiolabeled cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartic (RGD)-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dual-modality agents for imaging of breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shengming; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Bin; Hong, Ruoyu; Chen, Qing; Dong, Jiajia; Chen, Yinyiin; Chen, Zhiqiang; Wu, Yiwei

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (USPIOs) modified with a novel cyclic arginine-glycine-aspartate (RGD) peptide were made and radiolabeled as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dual-modality agents for imaging of breast cancer. The probe was tested both in vitro and in vivo to determine its receptor targeting efficacy and feasibility for SPECT and MRI. The radiochemical syntheses of 125I-cRGD-USPIO were accomplished with a radiochemical purity of 96.05 ± 0.33 %. High radiochemical stability was found in fresh human serum and in phosphate-buffered saline. The average hydrodynamic size of 125I-cRGD-USPIO determined by dynamic light scattering was 51.3 nm. Results of in vitro experiments verified the specificity of the radiolabeled nanoparticles to tumor cells. Preliminary biodistribution studies of 125I-radiolabeled cRGD-USPIO in Bcap37-bearing nude mice showed that it had long circulation half-life, high tumor uptake, and high initial blood retention with moderate liver uptake. In vivo tumor targeting and uptake of the radiolabeled nanoparticles in mice model were visualized by SPECT and MRI collected at different time points. Our results strongly indicated that the 125I-cRGD-USPIO could be used as a promising bifunctional radiotracer for early clinical tumor detection with high sensitivity and high spatial resolution by SPECT and MRI.

  1. 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose Modified Magnetic Nanoparticles with Dual Functional Properties: Nanothermotherapy and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingyun; Zheng, Yajing; Yan, Hao; Xie, WenSheng; Sun, Xiaodan; Li, Ning; Tang, Jintian

    2016-03-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) with appropriate surface chemistry have attracted wild attention in medical and biological application because of their current and potential usefulness such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement, magnetic mediated hyperthermia (MMH), immunoassay, and in drug delivery, etc. In this study, we investigated the MRI contrast agents and MMH mediators properties of the novel 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG) modified SPIONs. As a non-metabolizable glucose analogue, 2-DG can block glycolysis and inhibits protein glycosylation. Moreover, SPIONs coated with 2-DG molecules can be particularly attractive to resource-hungry cancer cells, therefore to realize the targeting strategy for the SPIONs. SPIONs with amino silane as the capping agent for amino-group surface modification were synthesized by the chemical co-precipitation method with modification. Glutaraldehyde was further applied as an activation agent through which 2-DG was conjugated to the amino-coated SPIONs. Physicochemical characterizations of the 2-DG-SPIONs, such as surface morphology, surface charge and magnetic properties were investigated by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), ζ-Potential and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), etc. Magnetic inductive heating characteristics of the 2-DG-SPIONs were analyzed by exposing the SPIONs suspension (magnetic fluid) under alternative magnetic field (AMF). U-251 human glioma cells with expression of glucose transport proteins type 1 and 3 (GLUT1 and GLUT 3), and L929 murine fibroblast cell as negative control, were employed to study the effect of 2-DG modification on the cell uptake for SPIONs. TEM images for ultra-thin sections as well as ICP-MS were applied to evaluate the SPIONs internalization within the cells. In vitro MRI was performed after cells were co-incubated with SPIONs and the T2 relaxation time was measured and compared. The results demonstrate that 2-DG-SPIONs were supermagnetic and in

  2. Shell Model Study on the Proton Pigmy Dipole Resonances in ~(17, 18)Ne

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The proton pygmy dipole resonances (PDRs) in proton rich nuclei 17, 18Ne have been investigated in the framework of interacting shell model. The shell model with the self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock wave functions has well reproduced

  3. Data Analytics Based Dual-Optimized Adaptive Model Predictive Control for the Power Plant Boiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenhao Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To control the furnace temperature of a power plant boiler precisely, a dual-optimized adaptive model predictive control (DoAMPC method is designed based on the data analytics. In the proposed DoAMPC, an accurate predictive model is constructed adaptively by the hybrid algorithm of the least squares support vector machine and differential evolution method. Then, an optimization problem is constructed based on the predictive model and many constraint conditions. To control the boiler furnace temperature, the differential evolution method is utilized to decide the control variables by solving the optimization problem. The proposed method can adapt to the time-varying situation by updating the sample data. The experimental results based on practical data illustrate that the DoAMPC can control the boiler furnace temperature with errors of less than 1.5% which can meet the requirements of the real production process.

  4. Charge transport model in nanodielectric composites based on quantum tunneling mechanism and dual-level traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guochang; Chen, George; Li, Shengtao

    2016-08-01

    Charge transport properties in nanodielectrics present different tendencies for different loading concentrations. The exact mechanisms that are responsible for charge transport in nanodielectrics are not detailed, especially for high loading concentration. A charge transport model in nanodielectrics has been proposed based on quantum tunneling mechanism and dual-level traps. In the model, the thermally assisted hopping (TAH) process for the shallow traps and the tunnelling process for the deep traps are considered. For different loading concentrations, the dominant charge transport mechanisms are different. The quantum tunneling mechanism plays a major role in determining the charge conduction in nanodielectrics with high loading concentrations. While for low loading concentrations, the thermal hopping mechanism will dominate the charge conduction process. The model can explain the observed conductivity property in nanodielectrics with different loading concentrations.

  5. Microwave dielectric spectrum of vegetation. I - Experimental observations. II - Dual-dispersion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rayes, Mohamed A.; Ulaby, Fawwaz T.

    1987-01-01

    The microwave dielectric behavior of vegetation materials is examined as a function of water content, microwave frequency, and temperature. Dielectric spectra for various types of vegetation, such as leaves, stalks, and trunks at various moisture conditions, were measured using a coaxial probe technique. The basic features and operation of the coaxial probe system are described. Examples of dielectric measurements for the vegetation materials are presented, and the relation between temperature and the dielectric constant is studied. The development of a dual-dispersion model that accounts for the dielectric properties of water in both free and bound conditions is described. The applicability of the model is evaluated by comparing it with the dielectric data; good correlation is observed between the model and the data over a wide range of moisture conditions and over the 0.2-20 GHz range.

  6. Complexity analysis of dual-channel game model with different managers' business objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Ma, Junhai

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers dual-channel game model with bounded rationality, using the theory of bifurcations of dynamical system. The business objectives of retailers are assumed to be different, which is closer to reality than previous studies. We study the local stable region of Nash equilibrium point and find that business objectives can expand the stable region and play an important role in price strategy. One interesting finding is that a fiercer competition tends to stabilize the Nash equilibrium. Simulation shows the complex behavior of two dimensional dynamic system, we find period doubling bifurcation and chaos phenomenon. We measure performances of the model in different period by using the index of average profit. The results show that unstable behavior in economic system is often an unfavorable outcome. So this paper discusses the application of adaptive adjustment mechanism when the model exhibits chaotic behavior and then allows the retailers to eliminate the negative effects.

  7. Joint Pricing and Purchasing Decisions for the Dual-Channel Newsvendor Model with Partial Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jixiang Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a joint pricing and purchasing problem for the dual-channel newsvendor model with the assumption that only the mean and variance of the demand are known. The newsvendor in our model simultaneously distributes a single product through traditional retail and Internet. A robust optimization approach that maximizes the worst-case profit is adapted under the aforementioned conditions to model demand uncertainty and linear clearing functions that characterize the relationship between demand and prices. We obtain a close-form expression for the robust optimal policy. Illustrative simulations and numerical experiments show the effects of several parameters on the optimal policy and on newsvendor performance. Finally, we determine that the gap between newsvendor performance under demand certainty and uncertainty is minimal, which shows that the robust approach can significantly improve performance.

  8. Measurement and modelling of enhanced absorption Hanle effect resonances in {sup 85}Rb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilardi, Andrea; Tabarelli, Davide; Botti, Laura; Bertoldi, Andrea; Ricci, Leonardo [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento, I-38100 Trento-Povo (Italy)], E-mail: andrea.bertoldi@institutoptique.fr

    2009-03-14

    We report on a detailed measurement of the enhanced absorption Hanle effect resonances in {sup 85}Rb. The effect was analysed with an experimental setup allowing for the control of each magnetic field component within 1 mG. The characterization deals with the dependence of resonances, observed under different magnetic field conditions, on the frequency, intensity and polarization of the exciting radiation field. An analytic model that precisely describes the resonance behaviour is discussed.

  9. Dual coding with STDP in a spiking recurrent neural network model of the hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bush

    Full Text Available The firing rate of single neurons in the mammalian hippocampus has been demonstrated to encode for a range of spatial and non-spatial stimuli. It has also been demonstrated that phase of firing, with respect to the theta oscillation that dominates the hippocampal EEG during stereotype learning behaviour, correlates with an animal's spatial location. These findings have led to the hypothesis that the hippocampus operates using a dual (rate and temporal coding system. To investigate the phenomenon of dual coding in the hippocampus, we examine a spiking recurrent network model with theta coded neural dynamics and an STDP rule that mediates rate-coded Hebbian learning when pre- and post-synaptic firing is stochastic. We demonstrate that this plasticity rule can generate both symmetric and asymmetric connections between neurons that fire at concurrent or successive theta phase, respectively, and subsequently produce both pattern completion and sequence prediction from partial cues. This unifies previously disparate auto- and hetero-associative network models of hippocampal function and provides them with a firmer basis in modern neurobiology. Furthermore, the encoding and reactivation of activity in mutually exciting Hebbian cell assemblies demonstrated here is believed to represent a fundamental mechanism of cognitive processing in the brain.

  10. Acting in solidarity: Testing an extended dual pathway model of collective action by bystander group members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saab, Rim; Tausch, Nicole; Spears, Russell; Cheung, Wing-Yee

    2015-09-01

    We examined predictors of collective action among bystander group members in solidarity with a disadvantaged group by extending the dual pathway model of collective action, which proposes one efficacy-based and one emotion-based path to collective action (Van Zomeren, Spears, Fischer, & Leach, 2004). Based on two proposed functions of social identity performance (Klein, Spears, & Reicher, 2007), we distinguished between the efficacy of collective action at consolidating the identity of a protest movement and its efficacy at achieving social change (political efficacy). We expected identity consolidation efficacy to positively predict collective action tendencies directly and indirectly via political efficacy. We also expected collective action tendencies to be positively predicted by moral outrage and by sympathy in response to disadvantaged outgroup's suffering. These hypotheses were supported in two surveys examining intentions to protest for Palestine in Britain (Study 1), and intentions to attend the June 4th vigil in Hong Kong to commemorate the Tiananmen massacre among a sample of Hong Kong citizens (Study 2). The contributions of these findings to research on the dual pathway model of collective action and the different functions of collective action are discussed.

  11. Model Algorithm Research on Cooling Path Control of Hot-rolled Dual-phase Steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-qing XU; Xiao-dong HAO; Shi-guang ZHOU; Chang-sheng LIU; Qi-fu ZHANG

    2016-01-01

    With the development of advanced high strength steel,especially for dual-phase steel,the model algorithm for cooling control after hot rolling has to achieve the targeted coiling temperature control at the location of downcoiler whilst maintaining the cooling path control based on strip microstructure along the whole cooling section.A cooling path control algorithm was proposed for the laminar cooling process as a solution to practical difficulties associated with the realization of the thermal cycle during cooling process.The heat conduction equation coupled with the carbon diffusion equation with moving boundary was employed in order to simulate temperature change and phase transfor-mation kinetics,making it possible to observe the temperature field and the phase fraction of the strip in real time. On this basis,an optimization method was utilized for valve settings to ensure the minimum deviations between the predicted and actual cooling path of the strip,taking into account the constraints of the cooling equipment′s specific capacity,cooling line length,etc.Results showed that the model algorithm was able to achieve the online cooling path control for dual-phase steel.

  12. An analytical model for cumulative infiltration into a dual-permeability media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrard, Xavier; Lassabatere, Laurent; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; Simunek, Jiri

    2010-05-01

    Modeling of water infiltration into the vadose zone is important for better understanding of movement of water-transported contaminants. There is a great need to take into account the soil heterogeneity and, in particular, the presence of macropores or cracks that could generate preferential flow. Several mathematical models have been proposed to describe unsaturated flow through heterogeneous soils. The dual-permeability model assumes that flow is governed by Richards equation in both porous regions (matrix and fractures). Water can be exchanged between the two regions following a first-order rate law. A previous study showed that the influence of the hydraulic conductivity of the matrix/macropore interface had a little influence on cumulative infiltration at the soil surface. As a result, one could consider the surface infiltration for a specific case of no water exchange between the fracture and matrix regions (a case of zero interfacial hydraulic conductivity). In such a case, water infiltration can be considered to be the sum of the cumulative infiltrations into the matrix and the fractures. On the basis of analytical models for each sub domain (matrix and fractures), an analytical model is proposed for the entire dual-porosity system. A sensitivity analysis is performed to characterize the influence of several factors, such as the saturated hydraulic conductivity ratio, the water pressure scale parameter ratio, and the saturated volumetric water content scale ratio, on the total cumulative infiltration. Such an analysis greatly helps in quantifying the impact of macroporosity and fractures on water infiltration, which can be of great interest for hydrological models.

  13. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinical Trial of a Dual-Processing Treatment Protocol for Substance-Dependent Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matto, Holly C.; Hadjiyane, Maria C.; Kost, Michelle; Marshall, Jennifer; Wiley, Joseph; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; Khatiwada, Manish; VanMeter, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Empirical evidence suggests substance dependence creates stress system dysregulation which, in turn, may limit the efficacy of verbal-based treatment interventions, as the recovering brain may not be functionally capable of executive level processing. Treatment models that target implicit functioning are necessary. Methods: An RCT was…

  14. Two-Mode Resonator and Contact Model for Standing Wave Piezomotor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, B.; Blanke, Mogens; Helbo, J.

    2001-01-01

    The paper presents a model for a standing wave piezoelectric motor with a two bending mode resonator. The resonator is modelled using Hamilton's principle and the Rayleigh-Ritz method. The contact is modelled using the Lagrange Multiplier method under the assumption of slip and it is showed how...... to solve the set of differential-algebraic equations. Detailed simulations show resonance frequencies as function of the piezoelement's position, tip trajectories and contact forces. The paper demonstrates that contact stiffness and stick should be included in such model to obtain physically realistic...

  15. Behavioural modelling and system-level simulation of micromechanical beam resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khine, Lynn; Palaniapan, Moorthi

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents a behavioural modelling technique for micromechanical beam resonators that enables the simulation of MEMS resonator model in Analog Hardware Description Language (AHDL) format within a system-level circuit simulation. A 1.13 MHz clamped-clamped beam and a 10.4 MHz free-free beam resonators have been modelled into Verilog-A code and successfully simulated with Spectre in Cadence. Analysis has shown that both models behave well and their electrical characteristics are in agreement with the theory.

  16. Environmental Light and Its Relationship with Electromagnetic Resonances of Biomolecular Interactions, as Predicted by the Resonant Recognition Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Cosic

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The meaning and influence of light to biomolecular interactions, and consequently to health, has been analyzed using the Resonant Recognition Model (RRM. The RRM proposes that biological processes/interactions are based on electromagnetic resonances between interacting biomolecules at specific electromagnetic frequencies within the infra-red, visible and ultra-violet frequency ranges, where each interaction can be identified by the certain frequency critical for resonant activation of specific biological activities of proteins and DNA. We found that: (1 the various biological interactions could be grouped according to their resonant frequency into super families of these functions, enabling simpler analyses of these interactions and consequently analyses of influence of electromagnetic frequencies to health; (2 the RRM spectrum of all analyzed biological functions/interactions is the same as the spectrum of the sun light on the Earth, which is in accordance with fact that life is sustained by the sun light; (3 the water is transparent to RRM frequencies, enabling proteins and DNA to interact without loss of energy; (4 the spectrum of some artificial sources of light, as opposed to the sun light, do not cover the whole RRM spectrum, causing concerns for disturbance to some biological functions and consequently we speculate that it can influence health.

  17. The role of nicotine in smoking: a dual-reinforcement model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caggiula, Anthony R; Donny, Eric C; Palmatier, Matthew I; Liu, Xiu; Chaudhri, Nadia; Sved, Alan F

    2009-01-01

    Models of intravenous nicotine self-administration in laboratory animals are being used to investigate the behavioral and neurobiological consequences of nicotine reinforcement, and to aid in the development of novel pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation. Central to these models is the principle of primary reinforcement, which posits that response-contingent presentation of a primary reinforcer, nicotine, engenders robust operant behavior, whereas response-independent drug delivery does not. This dictum of nicotine as a primary reinforcer has been widely used to explain why people smoke tobacco-smoking results in the rapid delivery of nicotine to the brain, setting up a cascade of neurobiological processes that strengthen subsequent smoking behavior. However, there is mounting evidence that the primary reinforcement model of nicotine self-administration fails to fully explain existing data from both the animal self-administration and human smoking literatures. We have recently proposed a "dual reinforcement" model to more fully capture the relationship between nicotine and self-administration, including smoking. Briefly, the "dual reinforcement" model posits that nicotine acts as both a primary reinforcer and a reinforcement enhancer. The latter action of nicotine had originally been uncovered by showing that a reinforcing VS, which accompanies nicotine delivery, synergizes with nicotine in the acquisition and maintenance of self-administration, and that this synergism can be reproduced by combining operant responding for the reinforcing stimulus with non-contingent (response-independent) nicotine. Thus, self-administration (and smoking) is sustained by three actions: (1) nicotine, acting as a primary reinforcer, can sustain behavior that leads to its delivery; (2) nicotine, acting as a primary reinforcer, can establish neutral environmental stimuli as conditioned reinforcers through Pavlovian associations; and (3) nicotine, acting as a reinforcement enhancer

  18. New normative standards of conditional reasoning and the dual-source model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singmann, Henrik; Klauer, Karl Christoph; Over, David

    2014-01-01

    There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning toward Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998) for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer and Kleiter, 2005, 2010) exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer et al., 2010) is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches) and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task.

  19. New Normative Standards of Conditional Reasoning and the Dual-Source Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik eSingmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There has been a major shift in research on human reasoning towards Bayesian and probabilistic approaches, which has been called a new paradigm. The new paradigm sees most everyday and scientific reasoning as taking place in a context of uncertainty, and inference is from uncertain beliefs and not from arbitrary assumptions. In this manuscript we present an empirical test of normative standards in the new paradigm using a novel probabilized conditional reasoning task. Our results indicated that for everyday conditional with at least a weak causal connection between antecedent and consequent only the conditional probability of the consequent given antecedent contributes unique variance to predicting the probability of conditional, but not the probability of the conjunction, nor the probability of the material conditional. Regarding normative accounts of reasoning, we found significant evidence that participants' responses were confidence preserving (i.e., p-valid in the sense of Adams, 1998 for MP inferences, but not for MT inferences. Additionally, only for MP inferences and to a lesser degree for DA inferences did the rate of responses inside the coherence intervals defined by mental probability logic (Pfeifer & Kleiter, 2005, 2010 exceed chance levels. In contrast to the normative accounts, the dual-source model (Klauer, Beller, & Hütter, 2010 is a descriptive model. It posits that participants integrate their background knowledge (i.e., the type of information primary to the normative approaches and their subjective probability that a conclusion is seen as warranted based on its logical form. Model fits showed that the dual-source model, which employed participants' responses to a deductive task with abstract contents to estimate the form-based component, provided as good an account of the data as a model that solely used data from the probabilized conditional reasoning task.

  20. The role of professional and team commitment in nurse-physician collaboration: A dual identity model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caricati, Luca; Guberti, Monica; Borgognoni, Patrizia; Prandi, Carmen; Spaggiari, Ivana; Vezzani, Emanuela; Iemmi, Marina

    2015-01-01

    Nurse-physician collaboration involves healthcare operators from different professions working together. The dual identity model predicts that nurse-physician interprofessional collaboration could improve if these operators feel they belong to both their professional category and care unit. This study tested this prediction by analyzing the effect of professional and team commitments on interprofessional collaboration between nurses and physicians in a hospital based in Northern Italy. A cross-section questionnaire survey was administered to 270 nurses and 95 physicians. Results indicate that interprofessional collaboration is positively affected by team commitment, while professional commitment had no effect. In accordance with the dual identity model, results indicate that interprofessional collaboration is higher when: (i) both professional and team commitment is high, and (ii) when team commitment is high and professional commitment is low. These results support dual identity model predictions and suggest that interprofessional collaboration can be increased by bolstering both team and professional commitment of nurses and physicians.

  1. The prediction of total skeletal muscle mass in a Caucasian population - comparison of Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisler, Corinna; Pourhassan, Maryam; Braun, Wiebke; Schweitzer, Lisa; Müller, Manfred J

    2017-03-01

    Dual-energy X-ray (DXA) is an alternative to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure skeletal muscle mass. DXA assesses lean body mass (LBM), and MRI measures skeletal muscle mass (SMM). Kim et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 378; J Appl Physiol (1985) 2004; 97: 655) developed MRI-based algorithms to estimate whole-body SMM by DXA. These algorithms were based on an ethnically mixed study population (Kim et al., Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 76: 378; J Appl Physiol (1985) 2004; 97: 655). It is unclear whether Kim's algorithms are accurate in an exclusive Caucasian population. The aim of our study was to validate Kim's equation in a Caucasian population of 346 subjects. SMMMRI was assessed using MRI, and LBM and BMCDXA were measured by DXA and fat mass (FMADP ) by air-displacement plethysmographie (ADP). SMMMRI and predicted SMM were highly correlated (r = 0·944; P<0·05). The standard error of estimate of the regression equation was 2·4 kg. However, Bland-Altman plots showed a significant (P<0·001) systematic bias between SMMMRI (median 25·1 kg; IQ 20·2-31·1 kg) and predicted SMM (median 26·3 kg; IQ 22·6-33·0 kg), overestimating SMM by 9·8%. Multiple regression analyses showed that weight explained 4·4% of the variance in the differences between SMMMRI and predicted SMM with the major part unexplained. Kim's algorithm has a systematic unexplained bias and is not recommended in Caucasians.

  2. Development of Molecular Probes Based on Iron Oxide Nanoparticles for in Vivo Magnetic Resonance/Photoacoustic Dual Imaging of Target Molecules in Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Kohei

    2017-01-01

     Molecular imaging probes that enable seamless diagnoses of tumors in the preoperative and intraoperative stages could lead to surgical resection of tumors based on highly accurate diagnoses. Because iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have high proton relaxivity and high molar extinction coefficients suitable for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and photoacoustic imaging, respectively, we planned to develop molecular imaging probes applicable to the pre- (MRI) and intraoperative (photoacoustic imaging) stages. Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (EGFR2; HER2) was selected as a target molecule, and we designed IONPs (20, 50, and 100 nm) conjugated with anti-HER2 moieties [whole IgG (trastuzumab), single-chain fragment variable (scFv), and peptide] for HER2-targeted tumor imaging. Among the probes tested, scFv-conjugated IONPs (scFv-IONPs) (20 nm) exhibited the highest binding affinity to HER2 (Kd=0.01 nM). An in vivo biodistribution study using (111)In-labeled probes demonstrated that more scFv-IONPs (20 nm) accumulated in HER2-positive than in HER2-negative tumors, suggesting that the uptake of scFv-IONPs is HER2 specific. The scFv-IONPs (20 nm) showed high proton relaxivity and a probe concentration-dependent photoacoustic signal. In vivo MR/photoacoustic imaging studies using scFv-IONPs (20 nm) facilitated HER2-specific visualization of tumors. Furthermore, an iron-staining study demonstrated that the uptake of scFv-IONPs was notable only in HER2-positive tumors. These results suggest that scFv-IONPs (20 nm) may be useful for MR/photoacoustic dual imaging, which could achieve seamless diagnoses in the preoperative and intraoperative stages.

  3. Low dose prospective ECG-gated delayed enhanced dual-source computed tomography in reperfused acute myocardial infarction comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Rui, E-mail: rui_wang1979@yahoo.cn [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Zhang Zhaoqi, E-mail: zhaoqi5000@vip.sohu.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Xu Lei, E-mail: leixu2001@hotmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Ma Qin, E-mail: tel1367@gmail.com [Department of Emergency, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); He Yi, E-mail: heyi139@sina.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Lu Dongxu, E-mail: larry.hi@163.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Yu Wei, E-mail: yuwei02@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China); Fan Zhanming, E-mail: fanzm120@tom.com [Department of Radiology, Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, 100029 Beijing (China)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To determine whether prospective electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated delayed contrast-enhanced dual-source computed tomography (DCE-DSCT) can accurately delineate the extension of myocardial infarction (MI) compared with delayed enhanced cardiac MR (DE-MR). Material and methods: Eleven patients were examined using dual-source CT and cardiac MR in 2 weeks after a first reperfused MI. DCE-DSCT scan protocol was performed with prospective ECG-gating sequential scan model 7 min after contrast administration. In a 17-model, infarcted myocardium detected by DE-MR was categorized as transmural and subendocardial extension. Segment of infarcted location and graded transmurality were compared between DCE-MDCT and DE-MR. Results: In all eleven patients, diagnostic quality was obtained for depicting delayed enhanced myocardium. Agreement between DCE-DSCT and MR was good on myocardial segment based comparison (kappa = 0.85, p < 0.001), and on transmural and subendocardial infarction type comparison (kappa = 0.82, p < 0.001, kappa = 0.52, p < 0.001, respectively). CT value was higher on infarcted region than that of normal region (100.02 {+-} 9.57 HU vs. 72.63 {+-} 7.32 HU, p < 0.001). Radiation dose of prospectively ECG-gating protocol were 0.99 {+-} 0.08 mSv (0.82-1.19 mSv). Conclusions: Prospective ECG-gated DCE-DSCT can accurately assess the extension and the patterns of myocardial infarction with low radiation dose.

  4. Activation and Binding in Verbal Working Memory: A Dual-Process Model for the Recognition of Nonwords

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberauer, Klauss; Lange, Elke B.

    2009-01-01

    The article presents a mathematical model of short-term recognition based on dual-process models and the three-component theory of working memory [Oberauer, K. (2002). Access to information in working memory: Exploring the focus of attention. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 28", 411-421]. Familiarity arises…

  5. Generalization of a 3-D Acoustic Resonator Model for the Simulation of Spherical Enclosures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dutilleux Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A rectangular enclosure has such an even distribution of resonances that it can be accurately and efficiently modelled using a feedback delay network. Conversely, a nonrectangular shape such as a sphere has a distribution of resonances that challenges the construction of an efficient model. This work proposes an extension of the already known feedback delay network structure to model the resonant properties of a sphere. A specific frequency distribution of resonances can be approximated, up to a certain frequency, by inserting an allpass filter of moderate order after each delay line of a feedback delay network. The structure used for rectangular boxes is therefore augmented with a set of allpass filters allowing parametric control over the enclosure size and the boundary properties. This work was motivated by informal listening tests which have shown that it is possible to identify a basic shape just from the distribution of its audible resonances.

  6. A statistical model for combustion resonance from a DI diesel engine with applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodisco, Timothy; Low Choy, Samantha; Masri, Assaad; Brown, Richard J.

    2015-08-01

    Introduced in this paper is a Bayesian model for isolating the resonant frequency from combustion chamber resonance. The model shown in this paper focused on characterising the initial rise in the resonant frequency to investigate the rise of in-cylinder bulk temperature associated with combustion. By resolving the model parameters, it is possible to determine: the start of pre-mixed combustion, the start of diffusion combustion, the initial resonant frequency, the resonant frequency as a function of crank angle, the in-cylinder bulk temperature as a function of crank angle and the trapped mass as a function of crank angle. The Bayesian method allows for individual cycles to be examined without cycle-averaging-allowing inter-cycle variability studies. Results are shown for a turbo-charged, common-rail compression ignition engine run at 2000 rpm and full load.

  7. Research on the Complexity of Dual-Channel Supply Chain Model in Competitive Retailing Service Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Junhai; Li, Ting; Ren, Wenbo

    2017-06-01

    This paper examines the optimal decisions of dual-channel game model considering the inputs of retailing service. We analyze how adjustment speed of service inputs affect the system complexity and market performance, and explore the stability of the equilibrium points by parameter basin diagrams. And chaos control is realized by variable feedback method. The numerical simulation shows that complex behavior would trigger the system to become unstable, such as double period bifurcation and chaos. We measure the performances of the model in different periods by analyzing the variation of average profit index. The theoretical results show that the percentage share of the demand and cross-service coefficients have important influence on the stability of the system and its feasible basin of attraction.

  8. Predator-prey model for the self-organisation of stochastic oscillators in dual populations

    CERN Document Server

    Moradi, Sara; Gürcan, Özgür

    2015-01-01

    A predator-prey model of dual populations with stochastic oscillators is presented. A linear cross-coupling between the two populations is introduced following the coupling between the motions of a Wilberforce pendulum in two dimensions: one in the longitudinal and the other in torsional plain. Within each population a Kuramoto type competition between the phases is assumed. Thus, the synchronisation state of the whole system is controlled by these two types of competitions. The results of the numerical simulations show that by adding the linear cross-coupling interactions predator-prey oscillations between the two populations appear which results in self-regulation of the system by a transfer of synchrony between the two populations. The model represents several important features of the dynamical interplay between the drift wave and zonal flow turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas, and a novel interpretation of the coupled dynamics of drift wave-zonal flow turbulence using synchronisation of stochasti...

  9. A stochastic inventory management model for a dual sourcing supply chain with disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iakovou, Eleftherios; Vlachos, Dimitrios; Xanthopoulos, Anastasios

    2010-03-01

    As companies continue to globalise their operations and outsource significant portion of their value chain activities, they often end up relying heavily on order replenishments from distant suppliers. The explosion in long-distance sourcing is exposing supply chains and shareholder value at ever increasing operational and disruption risks. It is well established, both in academia and in real-world business environments, that resource flexibility is an effective method for hedging against supply chain disruption risks. In this contextual framework, we propose a single period stochastic inventory decision-making model that could be employed for capturing the trade-off between inventory policies and disruption risks for an unreliable dual sourcing supply network for both the capacitated and uncapacitated cases. Through the developed model, we obtain some important managerial insights and evaluate the merit of contingency strategies in managing uncertain supply chains.

  10. Phase diagram of the two-dimensional O(3) model from dual lattice simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Bruckmann, Falk; Kloiber, Thomas; Sulejmanpasic, Tin

    2016-01-01

    We have simulated the asymptotically free two-dimensional O(3) model at nonzero chemical potential using the model's dual representation. We first demonstrate how the latter solves the sign (complex action) problem. The system displays a crossover at nonzero temperature, while at zero temperature it undergoes a quantum phase transition when mu reaches the particle mass (generated dynamically similar to QCD). The density follows a square root behavior universal for repulsive bosons in one spatial dimension. We have also measured the spin stiffness, known to be sensitive to the spatial correlation length, using different scaling trajectories to zero temperature and infinite size. It points to a dynamical critical exponent z=2. Comparisons to thermodynamic Bethe ansaetze are shown as well.

  11. Semi-numerical solution for a fractal telegraphic dual-porosity fluid flow model

    CERN Document Server

    Herrera-Hernández, E C; Luis, D P; Hernández, D; Camacho-Velázquez, R G

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a semi-numerical solution of a fractal telegraphic dual-porosity fluid flow model. It combines Laplace transform and finite difference schemes. The Laplace transform handles the time variable whereas the finite difference method deals with the spatial coordinate. This semi-numerical scheme is not restricted by space discretization and allows the computation of a solution at any time without compromising numerical stability or the mass conservation principle. Our formulation results in a non-analytically-solvable second-order differential equation whose numerical treatment outcomes in a tri-diagonal linear algebraic system. Moreover, we describe comparisons between semi-numerical and semi-analytical solutions for particular cases. Results agree well with those from semi-analytic solutions. Furthermore, we expose a parametric analysis from the coupled model in order to show the effects of relevant parameters on pressure profiles and flow rates for the case where neither analytic nor sem...

  12. Low Activation Joining of SiC/SiC Composites for Fusion Applications: Thermomechanical Modeling of Dual-Phase Microstructures and Dissimilar Material Joints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Ba Nghiep; Henager, Charles H.; Kurtz, Richard J.; Ferraris, M.; Katoh, Yutai

    2016-09-30

    Finite element (FE) continuum damage mechanics (CDM) models have been developed to simulate and model dual-phase joints and cracked joints for improved analysis of SiC materials in nuclear environments. This report extends the analysis from the last reporting cycle by including preliminary thermomechanical analyses of cracked joints and implementation of dual-phase damage models.

  13. Model of the transverse modes of stable and unstable porro–prism resonators using symmetry considerations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Burger, L

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple model of a Porro prism laser resonator has been found to correctly predict the formation of the “petal” mode patterns typical of these resonators. A geometrical analysis of the petals suggests that these petals are the lowest−order modes...

  14. Bag model of hadrons, dual QCD thermodynamics and Quark-Gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Chandola, H C; Dehnen, H

    2015-01-01

    Using the grand canonical ensemble formulation of a multi-particle statistical system, the thermodynamical description of the dual QCD has been presented in terms of the bag model of hadrons and analyzed for the quark-gluon plasma phase of hadronic matter. The dual QCD bag construction has been shown to lead to the radial pressure on the bag surface in terms of the vector glueball masses of the magnetically condensed QCD vacuum. Constructing the grand canonical partition function to deal with the quark-gluon plasma phase of the non-strange hadrons, the energy density and the plasma pressure have been derived and used to understand the dynamics of the associated phase transition. The critical temperature for QGP-hadron phase transition has been derived and numerically estimated by using various thermodynamic considerations. A comparison of the values of the critical temperatures for QGP-hadron phase transition with those obtained for the deconfinement-phase transition, has been shown to lead to the relaxation ...

  15. CT/FMT dual-model imaging of breast cancer based on peptide-lipid nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoqiang; Lin, Qiaoya; Lian, Lichao; Qian, Yuan; Lu, Lisen; Zhang, Zhihong

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most harmful cancers in human. Its early diagnosis is expected to improve the patients' survival rate. X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been widely used in tumor detection for obtaining three-dimentional information. Fluorescence Molecular Tomography (FMT) imaging combined with near-infrared fluorescent dyes provides a powerful tool for the acquisition of molecular biodistribution information in deep tissues. Thus, the combination of CT and FMT imaging modalities allows us to better differentiate diseased tissues from normal tissues. Here we developed a tumor-targeting nanoparticle for dual-modality imaging based on a biocompatible HDL-mimicking peptide-phospholipid scaffold (HPPS) nanocarrier. By incorporation of CT contrast agents (iodinated oil) and far-infrared fluorescent dyes (DiR-BOA) into the hydrophobic core of HPPS, we obtained the FMT and CT signals simultaneously. Increased accumulation of the nanoparticles in the tumor lesions was achieved through the effect of the tumor-targeting peptide on the surface of nanoparticle. It resulted in excellent contrast between lesions and normal tissues. Together, the abilities to sensitively separate the lesions from adjacent normal tissues with the aid of a FMT/CT dual-model imaging approach make the targeting nanoparticles a useful tool for the diagnostics of breast cancer.

  16. Treatment of Murine Tumor Models of Breast Adenocarcinoma by Continuous Dual-Frequency Ultrasound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hoshang Barati

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acoustic transient cavitation is the primary mechanism of sonochemical reaction and has potential use for tumor treatment. In this study, the in vivo anti-tumor effect of simultaneous dual-frequency ultrasound at low-level intensity (ISATA < 6 W/cm2 was investigated in a spontaneous murine model of breast adenocarcinoma in Balb/c mice. Materials and Methods: Forty tumor bearing mice were divided into four groups (10 in each group. The treated groups received 15 or 30 minutes of combined dual-frequency ultrasound in continuous mode (1 MHzcon + 150 kHzcon respectively. The control and the sham groups contained the untreated mice. The tumor growth delay parameters including tumor volume, relative tumor volume, T5 and T2 (the needed time for each tumor to reach 5 and 2 times the initial tumor volume, respectively, survival period and percent of tumor growth inhibition ratio were measured on different days after treatment. Results: The results showed that the 30 min treatment was effective in tumor growth delay and percent of tumor growth inhibitory ratio compared to the sham and the control groups. The tumor volume growth and relative volume of tumors in the same treated group showed an anti-tumor effect relative to the sham and the control groups. There was a significant difference in tumor volume growth between this 30 min treatment group and the sham group 12 days after treatment (p-value

  17. Non-Abelian duality from vortex moduli: a dual model of color-confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Eto, M; Konishi, K; Marmorini, G; Nitta, M; Ohashi, K; Vinci, W; Yokoi, N

    2006-01-01

    It is argued that the dual transformation of non-Abelian monopoles occurring in a system with gauge symmetry breaking G \\longrightarrow H is to be defined by setting the low-energy H system in Higgs phase, so that the dual system is in confinement phase. The transformation law of the monopoles follows from that of monopole-vortex mixed configurations in the system (with a large hierarchy of energy scales, v_1 \\gg v_2) G {\\stackrel {v_1} {\\longrightarrow}} H {\\stackrel {v_2} {\\longrightarrow}} \\emptyset, under an unbroken, exact color-flavor diagonal symmetry H_{C+F} \\sim {\\tilde H}. The transformation property among the regular monopoles characterized by \\pi_2(G/H), follows from that among the non-Abelian vortices with flux quantized according to \\pi_1(H), via the isomorphism \\pi_1(G) \\sim {\\pi_1(H) \\over \\pi_2(G/H)}. Our idea is tested against the concrete models -- softly-broken {\\cal N}=2 supersymmetric SU(N), SO(N) and USp(2N) theories, with appropriate number of flavors. The results obtained in the semic...

  18. A dual-process model of early substance use: tests in two diverse populations of adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Thomas A; Bantum, Erin O'Carroll; Pokhrel, Pallav; Maddock, Jay E; Ainette, Michael G; Morehouse, Ellen; Fenster, Bonnie

    2013-05-01

    We tested a dual-process model based on behavioral and emotional regulation constructs, which posits that good self-control and poor regulation make independent contributions and have different types of pathways to outcomes. The utility of the model for predicting substance use was tested in two diverse populations of younger adolescents. A survey was administered in classrooms to middle-school students in Westchester County, New York (N = 601) and Honolulu, Hawaii (N = 881). The New York sample was 8% African American, 5% Asian American, 47% Caucasian, 31% Hispanic, and 9% other ethnicity. The Hawaii sample was 21% Asian American, 8% Caucasian, 26% Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 34% Filipino, and 10% other ethnicity. Structural equation modeling analyses tested pathways from the four regulation variables through six hypothesized mediators to a criterion construct of substance use (tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana). Results were replicated across samples and were consistent with prediction. Unique contributions were found for good self-control and poor regulation, including both behavioral and emotional aspects. Good self-control had an inverse effect on substance use primarily through relations to higher levels of protective factors (e.g., academic competence). Poor regulation independently had a risk-promoting effect on substance use through relations to higher levels of risk factors (e.g., negative life events). Two field studies showed the dual-process model is robust across different populations. Substance prevention programs should consider approaches for enhancing good self-control as well as procedures for reducing poor regulation and minimizing its impact. Extensions to health behaviors including dietary intake and physical activity are discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Self-dual soliton solutions in a Chern-Simons-CP(1) model with a nonstandard kinetic term

    CERN Document Server

    Casana, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    A generalization of the Chern-Simons-CP(1) model is considered by introducing a nonstandard kinetic term. For a particular case, of this nonstandard kinetic term, we show that the model support self-dual Bogomol'nyi equations. The BPS energy has a bound proportional to the sum of the magnetic flux and the CP(1) topological charge. The magnetic flux is a finite quantity proportional to the potential coupling constant and to the effective radius of the topological defect. The self-dual equations are solved analytically and verified numerically.

  20. Using Micromechanical Resonators to Measure Rheological Properties and Alcohol Content of Model Solutions and Commercial Beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart W. Hoogenboom

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks.

  1. Using micromechanical resonators to measure rheological properties and alcohol content of model solutions and commercial beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxman, Rosemary; Stinson, Jake; Dejardin, Anna; McKendry, Rachel A; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2012-01-01

    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of both model solutions and commercial beverages such as beer, wine and liquor. This demonstrates how micromechanical resonators can be used for quality control of every-day drinks.

  2. Dual pairs of gauged linear sigma models and derived equivalences of Calabi-Yau threefolds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardus, Andreas; Jockers, Hans

    2017-04-01

    In this work we study the phase structure of skew symplectic sigma models, which are a certain class of two-dimensional N =(2 , 2) non-Abelian gauged linear sigma models. At low energies some of them flow to non-linear sigma models with Calabi-Yau target spaces, which emerge from non-Abelian strong coupling dynamics. The observed phase structure results in a non-trivial duality proposal among skew symplectic sigma models and connects non-complete intersection Calabi-Yau threefolds-that are non-birational among another-in a common quantum Kähler moduli space. As a consequence we find non-trivial identifications of spectra of topological B-branes, which from a modern algebraic geometry perspective imply derived equivalences among Calabi-Yau varieties. To further support our proposals, we calculate the two sphere partition function of skew symplectic sigma models to determine geometric invariants, which confirm the anticipated Calabi-Yau threefold phases. We show that the two sphere partition functions of a pair of dual skew symplectic sigma models agree in a non-trivial fashion. To carry out these calculations, we develop a systematic approach to study higher-dimensional Mellin-Barnes type integrals. In particular, these techniques admit the evaluation of two sphere partition functions for gauged linear sigma models with higher rank gauge groups, but are applicable in other contexts as well.

  3. Macro-level pedestrian and bicycle crash analysis: Incorporating spatial spillover effects in dual state count models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Qing; Lee, Jaeyoung; Eluru, Naveen; Abdel-Aty, Mohamed

    2016-08-01

    This study attempts to explore the viability of dual-state models (i.e., zero-inflated and hurdle models) for traffic analysis zones (TAZs) based pedestrian and bicycle crash frequency analysis. Additionally, spatial spillover effects are explored in the models by employing exogenous variables from neighboring zones. The dual-state models such as zero-inflated negative binomial and hurdle negative binomial models (with and without spatial effects) are compared with the conventional single-state model (i.e., negative binomial). The model comparison for pedestrian and bicycle crashes revealed that the models that considered observed spatial effects perform better than the models that did not consider the observed spatial effects. Across the models with spatial spillover effects, the dual-state models especially zero-inflated negative binomial model offered better performance compared to single-state models. Moreover, the model results clearly highlighted the importance of various traffic, roadway, and sociodemographic characteristics of the TAZ as well as neighboring TAZs on pedestrian and bicycle crash frequency.

  4. Modeling depth-variant and domain-specific sorption and biodegradation in dual-permeability media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Chittaranjan; Vogel, Tomas; Dusek, Jaromir

    2004-05-01

    A dual-permeability model (S_1D_DUAL) was developed to simulate the transport of land-applied pesticides in macroporous media. In this model, one flow domain was represented by the bulk matrix and the other by the preferential flow domain (PFD) where water and chemicals move at faster rates. The model assumed the validity of Darcian flow and the advective-dispersive solute transport in each of the two domains with inter-domain transfer of water and solutes due to pressure and concentration gradients. It was conceptualized that sorption and biodegradation rates vary with soil depth as well as in each of the two flow domains. In addition to equilibrium sorption, kinetic sorption was simulated in the PFD. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the combined effects of preferential flow, depth- and domain-variant sorption, and degradation on leaching of two pesticides: one with strong sorption potential (trifluralin) and the other with weak sorption potential (atrazine). Simulation results for a test case showed that water flux in the PFD was three times more than in the matrix for selected storm events. When equilibrium sorption was considered, the simulated profile of trifluralin in each domain was similar; however, the atrazine profile was deeper in the PFD than in the bulk matrix under episodic storm events. With an assumption of negligible sorption in the PFD, both the atrazine and the trifluralin profiles moved twice deeper into the PFD. The simulated concentrations of the chemicals were several orders higher in the PFD than in the matrix, even at deeper depths. The volume fraction of the macropores and the sorption and biodegradation properties of the chemicals could also affect the amount of pesticides leaving the root zone. For an intense storm event, slow sorption reaction rates in the PFD produced higher breakthrough concentrations of atrazine at the bottom of the simulated soil profile, thus posing the risk for breakthrough of chemicals from the root zone.

  5. Monte Carlo modeling of the dual-mode regime in quantum-well and quantum-dot semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusseau, Laurent; Philippe, Fabrice; Disanto, Filippo

    2014-03-10

    Monte Carlo markovian models of a dual-mode semiconductor laser with quantum well (QW) or quantum dot (QD) active regions are proposed. Accounting for carriers and photons as particles that may exchange energy in the course of time allows an ab initio description of laser dynamics such as the mode competition and intrinsic laser noise. We used these models to evaluate the stability of the dual-mode regime when laser characteristics are varied: mode gains and losses, non-radiative recombination rates, intraband relaxation time, capture time in QD, transfer of excitation between QD via the wetting layer... As a major result, a possible steady-state dual-mode regime is predicted for specially designed QD semiconductor lasers thereby acting as a CW microwave or terahertz-beating source whereas it does not occur for QW lasers.

  6. Assessing the performance of a permeable reactive barrier-aquifer system using a dual-domain solute transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Sheng; Hsu, Shao-Yiu; Li, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Chen-Wuing

    2016-12-01

    Transport behavior through a permeable reactive barrier (PRB)-aquifer system is complicated because of the different physical and chemical properties of the PRB and the aquifer. Dual-domain solute transport models are efficient tools for better understanding the various processes and mechanisms of reactive solute transport through a PRB-aquifer system. This study develops a dual-domain analytical model to assess the physical and chemical processes of two-dimensional reactive solute transport through a PRB-aquifer system. The dispersion processes of a dual-domain system on the solute transport are investigated. The results show that the dispersion parameters in a dual-domain system synchronously govern the dynamic shape of the contaminant plume. The low longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients of a dual-domain system may restrict the spreading of the plume and elevate the plume's concentration level. The derived analytical solution is applied to explore how the different reactive transport processes affect the performance of a PRB-aquifer system. The results show that the first-order decay rate constant of the PRB has a critical effect on the performance of the PRB-aquifer system, whereas the effects of the physical dispersion properties on PRB performance are less significant.

  7. Research Article. Improved Dual Frequency PPP Model Using GPS and BeiDou Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afifi A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new dual-frequency precise point positioning (PPP model, which combines GPS and BeiDou observations. Combining GPS and BeiDou observations in a PPP model offers more visible satellites to the user, which is expected to enhance the satellite geometry and the overall PPP solution in comparison with GPSonly PPP solution. However, combining different GNSS constellations introduces additional biases, which require rigorous modelling, including GNSS time offset and hardware delays. In this research, ionosphere-free linear combination PPP model is developed. The additional biases, which result from combining the GPS and BeiDou observables, are lumped into a new unknown parameter identified as the inter-system bias. Natural Resources Canada’s GPSPace PPP software is modified to enable a combined GPS/BeiDou PPP solution and to handle the newly introduced biases. A total of four data sets at four IGS stations are processed to verify the developed PPP model. Precise satellite orbit and clock products from the IGS-MGEX network are used to correct both of the GPS and BeiDou measurements. It is shown that a sub-decimeter positioning accuracy level and 25% reduction in the solution convergence time can be achieved with combining GPS and Bei-Dou observables in a PPP model, in comparison with the GPS-only PPP solution.

  8. Research Article. Improved Dual Frequency PPP Model Using GPS and BeiDou Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, A.; El-Rabbany, A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper introduces a new dual-frequency precise point positioning (PPP) model, which combines GPS and BeiDou observations. Combining GPS and BeiDou observations in a PPP model offers more visible satellites to the user, which is expected to enhance the satellite geometry and the overall PPP solution in comparison with GPSonly PPP solution. However, combining different GNSS constellations introduces additional biases, which require rigorous modelling, including GNSS time offset and hardware delays. In this research, ionosphere-free linear combination PPP model is developed. The additional biases, which result from combining the GPS and BeiDou observables, are lumped into a new unknown parameter identified as the inter-system bias. Natural Resources Canada's GPSPace PPP software is modified to enable a combined GPS/BeiDou PPP solution and to handle the newly introduced biases. A total of four data sets at four IGS stations are processed to verify the developed PPP model. Precise satellite orbit and clock products from the IGS-MGEX network are used to correct both of the GPS and BeiDou measurements. It is shown that a sub-decimeter positioning accuracy level and 25% reduction in the solution convergence time can be achieved with combining GPS and Bei-Dou observables in a PPP model, in comparison with the GPS-only PPP solution.

  9. The dual quark condensate in local and nonlocal NJL models: An order parameter for deconfinement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federico Marquez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We study the behavior of the dual quark condensate Σ1 in the Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (NJL model and its nonlocal variant. In quantum chromodynamics Σ1 can be related to the breaking of the center symmetry and is therefore an (approximate order parameter of confinement. The deconfinement transition is then signaled by a strong rise of Σ1 as a function of temperature. However, a similar behavior is also seen in the NJL model, which is known to have no confinement. Indeed, it was shown that in this model the rise of Σ1 is triggered by the chiral phase transition. In order to shed more light on this issue, we calculate Σ1 for several variants of the NJL model, some of which have been suggested to be confining. Switching between “confining” and “non-confining” models and parametrizations we find no qualitative difference in the behavior of Σ1, namely, it always rises in the region of the chiral phase transition. We conclude that without having established a relation to the center symmetry in a given model, Σ1 should not blindly be regarded as an order parameter of confinement.

  10. Technical Note: Simple formulations and solutions of the dual-phase diffusive transport for biogeochemical modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Y. Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Representation of gaseous diffusion in variably saturated near-surface soils is becoming more common in land biogeochemical models, yet the formulations and numerical solution algorithms applied vary widely. We present three different but equivalent formulations of the dual-phase (gaseous and aqueous tracer diffusion transport problem that is relevant to a wide class of volatile tracers in land biogeochemical models. Of these three formulations (i.e., the gas-primary, aqueous-primary, and bulk tracer based formulations, we contend the gas-primary formulation is the most convenient for modeling tracer dynamics in biogeochemical models. We then provide finite volume approximation to the gas-primary equation and evaluate its accuracy against three analytical models: one for steady-state soil CO2 dynamics, one for steady-state soil CO2 dynamics, and one for transient tracer diffusion from a constant point source into two different sequentially aligned medias. All evaluations demonstrated good accuracy of the numerical approximation. We expect our result will standardize an efficient mechanistic numerical method for solving relatively simple, multi-phase, one-dimensional diffusion problems in land models.

  11. Stochastic resonance in neuron models : Endogenous stimulation revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plesser, HE; Geisel, T

    2001-01-01

    The paradigm of stochastic resonance (SR)-the idea that signal detection and transmission may benefit from noise-has met with great interest in both physics and the neurosciences. We investigate here the consequences of reducing the dynamics of a periodically driven neuron to a renewal process (stim

  12. General Theoretical Model for Resonantly Enhanced Optical Modulators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuvaraja; S.; Visagathilagar; Arnan; Mitchell; Michael; W.; Austin

    2003-01-01

    1 IntroductionLiNbO3 optical modulators have become essential transmission devices for current and future wideband fibre-optic communications for both military and telecommunications applications. For many telecommunications applications, only a narrow bandwidth is required and thus resonantly enhancedMach-Zehndermodulators(RE-MZMs)have been developed to improve modulation efficiency at the expense of bandwidth.

  13. Topics in dual models and extended solutions. [Bethe-Salpeter equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, R.S.

    1977-06-01

    Two main topics are explored. The first deals with the infinities arising from the one loop planar string diagram of the standard dual model. It is shown that for the number of dimensions d = 25 or 26, these infinities lead to a renormalization of the slope of the Regge trajectories, in addition to a renormalization of the coupling constant. The second topic deals with the propagator for a confined particle (monopole) in a field theory. When summed to all orders, this propagator is altogether free of singularities in the finite momentum plane, and an attempt is made to illustrate this. One examines the Bethe-Salpeter equation and shows that ladder diagrams are not sufficient to obtain this result. However, in a nonrelativistic approximation confinement is obtained and all poles disappear.

  14. The dual process model of ideology and prejudice: a longitudinal test during a global recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibley, Chris G; Duckitt, John

    2013-01-01

    This study tested the pathways between personality, social worldviews, and ideology, predicted by the Dual Process Model (DPM) of ideology and prejudice. These paths were tested using a full cross-lagged panel design administered to a New Zealand community sample in early 2008 (before the effects of the global financial crisis reached New Zealand) and again in 2009 (when the crisis was near its peak; n = 247). As hypothesized, low openness to experience predicted residualized change in dangerous worldview, which in turn predicted right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). Low agreeableness predicted competitive worldview, which in turn predicted social dominance orientation (SDO). RWA and SDO also exerted unexpected reciprocal effects on worldviews. This study provides the most comprehensive longitudinal test of the DPM to date, and was conducted during a period of systemic instability when the causal effects predicted by the DPM should be, and were, readily apparent.

  15. Effect of temperature gradient on heavy quark anti-quark potential using gravity dual model

    CERN Document Server

    Ganesh, S

    2016-01-01

    The Quark-gluon plasma (QGP) is an expanding fireball, with finite dimensions. Given the finite dimensions, the temperature would be highest at the center, and close to the critical temperature, $T_c$, at the boundary, giving rise to a temperature gradient inside the QGP. A heavy quark anti-quark pair immersed in the QGP medium would see this temperature gradient. The effect of the temperature gradient on the quark anti-quark potential is analyzed using a gravity dual model. The resulting modification to the potential due to the temperature gradient is seen to have a $L^{-2}$ correction term. This could be a possible fallout of the breaking of conformal invariance at finite temperature.

  16. Testing crossover effects in an actor-partner interdependence model among Chinese dual-earner couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huimin; Cheung, Fanny M

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the crossover effects from one partner's work-family interface (work-family conflict [WFC] and work-family enrichment [WFE]) to the other partner's four outcomes (psychological strain, life satisfaction, marital satisfaction and job satisfaction) in a sample of Chinese dual-earner couples. Married couples (N = 361) completed a battery of questionnaires, including the work-family interface scale, the psychological strain scale, the life, marital, as well as job satisfaction scale. Results from the actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) analyses showed that wives' WFE was negatively associated with husbands' psychological strain, and positively associated with husbands' life, marital and job satisfaction. Furthermore, husbands' WFC was negatively related to wives' marital satisfaction, whereas husbands' WFE was positively related to wives' marital satisfaction. Theoretical and practical implications were discussed, and future research directions were provided.

  17. Characterization of a Dual CDC7/CDK9 Inhibitor in Multiple Myeloma Cellular Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natoni, Alessandro [Centre for Chromosome Biology, School of Natural Sciences National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland); Coyne, Mark R. E. [Centre for Chromosome Biology, School of Natural Sciences National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland); Department of Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland); Department of Haematology, Galway University Hospital, Galway (Ireland); Jacobsen, Alan; Rainey, Michael D.; O’Brien, Gemma; Healy, Sandra [Centre for Chromosome Biology, School of Natural Sciences National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland); Montagnoli, Alessia; Moll, Jürgen [Nerviano Medical Sciences S.r.l., Via Pasteur 10, Nerviano 20014 (Italy); O’Dwyer, Michael, E-mail: michael.odwyer@nuigalway.ie [Department of Medicine, National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland); Department of Haematology, Galway University Hospital, Galway (Ireland); Santocanale, Corrado, E-mail: michael.odwyer@nuigalway.ie [Centre for Chromosome Biology, School of Natural Sciences National University of Ireland Galway, Galway (Ireland)

    2013-07-24

    Two key features of myeloma cells are the deregulation of the cell cycle and the dependency on the expression of the BCL2 family of anti-apoptotic proteins. The cell division cycle 7 (CDC7) is an essential S-phase kinase and emerging CDC7 inhibitors are effective in a variety of preclinical cancer models. These compounds also inhibit CDK9 which is relevant for MCL-1 expression. The activity and mechanism of action of the dual CDC7/CDK9 inhibitor PHA-767491 was assessed in a panel of multiple myeloma cell lines, in primary samples from patients, in the presence of stromal cells and in combination with drugs used in current chemotherapeutic regimens. We report that in all conditions myeloma cells undergo cell death upon PHA-767491 treatment and we report an overall additive effect with melphalan, bortezomib and doxorubicin, thus supporting further assessment of targeting CDC7 and CDK9 in multiple myeloma.

  18. Precommitted Investment Strategy versus Time-Consistent Investment Strategy for a Dual Risk Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We are concerned with optimal investment strategy for a dual risk model. We assume that the company can invest into a risk-free asset and a risky asset. Short-selling and borrowing money are allowed. Due to lack of iterated-expectation property, the Bellman Optimization Principle does not hold. Thus we investigate the precommitted strategy and time-consistent strategy, respectively. We take three steps to derive the precommitted investment strategy. Furthermore, the time-consistent investment strategy is also obtained by solving the extended Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations. We compare the precommitted strategy with time-consistent strategy and find that these different strategies have different advantages: the former can make value function maximized at the original time t=0 and the latter strategy is time-consistent for the whole time horizon. Finally, numerical analysis is presented for our results.

  19. One-Dimensional Fluid Model for Dust Particles in Dual-Frequency Capacitively Coupled Silane Discharges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiang-Mei; SONG Yuan-Hong; WANG You-Nian

    2009-01-01

    A self-consistent fluid model, which incorporates density and flux balances of electrons, ions, neutrals and nanopar ticles, electron energy balance, and Poiaaon 's equation, is employed to investigate the capacitively coupled silane discharge modulated by dual-frequency electric sources. In this discharge process, nanoparticles are formed by a successive chemical reactions of anion with silane. The density distributions of the precursors in the dust particle formation are put forward, and the charging, transport and growth of nanoparticles are simulated. In this work, we focus our main attention on the influences of the high-frequency and low-frequency voltage on nanoparticle densities, nanoparticle charge distributions in both the bulk plasma and sheath region.

  20. Thermodynamic modelling and optimization of a dual pressure reheat combined power cycle

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Srinivas

    2010-10-01

    Heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) plays a key role on performance of combined cycle (CC). In this work, attention was focused on a dual pressure reheat (DPRH) HRSG to maximize the heat recovery and hence performance of CC. Deaerator, an essential open feed water heater in steam bottoming cycle was located to enhance the efficiency and remove the dissolved gasses in feedwater. Each of the heating section in HRSG is solved from the local flue gas condition with an aim of getting minimum possible temperature difference. For high performance, better conditions for compressor, HRSG sections, steam reheater and deaerator are developed. The CC system is optimized at a gas turbine inlet temperature of 1400°C due to the present available technology of modern gas turbine blade cooling systems. The exergetic losses in CC system are compared with each other. The present DPRH HRSG model has been compared and validated with the plant and published data.

  1. Mathematical Model of Thyristor Inverter Including a Series-parallel Resonant Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslaw Luft

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a mathematical model of thyristor inverter including a series-parallel resonant circuit with theaid of state variable method. Maple procedures are used to compute current and voltage waveforms in the inverter.

  2. Compound analysis of gallstones using dual energy computed tomography-Results in a phantom model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Ralf W., E-mail: ralfwbauer@aol.co [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany); Schulz, Julian R., E-mail: julian.schulz@t-online.d [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany); Zedler, Barbara, E-mail: zedler@em.uni-frankfurt.d [Department of Forensic Medicine, Clinic of the Goethe University Frankfurt, Kennedyallee 104, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany); Graf, Thomas G., E-mail: thomas.gt.graf@siemens.co [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, Computed Tomography, Physics and Applications, Siemensstrasse 1, 91313 Forchheim (Germany); Vogl, Thomas J., E-mail: t.vogl@em.uni-frankfurt.d [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Clinic of the Goethe University Frankfurt, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60596 Frankfurt (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: The potential of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) for the analysis of gallstone compounds was investigated. The main goal was to find parameters, that can reliably define high percentage (>70%) cholesterol stones without calcium components. Materials and methods: 35 gallstones were analyzed with DECT using a phantom model. Stone samples were put into specimen containers filled with formalin. Containers were put into a water-filled cylindrical acrylic glass phantom. DECT scans were performed using a tube voltage/current of 140 kV/83 mAs (tube A) and 80 kV/340 mAs (tube B). ROI-measurements to determine CT attenuation of each sector of the stones that had different appearance on the CT images were performed. Finally, semi-quantitative infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of these sectors was performed for chemical analysis. Results: ROI-measurements were performed in 45 different sectors in 35 gallstones. Sectors containing >70% of cholesterol and no calcium component (n = 20) on FTIR could be identified with 95% sensitivity and 100% specificity on DECT. These sectors showed typical attenuation of -8 {+-} 4 HU at 80 kV and +22 {+-} 3 HU at 140 kV. Even the presence of a small calcium component (<10%) hindered the reliable identification of cholesterol components as such. Conclusion: Dual energy CT allows for reliable identification of gallstones containing a high percentage of cholesterol and no calcium component in this pre-clinical phantom model. Results from in vivo or anthropomorphic phantom trials will have to confirm these results. This may enable the identification of patients eligible for non-surgical treatment options in the future.

  3. Testing a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development using resting-state connectivity analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Duijvenvoorde, A C K; Achterberg, M; Braams, B R; Peters, S; Crone, E A

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to test a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development by studying changes in intrinsic functional connectivity within and across networks typically associated with cognitive-control and affective-motivational processes. To this end, resting-state and task-related fMRI data were collected of 269 participants (ages 8-25). Resting-state analyses focused on seeds derived from task-related neural activation in the same participants: the dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) from a cognitive rule-learning paradigm and the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) from a reward-paradigm. Whole-brain seed-based resting-state analyses showed an age-related increase in dlPFC connectivity with the caudate and thalamus, and an age-related decrease in connectivity with the (pre)motor cortex. nAcc connectivity showed a strengthening of connectivity with the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and subcortical structures such as the hippocampus, and a specific age-related decrease in connectivity with the ventral medial PFC (vmPFC). Behavioral measures from both functional paradigms correlated with resting-state connectivity strength with their respective seed. That is, age-related change in learning performance was mediated by connectivity between the dlPFC and thalamus, and age-related change in winning pleasure was mediated by connectivity between the nAcc and vmPFC. These patterns indicate (i) strengthening of connectivity between regions that support control and learning, (ii) more independent functioning of regions that support motor and control networks, and (iii) more independent functioning of regions that support motivation and valuation networks with age. These results are interpreted vis-à-vis a dual-systems model of adolescent brain development.

  4. Dual Processes in Decision Making and Developmental Neuroscience: A Fuzzy-Trace Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Brainerd, Charles J

    2011-09-01

    From Piaget to the present, traditional and dual-process theories have predicted improvement in reasoning from childhood to adulthood, and improvement has been observed. However, developmental reversals-that reasoning biases emerge with development -have also been observed in a growing list of paradigms. We explain how fuzzy-trace theory predicts both improvement and developmental reversals in reasoning and decision making. Drawing on research on logical and quantitative reasoning, as well as on risky decision making in the laboratory and in life, we illustrate how the same small set of theoretical principles apply to typical neurodevelopment, encompassing childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and to neurological conditions such as autism and Alzheimer's disease. For example, framing effects-that risk preferences shift when the same decisions are phrases in terms of gains versus losses-emerge in early adolescence as gist-based intuition develops. In autistic individuals, who rely less on gist-based intuition and more on verbatim-based analysis, framing biases are attenuated (i.e., they outperform typically developing control subjects). In adults, simple manipulations based on fuzzy-trace theory can make framing effects appear and disappear depending on whether gist-based intuition or verbatim-based analysis is induced. These theoretical principles are summarized and integrated in a new mathematical model that specifies how dual modes of reasoning combine to produce predictable variability in performance. In particular, we show how the most popular and extensively studied model of decision making-prospect theory-can be derived from fuzzy-trace theory by combining analytical (verbatim-based) and intuitive (gist-based) processes.

  5. A dual-phantom system for validation of velocity measurements in stenosis models under steady flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, James R; Easson, William J; Hoskins, Peter R

    2009-09-01

    A dual-phantom system is developed for validation of velocity measurements in stenosis models. Pairs of phantoms with identical geometry and flow conditions are manufactured, one for ultrasound and one for particle image velocimetry (PIV). The PIV model is made from silicone rubber, and a new PIV fluid is made that matches the refractive index of 1.41 of silicone. Dynamic scaling was performed to correct for the increased viscosity of the PIV fluid compared with that of the ultrasound blood mimic. The degree of stenosis in the models pairs agreed to less than 1%. The velocities in the laminar flow region up to the peak velocity location agreed to within 15%, and the difference could be explained by errors in ultrasound velocity estimation. At low flow rates and in mild stenoses, good agreement was observed in the distal flow fields, excepting the maximum velocities. At high flow rates, there was considerable difference in velocities in the poststenosis flow field (maximum centreline differences of 30%), which would seem to represent real differences in hydrodynamic behavior between the two models. Sources of error included: variation of viscosity because of temperature (random error, which could account for differences of up to 7%); ultrasound velocity estimation errors (systematic errors); and geometry effects in each model, particularly because of imperfect connectors and corners (systematic errors, potentially affecting the inlet length and flow stability). The current system is best placed to investigate measurement errors in the laminar flow region rather than the poststenosis turbulent flow region.

  6. Comprehensive behavioral model of dual-gate high voltage JFET and pinch resistor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banáš, Stanislav; Paňko, Václav; Dobeš, Josef; Hanyš, Petr; Divín, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Many analog technologies operate in large voltage range and therefore include at least one or more high voltage devices built from low doped layers. Such devices exhibit effects not covered by standard compact models, namely pinching (depletion) effects, in high voltage FETs often called quasisaturation. For example, the conventional compact JFET model is insufficient and oversimplified. Its scalability is controlled by the area factor, which only multiplies currents and capacitances but does not take into account existing 3-D effects. Also the optional second independent gate is missing. Therefore, the customized four terminal (4T) model written in Verilog-A (FitzPatrick and Miller, 2007; Sagdeo, 2007) was developed. It converges very well, its simulation speed is comparable with conventional compact models, and contains all required phenomena, including parasitic effects as, for example, impact ionization. This model has universal usage for many types of devices in various high voltage technologies such as stand-alone voltage dependent resistor, pinch resistor, drift area of power FET, part of special high side or start-up devices, and dual-gate JFET.

  7. Modeling and understanding of effects of randomness in arrays of resonant meta-atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tretyakov, Sergei A.; Albooyeh, Mohammad; Alitalo, Pekka;

    2013-01-01

    In this review presentation we will discuss approaches to modeling and understanding electromagnetic properties of 2D and 3D lattices of small resonant particles (meta-atoms) in transition from regular (periodic) to random (amorphous) states. Nanostructured metasurfaces (2D) and metamaterials (3D......) are arrangements of optically small but resonant particles (meta-atoms). We will present our results on analytical modeling of metasurfaces with periodical and random arrangements of electrically and magnetically resonant meta-atoms with identical or random sizes, both for the normal and oblique-angle excitations......) of the arrangements of meta-atoms....

  8. Using Micromechanical Resonators to Measure Rheological Properties and Alcohol Content of Model Solutions and Commercial Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Hoogenboom, Bart W.; Anna Dejardin; Jake Stinson; Rosemary Paxman; McKendry, Rachel A.

    2012-01-01

    Micromechanic resonators provide a small-volume and potentially high-throughput method to determine rheological properties of fluids. Here we explore the accuracy in measuring mass density and viscosity of ethanol-water and glycerol-water model solutions, using a simple and easily implemented model to deduce the hydrodynamic effects on resonating cantilevers of various length-to-width aspect ratios. We next show that these measurements can be extended to determine the alcohol percentage of bo...

  9. A commentary on domestic animals as dual-purpose models that benefit agricultural and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J J; Roberts, R M; Palmer, G H; Bauman, D E; Bazer, F W

    2008-10-01

    Research on domestic animals (cattle, swine, sheep, goats, poultry, horses, and aquatic species) at land grant institutions is integral to improving the global competitiveness of US animal agriculture and to resolving complex animal and human diseases. However, dwindling federal and state budgets, years of stagnant funding from USDA for the Competitive State Research, Education, and Extension Service National Research Initiative (CSREES-NRI) Competitive Grants Program, significant reductions in farm animal species and in numbers at land grant institutions, and declining enrollment for graduate studies in animal science are diminishing the resources necessary to conduct research on domestic species. Consequently, recruitment of scientists who use such models to conduct research relevant to animal agriculture and biomedicine at land grant institutions is in jeopardy. Concerned stakeholders have addressed this critical problem by conducting workshops, holding a series of meetings with USDA and National Institutes of Health (NIH) officials, and developing a white paper to propose solutions to obstacles impeding the use of domestic species as dual-purpose animal models for high-priority problems common to agriculture and biomedicine. In addition to shortfalls in research support and human resources, overwhelming use of mouse models in biomedicine, lack of advocacy from university administrators, long-standing cultural barriers between agriculture and human medicine, inadequate grantsmanship by animal scientists, and a scarcity of key reagents and resources are major roadblocks to progress. Solutions will require a large financial enhancement of USDA's Competitive Grants Program, educational programs geared toward explaining how research using agricultural animals benefits both animal agriculture and human health, and the development of a new mind-set in land grant institutions that fosters greater cooperation among basic and applied researchers. Recruitment of

  10. Dual-porosity model of solute diffusion in biological tissue modified by electroporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnič-Kalamiza, Samo; Miklavčič, Damijan; Vorobiev, Eugène

    2014-07-01

    In many electroporation applications mass transport in biological tissue is of primary concern. This paper presents a theoretical advancement in the field and gives some examples of model use in electroporation applications. The study focuses on post-treatment solute diffusion. We use a dual-porosity approach to describe solute diffusion in electroporated biological tissue. The cellular membrane presents a hindrance to solute transport into the extracellular space and is modeled as electroporation-dependent porosity, assigned to the intracellular space (the finite rate of mass transfer within an individual cell is not accounted for, for reasons that we elaborate on). The second porosity is that of the extracellular space, through which solute vacates a block of tissue. The model can be used to study extraction out of or introduction of solutes into tissue, and we give three examples of application, a full account of model construction, validation with experiments, and a parametrical analysis. To facilitate easy implementation and experimentation by the reader, the complete derivation of the analytical solution for a simplified example is presented. Validation is done by comparing model results to experimentally-obtained data; we modeled kinetics of sucrose extraction by diffusion from sugar beet tissue in laboratory-scale experiments. The parametrical analysis demonstrates the importance of selected physicochemical and geometrical properties of the system, illustrating possible outcomes of applying the model to different electroporation applications. The proposed model is a new platform that supports rapid extension by state-of-the-art models of electroporation phenomena, developed as latest achievements in the field of electroporation.

  11. Painlevé test for integrability for a combination of Yang’s self-dual equations for (2) gauge fields and Charap's equations for chiral invariant model of pion dynamics and a comparative discussion among the three

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susanto Chakraborty; Pranab Krishna Chandra

    2007-04-01

    Painlevé test for integrability for the combined equations generated from Yang's self-dual equations for (2) gauge fields and Charap's equations for chiral invariant model of pion dynamics faces some peculiar situations that allow none of the stages (leading order analysis, resonance calculation and checking of the existence of the requisite number of arbitrary functions) to be conclusive. It is also revealed from a comparative study with the previous results that the existence of abnormal behaviour at any of the stated stages may have a correlation with the existence of chaotic property or some other properties that do not correspond to solitonic behaviour.

  12. Correlations between resonances in a statistical scattering model

    CERN Document Server

    Gorin, T; Müller, M; Rotter, I; Seligman, T H

    1997-01-01

    The distortion of the regular motion in a quantum system by its coupling to the continuum of decay channels is investigated. The regular motion is described by means of a Poissonian ensemble. We focus on the case of only few channels K<10. The coupling to the continuum induces two main effects, due to which the distorted system differs from a chaotic system (described by a Gaussian ensemble): 1. The width distribution for large coupling becomes broader than the corresponding $\\chi^2_K$ distribution in the GOE case. 2. Due to the coupling to the continuum, correlations are induced not only between the positions of the resonances but also between positions and widths. These correlations remain even in the strong coupling limit. In order to explain these results, an asymptotic expression for the width distribution is derived for the one channel case. It relates the width of a trapped resonance state to the distance between its two neighboring levels.

  13. Correlations between resonances in a statistical scattering model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorin, T. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik; Dittes, F.M. [Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik; Mueller, M. [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Cuernavaca (Mexico); Rotter, I. [Technische Univ. Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Forschungszentrum Rossendorf e.V. (FZR), Dresden (Germany). Inst. fuer Kern- und Hadronenphysik; Seligman, T.H. [Centro Internacional de Ciencias, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1997-01-01

    The distortion of the regular motion in a quantum system by its coupling to the continuum of decay channels is investigated. The regular motion is described by means of a Poissonian ensemble. We focus on the case of only few channels K < 10. The coupling to the continuum induces two main effects, due to which the distorted system differs from a chaotic system (described by a Gaussian ensemble): 1. The width distribution for large coupling becomes broader than the corresponding {chi}{sup 2}{sub K} distribution in the GOE case. 2. Due to the coupling to the continuum, correlations are induced not only between the positions of the resonances but also between positions and widths. These correlations remain even in the strong coupling limit. In order to explain these results, an asymptotic expression for the width distribution is derived for the one channel case. It relates the width of a trapped resonance state to the distance between its two neighboring levels. (orig.)

  14. Self-consistent modelling of resonant tunnelling structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, T.; Jauho, A.P.

    1992-01-01

    We report a comprehensive study of the effects of self-consistency on the I-V-characteristics of resonant tunnelling structures. The calculational method is based on a simultaneous solution of the effective-mass Schrödinger equation and the Poisson equation, and the current is evaluated with the ......We report a comprehensive study of the effects of self-consistency on the I-V-characteristics of resonant tunnelling structures. The calculational method is based on a simultaneous solution of the effective-mass Schrödinger equation and the Poisson equation, and the current is evaluated...... applied voltages and carrier densities at the emitter-barrier interface. We include the two-dimensional accumulation layer charge and the quantum well charge in our self-consistent scheme. We discuss the evaluation of the current contribution originating from the two-dimensional accumulation layer charges...

  15. The Development of Recollection and Familiarity in Childhood and Adolescence: Evidence from the Dual-Process Signal Detection Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghetti, Simona; Angelini, Laura

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments examined the development of recollection (recalling qualitative details about an event) and familiarity (recognizing the event) using the dual-process signal detection model. In Experiment 1 (n = 117; ages 6, 8, 10, 14, and 18 years), recollection improved from childhood to adolescence after semantic encoding but not after…

  16. Hedonic tone and activation in the mood-creativity link: towards a dual pathway to creativity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dreu, C.K.W.; Baas, M.; Nijstad, B.A.

    2008-01-01

    To understand when and why mood states influence creativity, the authors developed and tested a dual pathway to creativity model; creative fluency (number of ideas or insights) and originality (novelty) are functions of cognitive flexibility, persistence, or some combination thereof. Invoking work o

  17. Hedonic tone and activation level in the mood-creativity link : Toward a dual pathway to creativity model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Dreu, Carsten K. W.; Baas, Matthijs; Nijstad, Bernard A.

    2008-01-01

    To understand when and why mood states influence creativity, the authors developed and tested a dual pathway to creativity model; creative fluency (number of ideas or insights) and originality (novelty) are functions of cognitive flexibility, persistence, or some combination thereof. Invoking work o

  18. An Examination of the Dual Model of Perfectionism and Adolescent Athlete Burnout: A Short-Term Longitudinal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lung Hung; Kee, Ying Hwa; Tsai, Ying-Mei

    2009-01-01

    The dual model of perfectionism (Slade and Owens, Behav Modificat 22(3):372-390, 1998) is adopted to examine the influence of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism on adolescent athlete burnout in Taiwan. Participants were 188 high school adolescent student-athletes (M = 16.48, SD = 0.59). They were administered the Multidimensional Inventory of…

  19. The Effect of Dual-Language and Transitional-Bilingual Education Instructional Models on Spanish Proficiency for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Audrey Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    The effects of "transitional-bilingual" and "dual-language" educational models on proficiency in students' home language (Spanish) were examined in a study of English language learners in the first and second grades in a large urban elementary school. In each grade, students were taught with either a transitional-bilingual…

  20. Bilingual Teaching for Multilingual Students? Innovative Dual-Medium Models in Slovene-German Schools in Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purkarthofer, Judith; Mossakowski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Traditional bilingual education programmes in regional linguistic minority contexts face major challenges within the recent paradigm of linguistic diversity against a background of increasing migration, mobility and trans-locality. Based on three case studies, the authors of this paper focus on how particular dual-medium models are applied in…

  1. Reverse stochastic resonance in a hippocampal CA1 neuron model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Dominique M; Kawaguchi, Minato; Mino, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic resonance (SR) is a ubiquitous and counter- intuitive phenomenon whereby the addition of noise to a non-linear system can improve the detection of sub-threshold signals. The "signal" is normally periodic or deterministic whereas the "noise" is normally stochastic. However, in neural systems, signals are often stochastic. Moreover, periodic signals are applied near neurons to control neural excitability (i.e. deep brain stimulation). We therefore tested the hypothesis that a quasi-periodic signal applied to a neural network could enhance the detection of a stochastic neural signal (reverse stochastic resonance). Using computational methods, a CA1 hippocampal neuron was simulated and a Poisson distributed subthreshold synaptic input ("signal") was applied to the synaptic terminals. A periodic or quasi periodic pulse train at various frequencies ("noise") was applied to an extracellular electrode located near the neuron. The mutual information and information transfer rate between the output and input of the neuron were calculated. The results display the signature of stochastic resonance with information transfer reaching a maximum value for increasing power (or frequency) of the "noise". This result shows that periodic signals applied extracellularly can improve the detection of subthreshold stochastic neural signals. The optimum frequency (110 Hz) is similar to that used in patients with Parkinson's suggesting that this phenomenon could play a role in the therapeutic effect of high frequency stimulation.

  2. Comparing Two Numerical Models in Simulating Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport at a Dual Inlet System, West-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    1 COMPARING TWO NUMERICAL MODELS IN SIMULATING HYDRODYNAMICS AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AT A DUAL INLET SYSTEM, WEST-CENTRAL FLORIDA PING WANG1...numerical modeling systems, CMS and DELFT3D, in simulating the hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes. The model results are compared with...Introduction Simulating complex fields of wave, current, sediment transport , and morphology change in the vicinity of tidal inlets is a

  3. Mathematical Modeling of Dual Layer Shell Type Recuperation System for Biogas Dehumidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendelis, S.; Timuhins, A.; Laizans, A.; Bandeniece, L.

    2015-12-01

    The main aim of the current paper is to create a mathematical model for dual layer shell type recuperation system, which allows reducing the heat losses from the biomass digester and water amount in the biogas without any additional mechanical or chemical components. The idea of this system is to reduce the temperature of the outflowing gas by creating two-layered counter-flow heat exchanger around the walls of biogas digester, thus increasing a thermal resistance and the gas temperature, resulting in a condensation on a colder surface. Complex mathematical model, including surface condensation, is developed for this type of biogas dehumidifier and the parameter study is carried out for a wide range of parameters. The model is reduced to 1D case to make numerical calculations faster. It is shown that latent heat of condensation is very important for the total heat balance and the condensation rate is highly dependent on insulation between layers and outside temperature. Modelling results allow finding optimal geometrical parameters for the known gas flow and predicting the condensation rate for different system setups and seasons.

  4. Testing a Dual Process Model of Gender-Based Violence: A Laboratory Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Danielle S; Zeichner, Amos

    2016-01-01

    The dire impact of gender-based violence on society compels development of models comprehensive enough to capture the diversity of its forms. Research has established hostile sexism (HS) as a robust predictor of gender-based violence. However, to date, research has yet to link men's benevolent sexism (BS) to physical aggression toward women, despite correlations between BS and HS and between BS and victim blaming. One model, the opposing process model of benevolent sexism (Sibley & Perry, 2010), suggests that, for men, BS acts indirectly through HS to predict acceptance of hierarchy-enhancing social policy as an expression of a preference for in-group dominance (i. e., social dominance orientation [SDO]). The extent to which this model applies to gender-based violence remains untested. Therefore, in this study, 168 undergraduate men in a U. S. university participated in a competitive reaction time task, during which they had the option to shock an ostensible female opponent as a measure of gender-based violence. Results of multiple-mediation path analyses indicated dual pathways potentiating gender-based violence and highlight SDO as a particularly potent mechanism of this violence. Findings are discussed in terms of group dynamics and norm-based violence prevention.

  5. Analytical Modeling of Dual Material Gate SOI MOSFET with Asymmetric Halo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zun-chao; JIANG Yao-lin; ZHANG Li-li

    2006-01-01

    A dual material gate silicon-on-insulator MOSFET with asymmetrical halo is presented to improve short channel effect and carrier transport efficiency for the first time. The front gate consists of two metal gates with different work functions by making them contacting laterally, and the channel is more heavily doped near the source than in the rest. Using a three-region polynomial potential distribution and a universal boundary condition, a two-dimensional analytical model for the fully depleted silicon-on-insulator MOSFET is developed based on the explicit solution of two-dimensional Poisson's equation. The model includes the calculation of potential distribution along the channel and subthreshold current. The performance improvement of the novel silicon-on-insulator MOSFET is examined and compared with the traditional silicon-on-insulator MOSFET using the analytical model and two-dimensional device simulator MEDICI. It is found that the novel silicon-on-insulator MOSFET could not only suppress short channel effect, but also increase carrier transport efficiency noticeably. The derived analytical model agrees well with MEDICI.

  6. Identifying western yellow-billed cuckoo breeding habitat with a dual modelling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Matthew J.; Hatten, James R.; Holmes, Jennifer A.; Shafroth, Patrick B.

    2017-01-01

    The western population of the yellow-billed cuckoo (Coccyzus americanus) was recently listed as threatened under the federal Endangered Species Act. Yellow-billed cuckoo conservation efforts require the identification of features and area requirements associated with high quality, riparian forest habitat at spatial scales that range from nest microhabitat to landscape, as well as lower-suitability areas that can be enhanced or restored. Spatially explicit models inform conservation efforts by increasing ecological understanding of a target species, especially at landscape scales. Previous yellow-billed cuckoo modelling efforts derived plant-community maps from aerial photography, an expensive and oftentimes inconsistent approach. Satellite models can remotely map vegetation features (e.g., vegetation density, heterogeneity in vegetation density or structure) across large areas with near perfect repeatability, but they usually cannot identify plant communities. We used aerial photos and satellite imagery, and a hierarchical spatial scale approach, to identify yellow-billed cuckoo breeding habitat along the Lower Colorado River and its tributaries. Aerial-photo and satellite models identified several key features associated with yellow-billed cuckoo breeding locations: (1) a 4.5 ha core area of dense cottonwood-willow vegetation, (2) a large native, heterogeneously dense forest (72 ha) around the core area, and (3) moderately rough topography. The odds of yellow-billed cuckoo occurrence decreased rapidly as the amount of tamarisk cover increased or when cottonwood-willow vegetation was limited. We achieved model accuracies of 75–80% in the project area the following year after updating the imagery and location data. The two model types had very similar probability maps, largely predicting the same areas as high quality habitat. While each model provided unique information, a dual-modelling approach provided a more complete picture of yellow-billed cuckoo habitat

  7. Flow and transport in the drift shadow in a dual-continuum model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Finsterle, S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2002-09-01

    The current concept for high-level radioactive waste disposal at Yucca Mountain is for the waste to be placed in underground tunnels (or drifts) in the middle of a thick unsaturated zone. Flow modeling and field testing have shown that not all flow encountering a drift will seep into the drift. The underlying reason for the diversion of unsaturated flow around a drift is that capillary forces in the fractures and matrix prevent water entry into the drift unless the capillary pressure in the rock decreases sufficiently to allow for gravity forces to overcome the capillary barrier. As a result of the capillary barrier effect, flow tends to be diverted around the drift, affecting the flow pattern beneath the drift. For some distance beneath the drift, water saturation and flux are reduced. This drift shadow zone is much more pronounced in the fractures than in the matrix due to dominance of gravity over capillary forces in the fractures. Moving downward, away from the drift, the shadow zone asymptotically re-equilibrates to the undisturbed flow conditions due to capillary forces. The behavior of radionuclide transport in this zone of reduced flow is investigated here because this will affect the amount of time required for radionuclides to penetrate the unsaturated zone. The delay of radio nuclide movement in the geosphere is one aspect of the potential repository system that could limit public exposure to radioactive waste. The behavior of flow and transport are calculated using a two-dimensional, drift-scale dual permeability model extending to nine drift diameters below the potential waste emplacement drift. The flow model is first compared with an analytical model for a single-continuum. Then the dual-continuum flow model is investigated with respect to drift-scale and mountain-scale property sets. Transport calculations are performed for a wide range of flow conditions and for different aqueous radionuclides and colloids. Findings indicate that transport times

  8. A new nonlinear model for analyzing the behaviour of carbon nanotube-based resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farokhi, Hamed; Païdoussis, Michael P.; Misra, Arun K.

    2016-09-01

    The present study develops a new size-dependent nonlinear model for the analysis of the behaviour of carbon nanotube-based resonators. In particular, based on modified couple stress theory, the fully nonlinear equations of motion of the carbon nanotube-based resonator are derived using Hamilton's principle, taking into account both the longitudinal and transverse displacements. Molecular dynamics simulation is then performed in order to verify the validity of the developed size-dependent continuum model at the nano scale. The nonlinear partial differential equations of motion of the system are discretized by means of the Galerkin technique, resulting in a high-dimensional reduced-order model of the system. The pseudo-arclength continuation technique is employed to examine the nonlinear resonant behaviour of the carbon nanotube-based resonator. A new universal pull-in formula is also developed for predicting the occurrence of the static pull-in and validated using numerical simulations.

  9. Internal resonances and dynamic responses in equivalent mechanical model of partially liquid-filled vessel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farid, M.; Gendelman, O. V.

    2016-09-01

    The paper treats dynamical responses in an equivalent mechanical model for oscillations of a liquid in partially filled vessel under horizontal harmonic ground excitation. Such excitation may lead to hydraulic impacts. The liquid sloshing mass is modeled by equivalent pendulum, which can impact the vessel walls. Parameters of the equivalent pendulum for well-explored case of cylindrical vessels are used. The hydraulic impacts are modeled by high-power potential function. Conditions for internal resonances are formulated. A non-resonant behavior and dynamic response related to 3:1 internal resonance are explored. When the excitation amplitude exceeds certain critical value, the system exhibits multiple steady state solutions. Quasi-periodic solutions appear in relatively narrow range of parameters. Numerical continuation links between resonant regimes found asymptotically for small excitation amplitude, and high-amplitude responses with intensive impacts.

  10. Modeling intraparticle transports during propylene polymerizations using supported metallocene and dual function metallocene as catalysts: Single particle model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hua-Rong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Two improved multigrain models (MGMs for preparing homopolypropylene and long chain branched polypropylene via propylene polymerization using silica-supported metallocene or dual function metallocene as catalysts are presented in this paper. The presented models are used to predict the intraparticle flow fields involved in the polymerizations. The simulation results show that the flow field distributions involve dare basically identical. The results also show that both the two polymerization processes have an initiation stage and the controlling step for them is reaction-diffusion-reaction with the polymerization proceeding. Furthermore, the simulation results show that the intra particle mass transfer resistance has significant effect on the polymerization but the heat transfer resistance can be ignored.

  11. Active Plasma Resonance Spectroscopy: Evaluation of a fluiddynamic-model of the planar multipole resonance probe using functional analytic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrichs, Michael; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter; Oberrath, Jens

    2016-09-01

    Measuring plasma parameters, e.g. electron density and electron temperature, is an important procedure to verify the stability and behavior of a plasma process. For this purpose the multipole resonance probe (MRP) represents a satisfying solution to measure the electron density. However the influence of the probe on the plasma through its physical presence makes it unattractive for some processes in industrial application. A solution to combine the benefits of the spherical MRP with the ability to integrate the probe into the plasma reactor is introduced by the planar model of the MRP. By coupling the model of the cold plasma with the maxwell equations for electrostatics an analytical model for the admittance of the plasma is derivated, adjusted to cylindrical geometry and solved analytically for the planar MRP using functional analytic methods.

  12. Trend-Residual Dual Modeling for Detection of Outliers in Low-Cost GPS Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojian; Cui, Tingting; Fu, Jianhong; Peng, Jianwei; Shan, Jie

    2016-12-01

    Low-cost GPS (receiver) has become a ubiquitous and integral part of our daily life. Despite noticeable advantages such as being cheap, small, light, and easy to use, its limited positioning accuracy devalues and hampers its wide applications for reliable mapping and analysis. Two conventional techniques to remove outliers in a GPS trajectory are thresholding and Kalman-based methods, which are difficult in selecting appropriate thresholds and modeling the trajectories. Moreover, they are insensitive to medium and small outliers, especially for low-sample-rate trajectories. This paper proposes a model-based GPS trajectory cleaner. Rather than examining speed and acceleration or assuming a pre-determined trajectory model, we first use cubic smooth spline to adaptively model the trend of the trajectory. The residuals, i.e., the differences between the trend and GPS measurements, are then further modeled by time series method. Outliers are detected by scoring the residuals at every GPS trajectory point. Comparing to the conventional procedures, the trend-residual dual modeling approach has the following features: (a) it is able to model trajectories and detect outliers adaptively; (b) only one critical value for outlier scores needs to be set; (c) it is able to robustly detect unapparent outliers; and (d) it is effective in cleaning outliers for GPS trajectories with low sample rates. Tests are carried out on three real-world GPS trajectories datasets. The evaluation demonstrates an average of 9.27 times better performance in outlier detection for GPS trajectories than thresholding and Kalman-based techniques.

  13. Trend-Residual Dual Modeling for Detection of Outliers in Low-Cost GPS Trajectories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojian Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Low-cost GPS (receiver has become a ubiquitous and integral part of our daily life. Despite noticeable advantages such as being cheap, small, light, and easy to use, its limited positioning accuracy devalues and hampers its wide applications for reliable mapping and analysis. Two conventional techniques to remove outliers in a GPS trajectory are thresholding and Kalman-based methods, which are difficult in selecting appropriate thresholds and modeling the trajectories. Moreover, they are insensitive to medium and small outliers, especially for low-sample-rate trajectories. This paper proposes a model-based GPS trajectory cleaner. Rather than examining speed and acceleration or assuming a pre-determined trajectory model, we first use cubic smooth spline to adaptively model the trend of the trajectory. The residuals, i.e., the differences between the trend and GPS measurements, are then further modeled by time series method. Outliers are detected by scoring the residuals at every GPS trajectory point. Comparing to the conventional procedures, the trend-residual dual modeling approach has the following features: (a it is able to model trajectories and detect outliers adaptively; (b only one critical value for outlier scores needs to be set; (c it is able to robustly detect unapparent outliers; and (d it is effective in cleaning outliers for GPS trajectories with low sample rates. Tests are carried out on three real-world GPS trajectories datasets. The evaluation demonstrates an average of 9.27 times better performance in outlier detection for GPS trajectories than thresholding and Kalman-based techniques.

  14. Dual-Extrusion 3D Printing of Anatomical Models for Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michelle L; Jones, James F X

    2017-09-14

    Two material 3D printing is becoming increasingly popular, inexpensive and accessible. In this paper, freely available printable files and dual extrusion fused deposition modelling were combined to create a number of functional anatomical models. To represent muscle and bone FilaFlex(3D) flexible filament and polylactic acid (PLA) filament were extruded respectively via a single 0.4 mm nozzle using a Big Builder printer. For each filament, cubes (5 mm(3) ) were printed and analyzed for X, Y, and Z accuracy. The PLA printed cubes resulted in errors averaging just 1.2% across all directions but for FilaFlex(3D) printed cubes the errors were statistically significantly greater (average of 3.2%). As an exemplar, a focus was placed on the muscles, bones and cartilage of upper airway and neck. The resulting single prints combined flexible and hard structures. A single print model of the vocal cords was constructed which permitted movement of the arytenoids on the cricoid cartilage and served to illustrate the action of intrinsic laryngeal muscles. As University libraries become increasingly engaged in offering inexpensive 3D printing services it may soon become common place for both student and educator to access websites, download free models or 3D body parts and only pay the costs of print consumables. Novel models can be manufactured as dissectible, functional multi-layered units and offer rich possibilities for sectional and/or reduced anatomy. This approach can liberate the anatomist from constraints of inflexible hard models or plastinated specimens and engage in the design of class specific models of the future. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Duality in nonlinear B$\\wedge$F models equivalence between self-dual and topologically massive Born-Infeld B$\\wedge$F models

    CERN Document Server

    Menezes, R; Ribeiro, R F; Wotzasek, C

    2002-01-01

    We study the dual equivalence between the nonlinear generalization of the self-dual ($NSD_{B\\wedge F}$) and the topologically massive $B\\wedge F$ models with particular emphasis on the nonlinear electrodynamics proposed by Born and Infeld. This is done through a dynamical gauge embedding of the nonlinear self-dual model yielding to a gauge invariant and dynamically equivalent theory. We clearly show that nonpolinomial $NSD_{B\\wedge F}$ models can be mapped, through a properly defined duality transformation, into $TM_{B\\wedge F}$ actions. The general result obtained is then particularized for a number of examples, including the Born-Infeld-BF (BIBF) model that has experienced a revival in the recent literature.

  16. SU-C-BRE-03: Dual Compartment Mathematical Modeling of Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, V; Nguyen, D; Kupelian, P; Kaprealian, T; Selch, M; Low, D; Pajonk, F; Sheng, K [UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To explore the aggressive recurrence and radioresistence of GBM with a dual compartment tumor survival mathematical model based on intrinsic tumor heterogeneity, cancer stem cells (CSC) and differentiated cancer cells (DCC). Methods: The repopulation and differentiation responses to radiotherapy of a solid tumor were simulated using an Ordinary Differential Equation (ODE). To obtain the tumor radiobiological parameters, we assumed that a tumor consists of two subpopulations, each with its distinctive linear quadratic parameters. The dual compartment cell survival model was constructed as SF(D)=F × exp(-α{sub 1} D-β{sub 1}D{sup 2}) + (1-F) × exp(-α{sub 2}D-β{sub 2}D{sup 2}) for a single fraction of treatment, with F as the fraction of CSC, and α and β describing the radiological properties of each population. Robust least square fitting was performed on clonogenic survival data from one GBM (U373MG) and one NSCLC (H460) cell line. The fit parameters were then used in the ODE model to predict treatment outcome of various treatment schemes. Results: The fit parameters from GBM cell survival data were (F, α{sub 1}, β{sub 1}, α{sub 2}, β{sub 2})=(0.0396, 0.0801, 0.0006, 0.1363, 0.0279), exhibiting two populations with distinctive radiological properties, CSC more radioresistant than DCC. The GBM cell line exhibited significantly poorer tumor control than its single compartment model prediction and NSCLC, which responded well to hypofrationation. The increased radioresistance was due to rapid regrowth of the DCC compartment triggered by its depletion while maintaining a viable CSC population. The rapid regrowth can be reduced by treating dose fractions ≤ 2 Gy with a prolonged treatment period. Conclusion: The interaction between a radioresistant CSC compartment and DCC compartment can explain the poor clinical outcome of GBM after radiotherapy despite dose escalation and hypofractionation attempts. Lower dose fractions result in better treatment

  17. Classifying Chinese children with dyslexia by dual-route and triangle models of Chinese reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Chih; Yang, Hsien-Ming

    2014-11-01

    This present study focuses on classifying developmental dyslexia by combining two famous models, the dual-route model and the triangle model of Chinese reading, re-examining validity of the subtypes, and observing the error types of word recognition for each subtype. Sixty-sixth graders with dyslexia in Chinese and 45 sixth graders who were matched by age and IQ with the dyslexic group were involved in the present study. Twelve (20%) sixth graders from the dyslexic group were classified as having phonological dyslexia, 11 (18.3%) were classified as surface dyslexia, 12 (20%) were classified as deep dyslexia, and five (8.3%) of them were classified as displaying more than one kind of deficit. Besides, still more than half (31; 51.7%) of the dyslexic group did not belong to any subtypes here. These subtypes had a good validity based on comparison of their phonological awareness, orthography, and semantics. Finally, for their error types of word recognition, both children with multiple-deficit dyslexia and children with non-subtype dyslexia showed a proportional pattern of six kinds of errors. Children with phonological dyslexia showed more phonetic errors and analogy errors, children with surface dyslexia showed more visual errors and analogy errors, and children with deep dyslexia showed more semantic errors and selective errors.

  18. Topological Symmetry, Spin Liquids and CFT Duals of Polyakov Model with Massless Fermions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unsal, Mithat

    2008-04-30

    We prove the absence of a mass gap and confinement in the Polyakov model with massless complex fermions in any representation of the gauge group. A U(1){sub *} topological shift symmetry protects the masslessness of one dual photon. This symmetry emerges in the IR as a consequence of the Callias index theorem and abelian duality. For matter in the fundamental representation, the infrared limits of this class of theories interpolate between weakly and strongly coupled conformal field theory (CFT) depending on the number of flavors, and provide an infinite class of CFTs in d = 3 dimensions. The long distance physics of the model is same as certain stable spin liquids. Altering the topology of the adjoint Higgs field by turning it into a compact scalar does not change the long distance dynamics in perturbation theory, however, non-perturbative effects lead to a mass gap for the gauge fluctuations. This provides conceptual clarity to many subtle issues about compact QED{sub 3} discussed in the context of quantum magnets, spin liquids and phase fluctuation models in cuprate superconductors. These constructions also provide new insights into zero temperature gauge theory dynamics on R{sup 2,1} and R{sup 2,1} x S{sup 1}. The confined versus deconfined long distance dynamics is characterized by a discrete versus continuous topological symmetry.

  19. FAO-56 Dual Model Combined with Multi-Sensor Remote Sensing for Regional Evapotranspiration Estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rim Amri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to evaluate the potential of the FAO-56 dual technique for the estimation of regional evapotranspiration (ET and its constituent components (crop transpiration and soil evaporation, for two classes of vegetation (olives trees and cereals in the semi-arid region of the Kairouan plain in central Tunisia. The proposed approach combines the FAO-56 technique with remote sensing (optical and microwave, not only for vegetation characterization, as proposed in other studies but also for the estimation of soil evaporation, through the use of satellite moisture products. Since it is difficult to use ground flux measurements to validate remotely sensed data at regional scales, comparisons were made with the land surface model ISBA-A-gs which is a physical SVAT (Soil–Vegetation–Atmosphere Transfer model, an operational tool developed by Météo-France. It is thus shown that good results can be obtained with this relatively simple approach, based on the FAO-56 technique combined with remote sensing, to retrieve temporal variations of ET. The approach proposed for the daily mapping of evapotranspiration at 1 km resolution is approved in two steps, for the period between 1991 and 2007. In an initial step, the ISBA-A-gs soil moisture outputs are compared with ERS/WSC products. Then, the output of the FAO-56 technique is compared with the output generated by the SVAT ISBA-A-gs model.

  20. Dual-source computed tomography. Effect on regional and global left ventricular function assessment compared to magnetic resonance imaging; Untersuchung der regionalen und globalen linksventrikulaeren Funktion mit der Dual-Source-Computertomografie im Vergleich zur Magnetresonanztomografie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueders, F.; Seifarth, H.; Wessling, J.; Heindel, W.; Juergens, Kai Uwe [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Universitaetsklinikum Muenster (Germany); Fischbach, R. [Klinik fuer Radiologie, Nuklearmedizin und Neuroradiologie, Asklepios Klinik Altona (Germany)

    2009-10-15

    Purpose: to determine regional and global left ventricular (LV) functional parameters and to perform segmental wall thickness (SWT) and motion (WM) analysis of dual source CT (DSCT) with optimized temporal resolution versus MRI. Materials and Methods: 30 patients with known or suspected CAD, non-obstructive HCM, DCM, ARVCM, Fallot Tetralogy, cardiac sarcoidosis and cardiac metastasis underwent DSCT and MRI. The DSCT and MR images were evaluated: end-systolic (ESV), end-diastolic LV (EDV) volumes, stroke volume (SV), ejection fraction (EF), and myocardial mass (MM) as well as LV wall thickening and segmental WM applying the AHA model were obtained and statistically analyzed. Results: The mean LV-EDV (r = 0.96) and ESV (r = 0.98) as well as LV-EF (r = 0.97), SV (r = 0.83), and MM (r = 0.95) correlated well. Bland Altman analysis revealed little systematic underestimation of LV-EF (-1.1 {+-} 7.8%), EDV (-0.3 {+-} 18.2 ml), SV (-1.3 {+-} 16.7 ml) and little overestimation of ESV (1.1 {+-} 7.8 ml) and MM (12.8 {+-} 14.4 g) determined by DSCT. Systolic reconstruction time points correlated well (DSCT 32.2 {+-} 6.7 vs. MRI 35.6 {+-} 4.4% RR-interval). The LV wall thickness obtained by DSCT and MRI showed close correlation in all segments (diameter diff 0.42 {+-} 1 mm). In 413 segments (89%) WM abnormalities were equally rated, whereas DSCT tended to underestimate the degree of wall motion impairment. Conclusion: DSCT with optimized temporal resolution enables regional and global LV function analysis as well as segmental WM analysis in good correlation with MRI. However, the degree of WM impairment is slightly underestimated by DSCT. (orig.)