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Sample records for dual purpose metal

  1. Safety analysis of dual purpose metal cask subjected to impulsive loads due to aircraft engine crash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Koji; Namba, Kosuke; Saegusa, Toshiari

    2009-01-01

    In Japan, the first Interim Storage Facility of spent nuclear fuel away from reactor site is being planned to start its commercial operation around 2010, in use of dual-purpose metal cask in the northern part of Main Japan Island. Business License Examination for safety design approval has started since March, 2007. To demonstrate the more scientific and rational performance of safety regulation activities on each phase for the first license procedure, CREPEI has executed demonstration tests with full scale casks, such as drop tests onto real targets without impact limiters and seismic tests subjected to strong earthquake motions. Moreover, it is important to develop the knowledge for the inherent security of metal casks under extreme mechanical-impact conditions, especially for increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001. This paper presents dynamic mechanical behavior of the metal cask lid closure system caused by direct aircraft engine crash and describes calculated results (especially, leak tightness based on relative dynamic displacements between metallic seals). Firstly, the local penetration damage of the interim storage facility building by a big passenger aircraft engine research (diameter 2.7m, length 4.3m, weight 4.4ton, impact velocity 90m/s) has been examined. The reduced velocity is calculated by the local damage formula for concrete structure with its thickness of 70cm. The load vs. time function for this reduced velocity (60m/s) is estimated by the impact analysis using Finite Element code LS-DYNA with the full scale engine model onto a hypothetically rigid target. Secondly, as the most critical scenarios for the metal cask, two impact scenarios (horizontal impact hitting the cask and vertical impact onto the lid metallic seal system) are chosen. To consider the geometry of all bolts for two lids, the gasket reaction forces and the inner pressure of the cask cavity, the detailed three dimensional FEM models are developed

  2. Activation analysis of dual-purpose metal cask after the end of design lifetime for decommission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Man; Ku, Ji Young; Dho Ho Seog; Cho, Chun Hyung [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Jae Hun [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    The Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD) has developed a dual-purpose metal cask for the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel that has been generated by domestic light-water reactors. The metal cask was designed in compliance with international and domestic technology standards, and safety was the most important consideration in developing the design. It was designed to maintain its integrity for 50 years in terms of major safety factors. The metal cask ensures the minimization of waste generated by maintenance activities during the storage period as well as the safe management of the waste. An activation evaluation of the main body, which includes internal and external components of metal casks whose design lifetime has expired, provides quantitative data on their radioactive inventory. The radioactive inventory of the main body and the components of the metal cask were calculated by applying the MCNP5·ORIGEN-2 evaluation system and by considering each component's chemical composition, neutron flux distribution, and reaction rate, as well as the duration of neutron irradiation during the storage period. The evaluation results revealed that 10 years after the end of the cask's design life, {sup 60}Co had greater radioactivity than other nuclides among the metal materials. In the case of the neutron shield, nuclides that emit high-energy gamma rays such as {sup 28}Al and {sup 24}Na had greater radioactivity immediately after the design lifetime. However, their radioactivity level became negligible after six months due to their short half-life. The surface exposure dose rates of the canister and the main body of the metal cask from which the spent nuclear fuel had been removed with expiration of the design lifetime were determined to be at very low levels, and the radiation exposure doses to which radiation workers were subjected during the decommissioning process appeared to be at insignificant levels. The evaluations of this study strongly suggest that

  3. Safety Analysis of Dual Purpose Metal Cask Subjected to Impulsive Loads due to Aircraft Engine Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirai, Koji; Namba, Kosuke; Saegusa, Toshiari

    In Japan, the first Interim Storage Facility of spent nuclear fuel away from reactor site is being planned to start its commercial operation around 2010, in use of dual-purpose metal cask in the northern part of Main Japan Island. Business License Examination for safety design approval has started since March, 2007. To demonstrate the more scientific and rational performance of safety regulation activities on each phase for the first license procedure, CREPEI has executed demonstration tests with full scale casks, such as drop tests onto real targets without impact limiters(1) and seismic tests subjected to strong earthquake motions(2). Moreover, it is important to develop the knowledge for the inherent security of metal casks under extreme mechanical-impact conditions, especially for increasing interest since the terrorist attacks from 11th September 2001(3)-(6). This paper presents dynamic mechanical behavior of the metal cask lid closure system caused by direct aircraft engine crash and describes calculated results (especially, leak tightness based on relative dynamic displacements between metallic seals). Firstly, the local penetration damage of the interim storage facility building by a big passenger aircraft engine crash (diameter 2.7m, length 4.3m, weight 4.4ton, impact velocity 90m/s) has been examined. The reduced velocity is calculated by the local damage formula for concrete structure with its thickness of 70cm. The load vs. time function for this reduced velocity (60m/s) is estimated by the impact analysis using Finite Element code LS-DYNA with the full scale engine model onto a hypothetically rigid target. Secondly, as the most critical scenarios for the metal cask, two impact scenarios (horizontal impact hitting the cask and vertical impact onto the lid metallic seal system) are chosen. To consider the geometry of all bolts for two lids, the gasket reaction forces and the inner pressure of the cask cavity, the detailed three dimensional FEM models are

  4. The evaluation of minimum cooling period for loading of PWR spent nuclear fuel of a dual purpose metal cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dho, Ho Seog; Kim, Tae Man; Cho, Chun Hyung [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Recently, because the wet pool storage facilities of NPPs in Korea has become saturated, there has been much active R and D on an interim dry storage system using a transportation and storage cask. Generally, the shielding evaluation for the design of a spent fuel transportation and storage cask is performed by the design basis fuel, which selects the most conservative fuel among the fuels to be loaded into the cask. However, the loading of actual spent fuel into the transportation metal cask is not limited to the design basis fuel used in the shielding evaluation; the loading feasibility of actual spent fuel is determined by the shielding evaluation that considers the characteristics of the initial enrichment, the maximum burnup and the minimum cooling period. This study describes a shielding analysis method for determining the minimum cooling period of spent fuel that meets the domestic transportation standard of the dual purpose metal cask. In particular, the spent fuel of 3.0-4.5wt% initial enrichment, which has a large amount of release, was evaluated by segmented shielding calculations for efficient improvement of the results. The shielding evaluation revealed that about 81% of generated spent fuel from the domestic nuclear power plants until 2008 could be transported by the dual purpose metal cask. The results of this study will be helpful in establishing a technical basis for developing operating procedures for transportation of the dual purpose metal cask.

  5. The evaluation of minimum cooling period for loading of PWR spent nuclear fuel of a dual purpose metal cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dho, Ho Seog; Kim, Tae Man; Cho, Chun Hyung

    2016-01-01

    Recently, because the wet pool storage facilities of NPPs in Korea has become saturated, there has been much active R and D on an interim dry storage system using a transportation and storage cask. Generally, the shielding evaluation for the design of a spent fuel transportation and storage cask is performed by the design basis fuel, which selects the most conservative fuel among the fuels to be loaded into the cask. However, the loading of actual spent fuel into the transportation metal cask is not limited to the design basis fuel used in the shielding evaluation; the loading feasibility of actual spent fuel is determined by the shielding evaluation that considers the characteristics of the initial enrichment, the maximum burnup and the minimum cooling period. This study describes a shielding analysis method for determining the minimum cooling period of spent fuel that meets the domestic transportation standard of the dual purpose metal cask. In particular, the spent fuel of 3.0-4.5wt% initial enrichment, which has a large amount of release, was evaluated by segmented shielding calculations for efficient improvement of the results. The shielding evaluation revealed that about 81% of generated spent fuel from the domestic nuclear power plants until 2008 could be transported by the dual purpose metal cask. The results of this study will be helpful in establishing a technical basis for developing operating procedures for transportation of the dual purpose metal cask

  6. Development of dual-purpose metal cask for interim storage of spent nuclear fuel (1). Outline of cask structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Masashi; Hayashi, Makoto; Kashiwakura, Jun

    2003-01-01

    Spent fuels discharged from nuclear power plants in Japan are planed to be reprocessed at the nuclear fuel recycle plant under construction at Rokkasho-mura. Since the amount of the spent fuels exceeds that of recycled fuel, the spent fuels have to be properly stored and maintained as recycle fuel resource until the beginning of the reprocessing. For that sake, interim storage installations are being constructed outside the nuclear power plants by 2010. The storage dry casks have been practically used as the interim storage in the nuclear power plants. From this reason, the storage system using the storage dry casks is promising as the interim storage installations away form the reactors, which are under discussion. In the interim storage facilities, the storage using the dry cask of the storage metal cask with business showings, having the function of transportation is now under discussion. By employing transportation and storage dual-purpose cask, the repack equipments can be exhausted, and the reliability of the interim storage installations can be increased. Hitachi, Ltd. has been developing the high reliable and economical transportation and storage dry metal cask. In this report, the outline of our developing transportation and storage dry cask is described. (author)

  7. Seal performance of thermal aged metal gasket of dual purpose metal cask for interim spent fuel storage after external impact load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshi Yokoyama; Masami Kato; Satoshi Itooka

    2005-01-01

    As for interim storage for spent nuclear fuels using dual purpose dry metal cask in Japan, we recognize one of the important technical issues that there is a possibility for the cask with degraded metal gasket during storage to apply to transportation. In our study until 2003 focused on degradation of important components for the cask safety performance during storage and application to transportation, for metal gasket, we conducted property tests for degradation and influence of lid movement on seal performance, and furthermore verification tests. From the results, we developed the method to evaluate leak rate from lid with degraded metal gasket at accidents during transportation and in addition, we found as follows: Lid would hardly move and leak rate would not increase seriously during fire event. Leak rate from lid with degraded metal gasket could be evaluated by using results of leak rate trend depending on horizontal displacement of lid by external impact load. So, with regard to influence of lid movement on seal performance, we conducted additional test for extending horizontal displacement in lid moving in 2004. In addition, seal performance was discussed from the results, both previous and latest test. (authors)

  8. Preliminary safety analysis of criticality for dual-purpose metal cask under dry storage conditions in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taeman, E-mail: tmkim@korad.or.kr [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Dho, Hoseog; Baeg, Chang-Yeal [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gang-uk [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Co. (KONES), Hyundai Plaza, 341-4 Jangdae-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • DPC is under development led by Korea Radioactive Waste Agency in South Korea. • The results of criticality analysis with respect to design requirements. • The k{sub eff} under normal and off-normal conditions were 0.36 and 0.46, respectively. • In addition, the k{sub eff} under a postulated accident condition was evaluated to be 0.94. - Abstract: A dual-purpose metal cask is under development led by Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD) in Korea, for the dry interim storage and long-distance transportation. This cask comprises a main body made of carbon steel and a stainless steel Dry Shielded Canister (DSC), with stainless steel baskets inside to contain spent fuel assemblies. In this study, nuclear criticality safety analysis was conducted as a part of safety assessment of the metal cask. Analysis to show criticality safety in accordance with regulatory requirements of PWR spent fuel storage was carried out. 10CFR72.124 “Criteria for nuclear criticality safety” and the Regulatory Guide of the American Nuclear Society, ANSI/ANS-57.9 “Design Criteria for an Independent Spent Fuel” and US NRC's “Standard Review Plan for Spent Fuel Dry Storage Systems at a General License Facility” were employed as regulatory standard and criteria. This paper shows results of criticality analysis with respect to each designated criterion with modeling of a virtual nuclear fuel assembly and a cask body that induces the maximum reactivity among various design basis fuels of the metal cask. In addition, the sensitivity analysis of nuclear criticality taking into account the various modeling deviation such as manufacturing tolerance and modeling assumptions of conventional models was carried out to ensure the reliability of the analysis result. The criticality evaluation result of the metal cask and the maximum k{sub eff} under normal and off-normal conditions were 0.36884 and 0.46255, respectively. The maximum k{sub eff} under a postulated

  9. Full-scale prototyping of the Hitachi dual-purpose metal cask and verification of its heat transfer characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai, N.; Ishida, N.; Ootsuka, M.; Kamoshida, M.; Hiranuma, T.; Doumori, S.; Hoshikawa, T.; Shimizu, M.; Kashiwakura, J.; Hayashi, M.

    2004-01-01

    Hitachi has been developing dual-purpose metal casks for transport and storage of spent nuclear fuels. The Hitachi cask, HDP69B can store 69 BWR fuel assemblies. The cask features are as follows. 1) The fuel basket is assembled mainly with plates of borated stainless steel. The plates are not welded, but cross-inserted into each other like the dividers in an egg carton. Since the borated stainless steel has relatively low heat conductivity, aluminum alloy plates are inserted along with some stainless steel plates to enhance heat removal ability. 2) Cured resin blocks are fitted into the inner shell of the cask for neutron shielding of the cask body. The resin blocks are surrounded by an aluminum casing which transfers heat of stored fuel from the inner shell to the outer shell of the cask. The block type shield structure eliminates the need for welding the heat transfer fins to the inner and outer shells. The weldless structures of the HDP69B lead to its enhanced manufacturability, but they complicate the heat transfer characteristics because there are gaps between such components as the aluminum casing and inner/outer shells. We carried out full-scale prototyping of the HDP69B and ran a heat transfer test using the prototype. The purposes of the heat transfer test were to check the heat removal ability of the HDP69B and to verify the safety analysis model for heat removal. Results of the heat transfer test and optimized analysis model for heat transfer characteristics of the HDP69B are the focus of this paper. The heat transfer test is summarized as follows. Sixty nine heaters simulating the shape and heat power of spent fuel assemblies were inserted into the fuel basket. After replacing the inner atmosphere with 0.1 MPa of helium, the heat transfer test was started. About 7 days were required to equilibrate the temperature distribution. The temperature at the center of the basket was 194 C. The results confirmed the HDP69B had sufficient heat removal ability. The

  10. Structural dimensioning of dual purpose cask prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Luiz Leite da; Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta; Lopes, Claudio Cunha

    2005-01-01

    The structural dimensioning of a Type B(U) dual purpose cask prototype is part of the scope of work of the Brazilian institute CDTN in the IAEA regional project involving Latin American countries which operate research reactors (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Peru). In order to meet the dimensional and operational characteristics of the reactor facilities in these countries, a maximum weight of 10.000 kgf and a maximum dimension of 1 m in at least one direction were set for the cask. With these design restrictions, the cask's payload is either 21 MTR or 78 TRIGA fuel elements. The cask's most important components are main body, primary and secondary lids, basket and impact limiters. The main body has a sandwich-like wall with internal and external layers made of AISI 304 stainless steel with lead in-between. The lead provides biological shielding. The primary lid is similarly layered, but in the axial direction. It is provided with a double system of metallic rings and has ports for pressurization, sampling and containment verification. The secondary lid has the main function of protecting the primary lid against mechanical impacts. The basket structure is basically a tube array reinforced by bottom plate, feet and spacers. Square tubes are used for MTR elements and circular tubes for TRIGA elements. Finally, the impact limiters are structures made of an external stainless steel thin covering and a filling made of the wood composite OSB - Oriented Strand Board. The prototype is provided with bottom and top impact limiters, which are attached to each other by means of four threaded rods. The limiters are not rigidly attached to the cask body. A half scale cask model was designed to be submitted to a testing program. As its volume scales down to 1:8, the model weight is 1,250 kgf. This paper presents the methodology for the preliminary structural dimensioning of the critical parameters of the cask prototype. Both normal conditions of operation and hypothetical

  11. Double papilla flap technique for dual purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Mohan Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Marginal tissue recession exposes the anatomic root on the teeth, which gives rise to -common patient complaints. It is associated with sensitivity, tissue irritation, cervical abrasions, and esthetic concerns. Various types of soft tissue grafts may be performed when recession is deep and marginal tissue health cannot be maintained. Double papilla flap is an alternative technique to cover isolated recessions and correct gingival defects in areas of insufficient attached gingiva, not suitable for a lateral sliding flap. This technique offers the advantages of dual blood supply and denudation of interdental bone only, which is less susceptible to permanent damage after surgical exposure. It also offers the advantage of quicker healing in the donor site and reduces the risk of facial bone height loss. This case report presents the advantages of double papilla flap in enhancing esthetic and functional outcome of the patient.

  12. Molecular diversity analysis in selected fodder and dual purpose oat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genetic variability among 15 oat genotypes comprising fodder and dual purpose oat varieties from different geographical regions was analyzed by random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker method in Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, College of Agriculture, Pant University of Agriculture and Technology ...

  13. Performance test of a dual-purpose disc agrochemical applicator ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance test of a dual-purpose disc agrochemical applicator for field crop was conducted with view to assess the distribution patterns/droplet sizes and uniformity of spreading and or spraying for the agrochemical application. The equipment performances for both granular and liquid chemical application were ...

  14. Coupling technology for dual-purpose nuclear-desalting plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.E. Jr.; Anderson, T.D.; Reed, S.A.

    1976-11-01

    Although the basic technology for the various components of nuclear dual-purpose plants is reasonably well developed, the techniques of coupling the elements together to form a reliable, economical system that will satisfy the diverse operating requirements are not well established. The purpose of the study reported is to examine the technical, economic, and safety considerations in coupling nuclear power plants with distillation units to form a dual-purpose power and water distillation plant. The basic coupling arrangement required to provide a large-scale dual-purpose water plant is to supply steam to the water plant from the exhaust of a back-pressure turbine. The principal component at the interface that may require major research and development is the back-pressure turbine. To satisfy the operational requirements, two major auxiliary systems will be needed. These are: (1) a prime-steam bypass system, and (2) auxiliary condensers. These systems will provide a degree of independence between water and power production and can be justified economically

  15. Implication of dual-purpose nuclear desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutbi, I.I.

    1983-01-01

    Available dual purpose nuclear desalination schemes are reviewed. Three specific issues namely, impact of availability and reliability of the desalination stage of the plant, integration of the desalination and power production stages and new safety concerns of dual system, relating to desalination schemes are discussed. Results of operational and reliability studies of nuclear power stations, reverse osmosis and multistage flash distillation desalination plants are considered. Operational aspects of nuclear-multistage flash distillation, nuclear-reverse osmosis and nuclear-multistage flash distillation-reverse osmosis are compared. Concludes that the combined nuclear-multistage flash distillation-reverse osmosis plant arrangement permits very large production capacity, high availability, improvement of plant reliability and proovision of savings on the cost of water and power produced. 23 Ref

  16. Optimal selection of major equipment in dual purpose plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabbrielli, E.

    1981-01-01

    Simulation of different operational conditions with the aid of a computer program is one of the best ways of assisting decision-makers in the selection of the most economic mix of equipment for a dual purpose plant. Using this approach this paper deals with the economic comparison of plants consisting of MSF desalinators and combustion gas or back pressure steam turbines coupled to low capacity electric power generators. The comparison is performed on the basis of the data made available by the OPTDIS computer program and the results are given in terms of yearly cost of production as the sum of capital, manpower, maintenance, fuel and chemical costs. (orig.)

  17. Dual purpose wheat production with different levels of nitrogen topdressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éderson Luis Henz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the practice of Crop-Livestock Integration is stimulated as a way of increasing the generation of foreign exchange for Brazil. Integrated systems improve land use efficiency as well as preserve, recover and increment or soil fertility. The aim of this research was to evaluate how different doses of nitrogen fertilization can affect production and quality of dual purpose wheat submitted to grazing. The experimental designed was randomized block with five treatments (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 Kg N ha-1, like ammonium nitrate and four repetitions. The forage yield, the percentage crude protein (P=.0001 and acid detergent insoluble protein (P=.0054 had a linear increased because of the nitrogen addition doses. The crude protein percentage changed the estimate of all soluble carbohydrates (P=.0001 and non-fibrous carbohydrates (P=.0186, but did not influence the, nitrogen detergent fiber corrected with ash and proteins percentage contributing for content cell. The crops production (P=.0001 and the number of kernels per ear (P=.0001 showed significantly difference because of the nitrogen additions dose, increasing the number of fertile flowers. The nitrogen topdressing alters forage production, the chemical composition and the production of dual purpose wheat grains subjected to grazing.

  18. Nuclear dual-purpose plants for industrial energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, O.H.

    1976-01-01

    One of the major obstacles to extensive application of nuclear power to industrial heat is the difference between the relatively small energy requirements of individual industrial plants and the large thermal capacity of current power reactors. A practical way of overcoming this obstacle would be to operate a centrally located dual-purpose power plant that would furnish process steam to a cluster of industrial plants, in addition to generating electrical power. The present study indicates that even relatively remote industrial plants could be served by the power plant, since it might be possible to convey steam economically as much as ten miles or more. A survey of five major industries indicates a major potential market for industrial steam from large nuclear power stations

  19. The Potentials for the Use of Single- versus Dual-Purpose Officers in Firms:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theotokas, Ioannis; Wagtmann, Maria Anne

    2010-01-01

    In the article, we will focus on economic issues concerning the favourability of employing dual pur­pose officers, given that national dual-purpose educational programs exist; we will thus delimit us from discussing potential advantages and disadvantages of firm-specific educational investments...... of employing dual-purpose officers....

  20. Optimum size determination of nuclear dual-purpose desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, J.

    1966-01-01

    The economics of dual-purpose desalination plants is presented from a general standpoint. The concept of demand curves for water and electricity is introduced, which leads to a rational sharing of production costs between both commodities within the framework of a market. The purpose of the study, which is based upon the principles of classical economics, is to develop objective criteria for the design of desalination plants and to derive from these a normative method for pricing both joint products, water and electricity, following as much as possible the structure of the demand. Such criteria are in particular either the maximization of benefit for the operator or the maximum welfare for the community. They involve either equality between marginal costs and revenues, or equality between marginal costs and marginal satisfactions (theory of surplus). As the size of the plant is often the predominant factor in selecting the process to be used, it follows from the above considerations that this selection is closely related to: (a) The shape of the demand curve for water; (b) The economic criterion selected and the relevant constraints (public or private ownership, limitation of the investments, etc). This makes market surveys and a rather refined economic analysis indispensable before any decision is taken on the desalination technique to be adopted. (author). Abstract only

  1. Production indices for dual purpose cattle in central Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepta McManus

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of crossbreeding low genetic potential cows of Bos indicus origin characterized by Gyr crossed with Holstein-Friesian and Simmental bulls to produce animals in a low input dual purpose system. The farm is situated near Brasilia, in the savannah region of Brazil. The climate of the region is classified as Aw by Köppen. Data was available on 1580 calvings and completed lactations of cows with three genetic types: Gyr, Holstein-Friesian × Gyr and Simmental × Gyr. The bulls ran with the cows all year round and the diet comprised of pasture (mainly Brachiaria and Andropogon during the summer (rainy season and milled sugar cane with added urea during the winter (dry season. A mineral salt mixture was available ad libitum. Data was analysed using Statistical Analysis System. The results show that, under low input management conditions, the crossbred cows produce approximately twice the volume of milk per lactation, calve at a younger age and have a shorter open period, but there are no significant differences between crosses for growth rates of the calves or body condition of the cows. In this system, crossbred cows had production higher indices than zebu cattle. The best indices were found for cows calving in the rainy season (September to December and thinner cows (with body condition 3-5 on a scale of 9.

  2. Technical issues affecting the transport of dual purpose casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Ottinger, C.A.; Brimhall, J.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Jones, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Spent fuel storage pools at many nuclear reactors in the US have already or will soon be filled to maximum capacity. Approximately 50,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) spent fuel will be discharged by the projected 2003 start-up date of a federal disposal system. Of this, approximately 6,000 MTU will require storage outside existing or projected pool storage capabilities (DOE, 1988). At-reactor dry storage of spent fuel, including vault, caisson, and cask systems, is being considered as an alternative to accommodate this excess fuel. Two dry storage cask concepts are among those under consideration. One involves placing spent fuel in storage-only casks (SOC) until a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility or repository is open when the spent fuel would be transferred to a transport-only cask (TOC) for shipment. The second option, the dual purpose or transportable storage cask (TSC), is a system that would serve for both storage and later transport without requiring the spent fuel to be unloaded. To carry out its purpose, a TSC must be shipped directly from a storage facility to a disposal facility without first being opened to evaluate the cask or the fuel. To assure that both the fuel and the cask are in a transportable condition after 20 to 40 years of storage requires: (1) a definition of expected storage conditions; (2) an assessment of the impact of expected storage conditions on the reliability of the components and functions of the TSC during transport; and (3) the development of an overall TSC system design and operational strategy which ensures that TSC transport reliability meets or exceeds that of a transport-only cask. The later requirement is related to defining what appropriate design features, pre-shipment inspections, and/or alternative fuel and cask monitoring requirements are necessary during long-term storage to ensure the cask will meet transport requirements during later transport

  3. Technical issues affecting the transport of dual purpose casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, T.L.; Ottinger, C.A.; Brimhall, J.L.; Gilbert, E.R.; Jones, R.H.

    1989-01-01

    Approximately 60,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU) spent fuel will be discharged by the projected 2003 startup date of a federal disposal system. Of this, approximately 15,000 MTU will require storage outside existing or projected pool storage capabilities (Orvis et al., 1984). At-reactor dry storage of spent fuel, including vault, caisson, and cask systems, is being considered as an alternative to accommodate this excess fuel. Two dry storage cask concepts are among those under consideration. One involves placing spent fuel in storage-only casks (SOC) until a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility or repository is open, when the spent fuel would be transferred to a transport-only cask (TOC) for shipment. The second option, the dual purpose or transportable storage cask (TSC), is a system that would serve for both storage and later transport. To carry out its purpose, a TSC must be shipped directly from a storage facility to a disposal facility without first being opened to evaluate the cask or the fuel. To assure that both the fuel and the cask are in a transportable condition after 20 to 40 years of storage requires: (1) a definition of expected storage conditions; (2) an assessment of the impact of expected storage conditions on the reliability of the components and functions of the TSC during transport; and (3) the development of an overall TSC system design and operational strategy which ensures that TSC transport reliability compares to that of a transport-only cask. The later requirement is related to defining what appropriate design features, pre-shipment inspection, and/or alternative fuel and cask monitoring requirements are necessary during long-term storage to ensure the cask will meet transport performance requirements during later transport. 8 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il'kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks

  5. Estimation of terrorist attack resistibility of dual-purpose cask TP-117 with DU (depleted uranium) gamma shield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekseev, O.G.; Matveev, V.Z.; Morenko, A.I.; Il' kaev, R.I.; Shapovalov, V.I. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center - All-Russian Research Inst. of Experimental Physics, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2004-07-01

    Report is devoted to numerical research of dual-purpose unified cask (used for SFA transportation and storage) resistance to terrorist attacks. High resistance of dual-purpose unified cask has been achieved due to the unique design-technological solutions and implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction. In suggested variant of construction depleted uranium fulfils functions of shielding and constructional material. It is used both in metallic and cermet form (basing on steel and depleted uranium dioxide). Implementation of depleted uranium in cask construction allows maximal load in existing overall dimensions of the cask. At the same time: 1) all safety requirements (IAEA) are met, 2) dual-purpose cask with SFA has high resistance to terrorist attacks.

  6. Increased heavy metal tolerance of cowpea plants by dual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through biological inoculation technology, the bacterial-mycorrhizal-legume tripartite symbiosis in artificially heavy metal polluted soil was documented and the effects of dual inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus and Rhizobium (N-fixing bacteria, NFB) on the host plant cowpea (Vigna sinensis) in pot ...

  7. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode

  8. Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, S.A.

    1981-02-01

    A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

  9. Influence of local regulations on TN dual purpose BWR casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samson, P.; Neider, T.

    1999-01-01

    Transnucleaire (Paris, France) and Transnuclear, Inc. (Hawthorne, New York, United Sates) have both developed Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) spent fuel casks for storage and transport purposes. The products are supplied in Europe by Transnucleaire and in the United States by Transnuclear, Inc. Now the TN Group is working on a design for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) spent fuel assemblies: the TN 52 L cask is designed for transport and storage is Switzerland, the TN 68 cask is designed for transport and storage in the United States. For storage purpose, national regulatory requirements have to be met: each country has specific demands and criteria. As a consequence, differences between the TN 52 L design and the TN 68 design for rather similar contents appear in several fields: the design work, the licensing process, the manufacturing and the operational life. (author)

  10. Dual-purpose LWR supplying heat for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waplington, G.; Fitcher, H.

    1977-01-01

    A number of desalination processes are at present in various stages of development but distillation is the only serious choice for a large-scale project. The distillation process temperature requirement is low compared with the temperature of steam normally delivered to the turbine in a power generation plant. This gives the possibility for combining the functions of electricity generation with water distillation. The brine heater of the multi-stage flash distillation plant can be supplied with steam after partial expansion through a turbine. Such an arrangement allows the use of a standard nuclear steam supply system and makes fuller use of the energy output than would either single purpose role. The LWR represents a safe, reliable and economic system, and is easily able to provide heat of a quality adequate for the desalination process. (M.S.)

  11. Effects of a dual-purpose bacterial inoculant on the fermentation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of a dual-purpose bacterial inoculant on the fermentation characteristics of high-moisture maize silage and dairy cattle performance. ... Inoculation did not affect the nutritive value or the aerobic stability of the maize silage, but increased the neutral detergent and acid detergent fibre fractions of the silage. However ...

  12. The UK approach to desalination and nuclear power dual purpose operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, O.

    1974-01-01

    Nuclear desalination is a particular example of dual purpose operation and the majority of desalting units installed around the world are operated in this way. A nuclear dual purpose concept has to be very large if present economic reactor designs are utilised. It is the size which has defeated the concept to date. Present fossil fired dual purpose installations are either in an economic situation (generally low fuel cost) where the inefficiencies introduced by operating away from the optimum water/power ratio are acceptable or, if optimised, the water and power blocks are small enough to allow introduction into the existing utility networks. As part of the United Kingdom, Water Resources Board (WRB) report 'Desalination 1972' the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and WRB identified nine coastal sites in the United Kingdom where nuclear power stations might be built during the next 15 years. The difficulties of dual purpose operation were recognised in the report, including additional water storage to cover the summer shutdown (turbine overhaul) period, modification of station design to facilitate the extraction of steam, etc. More seriously, as a given power station had higher fuelling costs relative to the newer station, the electrical utility might require compensation for continuing to operate it because of the associated desalting plant. Taking account of these factors and the replacement of the lost electricity production from other, maybe less efficient stations on the system

  13. New perspectives and opportunities for improving reproduction in dual purpose cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galina, C S; Rubio, I [Departamento de Reproduccion Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2001-05-01

    Traditionally, cattle raised under the tropical conditions of the lowland tropics have been dedicated to beef production. However, in the last years, considerable interest has been given to milk production. Hence, the logical step has been the development of dual purpose cattle, thus avoiding losing the income generated by the sale of beef. This concept is particularly important, as the introduction of specialised dairy breeds has mainly proved an unsatisfactory solution to increase milk production in the area. Dual purpose systems, however, have been limited due to poor reproductive performance and are facing considerable dilemmas such as: a) degree of heterosis needed in the cattle for optimal production and adaptability to the tropics; b) suitable management systems, i.e. dual purpose cattle where the main income is beef and milk production is just an added bonus, or conversely, where milk is the main income for the farmer; c) insufficient economical resources of the farmer, those with only subsistence levels as opposed to farmers with certain investment capacity; d) choice of breeding systems, artificial insemination versus natural mating; e) implementation of feeding practices, capacity to implement strategic supplementation in contrast to cattle raised almost exclusively at pasture; and f) adequate marketing of dairy products in the tropics. These considerations related to the strength and weaknesses of dual systems are discussed in this review. (author)

  14. New perspectives and opportunities for improving reproduction in dual purpose cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galina, C.S.; Rubio, I.

    2001-01-01

    Traditionally, cattle raised under the tropical conditions of the lowland tropics have been dedicated to beef production. However, in the last years, considerable interest has been given to milk production. Hence, the logical step has been the development of dual purpose cattle, thus avoiding losing the income generated by the sale of beef. This concept is particularly important, as the introduction of specialised dairy breeds has mainly proved an unsatisfactory solution to increase milk production in the area. Dual purpose systems, however, have been limited due to poor reproductive performance and are facing considerable dilemmas such as: a) degree of heterosis needed in the cattle for optimal production and adaptability to the tropics; b) suitable management systems, i.e. dual purpose cattle where the main income is beef and milk production is just an added bonus, or conversely, where milk is the main income for the farmer; c) insufficient economical resources of the farmer, those with only subsistence levels as opposed to farmers with certain investment capacity; d) choice of breeding systems, artificial insemination versus natural mating; e) implementation of feeding practices, capacity to implement strategic supplementation in contrast to cattle raised almost exclusively at pasture; and f) adequate marketing of dairy products in the tropics. These considerations related to the strength and weaknesses of dual systems are discussed in this review. (author)

  15. Rechargeable dual-metal-ion batteries for advanced energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Hu-Rong; You, Ya; Yin, Ya-Xia; Wan, Li-Jun; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2016-04-14

    Energy storage devices are more important today than any time before in human history due to the increasing demand for clean and sustainable energy. Rechargeable batteries are emerging as the most efficient energy storage technology for a wide range of portable devices, grids and electronic vehicles. Future generations of batteries are required to have high gravimetric and volumetric energy, high power density, low price, long cycle life, high safety and low self-discharge properties. However, it is quite challenging to achieve the above properties simultaneously in state-of-the-art single metal ion batteries (e.g. Li-ion batteries, Na-ion batteries and Mg-ion batteries). In this contribution, hybrid-ion batteries in which various metal ions simultaneously engage to store energy are shown to provide a new perspective towards advanced energy storage: by connecting the respective advantages of different metal ion batteries they have recently attracted widespread attention due to their novel performances. The properties of hybrid-ion batteries are not simply the superposition of the performances of single ion batteries. To enable a distinct description, we only focus on dual-metal-ion batteries in this article, for which the design and the benefits are briefly discussed. We enumerate some new results about dual-metal-ion batteries and demonstrate the mechanism for improving performance based on knowledge from the literature and experiments. Although the search for hybrid-ion batteries is still at an early age, we believe that this strategy would be an excellent choice for breaking the inherent disadvantages of single ion batteries in the near future.

  16. Structural dimensioning of dual purpose cask prototype; Dimensionamento estrutural de prototipo de casco de duplo proposito

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luiz Leite da; Mourao, Rogerio Pimenta; Lopes, Claudio Cunha [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: silvall@cdtn.br; mouraor@cdtn.br; ccl@cdtn.br

    2005-07-01

    The structural dimensioning of a Type B(U) dual purpose cask prototype is part of the scope of work of the Brazilian institute CDTN in the IAEA regional project involving Latin American countries which operate research reactors (Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Peru). In order to meet the dimensional and operational characteristics of the reactor facilities in these countries, a maximum weight of 10.000 kgf and a maximum dimension of 1 m in at least one direction were set for the cask. With these design restrictions, the cask's payload is either 21 MTR or 78 TRIGA fuel elements. The cask's most important components are main body, primary and secondary lids, basket and impact limiters. The main body has a sandwich-like wall with internal and external layers made of AISI 304 stainless steel with lead in-between. The lead provides biological shielding. The primary lid is similarly layered, but in the axial direction. It is provided with a double system of metallic rings and has ports for pressurization, sampling and containment verification. The secondary lid has the main function of protecting the primary lid against mechanical impacts. The basket structure is basically a tube array reinforced by bottom plate, feet and spacers. Square tubes are used for MTR elements and circular tubes for TRIGA elements. Finally, the impact limiters are structures made of an external stainless steel thin covering and a filling made of the wood composite OSB - Oriented Strand Board. The prototype is provided with bottom and top impact limiters, which are attached to each other by means of four threaded rods. The limiters are not rigidly attached to the cask body. A half scale cask model was designed to be submitted to a testing program. As its volume scales down to 1:8, the model weight is 1,250 kgf. This paper presents the methodology for the preliminary structural dimensioning of the critical parameters of the cask prototype. Both normal conditions of operation and

  17. Exploring metal artifact reduction using dual-energy CT with pre-metal and post-metal implant cadaver comparison: are implant specific protocols needed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, Ruud H. H.; Donders, Johanna C. E.; Kloen, Peter; Beenen, Ludo F. M.; Kleipool, Roeland P.; Maas, Mario; Streekstra, Geert J.

    2017-01-01

    To quantify and optimize metal artifact reduction using virtual monochromatic dual-energy CT for different metal implants compared to non-metal reference scans. Dual-energy CT scans of a pair of human cadaver limbs were acquired before and after implanting a titanium tibia plate, a stainless-steel

  18. Basket criticality design of a dual purpose cask for VVER 1000 spent fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rezaeian, Mahdi [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kamali, Jamshid [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Dual purpose cask technology is one of the most prominent options for interim storage of spent fuels following their removal from reactors. Criticality safety of the spent fuel assemblies are ensured by design of the basket within these casks. In this study, a set of criticality design calculations of a dual purpose cask for 12 VVER 1000 spent fuel assemblies of Bushehr nuclear power plant were carried out. The basket material of borated stainless steel with 0.5 to 2.5 wt% of boron and Boral (Al-B{sub 4}C) with 1.5 to 40 wt% of boron carbide, were investigated and the minimum required receptacle pitch of the basket was determined. Using the calculated receptacle pitch of the basket, the minimum required diameter of the cavity could be established.

  19. Systems studies of dual purpose electric/synthetic fuels fusion plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsworth, E.; Powell, J.

    1975-02-01

    A reactor power plant is proposed that can meet base load electrical demand, while the remainder can generate synthetic fuels and meet intermittent electrical demands. Two principal objectives of this study are: (1) to examine how strongly various economic demand and resource factors affect the amount of installed CTR capacity, and (2) to examine what increase in CTR capacity can be expected with dual purpose electric/synthetic fuel fusion plants, and also the relative importance of the different production modes

  20. Nutritional value of dual-purpose wheat genotypes pastures under grazing by dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Pase Quatrin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In the south of Brazil, one of the major limitations to milk production is the low forage availability during autumn and early winter. The use of dual-purpose wheat genotypes is one alternative to minimize the impact of low forage availability in addition to produce grains. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value of two dual-purpose wheat genotypes (BRS Tarumã and BRS Umbu. Structural composition and forage nitrogen uptake were evaluated. The nutritional value of the forage was analyzed for mineral matter (MM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, crude protein (CP, total digestible nutrients (TDN, in situ organic matter digestibility (ISOMD and in situ dry matter digestibility (ISDMD. Differences in NDF (49.03 vs. 46.44%, CP (24.4 vs. 27.4%, ISOMD (83.53 vs. 85.45%, ISDMD (83.59 vs. 86.65% and TDN (75.37 vs. 78.39 for BRS Umbu and BRS Tarumã genotypes were detected, respectively. The BRS Umbu genotype had a lower leaf blade proportion and forage nitrogen uptake. The dual-purpose wheat genotype BRS Tarumã was superior in nutritive value.

  1. Nitrogen fertilization for wheat growing in dual purpose integrated system of agricultural production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éderson Luis Henz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there are numerous arrangements of Integrated Systems of Agricultural Production, due, the particularities of each region and/or rural enterprise. The use of dual-purpose species such as, for example, BRS Tarumã® wheat further intensifies the system, because there is plant-animal production in a short time. Study aimed to evaluate the production and chemical composition of dual purpose wheat pastures managed with different DAN during periods of spikelet terminal (ST and anthesis (AN, aiming crop production (pasture and grain and animal (milk and / or meat. The experimental randomized block design with five treatments (0, 75, 150, 225 e 300 Kg de N ha-1, in the form of ammonium nitrate and four replications. The average biomass values before the first and the second grazing were respectively: 2,164 and 2,127 kg DM per hectare and the waste of about 824 and 1,772 kg of DM per hectare and the daily average accumulation rate between the two grazing DM was 86 kg per hectare at 17 day intervals. The variables, number of spikes per square meter, grain number per square meter, thousand grain weight, hectoliter weight and grain yield did not differ (P>0.05 between treatments. Nitrogen fertilization increases linearly (P=0.0017 the size of the spikes depending on nitrogen rates. For the linear variable layering increased (P=0.0001, indicating the susceptibility of the crop to high levels of nitrogen. The application of nitrogen fertilizer levels in dual purpose grazed wheat before the spikelet terminal stage and anthesis does not influence on grain yield variables. The nitrogen fertilization on wheat double purpose must be fractionated at tillering and after each grazing increasing the remobilization rate of nitrogen by culture.

  2. Influence of sowing dates on phenological development and yield of dual purpose wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsif, F.; Arif, M.; Ali, K.

    2015-01-01

    Dual-purpose wheat is getting recognition among community in diverse farming systems. Success of the system depends on management decisions regarding appropriate sowing dates, choice of cultivars, harvesting time and stage. A comprehensive understanding of how these factors influence the growth and phenology of dual purpose wheat is needed for comparison of grain only wheat to dual purpose system to feed the ever increasing population under this system. The existing higher yielding varieties (Saleem-2000, Bathoor-2007, Fakhre Sarhad-99, Uqab-2000, Siran-2008, and Ghaznavi-98) of wheat were sown on various planting dates from early to normal (15th, 30th October and 14th November) and were given cut after 70 days of sowing. The experiment was arranged in randomized complete block design having split plot arrangement with three replications. Results of the study indicated that booting, heading and physiological maturity were significantly influenced by planting dates, among the cultivars and cutting imposed 70 days after sowing. Mid October sowing prolonged booting, heading, anthesis, maturity and had long stature plants and higher grain yield than sowing in mid November. Uqab-2000 booted, headed and reached to anthesis and maturity earlier followed by Ghaznavi-98, Bathoor-2007 and Saleem-2000. Uqab-2000 and Siran-2008 had higher grain yield than other cultivars. Booting, heading, anthesis and maturity were significantly delayed in cutting as compared to no cut plots. Wheat varieties Bathoor-2007, Uqab-2000 and Fakhre Sarhad-99 produced taller plants compared to Saleem-2000. It is concluded that early sowing on mid October had prolonged phenological traits and higher yield of wheat with long stature plants than later sowing (15th November) and variety Fakhre Sarhad-99 unlike Uqab-2000 was late with respect to phenological development. Cutting prior to stem elongation had not delayed the maturity from three days without substantial yield reduction which revealed that

  3. Distribution pattern assessment of a dual-purpose disc agrochemical applicator for field crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Abubakar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A dual-purpose disc agrochemical applicator for field crops was developed to boost agricultural mechanization in crop production and also to overcome the safety concern of hazardous spray drift during agrochemical application by the field crop farmers. The dual purpose agrochemical applicator was mounted on a high clearance tractor and tested with respect to the granular fertilizer distribution patterns uniformity/liquid chemical uniformity of droplet sizes in spraying of the agrochemical. Results for NPK granular chemical indicated that, at low (50 kg/ha and high (150 kg/ha application rates with 550 rpm disc speed, distribution patterns skewed to the left whereas the distribution pattern at medium (100 kg/ha application rates was good flattop. Also at high application rate with 1000 rpm disc speed, mean distribution pattern became poor (W-shape. For the liquid chemical herbicide HC 48 amine liquid, the mean values of volume median diameter (VMD and number median diameter (NMD were 108 µm and 80 µm at 90 lt/ha application rate at 5000 rpm rotary disc speed, and also 344 and 222 µm at 30 lt/ha application rate with 2000 rpm rotary disc speed. The mean values of coefficient of uniformity for droplet sizes expressed as VMD/NMD found in this study were in the range of 1.35 to 1.55 for HC amine 48 liquid chemical.

  4. Dual-plane ultrasound flow measurements in liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Büttner, Lars; Nauber, Richard; Burger, Markus; Czarske, Jürgen; Räbiger, Dirk; Franke, Sven; Eckert, Sven

    2013-01-01

    An ultrasound measurement system for dual-plane, two-component flow velocity measurements especially in opaque liquids is presented. Present-day techniques for measuring local flow structures in opaque liquids disclose considerable drawbacks concerning line-wise measurement of single ultrasound probes. For studying time-varying flow patterns, conventional ultrasound techniques are either limited by time-consuming mechanical traversing or by the sequential operation of single probes. The measurement system presented within this paper employs four transducer arrays with a total of 100 single elements which allows for flow mapping without mechanical traversing. A high frame rate of several 10 Hz has been achieved due to an efficient parallelization scheme using time-division multiplexing realized by a microcontroller-based electronic switching matrix. The functionality and capability of the measurement system are demonstrated on a liquid metal flow at room temperature inside a cube driven by a rotating magnetic field (RMF). For the first time, the primary and the secondary flow have been studied in detail and simultaneously using a configuration with two crossed measurement planes. The experimental data confirm predictions made by numeric simulation. After a sudden switching on of the RMF, inertial oscillations of the secondary flow were observed by means of a time-resolved measurement with a frame rate of 3.4 Hz. The experiments demonstrate that the presented measurement system is able to investigate complex and transient flow structures in opaque liquids. Due to its ability to study the temporal evolution of local flow structures, the measurement system could provide considerable progress for fluid dynamics research, in particular for applications in the food industry or liquid metal technologies. (paper)

  5. Dual-plane ultrasound flow measurements in liquid metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büttner, Lars; Nauber, Richard; Burger, Markus; Räbiger, Dirk; Franke, Sven; Eckert, Sven; Czarske, Jürgen

    2013-05-01

    An ultrasound measurement system for dual-plane, two-component flow velocity measurements especially in opaque liquids is presented. Present-day techniques for measuring local flow structures in opaque liquids disclose considerable drawbacks concerning line-wise measurement of single ultrasound probes. For studying time-varying flow patterns, conventional ultrasound techniques are either limited by time-consuming mechanical traversing or by the sequential operation of single probes. The measurement system presented within this paper employs four transducer arrays with a total of 100 single elements which allows for flow mapping without mechanical traversing. A high frame rate of several 10 Hz has been achieved due to an efficient parallelization scheme using time-division multiplexing realized by a microcontroller-based electronic switching matrix. The functionality and capability of the measurement system are demonstrated on a liquid metal flow at room temperature inside a cube driven by a rotating magnetic field (RMF). For the first time, the primary and the secondary flow have been studied in detail and simultaneously using a configuration with two crossed measurement planes. The experimental data confirm predictions made by numeric simulation. After a sudden switching on of the RMF, inertial oscillations of the secondary flow were observed by means of a time-resolved measurement with a frame rate of 3.4 Hz. The experiments demonstrate that the presented measurement system is able to investigate complex and transient flow structures in opaque liquids. Due to its ability to study the temporal evolution of local flow structures, the measurement system could provide considerable progress for fluid dynamics research, in particular for applications in the food industry or liquid metal technologies.

  6. Carcass and meat quality of dual-purpose chickens (Lohmann Dual, Belgian Malines, Schweizerhuhn) in comparison to broiler and layer chicken types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S; Kreuzer, M; Siegrist, M; Mannale, K; Messikommer, R E; Gangnat, I D M

    2018-05-18

    Currently, there is an intensive ethical discussion about the practice of culling day-old layer cockerels. One solution to avoid this practice could be using dual-purpose types, where males are fattened for meat and females used for egg production. The aim of the present study was to compare fattening performance, carcass conformation, and composition as well as meat quality of Lohmann Dual, a novel dual-purpose type, and 2 traditional dual-purpose types (Belgian Malines and Schweizerhuhn) with 2 broiler types and 1 layer type (Lohmann Brown Plus). Broilers included a conventional line (Ross PM3) and a slower-growing line (Sasso 51) fulfilling requirements of organic farming. Nine birds of each type were fed on a conventional broiler diet. Feed intake and metabolizability of nitrogen and energy were recorded per pen (n = 3), the latter through excreta sampling. For each bird, carcass conformation was assessed, and weights of body, carcass, breast meat, legs, wings, and inner organs were determined. Additionally, breast angle, an indicator for carcass appeal, and skin color were recorded. Meat quality assessment included determinations of thaw and cooking loss, shear force, meat color, and proximate composition of the breast meat. None of the dual-purpose types (20 to 30 g ADG) performed as well in growth as the intensively growing broiler line (68 g ADG). However, Lohmann Dual could compete with the slower-growing broiler line (slower growth but better feed efficiency, similar in carcass weight and breast proportion). Also breast angle was quite similar between Lohmann Dual (100°) and the extensive broiler type (115°C) compared to the intensive broiler line (180°). Meat quality was most favorable in the intensive broilers with the smallest shear force and thawing loss, whereas meat quality was not different between the other types. The Schweizerhuhn performed only at the level of the layer hybrid, and the Belgian Malines was ranked only slightly better.

  7. Dosimetric Evaluation of Metal Artefact Reduction using Metal Artefact Reduction (MAR) Algorithm and Dual-energy Computed Tomography (CT) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laguda, Edcer Jerecho

    Purpose: Computed Tomography (CT) is one of the standard diagnostic imaging modalities for the evaluation of a patient's medical condition. In comparison to other imaging modalities such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), CT is a fast acquisition imaging device with higher spatial resolution and higher contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for bony structures. CT images are presented through a gray scale of independent values in Hounsfield units (HU). High HU-valued materials represent higher density. High density materials, such as metal, tend to erroneously increase the HU values around it due to reconstruction software limitations. This problem of increased HU values due to metal presence is referred to as metal artefacts. Hip prostheses, dental fillings, aneurysm clips, and spinal clips are a few examples of metal objects that are of clinical relevance. These implants create artefacts such as beam hardening and photon starvation that distort CT images and degrade image quality. This is of great significance because the distortions may cause improper evaluation of images and inaccurate dose calculation in the treatment planning system. Different algorithms are being developed to reduce these artefacts for better image quality for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. However, very limited information is available about the effect of artefact correction on dose calculation accuracy. This research study evaluates the dosimetric effect of metal artefact reduction algorithms on severe artefacts on CT images. This study uses Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI)-based MAR algorithm, projection-based Metal Artefact Reduction (MAR) algorithm, and the Dual-Energy method. Materials and Methods: The Gemstone Spectral Imaging (GSI)-based and SMART Metal Artefact Reduction (MAR) algorithms are metal artefact reduction protocols embedded in two different CT scanner models by General Electric (GE), and the Dual-Energy Imaging Method was developed at Duke University. All three

  8. The effect of MSF operating conditions in a dual purpose plant on the system flexibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bedrose, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    Methods used to combine MSF (Multistage Flash Evaporator) to a nuclear power plant are studied and evaluated. While the back pressure turbine scheme is better for base load, the ''steam extraction in condensing turbine'' scheme is more flexible with partial load. Simple thermodynamic relations are used to study the effect of changing the water demand and the top brine temperature (TBT) on the specific energy consumption per ton of product water. The energy cost of product water in a typical dual purpose plant design is calculated for each scheme using recirculation type MSF. In the calculations, it is assumed that the energy consumed in the MSF is compensated by additional steam supplied to the turbine from the Nuclear Steam Supply Steam (NSSS). The cost of energy consumed by recirculation pumps and air ejectors is taken into consideration. (author). 18 refs, 6 figs

  9. Post-partum ovarian activity in adult and first-calf dual purpose cows in Guatemala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordonez, H.; Gatica, A.; Miranda, J.; Matamoros, R.

    1990-01-01

    Progesterone (P 4 ) levels in skin milk were determined in two groups of dual purpose cows from farms in the Department of Escuintla on the south coast of Guatemala. Fifteen adult cows (crosses of Criollo with Zebu and Brown Swiss) were selected on the first farm and ten first-calf heifers (crosses of Criollo with Zebu and Holstein) on the second; both groups were considered to be representative of dual purpose livestock (milk and meat producers) in the country. To study the resumption of ovarian activity post-partum, milk samples were taken once a week from 10 days after calving until the first natural service; thereafter, sampling continued twice-weekly for 60 more days when the animals were rectally palpated for pregnancy diagnosis. On farm 1, the mean interval from calving to first rise in P 4 levels indicative of ovarian function was 42±16.7 days; all the study cows were at third calving and resumed cyclicity. On farm 2, only 30% of the study heifers resumed cyclicity and these had an interval from calving to first rise in P 4 of 80±28.9 days; all were at first calving. On farm 1, 73% of cows were served during first oestrus, 13% at second oestrus and 13% at the third. On farm 2, only 30% (3/10) of cows were served at first oestrus; the other 70% did not show signs of ovarian activity during the trial period which lasted until day 129 post-partum. Palpation of the cows 60 days post-service showed that all cows had conceived on farm 1 but only 20% on farm 2. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs

  10. Economic evaluation of dual purpose desalination plants by fuel type in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seung-Su, Kim; Man-Ki, Lee

    2007-01-01

    In light of the recent rapid increase in the fossil fuel prices it is meaningful to evaluate the impact of these price changes in the economics of dual-purpose desalination projects producing electricity and fresh water simultaneously. The price of crude oil and LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) has increased by about 200% and 100% during the past three or four years. The uranium price has also increased by nearly 500% during the same period. The purpose of this paper is to analyze and compare the economics of SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor) which is being developed as a small size PWR type and the LNG Combine Cycle coupled with MED (Multi-Effect Distillation) which are being acknowledged as promising energy sources for the future in Korea. The methods of analysis used in this paper are the lifetime leveled cost method for the power and water cost calculation and the power credit method for the total cost allocation. DEEP (Devaluation Economic Evaluation Program) developed by IAEA was used to perform an economic comparison between the two dual-purpose desalination projects. From the results of the analysis it is found that the desalination by SMART-MED is much superior to that of LNG CC-MED under the current economic and technical situations. It is also shown that the relative superiority of SMART-MED to LNG CC-MED will be maintained even in case where an increase in the uranium price and the SMART construction cost would reach a maximum in the sensitivity analysis. In the case that the discount rate declines to 5% per year, the relative attractiveness of SMART-MED which is a capital intensive plant will be enhanced when compared to that for a 7% discount rate. In addition to this, it is thought that a nuclear energy source will be favored much more than now in the field of desalination if the regulations for the emission of greenhouse gases are to be strengthened. (authors)

  11. Lamellar zirconium phosphates to host metals for catalytic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Plata, Daniel; Infantes-Molina, Antonia; Rodríguez-Aguado, Elena; Braos-García, Pilar; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique

    2018-02-27

    In the present study a porous lamellar zirconium phosphate heterostructure (PPH) formed from zirconium(iv) phosphate expanded with silica galleries (P/Zr molar ratio equal to 2 and (Si + Zr)/P equal to 3) was prepared to host noble metals. Textural and structural characterization of PPH-noble metal materials was carried out in order to elucidate the location and dispersion of the metallic particles and the properties of the resulting material to be used in catalytic processes. In the present paper, their activity in the catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reaction of dibenzofuran (DBF) was evaluated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) evidenced that the structure of the pillared zirconium phosphate material was not modified by the incorporation of Pt and Pd. Moreover, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed a different dispersion of the noble metal. The acidity of the resulting PPH-noble metal materials also changed, although in all cases the acidity was of weak nature, and the incorporation of noble metals affected Brønsted acid sites as observed from 31 P NMR spectra. In general, the textural, structural and acidic properties of the resulting materials suggest that PPH can be considered a good candidate to be used as a catalytic support. Thus, the catalytic results of the PPH-noble metal samples indicated that the Pd sample showed a stable behavior probably ascribed to a high dispersion of the active phase. However, the Pt sample suffered from fast deactivation. The selectivity to the reaction products was strongly dependent on the noble metal employed.

  12. A commentary on domestic animals as dual-purpose models that benefit agricultural and biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J J; Roberts, R M; Palmer, G H; Bauman, D E; Bazer, F W

    2008-10-01

    Research on domestic animals (cattle, swine, sheep, goats, poultry, horses, and aquatic species) at land grant institutions is integral to improving the global competitiveness of US animal agriculture and to resolving complex animal and human diseases. However, dwindling federal and state budgets, years of stagnant funding from USDA for the Competitive State Research, Education, and Extension Service National Research Initiative (CSREES-NRI) Competitive Grants Program, significant reductions in farm animal species and in numbers at land grant institutions, and declining enrollment for graduate studies in animal science are diminishing the resources necessary to conduct research on domestic species. Consequently, recruitment of scientists who use such models to conduct research relevant to animal agriculture and biomedicine at land grant institutions is in jeopardy. Concerned stakeholders have addressed this critical problem by conducting workshops, holding a series of meetings with USDA and National Institutes of Health (NIH) officials, and developing a white paper to propose solutions to obstacles impeding the use of domestic species as dual-purpose animal models for high-priority problems common to agriculture and biomedicine. In addition to shortfalls in research support and human resources, overwhelming use of mouse models in biomedicine, lack of advocacy from university administrators, long-standing cultural barriers between agriculture and human medicine, inadequate grantsmanship by animal scientists, and a scarcity of key reagents and resources are major roadblocks to progress. Solutions will require a large financial enhancement of USDA's Competitive Grants Program, educational programs geared toward explaining how research using agricultural animals benefits both animal agriculture and human health, and the development of a new mind-set in land grant institutions that fosters greater cooperation among basic and applied researchers. Recruitment of

  13. Dual Mechanism Nonlinear Response of Selected Metal Organic Chromophores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peak, John D

    2007-01-01

    13 The goal for the research described herein is the development of a series of transition metal based metal organic chromophores that display both two-photon and excited state absorption (TPA/ESA) character...

  14. Overlap in genomic variation associated with milk fat composition in Holstein Friesian and Dutch native dual-purpose breeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maurice - Van Eijndhoven, M.H.T.; Bovenhuis, H.; Veerkamp, R.F.; Calus, M.P.L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify if genomic variations associated with fatty acid (FA) composition are similar between the Holstein-Friesian (HF) and native dual-purpose breeds used in the Dutch dairy industry. Phenotypic and genotypic information were available for the breeds Meuse-Rhine-Yssel

  15. Quantification and Multi-purpose Allocation of Water Resources in a Dual-reservoir System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salami, Y. D.

    2017-12-01

    Transboundary rivers that run through separate water management jurisdictions sometimes experience competitive water usage. Where the river has multiple existing or planned dams along its course, quantification and efficient allocation of water for such purposes as hydropower generation, irrigation for agriculture, and water supply can be a challenge. This problem is even more pronounced when large parts of the river basin are located in semi-arid regions known for water insecurity, poor crop yields from irrigation scheme failures, and human population displacement arising from water-related conflict. This study seeks to mitigate the impacts of such factors on the Kainji-Jebba dual-reservoir system located along the Niger River in Africa by seasonally quantifying and efficiently apportioning water to all stipulated uses of both dams thereby improving operational policy and long-term water security. Historical storage fluctuations (18 km3 to 5 km3) and flows into and out of both reservoirs were analyzed for relationships to such things as surrounding catchment contribution, dam operational policies, irrigation and hydropower requirements, etc. Optimum values of the aforementioned parameters were then determined by simulations based upon hydrological contributions and withdrawals and worst case scenarios of natural and anthropogenic conditions (like annual probability of reservoir depletion) affecting water availability and allocation. Finally, quantification and optimized allocation of water was done based on needs for hydropower, irrigation for agriculture, water supply, and storage evacuation for flood control. Results revealed that water supply potential increased by 69%, average agricultural yield improved by 36%, and hydropower generation increased by 54% and 66% at the upstream and downstream dams respectively. Lessons learned from this study may help provide a robust and practical means of water resources management in similar river basins and multi

  16. Improving productivity through the use of artificial insemination in dual purpose farms in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, S.; Perez, E.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify the major causes of inefficiency in the AI services provided to dual-purpose farms in the region of Tilaran, Guanacaste. The study included four representative farms from the region, where AI was done on a routine basis in which 80 to 100 first services were done annually. The overall conception rate (CR) was 42.7% (271/635) and was significantly influenced by three variables: lactation, oestrus signs and technician. Cows that were inseminated during their lactation number 5 had 2.17 times greater chance of getting pregnant (P<0.001) than cows inseminated during any other lactation. Cows inseminated after detecting oestrus because they were mounting others had 1.2 less chance to get pregnant than those detected by standing heat, but those cows detected by other signs such as restlessness or bellowing had 1.8 more opportunity to get pregnant than those detected by standing heat. The interval from calving to first service was 114.1 days and three variables had significant (P<0.05) effects on this interval: farm, calving season and lactation. Cows calving during the rainy season had a shorter interval than those calving in the dry season. There was a significant difference between the first lactation and the others. Only lactation had significant effect on first service CR. It was concluded that farm type, lactation, season, and heat signs were the most important factors having an influence on the efficiency of AI. Variables involved are closely related to management and should be targeted in future work aimed at improving reproductive efficiency. (author)

  17. Metal artefact reduction in gemstone spectral imaging dual-energy CT with and without metal artefact reduction software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Han; Song, Ho-Taek; Kim, Sungjun; Suh, Jin-Suck; Park, Kwan Kyu

    2012-01-01

    To assess the usefulness of gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) dual-energy CT (DECT) with/without metal artefact reduction software (MARs). The DECTs were performed using fast kV-switching GSI between 80 and 140 kV. The CT data were retro-reconstructed with/without MARs, by different displayed fields-of-view (DFOV), and with synthesised monochromatic energy in the range 40-140 keV. A phantom study of size and CT numbers was performed in a titanium plate and a stainless steel plate. A clinical study was performed in 26 patients with metallic hardware. All images were retrospectively reviewed in terms of the visualisation of periprosthetic regions and the severity of beam-hardening artefacts by using a five-point scale. The GSI-MARs reconstruction can markedly reduce the metal-related artefacts, and the image quality was affected by the prosthesis composition and DFOV. The spectral CT numbers of the prosthesis and periprosthetic regions showed different patterns on stainless steel and titanium plates. Dual-energy CT with GSI-MARs can reduce metal-related artefacts and improve the delineation of the prosthesis and periprosthetic region. We should be cautious when using GSI-MARs because the image quality was affected by the prosthesis composition, energy (in keV) and DFOV. The metallic composition and size should be considered in metallic imaging with GSI-MARs reconstruction. circle Metal-related artefacts can be troublesome on musculoskeletal computed tomography (CT). circle Gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) with dual-energy CT (DECT) offers a novel solution circle GSI and metallic artefact reduction software (GSI-MAR) can markedly reduce these artefacts. circle However image quality is influenced by the prosthesis composition and other parameters. circle We should be aware about potential overcorrection when using GSI-MARs. (orig.)

  18. Self-aligned metallization on organic semiconductor through 3D dual-layer thermal nanoimprint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Y; Cheng, X

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution patterning of metal structures on organic semiconductors is important to the realization of high-performance organic transistors for organic integrated circuit applications. The traditional shadow mask technique has a limited resolution, precluding sub-micron metal structures on organic semiconductors. Thus organic transistors cannot benefit from scaling into the deep sub-micron region to improve their dc and ac performances. In this work, we report an efficient multiple-level metallization on poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with a deep sub-micron lateral gap. By using a 3D nanoimprint mold in a dual-layer thermal nanoimprint process, we achieved self-aligned two-level metallization on P3HT. The 3D dual-layer thermal nanoimprint enables the first metal patterns to have suspending side-wings that can clearly define a distance from the second metal patterns. Isotropic and anisotropic side-wing structures can be fabricated through two different schemes. The process based on isotropic side-wings achieves a lateral-gap in the order of 100 nm (scheme 1). A gap of 60 nm can be achieved from the process with anisotropic side-wings (scheme 2). Because of the capability of nanoscale metal patterning on organic semiconductors with high overlay accuracy, this self-aligned metallization technique can be utilized to fabricate high-performance organic metal semiconductor field-effect transistor. (paper)

  19. Economic values for health and feed efficiency traits of dual-purpose cattle in marginal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupová, Z; Krupa, E; Michaličková, M; Wolfová, M; Kasarda, R

    2016-01-01

    Economic values of clinical mastitis, claw disease, and feed efficiency traits along with 16 additional production and functional traits were estimated for the dairy population of the Slovak Pinzgau breed using a bioeconomic approach. In the cow-calf population (suckler cow population) of the same breed, the economic values of feed efficiency traits along with 15 further production and functional traits were calculated. The marginal economic values of clinical mastitis and claw disease incidence in the dairy system were -€ 70.65 and -€ 26.73 per case per cow and year, respectively. The marginal economic values for residual feed intake were -€ 55.15 and -€ 54.64/kg of dry matter per day for cows and breeding heifers in the dairy system and -€ 20.45, -€ 11.30, and -€ 6.04/kg of dry matter per day for cows, breeding heifers, and fattened animals in the cow-calf system, respectively, all expressed per cow and year. The sums of the relative economic values for the 2 new health traits in the dairy system and for residual feed intake across all cattle categories in both systems were 1.4 and 8%, respectively. Within the dairy production system, the highest relative economic values were for milk yield (20%), daily gain of calves (20%), productive lifetime (10%), and cow conception rate (8%). In the cow-calf system, the most important traits were weight gain of calves from 120 to 210 d and from birth to 120 d (19 and 14%, respectively), productive lifetime (17%), and cow conception rate (13%). Based on the calculation of economic values for traits in the dual-purpose Pinzgau breed, milk production and growth traits remain highly important in the breeding goal, but their relative importance should be adapted to new production and economic conditions. The economic importance of functional traits (especially of cow productive lifetime and fertility) was sufficiently high to make the inclusion of these traits into the breeding goal necessary. An increased interest

  20. IAEA'S International Working Group on Integrated Transport and Storage Safety case for Dual Purpose Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumano, Yumiko; Varley, Kasturi; ); Droste, Bernhard; Wolff, Dietmar; Hirose, Makoto; Harvey, John; Reiche, Ingo; McConnell, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuel is generated from the operation of nuclear reactors and it is imperative that it is safely managed following its removal from reactor cores. Reactor pools are usually designed based on the assumption that the fuel will be removed after a short period of time either for reprocessing, disposal, or further storage. As a result of storing higher burn-up fuel, significantly increased time-frame till disposal solutions are prepared, and delays in decisions on strategies for spent fuel management, the volume of spent fuel discharged from reactors which needs to be managed and stored is on the increase. Consequently, additional storage capacity is needed following the initial storage in reactor pools. Options for additional storage include wet storage or dry storage in a dedicated facility or in storage casks. One of these options is the use of a Dual Purpose Cask (DPC), which is a specially designed cask for both storage and transport. The management of spent fuel using a DPC generally involves on-site and off-site transportation before and after storage. Most countries require package design approval for the DPC to be transported. In addition, it is required in many countries to have a licence for storage of the spent fuel in the DPC or a licence for a storage facility that contains DPCs. Therefore, demonstration of compliance of the DPC with national and international transport regulations as well as with the storage requirements is necessary. In order to address this increasing need among Member States, the IAEA established an international working group in 2010 to develop a guidance for integrating safety cases for both storage and transport in a holistic manner. The working group consists of experts from regulatory bodies, Technical Support Organizations, operators for both transportation and storage, and research institutes. This activity is planned to be completed by 2013. Currently, a technical report has been drafted and is expected to be

  1. 30 CFR 206.181 - How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accounting purposes when I do not process the gas? 206.181 Section 206.181 Mineral Resources MINERALS... Processing Allowances § 206.181 How do I establish processing costs for dual accounting purposes when I do not process the gas? Where accounting for comparison (dual accounting) is required for gas production...

  2. Dual energy CT inspection of a carbon fibre reinforced plastic composite combined with metal components

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vavřík, Daniel; Jakůbek, J.; Kumpová, Ivana; Pichotka, M.

    6, Part B, November (2016), s. 47-55 ISSN 2214-6571 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-07210S Keywords : dual energy computed tomography * carbon fibre reinforced plastic composite * metal artefact suppression Subject RIV: JI - Composite Material s http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214657116300107

  3. The water treatment in the dual-purpose nuclear plants of Babcock and Wilcox with straight pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynova, O.I.

    1978-01-01

    A report is given on water processing and water chemistry in the dual-purpose nuclear power plants (as compared to the single-purpose nuclear power plants) of Babcock and Wilcox, with flow steam generators with straight pipes. The most important materials, especially regarding their corrosion resistance, and the water composition during 'hot' start-up of the Okonie-I power plant, the quality factors of the feedwater, the water quality factors of the steam generator with fast start-up and the experience with numerous corrosion-caused defects in steam generator pipes are dealt with from the aspect of optimum water processing and successful continuous operation. (HK) [de

  4. Overlap in genomic variation associated with milk fat composition in Holstein Friesian and Dutch native dual-purpose breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurice-Van Eijndhoven, M H T; Bovenhuis, H; Veerkamp, R F; Calus, M P L

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify if genomic variations associated with fatty acid (FA) composition are similar between the Holstein-Friesian (HF) and native dual-purpose breeds used in the Dutch dairy industry. Phenotypic and genotypic information were available for the breeds Meuse-Rhine-Yssel (MRY), Dutch Friesian (DF), Groningen White Headed (GWH), and HF. First, the reliability of genomic breeding values of the native Dutch dual-purpose cattle breeds MRY, DF, and GWH was evaluated using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) effects estimated in HF, including all SNP or subsets with stronger associations in HF. Second, the genomic variation of the regions associated with FA composition in HF (regions on Bos taurus autosome 5, 14, and 26), were studied in the different breeds. Finally, similarities in genotype and allele frequencies between MRY, DF, GWH, and HF breeds were assessed for specific regions associated with FA composition. On average across the traits, the highest reliabilities of genomic prediction were estimated for GWH (0.158) and DF (0.116) when the 8 to 22 SNP with the strongest association in HF were included. With the same set of SNP, GEBV for MRY were the least reliable (0.022). This indicates that on average only 2 (MRY) to 16% (GWH) of the genomic variation in HF is shared with the native Dutch dual-purpose breeds. The comparison of predicted variances of different regions associated with milk and milk fat composition showed that breeds clearly differed in genomic variation within these regions. Finally, the correlations of allele frequencies between breeds across the 8 to 22 SNP with the strongest association in HF were around 0.8 between the Dutch native dual-purpose breeds, whereas the correlations between the native breeds and HF were clearly lower and around 0.5. There was no consistent relationship between the reliabilities of genomic prediction for a specific breed and the correlation between the allele frequencies of this breed

  5. Exploring metal artifact reduction using dual-energy CT with pre-metal and post-metal implant cadaver comparison: are implant specific protocols needed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellenberg, Ruud H H; Donders, Johanna C E; Kloen, Peter; Beenen, Ludo F M; Kleipool, Roeland P; Maas, Mario; Streekstra, Geert J

    2017-08-25

    To quantify and optimize metal artifact reduction using virtual monochromatic dual-energy CT for different metal implants compared to non-metal reference scans. Dual-energy CT scans of a pair of human cadaver limbs were acquired before and after implanting a titanium tibia plate, a stainless-steel tibia plate and a titanium intramedullary nail respectively. Virtual monochromatic images were analyzed from 70 to 190 keV. Region-of-interest (ROI), used to determine fluctuations and inaccuracies in CT numbers of soft tissues and bone, were placed in muscle, fat, cortical bone and intramedullary tibia canal. The stainless-steel implant resulted in more pronounced metal artifacts compared to both titanium implants. CT number inaccuracies in 70 keV reference images were minimized at 130, 180 and 190 keV for the titanium tibia plate, stainless-steel tibia plate and titanium intramedullary nail respectively. Noise, measured as the standard deviation of pixels within a ROI, was minimized at 130, 150 and 140 keV for the titanium tibia plate, stainless-steel tibia plate and titanium intramedullary nail respectively. Tailoring dual-energy CT protocols using implant specific virtual monochromatic images minimizes fluctuations and inaccuracies in CT numbers in bone and soft tissues compared to non-metal reference scans.

  6. Decomposition of dual hydroxyapatite/fluoroapatite coatings on metal substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, M.; Evans, J.H.; Wentrup-Byrne, E.

    2000-01-01

    In order to prevent the formation of tricalcium phosphate (TCP), a relatively weak and rapidly biodegradable biomaterial, during sintering of hydroxyapatite (Hap) onto metal substrates, a novel two layer coating was applied. This was achieved by pre-coating the substrate with either Hap or fluorapatite (Fap) which preserved the purity of the Hap top coating. However, Fap is more stable thermally than Hap. The composition of Hap and Fap were determined by x-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy. A scanning electron microscope was also used to characterise the surface morphologiy of the coatings. By using Fap the formation of TCP was totally prevented through out the coatings at a sintering temperature of 1050 deg C at which a relatively dense Hap outer coating was produced. Copyright (2000) The Australian Ceramic Society

  7. Advanced development in phytochemicals analysis of medicine and food dual purposes plants used in China (2011-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Ge, Li-Ya; Xiong, Wei; Leong, Fong; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Shao-Ping

    2016-01-08

    In 2011, we wrote a review for summarizing the phytochemical analysis (2006-2010) of medicine and food dual purposes plants used in China (Zhao et al., J. Chromatogr. A 1218 (2011) 7453-7475). Since then, more than 750 articles related to their phytochemical analysis have been published. Therefore, an updated review for the advanced development (2011-2014) in this topic is necessary for well understanding the quality control and health beneficial phytochemicals in these materials, as well as their research trends. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of Various Morpho-Physiological and Growth Traits of Dual Purpose Wheat under Early Sowing Dates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsif, F.; Arif, M.; Rasul, F.

    2016-01-01

    The use of wheat as dual purpose crop (for fodder and grain) is considered as promising agronomic management practice fulfilling human and animal need at same time. These expectations are largely found on positive experiences by growing wheat as dual purpose crop throughout the world. However, the validity of these results in Pakistan needs confirmation from field experiments under various sowing date and potential cultivars. The impact of cutting and sowing date on morphological and physiological traits of already existing wheat cultivars was evaluated at Agricultural Research Farm of The University of Agriculture, Peshawar Pakistan in winter 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. Three sowing dates i.e. 15th October, 30th October and 14th November and six wheat cultivars (Ghaznavi-98, Fakhre-Sarhad (FS)-99, Ghaznavi-98, Saleem-2000, Uqab-2000 and Siran-2008) were compared for dual purpose wheat production during the course of experiment. Findings showed that significant reduction were recorded in nodes tiller/sup -1/, plant height, spike weight and grains weight spike/sup -1/ when sowing of wheat delayed from 15th and 30th October to 15th November. Considerable variations were also noted in nodes tiller/sup -1/, internodes length and leaf area index, plant height and lodging score among wheat cultivars but it was mainly due to their genetic characteristic not because of cutting treatment. It was observed that cutting caused 5.5, 12.1, 6.2, 4.1, 25.9, 7.1,6.6% reduction in wheat leaf area, leaf area index, internode length, plant height, lodging score, spike weight and grains weight spike/sup -1/, respectively over non cut plots in both year of the experiment. Interestingly, no-significant change was noted in spike length and number of nodes tiller/sup -1/ under cut and no cut plots. The conclusive findings suggested that optimum sowing date (15th and 30th October) for all wheat cultivars could be utilized as potential source of dual purpose wheat for substantial reduction of

  9. Assembling a supercapacitor electrode with dual metal oxides and activated carbon using a liquid phase plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Seo Jin; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Park, Young-Kwon; Park, Hyunwoong; Jeong, Sangmin; Lee, Heon; Jung, Sang-Chul

    2017-12-01

    Developing supercapacitor electrodes at an affordable cost while improving their energy and/or power density values is still a challenging task. This study introduced a recipe which assembled a novel electrode composite using a liquid phase plasma that was applied to a reactant solution containing an activated carbon (AC) powder with dual metal precursors of iron and manganese. A comparison was made between the composites doped with single and dual metal components as well as among those synthesized under different precursor concentrations and plasma durations. The results showed that increasing the precursor concentration and plasma duration raised the content of both metal oxides in the composites, whereas the deposition conditions were more favorable to iron oxide than manganese oxide, due to its higher standard potential. The composite treated with the longest plasma duration and highest manganese concentration was superior to the others in terms of cyclic stability and equivalent series resistance. In addition, the new composite selected out of them showed better electrochemical performance than the raw AC material only and even two types of single metal-based composites, owing largely to the synergistic effect of the two metal oxides. Therefore, the proposed methodology can be used to modify existing and future composite electrodes to improve their performance with relatively cheap host and guest materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Design and development of CAMAC 12 bit ADC/DAC dual purpose module

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, S.G.; Gore, J.A.; Ramlal, V.; Matkar, U.V.; Lokare, R.N.; Yadav, M.L.; Ekambaram, M.; Gupta, A.K.; Datar, V.M.

    2013-01-01

    A dual function CAMAC module is designed for Pelletron Accelerator which can function as 12 bit 8 channels DAC or 12 bit 16 channels ADC. Spartan 2 series of FPGA is used for implementing the CAMAC interface logic as well as logic for ADC/DAC interface. The PCB has both the ADC and DAC mounted but the module can have only one function selected due to wiring constraint. Two different VHDL programs (one for the ADC and other for the DAC) reside on the EEPROM permitting selection of any one as per the functionality required. The module is working as a 12 bit DAC at BARC-TIFR Pelletron Linac Facility, successfully. (author)

  11. Metal oxide/hydroxide-coated dual-media filter for simultaneous removal of bacteria and heavy metals from natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahammed, M Mansoor; Meera, V

    2010-09-15

    The present study was conducted to compare the performance of a dual-media filter consisting of manganese oxide-coated (MOCS) and iron hydroxide-coated sand (IOCS) with that of IOCS filter and uncoated sand filter in treating water contaminated by microorganisms, heavy metals and turbidity with a view to its use in simple household water purification devices in developing countries. Long-duration column tests were conducted using two natural waters namely, roof-harvested rainwater and canal water. Performance of the filters showed that dual-media filter was more efficient in removing bacteria and heavy metals compared to IOCS filter, while uncoated sand filter showed very poor performance. The average effluent levels for dual-media filter when tested with rainwater were: turbidity 1.0+/-0.1 NTU; total coliforms 3+/-2 MPN/100 mL; heterotrophic plate count 170+/-20 CFU/mL; zinc 0.06+/-0.01 mg/L, while that for IOCS filter were: turbidity 1.0+/-0.1 NTU; total coliforms 4+/-2 MPN/100 mL; heterotrophic plate count 181+/-37 CFU/mL; zinc 0.20+/-0.07 mg/L. Similar results were obtained for canal water also. Up to 900 bed volumes (BV) could be treated without affecting the efficiency in the case of rainwater, while the filter operation had to be terminated after 500 BV due to excessive headloss in the case of canal water. The study thus showed the potential of the dual-media for use in low-cost household water filters for purification of natural waters. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: TaN wet etch for application in dual-metal-gate integration technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yongliang, Li; Qiuxia, Xu

    2009-12-01

    Wet-etch etchants and the TaN film method for dual-metal-gate integration are investigated. Both HF/HN O3/H2O and NH4OH/H2O2 solutions can etch TaN effectively, but poor selectivity to the gate dielectric for the HF/HNO3/H2O solution due to HF being included in HF/HNO3/H2O, and the fact that TaN is difficult to etch in the NH4OH/H2O2 solution at the first stage due to the thin TaOxNy layer on the TaN surface, mean that they are difficult to individually apply to dual-metal-gate integration. A two-step wet etching strategy using the HF/HNO3/H2O solution first and the NH4OH/H2O2 solution later can fully remove thin TaN film with a photo-resist mask and has high selectivity to the HfSiON dielectric film underneath. High-k dielectric film surfaces are smooth after wet etching of the TaN metal gate and MOSCAPs show well-behaved C-V and Jg-Vg characteristics, which all prove that the wet etching of TaN has little impact on electrical performance and can be applied to dual-metal-gate integration technology for removing the first TaN metal gate in the PMOS region.

  13. Fluorescence and Magnetic Resonance Dual-Modality Imaging-Guided Photothermal and Photodynamic Dual-Therapy with Magnetic Porphyrin-Metal Organic Framework Nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Li, Yu-Hao; Chen, Yang; Wang, Man-Man; Wang, Xue-Sheng; Yin, Xue-Bo

    2017-03-01

    Phototherapy shows some unique advantages in clinical application, such as remote controllability, improved selectivity, and low bio-toxicity, than chemotherapy. In order to improve the safety and therapeutic efficacy, imaging-guided therapy seems particularly important because it integrates visible information to speculate the distribution and metabolism of the probe. Here we prepare biocompatible core-shell nanocomposites for dual-modality imaging-guided photothermal and photodynamic dual-therapy by the in situ growth of porphyrin-metal organic framework (PMOF) on Fe3O4@C core. Fe3O4@C core was used as T2-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and photothermal therapy (PTT) agent. The optical properties of porphyrin were well remained in PMOF, and PMOF was therefore selected for photodynamic therapy (PDT) and fluorescence imaging. Fluorescence and MR dual-modality imaging-guided PTT and PDT dual-therapy was confirmed with tumour-bearing mice as model. The high tumour accumulation of Fe3O4@C@PMOF and controllable light excitation at the tumour site achieved efficient cancer therapy, but low toxicity was observed to the normal tissues. The results demonstrated that Fe3O4@C@PMOF was a promising dual-imaging guided PTT and PDT dual-therapy platform for tumour diagnosis and treatment with low cytotoxicity and negligible in vivo toxicity.

  14. Shock loading characteristics of Zr and Ti metals using dual beam velocimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, A. K., E-mail: a-saxena@barc.gov.in; Kaushik, T. C.; Gupta, Satish C. [Applied Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2015-08-21

    The characteristics of titanium and zirconium metal foils under shock loading have been studied up to 16 GPa and 12 GPa pressure, respectively, using portable electric gun setup as projectile launcher. In these experiments, the capabilities of a single Fabry-Perot velocimeter have been enhanced by implementing it in dual beam mode to record the two velocity profiles on a single streak camera. The measured equation of state data for both the metals have been found to be well in agreement with the reported Hugoniot, within experimental accuracies. A phase transition from α to ω phase has been detected near to 11.4 GPa for titanium and 8.2 GPa for zirconium in the rising part of target-glass interface velocity profile.

  15. Mechanism of optical unidirectional transmission in subwavelength dual-metal gratings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, H.; Zheng, Z. Y.; Hao, H. Y.; Dong, A. G.; Fan, Z. J.; Liu, D. H.

    2014-03-01

    The mechanism of optical unidirectional (OUD) transmission in parallel subwavelength dual-metal gratings was investigated. It was found that this kind of OUD phenomenon originates from the coupling of the surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) between the front grating and a layer of metal film which replaces the rear grating. The higher the intensity of the coupled SPPs at the entrances of the rear grating, the higher the transmittance can be achieved. Basing on this property, an effective OUD example was achieved by exploring the intensity difference at the entrances of the rear gratings between the two incidences of opposite directions. In this kind of OUD, the positive transmittance can exceed 80 % and the difference between the transmittances of the two opposite directions can be as large as 63 %. The detailed design process was also presented.

  16. Dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems that treat wastewater and produce biodiesel and chemical products within a biorefinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olguín, Eugenia J

    2012-01-01

    Excess greenhouse gas emissions and the concomitant effect on global warming have become significant environmental, social and economic threats. In this context, the development of renewable, carbon-neutral and economically feasible biofuels is a driving force for innovation worldwide. A lot of effort has been put into developing biodiesel from microalgae. However, there are still a number of technological, market and policy barriers that are serious obstacles to the economic feasibility and competitiveness of such biofuels. Conversely, there are also a number of business opportunities if the production of such alternative biofuel becomes part of a larger integrated system following the Biorefinery strategy. In this case, other biofuels and chemical products of high added value are produced, contributing to an overall enhancement of the economic viability of the whole integrated system. Additionally, dual purpose microalgae-bacteria-based systems for treating wastewater and production of biofuels and chemical products significantly contribute to a substantial saving in the overall cost of microalgae biomass production. These types of systems could help to improve the competitiveness of biodiesel production from microalgae, according to some recent Life Cycle Analysis studies. Furthermore, they do not compete for fresh water resources for agricultural purposes and add value to treating the wastewater itself. This work reviews the most recent and relevant information about these types of dual purpose systems. Several aspects related to the treatment of municipal and animal wastewater with simultaneous recovery of microalgae with potential for biodiesel production are discussed. The use of pre-treated waste or anaerobic effluents from digested waste as nutrient additives for weak wastewater is reviewed. Isolation and screening of microalgae/cyanobacteria or their consortia from various wastewater streams, and studies related to population dynamics in mixed cultures

  17. Dominance genetic and maternal effects for genetic evaluation of egg production traits in dual-purpose chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasouri, M; Zamani, P; Alijani, S

    2017-10-01

    1. A study was conducted to study direct dominance genetic and maternal effects on genetic evaluation of production traits in dual-purpose chickens. The data set consisted of records of body weight and egg production of 49 749 Mazandaran fowls from 19 consecutive generations. Based on combinations of different random effects, including direct additive and dominance genetic and maternal additive genetic and environmental effects, 8 different models were compared. 2. Inclusion of a maternal genetic effect in the models noticeably improved goodness of fit for all traits. Direct dominance genetic effect did not have noticeable effects on goodness of fit but simultaneous inclusion of both direct dominance and maternal additive genetic effects improved fitting criteria and accuracies of genetic parameter estimates for hatching body weight and egg production traits. 3. Estimates of heritability (h 2 ) for body weights at hatch, 8 weeks and 12 weeks of age (BW0, BW8 and BW12, respectively), age at sexual maturity (ASM), average egg weights at 28-32 weeks of laying period (AEW), egg number (EN) and egg production intensity (EI) were 0.08, 0.21, 0.22, 0.22, 0.21, 0.09 and 0.10, respectively. For BW0, BW8, BW12, ASM, AEW, EN and EI, proportion of dominance genetic to total phenotypic variance (d 2 ) were 0.06, 0.08, 0.01, 0.06, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.07 and maternal heritability estimates (m 2 ) were 0.05, 0.04, 0.03, 0.13, 0.21, 0.07 and 0.03, respectively. Negligible coefficients of maternal environmental effect (c 2 ) from 0.01 to 0.08 were estimated for all traits, other than BW0, which had an estimate of 0.30. 4. Breeding values (BVs) estimated for body weights at early ages (BW0 and BW8) were considerably affected by components of the models, but almost similar BVs were estimated by different models for higher age body weight (BW12) and egg production traits (ASM, AEW, EN and EI). Generally, it could be concluded that inclusion of maternal effects (both genetic and

  18. Choice of optimum size of installations for dual-purpose production of desalted water and electricity, using nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaussens, J.

    1966-01-01

    The author used a method starting with water and power demand curves; this leads to the rational allocation of production costs to water and power within a given market. The power demand curve is needed as it seems improbable to sell at a constant price the enormous quantity of electricity produced by a dual purpose plant. Criteria based on principles of classical economics, help to select objectively desalination methods and plant sizes. On these criteria, normative methods for tariffing action of water and power can be based, while adhering as closely as possible to structure of demand. Examples of such criteria are the maximum profit of the supplier or the maximum satisfaction of the consumers taken collectively. In the first case marginal costs must be equated to marginal revenue, in the second one marginal cost to marginal satisfaction (theory of surpluses). The plant size often determines the choice of desalination process. Therefore the shape of the water demand curve and the economic criterion adopted (public or private ownership, capital restrictions etc.) often determine in this way both size and type of plant. Before deciding on the desalination technique, market surveys and rather subtle economic analyses are therefore necessary. (author) [fr

  19. A New Dual-purpose Quality Control Dosimetry Protocol for Diagnostic Reference-level Determination in Computed Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Mehdi; Parsi, Masoumeh; Sina, Sedigheh

    2018-05-17

    A diagnostic reference level is an advisory dose level set by a regulatory authority in a country as an efficient criterion for protection of patients from unwanted medical exposure. In computed tomography, the direct dose measurement and data collection methods are commonly applied for determination of diagnostic reference levels. Recently, a new quality-control-based dose survey method was proposed by the authors to simplify the diagnostic reference-level determination using a retrospective quality control database usually available at a regulatory authority in a country. In line with such a development, a prospective dual-purpose quality control dosimetry protocol is proposed for determination of diagnostic reference levels in a country, which can be simply applied by quality control service providers. This new proposed method was applied to five computed tomography scanners in Shiraz, Iran, and diagnostic reference levels for head, abdomen/pelvis, sinus, chest, and lumbar spine examinations were determined. The results were compared to those obtained by the data collection and quality-control-based dose survey methods, carried out in parallel in this study, and were found to agree well within approximately 6%. This is highly acceptable for quality-control-based methods according to International Atomic Energy Agency tolerance levels (±20%).

  20. Evaluation of Dual-purpose Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L. Walp. Varieties for Grain and Fodder Production at Shika, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omokanye, AT.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year field study of eight new and one check dual-purpose cowpea varieties was carried out to evaluate their grain and fodder production potential. Germination and seedling establishment were both high and greater than 80%.Mean dry fodder and seed yields varied from 1,262 to 3,598 kg/ha and 528 to 1,149 kg/ha respectively, with varieties IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 72 and TVU 12349 retaining larger amounts (> 50% of fresh green leaves at pod harvest during the dry season. Crude protein (CP content of fodder averaged between 15.2 and 21.6%. There were more pods/plant for varieties IAR 4/48/15-1, IAR 7/180-4-5 and TVU 12349. 100-seed weight was highest with IT89KD-288 and Kananado (check. Fodder yield, pods/plant and leaf content were moderately correlated with seed yield. Results showed that varieties TVU 12349, IT89KD-288, IAR 2/180/4-12 and IAR 4/48/15-1 appeared suitable for both fodder and grain production. The use of appropriate cowpea varieties to enhance farmer income in an integrated production system is suggested.

  1. Complementary contrast media for metal artifact reduction in dual-energy computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Jack W; Edic, Peter M; FitzGerald, Paul F; Torres, Andrew S; Yeh, Benjamin M

    2015-07-01

    Metal artifacts have been a problem associated with computed tomography (CT) since its introduction. Recent techniques to mitigate this problem have included utilization of high-energy (keV) virtual monochromatic spectral (VMS) images, produced via dual-energy CT (DECT). A problem with these high-keV images is that contrast enhancement provided by all commercially available contrast media is severely reduced. Contrast agents based on higher atomic number elements can maintain contrast at the higher energy levels where artifacts are reduced. This study evaluated three such candidate elements: bismuth, tantalum, and tungsten, as well as two conventional contrast elements: iodine and barium. A water-based phantom with vials containing these five elements in solution, as well as different artifact-producing metal structures, was scanned with a DECT scanner capable of rapid operating voltage switching. In the VMS datasets, substantial reductions in the contrast were observed for iodine and barium, which suffered from contrast reductions of 97% and 91%, respectively, at 140 versus 40 keV. In comparison under the same conditions, the candidate agents demonstrated contrast enhancement reductions of only 20%, 29%, and 32% for tungsten, tantalum, and bismuth, respectively. At 140 versus 40 keV, metal artifact severity was reduced by 57% to 85% depending on the phantom configuration.

  2. Potential of multi-purpose liquid metallic fuelled fast reactor (MPFR) as a hydrogen production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, H.; Ninokata, H.; Netchaev, A.; Sawada, T.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear energy is the only effective alternative energy source to fossil fuels in the next century. Therefore future nuclear power plants should satisfy the following three requirements: i) multiple energy conversion capability with high temperature not only for electricity generation but also for hydrogen production, ii) extended siting capability so as to eliminate on-site refuelling, and iii) passive safety features. An aim of this paper is to describe the basic concept of the multi-purpose liquid metallic fuelled fast reactor system (MPFR). The MPFR introduces the U-Pu-X (X: Mn, Fe, Co) liquid metallic alloy with Ta and Ta/TaC structural materials, and satisfies all of the conditions listed above based on the following characteristics of the liquid metallic fuel: high temperature operation between 650 deg C (sodium-cooled system) and 1 200 deg C (lead-cooled system), a core lifetime of 15-30 years without radiation damage of fuel materials, and enhanced passive safety by the thermal expansion of liquid fuel and the avoidance of re-criticality due to local core fuel dispersion at fuel failure events. (authors)

  3. FORAGE OFFER AND INTAKE AND MILK PRODUCTION IN DUAL PURPOSE CATTLE MANAGED UNDER SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEMS IN TEPALCATEPEC, MICHOACAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Manuel Bacab-Pérez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out during the dry season (March to May in three dual-purpose cattle farms located in Tepalcatepec, Michoacan, Mexico, in order to evaluate the forage offer and intake, and milk production in Brown Swiss cows. Two farms had silvopastoral systems with Leucaena leucocephala cv. Cunningham associated with Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, and one of them also included mango trees (Mangifera indica; the third farm had a traditional system with Cynodon plectostachyus in monoculture. In the traditional system, cows were offered 8 kg animal-1 day-1 of concentrate feed during the milking period, and only 1.5 kg animal-1 day-1 in the silvopastoral systems. Edible forage offer in the silvopastoral farms was 2470 and 2693 kg DM ha-1 grazing-1, and in the traditional system it was 948 kg DM ha-1 grazing-1. Forage intake in the silvopastoral systems was 8.25 and 11.81 kg DM animal-1 day-1, whereas in the traditional system it was 3.63 kg DM animal-1 day-1. Milk production in the silvopastoral system was 9.0 and 9.2 kg animal-1 day-1, while in the traditional system it was 10.4 kg animal-1 day-1. The silvopastoral systems with L. leucocephala cv. Cunningham associated with P. maximum cv. Tanzania produced high edible forage offer and allowed to obtain milk yield similar to that of the traditional system with C. plectostachyus in monoculture, but on a lower concentrate feed intake.

  4. Effects of energy supplementation on productivity of dual-purpose cows grazing in a silvopastoral system in the tropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinoco-Magaña, Juan Carlos; Aguilar-Pérez, Carlos Fernando; Delgado-León, Roger; Magaña-Monforte, Juan Gabriel; Ku-Vera, Juan Carlos; Herrera-Camacho, Jose

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate milk yield, postpartum (pp) ovarian activity and pregnancy rate in dual-purpose cows grazing Cynodon nlemfuensis and browsing L. leucocephala, with or without energy supplementation. Twenty-four Bos taurus × B. indicus cows were divided in two groups from calving to 70 days post-calving: supplemented group (SG) with ground sorghum grain offered at 0.4% of live weight at calving and control group (CG) without supplement. There was a trend for milk yield (kg day(-1)) to be greater (p = 0.08) for SG (10.55 ± 0.51) compared to CG (9.53 ± 0.61), although without differences in fat (0.42 ± 0.02 vs. 0.38 ± 0.03 kg day(-1)), protein (0.29 ± 0.02 vs. 0.29 ± 0.02 kg day(-1)) or lactose (0.49 ± 0.02 vs. 0.49 ± 0.03 kg day(-1)) concentration. Populations of large, medium and small follicles were similar between treatments. Percentage of cows which showed corpus luteum tended to be greater in SG (50%), compared to CG (33%). Supplemented cows tended to have a shorter calving-first corpus luteum interval (40 ± 10 vs. 51 ± 10 days) and had a significantly higher (χ (2) = 0.03) pregnancy rate (42% vs. 0%). It is concluded that energy supplementation helped to improve ovarian activity and pregnancy rate. Since supplementation did not avoid loss of body condition, the higher pregnancy rate in SG suggests beneficial effects of supplementation probably mediated by metabolic hormones.

  5. Metal artifact reduction software used with abdominopelvic dual-energy CT of patients with metal hip prostheses: assessment of image quality and clinical feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Chol; Chung, Yong Eun; Lee, Young Han; Park, Kwan Kyu; Kim, Myeong Jin; Kim, Ki Whang

    2014-10-01

    The objective of our study was to determine the feasibility of using Metal Artifact Reduction (MAR) software for abdominopelvic dual-energy CT in patients with metal hip prostheses. This retrospective study included 33 patients (male-female ratio, 19:14; mean age, 63.7 years) who received total hip replacements and 20 patients who did not have metal prostheses as the control group. All of the patients underwent dual-energy CT. The quality of the images reconstructed using the MAR algorithm and of those reconstructed using the standard reconstruction was evaluated in terms of the visibility of the bladder wall, pelvic sidewall, rectal shelf, and bone-prosthesis interface and the overall diagnostic image quality with a 4-point scale. The mean and SD attenuation values in Hounsfield units were measured in the bladder, pelvic sidewall, and rectal shelf. For validation of the MAR interpolation algorithm, pelvis phantoms with small bladder "lesions" and metal hip prostheses were made, and images of the phantoms both with and without MAR reconstruction were evaluated. Image quality was significantly better with MAR reconstruction than without at all sites except the rectal shelf, where the image quality either had not changed or had worsened after MAR reconstruction. The mean attenuation value was changed after MAR reconstruction to its original expected value at the pelvic sidewall (p software with dual-energy CT decreases metal artifacts and increases diagnostic confidence in the assessment of the pelvic cavity but also introduces new artifacts that can obscure pelvic structures.

  6. Computer simulation of void formation in residual gas atom free metals by dual beam irradiation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimomura, Y.; Nishiguchi, R.; La Rubia, T.D. de; Guinan, M.W.

    1992-01-01

    In our recent experiments (1), we found that voids nucleate at vacancy clusters which trap gas atoms such as hydrogen and helium in ion- and neutron-irradiated copper. A molecular dynamics computer simulation, which implements an empirical embedded atom method to calculate forces that act on atoms in metals, suggests that a void nucleation occurs in pure copper at six and seven vacancy clusters. The structure of six and seven vacancy clusters in copper fluctuates between a stacking fault tetrahedron and a void. When a hydrogen is trapped at voids of six and seven vacancy, a void can keep their structure for appreciably long time; that is, the void do not relax to a stacking fault tetrahedron and grows to a large void. In order to explore the detailed atomics of void formation, it is emphasized that dual-beam irradiation experiments that utilize beams of gas atoms and self-ions should be carried out with residual gas atom free metal specimens. (author)

  7. Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flows in manifolds of dual coolant lead lithium blankets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mistrangelo, C., E-mail: chiara.mistrangelo@kit.edu; Bühler, L.

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • MHD flows in model geometries of DCLL blanket manifolds. • Study of velocity, pressure distributions and flow partitioning in parallel ducts. • Flow partitioning affected by 3D MHD pressure drop and velocity distribution in the expanding zone. • Reduced pressure drop in a continuous expansion compared to a sudden expansion. - Abstract: An attractive blanket concept for a fusion reactor is the dual coolant lead lithium (DCLL) blanket where reduced activation steel is used as structural material and a lead lithium alloy serves both to produce tritium and to remove the heat in the breeder zone. Helium is employed to cool the first wall and the blanket structure. Some critical issues for the feasibility of this blanket concept are related to complex induced electric currents and 3D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) phenomena that occur in distributing and collecting liquid metal manifolds. They can result in large pressure drop and undesirable flow imbalance in parallel poloidal ducts forming blanket modules. In the present paper liquid metal MHD flows are studied for different design options of a DCLL blanket manifold with the aim of identifying possible sources of flow imbalance and to predict velocity and pressure distributions.

  8. Experimental assessment on the thermal effects of the neutron shielding and heat-transfer fin of dual purpose casks on open pool fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Kyoung-Sik; Yu, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Ju-Chan; Seo, Ki-Seog; Choi, Woo-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • An open pool fire test was performed to estimate not only the combustion effect of the neutron shielding but also the effect of the heat transfer fin of the dual purpose cask. • The heat transfer to the inside of the dual purpose cask was reduced, when the neutron shielding burns. • The surface temperatures are lower in the present of the heat transfer fins. • If inflammable material is used as the components of the cask, evaluating thermal integrity using the thermal test would be desirable. - Abstract: Dual purpose casks are used for storage and transport of spent nuclear fuel assemblies. They must therefore satisfy the requirements prescribed in the Korea Nuclear Safety Security Commission Act 2014-50, the IAEA Safety Standard Series No. SSR-6, and US 10 CFR Part 71. These regulatory guidelines classify the dual purpose cask as a Type B package and state that a Type B package must be able to withstand a temperature of 800 °C for a period of 30 min. NS-4-FR is used as neutron shielding of the dual purpose cask. Heat transfer fins are embedded to enhance heat transfer from the cask body to the outer-shell because the thermal conductivity of NS-4-FR is not good. However, accurately simulating not only the combustion effect of the neutron shielding but also the effect of the heat transfer fin in the thermal analysis is not easy. Therefore, an open pool fire test was conducted using a one-sixth slice of a real cask to estimate these effects at a temperature of 800 °C for a period of 30 min. The temperature at the central portion of the neutron shielding was lower when the neutron shielding in contact with the outer cask burned because the neutron shielding absorbed the surrounding latent heat as the neutron shielding burned. Therefore, the heat transfer to the inside of the dual purpose cask was reduced. The surface temperature was lower when a heat transfer fin was installed because the high heat generated by the flame was transferred to the

  9. Experimental assessment on the thermal effects of the neutron shielding and heat-transfer fin of dual purpose casks on open pool fire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Kyoung-Sik, E-mail: nksbang@kaeri.re.kr; Yu, Seung-Hwan; Lee, Ju-Chan; Seo, Ki-Seog; Choi, Woo-Seok

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • An open pool fire test was performed to estimate not only the combustion effect of the neutron shielding but also the effect of the heat transfer fin of the dual purpose cask. • The heat transfer to the inside of the dual purpose cask was reduced, when the neutron shielding burns. • The surface temperatures are lower in the present of the heat transfer fins. • If inflammable material is used as the components of the cask, evaluating thermal integrity using the thermal test would be desirable. - Abstract: Dual purpose casks are used for storage and transport of spent nuclear fuel assemblies. They must therefore satisfy the requirements prescribed in the Korea Nuclear Safety Security Commission Act 2014-50, the IAEA Safety Standard Series No. SSR-6, and US 10 CFR Part 71. These regulatory guidelines classify the dual purpose cask as a Type B package and state that a Type B package must be able to withstand a temperature of 800 °C for a period of 30 min. NS-4-FR is used as neutron shielding of the dual purpose cask. Heat transfer fins are embedded to enhance heat transfer from the cask body to the outer-shell because the thermal conductivity of NS-4-FR is not good. However, accurately simulating not only the combustion effect of the neutron shielding but also the effect of the heat transfer fin in the thermal analysis is not easy. Therefore, an open pool fire test was conducted using a one-sixth slice of a real cask to estimate these effects at a temperature of 800 °C for a period of 30 min. The temperature at the central portion of the neutron shielding was lower when the neutron shielding in contact with the outer cask burned because the neutron shielding absorbed the surrounding latent heat as the neutron shielding burned. Therefore, the heat transfer to the inside of the dual purpose cask was reduced. The surface temperature was lower when a heat transfer fin was installed because the high heat generated by the flame was transferred to the

  10. Comparison of the artifacts caused by metallic implants in breast MRI using dual-echo dixon versus conventional fat-suppression techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Yuan; Kipfer, Hal D; Majidi, Shadie S; Holz, Stephanie; Lin, Chen

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to evaluate and compare the artifacts caused by metal implants in breast MR images acquired with dual-echo Dixon and two conventional fat-suppression techniques. Two types of biopsy markers were embedded into a uniform fat-water emulsion. T1-weighted gradient-echo images were acquired on a clinical 3-T MRI scanner with three different fat-suppression techniques-conventional or quick fat saturation, spectrally selective adiabatic inversion recovery (SPAIR), and dual-echo Dixon-and the 3D volumes of artifacts were measured. Among the subjects of a clinical breast MRI study using the same scanner, five patients were found to have one or more metal implants. The artifacts in Dixon and SPAIR fat-suppressed images were evaluated by three radiologists, and the results were compared with those of the phantom study. In the phantom study, the artifacts appeared as interleaved bright and dark rings on SPAIR and quick-fat-saturation images, whereas they appeared as dark regions with a thin bright rim on Dixon images. The artifacts imaged with the Dixon technique had the smallest total volume. However, the reviewers found larger artifact diameters on patient images using the Dixon sequence because only the central region was recognized as an artifact on the SPAIR images. Metal implants introduce artifacts of different types and sizes, according to the different fat-suppression techniques used. The dual-echo Dixon technique produces a larger central void, allowing the implant to be easily identified, but presents a smaller overall artifact volume by obscuring less area in the image, according to a quantitative phantom study.

  11. Plasma-Induced Damage on the Reliability of Hf-Based High-k/Dual Metal-Gates Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, W.T.; Lin, H.C.; Huang, T.Y.; Lee, Y.J.; Lin, H.C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the effects of plasma-induced damage (PID) on Hf-based high-k/dual metal-gates transistors processed with advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. In addition to the gate dielectric degradations, this study demonstrates that thinning the gate dielectric reduces the impact of damage on transistor reliability including the positive bias temperature instability (PBTI) of n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (NMOSFETs) and the negative bias temperature instability (NBTI) of p-channel MOSFETs. This study shows that high-k/metal-gate transistors are more robust against PID than conventional SiO 2 /poly-gate transistors with similar physical thickness. Finally this study proposes a model that successfully explains the observed experimental trends in the presence of PID for high-k/metal-gate CMOS technology.

  12. Quantifying metal artefact reduction using virtual monochromatic dual-layer detector spectral CT imaging in unilateral and bilateral total hip prostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellenberg, R.H.H., E-mail: r.h.wellenberg@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boomsma, M.F., E-mail: m.f.boomsma@isala.nl [Department of Radiology, Isala, Zwolle (Netherlands); Osch, J.A.C. van, E-mail: j.a.c.van.osch@isala.nl [Department of Radiology, Isala, Zwolle (Netherlands); Vlassenbroek, A., E-mail: alain.vlassenbroek@philips.com [Philips Medical Systems, Brussels (Belgium); Milles, J., E-mail: julien.milles@philips.com [Philips Medical Systems, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Edens, M.A., E-mail: m.a.edens@isala.nl [Department of Innovation and Science, Isala, Zwolle (Netherlands); Streekstra, G.J., E-mail: g.j.streekstra@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Slump, C.H., E-mail: c.h.slump@utwente.nl [MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical Medicine, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Maas, M., E-mail: m.maas@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • Dual-layer detector CT reduces metal artefacts at high monochromatic energies (keV). • 130 keV images were optimal based on quantitative analysis on CNRs. • Optimal keVs varied from 74 to 150 keV for different hip prostheses configurations. • The Titanium alloy resulted in less severe artefacts compared to the Cobalt alloy. • Severe metal artefacts, caused by extensive photon-starvation, were not reduced. - Abstract: Purpose: To quantify the impact of prosthesis material and design on the reduction of metal artefacts in total hip arthroplasties using virtual monochromatic dual-layer detector Spectral CT imaging. Methods: The water-filled total hip arthroplasty phantom was scanned on a novel 128-slice Philips IQon dual-layer detector Spectral CT scanner at 120-kVp and 140-kVp at a standard computed tomography dose index of 20.0 mGy. Several unilateral and bilateral hip prostheses consisting of different metal alloys were inserted and combined which were surrounded by 18 hydroxyapatite calcium carbonate pellets representing bone. Images were reconstructed with iterative reconstruction and analysed at monochromatic energies ranging from 40 to 200 keV. CT numbers in Hounsfield Units (HU), noise measured as the standard deviation in HU, signal-to-noise-ratios (SNRs) and contrast-to-noise-ratios (CNRs) were analysed within fixed regions-of-interests placed in and around the pellets. Results: In 70 and 74 keV virtual monochromatic images the CT numbers of the pellets were similar to 120-kVp and 140-kVp polychromatic results, therefore serving as reference. A separation into three categories of metal artefacts was made (no, mild/moderate and severe) where pellets were categorized based on HU deviations. At high keV values overall image contrast was reduced. For mild/moderate artefacts, the highest average CNRs were attained with virtual monochromatic 130 keV images, acquired at 140-kVp. Severe metal artefacts were not reduced. In 130 keV images

  13. Effect of a dual-purpose cask payload increment of spent fuel assemblies from VVER 1000 Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant on basket criticality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaeian, M.; Kamali, J.

    2017-01-01

    Dual-purpose casks can be utilized for dry interim storage and transportation of the highly radioactive spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) of Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Criticality safety analysis was carried out using the MCNP code for the cask containing 12, 18, or 19 SFAs. The basket materials of borated stainless steel and Boral (Al-B_4C) were investigated, and the minimum required receptacle pitch of the basket was determined. - Highlights: • Criticality safety analysis for a dual purpose cask was carried out. • The basket material of borated stainless steel and Boral were investigated. • Minimum receptacle pitch was determined for 12, 18, or 19 VVER 1000 spent fuel assemblies.

  14. Postweaning growth of performance-tested buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis, Artiodactyla, Bovidae) reared under no-milking versus a dual-purpose system

    OpenAIRE

    Bolívar Vergara, Diana M; Cerón-Muñoz, Mario F; Elzo, Mauricio A

    2012-01-01

    Objective: the objective of this study was to compare growth traits in buffaloes reared in farms using a pre-weaning management system with no milking (NM), or a dual-purpose system (DP: meat and milk production). Methods: performance tests were conducted at the Experimental Station of the University of Antioquia, located in Barbosa (Antioquia, Colombia). Buffaloes were confined and fed with fresh Maralfalfa grass (Pennisetum sp.) ad libitum, plus two kilograms of mixed plus two 2 kilograms o...

  15. Dual metal gate tunneling field effect transistors based on MOSFETs: A 2-D analytical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Zeinab; Orouji, Ali A.

    2018-01-01

    A novel 2-D analytical drain current model of novel Dual Metal Gate Tunnel Field Effect Transistors Based on MOSFETs (DMG-TFET) is presented in this paper. The proposed Tunneling FET is extracted from a MOSFET structure by employing an additional electrode in the source region with an appropriate work function to induce holes in the N+ source region and hence makes it as a P+ source region. The electric field is derived which is utilized to extract the expression of the drain current by analytically integrating the band to band tunneling generation rate in the tunneling region based on the potential profile by solving the Poisson's equation. Through this model, the effects of the thin film thickness and gate voltage on the potential, the electric field, and the effects of the thin film thickness on the tunneling current can be studied. To validate our present model we use SILVACO ATLAS device simulator and the analytical results have been compared with it and found a good agreement.

  16. Quantifying metal artefact reduction using virtual monochromatic dual-layer detector spectral CT imaging in unilateral and bilateral total hip prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wellenberg, R. H. H.; Boomsma, M. F.; van Osch, J. A. C.; Vlassenbroek, A.; Milles, J.; Edens, M. A.; Streekstra, G. J.; Slump, C. H.; Maas, M.

    2017-01-01

    To quantify the impact of prosthesis material and design on the reduction of metal artefacts in total hip arthroplasties using virtual monochromatic dual-layer detector Spectral CT imaging. The water-filled total hip arthroplasty phantom was scanned on a novel 128-slice Philips IQon dual-layer

  17. Dual-band linearly and circularly polarized microstrip patch antennas with meandering slot and metallic vias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jin; Lin, Xianqi; Yu, Jiawei

    2018-01-01

    performances. The characteristics are analyzed in detail where we find that the existence of the vias also improves the impedance matching. Four samples are designed, where dual-band with both linear polarization, dual-band with circular- and linear-polarization, and single band with linear polarization...

  18. Electric-Field-Driven Dual Vacancies Evolution in Ultrathin Nanosheets Realizing Reversible Semiconductor to Half-Metal Transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Mengjie; Liu, Youwen; Zhi, Yuduo; Xiao, Chong; Gu, Bingchuan; Hua, Xuemin; Fan, Shaojuan; Lin, Yue; Bai, Wei; Tong, Wei; Zou, Youming; Pan, Bicai; Ye, Bangjiao; Xie, Yi

    2015-12-02

    Fabricating a flexible room-temperature ferromagnetic resistive-switching random access memory (RRAM) device is of fundamental importance to integrate nonvolatile memory and spintronics both in theory and practice for modern information technology and has the potential to bring about revolutionary new foldable information-storage devices. Here, we show that a relatively low operating voltage (+1.4 V/-1.5 V, the corresponding electric field is around 20,000 V/cm) drives the dual vacancies evolution in ultrathin SnO2 nanosheets at room temperature, which causes the reversible transition between semiconductor and half-metal, accompanyied by an abrupt conductivity change up to 10(3) times, exhibiting room-temperature ferromagnetism in two resistance states. Positron annihilation spectroscopy and electron spin resonance results show that the Sn/O dual vacancies in the ultrathin SnO2 nanosheets evolve to isolated Sn vacancy under electric field, accounting for the switching behavior of SnO2 ultrathin nanosheets; on the other hand, the different defect types correspond to different conduction natures, realizing the transition between semiconductor and half-metal. Our result represents a crucial step to create new a information-storage device realizing the reversible transition between semiconductor and half-metal with flexibility and room-temperature ferromagnetism at low energy consumption. The as-obtained half-metal in the low-resistance state broadens the application of the device in spintronics and the semiconductor to half-metal transition on the basis of defects evolution and also opens up a new avenue for exploring random access memory mechanisms and finding new half-metals for spintronics.

  19. Effects of Imide–Orthoborate Dual-Salt Mixtures in Organic Carbonate Electrolytes on the Stability of Lithium Metal Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xing [Energy and Environment; School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Petroleum University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610500, China; Zheng, Jianming [Energy and Environment; Engelhard, Mark H. [Environmental Molecular; Mei, Donghai [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; Li, Qiuyan [Energy and Environment; Jiao, Shuhong [Energy and Environment; Liu, Ning [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99354, United States; State Key Laboratory of Chemical Resource Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing, 100029, China; Zhao, Wengao [Energy and Environment; School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361102, China; Zhang, Ji-Guang [Energy and Environment; Xu, Wu [Energy and Environment

    2018-01-09

    The effects of lithium imide and lithium orthoborate dual-salt electrolytes of different salt chemistries in carbonate solvents on the cycling stability of Li metal batteries were systematically and comparatively investigated. Two imide salts (LiTFSI and LiFSI) and two orthoborate salts (LiBOB and LiDFOB) were chosen for this study and compared with the conventional LiPF6 salt. The cycling stability of the Li metal cells with the electrolytes follows the order from good to poor as LiTFSI-LiBOB > LiTFSI-LiDFOB > LiPF6 > LiFSI-LiBOB > LiFSI-LiDFOB, indicating that LiTFSI behaves better than LiFSI and LiBOB over LiDFOB in these four dual-salt mixtures. The LiTFSI-LiBOB can effectively protect the Al substrate and form a more robust surface film on Li metal anode, while the LiFSI-LiBOB results in serious corrosion to the stainless steel cell case and a thicker and looser surface film on Li anode. Computational calculations indicate that the chemical and electrochemical stabilities also follow the order of LiTFSI-LiBOB > LiTFSI-LiDFOB > LiFSI-LiBOB > LiFSI-LiDFOB. The key findings of this work emphasize that the salt chemistry is critically important for enhancing the interfacial stability of Li metal anode and should be carefully manipulated in the development of high performance Li metal batteries.

  20. Inducing fluorescence of uranyl acetate as a dual-purpose contrast agent for correlative light-electron microscopy with nanometre precision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuijtel, Maarten W; Mulder, Aat A; Posthuma, Clara C; van der Hoeven, Barbara; Koster, Abraham J; Bárcena, Montserrat; Faas, Frank G A; Sharp, Thomas H

    2017-09-05

    Correlative light-electron microscopy (CLEM) combines the high spatial resolution of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with the capability of fluorescence light microscopy (FLM) to locate rare or transient cellular events within a large field of view. CLEM is therefore a powerful technique to study cellular processes. Aligning images derived from both imaging modalities is a prerequisite to correlate the two microscopy data sets, and poor alignment can limit interpretability of the data. Here, we describe how uranyl acetate, a commonly-used contrast agent for TEM, can be induced to fluoresce brightly at cryogenic temperatures (-195 °C) and imaged by cryoFLM using standard filter sets. This dual-purpose contrast agent can be used as a general tool for CLEM, whereby the equivalent staining allows direct correlation between fluorescence and TEM images. We demonstrate the potential of this approach by performing multi-colour CLEM of cells containing equine arteritis virus proteins tagged with either green- or red-fluorescent protein, and achieve high-precision localization of virus-induced intracellular membrane modifications. Using uranyl acetate as a dual-purpose contrast agent, we achieve an image alignment precision of ~30 nm, twice as accurate as when using fiducial beads, which will be essential for combining TEM with the evolving field of super-resolution light microscopy.

  1. Moving the largest capacity PWR dual-purpose cask in the world from Goesgen NPP to the Zwilag interim storage site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delannay, M.; Dudragne, S.

    2002-01-01

    The Swiss Goesgen nuclear power plant (NPP) has decided to use two different methods for the disposal of its spent fuel. (1) To reprocess some of its spent fuel in dedicated facilities. Some of the vitrified waste from the reprocessing will be shipped back to Switzerland using the new COGEMA Logistics, TN81 cask. (2) To ship the other part of its spent fuel to the central interim storage facility of Zwilag (Switzerland) using a COGEMA Logistics dual-purpose TN24G cask. The TN24G is the heaviest and largest dual-purpose cask manufactured so far by COGEMA Logistics in Europe. It is intended for the transport and storage of 37 pressurised water-reactor (PWR) spent fuel assemblies. Four casks were delivered by COGEMA Logistics to Goesgen NPP. Three transports of loaded TN24G casks between Goesgen and Zwilag were successfully performed at the beginning of 2002 with the new COGEMA Logistics Q76 wagon specifically designed to transport heavy casks. This article describes the procedure of operations and shipments for the first TN24G casks up to storage at Zwilag. The fourth transport of loaded TN24G was due to happen in October 2002. The TN24G cask, as part of the TN24 casks family, proved to be a very efficient solution for the KKG spent fuel management. (author)

  2. Frequency-addressed tunable transmission in optically thin metallic nanohole arrays with dual-frequency liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Qingzhen; Zhao Yanhui; Juluri, Bala Krishna; Kiraly, Brian; Huang, Tony Jun; Liou, Justin; Khoo, Iam Choon

    2011-01-01

    Frequency-addressed tunable transmission is demonstrated in optically thin metallic nanohole arrays embedded in dual-frequency liquid crystals (DFLCs). The optical properties of the composite system are characterized by the transmission spectra of the nanoholes, and a prominent transmission peak is shown to originate from the resonance of localized surface plasmons at the edges of the nanoholes. An ∼17 nm shift in the transmission peak is observed between the two alignment configurations of the liquid crystals. This DFLC-based active plasmonic system demonstrates excellent frequency-dependent switching behavior and could be useful in future nanophotonic applications.

  3. Unified analytical threshold voltage model for non-uniformly doped dual metal gate fully depleted silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Rathnamala; Katti, Guruprasad; Havaldar, Dnyanesh S.; DasGupta, Nandita; DasGupta, Amitava

    2009-03-01

    The paper describes the unified analytical threshold voltage model for non-uniformly doped, dual metal gate (DMG) fully depleted silicon-on-insulator (FDSOI) MOSFETs based on the solution of 2D Poisson's equation. 2D Poisson's equation is solved analytically for appropriate boundary conditions using separation of variables technique. The solution is then extended to obtain the threshold voltage of the FDSOI MOSFET. The model is able to handle any kind of non-uniform doping, viz. vertical, lateral as well as laterally asymetric channel (LAC) profile in the SOI film in addition to the DMG structure. The analytical results are validated with the numerical simulations using the device simulator MEDICI.

  4. Possible use of dual purpose dry storage casks for transportation and future storage of spent nuclear fuel from IRT-Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manev, L.; Baltiyski, M.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The main objective of the present paper is related to one of the priority goals stipulated in Bulgarian Governmental Decision No.332 from May 17, 1999 - removal of SNF from IRT-Sofia site and its exporting for reprocessing and/or for temporary storage at Kozloduy NPP site. The variant of using dual purpose dry storage casks for transportation and future temporary storage of SNF from IRT-Sofia aims to find out a reasonable alternative of the existing till now variant for temporary SNF storage under water in the existing Kozloduy NPP Spent Fuel Storage Facility until its export for reprocessing. Results: Based on the given data for the condition of 73 Spent Nuclear Fuel Assemblies (SNFA) stored in the storage pool and technical data as well as data for available equipment and IRT-Sofia layout the following framework are specified: draft technical features of dual purpose dry storage casks and their overall dimensions; the suitability of the available equipment for safety and reliable performance of transportation and handling operations of assemblies from storage pool to dual purpose dry storage casks; the necessity of new equipment for performance of the above mentioned operations; Assemblies' transportation and handling operations are described; requirements to and conditions for future safety and reliable storage of SNFA loaded casks are determined. When selecting the technical solutions for safety assurance during performance of site handling operations of IRT-Sofia and for description of the exemplary casks the Effective Bulgarian Regulations are considered. The experience of other countries in performance of transfer and transportation of SNFA from such types of research reactors is taken into account. Also, Kozloduy NPP experience in SNF handling operations is taken into account. Conclusions: The Decision of Council of Minister for refurbishment of research reactor into a low power one and its future utilization for experimental and training

  5. Adsorption of heavy metals on conventional and nanostructured materials for wastewater treatment purposes: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakov, Alexander E; Galunin, Evgeny V; Burakova, Irina V; Kucherova, Anastassia E; Agarwal, Shilpi; Tkachev, Alexey G; Gupta, Vinod K

    2018-02-01

    The problem of water pollution is of a great concern. Adsorption is one of the most efficient techniques for removing noxious heavy metals from the solvent phase. This paper presents a detailed information and review on the adsorption of noxious heavy metal ions from wastewater effluents using various adsorbents - i.e., conventional (activated carbons, zeolites, clays, biosorbents, and industrial by-products) and nanostructured (fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, graphenes). In addition to this, the efficiency of developed materials for adsorption of the heavy metals is discussed in detail along with the comparison of their maximum adsorption capacity in tabular form. A special focus is made on the perspectives of further wider applications of nanostructured adsorbents (especially, carbon nanotubes and graphenes) in wastewater treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Value of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) for artefact reduction from metallic orthopedic implants in post-mortem studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filograna, Laura; Magarelli, Nicola; Leone, Antonio; Guggenberger, Roman; Winklhofer, Sebastian; Thali, Michael John; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the performance of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) reconstructions to reduce metal artefacts in bodies with orthopedic devices in comparison with standard single-energy CT (SECT) examinations in forensic imaging. Forensic and clinical impacts of this study are also discussed. Thirty metallic implants in 20 consecutive cadavers with metallic implants underwent both SECT and DECT with a clinically suitable scanning protocol. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. Image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the corresponding SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visual rating and measurements of attenuation changes induced by streak artefact. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed statistically significant differences between monoenergetic DECT extrapolated images and SECT, with improvements in diagnostic assessment in monoenergetic DECT at higher monoenergies. The mean value of OPTkeV was 137.6 ± 4.9 with a range of 130 to 148 keV. This study demonstrates that monoenergetic DECT images extrapolated at high energy levels significantly reduce metallic artefacts from orthopedic implants and improve image quality compared to SECT examination in forensic imaging.

  7. Value of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) for artefact reduction from metallic orthopedic implants in post-mortem studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filograna, Laura; Magarelli, Nicola; Leone, Antonio; Bonomo, Lorenzo; Guggenberger, Roman; Winklhofer, Sebastian; Thali, Michael John

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the performance of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) reconstructions to reduce metal artefacts in bodies with orthopedic devices in comparison with standard single-energy CT (SECT) examinations in forensic imaging. Forensic and clinical impacts of this study are also discussed. Thirty metallic implants in 20 consecutive cadavers with metallic implants underwent both SECT and DECT with a clinically suitable scanning protocol. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. Image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the corresponding SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visual rating and measurements of attenuation changes induced by streak artefact. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed statistically significant differences between monoenergetic DECT extrapolated images and SECT, with improvements in diagnostic assessment in monoenergetic DECT at higher monoenergies. The mean value of OPTkeV was 137.6 ± 4.9 with a range of 130 to 148 keV. This study demonstrates that monoenergetic DECT images extrapolated at high energy levels significantly reduce metallic artefacts from orthopedic implants and improve image quality compared to SECT examination in forensic imaging. (orig.)

  8. Value of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) for artefact reduction from metallic orthopedic implants in post-mortem studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filograna, Laura [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Magarelli, Nicola; Leone, Antonio; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Rome (Italy); Guggenberger, Roman; Winklhofer, Sebastian [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Thali, Michael John [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-09-15

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the performance of monoenergetic dual-energy CT (DECT) reconstructions to reduce metal artefacts in bodies with orthopedic devices in comparison with standard single-energy CT (SECT) examinations in forensic imaging. Forensic and clinical impacts of this study are also discussed. Thirty metallic implants in 20 consecutive cadavers with metallic implants underwent both SECT and DECT with a clinically suitable scanning protocol. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. Image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the corresponding SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visual rating and measurements of attenuation changes induced by streak artefact. Qualitative and quantitative analyses showed statistically significant differences between monoenergetic DECT extrapolated images and SECT, with improvements in diagnostic assessment in monoenergetic DECT at higher monoenergies. The mean value of OPTkeV was 137.6 ± 4.9 with a range of 130 to 148 keV. This study demonstrates that monoenergetic DECT images extrapolated at high energy levels significantly reduce metallic artefacts from orthopedic implants and improve image quality compared to SECT examination in forensic imaging. (orig.)

  9. Feasibility study of using thin aluminum nitride film as a buffer layer for dual metal gate process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Seo; Cho, Byung Jin; Balasubramanian, N.; Kwong, Dim-Lee

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of using an ultra thin aluminum nitride (AlN) buffer layer for dual metal gates CMOS process. Since the buffer layer should not affect the thickness of gate dielectric, it should be removed or consumed during subsequent process. In this work, it was shown that a thin AlN dielectric layer would be reacted with initial gate metals and would be consumed during subsequent annealing, resulting in no increase of equivalent oxide thickness (EOT). The reaction of AlN layer with tantalum (Ta) and hafnium (Hf) during subsequent annealing, which was confirmed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, shifted the flat-band voltage of AlN buffered MOS capacitors. No contribution to equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) was also an indication showing the full consumption of AIN, which was confirmed with TEM analysis. The work functions of gate metals were modulated through the reaction, suggesting that the consumption of AlN resulted in new thin metal alloys. Finally, it was found that the barrier heights of the new alloys were consistent with their work functions

  10. Surface treatment of non-ferrous metals for the purpose of gas analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaglia, L.; Weber, G.; Triffaux, J.; Geerts, J.; Audenhove, J. van; Pauwels, J.

    1979-01-01

    The present report is an updating of earlier reports published in 1972 and 1976. Its major improvement compared to the earlier reports is that greater importance has been devoted to quantify the parameters of mechanical shaping techniques to be used with or without subsequent chemical etching. Surface treatments have been studied and standardized for a number of non-ferrous metals. Recommendations were generally made on the basis of the following: the proposed treatment must give a minimum surface content; it must exhibit good reproducibility; it must be easy to perform with equipment normally available in analytical laboratories. The recommended treatments are presented in the form of sheets. They give full information on mechanica shaping parameters if these are important, and -if needed- the subsequent chemical etching conditions. Typical residual surface contents are given for oxygen carbon and nitrogen. They refer to samples freshly prepared. The metals or alloys concerned are: aluminium, aluminium alloyed with 3%, 7% and 13% silicon, copper, lead, nickel, titanium, TiAl 6 V 4 zirconium, tungsten and molybdenum

  11. Investigation of the low-speed impact behavior of dual particle size metal matrix composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerit, Afşın Alper

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • AA2124 matrix composites reinforced with SiC particles were manufactured. • Low-speed impact behaviors of composites were investigated. • Composites were manufactured with single (SPS) and dual particle sizes (DPS). • Impact behaviors of DPS composites are more favorable than the SPS composites. • Approximately 50–60% of input energy was absorbed by the composite samples. - Abstract: SiC-reinforced aluminum matrix composites were manufactured by powder metallurgy using either single or dual particle sized SiC powders and samples sintered under argon atmosphere. Quasi-static loading, low-speed impact tests and hardness tests were used to investigate mechanical behavior and found that dual particle size composites had improved hardness and impact performance compared to single particle size composites. Sample microstructure, particle distributions, plastic deformations and post-testing damages were examined by scanning electron microscopy and identified microstructure agglomerations in SPS composites. Impact traces were characterized by broken and missing SiC particles and plastically deformed composite areas

  12. Synthesis, characterization and application of two-dimensional layered metal hydroxides for environmental remediation purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machingauta, Cleopas

    Two-dimensional layered nano composites, which include layered double hydroxides (LDHs), hydroxy double salts (HDSs) and layered hydroxide salts (LHSs) are able to intercalate different molecular species within their gallery space. These materials have a tunable structural composition which has made them applicable as fire retardants, adsorbents, catalysts, catalyst support materials, and ion exchangers. Thermal treatment of these materials results in destruction of the layers and formation of mixed metal oxides (MMOs) and spinels. MMOs have the ability to adsorb anions from solution and may also regenerate layered structures through a phenomenon known as memory effect. Zinc-nickel hydroxy nitrate was used for the uptake of a series of halogenated acetates (HAs). HAs are pollutants introduced into water systems as by-products of water chlorination and pesticide degradation; their sequestration from water is thus crucial. Optimization of layered materials for controlled uptake requires an understanding of their ion-exchange kinetics and thermodynamics. Exchange kinetics of these anions was monitored using ex-situ PXRD, UV-vis, HPLC and FTIR. It was revealed that exchange rates and uptake efficiencies are related to electronic spatial extents and the charge on carboxyl-oxygen atoms. In addition, acetate and nitrate-based HDSs were used to explore how altering the hydroxide layer affects uptake of acetate/nitrate ions. Changing the metal identities affects the interaction of the anions with the layers. From FTIR, we observed that nitrates coordinate in a D3h and Cs/C 2v symmetry; the nitrates in D3h symmetry were easily exchangeable. Interlayer hydrogen bonding was also revealed to be dependent on metal identity. Substituting divalent cations with trivalent cations produces materials with a higher charge density than HDSs and LHSs. A comparison of the uptake efficiency of zinc-aluminum, zinc-gallium and zinc-nickel hydroxy nitrates was performed using trichloroacetic

  13. Super-resolution nanofabrication with metal-ion doped hybrid material through an optical dual-beam approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Yaoyu; Li, Xiangping; Gu, Min

    2014-01-01

    We apply an optical dual-beam approach to a metal-ion doped hybrid material to achieve nanofeatures beyond the optical diffraction limit. By spatially inhibiting the photoreduction and the photopolymerization, we realize a nano-line, consisting of polymer matrix and in-situ generated gold nanoparticles, with a lateral size of sub 100 nm, corresponding to a factor of 7 improvement compared to the diffraction limit. With the existence of gold nanoparticles, a plasmon enhanced super-resolution fabrication mechanism in the hybrid material is observed, which benefits in a further reduction in size of the fabricated feature. The demonstrated nanofeature in hybrid materials paves the way for realizing functional nanostructures

  14. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Nuclear Envelope Architecture Using Dual-Color Metal-Induced Energy Transfer Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizhik, Anna M; Ruhlandt, Daja; Pfaff, Janine; Karedla, Narain; Chizhik, Alexey I; Gregor, Ingo; Kehlenbach, Ralph H; Enderlein, Jörg

    2017-12-26

    The nuclear envelope, comprising the inner and the outer nuclear membrane, separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm and plays a key role in cellular functions. Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which are embedded in the nuclear envelope, control transport of macromolecules between the two compartments. Here, using dual-color metal-induced energy transfer (MIET), we determine the axial distance between Lap2β and Nup358 as markers for the inner nuclear membrane and the cytoplasmic side of the NPC, respectively. Using MIET imaging, we reconstruct the 3D profile of the nuclear envelope over the whole basal area, with an axial resolution of a few nanometers. This result demonstrates that optical microscopy can achieve nanometer axial resolution in biological samples and without recourse to complex interferometric approaches.

  15. Dual-Emitting UiO-66(Zr&Eu) Metal-Organic Framework Films for Ratiometric Temperature Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ji-Fei; Liu, Tian-Fu; Shi, Jianlin; Gao, Shui-Ying; Cao, Rong

    2018-06-20

    A novel dual-emitting metal-organic framework based on Zr and Eu, named as UiO-66(Zr&Eu), was built using a clever strategy based on secondary building units. With the use of polymers, the obtained UiO-66(Zr&Eu) was subsequently deposited as thin films that can be utilized as smart thermometers. The UiO-66(Zr&Eu) polymer films can be used for the detection of temperature changes in the range of 237-337 K due to the energy transfer between the lanthanide ions (Eu in clusters) and the luminescent ligands, and the relative sensitivity reaches 4.26% K -1 at 337 K. Moreover, the sensitivity can be improved to 19.67% K -1 by changing the film thickness. In addition, the temperature-sensing performance of the films is superior to that of the powders, and the sensor can be reused 3 times without loss of performance.

  16. Dual-Function Metal-Organic Framework as a Versatile Catalyst for Detoxifying Chemical Warfare Agent Simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yangyang; Moon, Su-Young; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-12-22

    The nanocrystals of a porphyrin-based zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) are used as a dual-function catalyst for the simultaneous detoxification of two chemical warfare agent simulants at room temperature. Simulants of nerve agent (such as GD, VX) and mustard gas, dimethyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate and 2-chloroethyl ethyl sulfide, have been hydrolyzed and oxidized, respectively, to nontoxic products via a pair of pathways catalyzed by the same MOF. Phosphotriesterase-like activity of the Zr6-containing node combined with photoactivity of the porphyrin linker gives rise to a versatile MOF catalyst. In addition, bringing the MOF crystals down to the nanoregime leads to acceleration of the catalysis.

  17. Characterization of complementary patterned metallic membranes produced simultaneously by a dual fabrication process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qingzhen; Zeng, Yong; Wang, Xiande; Zhao, Yanhui; Wang, Bei; Chiang, I.-Kao; Werner, Douglas H.; Crespi, Vincent; Huang, Tony Jun

    2010-11-01

    An efficient technique is developed to fabricate optically thin metallic films with subwavelength patterns and their complements simultaneously. By comparing the spectra of the complementary films, we show that Babinet's principle nearly holds for these structures in the optical domain. Rigorous full-wave simulations are employed to verify the experimental observations. It is further demonstrated that a discrete-dipole approximation can qualitatively describe the spectral dependence of the metallic membranes on the geometry of the constituent particles as well as the illuminating polarization.

  18. Semiconductor to metallic transition in bulk accumulated amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide dual gate thin-film transistor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkyu Chun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of top gate voltage (VTG and temperature (in the range of 25 to 70 oC on dual-gate (DG back-channel-etched (BCE amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs characteristics. The increment of VTG from -20V to +20V, decreases the threshold voltage (VTH from 19.6V to 3.8V and increases the electron density to 8.8 x 1018cm−3. Temperature dependent field-effect mobility in saturation regime, extracted from bottom gate sweep, show a critical dependency on VTG. At VTG of 20V, the mobility decreases from 19.1 to 15.4 cm2/V ⋅ s with increasing temperature, showing a metallic conduction. On the other hand, at VTG of - 20V, the mobility increases from 6.4 to 7.5cm2/V ⋅ s with increasing temperature. Since the top gate bias controls the position of Fermi level, the temperature dependent mobility shows metallic conduction when the Fermi level is above the conduction band edge, by applying high positive bias to the top gate.

  19. Semiconductor to metallic transition in bulk accumulated amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide dual gate thin-film transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, Minkyu; Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Jang, Jin, E-mail: jjang@khu.ac.kr [Advanced Display Research Center and Department of Information Display, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    We investigated the effects of top gate voltage (V{sub TG}) and temperature (in the range of 25 to 70 {sup o}C) on dual-gate (DG) back-channel-etched (BCE) amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) characteristics. The increment of V{sub TG} from -20V to +20V, decreases the threshold voltage (V{sub TH}) from 19.6V to 3.8V and increases the electron density to 8.8 x 10{sup 18}cm{sup −3}. Temperature dependent field-effect mobility in saturation regime, extracted from bottom gate sweep, show a critical dependency on V{sub TG}. At V{sub TG} of 20V, the mobility decreases from 19.1 to 15.4 cm{sup 2}/V ⋅ s with increasing temperature, showing a metallic conduction. On the other hand, at V{sub TG} of - 20V, the mobility increases from 6.4 to 7.5cm{sup 2}/V ⋅ s with increasing temperature. Since the top gate bias controls the position of Fermi level, the temperature dependent mobility shows metallic conduction when the Fermi level is above the conduction band edge, by applying high positive bias to the top gate.

  20. Molecular dynamics study of dual-phase microstructure of Titanium and Zirconium metals during the quenching process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Narumasa; Sato, Kazunori; Shibutani, Yoji

    Dual-phase (DP) transformation, which is composed of felite- and/or martensite- multicomponent microstructural phases, is one of the most effective tools to product functional alloys. To obtain this DP structure such as DP steels and other materials, we usually apply thermal processes such as quenching, tempering and annealing. As the transformation dynamics of DP microstructure depends on conditions of temperature, annealing time, and quenching rate, physical properties of materials are able to be tuned by controlling microstructure type, size, their interfaces and so on. In this study, to understand the behavior of DP transformation and to control physical properties of materials by tuning DP microstructures, we analyze the atomistic dynamics of DP transformation during the quenching process and the detail of DP microstructures by using the molecular dynamics simulations. As target metals of DP transformation, we focus on group 4 transition metals, such as Ti and Zr described by EAM interatomic potentials. For Ti and Zr models we perform molecular dynamics simulations by assuming melt-quenching process from 3000 K to 0 K under the isothermal-isobaric ensemble. During the process for each material, we observe liquid to HCP like transition around the melting temperature, and continuously HCP-BCC like transition around martensitic transformation temperature. Furthermore, we clearly distinguish DP microstructure for each quenched model.

  1. Dual Phase Lag Model of Melting Process in Domain of Metal Film Subjected to an External Heat Flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochnacki B.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heating process in the domain of thin metal film subjected to a strong laser pulse are discussed. The mathematical model of the process considered is based on the dual-phase-lag equation (DPLE which results from the generalized form of the Fourier law. This approach is, first of all, used in the case of micro-scale heat transfer problems (the extremely short duration, extreme temperature gradients and very small geometrical dimensions of the domain considered. The external heating (a laser action is substituted by the introduction of internal heat source to the DPLE. To model the melting process in domain of pure metal (chromium the approach basing on the artificial mushy zone introduction is used and the main goal of investigation is the verification of influence of the artificial mushy zone ‘width’ on the results of melting modeling. At the stage of numerical modeling the author’s version of the Control Volume Method is used. In the final part of the paper the examples of computations and conclusions are presented.

  2. Oxygen permeation through oxygen ion oxide-noble metal dual phase composites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, C.S.; Chen, C.S.; Kruidhof, H.; Bouwmeester, Henricus J.M.; Verweij, H.; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1996-01-01

    Oxygen permeation behaviour of three composites, yttria-stabilized zirconia-palladium, erbia-stabilized bismuth oxidenoble metal (silver, gold) was studied. Oxygen permeation measurements were performed under controlled oxygen pressure gradients at elevated temperatures. Air was supplied at one side

  3. Valorization of food waste into hydroxymethylfurfural: Dual role of metal ions in successive conversion steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Iris K M; Tsang, Daniel C W; Yip, Alex C K; Chen, Season S; Ok, Yong Sik; Poon, Chi Sun

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to transform food waste into a value-added chemical, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), and unravel the tangled effects induced by the metal catalysts on each single step of the successive conversion pathway. The results showed that using cooked rice and bread crust as surrogates of starch-rich food waste, yields of 8.1-9.5% HMF and 44.2-64.8% glucose were achieved over SnCl4 catalyst. Protons released from metal hydrolysis and acidic by-products rendered Brønsted acidity to catalyze fructose dehydration and hydrolysis of glycosidic bond. Lewis acid site of metals could facilitate both fructose dehydration and glucose isomerization via promoting the rate-limiting internal hydride shift, with the catalytic activity determined by its electronegativity, electron configuration, and charge density. Lewis acid site of a higher valence also enhanced hydrolysis of polysaccharide. However, the metals also catalyzed undesirable polymerization possibly by polarizing the carbonyl groups of sugars and derivatives, which should be minimized by process optimization. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Novel bis-(−)-nor-meptazinol derivatives act as dual binding site AChE inhibitors with metal-complexing property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Wei [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); NPFPC Key Laboratory of Contraceptives and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xietu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Li, Juan [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Qiu, Zhuibai [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Xia, Zheng [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Li, Wei [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Yu, Lining; Chen, Hailin; Chen, Jianxing [NPFPC Key Laboratory of Contraceptives and Devices, Shanghai Institute of Planned Parenthood Research, 2140 Xietu Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen, Yan; Hu, Zhuqin; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Biyun; Cui, Yongyao [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China); Xie, Qiong, E-mail: xiejoanxq@gmail.com [Department of Medicinal Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Fudan University, 826 Zhangheng Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Chen, Hongzhuan, E-mail: yaoli@shsmu.edu.cn [Department of Pharmacology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine, 280 South Chongqing Road, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2012-10-01

    The strategy of dual binding site acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition along with metal chelation may represent a promising direction for multi-targeted interventions in the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, two derivatives (ZLA and ZLB) of a potent dual binding site AChE inhibitor bis-(−)-nor-meptazinol (bis-MEP) were designed and synthesized by introducing metal chelating pharmacophores into the middle chain of bis-MEP. They could inhibit human AChE activity with IC{sub 50} values of 9.63 μM (for ZLA) and 8.64 μM (for ZLB), and prevent AChE-induced amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation with IC{sub 50} values of 49.1 μM (for ZLA) and 55.3 μM (for ZLB). In parallel, molecular docking analysis showed that they are capable of interacting with both the catalytic and peripheral anionic sites of AChE. Furthermore, they exhibited abilities to complex metal ions such as Cu(II) and Zn(II), and inhibit Aβ aggregation triggered by these metals. Collectively, these results suggest that ZLA and ZLB may act as dual binding site AChEIs with metal-chelating potency, and may be potential leads of value for further study on disease-modifying treatment of AD. -- Highlights: ► Two novel bis-(−)-nor-meptazinol derivatives are designed and synthesized. ► ZLA and ZLB may act as dual binding site AChEIs with metal-chelating potency. ► They are potential leads for disease-modifying treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  5. Novel bis-(−)-nor-meptazinol derivatives act as dual binding site AChE inhibitors with metal-complexing property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Wei; Li, Juan; Qiu, Zhuibai; Xia, Zheng; Li, Wei; Yu, Lining; Chen, Hailin; Chen, Jianxing; Chen, Yan; Hu, Zhuqin; Zhou, Wei; Shao, Biyun; Cui, Yongyao; Xie, Qiong; Chen, Hongzhuan

    2012-01-01

    The strategy of dual binding site acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition along with metal chelation may represent a promising direction for multi-targeted interventions in the pathophysiological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the present study, two derivatives (ZLA and ZLB) of a potent dual binding site AChE inhibitor bis-(−)-nor-meptazinol (bis-MEP) were designed and synthesized by introducing metal chelating pharmacophores into the middle chain of bis-MEP. They could inhibit human AChE activity with IC 50 values of 9.63 μM (for ZLA) and 8.64 μM (for ZLB), and prevent AChE-induced amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregation with IC 50 values of 49.1 μM (for ZLA) and 55.3 μM (for ZLB). In parallel, molecular docking analysis showed that they are capable of interacting with both the catalytic and peripheral anionic sites of AChE. Furthermore, they exhibited abilities to complex metal ions such as Cu(II) and Zn(II), and inhibit Aβ aggregation triggered by these metals. Collectively, these results suggest that ZLA and ZLB may act as dual binding site AChEIs with metal-chelating potency, and may be potential leads of value for further study on disease-modifying treatment of AD. -- Highlights: ► Two novel bis-(−)-nor-meptazinol derivatives are designed and synthesized. ► ZLA and ZLB may act as dual binding site AChEIs with metal-chelating potency. ► They are potential leads for disease-modifying treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  6. The Effect of Feeding Calliandra Calothyrus in Different Patterns as a Supplement to Rhodes Grass Hay on Intake, Nitrogen Utilization and Milk Yield of dual Purpose Goats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kariuki, J.N.

    2002-01-01

    Eighteen dual purpose goats were used to evaluate the effects of feeding Calliandra caryothyrus leaf meal at different patterns as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay on intake, nitrogen utilization and milk yield. A basal diet of low quality Rhodes grass hay (fed at 90% ad libitum) and 100 g maize germ were offered to the goats over a 60-day experimental period. The treatments were:- (T1) 100 g day -1 calliandra for 60 days; (T2) 200 g day -1 calliandra for 30 days followed by another 30 days where 200 g or 0 g day -1 calliandra were alternated every 5 days; and (T3) 200 g or 0 g day -1 alternated every 5 days for 60 days. Total dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly (p -1 for T1, T2 and T3, respectively.Milk Yields had similar trend and averaged 166.1, 231.8 and 201.1 g day -1 for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. The utilization of nitrogen was also significantly (p<0.05) affected by pattern of supplement feeding. It was concluded from the results that the overall animal response could be influenced by how a limited quantity of supplement was fed

  7. Analysis framework to calibrate a numerical model to simulate the thermal test of a 1:2 scale dual purpose cask under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Carlos A.J.; Libardi, Rosani M.P.; Marcelino, Sergio; Oliveira, Carlos Alberto de; Mattar Neto, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    This work describes thermal analysis framework including a 3D model and some 2D models to be performed in a 1:2 scale model of a dual-purpose cask to transport and to store spent fuel elements from research reactors to assess the behavior of the cask structure and materials when submitted to heating and drop tests. The analyses should consider all non-linearities involved like the lead phase change and thermal contacts, beside the variation of material properties with the temperature, the air inside it and the heat transfer phenomena (conduction, convection and irradiation) to reproduce the experimental results already obtained in a 1:2 model. A full 3D finite element model takes several hours to run just one analysis. To speed up the analyses to evaluate the significance of some parameters like the emissivity, contact resistance and heat transfer phenomena, among others, two 2D models are planned: one simulating a vertical cut by a diametral plane and another one simulating a horizontal cut by a plane at the cask half height. These 2D models are predicted to run fast enough to allow several analyses in a short period of time and to define options and the best parameters values to match the already obtained experimental results. As this thermal test can not be extrapolated to an 1:1 scale, these parameter values will be used in the final 3D model analysis and also in the full scale model. (author)

  8. A novel flexible cuff-like microelectrode for dual purpose, acute and chronic electrical interfacing with the mouse cervical vagus nerve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caravaca, A. S.; Tsaava, T.; Goldman, L.; Silverman, H.; Riggott, G.; Chavan, S. S.; Bouton, C.; Tracey, K. J.; Desimone, R.; Boyden, E. S.; Sohal, H. S.; Olofsson, P. S.

    2017-12-01

    Objective. Neural reflexes regulate immune responses and homeostasis. Advances in bioelectronic medicine indicate that electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve can be used to treat inflammatory disease, yet the understanding of neural signals that regulate inflammation is incomplete. Current interfaces with the vagus nerve do not permit effective chronic stimulation or recording in mouse models, which is vital to studying the molecular and neurophysiological mechanisms that control inflammation homeostasis in health and disease. We developed an implantable, dual purpose, multi-channel, flexible ‘microelectrode’ array, for recording and stimulation of the mouse vagus nerve. Approach. The array was microfabricated on an 8 µm layer of highly biocompatible parylene configured with 16 sites. The microelectrode was evaluated by studying the recording and stimulation performance. Mice were chronically implanted with devices for up to 12 weeks. Main results. Using the microelectrode in vivo, high fidelity signals were recorded during physiological challenges (e.g potassium chloride and interleukin-1β), and electrical stimulation of the vagus nerve produced the expected significant reduction of blood levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in endotoxemia. Inflammatory cell infiltration at the microelectrode 12 weeks of implantation was limited according to radial distribution analysis of inflammatory cells. Significance. This novel device provides an important step towards a viable chronic interface for cervical vagus nerve stimulation and recording in mice.

  9. Dual Carbon-Confined SnO2 Hollow Nanospheres Enabling High Performance for the Reversible Storage of Alkali Metal Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qiong; Shao, Qi; Li, Qiang; Duan, Qian; Li, Yanhui; Wang, Heng-Guo

    2018-04-25

    To explore a universal electrode material for the high-performance electrochemical storage of Li + , Na + , and K + ions remains a big challenge. Herein, we propose a "trinity" strategy to coat the SnO 2 hollow nanospheres using the dual carbon layer from the polydopamine-derived nitrogen-doped carbon and graphene. Thereinto, hollow structures with sufficient void space could buffer the volume expansion, whereas dual carbon-confined strategy could not only elastically prevent the aggregation of nanoparticle and ensure the structural integrity but also immensely improve the conductivity and endow high rate properties. Benefiting from the effective strategy and specific structure, the dual carbon-confined SnO 2 hollow nanosphere (denoted as G@C@SnO 2 ) can serve as the universal host material for alkali metal ions and enable their rapid and reversible storage. As expected, the resulting G@C@SnO 2 as a universal anode material shows reversible alkali-metal-ion storage with high performance. We believe this that strategy could pave the way for constructing other metal-oxide-based dual carbon-confined high-performance materials for the future energy storage applications.

  10. Grenade Range Management Using Lime for Dual Role of Metals Immobilization and Explosives Transformation Treatability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Development and Engineering Command, Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, Picatinny Arsenal , NJ 07806-5000 1. ABSTRACT: The importance...2001) and the FRTR (2006) are enhanced bioremediation and phytoremediation . The length of time and the effects of climate on cleanup are...cementitious reaction that stabilizes the metals in the soil. They found that lead, arsenic , mercury, and iron concentrations were very low in the leachate

  11. Metal bacteriochlorins which act as dual singlet oxygen and superoxide generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuzumi, Shunichi; Ohkubo, Kei; Zheng, Xiang; Chen, Yihui; Pandey, Ravindra K; Zhan, Riqiang; Kadish, Karl M

    2008-03-06

    A series of stable free-base, Zn(II) and Pd(II) bacteriochlorins containing a fused six- or five-member diketo- or imide ring have been synthesized as good candidates for photodynamic therapy sensitizers, and their electrochemical, photophysical, and photochemical properties were examined. Photoexcitation of the palladium bacteriochlorin affords the triplet excited state without fluorescence emission, resulting in formation of singlet oxygen with a high quantum yield due to the heavy atom effect of palladium. Electrochemical studies revealed that the zinc bacteriochlorin has the smallest HOMO-LUMO gap of the investigated compounds, and this value is significantly lower than the triplet excited-state energy of the compound in benzonitrile. Such a small HOMO-LUMO gap of the zinc bacteriochlorin enables intermolecular photoinduced electron transfer from the triplet excited state to the ground state to produce both the radical cation and the radical anion. The radical anion thus produced can transfer an electron to molecular oxygen to produce superoxide anion which was detected by electron spin resonance. The same photosensitizer can also act as an efficient singlet oxygen generator. Thus, the same zinc bacteriochlorin can function as a sensitizer with a dual role in that it produces both singlet oxygen and superoxide anion in an aprotic solvent (benzonitrile).

  12. Numerical study of on-fiber metal film geometry on behavior of dual parameter SFBG sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodarzy, Behnam; Foroozmehr, Ehsan; Alemohammad, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a numerical model for simulating a dual parameter super-structure FBG (SFBG) with on-fiber deposited thin films is developed. A periodic on-fiber thin coating of silver on FBG sensors provides the ability of measuring two parameters of strain and temperature simultaneously. The model consists of a mechanical model to determine the strain of the sensor caused by different loading conditions, coupled with an optical model to calculate the reflected spectrum of the SFBG sensor. A guideline is introduced for designing a SFBG by studying the effect of coating period, coating duty cycle, and coating thickness. The results show that the sideband spacing in such SFBGs is only affected by the coating period while the Bragg peak sensitivity does not depend on coating period. Also the coating duty cycle and the coating thickness can affect both sensitivity of the Bragg peak and the measuring range of a sensor. The validity of the results was studied by comparing with previously reported data. (paper)

  13. Performances of low-dose dual-energy CT in reducing artifacts from implanted metallic orthopedic devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filograna, Laura [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland); Magarelli, Nicola; Leone, Antonio; Bonomo, Lorenzo [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Department of Radiological Sciences, Institute of Radiology, Rome (Italy); De Waure, Chiara; Calabro, Giovanna Elisa [Catholic University of Rome, School of Medicine, University Hospital ' ' A. Gemelli' ' , Research Centre for Health Technology Assessment, Department of Public Health, Section of Hygiene, Rome (Italy); Finkenstaedt, Tim [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Thali, Michael John [University of Zurich, Department of Forensic Medicine and Imaging, Institute of Forensic Medicine, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2016-07-15

    The objective was to evaluate the performances of dose-reduced dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) in decreasing metallic artifacts from orthopedic devices compared with dose-neutral DECT, dose-neutral single-energy computed tomography (SECT), and dose-reduced SECT. Thirty implants in 20 consecutive cadavers underwent both SECT and DECT at three fixed CT dose indexes (CTDI): 20.0, 10.0, and 5.0 mGy. Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105, 120, and 130 keV, and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimized image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. In each group, the image quality of the seven monoenergetic images and of the SECT image was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by visually rating and by measuring the maximum streak artifact respectively. The comparison between SECT and OPTkeV evaluated overall within all groups showed a significant difference (p <0.001), with OPTkeV images providing better images. Comparing OPTkeV with the other DECT images, a significant difference was shown (p <0.001), with OPTkeV and 130-keV images providing the qualitatively best results. The OPTkeV images of 5.0-mGy acquisitions provided percentages of images with scores 1 and 2 of 36 % and 30 % respectively, compared with 0 % and 33.3 % of the corresponding SECT images of 10- and 20-mGy acquisitions. Moreover, DECT reconstructions at the OPTkeV of the low-dose group showed higher CT numbers than the SECT images of dose groups 1 and 2. This study demonstrates that low-dose DECT permits a reduction of artifacts due to metallic implants to be obtained in a similar manner to neutral-dose DECT and better than reduced or neutral-dose SECT. (orig.)

  14. Simulation and thermoeconomic analysis of different configurations of gas turbine (GT)-based dual-purpose power and desalination plants (DPPDP) and hybrid plants (HP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensonnet, Thibaut; Uche, Javier; Serra, Luis

    2007-01-01

    This paper contains a simulation and a thermoeconomic analysis of several configurations of gas turbine (GT)-based dual-purpose power and desalination plants (DPPDP): Gas turbine with reverse osmosis (GT+RO), combined cycle with reverse osmosis (CC+RO), combined cycle with multi-effect distillation (CC+MED) and two different hybrid plant (HP) arrangements combining CC, MED and RO (CC+MED+RO, CC+MED+RO bis ). The last two configurations only differ from the feed solution to the MED units (raw seawater or brine coming from the RO discharge). A complete thermodynamic simulation at both design and at part load conditions has been made, as well as an exergy and an exergo-economic (thermoeconomic) analysis of each configuration, in order to compare the evolution of the water and electricity cost for different arrangements. The results show that even for a significantly reduced fuel cost (1.42 $/GJ), the CC is much more profitable than a GT operating in open cycle, with electricity cost values of 1.647 and 2.166 c$/kWh, respectively. As was expected, RO is more efficient and profitable than MED desalination processes, the difference in the obtained desalted water cost being significant. In the hybrid configuration with MED fed by the RO brine discharge, a decrease in the equivalent electrical consumption of nearly 2 kWh/m 3 was achieved, but even in this case RO was more efficient (14.15 vs. 4.048 kWh/m 3 ). The evolution of electricity cost in each configuration is more similar at part load operation than at full load, but in the case of water cost, RO is once again more profitable and less sensitive to load variations. Costs given in this paper correspond to investment and fuel costs. Further, profitability and operation strategies of HP, i.e., DPPDP combining distillation and membrane processes, are also analyzed. It is shown that HP can be more profitable than RO plants in the case of increasing the water production capacity of existing DPPDP, because the profit

  15. Effectiveness of the neutron-shield nanocomposites for a dual-purpose cask of Bushehr's Water–Water Energetic Reactor (VVER 1000 nuclear-power-plant spent fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdi Rezaeian

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to perform dry interim storage and transportation of the spent-fuel assemblies of the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, dual-purpose casks can be utilized. The effectiveness of different neutron-shield materials for the dual-purpose cask was analyzed through a set of calculations carried out using the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP code. The dose rate for the dual-purpose cask utilizing the recently developed materials of epoxy/clay/B4C and epoxy/clay/B4C/carbon fiber was less than the allowable radiation level of 2 mSv/h at any point and 0.1 mSv/h at 2 m from the external surface of the cask. By utilization of epoxy/clay/B4C instead of an ethylene glycol/water mixture, the dose rates on the side surface of the cask due to neutron sources and consequent secondary gamma rays will be reduced by 17.5% and 10%, respectively. The overall dose rate in this case will be reduced by 11%.

  16. Non-metal single/dual doped carbon quantum dots: a general flame synthetic method and electro-catalytic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yuzhi; Tang, Di; Yang, Yanmei; Li, Chuanxi; Kong, Weiqian; Huang, Hui; Liu, Yang; Kang, Zhenhui

    2015-03-01

    A combustion flame method is developed for the convenient and scalable fabrication of single- and dual-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs) (N-CQDs, B-CQDs, P-CQDs, and S-CQDs and dual-doped B,N-CQDs, P,N-CQDs, and S,N-CQDs), and the doping contents can be easily adjusted by simply changing the concentrations of precursors in ethanol. These single/dual-doped CQDs, especially B,N-CQDs, show high catalytic activities for the oxygen reduction reaction.A combustion flame method is developed for the convenient and scalable fabrication of single- and dual-doped carbon quantum dots (CQDs) (N-CQDs, B-CQDs, P-CQDs, and S-CQDs and dual-doped B,N-CQDs, P,N-CQDs, and S,N-CQDs), and the doping contents can be easily adjusted by simply changing the concentrations of precursors in ethanol. These single/dual-doped CQDs, especially B,N-CQDs, show high catalytic activities for the oxygen reduction reaction. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images, UV-Vis absorption, PL, Raman, FTIR, XPS, CV, and LSV data of single/dual doped CQDs, a table for the calculated mass concentrations of different atoms in various B, N, P or S containing CQDs and a table for summary of the ORR performance of various catalysts in an O2-saturated 0.1 M KOH solution. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr07116f

  17. Stent Thrombosis in Drug-Eluting or Bare-Metal Stents in Patients Receiving Dual Antiplatelet Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereiakes, Dean J; Yeh, Robert W; Massaro, Joseph M; Driscoll-Shempp, Priscilla; Cutlip, Donald E; Steg, P Gabriel; Gershlick, Anthony H; Darius, Harald; Meredith, Ian T; Ormiston, John; Tanguay, Jean-François; Windecker, Stephan; Garratt, Kirk N; Kandzari, David E; Lee, David P; Simon, Daniel I; Iancu, Adrian Corneliu; Trebacz, Jaroslaw; Mauri, Laura

    2015-10-01

    This study sought to compare rates of stent thrombosis and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) (composite of death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) after coronary stenting with drug-eluting stents (DES) versus bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients who participated in the DAPT (Dual Antiplatelet Therapy) study, an international multicenter randomized trial comparing 30 versus 12 months of dual antiplatelet therapy in subjects undergoing coronary stenting with either DES or BMS. Despite antirestenotic efficacy of coronary DES compared with BMS, the relative risk of stent thrombosis and adverse cardiovascular events is unclear. Many clinicians perceive BMS to be associated with fewer adverse ischemic events and to require shorter-duration dual antiplatelet therapy than DES. Prospective propensity-matched analysis of subjects enrolled into a randomized trial of dual antiplatelet therapy duration was performed. DES- and BMS-treated subjects were propensity-score matched in a many-to-one fashion. The study design was observational for all subjects 0 to 12 months following stenting. A subset of eligible subjects without major ischemic or bleeding events were randomized at 12 months to continued thienopyridine versus placebo; all subjects were followed through 33 months. Among 10,026 propensity-matched subjects, DES-treated subjects (n = 8,308) had a lower rate of stent thrombosis through 33 months compared with BMS-treated subjects (n = 1,718, 1.7% vs. 2.6%; weighted risk difference -1.1%, p = 0.01) and a noninferior rate of MACCE (11.4% vs. 13.2%, respectively, weighted risk difference -1.8%, p = 0.053, noninferiority p stent thrombosis that are lower than BMS-treated subjects. (The Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Study [DAPT study]; NCT00977938). Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Metallic artefact reduction with monoenergetic dual-energy CT: systematic ex vivo evaluation of posterior spinal fusion implants from various vendors and different spine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guggenberger, R; Winklhofer, S; Osterhoff, G; Wanner, G A; Fortunati, M; Andreisek, G; Alkadhi, H; Stolzmann, P

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate optimal monoenergetic dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) settings for artefact reduction of posterior spinal fusion implants of various vendors and spine levels. Posterior spinal fusion implants of five vendors for cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine were examined ex vivo with single-energy (SE) CT (120 kVp) and DECT (140/100 kVp). Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105 keV and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimised image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. Two independent radiologists assessed quantitative and qualitative image parameters for each device and spine level. Inter-reader agreements of quantitative and qualitative parameters were high (ICC = 0.81-1.00, κ = 0.54-0.77). HU values of spinal fusion implants were significantly different among vendors (P metallic artefacts from implants than SECT. Use of individual keV values for vendor and spine level is recommended. • Artefacts pose problems for CT following posterior spinal fusion implants. • CT images are interpreted better with monoenergetic extrapolation using dual-energy (DE) CT. • DECT extrapolation improves image quality and reduces metallic artefacts over SECT. • There were considerable differences in monoenergy values among vendors and spine levels. • Use of individualised monoenergy values is indicated for different metallic hardware devices.

  19. A single mask process for the realization of fully-isolated, dual-height MEMS metallic structures separated by narrow gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Kim, Minsoo; Allen, Mark G.

    2018-02-01

    Multi-height metallic structures are of importance for various MEMS applications, including master molds for creating 3D structures by nanoimprint lithography, or realizing vertically displaced electrodes for out-of-plane electrostatic actuators. Normally these types of multi-height structures require a multi-mask process with increased fabrication complexity. In this work, a fabrication technology is presented in which fully-isolated, dual-height MEMS metallic structures separated by narrow gaps can be realized using a self-aligned, single-mask process. The main scheme of this proposed process is through-mold electrodeposition, where two photoresist mold fabrication steps and two electrodeposition steps are sequentially implemented to define the thinner and thicker structures in the dual-height configuration. The process relies on two self-aligned steps enabled by the electrodeposited thinner structures: a wet-etching of the seed layer utilizing the thinner structure as an etch-mask to electrically isolate the thinner and the thicker structures, and a backside UV lithography utilizing the thinner structure as a lithographic mask to create a high-aspect-ratio mold for the thicker structure through-mold electrodeposition. The latter step requires the metallic structures to be fabricated on a transparent substrate. Test structures with differences in aspect ratio are demonstrated to showcase the capability of the process.

  20. An analytical threshold voltage model for a short-channel dual-metal-gate (DMG) recessed-source/drain (Re-S/D) SOI MOSFET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saramekala, G. K.; Santra, Abirmoya; Dubey, Sarvesh; Jit, Satyabrata; Tiwari, Pramod Kumar

    2013-08-01

    In this paper, an analytical short-channel threshold voltage model is presented for a dual-metal-gate (DMG) fully depleted recessed source/drain (Re-S/D) SOI MOSFET. For the first time, the advantages of recessed source/drain (Re-S/D) and of dual-metal-gate structure are incorporated simultaneously in a fully depleted SOI MOSFET. The analytical surface potential model at Si-channel/SiO2 interface and Si-channel/buried-oxide (BOX) interface have been developed by solving the 2-D Poisson’s equation in the channel region with appropriate boundary conditions assuming parabolic potential profile in the transverse direction of the channel. Thereupon, a threshold voltage model is derived from the minimum surface potential in the channel. The developed model is analyzed extensively for a variety of device parameters like the oxide and silicon channel thicknesses, thickness of source/drain extension in the BOX, control and screen gate length ratio. The validity of the present 2D analytical model is verified with ATLAS™, a 2D device simulator from SILVACO Inc.

  1. Dual catalytic purpose of the tungsten filament during the synthesis of single-helix carbon microcoils by hot-wire CVD

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oliphant, CJ

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the deposition of crystalline single-helix carbon microcoils, in the as-deposited state, by the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition process without any special preparation of nano-sized transition metal catalysts and subsequent...

  2. SU-F-T-407: Artifact Reduction with Dual Energy Or IMAR: Who’s Winning?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, E; Schreibmann, E; Dhabaan, A

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this abstract was to evaluate the performance of commercial strategies for artifact reduction in radiation oncology settings. The iterative metal artifact reduction (Siemens iMAR) algorithm and monoenergetic virtual datasets reconstructed from dual energy scans are compared side-by-side in their ability to image in the presence of metal inserts. Methods: A CIRS ATOM Dosimetry Verification Phantom was scanned with and without a metal insert on a SOMATOM Definition AS dual energy scanner. Images with the metal insert were reconstructed with (a) a tradition single energy CT scan with the iMAR option implemented, using different artifact reduction settings and (b) a monoenergetic scan calculated from dual energy scans by recovering differences in the energy-dependence of the attenuation coefficients of different materials and then creating a virtual monoenergetic scan from these coefficients. The iMAR and monoenergetic scans were then compared with the metal-free scan to assess changes in HU numbers and noise within a region around the metal insert. Results: Both the iMAR and dual energy scans reduced artifacts produced by the metal insert. However the iMAR results are dependent of the selected algorithm settings, with a mean HU difference ranging from 0.65 to 90.40 for different options. The mean differences without the iMAR correction were 38.74. When using the dual energy scan, the mean differences were 4.53, that is however attributed to increased noise and not artifacts, as the dual energy scan had the lowest skewness (2.52) compared to the iMAR scans (ranging from 3.90 to 4.88) and the lowest kurtosis (5.72 for dual energy, range of 18.19 to 27.36 for iMAR). Conclusion: Both approaches accurately recovered HU numbers, however the dual energy method provided smaller residual artifacts.

  3. SU-F-T-407: Artifact Reduction with Dual Energy Or IMAR: Who’s Winning?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, E; Schreibmann, E; Dhabaan, A [Department of Radiation Oncology and Winship Cancer Institute of Emory University Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this abstract was to evaluate the performance of commercial strategies for artifact reduction in radiation oncology settings. The iterative metal artifact reduction (Siemens iMAR) algorithm and monoenergetic virtual datasets reconstructed from dual energy scans are compared side-by-side in their ability to image in the presence of metal inserts. Methods: A CIRS ATOM Dosimetry Verification Phantom was scanned with and without a metal insert on a SOMATOM Definition AS dual energy scanner. Images with the metal insert were reconstructed with (a) a tradition single energy CT scan with the iMAR option implemented, using different artifact reduction settings and (b) a monoenergetic scan calculated from dual energy scans by recovering differences in the energy-dependence of the attenuation coefficients of different materials and then creating a virtual monoenergetic scan from these coefficients. The iMAR and monoenergetic scans were then compared with the metal-free scan to assess changes in HU numbers and noise within a region around the metal insert. Results: Both the iMAR and dual energy scans reduced artifacts produced by the metal insert. However the iMAR results are dependent of the selected algorithm settings, with a mean HU difference ranging from 0.65 to 90.40 for different options. The mean differences without the iMAR correction were 38.74. When using the dual energy scan, the mean differences were 4.53, that is however attributed to increased noise and not artifacts, as the dual energy scan had the lowest skewness (2.52) compared to the iMAR scans (ranging from 3.90 to 4.88) and the lowest kurtosis (5.72 for dual energy, range of 18.19 to 27.36 for iMAR). Conclusion: Both approaches accurately recovered HU numbers, however the dual energy method provided smaller residual artifacts.

  4. Dual-Emitting Fluorescent Metal-Organic Framework Nanocomposites as a Broad-Range pH Sensor for Fluorescence Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyong; Wang, Jing; Shan, Duoliang; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Shouting; Lu, Xiaoquan

    2018-05-15

    pH plays an important role in understanding physiological/pathologic processes, and abnormal pH is a symbol of many common diseases such as cancer, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease. In this work, an effective dual-emission fluorescent metal-organic framework nanocomposite probe (denoted as RB-PCN) has been constructed for sensitive and broad-range detection of pH. RB-PCN was prepared by encapsulating the DBI-PEG-NH 2 -functionalized Fe 3 O 4 into Zr-MOFs and then further reacting it with rhodamine B isothiocyanates (RBITC). In RB-PCN, RBITC is capable of sensing changes in pH in acidic solutions. Zr-MOFs not only enrich the target analyte but also exhibit a fluorescence response to pH changes in alkaline solutions. Based on the above structural and compositional features, RB-PCN could detect a wide range of pH changes. Importantly, such a nanoprobe could "see" the intracellular pH changes by fluorescence confocal imaging as well as "measure" the wider range of pH in actual samples by fluorescence spectroscopy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a MOF-based dual-emitting fluorescent nanoprobe has been used for a wide range of pH detection.

  5. Dual-Material Gate Approach to Suppression of Random-Dopant-Induced Characteristic Fluctuation in 16 nm Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yiming; Lee, Kuo-Fu; Yiu, Chun-Yen; Chiu, Yung-Yueh; Chang, Ru-Wei

    2011-04-01

    In this work, we explore for the first time dual-material gate (DMG) and inverse DMG devices for suppressing the random-dopant (RD)-induced characteristic fluctuation in 16 nm metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOSFET) devices. The physical mechanism of suppressing the characteristic fluctuation of DMG devices is observed and discussed. The achieved improvement in suppressing the RD-induced threshold voltage, on-state current, and off-state current fluctuations are 28, 12.3, and 59%, respectively. To further suppress the fluctuations, an approach that combines the DMG method and channel-doping-profile engineering is also advanced and explored. The results of our study show that among the suppression techniques, the use of the DMG device with an inverse lateral asymmetric channel-doping-profile has good immunity to fluctuation.

  6. Impact of metal artifact reduction software on image quality of gemstone spectral imaging dual-energy cerebral CT angiography after intracranial aneurysm clipping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunet, Vincent; Bernasconi, Martine; Hajdu, Steven David; Meuli, Reto Antoine; Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Lausanne (Switzerland); Daniel, Roy Thomas [Lausanne University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2017-09-15

    We aimed to assess the impact of metal artifact reduction software (MARs) on image quality of gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) dual-energy (DE) cerebral CT angiography (CTA) after intracranial aneurysm clipping. This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, which waived patient written consent. From January 2013 to September 2016, single source DE cerebral CTA were performed in 45 patients (mean age: 60 ± 9 years, male 9) after intracranial aneurysm clipping and reconstructed with and without MARs. Signal-to-noise (SNR), contrast-to-noise (CNR), and relative CNR (rCNR) ratios were calculated from attenuation values measured in the internal carotid artery (ICA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA). Volume of clip and artifacts and relative clip blurring reduction (rCBR) ratios were also measured at each energy level with/without MARs. Variables were compared between GSI and GSI-MARs using the paired Wilcoxon signed-rank test. MARs significantly reduced metal artifacts at all energy levels but 130 and 140 keV, regardless of clips' location and number. The optimal rCBR was obtained at 110 and 80 keV, respectively, on GSI and GSI-MARs images, with up to 96% rCNR increase on GSI-MARs images. The best compromise between metal artifact reduction and rCNR was obtained at 70-75 and 65-70 keV for GSI and GSI-MARs images, respectively, with up to 15% rCBR and rCNR increase on GSI-MARs images. MARs significantly reduces metal artifacts on DE cerebral CTA after intracranial aneurysm clipping regardless of clips' location and number. It may be used to reduce radiation dose while increasing CNR. (orig.)

  7. The Dual Nature of Metallothioneins in the Metabolism of Heavy Metals and Reactive Oxygen Species in Aquatic Organisms: Implications of Use as a Biomarker of Heavy-Metal Effects in Field Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gagné

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the function of metallothioneins (MT in respect to the mobilization of heavy metals and superoxide anion (O 2 – scavenging in aquatic organisms. Using an O 2 – generating system, liberation of free zinc from native and zinc MT (Zn-MT was measured in vitro. Addition of the O 2 – generating system and H 2 O 2 readily increased the di- and trimeric forms of MT as determined by gel electrophoresis analysis. To determine whether the proportion of oxidized MT could change in contaminated environments, metal-contaminated Mya arenaria clams were collected from a harbour in the St. Lawrence Estuary. The levels of labile zinc, superoxide dismutase (O 2 – scavenging enzyme, lipid peroxidation (LPO and the oxidized/metallic form of MT were determined in the digestive gland. The results revealed that the induction of total MT levels was the result of increased oxidized MT at the expense of the reduced or metallic form of MT. Both superoxide dismutase (SOD and labile zinc (Zn levels were induced and they were significantly correlated with the oxidized form of MT, but not the metallic form, in feral clam populations. We concluded that the level of total MT was related to Zn mobility and the activation of antioxidant mechanisms such as SOD, and corresponded to the levels of oxidized MT. The metallic form of MT was negatively associated with Zn mobility but positively associated with oxidative damage such as LPO. Overall, the oxidized fraction of MT appeared to be more closely related to detoxification, while the metallic form of MT was associated with metal mobility and toxicity via oxidative damage. The protective effect of MT during heavy-metal contamination depends on the availability of metals and on its capacity to sequester reactive oxygen species.

  8. Report on process design studies of a tritium recovery process using dual temperature exchange with metal hydrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benenati, R.F.

    1976-01-01

    Studies were made of the process characteristics of a plant to decontaminate tritiated water using dual temperature exchange with VH 2 . Feed to the plant consists of 300 kg/day on water containing 1 Ci/kg of tritium. A reference design was developed based on a decontamination factor of 10 2 and 10 kg/day of enriched product. This design requires a total of 48 ideal separation stages, 22 stages in the enriching section and 26 stages in the stripping section. Only low grade heat is required for the heating cycle and a relatively small (12 ton) ice machine is required for the cooling cycle. A total plant inventory of approximately 10 tons VH 2 is required. A mechanical design of the dual temperature stage complete with all heat transfer surfaces and flow diverters was devised and modeled. Since the process involves periodic swings in temperature between 0 and 60 0 C, a substantial portion of the operation is expected to be in unsteady state transition from one state to another. A two-step experimental program has been presented: the first step consists of a single stage unit, i.e., one hot bed and one cold bed operating in a simple closed loop. The second stage in the experimental program would consist of five stages operating as a small cascade

  9. The Source, Spatial Distribution and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Soil from the Pearl River Delta Based on the National Multi-Purpose Regional Geochemical Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lingyan; Guo, Shuhai; Wu, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The data on the heavy metal content at different soil depths derived from a multi-purpose regional geochemical survey in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.0. By comparing their spatial distributions and areas, the sources of heavy metals (Cd, Hg, As and Pb) were quantitatively identified and explored. Netted measuring points at 25 ×25 km were set over the entire PRD according to the geochemical maps. Based on the calculation data obtained from different soil depths, the concentrations of As and Cd in a large area of the PRD exceeded the National Second-class Standard. The spatial disparity of the geometric centers in the surface soil and deep soil showed that As in the surface soil mainly came from parent materials, while Cd had high consistency in different soil profiles because of deposition in the soil forming process. The migration of Cd also resulted in a considerable ecological risk to the Beijiang and Xijiang River watershed. The potential ecological risk index followed the order Cd ≥ Hg > Pb > As. According to the sources, the distribution trends and the characteristics of heavy metals in the soil from the perspective of the whole area, the Cd pollution should be repaired, especially in the upper reaches of the Xijiang and Beijiang watershed to prevent risk explosion while the pollution of Hg and Pb should be controlled in areas with intense human activity, and supervision during production should be strengthened to maintain the ecological balance of As.

  10. A dual amplification strategy for DNA detection combining bio-barcode assay and metal-enhanced fluorescence modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenpeng; Li, Tian; Huang, Hongduan; Chen, Yang; Liu, Feng; Huang, Chengzhi; Li, Na

    2014-11-11

    Silver-enhanced fluorescence was coupled with a bio-barcode assay to facilitate a dual amplification assay to demonstrate a non-enzymatic approach for simple and sensitive detection of DNA. In the assay design, magnetic nanoparticles seeded with silver nanoparticles were modified with the capture DNA, and silver nanoparticles were modified with the binding of ssDNA and the fluorescently labeled barcode dsDNA. Upon introduction of the target DNA, a sandwich structure was formed because of the hybridization reaction. By simple magnetic separation, silver-enhanced fluorescence of barcode DNAs could be readily measured without the need of a further step to liberate barcode DNAs from silver nanoparticles, endowing the method with simplicity and high sensitivity with a detection limit of 1 pM.

  11. A novel pressed porous silicon-polycaprolactone composite as a dual-purpose implant for the delivery of cells and drugs to the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Yazad D; Tian, Yuan; Wang, Mengjia; Klebe, Sonja; McInnes, Steven J; Voelcker, Nicolas H; Coffer, Jeffery L; Williams, Keryn A

    2015-10-01

    Dysfunction of corneal epithelial stem cells can result in painful and blinding disease of the ocular surface. In such cases, treatment may involve transfer of growth factor and normal adult stem cells to the ocular surface. Our purpose was to develop an implantable scaffold for the delivery of drugs and cells to the ocular surface. We examined the potential of novel composite biomaterials fabricated from electrospun polycaprolactone (PCL) fibres into which nanostructured porous silicon (pSi) microparticles of varying sizes (150-250 μm or <40 μm) had been pressed. The PCL fabric provided a flexible support for mammalian cells, whereas the embedded pSi provided a substantial surface area for efficient delivery of adsorbed drugs and growth factors. Measurements of tensile strength of these composites revealed that the pSi did not strongly influence the mechanical properties of the polymer microfiber component for the Si loadings evaluated. Human lens epithelial cells (SRA01/04) attached to the composite materials, and exhibited enhanced attachment and growth when the materials were coated with foetal bovine serum. To examine the ability of the materials to deliver a small-drug payload, pSi microparticles were loaded with fluorescein diacetate prior to cell attachment. After 6 hours (h), cells exhibited intracellular fluorescence, indicative of transfer of the fluorescein diacetate into viable cells and its subsequent enzymatic conversion to fluorescein. To investigate loading of large-molecule biologics, murine BALB/c 3T3 cells, responsive to epidermal growth factor, insulin and transferrin, were seeded on composite materials. The cells showed significantly more proliferation at 48 h when seeded on composites loaded with these biologics, than on unloaded composites. No cell proliferation was observed on PCL alone, indicating the biologics had loaded into the pSi microparticles. Drug release, measured by ELISA for insulin, indicated a burst followed by a slower

  12. Grenade Range Management Using Lime for Dual Role of Metals Immobilization and Explosives Transformation. Field Demonstration at Fort Jackson, SC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    and reported the results under the sample delivery groups ( SDG ) L128026 and L128720. The following analytical methods were requested on the chains -of... supplies . The application of hydrated lime to an HGR to provide a mechanism for both metals immobilization and explosives transformation was...Offsites 1 and 2 were supplied by RDX from the control bay, Bay 2. Offsite 3 was supplied by the RDX from lime- treated Bay 4. A period of 6 months had

  13. Design and experimental testing of air slab caps which convert commercial electron diodes into dual purpose, correction-free diodes for small field dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, P. H., E-mail: paulcharles111@gmail.com [Department of Radiation Oncology, Princess Alexandra Hospital, Ipswich Road, Woolloongabba, Brisbane, Queensland 4102, Australia and School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Cranmer-Sargison, G. [Department of Medical Physics, Saskatchewan Cancer Agency, 20 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7L 3P6, Canada and College of Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, 107 Wiggins Road, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan S7N 5E5 (Canada); Thwaites, D. I. [Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia); Kairn, T. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia and Genesis CancerCare Queensland, The Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely Street, Auchenflower, Brisbane, Queensland 4066 (Australia); Crowe, S. B.; Langton, C. M.; Trapp, J. V. [School of Chemistry, Physics and Mechanical Engineering, Queensland University of Technology, GPO Box 2434, Brisbane, Queensland 4001 (Australia); Pedrazzini, G. [Genesis CancerCare Queensland, The Wesley Medical Centre, Suite 1, 40 Chasely Street, Auchenflower, Brisbane, Queensland 4066 (Australia); Aland, T.; Kenny, J. [Epworth Radiation Oncology, 89 Bridge Road, Richmond, Melbourne, Victoria 3121 (Australia)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Two diodes which do not require correction factors for small field relative output measurements are designed and validated using experimental methodology. This was achieved by adding an air layer above the active volume of the diode detectors, which canceled out the increase in response of the diodes in small fields relative to standard field sizes. Methods: Due to the increased density of silicon and other components within a diode, additional electrons are created. In very small fields, a very small air gap acts as an effective filter of electrons with a high angle of incidence. The aim was to design a diode that balanced these perturbations to give a response similar to a water-only geometry. Three thicknesses of air were placed at the proximal end of a PTW 60017 electron diode (PTWe) using an adjustable “air cap”. A set of output ratios (OR{sub Det}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n}}) for square field sizes of side length down to 5 mm was measured using each air thickness and compared to OR{sub Det}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n}} measured using an IBA stereotactic field diode (SFD). k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} was transferred from the SFD to the PTWe diode and plotted as a function of air gap thickness for each field size. This enabled the optimal air gap thickness to be obtained by observing which thickness of air was required such that k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r}}}}}}}}} was equal to 1.00 at all field sizes. A similar procedure was used to find the optimal air thickness required to make a modified Sun Nuclear EDGE detector (EDGEe) which is “correction-free” in small field relative dosimetry. In addition, the feasibility of experimentally transferring k{sub Q{sub c{sub l{sub i{sub n,Q{sub m{sub s{sub r}{sup f{sub c}{sub l}{sub i}{sub n},f{sub m}{sub s}{sub r

  14. Interface engineering and reliability characteristics of hafnium dioxide with poly silicon gate and dual metal (ruthenium-tantalum alloy, ruthenium) gate electrode for beyond 65 nm technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Hee

    Chip density and performance improvements have been driven by aggressive scaling of semiconductor devices. In both logic and memory applications, SiO 2 gate dielectrics has reached its physical limit, direct tunneling resulting from scaling down of dielectrics thickness. Therefore high-k dielectrics have attracted a great deal of attention from industries as the replacement of conventional SiO2 gate dielectrics. So far, lots of candidate materials have been evaluated and Hf-based high-k dielectrics were chosen to the promising materials for gate dielectrics. However, lots of issues were identified and more thorough researches were carried out on Hf-based high-k dielectrics. For instances, mobility degradation, charge trapping, crystallization, Fermi level pinning, interface engineering, and reliability studies. In this research, reliability study of HfO2 were explored with poly gate and dual metal (Ru-Ta alloy, Ru) gate electrode as well as interface engineering. Hard breakdown and soft breakdown were compared and Weibull slope of soft breakdown was smaller than that of hard breakdown, which led to a potential high-k scaling issue. Dynamic reliability has been studied and the combination of trapping and detrapping contributed the enhancement of lifetime projection. Polarity dependence was shown that substrate injection might reduce lifetime projection as well as it increased soft breakdown behavior. Interface tunneling mechanism was suggested with dual metal gate technology. Soft breakdown (l st breakdown) was mainly due to one layer breakdown of bi-layer structure. Low weibull slope was in part attributed to low barrier height of HfO 2 compared to interface layer. Interface layer engineering was thoroughly studied in terms of mobility, swing, and short channel effect using deep sub-micron MOSFET devices. In fact, Hf-based high-k dielectrics could be scaled down to below EOT of ˜10A and it successfully achieved the competitive performance goals. However, it is

  15. A dual purpose Compton suppression spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Parus, J; Raab, W; Donohue, D

    2003-01-01

    A gamma-ray spectrometer with a passive and an active shield is described. It consists of a HPGe coaxial detector of 42% efficiency and 4 NaI(Tl) detectors. The energy output pulses of the Ge detector are delivered into the 3 spectrometry chains giving the normal, anti- and coincidence spectra. From the spectra of a number of sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs and sup 6 sup 0 Co sources a Compton suppression factor, SF and a Compton reduction factor, RF, as the parameters characterizing the system performance, were calculated as a function of energy and source activity and compared with those given in literature. The natural background is reduced about 8 times in the anticoincidence mode of operation, compared to the normal spectrum which results in decreasing the detection limits for non-coincident gamma-rays up to a factor of 3. In the presence of other gamma-ray activities, in the range from 5 to 11 kBq, non- and coincident, the detection limits can be decreased for some nuclides by a factor of 3 to 5.7.

  16. Dual purpose or not? The significant factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bak, W.; Roland, V.

    1999-01-01

    The development of spent fuel storage systems requires consideration of many factors in making design decisions. A significant issue affecting the design is the need to incorporate transportability of the canister or cask system design, which results in major changes to the storage system design. This paper presents a review of the significant factors affecting storage system design to incorporate transportation requirements and looks at the trends in both the United States and Europe where Transnucleaire and its US affiliated companies Transnuclear Inc., Transnuclear West and PacTec are active. A discussion is also presented relative to the pros and cons of whether the spent fuel storage system vendor should anticipate these transportation needs in the design of their systems. (author)

  17. Dual Role of Water in Heterogeneous Catalytic Hydrolysis of Sarin by Zirconium-Based Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Mohammad R; Cramer, Christopher J

    2018-05-22

    Recent experimental studies on Zr IV -based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have shown the extraordinary effectiveness of these porous materials for the detoxification of phosphorus-based chemical warfare agents (CWAs). However, pressing challenges remain with respect to characterizing these catalytic processes both at the molecular and crystalline levels. We here use theory to compare the reactivity of different zirconium-based MOFs for the catalytic hydrolysis of the CWA sarin, using both periodic and cluster modeling. We consider both hydrated and dehydrated secondary building units, as well as linker functionalized MOFs, to more fully understand and rationalize available experimental findings as well as to enable concrete predictions for achieving higher activities for the decomposition of CWAs.

  18. Nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped chitin-derived carbon/graphene composites as effective metal-free electrocatalysts for dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Yi; Xiao, Zhanhai; Yan, Xiaoshuang; Ru, Geying; Chen, Bing; Feng, Jiwen

    2018-05-01

    The photovoltaic performance of dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is strongly influenced by the electrocatalytic ability of its counter electrode (CE) materials. To obtain the affordable and high-performance electrocatalysts, the N/S dual-doped chitin-derived carbon materials SCCh were manufactured via in-situ S-doped method in the annealing process, where richer active sites are created compared to the pristine chitin-derived carbon matrix CCh, thus enhancing the intrinsic catalytic activity of carbon materials. When SCCh is incorporated with graphene, the yielded composites hold a further boosted catalytic activity due to facilitating the electronic fast transfer. The DSSC assembled with the optimizing rGO-SCCh-3 composite CE shows a favourable power conversion efficiency of 6.36%, which is comparable with that of the Pt-sputtering electrode (6.30%), indicate of the outstanding I3- reduction ability of the composite material. The electrochemical characterizations demonstrate that the low charge transfer resistance and excellent electrocatalytic activity all contribute to the superior photovoltaic performance. More importantly, the composite CE exhibits good electrochemical stability in the practical operation. In consideration of the low cost and the simple preparation procedure, the present metal-free carbonaceous composites could be used as a promising counter electrode material in future large scale production of DSSCs.

  19. The Efficiency of Supplementing Mondia Whytei, Maize Germ, Lucerne and Dairy Meal on Feed Intake, milk Production and body Weight Changes in Dual Purpose goats fed on Basal Diet of Rhodes Grass Hay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wekesa, F.M.

    2002-01-01

    In order to exploit the productive potential of milk producing animal, supplementation is a prerequisite. However due to low purchasing power of most small scale dairy farmers some farmers use what is locally available as supplements of Mondia whytei, maize germ, lucerne and dairy meal were fed to dual purpose lactating goats in a completely randomised design. The basal diet was Rhodes grass hay. Chemical composition of feeds was done. Crude protein, CP in Mondia leaves was 187 g kg -1 DM while calcium was 69.1 g kg -1 DM. Mondia whytei is a plant which mainly grows in forests and has many valuable uses including its use as a livestock feed. It has been claimed that when farmers in western Kenya feed Mondia roots to their lactating cows there is an increase in milk production. It is against this background that this work was undertaken to compare the potential of Mondia whytei roots and leaves with other conventional feed supplements. Response to Mondia roots was quite low. There was no significant difference in rumen pH levels over time between treatments. It is recommended that more work be done on Mondia whytei to determine its potential as a feed supplement and to continue monitoring its use on-farm including its feeding methods used by farmers in western Kenya

  20. Probing and Manipulating the Interfacial Defects of InGaAs Dual-Layer Metal Oxides at the Atomic Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xing; Luo, Chen; Hao, Peng; Sun, Tao; Wang, Runsheng; Wang, Chaolun; Hu, Zhigao; Li, Yawei; Zhang, Jian; Bersuker, Gennadi; Sun, Litao; Pey, Kinleong

    2018-01-01

    The interface between III-V and metal-oxide-semiconductor materials plays a central role in the operation of high-speed electronic devices, such as transistors and light-emitting diodes. The high-speed property gives the light-emitting diodes a high response speed and low dark current, and they are widely used in communications, infrared remote sensing, optical detection, and other fields. The rational design of high-performance devices requires a detailed understanding of the electronic structure at this interface; however, this understanding remains a challenge, given the complex nature of surface interactions and the dynamic relationship between the morphology evolution and electronic structures. Herein, in situ transmission electron microscopy is used to probe and manipulate the structural and electrical properties of ZrO 2 films on Al 2 O 3 and InGaAs substrate at the atomic scale. Interfacial defects resulting from the spillover of the oxygen-atom conduction-band wavefunctions are resolved. This study unearths the fundamental defect-driven interfacial electric structure of III-V semiconductor materials and paves the way to future high-speed and high-reliability devices. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. On the Dehydrocoupling of Alkenylacetylenes Mediated by Various Samarocene Complexes: A Charming Story of Metal Cooperativity Revealing a Novel Dual Metal σ-Bond Metathesis Type of Mechanism (DM|σ-BM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos E. Kefalidis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevailing reductive chemistry of Sm(II has been accessed and explored mostly by the use of samarocene precursors. The highly reducing character of these congeners, along with their Lewis acidity and predominantly ionic bonding, allows for the relatively facile activation of C–H bonds, as well as peculiar transformations of unsaturated substrates (e.g., C–C couplings. Among other important C–C coupling reactions, the reaction of phenylacetylene with different mono- or bimetallic samarocene complexes affords trienediyl complexes of the type {[(C5Me52Sm]2(µ-η2:η2-PhC4Ph}. In contrast, when t-butylacetylene is used, uncoupled monomers of the type (C5Me52Sm(C≡C–tBu were obtained. Although this type of reactivity may appear to be simple, the mechanism underlying these transformations is complex. This conclusion is drawn from the density functional theory (DFT mechanistic studies presented herein. The operating mechanistic paths consist of: (i the oxidation of each samarium center and the concomitant double reduction of the alkyne to afford a binuclear intermediate; (ii the C–H scission of the acetylinic bond that lies in between the two metals; (iii a dual metal σ-bond metathesis (DM|σ-SBM process that releases H2; and eventually (iv the C–C coupling of the two bridged μ-alkynides to give the final bimetallic trienediyl complexes. For the latter mechanistic route, the experimentally used phenylacetylene was considered first as well as the aliphatic hex-1-yne. More interestingly, we shed light into the formation of the mono(alkynide complex, being the final experimental product of the reaction with t-butylacetylene.

  2. Surfactant modified zeolite as amphiphilic and dual-electronic adsorbent for removal of cationic and oxyanionic metal ions and organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Hai Nguyen; Viet, Pham Van; Chao, Huan-Ping

    2018-01-01

    A hydrophilic Y zeolite was primarily treated with sodium hydroxide to enhance its cation exchange capacity (Na-zeolite). The organo-zeolite (Na-H-zeolite) was prepared by a modification process of the external surface of Na-zeolite with a cationic surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium; HDTMA). Three adsorbents (i.e., pristine zeolite, Na-zeolite, and Na-H-zeolite) were characterized with nitrogen adsorption/desorption isotherms, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, cation exchange capacities, and zeta potential. Results demonstrated that HDTMA can be adsorbed on the surface of Na-zeolite to form patchy bilayers. The adsorption capacity of several hazardous pollutants (i.e., Pb 2+ , Cu 2+ , Ni 2+ , Cr 2 O 7 2- , propylbenzene, ethylbenzene, toluene, benzene, and phenol) onto Na-H-zeolite was investigated in a single system and multiple-components. Adsorption isotherm was measured to further understand the effects of the modification process on the adsorption behaviors of Na-H-zeolite. Adsorption performances indicated that Na-H-zeolite can simultaneously adsorb the metal cations (on the surface not covered by HDTMA), oxyanions (on the surface covered by HDTMA). Na-H-zeolite also exhibited both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces to uptake organic compounds with various water solubilities (from 55 to 75,000mg/L). It was experimentally concluded that Na-H-zeolite is a potential dual-electronic and amphiphilic adsorbent for efficiently removing a wide range of potentially toxic pollutants from aquatic environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Metallic artefact reduction with monoenergetic dual-energy CT: systematic ex vivo evaluation of posterior spinal fusion implants from various vendors and different spine levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guggenberger, R.; Winklhofer, S.; Andreisek, G.; Alkadhi, H.; Stolzmann, P. [University Hospital Zurich, Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); Osterhoff, G.; Wanner, G.A. [University Hospital Zurich, Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma Surgery, Zurich (Switzerland); Fortunati, M. [The Spine Center, Thun (Switzerland)

    2012-11-15

    To evaluate optimal monoenergetic dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) settings for artefact reduction of posterior spinal fusion implants of various vendors and spine levels. Posterior spinal fusion implants of five vendors for cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine were examined ex vivo with single-energy (SE) CT (120 kVp) and DECT (140/100 kVp). Extrapolated monoenergetic DECT images at 64, 69, 88, 105 keV and individually adjusted monoenergy for optimised image quality (OPTkeV) were generated. Two independent radiologists assessed quantitative and qualitative image parameters for each device and spine level. Inter-reader agreements of quantitative and qualitative parameters were high (ICC = 0.81-1.00, {kappa} = 0.54-0.77). HU values of spinal fusion implants were significantly different among vendors (P < 0.001), spine levels (P < 0.01) and among SECT, monoenergetic DECT of 64, 69, 88, 105 keV and OPTkeV (P < 0.01). Image quality was significantly (P < 0.001) different between datasets and improved with higher monoenergies of DECT compared with SECT (V = 0.58, P < 0.001). Artefacts decreased significantly (V = 0.51, P < 0.001) at higher monoenergies. OPTkeV values ranged from 123-141 keV. OPTkeV according to vendor and spine level are presented herein. Monoenergetic DECT provides significantly better image quality and less metallic artefacts from implants than SECT. Use of individual keV values for vendor and spine level is recommended. (orig.)

  4. Dual Coding in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, John K.; Wildman, Terry M.

    The purpose of this study was to test the applicability of the dual coding hypothesis to children's recall performance. The hypothesis predicts that visual interference will have a small effect on the recall of visually presented words or pictures, but that acoustic interference will cause a decline in recall of visually presented words and…

  5. Dual Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Spady, Richard; Stouli, Sami

    2012-01-01

    We propose dual regression as an alternative to the quantile regression process for the global estimation of conditional distribution functions under minimal assumptions. Dual regression provides all the interpretational power of the quantile regression process while avoiding the need for repairing the intersecting conditional quantile surfaces that quantile regression often produces in practice. Our approach introduces a mathematical programming characterization of conditional distribution f...

  6. Evaluation of cyclonic ash, commercial Na-silicates, lime and phosphoric acid for metal immobilisation purposes in contaminated soils in Flanders (Belgium)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geebelen, Wouter; Sappin-Didier, Valerie; Ruttens, Ann; Carleer, Robert; Yperman, Jan; Bongue-Boma, Kwele; Mench, Michel; Lelie, Niels van der; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2006-01-01

    In order to reduce the health risks associated with historically enriched metal smelting sites in Flanders (Belgium), the capacities of a non-beringite cyclonic ash and commercial Na-silicates to fix metals and create conditions to restore vegetation cover were evaluated and compared to lime and H 3 PO 4 . All tested amendments reduced Ca(NO 3 ) 2 -extractable soil metal concentrations and reduced metal uptake in Agrostis capillaris seedlings. Sodium released by Na-silicates was possibly toxic to bean plants while an isotopic dilution technique revealed that metals were only weakly sorbed by silicates (i.e. reversible sorption). Cyclonic ash appeared more efficient than lime in both reducing oxidative stress in beans and Zn, Cu and Pb uptake in grasses. The metal fixing mechanism for both amendments appeared similar (i.e. irreversible fixation at constant pH), in contrast to H 3 PO 4 where at least part of the immobilised Cd was irreversibly fixed across a range of pH. - Metal immobilising capacities of Na-silicates are weak, while the active mechanism of cyclonic ash is the same as lime

  7. Efecto del régimen de defoliación sobre la producción de grano en trigo doble propósito Effect of the defoliation regime on grain production in dual purpose wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Peralta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available La utilización de cultivos de trigo con doble propósito contribuiría a realizar un uso más eficiente de los recursos ambientales. En Balcarce (Buenos Aires, Argentina se estableció un cultivo de trigo (Triticum aestivum, cv. Baguette 20 sembrado en fecha temprana (17 de marzo de 2006 para comparar la producción de forraje obtenida con tres regímenes de defoliación: T1 (tres defoliaciones, T2 (dos defoliaciones y TG (sin defoliaciones. En esos tres tratamientos y en otro no defoliado sembrado en fecha normal para la producción de grano (7 de junio, TN se cuantificó la biomasa aérea (g MS m², el rendimiento de grano (kg ha-1 y sus componentes. La producción de forraje de T1 fue similar que la de T2 (497 y 392 g m-2, respectivamente. Las defoliaciones posteriores al estado de dos nudos (estado Zadoks 32 afectaron negativamente la radiación fotosintéticamente activa interceptada por el cultivo, disminuyendo tanto el número de granos m-2 como el peso por grano; en consecuencia, la producción de grano cayó 60% respecto de TG y 71% respecto de TN. Se estableció una relación cuantitativa entre la disminución del rendimiento en grano y el momento del último corte (i.e., días entre la última defoliación y antesis. El trigo presenta la ventaja de poseer un destino alternativo a su uso forrajero, que no la presentan otros verdeos de invierno. Puede destinarse sólo para uso forrajero, sólo para producir grano, o se lo puede utilizar buscando un balance entre la producción de forraje y grano.The utilization of dual purpose wheat crops may contribute to perform a more efficient use of environmental resources. In Balcarce (Buenos Aires, Argentina a wheat crop (Triticum aestivum, cv. Baguette 20 was seeded at an early date (March 17, 2006 and the forage production was compared with three defoliation frequencies: T1 (three defoliations; T2 (two defoliations and TG (without defoliations. The aerial biomass, grain yield (kg ha-1 and its

  8. Kinetics as a tool to assess the immobilization of soil trace metals by binding phase amendments for in situ remediation purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varrault, Gilles; Bermond, Alain

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Assessment of the efficiency of soil remediation method by binding phase amendment. → Use of a kinetic fractionation method to assess trace metal mobility in amended soils. → Vernadite amendments are effective for lead and cadmium remediation. → IHA amendments are only effective for copper remediation. → Advantages of kinetic fractionation vs. extraction schemes performed at equilibrium. - Abstract: Many soil remediation techniques consist in decreasing the mobility of trace metals by means of adding trace metal binding phases. For this study, whose aim is to assess the efficiency of soil remediation method by binding phase amendment, a kinetic fractionation method that provides the labile and slowly labile trace metal amounts in soil has been introduced. Manganese oxides (vernadite) and insolubilized humic acids (IHA) have been used as binding phases for the remediation of four heavily polluted soils. Vernadite amendments are effective for lead and cadmium remediation, whereas IHA amendments are only effective for copper remediation. In most cases, the labile metal fractions decrease dramatically in amended soils (up to 50%); on the other hand, the amounts of total extracted metal near the point of thermodynamic equilibrium often show no significant difference between the amended soil and the control soil. These results highlight the utility of kinetic fractionation in assessing the efficiency of soil remediation techniques and, more generally, in evaluating trace metal mobility in soils and its potential advantages compared to extraction schemes performed under equilibrium conditions. In the future, this kinetic method could be considerably simplified so as to consume much less time allowing its routine use.

  9. Mechanism and the origins of stereospecificity in copper-catalyzed ring expansion of vinyl oxiranes: a traceless dual transition-metal-mediated process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard, Thomas J L; Mack, Daniel J; Njardarson, Jon T; Cheong, Paul Ha-Yeon

    2013-01-30

    Density functional theory computations of the Cu-catalyzed ring expansion of vinyloxiranes is mediated by a traceless dual Cu(I)-catalyst mechanism. Overall, the reaction involves a monomeric Cu(I)-catalyst, but a single key step, the Cu migration, requires two Cu(I)-catalysts for the transformation. This dual-Cu step is found to be a true double Cu(I) transition state rather than a single Cu(I) transition state in the presence of an adventitious, spectator Cu(I). Both Cu(I) catalysts are involved in the bond forming and breaking process. The single Cu(I) transition state is not a stationary point on the potential energy surface. Interestingly, the reductive elimination is rate-determining for the major diastereomeric product, while the Cu(I) migration step is rate-determining for the minor. Thus, while the reaction requires dual Cu(I) activation to proceed, kinetically, the presence of the dual-Cu(I) step is untraceable. The diastereospecificity of this reaction is controlled by the Cu migration step. Suprafacial migration is favored over antarafacial migration due to the distorted Cu π-allyl in the latter.

  10. The Explicit Determinations Of Dual Plane Curves And Dual Helices In Terms Of Its Dual Curvature And Dual Torsion

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Jae Won; Choi Jin Ho; Jin Dae Ho

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we give the explicit determinations of dual plane curves, general dual helices and dual slant helices in terms of its dual curvature and dual torsion as a fundamental theory of dual curves in a dual 3-space

  11. Analysis and evaluation of the Dual Fluid Reactor concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiang

    2017-06-27

    The Dual Fluid Reactor is a molten salt fast reactor developed by IFK in Berlin based on the Gen-IV Molten-Salt Reactor concept and the Liquid-Metal Cooled Reactor. The design aims to combine these two concepts to improve these two concepts. The Dissertation focuses on the concept and performs diverse calculations and estimations on the subjects of neutron physics, depletion and thermal-hydraulic behaviors to validate the new features of the concept. Based on the results it is concluded that this concept is feasible to its desired purpose and with great potential.

  12. Joint purpose?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pristed Nielsen, Helene

    2013-01-01

    Starting from Crenshaw´s point that antiracism often fails to interrogate patriarchy and that feminism often reproduces racist practices (1991: 1252), this paper asks: What are the theoretical reasons for believing that feminism and anti-racism can be regarded as fighting for the joint purpose...

  13. QCD Dual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sannino, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    We uncover a novel solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions for QCD. Interestingly in the perturbative regime the new gauge theory, if interpreted as a possible QCD dual, predicts the critical number of flavors above which QCD in the nonperturbative regime, develops an infrared stable...

  14. Enhanced binding affinity, remarkable selectivity, and high capacity of CO 2 by dual functionalization of a rht-type metal-organic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baiyan; Zhang, Zhijuan; Li, Yi; Yao, Kexin; Zhu, Yihan; Deng, Zhiyong; Yang, Fen; Zhou, Xiaojing; Li, Guanghua; Wu, Haohan; Nijem, Nour; Chabal, Yves Jean; Lai, Zhiping; Han, Yu; Shi, Zhan; Feng, Shouhua; Li, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Open and friendly: The smallest member of the rht-type metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, see picture) constructed by a hexacarboxylate ligand with a nitrogen-rich imino triazine backbone shows a significantly enhanced gas binding affinity relative

  15. Analyzing radiation absorption difference of dental substance by using Dual CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Lee, H. K.; Cho, J. H.; Yang, H. J.; Ju, Y. S.

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes of noise and computer tomography (CT) number in each dental substance, by using the metal artefact reduction algorithm; we used dual CT for this study. For the study, we produced resin, titanium, gypsum, and wax that are widely used by dentists. In addition, we made nickel to increase the artefact. While making the study materials, we made sure that there is no difficulty when inserting the substances inside phantom. In order to study, we scanned before and after using the metal artefact reduction algorithm. We conducted an average analysis of CT number and noise, before and after using the metal artefact reduction algorithm. As a result, there was no difference in CT number and noise before and after using the metal artefact reduction algorithm. However, when it comes to the noise value in each substance, wax's noise value was the lowest whereas titanium's noise value was the highest, after applying the metal artefact reduction algorithm. In nickel, CT number and noise value from artefact area showed a decreased noise value when applying the metal artefact reduction algorithm. In conclusion, we assumed that we could increase the effectiveness of CT examination by applying dual energy's metal artefact reduction algorithm.

  16. Dual Entwining Structures and Dual Entwined Modules

    OpenAIRE

    Abuhlail, Jawad Y.

    2003-01-01

    In this note we introduce and investigate the concepts of dual entwining structures and dual entwined modules. This generalizes the concepts of dual Doi-Koppinen structures and dual Doi-Koppinen modules introduced (in the infinite case over rings) by the author is his dissertation.

  17. [Dual pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rougier, A

    2008-05-01

    Dual pathology is defined as the association of two potentially epileptogenic lesions, hippocampal (sclerosis, neuronal loss) and extrahippocampal (temporal or extratemporal). Epileptic activity may be generated by either lesion and the relative importance of every lesion's epileptogenicity conditions the surgical strategy adopted. Most frequently associated with hippocampal sclerosis are cortical dysplasias. The common physiopathology of the two lesions is not clearly established. Extrahippocampal lesions may be undetectable on MRI (microdysgenesis, for example) and ictal discharge patterns may vary among dual pathology patients. The surgical strategy depends on the location of the extrahippocampal lesion and its relative role in seizure generation; however, reported surgical results suggest that simultaneous resection of mesial temporal structures along with the extrahippocampal lesion should be performed.

  18. IAEA's dual function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1967-01-01

    'A factor of paramount importance is the dual nature of atomic energy, which is reflected in the dual function of the Agency; not only to promote, but also to safeguard the peaceful uses of atomic energy'. In taking the above statement as a theme in his address to the 1474th Plenary Meeting of the United Nations General Assembly (22nd November), the Director General, Dr. Sigvard Eklund, went on to speak of a few of the many areas in which society was feeling the impact of atomic energy. During the discussion which followed his report on the Agency's work nearly all speakers referred to the importance of the safeguards system as well as to positive achievements in developing nuclear potential for peaceful purposes

  19. Reduction of dark-band-like metal artifacts caused by dental implant bodies using hypothetical monoenergetic imaging after dual-energy computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Ray; Hayashi, Takafumi; Ike, Makiko; Noto, Yoshiyuki; Goto, Tazuko K

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of hypothetical monoenergetic images after dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) for assessment of the bone encircling dental implant bodies. Seventy-two axial images of implantation sites clipped out from image data scanned using DECT in dual-energy mode were used. Subjective assessment on reduction of dark-band-like artifacts (R-DBAs) and diagnosability of adjacent bone condition (D-ABC) in 3 sets of DECT images-a fused image set (DE120) and 2 sets of hypothetical monoenergetic images (ME100, ME190)-was performed and the results were statistically analyzed. With regards to R-DBAs and D-ABC, significant differences among DE120, ME100, and ME190 were observed. The ME100 and ME190 images revealed more artifact reduction and diagnosability than those of DE120. DECT imaging followed by hypothetical monoenergetic image construction can cause R-DBAs and increase D-ABC and may be potentially used for the evaluation of postoperative changes in the bone encircling implant bodies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The electrolytic plating of compositionally modulated alloys and laminated metal nano-structures based on an automated computer-controlled dual-bath system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NabiRahni, D.M.A.; Tang, Peter Torben; Leisner, Peter

    1996-01-01

    -controlled plating system for producing large-scale CMA coatings and laminated nano-structures of metals. Electroplating bath constituent concentrations, pH, temperature, mode of agitation, etc, as well as galvanostatic modes, e.g. direct current (d.c.) versus pulsed and/or pulse reversal currents, were optimized......). Effort was also expended in the generation of CMA structures from single electroplating baths where the two metals of interest were present. The characterization results, as elucidated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence and diffraction methods...

  1. Enhanced binding affinity, remarkable selectivity, and high capacity of CO 2 by dual functionalization of a rht-type metal-organic framework

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Baiyan

    2011-12-23

    Open and friendly: The smallest member of the rht-type metal-organic frameworks (MOFs, see picture) constructed by a hexacarboxylate ligand with a nitrogen-rich imino triazine backbone shows a significantly enhanced gas binding affinity relative to all other isoreticular rht-type MOFs. The high adsorption capacity and remarkable selectivity of CO 2 are attributed to the high density of open metal and Lewis basic sites in the framework. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Experimental Development of Dual Phase Steel Laser-arc Hybrid Welding and its Comparison to Laser and Gas Metal Arc Welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Duarte Antunes

    Full Text Available Abstract Dual phase DP600 steels have been used in many automobile structures and laser welding has been the standard method for the joining of different sections. This work proposed a comparison between laser welding with arc welding (GMAW and with hybrid laser-arc welding in order to access the microstructures and the mechanical behavior. The laser and hybrid welds are competitive in terms of microstructure and mechanical behavior, presenting both acceptable and tough welds. The maximum ductility of the laser and hybrid welds are very similar, around 14%, and near to the values observed in the base material. The GMAW presents low ductility due to the softening caused by tampering of the martensite, and thus is unacceptable as the welding procedure.

  3. Reducing the effects of metal artefact using high keV monoenergetic reconstruction of dual energy CT (DECT) in hip replacements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, Mark [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich (United Kingdom); Norwich Radiology Academy, Norwich (United Kingdom); Reid, Karen [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital, Norwich (United Kingdom); Toms, Andoni P. [Norfolk and Norwich University Hospital and University of East Anglia, Norwich (United Kingdom)

    2013-02-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether high keV monoenergetic reconstruction of dual energy computed tomography (DECT) could be used to overcome the effects of beam hardening artefact that arise from preferential deflection of low energy photons. Two phantoms were used: a Charnley total hip replacement set in gelatine and a Catphan 500. DECT datasets were acquired at 100, 200 and 400 mA (Siemens Definition Flash, 100 and 140 kVp) and reconstructed using a standard combined algorithm (1:1) and then as monoenergetic reconstructions at 10 keV intervals from 40 to 190 keV. Semi-automated segmentation with threshold inpainting was used to obtain the attenuation values and standard deviation (SD) of the streak artefact. High contrast line pair resolution and background noise were assessed using the Catphan 500. Streak artefact is progressively reduced with increasing keV monoenergetic reconstructions. Reconstruction of a 400 mA acquisition at 150 keV results in reduction in the volume of streak artefact from 65 cm{sup 3} to 17 cm{sup 3} (74 %). There was a decrease in the contrast to noise ratio (CNR) at higher tube voltages, with the peak CNR seen at 70-80 keV. High contrast spatial resolution was maintained at high keV values. Monoenergetic reconstruction of dual energy CT at increasing theoretical kilovoltages reduces the streak artefact produced by beam hardening from orthopaedic prostheses, accompanied by a modest increase in heterogeneity of background image attenuation, and decrease in contrast to noise ratio, but no deterioration in high contrast line pair resolution. (orig.)

  4. Application of ion exchange and extraction chromatography to the separation of actinium from proton-irradiated thorium metal for analytical purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V; Engle, J W; Wilson, J J; Maassen, J R; Nortier, F M; Taylor, W A; Birnbaum, E R; Hudston, L A; John, K D; Fassbender, M E

    2015-02-06

    Actinium-225 (t1/2=9.92d) is an α-emitting radionuclide with nuclear properties well-suited for use in targeted alpha therapy (TAT), a powerful treatment method for malignant tumors. Actinium-225 can also be utilized as a generator for (213)Bi (t1/2 45.6 min), which is another valuable candidate for TAT. Actinium-225 can be produced via proton irradiation of thorium metal; however, long-lived (227)Ac (t1/2=21.8a, 99% β(-), 1% α) is co-produced during this process and will impact the quality of the final product. Thus, accurate assays are needed to determine the (225)Ac/(227)Ac ratio, which is dependent on beam energy, irradiation time and target design. Accurate actinium assays, in turn, require efficient separation of actinium isotopes from both the Th matrix and highly radioactive activation by-products, especially radiolanthanides formed from proton-induced fission. In this study, we introduce a novel, selective chromatographic technique for the recovery and purification of actinium isotopes from irradiated Th matrices. A two-step sequence of cation exchange and extraction chromatography was implemented. Radiolanthanides were quantitatively removed from Ac, and no non-Ac radionuclidic impurities were detected in the final Ac fraction. An (225)Ac spike added prior to separation was recovered at ≥ 98%, and Ac decontamination from Th was found to be ≥ 10(6). The purified actinium fraction allowed for highly accurate (227)Ac determination at analytical scales, i.e., at (227)Ac activities of 1-100 kBq (27 nCi to 2.7 μCi). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dual leadership in a hospital practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thude, Bettina Ravnborg; Thomsen, Svend Erik; Stenager, Egon

    2017-01-01

    , this study aims to analyse three different dual leadership pairs at a Danish hospital. Furthermore, this study develops a tool to characterize dual leadership teams from each other. Design/methodology/approach This is a qualitative study using semi-structured interviews. Six leaders were interviewed...... to clarify how dual leadership works in a hospital context. All interviews were transcribed and coded. During coding, focus was on the nine principles found in the literature and another principle was found by looking at the themes that were generic for all six interviews. Findings Results indicate......Purpose Despite the practice of dual leadership in many organizations, there is relatively little research on the topic. Dual leadership means two leaders share the leadership task and are held jointly accountable for the results of the unit. To better understand how dual leadership works...

  6. Dual Diagnosis - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Library of Medicine Comorbidity or dual diagnosis - Opioid addiction, part 9 - English PDF Comorbidity or dual diagnosis - Opioid addiction, part 9 - español (Spanish) PDF Comorbidity or dual ...

  7. Analysis of metal artifact reduction tools for dental hardware in CT scans of the oral cavity: kVp, iterative reconstruction, dual-energy CT, metal artifact reduction software: does it make a difference?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crop, An de; Hoof, Tom van; Herde, Katharina d' ; Thierens, Hubert; Bacher, Klaus [Ghent University, Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Gent (Belgium); Casselman, Jan; Vereecke, Elke; Bossu, Nicolas [AZ Sint Jan Bruges Ostend AV, Department of Radiology, Bruges (Belgium); Dierens, Melissa [Ghent University, Dental School, Unit for Oral and Maxillofacial Imaging, Ghent (Belgium); Pamplona, Jaime [Hospital Lisboa Central, Department of Neuroradiology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2015-08-15

    Metal artifacts may negatively affect radiologic assessment in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate different metal artifact reduction techniques for metal artifacts induced by dental hardware in CT scans of the oral cavity. Clinical image quality was assessed using a Thiel-embalmed cadaver. A Catphan phantom and a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom were used to evaluate physical-technical image quality parameters such as artifact area, artifact index (AI), and contrast detail (IQF{sub inv}). Metal cylinders were inserted in each phantom to create metal artifacts. CT images of both phantoms and the Thiel-embalmed cadaver were acquired on a multislice CT scanner using 80, 100, 120, and 140 kVp; model-based iterative reconstruction (Veo); and synthesized monochromatic keV images with and without metal artifact reduction software (MARs). Four radiologists assessed the clinical image quality, using an image criteria score (ICS). Significant influence of increasing kVp and the use of Veo was found on clinical image quality (p = 0.007 and p = 0.014, respectively). Application of MARs resulted in a smaller artifact area (p < 0.05). However, MARs reconstructed images resulted in lower ICS. Of all investigated techniques, Veo shows to be most promising, with a significant improvement of both the clinical and physical-technical image quality without adversely affecting contrast detail. MARs reconstruction in CT images of the oral cavity to reduce dental hardware metallic artifacts is not sufficient and may even adversely influence the image quality. (orig.)

  8. Determination of isotope ratios of metals (and metalloids) by means of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for provenancing purposes - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balcaen, L.; Moens, L.; Vanhaecke, F.

    2010-01-01

    Since considerable time, isotopic analysis of different elements present in a sample, material or object (such as the 'light' elements H, C, N, O and S and 'heavy' elements, such as Sr and Pb), has been used in provenancing studies, as several factors - defined by 'the environment' or origin of the sample - can lead to measurable differences in their isotopic composition. For the light elements, traditionally, (gas source) isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IR-MS) is used, while for a long period of time, thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) was considered as the only technique capable of detecting subtle variations in the isotopic composition of the 'heavier' elements. However, since the introduction of the first inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometers (ICP-MS), considerable attention has been devoted to the development of methodologies and strategies to perform isotopic analysis by means of ICP-MS. While the relatively modest isotope ratio precision offered by single-collector ICP-MS may already be fit-for-purpose under some circumstances, especially the introduction of multi-collector ICP-MS instruments, equipped with an array of Faraday detectors instead of a single electron multiplier, has lead to tremendous improvements in the field of isotopic analysis. As a result, MC-ICP-MS can be seen as a very strong competitor of TIMS nowadays, while it even provides information on the small isotopic variations shown by some elements, that are not or hardly accessible by means of TIMS (e.g., elements with a high ionization energy). Owing to these new instrumental developments, the application field of isotopic analysis by means of ICP-MS is continuously growing, also in the field of provenance determination. This paper is intended as a review of the developments in and the recent applications of isotopic analysis by means of ICP-MS in this specific research field.

  9. A portable optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy dual-mode plasma spectrometer for measurements of environmentally important trace heavy metals: Initial test with elemental Hg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Peeyush; Scherrer, Susan T.; Wang, Chuji

    2012-09-01

    A portable optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OES-CRDS) dual-mode plasma spectrometer is described. A compact, low-power, atmospheric argon microwave plasma torch (MPT) is utilized as the emission source when the spectrometer is operating in the OES mode. The same MPT serves as the atomization source for ringdown measurements in the CRDS mode. Initial demonstration of the instrument is carried out by observing OES of multiple elements including mercury (Hg) in the OES mode and by measuring absolute concentrations of Hg in the metastable state 6s6p 3P0 in the CRDS mode, in which a palm-size diode laser operating at a single wavelength 405 nm is incorporated in the spectrometer as the light source. In the OES mode, the detection limit for Hg is determined to be 44 parts per 109 (ppb). A strong radiation trapping effect on emission measurements of Hg at 254 nm is observed when the Hg solution concentration is higher than 50 parts per 106 (ppm). The radiation trapping effect suggests that two different transition lines of Hg at 253.65 nm and 365.01 nm be selected for emission measurements in lower (50 ppm), respectively. In the CRDS mode, the detection limit of Hg in the metastable state 6s6p 3P0 is achieved to be 2.24 parts per 1012 (ppt) when the plasma is operating at 150 W with sample gas flow rate of 480 mL min-1; the detection limit corresponds to 50 ppm in Hg sample solution. Advantage of this novel spectrometer has two-fold, it has a large measurement dynamic range, from a few ppt to hundreds ppm and the CRDS mode can serve as calibration for the OES mode as well as high sensitivity measurements. Measurements of seven other elements, As, Cd, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, and Sr, using the OES mode are also carried out with detection limits of 1100, 33, 30, 144, 576, 94, and 2 ppb, respectively. Matrix effect in the presence of other elements on Hg measurements has been found to increase the detection limit to 131 ppb. These elements in lower

  10. Some properties of dual and approximate dual of fusion frames

    OpenAIRE

    Arefijamaal, Ali Akbar; Neyshaburi, Fahimeh Arabyani

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we extend the notion of approximate dual to fusion frames and present some approaches to obtain dual and approximate alternate dual fusion frames. Also, we study the stability of dual and approximate alternate dual fusion frames.

  11. Pairs of dual periodic frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Goh, Say Song

    2012-01-01

    The time–frequency analysis of a signal is often performed via a series expansion arising from well-localized building blocks. Typically, the building blocks are based on frames having either Gabor or wavelet structure. In order to calculate the coefficients in the series expansion, a dual frame...... is needed. The purpose of the present paper is to provide constructions of dual pairs of frames in the setting of the Hilbert space of periodic functions L2(0,2π). The frames constructed are given explicitly as trigonometric polynomials, which allows for an efficient calculation of the coefficients...

  12. Evaluation of Myc Gene Amplification in Prostate Cancer Using a Dual Color Chromogenic in-Situ Hybridization (Dual CISH) Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Lerda; Marta Cabrera; Jorge Flores; Luis Gutierrez; Armando Chierichetti; Martin Revol; Hernan Garcia Onto

    2013-01-01

    Objetive: The overall purpose of the study was to demonstrate applicability of the Dako dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) assay (DAKO Denmark, Glostrup) with respect to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes MYC-C. Methods: MYC gene amplification by FISH and Dako dual-color CISH Results: The study showed that the dual-color CISH assay can convert Texas red and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) signals into chromogenic signals. The dual –color CISH assay was p...

  13. Dual optoelectronic visual detection and quantification of spectroscopically silent heavy metal toxins: A multi-measurand sensing strategy based on Rhodamine 6G as chromo or fluoro ionophore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prathish, K.P.; James, D.; Jaisy, J. [Inorganic and Polymeric Materials Group, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR), Industrial Estate (P.O), Pappanamcode, Trivandrum 695019 (India); Prasada Rao, T., E-mail: rao@csrrltrd.ren.nic.in [Inorganic and Polymeric Materials Group, National Institute for Interdisciplinary Science and Technology (CSIR), Industrial Estate (P.O), Pappanamcode, Trivandrum 695019 (India)

    2009-08-04

    A novel colorimetric chemo-sensor for the simultaneous visual detection and quantification of spectroscopically silent heavy metal toxins viz. cadmium, lead and mercury has been developed. This is based on the proposed sequential ligand exchange (SLE) mechanism of iodide from Pb-I{sup -}-Rhodamine 6G ion associate with citrate (without affecting ion associates of Cd and Hg) and subsequently from Cd-I{sup -}-Rhodamine 6G ion associate with EDTA (without affecting Hg-I{sup -}-Rhodamine 6G). Multi-measurand detection and quantification by colorimetry is possible as the individual toxins gives identical bathochromic shifts in aqueous solution, i.e. from 530 to 575 nm on formation of ternary ion associates in singular, binary and ternary mixtures. The visual detection provides a simple, quick and sensitive detection method in addition to quantification via spectrophotometry with Sandell sensitivities of 1.1, 15 and 2.5 {mu}g dm{sup -2} for cadmium, lead and mercury, respectively. The developed procedure has been successfully tested for the analysis of environmental (cast alkali, lead acid battery and zinc manufacturing industry effluents) samples. Furthermore, the multi-measurand quantification of the above-mentioned heavy metal toxins based on fluorescence quenching and use of Pyronine G as chromo-ionophore instead of Rhodamine 6G is also described.

  14. Dual coolant blanket concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malang, S.; Schleisiek, K.

    1994-11-01

    A self-cooled liquid metal breeder blanket with helium-cooled first wall ('Dual Coolant Blanket Concept') for a fusion DEMO reactor is described. This is one of the four blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European fusion technology program with the aim to select in 1995 the two most promising ones for further development. Described are the design of the blankets including the ancillary loop system and the results of the theoretical and experimental work in the fields of neutronics, magnetohydrodynamics, thermohydraulics, mechanical stresses, compatibility and purification of lead-lithium, tritium control, safety, reliability, and electrically insulating coatings. The remaining open questions and the required R and D programme are identified. (orig.) [de

  15. A highly symmetrical 10 transistor 2-read/write dual-port static random access memory bitcell design in 28 nm high-k/metal-gate planar bulk CMOS technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Yuichiro; Tanaka, Miki; Yabuuchi, Makoto; Sawada, Yohei; Tanaka, Shinji; Nii, Koji; Lu, Tien Yu; Huang, Chun Hsien; Sian Chen, Shou; Tse Kuo, Yu; Lung, Ching Cheng; Cheng, Osbert

    2018-04-01

    We propose a highly symmetrical 10 transistor (10T) 2-read/write (2RW) dual-port (DP) static random access memory (SRAM) bitcell in 28 nm high-k/metal-gate (HKMG) planar bulk CMOS. It replaces the conventional 8T 2RW DP SRAM bitcell without any area overhead. It significantly improves the robustness of process variations and an asymmetric issue between the true and bar bitline pairs. Measured data show that read current (I read) and read static noise margin (SNM) are respectively boosted by +20% and +15 mV by introducing the proposed bitcell with enlarged pull-down (PD) and pass-gate (PG) N-channel MOSs (NMOSs). The minimum operating voltage (V min) of the proposed 256 kbit 10T DP SRAM is 0.53 V in the TT process, 25 °C under the worst access condition with read/write disturbances, and improved by 90 mV (15%) compared with the conventional one.

  16. Deposition of mullite and mullite-like coatings on silicon carbide by dual-source metal plasma immersion. Topical report, October 1995--September 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, I.G.; Monteiro, O.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-04-01

    Mullite and mullite-like coatings on silicon carbide have been produced by a Metal Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition (Mepiiid) technique based on two cathodic vacuum arc sources and concurrent pulse biasing of the substrate in an oxygen atmosphere. The deposition was carried out at oxygen partial pressures of between 0.66 and 3.33 Pa. The Al:Si ratio in the films varied from 1:1 to 8:1 and was controlled by varying the pulse duration of the separate plasma guns. High bias voltage was used early in the deposition process in order to produce atomic mixing at the film-substrate interface, while lower bias voltage was used later in the deposition; low ion energy allows control of the physical properties of the film as well as faster deposition rates. The as-deposited films were amorphous, and crystalline mullite was formed by subsequent annealing at 1,100 C for 2 hours in air. Strong adhesion between the mullite and the SiC was achieved, in some cases exceeding the 70 MPa instrumental limit of the pull-tester.

  17. Dual antiplatelet treatment in patients candidates for abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, Giulio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Pacilè, Maria A; Pizzardi, Giulia; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    With the increasing diffusion of percutaneous interventions (PCI), surgeons are often faced with the problem of operating on patients under dual antiplatelet treatment. Replacing dual antiplatelet regiment with low molecular weight heparin may expose to the abrupt thrombosis of coronary stent and massive myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal operations can be safely performed under dual antiplatelet treatment. Eleven patients underwent 5 colectomies, 3 nefrectomies, 2 gastrectomies and 1 hysterectomy under aspirin and plavix without any significant perioperative hemorrhage. These preliminary results show that abdominal operations can be safely performed under dual antiplatelet regimen. Abdominal surgery, Dual antiplatelet treatment.

  18. Dual Youla parameterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2003-01-01

    A different aspect of using the parameterisation of all systems stabilised by a given controller, i.e. the dual Youla parameterisation, is considered. The relation between system change and the dual Youla parameter is derived in explicit form. A number of standard uncertain model descriptions...... are considered and the relation with the dual Youla parameter given. Some applications of the dual Youla parameterisation are considered in connection with the design of controllers and model/performance validation....

  19. Further dual purpose evolutionary optimization of small wind turbine blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton-Smith, M J; Wood, D H

    2007-01-01

    Much work has been done to maximise the power extraction of wind turbine blades. However, small wind turbines are also required to be self starting and whilst blades designed for maximum power extraction can be optimised analytically, these blades often have poor starting performance. The numeric method of Differential Evolution is used here to maximise for both power and starting performance. Standard blade element theory is used to calculate the power coefficient, and a modified blade element method for starting time. The chord and twist of each blade element make up the genes for evolution. Starting times can be improved by a factor of 20 with only a small reduction in power coefficient. With the introduction of the tip speed ratio as an additional gene, up to 10% improvement in power coefficient was achieved. A second study was done in another case where analytical optimisation is not possible; the inclusion of tip losses. The inclusion resulted in only a small increase in the optimum chord in the tip region which becomes less noticeable at lower tip speed ratios

  20. Utilization of stover from six improved dual-purpose Groundnut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similarly, NDF digestibility (488 to 635 g/kg DM) and ADF digestibility (406 to 572 g/kg DM) were significantly different (P 0.05) among cultivars, whereas available protein ranged (P < 0.05) from 2.5 g d-1 for RMP-12 to 29.0 g d-1 for M170-80I. Liveweight changes ...

  1. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY OF THE LOCAL DUAL-PURPOSE CATTLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Krupová

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Base economic characteristics (total revenues, total costs, profit and profitability ratio of the Slovak Pinzgau breed were calculated in this study. Under the actual production and economic conditions of the breed, production system is operated with loss (-457 € per cow and per year and with negative profitability ratio (-20%. Optimisation of the production parameters on the level defined in the breed standard (5,200 kg milk per cow and year, 92% for conception rate of cows, 404 days of calving interval and 550 g in daily gain of reared heifers and improved udder health traits (clinical mastitis incidence and somatic cells score was of positive impact on the total revenues (+34%, on the effective utilisation of costs (+105% and balanced profit of dairy systems. Next to the positive profitability of the system, higher quality and security of dairy milk products should be mentioned there. Moreover, direct subsidies as an important factor of positive economic result of dairy cattle systems has to be pointed as well. Subsidies should be provided to compensate the real biological limitation of the local breed farmed in marginal areas. However, improvement of the production parameters of the Slovak Pinzgau breed is recommended with the same attention to reach the economic sustainability of dairy production system. To reach economic sustainability of the breed from practical point of view, the farmer activity should be aimed especially to the enhanced herd management.

  2. Dual-purpose light water reactor supplying heat for desalination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waplington, G.; Fichtner, H.

    1978-01-01

    The technical as well as the economic aspects of using a large commercial light water reactor for the production of both electricity and potable water have been examined. For the basis of the study, the multistage flash distillation process was selected, in conjunction with a reactor rated at not less than 2100 MW (thermal). Combined use of a condensing and a back-pressure turbine (the latter matched to distillation plant steam requirements) represents a convenient method for supplying process heat. Overall costs can be fairly allocated to the two products using the ''power credit'' method. A sample economic evaluation indicates highly favorable water costs as compared with more conventional distillation schemes based on fossil fuel

  3. development of a dual purpose refrigeration system for domestic use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    sealed reciprocating compressor, a fabricated condenser and split evaporator operated by temperature controlled solenoid valve. ... employed requires evaporation and condensation to ... used in obtaining heat transfer coefficients used for.

  4. Generation mean analysis of dual purpose traits in cowpea (Vigna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fadiji

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... Frequency analysis showed that all the F2 populations for fodder yield exhibited a continuous distribution, suggesting that inheritance of fodder yield is ... Key words: Gene effects, fodder, Vigna unguiculata, generation mean analysis. .... using the ABC scaling test (Mather, 1949), incorporating the weighted ...

  5. System analysis for a dual-purpose repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bechthold, W.; Closs, K.D.; Knapp, U.; Papp, R.

    1993-01-01

    This study focuses on planning and evaluating alternative concepts for dealing with the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Emphasis is laid on the underground part of this system consisting in the disposal of radioactive waste/spent fuel that generates considerable heat. A given amount of spent fuel discharged from LWRs is subject to disposal and reprocessing, respectively. For the emerging mix of waste and spent fuel packages a sizeable variety of disposal variants is designed conceptually, thereby providing the database for further near- and far-field analyses as well as dose and cost calculations. The technical alternatives were compared with one another by a panel of experts relying on a set of objectives (criteria) which belong to seven criteria fields. Concept BD1 (borehole and drift emplacement) and concept D3* (three-level drift emplacement) best meet the requirements as stated by the criteria. The comparative analysis also helped detect areas of insufficient knowledge which introduced a degree of uncertainty into the systems evaluation and gave rise to a continuation of the research programme

  6. development of dual purpose sorghum: correlation and path

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    (Table 3). Grain yield and stem sugar traits. The correlation coefficients between grain yield and. T. ABLE 2. Correlation coefficients between grain yield and stem sugar content with selected agronomic traits in sorghum. SBX. GY. SBW. DT50F. HDL. SJS. NLP. PHT. Stem brix (SBX). 1.000. Grain yield (GY). 0.071**. 1.000.

  7. Dual affine isoperimetric inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xiong

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We establish some inequalities for the dual -centroid bodies which are the dual forms of the results by Lutwak, Yang, and Zhang. Further, we establish a Brunn-Minkowski-type inequality for the polar of dual -centroid bodies.

  8. DUAL TIMELIKE NORMAL AND DUAL TIMELIKE SPHERICAL CURVES IN DUAL MINKOWSKI SPACE

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNDER, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, we give characterizations of dual timelike normal and dual timelike spherical curves in the dual Minkowski 3-space and we show that every dual timelike normal curve is also a dual timelike spherical curve. Keywords: Normal curves, Dual Minkowski 3-Space, Dual Timelike curves. Mathematics Subject Classifications (2000): 53C50, 53C40. DUAL MINKOWSKI UZAYINDA DUAL TIMELIKE NORMAL VE DUAL TIMELIKE KÜRESEL EĞRİLER Özet: Bu çalışmada, dual Minkowski 3-...

  9. Testing of Metal Cask and Concrete Cask

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, K.; Wataru, M.; Takeda, H.; Tani, J.; Arai, T.; Saegusa, T.

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, the first interim spent fuel storage facility (ISF) outside of nuclear power plant site in use of dual-purpose metal cask is being planned to start its commercial operation in 2012 in Mutsu city, Aomori prefecture. The CRIEPI (Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry) has executed several study programs on demonstrative testing for interim storage of spent fuel, mainly related to metal cask and concrete cask storage technology to reflect in Japanese safety requirements for dry casks issued by NISA/METI (Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency, Ministry of Economy and Trade Industry). On top of that, the Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) has executed study programs on spent fuel integrity, etc. This paper introduces the summary of these research programs. (author)

  10. Potassium-Based Dual Ion Battery with Dual-Graphite Electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ling; Liu, Qian; Chen, Suhua; Lin, Kairui; Xu, Zhi; Lu, Bingan

    2017-08-01

    A potassium ion battery has potential applications for large scale electric energy storage systems due to the abundance and low cost of potassium resources. Dual graphite batteries, with graphite as both anode and cathode, eliminate the use of transition metal compounds and greatly lower the overall cost. Herein, combining the merits of the potassium ion battery and dual graphite battery, a potassium-based dual ion battery with dual-graphite electrode is developed. It delivers a reversible capacity of 62 mA h g -1 and medium discharge voltage of ≈3.96 V. The intercalation/deintercalation mechanism of K + and PF 6 - into/from graphite is proposed and discussed in detail, with various characterizations to support. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Dual Income Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Birch

    This paper discusses the principles and practices of dual income taxation in the Nordic countries. The first part of the paper explains the rationale and the historical background for the introduction of the dual income tax and describes the current Nordic tax practices. The second part...... of the paper focuses on the problems of taxing income from small businesses and the issue of corporate-personal tax integration under the dual income tax, considering alternative ways of dealing with these challenges. In the third and final part of the paper, I briefly discuss whether introducing a dual income...

  12. Adhesive, abrasive and oxidative wear in ion-implanted metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dearnaley, G.

    1985-01-01

    Ion implantation is increasingly being used to provide wear resistance in metals and cemented tungsten carbides. Field trials and laboratory tests indicate that the best performance is achieved in mild abrasive wear. This can be understood in terms of the classification of wear modes (adhesive, abrasive, oxidative etc.) introduced by Burwell. Surface hardening and work hardenability are the major properties to be enhanced by ion implantation. The implantation of nitrogen or dual implants of metallic and interstitial species are effective. Recently developed techniques of ion-beam-enhanced deposition of coatings can further improve wear resistance by lessening adhesion and oxidation. In order to support such hard coatings, ion implantation of nitrogen can be used as a preliminary treatment. There is thus emerging a versatile group of related hard vacuum treatments involving intense beams of nitrogen ions for the purpose of tailoring metal surfaces to resist wear. (Auth.)

  13. Characterization and Optimization of Dual Anaerobic/Aerobic Biofilm Process

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Togna, A

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this Phase I STTR effort was to develop and characterize a dual anaerobic/aerobic biofilm process that promotes anaerobic reductive dehalogenation and aerobic cometabolic biodegradation...

  14. Dual Enrollment Academy Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Nicolas; Chavez, Guadalupe

    2009-01-01

    Dual Enrollment Engineering (DEEA) and Medical Science (DEMSA) Academies are two-year dual enrollment programs for high school students. Students explore engineering and medical careers through college coursework. Students prepare for higher education in engineering and medical fields while completing associate degrees in biology or engineering…

  15. A Dual Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.; Tijs, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this note we introduce an egalitarian solution, called the dual egalitarian solution, that is the natural counterpart of the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989).We prove, among others, that for a convex game the egalitarian solution coincides with the dual egalitarian solution for its

  16. Dual Credit Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Noreen

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, legislation to improve access to dual-credit programs and to reduce disparities in access and completion--particularly for low income and underrepresented students--was enacted. The new law focused on expanding access to College in the High School but acknowledged issues in other dual-credit programs and reinforced the notion that cost…

  17. Explicit MDS Codes with Complementary Duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beelen, Duals Peter; Jin, Lingfei

    2018-01-01

    In 1964, Massey introduced a class of codes with complementary duals which are called Linear Complimentary Dual (LCD for short) codes. He showed that LCD codes have applications in communication system, side-channel attack (SCA) and so on. LCD codes have been extensively studied in literature....... On the other hand, MDS codes form an optimal family of classical codes which have wide applications in both theory and practice. The main purpose of this paper is to give an explicit construction of several classes of LCD MDS codes, using tools from algebraic function fields. We exemplify this construction...

  18. Dual Credit/Dual Enrollment and Data Driven Policy Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberger, Eric; Witt, M. Allison; Blankenberger, Bob; Franklin, Doug

    2014-01-01

    The use of dual credit has been expanding rapidly. Dual credit is a college course taken by a high school student for which both college and high school credit is given. Previous studies provided limited quantitative evidence that dual credit/dual enrollment is directly connected to positive student outcomes. In this study, predictive statistics…

  19. Choice of optimum size of installations for dual-purpose production of desalted water and electricity, using nuclear power; Le dimensionnement optimum des installations de production mixte d'eau sessalee et d'electricite faisant intervenir l'energie nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaussens, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France)

    1966-07-01

    The author used a method starting with water and power demand curves; this leads to the rational allocation of production costs to water and power within a given market. The power demand curve is needed as it seems improbable to sell at a constant price the enormous quantity of electricity produced by a dual purpose plant. Criteria based on principles of classical economics, help to select objectively desalination methods and plant sizes. On these criteria, normative methods for tariffing action of water and power can be based, while adhering as closely as possible to structure of demand. Examples of such criteria are the maximum profit of the supplier or the maximum satisfaction of the consumers taken collectively. In the first case marginal costs must be equated to marginal revenue, in the second one marginal cost to marginal satisfaction (theory of surpluses). The plant size often determines the choice of desalination process. Therefore the shape of the water demand curve and the economic criterion adopted (public or private ownership, capital restrictions etc.) often determine in this way both size and type of plant. Before deciding on the desalination technique, market surveys and rather subtle economic analyses are therefore necessary. (author) [French] Le probleme est presente en introduisant la notion de courbes de demande d'eau et d'electricite, ce qui permet d'aboutir a un partage rationnel des couts de revient entre eau et electricite dans ]e cadre d'un marche. L'objet de l'etude est, a partir des principes de l'economie classique, de donner des criteres objectifs de selection des dimensions des installations et des techniques de dessalement et d'en deduire une methode normative de tarification des deux produits lies: eau et electricite, en collant autant que possible a la structure de la demande. Ces criteres sont en particulier, soit le maximum de benefice de l'exploitant, soit le maximum de satisfaction des utilisateurs, c'est-a-dire la realisation d

  20. Dual thyroid ectopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Akeely, Mohammed H.

    2003-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid gland is a rare embryological fault of thyroid development .Dual ectopic thyroid is more rare and only 8 cases have been reported in the literature. The author presents a case of dual ectopic thyroid in a 16 year old boy with an anterior red neck mass, which is gradually growing in size particularly in last 2 years. The initial diagnosis was thyroglossal duct cyst. Thyroid function test revealed elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone. Ultrasound of the neck did not show thyroid gland in its normal pre tracheal position. Thyroid scan (Technetium 99)revealed the diagnosis of dual thyroid ectopia(lingual and subhyoid). (author)

  1. Dual energy CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Najami, Issam; Drue, Henrik Christian; Steele, Robert

    2017-01-01

    and inaccurate with existing methods. Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) enables qualitative tissue differentiation by simultaneous scanning with different levels of energy. We aimed to assess the feasibility of DECT in quantifying tumor response to neoadjuvant therapy in loco-advanced rectal cancer. METHODS...... to determine the average quantitative parameters; effective-Z, water- and iodine-concentration, Dual Energy Index (DEI), and Dual Energy Ratio (DER). These parameters were compared to the regression in the resection specimen as measured by the pathologist. RESULTS: Changes in the quantitative parameters...

  2. Dual coil ignition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberts, Garlan J.; Qu, Qiuping; Czekala, Michael Damian

    2017-03-28

    A dual coil ignition system is provided. The dual coil ignition system includes a first inductive ignition coil including a first primary winding and a first secondary winding, and a second inductive ignition coil including a second primary winding and a second secondary winding, the second secondary winding connected in series to the first secondary winding. The dual coil ignition system further includes a diode network including a first diode and a second diode connected between the first secondary winding and the second secondary winding.

  3. Combining Purpose With Profits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julian Birkinshaw, Julian; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Lindenberg, Siegwart

    2014-01-01

    A sense of purpose that transcends making money can motivate employees. But to sustain both a sense of purpose and a solid level of profitability over time, companies need to pay attention to several fundamental organizing principles....

  4. Dual Dynamic Programming - DDP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velasquez Bermudez, Jesus M

    1998-01-01

    Objections are presented to the mathematical formulation of the denominated Dual Dynamic programming-PDD that is the theoretical base of several computational model available for the optimal formulation of interconnected hydrothermal systems

  5. Purpose and Professional Writers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blyler, Nancy Roundy

    1989-01-01

    Describes a protocol study of 10 professional writers which examined the meaning and influence of purpose on writers in the workplace. Explores the interactions of various purpose considerations derived from situation, reader, and text. Suggests that professional writers have a range of meanings in mind when they think about purpose. (MM)

  6. Demonstration and evaluation of dual-fuel technology; Demonstration och utvaerdering av dual-fuel-tekniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staalhammar, Per; Erlandsson, Lennart; Willner, Kristina (AVL MTC Motortestcenter AB (Sweden)); Johannesson, Staffan (Ecoplan AB (Sweden))

    2011-06-15

    There is an increased interest for Dual Fuel (methane-Diesel) applications in Sweden since this technology is seen as one of the more interesting options for a fast and cost effective introduction of biomethane as fuel for HD engines. The Dual Fuel technology has been used for many years, mainly for stationary purpose (generators, pumps and ships) while the Spark Ignited (SI) 'Otto' technology has been used for trucks and busses. One obstacle for introducing Dual Fuel technology for busses and trucks is the EU legislation that don't allow for HD on road certification of Dual Fuel applications. Challenges with the Dual Fuel technology is to develop cost effective applications that is capable of reaching low emissions (especially CH{sub 4} and NO{sub x}) in combination with high Diesel replacement in the test cycles used for on road applications. AVL MTC Motortestcenter AB (hereinafter called AVL) has on commission by SGC (Swedish Gas technical Centre) carried out this project with the objectives to analyze the Dual Fuel (Diesel-methane) technology with focus on emissions, fuel consumption and technical challenges. One important part of this project was to carry out emission tests on selected Dual Fuel applications in Sweden and to compile experiences from existing Dual Fuel technology. This report also summarizes other commonly used technologies for methane engines and compares the Dual Fuel with conventional Diesel and Otto technologies. The major challenges with Dual Fuel applications for on road vehicles will be to develop robust and cost effective solutions that meet the emission legislations (with aged catalysts) and to increase the Diesel replacement to achieve reasonable reduction of green house gases (GHG). This is especially important when biomethane is available as fuel but not Bio-Diesel. It will probably be possible to reach EURO V emission limits with advanced Dual Fuel systems but none of the tested systems reached EURO V emission levels

  7. Dual Credit Enrollment and GPA by Ethnicity and Gender at Texas 2-Year Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Robert D., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the extent to which differences were present in dual credit course enrollment. Specifically examined were whether differences were present in the first semester GPA and at the end of the first two semesters for students who enrolled in dual credit courses while in high school from…

  8. A Superconducting Dual-Channel Photonic Switch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Yogesh Kumar; Manjappa, Manukumara; Cong, Longqing; Krishnamoorthy, Harish N S; Savinov, Vassili; Pitchappa, Prakash; Singh, Ranjan

    2018-06-05

    The mechanism of Cooper pair formation and its underlying physics has long occupied the investigation into high temperature (high-T c ) cuprate superconductors. One of the ways to unravel this is to observe the ultrafast response present in the charge carrier dynamics of a photoexcited specimen. This results in an interesting approach to exploit the dissipation-less dynamic features of superconductors to be utilized for designing high-performance active subwavelength photonic devices with extremely low-loss operation. Here, dual-channel, ultrafast, all-optical switching and modulation between the resistive and the superconducting quantum mechanical phase is experimentally demonstrated. The ultrafast phase switching is demonstrated via modulation of sharp Fano resonance of a high-T c yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) superconducting metamaterial device. Upon photoexcitation by femtosecond light pulses, the ultrasensitive cuprate superconductor undergoes dual dissociation-relaxation dynamics, with restoration of superconductivity within a cycle, and thereby establishes the existence of dual switching windows within a timescale of 80 ps. Pathways are explored to engineer the secondary dissociation channel which provides unprecedented control over the switching speed. Most importantly, the results envision new ways to accomplish low-loss, ultrafast, and ultrasensitive dual-channel switching applications that are inaccessible through conventional metallic and dielectric based metamaterials. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Robot Kinematics, using Dual Quaternions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Gouasmi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available From the point of view of classical mechanics, deriving the equations of motion for systems of coupled rigid bodies is regarded as a straightforward procedure: once a suitable set of generalized coordinates and reference frames have been chosen, what remains is to either apply Lagrange’s equations or Newton and Euler’s equations to obtain the differential equations of motion. As the complexity of multibody system increases, the need for more elegant formulation of the equation of motion becomes an issue of paramount importance. Our primary focus is on the kinematic analysis of rigid bodies and serial manipulators (robotic systems  using simultaneously, both homogeneous transformations (4x4 matrices and Dual Quaternions, for the sake of results comparisons (cost,complexity,storage capacity etc. . This paper has been done mainly for educational and peadagogical purposes, hoping that the scientific community will finally adopt and use Dual Quaternions at least when dealing with multibody systems and specially robotics.

  10. Development of metal cask for nuclear spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, T.; Kuri, S.; Ohsono, K.; Hode, S.

    2001-01-01

    It is one of the realistic solutions against increasing demand on interim storage of spent fuel assemblies arising from nuclear power plants in Japan to apply dual purpose (transport and storage) metal casks. Since 1980's Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. (MHI) has been contributing to develop metal cask technologies for utilities, etc. in Japan, and have established transport and storage cask design ''MSF series'' which realizes higher payload and reliability for long term storage. MSF series transport and storage casks use various new design concepts and materials to improve thermal performance of the cask, structural integrity of the basket, durability of the neutron shielding material and so on. This paper summarizes an outline of the cask design that can accommodate BWR spent fuel assemblies as well as the new technologies applied to the design and fabrication. (author)

  11. Self-dual Hopf quivers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Hualin; Li Libin; Ye Yu

    2004-07-01

    We study pointed graded self-dual Hopf algebras with a help of the dual Gabriel theorem for pointed Hopf algebras. Quivers of such Hopf algebras are said to be self-dual. An explicit classification of self-dual Hopf quivers is obtained. We also prove that finite dimensional coradically graded pointed self-dual Hopf algebras are generated by group-like and skew-primitive elements as associative algebras. This partially justifies a conjecture of Andruskiewitsch and Schneider and may help to classify finite dimensional self-dual pointed Hopf algebras

  12. Aerospace Technologies and Applications for Dual Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Events which occurred over the past years have shown how the threat related to both intentional and natural disasters could bring the civil and the miliary worlds closer in the conception and deployment of countermeasures, as well as in the identification of effective strategies for enhancing...... the Planet safety and security. In this frame, the concept of dual use - the set of technologies and applications that can be exploied for both civil and military purposes - becomes a key-topic. In addition, the aerospace is a strategic building block in the deployment of a network centric environment...... that aims at the global protection of the mankind. Aeropsace is also a natural environment for dual use: many of the related enabling technologies have been first developed for the military world and then applied to civil - including commercial - purposes....

  13. The high-energy dual-beam facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaletta, D.

    1984-07-01

    This proposal presents a new experimental facility at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) to study the effects of irradiation on the first wall and blanket materials of a fusion reactor. A special effort is made to demonstrate the advantages of the Dual Beam Technique (DBT) as a future research tool for materials development within the European Fusion Technology Programme. The Dual-Beam-Technique allows the production both of helium and of damage in thick metal and ceramic specimens by simultaneous irradiation with high energy alpha particles and protons produced by the two KfK cyclotrons. The proposal describes the Dual Beam Technique the planned experimental activities and the design features of the Dual Beam Facility presently under construction. (orig.) [de

  14. The Special Purpose Vehicle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate whether the situation where two companies appear as originators or sponsors behind a Special Purpose Vehicle (SPV) can be described as a merger, although on micro scale. Are the underlying grounds behind the creation of an SPV much different than those...

  15. The Experience of Dual Career through Slovak Athletes’ Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraniosova Kristina

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine how Slovak athletes experience dual career (the combination of an athletic career with education and/or work. The study strived to gain an understanding of the athletes’ attitudes towards education as well as perceived difficulties and supporting elements in pursuing dual career. Five athletes were interviewed once for approx. 105 min. The interviews and data analysis were based on Intepretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA and the interviews were focused on their experience in combining an athletic career with education or work. The athletes experienced dual career as manageable as long as they were assisted by at least simple supportive structures and provided flexible arrangements. Peers had played an important role in athletes’ decision-making concerning dual career and in providing social support when facing challenges within dual career. The teachers’ prejudice against the athletes based on their athletic role and the lack of dual career structures appeared to be significant deficiencies in dual career support. Finally, the analysis revealed the negative perception of athletes and sport science students by educational representatives. This perception may be a hurdle to be overcome in future dual career development.

  16. Designing compensator of dual servo system for high precision positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hyeun Seok; Song, Chi Woo; Han, Chang Soo; Choi, Tae Hoon; Lee, Nak Kyu; Na, Kyung Hwan

    2003-01-01

    The high precision positioning mechanism is used in various industrial fields. It is used in semiconductor manufacturing line, test instrument, bioengineering, and MEMS and so on. This paper presents a positioning mechanism with dual servo system. Dual servo system consists of a coarse stage and a fine motion stage. The course stage is driven by VCM and the actuator of fine stage is the PZT. The purposes of dual servo system are stability, higher bandwidth, and robustness. Lead compensator is applied to this control system, and is designed by PQ method. Designed compensator can improve property of positioning mechanism

  17. Dual source CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidensticker, Peter R.; Hofmann, Lars K.

    2008-01-01

    The introduction of Dual Source Computed Tomography (DSCT) in 2005 was an evolutionary leap in the field of CT imaging. Two x-ray sources operated simultaneously enable heart-rate independent temporal resolution and routine spiral dual energy imaging. The precise delivery of contrast media is a critical part of the contrast-enhanced CT procedure. This book provides an introduction to DSCT technology and to the basics of contrast media administration followed by 25 in-depth clinical scan and contrast media injection protocols. All were developed in consensus by selected physicians on the Dual Source CT Expert Panel. Each protocol is complemented by individual considerations, tricks and pitfalls, and by clinical examples from several of the world's best radiologists and cardiologists. This extensive CME-accredited manual is intended to help readers to achieve consistently high image quality, optimal patient care, and a solid starting point for the development of their own unique protocols. (orig.)

  18. Online Manifold Regularization by Dual Ascending Procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Boliang; Li, Guohui; Jia, Li; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    We propose a novel online manifold regularization framework based on the notion of duality in constrained optimization. The Fenchel conjugate of hinge functions is a key to transfer manifold regularization from offline to online in this paper. Our algorithms are derived by gradient ascent in the dual function. For practical purpose, we propose two buffering strategies and two sparse approximations to reduce the computational complexity. Detailed experiments verify the utility of our approache...

  19. Multi-purpose container technologies for spent fuel management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-12-01

    The management of spent nuclear fuel is an integral part of the nuclear fuel cycle. Spent fuel management resides in the back end of the fuel cycle, and is not revenue producing as electric power generation is. It instead results in a cost associated power generation. It is a major consideration in the nuclear power industry today. Because technologies, needs and circumstances vary from country to country, there is no single, standardized approach to spent fuel management. The projected cumulative amount of spent fuel generated worldwide by 2010 will be 330 000 t HM. When reprocessing is accounted for, that amount is likely to be reduced to 215 000 t HM, which is still more than twice as much as the amount now in storage. Considering the limited capacity of at-reactor (AR) storage, various technologies are being developed for increasing storage capacities. At present, many countries are developing away-from-reactor (AFR) storage in the form of pool storage or as dry storage. Further these AFR storage systems may be at-reactor sites or away-from-reactor sites (e.g. centrally located interim storage facilities, serving several reactors). The dry storage technologies being developed are varied and include vaults, horizontal concrete modules, concrete casks, and metal casks. The review of the interim storage plans of several countries indicates that the newest approaches being pursued for spent fuel management use dual-purpose and multi-purpose containers. These containers are envisaged to hold several spent fuel assemblies, and be part of the transport, storage, and possibly geological disposal systems of an integrated spent fuel management system

  20. Dual Pathology of Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajurkar, Suday G; Deshpande, Mohan D; Kazi, Noaman; Jadhav, Dhanashree; Ranadive, Pallavi; Ingole, Snehal

    2017-01-01

    Aneurysmal Bone cyst (ABC)is a rare benign lesion of the bone which is infrequent in craniofacial region (12%). Rapid growth pattern causing bone expansion and facial asymmetry is a characteristic feature of ABC. Giant cell lesion is another distinct pathological entity. Here we present to you a rare case of dual pathology in an 11 year old female patient who presented with a large expansile lesion in the left hemimandible. All radiographic investigations were suggestive of ABC, aspiration of the lesion resulted in blood aspirate. However only after a histologic examination the dual nature of the lesion was revealed.

  1. Dual phase evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G; Abbass, Hussein A

    2014-01-01

    This book explains how dual phase evolution operates in all these settings and provides a detailed treatment of the subject. The authors discuss the theoretical foundations for the theory, how it relates to other phase transition phenomena and its advantages in evolutionary computation and complex adaptive systems. The book provides methods and techniques to use this concept for problem solving. Dual phase evolution concerns systems that evolve via repeated phase shifts in the connectivity of their elements. It occurs in vast range of settings, including natural systems (species evolution, landscape ecology, geomorphology), socio-economic systems (social networks) and in artificial systems (annealing, evolutionary computing).

  2. Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  3. Dual-anticipating, dual and dual-lag synchronization in modulated time-delayed systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Dibakar; Chowdhury, A. Roy

    2010-01-01

    In this Letter, dual synchronization in modulated time delay system using delay feedback controller is proposed. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, we suggest a general method to achieve the dual-anticipating, dual, dual-lag synchronization of time-delayed chaotic systems and we find both its existing and sufficient stability conditions. Numerically it is shown that the dual synchronization is also possible when driving system contain two completely different systems. Effect of parameter mismatch on dual synchronization is also discussed. As an example, numerical simulations for the Mackey-Glass and Ikeda systems are conducted, which is in good agreement with the theoretical analysis.

  4. The purpose of adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Andy

    2017-10-06

    A central feature of Darwin's theory of natural selection is that it explains the purpose of biological adaptation. Here, I: emphasize the scientific importance of understanding what adaptations are for, in terms of facilitating the derivation of empirically testable predictions; discuss the population genetical basis for Darwin's theory of the purpose of adaptation, with reference to Fisher's 'fundamental theorem of natural selection'; and show that a deeper understanding of the purpose of adaptation is achieved in the context of social evolution, with reference to inclusive fitness and superorganisms.

  5. spinning self-dual particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.

    1989-01-01

    Self-dual particles in two-dimensions are presented. They were obtained from chiral boson particle by square root technique. The propagator of spinning self-dual particle is calculated using the BFV formalism. (M.C.K.)

  6. Novel technique of source and drain engineering for dual-material double-gate (DMDG) SOI MOSFETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Himanshu; Malviya, Abhishek Kumar; Chauhan, R. K.

    2018-04-01

    The dual-metal dual-gate (DMDG) SOI has been used with Dual Sided Source and Drain Engineered 50nm SOI MOSFET with various high-k gate oxide. It has been scrutinized in this work to enhance its electrical performance. The proposed structure is designed by creating Dual Sided Source and Drain Modification and its characteristics are evaluated on ATLAS device simulator. The consequence of this dual sided assorted doping on source and drain side of the DMDG transistor has better leakage current immunity and heightened ION current with higher ION to IOFF Ratio. Which thereby vesting the proposed device appropriate for low power digital applications.

  7. Dual Smarandache Curves and Smarandache Ruled Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Tanju KAHRAMAN; Mehmet ÖNDER; H. Hüseyin UGURLU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, by considering dual geodesic trihedron (dual Darboux frame) we define dual Smarandache curves lying fully on dual unit sphere S^2 and corresponding to ruled surfaces. We obtain the relationships between the elements of curvature of dual spherical curve (ruled surface) x(s) and its dual Smarandache curve (Smarandache ruled surface) x1(s) and we give an example for dual Smarandache curves of a dual spherical curve.

  8. Dual beam vidicon digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.L.

    1976-01-01

    A vidicon waveform digitizer which can simultaneously digitize two independent signals has been developed. Either transient or repetitive waveforms can be digitized with this system. A dual beam oscilloscope is used as the signal input device. The light from the oscilloscope traces is optically coupled to a television camera, where the signals are temporarily stored prior to digitizing

  9. Dual QCD: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.; Ball, J.S.; Zachariasen, F.

    1991-01-01

    We review the attempts to use dual (electric) vector potentials rather than the standard magnetic vector potentials to describe QCD, particularly in the infrared regime. The use of dual potentials is motivated by the fact that in classical electrodynamics, in a medium with a dielectric constant vanishing at small momenta (as is believed to be the case in QCD), electric potentials provide a far more convenient language than do magnetic potentials. To begin with, we outline attempts to construct the QCD Lagrangian in terms of dual potentials and describe the various possibilities, their shortcomings and advantages, which so far exist. We then proceed to use the most attractive (albeit consistent as a field theory only at the tree level) of these Lagrangians in a number of applications. We show that it describes a non-Abelian dual superconductor (so that it automatically confines color), derive the static quark-antiquark potential, and various temperature dependent effects, such as deconfinement and chiral symmetry breaking. (orig.)

  10. Dual completion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mamedov, N Ya; Kadymova, K S; Dzhafarov, Sh T

    1963-10-28

    One type of dual completion method utilizes a single tubing string. Through the use of the proper tubing equipment, the fluid from the low-productive upper formation is lifted by utilizing the surplus energy of a submerged pump, which handles the production from the lower stratum.

  11. Dual ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallory, J.; Turlej, Z.

    1981-01-01

    Dual ionization chambers are provided for use with an electronic smoke detector. The chambers are separated by electrically-conductive partition. A single radiation source extends through the partition into both chambers, ionizing the air in each. The mid-point current of the device may be balanced by adjusting the position of the source

  12. Development of dual sensor hand-held detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezgin, Mehmet

    2010-04-01

    In this paper hand-held dual sensor detector development requirements are considered dedicated to buried object detection. Design characteristics of such a system are categorized and listed. Hardware and software structures, ergonomics, user interface, environmental and EMC/EMI tests to be applied and performance test issues are studied. Main properties of the developed system (SEZER) are presented, which contains Metal Detector (MD) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). The realized system has ergonomic structure and can detect both metallic and non-metallic buried objects. Moreover classification of target is possible if it was defined to the signal processing software in learning phase.

  13. Dual Orlicz geominimal surface area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongyi Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The L p $L_{p}$ -geominimal surface area was introduced by Lutwak in 1996, which extended the important concept of the geominimal surface area. Recently, Wang and Qi defined the p-dual geominimal surface area, which belongs to the dual Brunn-Minkowski theory. In this paper, based on the concept of the dual Orlicz mixed volume, we extend the dual geominimal surface area to the Orlicz version and give its properties. In addition, the isoperimetric inequality, a Blaschke-Santaló type inequality, and the monotonicity inequality for the dual Orlicz geominimal surface areas are established.

  14. Colorimetric and Fluorescent Dual Mode Sensing of Alcoholic Strength in Spirit Samples with Stimuli-Responsive Infinite Coordination Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Jingjing; Ma, Wenjie; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2015-07-07

    This study demonstrates a new strategy for colorimetric and fluorescent dual mode sensing of alcoholic strength (AS) in spirit samples based on stimuli-responsive infinite coordination polymers (ICPs). The ICP supramolecular network is prepared with 1,4-bis(imidazol-1-ylmethyl)benzene (bix) as the ligand and Zn(2+) as the central metal ion in ethanol, in which rhodamine B (RhB) is encapsulated through self-adaptive chemistry. In pure ethanol solvent, the as-formed RhB/Zn(bix) is well dispersed and quite stable. However, the addition of water into the ethanol dispersion of RhB/Zn(bix) destroys Zn(bix) network structure, resulting in the release of RhB from ICP into the solvent. As a consequence, the solvent displays the color of released RhB and, at the meantime, turns on the fluorescence of RhB, which constitutes a new mechanism for colorimetric and fluorescent dual mode sensing of AS in commercial spirit samples. With the method developed here, we could distinguish the AS of different commercial spirit samples by the naked eye within a wide linear range from 20 to 100% vol and by monitoring the increase of fluorescent intensity of the released RhB. This study not only offers a new method for on-spot visible detection of AS in commercial spirit samples, but also provides a strategy for designing dual mode sensing mechanisms for different analytical purposes based on novel stimuli-responsive materials.

  15. Density-tunable lightweight polymer composites with dual-functional ability of efficient EMI shielding and heat dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hwan; Yu, Seunggun; Shahzad, Faisal; Kim, Woo Nyon; Park, Cheolmin; Hong, Soon Man; Koo, Chong Min

    2017-09-21

    Lightweight dual-functional materials with high EMI shielding performance and thermal conductivity are of great importance in modern cutting-edge applications, such as mobile electronics, automotive, aerospace, and military. Unfortunately, a clear material solution has not emerged yet. Herein, we demonstrate a simple and effective way to fabricate lightweight metal-based polymer composites with dual-functional ability of excellent EMI shielding effectiveness and thermal conductivity using expandable polymer bead-templated Cu hollow beads. The low-density Cu hollow beads (ρ ∼ 0.44 g cm -3 ) were fabricated through electroless plating of Cu on the expanded polymer beads with ultralow density (ρ ∼ 0.02 g cm -3 ). The resulting composites that formed a continuous 3D Cu network with a very small Cu content (∼9.8 vol%) exhibited excellent EMI shielding (110.7 dB at 7 GHz) and thermal conductivity (7.0 W m -1 K -1 ) with isotropic features. Moreover, the densities of the composites are tunable from 1.28 to 0.59 g cm -3 in accordance with the purpose of their applications. To the best of our knowledge, the resulting composites are the best lightweight dual-functional materials with exceptionally high EMI SE and thermal conductivity performance among synthetic polymer composites.

  16. NASA/CARES dual-use ceramic technology spinoff applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Lynn M.; Janosik, Lesley A.; Gyekenyesi, John P.; Nemeth, Noel N.

    1994-01-01

    NASA has developed software that enables American industry to establish the reliability and life of ceramic structures in a wide variety of 21st Century applications. Designing ceramic components to survive at higher temperatures than the capability of most metals and in severe loading environments involves the disciplines of statistics and fracture mechanics. Successful application of advanced ceramics material properties and the use of a probabilistic brittle material design methodology. The NASA program, known as CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures), is a comprehensive general purpose design tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. The latest version of this software, CARESALIFE, is coupled to several commercially available finite element analysis programs (ANSYS, MSC/NASTRAN, ABAQUS, COSMOS/N4, MARC), resulting in an advanced integrated design tool which is adapted to the computing environment of the user. The NASA-developed CARES software has been successfully used by industrial, government, and academic organizations to design and optimize ceramic components for many demanding applications. Industrial sectors impacted by this program include aerospace, automotive, electronic, medical, and energy applications. Dual-use applications include engine components, graphite and ceramic high temperature valves, TV picture tubes, ceramic bearings, electronic chips, glass building panels, infrared windows, radiant heater tubes, heat exchangers, and artificial hips, knee caps, and teeth.

  17. A double metal process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawley, F.; Vasche, G.; Caywood, J.M.; Houck, B.; Boyce, J.; Tso, L.

    1988-01-01

    A dual layer metallization process is studied using a Tungsten 10% Titanium/Molybdenum sandwich (TiW/Mo) first metal with an Al/.5% Cu for the second metal. This metallization process has: 1) very reliable shallow junction contacts without junction spiking, 2) very high electromigration resistance and (3) A very smooth defect free surface throughout the process. Contact resistance of 50 and 30 ohm-um2 for P and N type silicon respectively is achieved. The TiW/Mo film stress is studied and an optimum condition for low compressive stress is defined. The TiW/Mo is etched using a corrosion free etch process. Electromigration data is presented showing TiW/Mo to be at least an order of magnitude better than Al/Si. The intermetal oxide layer is a planarized sandwich of LTO/SOG/LTO providing a smooth positive slope surface for the Metal 2. Metal l/Metal 2 via resistances are studied with 1.25 ohm-um2 values obtained

  18. Spin dynamics of the high-Tc cuprates in the metallic state as a result of dual itinerant. Localised nature of magnetism in strongly correlated CuO2 plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onufrieva, F.

    1994-01-01

    Spin dynamics in cuprates is analysed in the framework of a new theory (based on the t-t'-J model and the diagrammatic technique for Hubbard operators) developed to treat correctly strong electron correlations within CuO 2 plane. The dynamic magnetic susceptibility is determined by two contributions different in nature, the ''localized'' and ''itinerant'' ones. The ''itinerant'' contribution reflects a response in the spin susceptibility on Cu related to the propagating carrier quasiparticles. The ''localized'' contribution reflects the existence of short-range correlations between localized spins. As a result of their competition, the spin dynamics evolves continuously within the metallic state from a normal-metal behaviour at high doping (overdoped regime) to a quantum spin-liquid-type dynamics with magnon-like excitations at low doping through a non-Fermi-liquid behaviour in all intermediate regimes. The picture of the spin dynamics in the metallic state of cuprates as a whole and in details in concern to INS and NMR experimental data is presented. Many exotic features of χ(Κ,ω) revealed by these experiments find a natural explanation within the proposed scenario. (author). 64 refs., 17 figs

  19. [Intra-prosthetic dislocation of the Bousquet dual mobility socket].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecuire, F; Benareau, I; Rubini, J; Basso, M

    2004-05-01

    The Bousquet system is a dual mobility head-polyethylene polyethylene-metal cup socket. The polyethylene insert retaining the femoral head moves in the noncemented metal cup, increasing both mobility and stability. Between 1989 and 1997, seven cases of intra-prosthetic dislocation (six patients) were observed. The femoral head escaped from the polyethylene insert due to wear. On the average, this complication occurred ten Years after implantation. Risk of dislocation was high in six of the seven hips. All patients had a large sized stem screwed into the femoral neck. There was a characteristic radiological aspect with loss of the concentric head metal cup configuration. The head was applied against the upper wall of the metal cup. Surgical replacement was undertaken early in six patients by simply changing the insert without modifying the other stable components. Outcome remained good at three to eight Years. One patient underwent late surgery. The insert and the cup were replaced with a classical implant. Functional outcome was good but recurrent dislocation occurred. At mid-term, intra-prosthetic dislocation of dual mobility sockets appears to be exceptional. Dislocation results from polyethylene wear leading to failure of the insert to retain the prosthetic head. Wear is favored by direct phenomena (direct contact between neck and insert which can occur early if there is a small difference in the head and neck diameters) or indirect phenomena (factors limiting polyethylene metal-cup mobility). Surgical treatment is necessary. If undertaken early, replacement with a modular head and insert can be sufficient if the prosthesis has not loosened but the metal cup may have to be replaced in the event of metal-metal contact between the head and the cup. Prosthesis loosening, wear of the metal cup, or an identified cause of dislocation imply replacing the failing implants. Implantation of the dual mobility system is particularly interesting for patients with a high risk

  20. Combining purpose with profits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birkinshaw, J.; Foss, N.J.; Lindenberg, S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Is it possible for a company to strive for a higher purpose while also delivering solid profits? Some have argued that pursuing goals other than making money means, by definition, spending on things that aren't profit-maximizing. Others have countered that by investing in worthwhile causes the

  1. JENDL special purpose file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Tsuneo

    1995-01-01

    In JENDL-3,2, the data on all the reactions having significant cross section over the neutron energy from 0.01 meV to 20 MeV are given for 340 nuclides. The object range of application extends widely, such as the neutron engineering, shield and others of fast reactors, thermal neutron reactors and nuclear fusion reactors. This is a general purpose data file. On the contrary to this, the file in which only the data required for a specific application field are collected is called special purpose file. The file for dosimetry is a typical special purpose file. The Nuclear Data Center, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, is making ten kinds of JENDL special purpose files. The files, of which the working groups of Sigma Committee are in charge, are listed. As to the format of the files, ENDF format is used similarly to JENDL-3,2. Dosimetry file, activation cross section file, (α, n) reaction data file, fusion file, actinoid file, high energy data file, photonuclear data file, PKA/KERMA file, gas production cross section file and decay data file are described on their contents, the course of development and their verification. Dosimetry file and gas production cross section file have been completed already. As for the others, the expected time of completion is shown. When these files are completed, they are opened to the public. (K.I.)

  2. Meaningful and Purposeful Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clementi, Donna

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a graphic, designed by Clementi and Terrill, the authors of "Keys to Planning for Learning" (2013), visually representing the components that contribute to meaningful and purposeful practice in learning a world language, practice that leads to greater proficiency. The entire graphic is centered around the letter…

  3. SU-E-T-329: Dosimetric Impact of Implementing Metal Artifact Reduction Methods and Metal Energy Deposition Kernels for Photon Dose Calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J; Followill, D; Howell, R; Liu, X; Mirkovic, D; Stingo, F; Kry, S

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate two strategies for reducing dose calculation errors near metal implants: use of CT metal artifact reduction methods and implementation of metal-based energy deposition kernels in the convolution/superposition (C/S) method. Methods: Radiochromic film was used to measure the dose upstream and downstream of titanium and Cerrobend implants. To assess the dosimetric impact of metal artifact reduction methods, dose calculations were performed using baseline, uncorrected images and metal artifact reduction Methods: Philips O-MAR, GE’s monochromatic gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) using dual-energy CT, and GSI imaging with metal artifact reduction software applied (MARs).To assess the impact of metal kernels, titanium and silver kernels were implemented into a commercial collapsed cone C/S algorithm. Results: The CT artifact reduction methods were more successful for titanium than Cerrobend. Interestingly, for beams traversing the metal implant, we found that errors in the dimensions of the metal in the CT images were more important for dose calculation accuracy than reduction of imaging artifacts. The MARs algorithm caused a distortion in the shape of the titanium implant that substantially worsened the calculation accuracy. In comparison to water kernel dose calculations, metal kernels resulted in better modeling of the increased backscatter dose at the upstream interface but decreased accuracy directly downstream of the metal. We also found that the success of metal kernels was dependent on dose grid size, with smaller calculation voxels giving better accuracy. Conclusion: Our study yielded mixed results, with neither the metal artifact reduction methods nor the metal kernels being globally effective at improving dose calculation accuracy. However, some successes were observed. The MARs algorithm decreased errors downstream of Cerrobend by a factor of two, and metal kernels resulted in more accurate backscatter dose upstream of metals. Thus

  4. Dual Campus High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen P. Mombourquette

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available September 2010 witnessed the opening of the first complete dual campus high school in Alberta. Catholic Central High School, which had been in existence since 1967 in one building, now offered courses to students on two campuses. The “dual campus” philosophy was adopted so as to ensure maximum program flexibility for students. The philosophy, however, was destined to affect student engagement and staff efficacy as the change in organizational structure, campus locations, and course availability was dramatic. Changing school organizational structure also had the potential of affecting student achievement. A mixed-methods study utilizing engagement surveys, efficacy scales, and interviews with students and teachers was used to ascertain the degree of impact. The results of the study showed that minimal impact occurred to levels of student engagement, minor negative impact to staff efficacy, and a slight increase to student achievement results.

  5. Dual double field theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Hohm, Olaf [Simons Center for Geometry and Physics, Stony Brook University,Stony Brook, NY 11794-3636 (United States); Penas, Victor A. [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Riccioni, Fabio [INFN - Sezione di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Roma “La Sapienza”,Piazzale Aldo Moro 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2016-06-06

    We present the dual formulation of double field theory at the linearized level. This is a classically equivalent theory describing the duals of the dilaton, the Kalb-Ramond field and the graviton in a T-duality or O(D,D) covariant way. In agreement with previous proposals, the resulting theory encodes fields in mixed Young-tableau representations, combining them into an antisymmetric 4-tensor under O(D,D). In contrast to previous proposals, the theory also requires an antisymmetric 2-tensor and a singlet, which are not all pure gauge. The need for these additional fields is analogous to a similar phenomenon for “exotic' dualizations, and we clarify this by comparing with the dualizations of the component fields. We close with some speculative remarks on the significance of these observations for the full non-linear theory yet to be constructed.

  6. Dual Criteria Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten Igel

    2014-01-01

    The most popular models of decision making use a single criterion to evaluate projects or lotteries. However, decision makers may actually consider multiple criteria when evaluating projects. We consider a dual criteria model from psychology. This model integrates the familiar tradeoffs between...... to the clear role that income thresholds play in such decision making, but does not rule out a role for tradeoffs between risk and utility or probability weighting....

  7. Dual isotope assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.F.W.; Stevens, R.A.J.; Jacoby, B.

    1980-01-01

    Dual isotope assays for thyroid function are performed by carrying out a radio-immunoassay for two of thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), and thyroxine binding globulin (TBG), by a method wherein a version of one of the thyroid components, preferably T4 or T3 is labelled with Selenium-75 and the version of the other thyroid component is labelled with a different radionuclide, preferably Iodine-125. (author)

  8. Towards a Dual Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holli, Anne Maria; Harder, Mette Marie Stæhr

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on insights from state feminism and legislative studies on parliamentary committees, this article develops a dual approach for the comparative analysis of committees on gender equality. Empirically, it compares the standing committees on gender equality in Denmark and Finland, two Nordic...... as measured by legislative outputs and oversight differs, however, in line with differing committee system characteristics: the Finnish committee has more impact on legislative outputs while the Danish committee has more impact on overseeing government....

  9. Mechanical properties and dual atmosphere tolerance of Ag-Al based braze

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Yong; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Scott Weil, K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper, the effects of aluminum on the microstructure, mechanical properties, and high temperature dual atmosphere tolerance of silver and silver-copper oxide filler metals were investigated. It was found that joints brazed with binary Ag-Al braze foils containing more than 2 at% Al retained a metallic form of aluminum within the metallic braze filler matrix after brazing at 1000 C in air. The bend strengths of these joints decreased with increasing aluminum content due to the formation of interfacial aluminum oxide. However, the existence of metallic aluminum in the braze filler matrix appeared to enhance the high-temperature dual atmosphere tolerance of the silver-based braze filler, which displayed measurably less porosity after 1000h of exposure at 800 C in a dual reducing/oxidizing atmosphere environment than unalloyed silver. A series of binary and ternary braze pastes based on the Ag-Al(-Cu) system were also formulated as potential pSOFC (planar solid oxide fuel cell) sealants. Model alumina joints brazed with these pastes exhibited an increase in bend strength with increasing copper content. However, unlike the binary Ag-Al filler metals, the ternary compositions often retained no protective metallic aluminum after brazing. Thus, while the addition of copper improves filler metal wettability and, therefore, joint strength in the Ag-Al alloys, it appears to reduce the dual atmosphere tolerance of these filler metals. (author)

  10. Dual-Schemata Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tadahiro; Sawaragi, Tetsuo

    In this paper, a new machine-learning method, called Dual-Schemata model, is presented. Dual-Schemata model is a kind of self-organizational machine learning methods for an autonomous robot interacting with an unknown dynamical environment. This is based on Piaget's Schema model, that is a classical psychological model to explain memory and cognitive development of human beings. Our Dual-Schemata model is developed as a computational model of Piaget's Schema model, especially focusing on sensori-motor developing period. This developmental process is characterized by a couple of two mutually-interacting dynamics; one is a dynamics formed by assimilation and accommodation, and the other dynamics is formed by equilibration and differentiation. By these dynamics schema system enables an agent to act well in a real world. This schema's differentiation process corresponds to a symbol formation process occurring within an autonomous agent when it interacts with an unknown, dynamically changing environment. Experiment results obtained from an autonomous facial robot in which our model is embedded are presented; an autonomous facial robot becomes able to chase a ball moving in various ways without any rewards nor teaching signals from outside. Moreover, emergence of concepts on the target movements within a robot is shown and discussed in terms of fuzzy logics on set-subset inclusive relationships.

  11. Fit-for-Purpose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig

    2013-01-01

    ; completeness to cover the total jurisdiction; and credibility in terms of reliable data being trusted by the users. Accuracy can then be incrementally improved over time when relevant and justified by serving the needs of citizen, business and society in general. Such a fit-for-purpose approach is fundamental...... systems act within adopted land policies that define the legal regulatory pattern for dealing with land issues. Land administration systems - whether highly advanced or very basic – require a spatial framework to operate. This framework provides the fundamental information for dealing with land issues...... concepts may well be seen as the end target but not as the point of entry. When assessing the technology and investment choices the focus should be on building a fit-for-purpose framework that will meet the needs of society today and that can be incrementally improved over time....

  12. Purposeful engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Chadderton, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    This textbook/course supplement stands as a unique and highly original complement to the traditional engineering economics curriculum. Its primarily narrative approach conveys the essence of an “Austrian" economic perspective on cash flow analysis and decision making in engineering, without extensive tables and graphs, and requires very little mathematics. The book’s objective is to add a new perspective to the usual study of cash flow analysis and solely econometric engineering decision making. The author draws on the methodology of the Austrian Economists—a school of economic thought that bases its study of economic phenomena on the interpretation and analysis of the purposeful actions of individuals. The book includes an array of illustrative case studies examined in detail by the author and emphasizes the importance of market processes and price signals to coordinate engineering plans. Purposeful Engineering Economics is an ideal resource for students, teaching faculty, and practicing professional ...

  13. Vitalism, purpose and superstition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Saher, Marieke

    2007-02-01

    Developmental studies have shown that children assign purpose to objects more liberally than adults, and that they explain biological processes in terms of vitalistic causality. This study tested the hypothesis that similar misconceptions can be found among superstitious adults. The results from 116 superstitious and 123 sceptical individuals showed that more than sceptics, superstitious individuals attributed purpose to objects, and explained biological processes in terms of organ intentionality and energy transmission. In addition, they thought of energy as a vital force, attributing life and mental properties to it. These conceptual confusions were positively associated to all types of superstitions as well as belief in alternative medicine. The results support the argument that category mistakes and ontological confusions underlie superstitious and vitalistic thinking.

  14. The purpose of astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Davoust, Emmanuel

    1995-01-01

    This is a presentation of the purpose of astronomy in the context of modern society. After exposing two misconceptions about astronomy, I detail its role in five domains, certified knowledge, incorporated abilities, innovations, collective goods, and popular science; with each domain is associated an institution, an incentive, and a method of evaluation. Finally, I point out the role of astronomy as a source of inspiration in other fields than science.

  15. DUAL TRAINING IN RUSSIA: FROM THE CONCEPT TO PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Listvin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present article is to judge and justify the conditions of system elements application of dual training at implementation of programs of professional education for increase of efficiency of functioning and quality of preparation of qualified personnel by institutions of the secondary professional education (SPE. Methods. The methods used in work involve the comparative analysis of practice of application of dual training in system of professional education of Germany and regions of Russia for the purpose of identification of the existing problems and definition of optimum organizational and legal and didactic conditions. Results. The essence of system of dual training, its strong and weaknesses reveals. Necessary and indispensable conditions of application of dual training in modern regional systems of professional education are proved. Scientific novelty. According to the author, modern publications on problems and ways of development of professional education in Russia contain enough antinomy of standard and legal and organizational and administrative character. In particular, operating by the concept «dual education», an identification of the practice-focused and dual training introduction «the list 50 of the most demanded in labor market, the new and perspective professions that demand secondary professional education» as opposed to the existing list of professions and the constitutional guarantee of public and free secondary professional education. Standard and legal, and didactic conditions of application of elements of dual training in regional systems of professional education are proved theoretically. Practical significance. Implementation of the research outcomes can be useful to pedagogical staff of institutions of secondary professional education, representatives of employers and Chambers of Commerce and Industry to the organization and use of system of dual training in training of skilled workers (serving

  16. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molloi, Sabee, E-mail: symolloi@uci.edu; Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A. [Department of Radiological Sciences, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer.

  17. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molloi, Sabee; Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dual energy mammography system. Glandular and adipose equivalent phantoms of uniform thickness were used to calibrate a dual energy basis decomposition algorithm. Dual energy decomposition was applied after scatter correction to calculate breast density. Breast density was also estimated using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding and a fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Chemical analysis was used as the reference standard to assess the accuracy of different techniques to measure breast composition. Results: Breast density measurements using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean algorithm, and dual energy were in good agreement with the measured fibroglandular volume fraction using chemical analysis. The standard error estimates using radiologist reader assessment, standard histogram thresholding, fuzzy C-mean, and dual energy were 9.9%, 8.6%, 7.2%, and 4.7%, respectively. Conclusions: The results indicate that dual energy mammography can be used to accurately measure breast density. The variability in breast density estimation using dual energy mammography was lower than reader assessment rankings, standard histogram thresholding, and fuzzy C-mean algorithm. Improved quantification of breast density is expected to further enhance its utility as a risk factor for breast cancer

  18. Metal-metal-hofteproteser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Michael; Overgaard, Søren; Penny, Jeannette

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark 4,456 metal-on-metal (MoM) hip prostheses have been implanted. Evidence demonstrates that some patients develope adverse biological reactions causing failures of MoM hip arthroplasty. Some reactions might be systemic. Failure rates are associated with the type and the design of the Mo...

  19. Approaches to reducing photon dose calculation errors near metal implants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Jessie Y.; Followill, David S.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Kry, Stephen F., E-mail: sfkry@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Liu, Xinming [Department of Imaging Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Stingo, Francesco C. [Department of Biostatistics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 and Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center Houston, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Purpose: Dose calculation errors near metal implants are caused by limitations of the dose calculation algorithm in modeling tissue/metal interface effects as well as density assignment errors caused by imaging artifacts. The purpose of this study was to investigate two strategies for reducing dose calculation errors near metal implants: implementation of metal-based energy deposition kernels in the convolution/superposition (C/S) dose calculation method and use of metal artifact reduction methods for computed tomography (CT) imaging. Methods: Both error reduction strategies were investigated using a simple geometric slab phantom with a rectangular metal insert (composed of titanium or Cerrobend), as well as two anthropomorphic phantoms (one with spinal hardware and one with dental fillings), designed to mimic relevant clinical scenarios. To assess the dosimetric impact of metal kernels, the authors implemented titanium and silver kernels in a commercial collapsed cone C/S algorithm. To assess the impact of CT metal artifact reduction methods, the authors performed dose calculations using baseline imaging techniques (uncorrected 120 kVp imaging) and three commercial metal artifact reduction methods: Philips Healthcare’s O-MAR, GE Healthcare’s monochromatic gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) using dual-energy CT, and GSI with metal artifact reduction software (MARS) applied. For the simple geometric phantom, radiochromic film was used to measure dose upstream and downstream of metal inserts. For the anthropomorphic phantoms, ion chambers and radiochromic film were used to quantify the benefit of the error reduction strategies. Results: Metal kernels did not universally improve accuracy but rather resulted in better accuracy upstream of metal implants and decreased accuracy directly downstream. For the clinical cases (spinal hardware and dental fillings), metal kernels had very little impact on the dose calculation accuracy (<1.0%). Of the commercial CT artifact

  20. Approaches to reducing photon dose calculation errors near metal implants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Jessie Y.; Followill, David S.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Mirkovic, Dragan; Kry, Stephen F.; Liu, Xinming; Stingo, Francesco C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dose calculation errors near metal implants are caused by limitations of the dose calculation algorithm in modeling tissue/metal interface effects as well as density assignment errors caused by imaging artifacts. The purpose of this study was to investigate two strategies for reducing dose calculation errors near metal implants: implementation of metal-based energy deposition kernels in the convolution/superposition (C/S) dose calculation method and use of metal artifact reduction methods for computed tomography (CT) imaging. Methods: Both error reduction strategies were investigated using a simple geometric slab phantom with a rectangular metal insert (composed of titanium or Cerrobend), as well as two anthropomorphic phantoms (one with spinal hardware and one with dental fillings), designed to mimic relevant clinical scenarios. To assess the dosimetric impact of metal kernels, the authors implemented titanium and silver kernels in a commercial collapsed cone C/S algorithm. To assess the impact of CT metal artifact reduction methods, the authors performed dose calculations using baseline imaging techniques (uncorrected 120 kVp imaging) and three commercial metal artifact reduction methods: Philips Healthcare’s O-MAR, GE Healthcare’s monochromatic gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) using dual-energy CT, and GSI with metal artifact reduction software (MARS) applied. For the simple geometric phantom, radiochromic film was used to measure dose upstream and downstream of metal inserts. For the anthropomorphic phantoms, ion chambers and radiochromic film were used to quantify the benefit of the error reduction strategies. Results: Metal kernels did not universally improve accuracy but rather resulted in better accuracy upstream of metal implants and decreased accuracy directly downstream. For the clinical cases (spinal hardware and dental fillings), metal kernels had very little impact on the dose calculation accuracy (<1.0%). Of the commercial CT artifact

  1. Cu-TDPAT, an rht -type dual-functional metal-organic framework offering significant potential for use in H 2 and natural gas purification processes operating at high pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Haohan; Yao, Kexin; Zhu, Yihan; Li, Baiyan; Shi, Zhan; Krishna, Rajamani A A; Li, Jing

    2012-01-01

    The separations of CO 2/CO/CH 4/H 2, CO 2/H 2, CH 4/H 2, and CO 2/CH 4 mixtures at pressures ranging to 7 MPa are important in a variety of contexts, including H 2 production, natural gas purification, and fuel-gas processing. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate the selective adsorption potential of an rht-type metal-organic framework [Cu 3(TDPAT)(H 2O) 3]·10H 2O·5DMA (Cu-TDPAT), possessing a high density of both open metal sites and Lewis basic sites. Experimental high pressure pure component isotherm data for CO 2, CO, CH 4, and H 2 are combined with the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST) for estimation of mixture adsorption equilibrium. The separation performance of Cu-TDPAT is compared with four other microporous materials, specifically chosen in order to span a wide range of physicochemical characteristics: MgMOF-74, MIL-101, LTA-5A, and NaX. For all mixtures investigated, the capacity of Cu-TDPAT to produce the desired product, H 2 or CH 4, satisfying stringent purity requirements, in a fixed bed operating at pressures exceeding about 4 MPa, is either comparable to, or exceeds, that of other materials. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  2. Cu-TDPAT, an rht -type dual-functional metal-organic framework offering significant potential for use in H 2 and natural gas purification processes operating at high pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Haohan

    2012-08-09

    The separations of CO 2/CO/CH 4/H 2, CO 2/H 2, CH 4/H 2, and CO 2/CH 4 mixtures at pressures ranging to 7 MPa are important in a variety of contexts, including H 2 production, natural gas purification, and fuel-gas processing. The primary objective of this study is to demonstrate the selective adsorption potential of an rht-type metal-organic framework [Cu 3(TDPAT)(H 2O) 3]·10H 2O·5DMA (Cu-TDPAT), possessing a high density of both open metal sites and Lewis basic sites. Experimental high pressure pure component isotherm data for CO 2, CO, CH 4, and H 2 are combined with the Ideal Adsorbed Solution Theory (IAST) for estimation of mixture adsorption equilibrium. The separation performance of Cu-TDPAT is compared with four other microporous materials, specifically chosen in order to span a wide range of physicochemical characteristics: MgMOF-74, MIL-101, LTA-5A, and NaX. For all mixtures investigated, the capacity of Cu-TDPAT to produce the desired product, H 2 or CH 4, satisfying stringent purity requirements, in a fixed bed operating at pressures exceeding about 4 MPa, is either comparable to, or exceeds, that of other materials. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. 47 CFR 73.1210 - TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false TV/FM dual-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico...-language broadcasting in Puerto Rico. (a) For the purpose of this section, dual-language broadcasting shall... a different language. (b) Television and Class A television licensees in Puerto Rico may enter into...

  4. Attentional Modulation of Word Recognition by Children in a Dual-Task Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sangsook; Lotto, Andrew; Lewis, Dawna; Hoover, Brenda; Stelmachowicz, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated an account of limited short-term memory capacity for children's speech perception in noise using a dual-task paradigm. Method: Sixty-four normal-hearing children (7-14 years of age) participated in this study. Dual tasks were repeating monosyllabic words presented in noise at 8 dB signal-to-noise ratio and…

  5. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-08-22

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  6. Some nuclear track technologies developed recently for practical purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xiuhong

    2000-01-01

    For practical purposes three kinds of nuclear track technologies developed recently are described. They are coloring of nuclear track, nuclear track sheet replication and molding of micro metallic cones from nuclear tracks

  7. In vivo Study of the Accuracy of Dual-arch Impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Luciana Martinelli Santayana; Borges, Gilberto Antonio; Junior, Luiz Henrique Burnett; Spohr, Ana Maria

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated in vivo the accuracy of metal (Smart®) and plastic (Triple Tray®) dual-arch trays used with vinyl polysiloxane (Flexitime®), in the putty/wash viscosity, as well as polyether (Impregum Soft®) in the regular viscosity. In one patient, an implant-level transfer was screwed on an implant in the mandibular right first molar, serving as a pattern. Ten impressions were made with each tray and impression material. The impressions were poured with Type IV gypsum. The width and height of the pattern and casts were measured in a profile projector (Nikon). The results were submitted to Student's t-test for one sample (α = 0.05). For the width distance, the plastic dual-arch trays with vinyl polysiloxane (4.513 mm) and with polyether (4.531 mm) were statistically wider than the pattern (4.489 mm). The metal dual-arch tray with vinyl polysiloxane (4.504 mm) and with polyether (4.500 mm) did not differ statistically from the pattern. For the height distance, only the metal dual-arch tray with polyether (2.253 mm) differed statistically from the pattern (2.310 mm). The metal dual-arch tray with vinyl polysiloxane, in the putty/wash viscosities, reproduced casts with less distortion in comparison with the same technique with the plastic dual-arch tray. The plastic or metal dual-arch trays with polyether reproduced cast with greater distortion. How to cite the article: Santayana de Lima LM, Borges GA, Burnett LH Jr, Spohr AM. In vivo study of the accuracy of dual-arch impressions. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(3):50-5.

  8. Multi purpose research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raina, V.K.; Sasidharan, K.; Sengupta, Samiran; Singh, Tej

    2006-01-01

    At present Dhruva and Cirus reactors provide the majority of research reactor based facilities to cater to the various needs of a vast pool of researchers in the field of material sciences, physics, chemistry, bio sciences, research and development work for nuclear power plants and production of radio isotopes. With a view to further consolidate and expand the scope of research and development in nuclear and allied sciences, a new 20 MWt multi purpose research reactor is being designed. This paper describes some of the design features and safety aspects of this reactor

  9. Purpose of the workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, H.

    1998-01-01

    The main purpose of the Workshop is to share the experience on emergency data management and to review various conceptual, technical, organisational and operational aspects and problems. The problems posed by hardware and software, the interplay of software developers and users/operators and the positive and negative experiences both from development and operation of data management systems are discussed. Emergency data management systems and their demonstrations are divided into four classes of possible applications: video games, training and simulation systems, 'history writing' = post-event analysis and documentation systems, real-time operational systems. (author)

  10. Dual Smarandache Curves of a Timelike Curve lying on Unit dual Lorentzian Sphere

    OpenAIRE

    Kahraman, Tanju; Hüseyin Ugurlu, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we give Darboux approximation for dual Smarandache curves of time like curve on unit dual Lorentzian sphere. Firstly, we define the four types of dual Smarandache curves of a timelike curve lying on dual Lorentzian sphere.

  11. Spinning self-dual particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamboa, J.; Rivelles, V.O.

    1989-02-01

    We study spinning self-dual particles in two dimensions. They are obtained from the chiral bosonic particle through the square root technique. We show that the resulting field theory can be either fermionic or bosonic and that the associated self-dual field reveals its Lorentz tensor structure which remains hidden in the usual formulations. We also calculate the spinning self-dual particle propagators using the BFV formalism. (author) [pt

  12. Image quality optimization and evaluation of linearly mixed images in dual-source, dual-energy CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Lifeng; Primak, Andrew N.; Liu Xin; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2009-01-01

    In dual-source dual-energy CT, the images reconstructed from the low- and high-energy scans (typically at 80 and 140 kV, respectively) can be mixed together to provide a single set of non-material-specific images for the purpose of routine diagnostic interpretation. Different from the material-specific information that may be obtained from the dual-energy scan data, the mixed images are created with the purpose of providing the interpreting physician a single set of images that have an appearance similar to that in single-energy images acquired at the same total radiation dose. In this work, the authors used a phantom study to evaluate the image quality of linearly mixed images in comparison to single-energy CT images, assuming the same total radiation dose and taking into account the effect of patient size and the dose partitioning between the low-and high-energy scans. The authors first developed a method to optimize the quality of the linearly mixed images such that the single-energy image quality was compared to the best-case image quality of the dual-energy mixed images. Compared to 80 kV single-energy images for the same radiation dose, the iodine CNR in dual-energy mixed images was worse for smaller phantom sizes. However, similar noise and similar or improved iodine CNR relative to 120 kV images could be achieved for dual-energy mixed images using the same total radiation dose over a wide range of patient sizes (up to 45 cm lateral thorax dimension). Thus, for adult CT practices, which primarily use 120 kV scanning, the use of dual-energy CT for the purpose of material-specific imaging can also produce a set of non-material-specific images for routine diagnostic interpretation that are of similar or improved quality relative to single-energy 120 kV scans.

  13. Dual symmetry in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshkarov, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Continuous dual symmetry in electrodynamics, Yang-Mills theory and gravitation is investigated. Dual invariant which leads to badly nonlinear motion equations is chosen as a Lagrangian of the pure classical dual nonlinear electrodynamics. In a natural manner some dual angle which is determined by the electromagnetic strengths at the point of the time-space appears in the model. Motion equations may well be interpreted as the equations of the standard Maxwell theory with source. Alternative interpretation is the quasi-Maxwell linear theory with magnetic charge. Analogous approach is possible in the Yang-Mills theory. In this case the dual-invariant non-Abelian theory motion equations possess the same instanton solutions as the conventional Yang-Mills equations have. An Abelian two-parameter dual group is found to exist in gravitation. Irreducible representations have been obtained: the curvature tensor was expanded into the sum of twice anti-self-dual and self-dual parts. Gravitational instantons are defined as (real )solutions to the usual duality equations. Central symmetry solutions to these equations are obtained. The twice anti-self-dual part of the curvature tensor may be used for introduction of new gravitational equations generalizing Einstein''s equations. However, the theory obtained reduces to the conformal-flat Nordstroem theory

  14. Thermohydraulics design and thermomechanics analysis of two European breeder blanket concepts for DEMO. Pt. 1 and Pt. 2. Pt. 1: BOT helium cooled solid breeding blanket. Pt. 2: Dual coolant self-cooled liquid metal blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norajitra, P.

    1995-06-01

    Two different breeding blanket concepts are being elaborated at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe within the framework of the DEMO breeding blanket development, the concept of a helium cooled solid breeding blanket and the concept of a self-cooled liquid metal blanket. The breeder material used in the first concept is Li 4 SiO 4 as a pebble bed arranged separate from the beryllium pebble bed, which serves as multiplier. The breeder material zone is cooled by several toroidally-radially configurated helium cooling plates which, at the same time, act as reinforcements of the blanket structures. In the liquid metal blanket concept lead-lithium is used both as the breeder material and the coolant. It flows at low velocity in poloidal direction downwards and back in the blanket front zone. In both concepts the First Wall is cooled by helium gas. This report deals with the thermohydraulics design and thermomechanics analysis of the two blanket concepts. The performance data derived from the Monte-Carlo computations serve as a basis for the design calculations. The coolant inlet and outlet temperatures are chosen with the design criteria and the economics aspects taken into account. Uniform temperature distribution in the blanket structures can be achieved by suitable branching and routing of the coolant flows which contributes to reducing decisively the thermal stress. The computations were made using the ABAQUS computer code. The results obtained of the stresses have been evaluated using the ASME code. It can be demonstrated that all maximum values of temperature and stress are below the admissible limit. (orig.) [de

  15. Dual-beam CRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A dual-beam cathode-ray tube having a pair of electron guns and associated deflection means disposed side-by-side on each side of a central axis is described. The electron guns are parallel and the deflection means includes beam centering plates and angled horizontal deflection plates to direct the electron beams toward the central axis, precluding the need for a large-diameter tube neck in which the entire gun structures are angled. Bowing control plates are disposed adjacent to the beam centering plates to minimize trace bowing, and an intergun shield is disposed between the horizontal deflection plates to control and correct display pattern geometry distortion

  16. Dual energy cardiac CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrascosa, Patricia; Deviggiano, Alejandro; Rodriguez-Granillo, Gastón

    2017-06-01

    Conventional single energy CT suffers from technical limitations related to the polychromatic nature of X-rays. Dual energy cardiac CT (DECT) shows promise to attenuate and even overcome some of these limitations, and might broaden the scope of patients eligible for cardiac CT towards the inclusion of higher risk patients. This might be achieved as a result of both safety (contrast reduction) and physiopathological (myocardial perfusion and characterization) issues. In this article, we will review the main clinical cardiac applications of DECT, that can be summarized in two core aspects: coronary artery evaluation, and myocardial evaluation.

  17. Method of dissolving metal ruthenium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuno, Masao; Soda, Yasuhiko; Kuroda, Sadaomi; Koga, Tadaaki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To dissolve and clean metal ruthenium deposited to the inner surface of a dissolving vessel for spent fuel rods. Method: Metal ruthenium is dissolved in a solution of an alkali metal hydroxide to which potassium permanganate is added. As the alkali metal hydroxide used herein there can be mentioned potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide can be mentioned, which is used as an aqueous solution from 5 to 20 % concentration in view of the solubility of metal ruthenium and economical merit. Further, potassium permanganate is used by adding to the solution of alkali metal hydroxide at a concentration of 1 to 5 %. (Yoshihara, H.)

  18. Self-dual metrics with self-dual Killing vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tod, K.P.; Ward, R.S.

    1979-01-01

    Twistor methods are used to derive a class of solutions to Einstein's vacuum equations, with anti-self dual Weyl tensor. In particular, all metrics with a Killing vector whose derivative is anti-self-dual and which admit a real positive-definite section are exhibited and shown to coincide with the metrics of Hawking. (author)

  19. Prevalence of Victimization in Patients With Dual Diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Waal, Marleen Maria; Dekker, Jacobus Johannes Maria; Goudriaan, Anna Emma

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of victimization in patients with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders (dual diagnosis) and compare them to the general population. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey study conducted in the Netherlands, 9

  20. Special Education Teacher Preparation in Singapore's Dual Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Global comparisons of teacher education programs should start with an understanding of the school systems that teachers are being prepared for in their local contexts. The purpose of this article is to describe Singapore's dual education system as well as teacher preparation in a country that educates many students with disabilities in a separate…

  1. Effect of Dual Blockade of Renin-Angiotensin Aldosterone System ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the dual effect of angiotensin blockade by irbesartan and enalapril on proteinuria in diabetic patients with azotemia. Methods: Patients with diabetes of > 5 years duration, proteinuria at a nephrotic level and serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL were enrolled in the study. Forty-five enrolled patients were ...

  2. Examining Policy Guidelines for Distance Education in Dual Mode ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study reports a case of distance education policy in the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology (KNUST), a dual mode University in Ghana. The interview method was used to obtain information from 21 purposively selected key informants in the University. Policy documents that addressed Distance ...

  3. Preschool Teachers' Language and Literacy Practices with Dual Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Cycyk, Lauren M.; López, Lisa; Blair, Clancy; Sandilos, Lia; Komaroff, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the degree to which teachers used linguistically responsive practices to support the language and literacy development of Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners (DLL) and (b) to investigate the associations between these practices and select teacher-level factors. The sample consisted of 72 preschool…

  4. Characterization and processing of bipolar semiconductor electrodes in a dual electrolyte cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cattarin, S.; Musiani, M.M. [Istituto di Polarografia ed Elettrochimica Preparativa del C.N.R., Padova (Italy)

    1995-11-01

    Photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes may be induced at both faces of a bipolar semiconductor electrode without application of metal contacts by using the dual electrolyte arrangement -- metal/electrolyte 1/semiconductor/electrolyte 2/metal -- and by applying a voltage to the end metal electrodes. The possibilities of semiconductor characterization (determination of action spectra and doping level) and processing (photoetching and metal electrodeposition) are discussed on the basis of model experiments, performed with n-InP wafers. The advantages of this approach over traditional PEC and electroless techniques are discussed with particular emphasis on etching.

  5. Dual Coding and Bilingual Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, Allan; Lambert, Wallace

    1981-01-01

    Describes study which tested a dual coding approach to bilingual memory using tasks that permit comparison of the effects of bilingual encoding with verbal-nonverbal dual encoding items. Results provide strong support for a version of the independent or separate stories view of bilingual memory. (Author/BK)

  6. Dual Coding, Reasoning and Fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hample, Dale

    1982-01-01

    Develops the theory that a fallacy is not a comparison of a rhetorical text to a set of definitions but a comparison of one person's cognition with another's. Reviews Paivio's dual coding theory, relates nonverbal coding to reasoning processes, and generates a limited fallacy theory based on dual coding theory. (PD)

  7. Dual-core Itanium Processor

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Intel’s first dual-core Itanium processor, code-named "Montecito" is a major release of Intel's Itanium 2 Processor Family, which implements the Intel Itanium architecture on a dual-core processor with two cores per die (integrated circuit). Itanium 2 is much more powerful than its predecessor. It has lower power consumption and thermal dissipation.

  8. Development of design technology for dual-cooled fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Lee, Young Ho

    2010-03-01

    Primary purpose of the project is to complete a basic design of the power uprating dual-cooled fuel's structural components for an actual use in the existing nuclear power plants. It also includes a basic design of the components of a dual-cooled fuel rod. To this end, during the three years of the first stage (2007.03.∼2010.02.), concepts and technical issues of the structural components such as a supporting structure, guide thimbles and instrumentation tube and the top and bottom end pieces were derived in order to comply with the functional requirements and design criteria of them. Basic design was carried out to resolve the issues by using analytical methods as well as experiments, and observed finally is that a structural compatibility of the designed dual-cooled fuel to the Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plant (OPR-1000). As for the dual-cooled fuel rod's components such as a plenum spring, a spacer and end plugs, a concept of them was established by using the basic dimension and array produced by other sub-projects. In turn, the basic design was completed by using the finite element analysis and conventional mechanical design formulae. Additionally, a welding method and equipment for a dual-cooled fuel rod specimen was also successfully developed to prepare for the irradiation tests at the HANARO. It was shown that a dual-cooed fuel for the OPR-1000 can be designed after manufacturing the partial assembly with the designed components and their drawings. The first stage was completed with passing the Gate checks proposed at the beginning. During the second stage(2010.03.∼2012.02.), researches on the mechanical behavior and structural integrity of the designed dual-cooled fuel will be conducted for preparing a license of it, which should be done when the dual-cooled fuel is commercialized

  9. The punishment's purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe DIACONU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The repressive reaction involves, as any human action, a certain finality. As the punishment's essence is the suffering, then, in the course of time it has been arisen the question regarding the goal for which the society utilizes the suffering and for what the society punishes. According to the classic penal doctrine that bases on the idea of retribution, the repressive reaction was limited to a simple revenge and it didn't existed any concern in order to influence the doer's future behaviour. In the positivist conception, the punishment's purpose was to shelter the society against the offender's new attacks. Going up to an extreme point with this idea, the positivists equated the punishment with the curative treatment at which the patients in the hospitals were submitted and which it was adequate to each category of offender. For the positivists, the penal sanction, it was meant to combat the organic or the psychological anomalies or the dysfunctions of the social environment that have influenced the offender and that determined him to commit antisocial deeds. In the modern vision, the punishment cannot have a goal on its own and that is to answer to bad with bad because it doesn't come from an abstract desire for revenge, but from a concrete necessity of hindering the repetition of the antisocial deeds and of defending the fundamental social values.

  10. Drilling for scientific purpose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Shoichi

    1987-09-01

    Drilling for scientific purpose is a process of conducting geophysical exploration at deep underground and drilling for collecting crust samples directly. This is because earth science has advanced to get a good understanding about the top of the crust and has shifted its main interest to the lower layer of the crust in land regions. The on-land drilling plan in Japan has just started, and the planned drilling spots are areas around the Minami River, Hidaka Mts., kinds of the Mesozoic and Cenozoic granite in outside zone, the extension of Japan Sea, Ogasawara Is., Minami-Tori Is., and active volcanos. The paper also outlines the present situation of on-land drilling in the world, focusing on the SG-3rd super-deep well SG-3 on the Kola Peninsula, USSR, Satori SG-1st well SG-1 in Azerbaidzhan S.S.R, V.S.S.R, Sweden's wells, Cyprus' wells, Bayearn well Plan in West Germany, and Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Program in the U.S. At its end, the paper explains the present situation and the future theme of the Japanese drilling technique and points out the necessity of developing equipment, and techniques. (14 figs, 5 tabs, 26 refs)

  11. Postmortem validation of breast density using dual-energy mammography

    OpenAIRE

    Molloi, Sabee; Ducote, Justin L.; Ding, Huanjun; Feig, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Mammographic density has been shown to be an indicator of breast cancer risk and also reduces the sensitivity of screening mammography. Currently, there is no accepted standard for measuring breast density. Dual energy mammography has been proposed as a technique for accurate measurement of breast density. The purpose of this study is to validate its accuracy in postmortem breasts and compare it with other existing techniques. Methods: Forty postmortem breasts were imaged using a dua...

  12. Evaluation of Myc Gene Amplification in Prostate Cancer Using a Dual Color Chromogenic in-Situ Hybridization (Dual CISH Assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lerda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetive: The overall purpose of the study was to demonstrate applicability of the Dako dual-color chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH assay (DAKO Denmark, Glostrup with respect to fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH probes MYC-C. Methods: MYC gene amplification by FISH and Dako dual-color CISH Results: The study showed that the dual-color CISH assay can convert Texas red and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC signals into chromogenic signals. The dual –color CISH assay was performed on 40 cases of prostate cancer. Amplification was identified in 12 of 40 (30% tumors. No amplification was seen in 28 of 40 (70% tumors. FISH data were available in total of 40 tumors. All tumors showed concordant results between dual-color CISH and FISH for classifying a tumor as MYC amplified or not amplified. Conclusions: We conclude that dual-color Dako CISH assay is an accurate method for determining MYC gene amplification with added advantages that make it a more practically useful method. [J Interdiscipl Histopathol 2013; 1(2.000: 81-84

  13. Effect of aquatic dual-task training on balance and gait in stroke patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Kyoung; Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kim, Eun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aquatic dual-task training on balance and gait in stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty stroke patients were divided into the experimental (n=10) and control (n=10) groups. Both groups underwent neurodevelopmental treatment. The experimental group additionally underwent aquatic dual-task training for 30 minutes a day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks. Balance was measured using the Berg balance scale, Five Times Sit-to Stan...

  14. The use of dual material seals for packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temus, C.J.; Nichols, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    The use of dual material seals, metal and elastomeric for a transportation package, provides a viable option for packages requiring high temperature seal capability. Allowing the seal area to go to higher temperatures then allowed for all elastomeric seal reduce the necessity of providing thermal protection during a postulated accident condition fire. It also increases the options for impact limiting features that do not also mitigate the affects of accident thermal events. Typically, high temperature seals require the use of metal O-rings. Only one seal (typically identified as the containment seal) needs to survive the hypothetical accident conditions, including the high temperatures that may occur during the prescribed hypothetical thermal event. However, to expedite the assembly leakage rate testing of radioactive material packages, a dual O-ring seal arrangement is often used to allow creation of a relatively small volume test cavity between the seals. For any package that is being used on a frequent basis, the total cost of seals can be significantly reduced by using an elastomeric seal as the secondary seal. The elastomeric seal is not the containment boundary seal and does not need to survive the high temperature condition. To get the dual material O-ring seals to seat properly, a different approach has to be taken than with closure of a radioactive material package that does not use metallic O-ring(s). A metal O-ring requires an application of a seating force while the elastomeric package requires a certain percentage of deformation. This is further complicated when the seating force is developed using a multi-bolt closure. Because of the nature of multi-bolt closures, elastic interaction prevents the equal application of force. This paper develops the methods involved in properly closing and establishing containment when using dual material seals with a multi-bolt closure. These methods were demonstrated in two production casks requiring testing leak

  15. TH-C-18A-02: Machine Learning and STAPLE Based Simultaneous Longitudinal Segmentation of Bone and Marrow Structures From Dual Energy CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fehr, D; Schmidtlein, C; Hwang, S; Deasy, J; Veeraraghavan, H

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a fully-automatic longitudinal bone and marrow segmentation method in the pelvic region from dual energy computed tomography (DECT). Methods: We developed a two-step automatic bone and marrow segmentation method for simultaneous longitudinal evaluation of patients with metastatic bone disease using dual energy CT (DECT). Our approach transforms the DECT images into a multi-material decomposition (MMD) model that represents the voxels as a mixture of multiple materials. A support vector machine (SVM) was trained using a single scan. In the first step of the longitudinal segmentation the trained SVM model detects bone and marrow structures on all available longitudinal scans. Segmentation is further refined through active contour segmentation. In the second step, the segmentations from the individual scans are merged by employing the simultaneous truth and performance level estimation (STAPLE) algorithm. The scans are registered using affine and deformable registration. We found that our approach improves the segmentation in all the scans under reliable registration performance between the same scans. Improving registration was not under the scope of this work. Results: We applied our approach to segment bone and marrow in DECT scans in the pelvic regions for multiple patients. Each patient had three to five follow up scans. All the patients in the analysis had artificial metal prostheses which introduced challenges for the registration. Our algorithm achieved reasonable accurate segmentation despite the presence of metal artifacts and high-density oral contrast in neighboring structures. Our approach obtained an overall segmentation accuracy of 80% using DICE metric. Conclusion: We developed a two-step automatic longitudinal segmentation technique for bone and marrow region structures in the pelvic areas from dual energy CT. Our approach achieves robust segmentation despite the presence of confounding structures with similar intensities as the

  16. Heavy metals determination in aquatic species for food purposes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Locatelli, C.; Torsi, G. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dept. of Chemistry G. Ciamician

    2001-02-01

    New analytical procedures and sample mineralizations are proposed regarding the determination of arsenic, selenium, copper, lead, cadmium, zinc and mercury in matrices involved in food chain as mussel, clams and fishes. As regards As, Se, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn determinations. H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3} acidic mixture is used for the digestion is performed using a concentrated supra pure H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} mixture and the results are compared with those from other conventional methods (DPASV) are employed for determining simultaneously selenium, arsenic and copper, lead, cadmium, zinc, respectively, while mercury determination is carried out by the cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) with reduction with SnCl{sub 2}. The voltammetric measurements were performed using a conventional three-electrode cell and the ammonia-ammonium chloride buffer (ph 9.3) as supporting electrolyte. For all the elements, in addition to the detection limits, precision and accuracy data are also reported: the former, expressed as relative standard deviation (S{sub r}), and the latter, expressed as relative error (e), are in all cases between 3 to 6%. [Italian] Viene proposta una nuova procedura analitica ed una nuova mineralizzazione del campione per la determinazione di arsenico, selenio, rame, piombo, cadmio, zinco e mercurio in matrici coinvolte nella catena alimentare come mitili e pesci. Per la determinazione di As, Se, Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, le matrici sono state mineralizzate con una miscela acida H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-HNO{sub 3}. Nel caso del Hg, la mineralizzazione del campione e' stata effettuata mediante una miscela H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-K{sub 2}Cr{sub 2}O{sub 7} ed i risultati confrontati con quelli ottenuti impiegando altri metodi convenzionali. Per la simultanea determinazione di arsenico, selenio, rame, piombo, cadmio, zinco, sono state impiegate la voltammetria differenziale pulsata catodica (DPCSV) ed anodica (DPASV), mentre il mercurio e' stato determinato mediante spettroscopia di assorbimento atomico accoppiato alla tecnica dei vapori freddi (CV-ASS) mediante riduzione coN SnCl{sub 2}. Le misure voltammetriche venivano effettuate impiegando una convenzionale cella a tre elettrodi, usando tampone ammoniacale (pH 9.3) come elettrolita di supporto. Per tutti gli elementi, unitamente al limite di rivelabilita', vengono riportati i dati di precisione ed accuratezza: la prima, espressa come deviazione standard relativa (S{sub r}), e la seconda, espressa come errore relativo (e), sono risultate in tutti i casi dell'ordine del 3-6%.

  17. Multi-purpose reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Multi-Purpose-Reactor (MPR), is a pool-type reactor with an open water surface and variable core arrangement. Its main feature is plant safety and reliability. Its power is 22MW t h, cooled by light water and moderated by beryllium. It has platetype fuel elements (MTR type, approx. 20%. enriched uranium) clad in aluminium. Its cobalt (Co 60 ) production capacity is 50000 Ci/yr, 200 Ci/gr. The distribution of the reactor core and associated control and safety systems is essentially based on the following design criteria: - upwards cooling flow, to waive the need for cooling flow inversion in case the reactor is cooled by natural convection if confronted with a loss of pumping power, and in order to establish a superior heat transfer potential (a higher coolant saturation temperature); - easy access to the reactor core from top of pool level with the reactor operating at full power, in order to facilitate actual implementation of experiments. Consequently, mechanisms associated to control and safety rods s,re located underneath the reactor tank; - free access of reactor personnel to top of pool level with the reactor operating at full power. This aids in the training of personnel and the actual carrying out of experiments, hence: - a vast water column was placed over the core to act as radiation shielding; - the core's external area is cooled by a downwards flow which leads to a decay tank beyond the pool (for N 16 to decay); - a small downwards flow was directed to stream downwards from above the reactor core in order to drag along any possibly active element; and - a stagnant hot layer system was placed at top of pool level so as to minimize the upwards coolant flow rising towards pool level

  18. Heavy metals

    OpenAIRE

    Adriano, Domy; VANGRONSVELD, Jaco; Bolan, N.S.; Wenzel, W.W.

    2005-01-01

    - Sources of Metals in the Environment - Environmental Contamination - Retention and Dynamics of Metals in Soils - Adsorption - Complexation - Precipitation - Bioavailability–Natural Attenuation Interactions - Biological Response to Metals - Soil Remediation

  19. Dual antagonists of integrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadrah, K; Dolenc, M Sollner

    2005-01-01

    The roles of integrins in pathologies have been studied intensively and only partially explained. This has resulted in the development of several nanomolar antagonists to certain integrins. In most cases, the aim was to produce compounds which are highly selective towards specific integrins. This paradigm has recently shifted a little. Targeting two or more integrins with one compound has become a very attractive concept, especially since it has become clear that several severe disorders, such as pathological angiogenesis, cannot be treated just with highly specific integrin antagonists. This review is aimed to elucidate some aspects regarding the design of drugs with dual activity towards integrins. Integrin structure and tissue distribution will first be described, in order to provide the basis for their functions in various pathologies which will follow. Inhibitors of several pairs of integrins will be described.

  20. Dual THz comb spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Takeshi

    2017-08-01

    Optical frequency combs are innovative tools for broadband spectroscopy because a series of comb modes can serve as frequency markers that are traceable to a microwave frequency standard. However, a mode distribution that is too discrete limits the spectral sampling interval to the mode frequency spacing even though individual mode linewidth is sufficiently narrow. Here, using a combination of a spectral interleaving and dual-comb spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) region, we achieved a spectral sampling interval equal to the mode linewidth rather than the mode spacing. The spectrally interleaved THz comb was realized by sweeping the laser repetition frequency and interleaving additional frequency marks. In low-pressure gas spectroscopy, we achieved an improved spectral sampling density of 2.5 MHz and enhanced spectral accuracy of 8.39 × 10-7 in the THz region. The proposed method is a powerful tool for simultaneously achieving high resolution, high accuracy, and broad spectral coverage in THz spectroscopy.

  1. Dual Tank Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  2. Baryons and dual unitarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, K.-I.

    1977-05-01

    Processes involving baryons are discussed in the scheme of dual unitarization. In particular, the topological expansion is generalized to any hadronic S-matrix elements involving baryons and/or mesons. The expansion is based on a model for the baryon propagator, which is a set of three planar Feynman diagrams joined at a junction line. The resulting expansion is a double expansion in 1/N (N = the number of quark flavours) and in the number of baryon loops. Based on this, several new observations are made in phenomenological problems, and a unifying point of view in stressed. The scheme is evidently crossing invariant, and unitarity constraints are imposed order by order in 1/N and in the baryon loop number. (author)

  3. Exploiting Dual-Output Programmable Blocks to Balance Secure Dual-Rail Logics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Sauvage

    2010-01-01

    for such purposes. However, assessing the security level which can be achieved with them is an important issue, as it is directly related to the suitability to use commercial FPGA instead of proprietary custom FPGA for this kind of protection. In this article, we experimentally gave evidence that differential placement and routing of an FPGA implementation can be done with a granularity fine enough to improve the security gain. However, so far, this gain turned out to be lower for FPGAs than for ASICs. The solutions demonstrated in this article exploit the dual-output of modern FPGAs to achieve a better balance of dual-rail interconnections. However, we expect that an in-depth analysis of routing resources power consumption could still help reduce the interconnect differential leakage.

  4. Composited dual summability methods of the new kind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caner, Aysun; Başar, Feyzi

    2012-08-01

    Following Section 4.8 of Başsar [Summability Theory and Its Applications, Bentham Science Publishers, e-books, Monographs, İstanbul-2012, ISBN: 978-1-60805-252-3], we define the duality relation of the new kind between a pair of infinite matrices. Our focus is the dual summability methods derived by the Euler means of order r. By means of a strongly regular triangle matrix C = (cnk), we obtain the composited matrices. The main purpose of this study is to give some inclusion theorems concerning the composited and original dual summability methods defined by the Euler means of order r.

  5. Small-Scale Metal Tanks for High Pressure Storage of Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Adam (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Small scale metal tanks for high-pressure storage of fluids having tank factors of more than 5000 meters and volumes of ten cubic inches or less featuring arrays of interconnected internal chambers having at least inner walls thinner than gage limitations allow. The chambers may be arranged as multiple internal independent vessels. Walls of chambers that are also portions of external tank walls may be arcuate on the internal and/or external surfaces, including domed. The tanks may be shaped adaptively and/or conformally to an application, including, for example, having one or more flat outer walls and/or having an annular shape. The tanks may have dual-purpose inlet/outlet conduits of may have separate inlet and outlet conduits. The tanks are made by fusion bonding etched metal foil layers patterned from slices of a CAD model of the tank. The fusion bonded foil stack may be further machined.

  6. Environmentally friendly preparation of metal nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The book chapter summarizes the “state of the art” in the exploitation of various environmentally-friendly synthesis approaches, reaction precursors and conditions to manufacture metal and metal oxide nanoparticles for a vast variety of purposes.

  7. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Dual Career Environments for Elite Athletes in Switzerland, Denmark, and Poland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küttel, Andreas

    Aim: The purpose of this qualitative study was (a) to provide an overview of the provided dual career opportunities for elite athletes in Switzerland, Denmark, and Poland; (b) to deepen our understanding of how the cultural context influences the development of dual career programs and trajectories...... trajectories were proposed to dual career athletes as the desired way how to combine elite sport and education. Based on the results of our cross-cultural comparison, we assert that culture is not only an influential but also a constituting factor in the development of dual career opportunities. Conclusions...... of dual career athletes. Methods: In each country, four semi-structured interviews with key informants involved in dual career were used to discuss benefits, obstacles, and best practices of the national dual career settings and programs. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and content analyzed...

  8. Automotive dual-mode hydrogen generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, D. A.

    The automotive dual mode hydrogen generation system is advocated as a supplementary hydrogen fuel means along with the current metallic hydride hydrogen storage method for vehicles. This system consists of utilizing conventional electrolysis cells with the low voltage dc electrical power supplied by two electrical generating sources within the vehicle. Since the automobile engine exhaust manifold(s) are presently an untapped useful source of thermal energy, they can be employed as the heat source for a simple heat engine/generator arrangement. The second, and minor electrical generating means consists of multiple, miniature air disk generators which are mounted directly under the vehicle's hood and at other convenient locations within the engine compartment. The air disk generators are revolved at a speed which is proportionate to the vehicles forward speed and do not impose a drag on the vehicles motion.

  9. Dual energy computed tomography for the head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naruto, Norihito; Itoh, Toshihide; Noguchi, Kyo

    2018-02-01

    Dual energy CT (DECT) is a promising technology that provides better diagnostic accuracy in several brain diseases. DECT can generate various types of CT images from a single acquisition data set at high kV and low kV based on material decomposition algorithms. The two-material decomposition algorithm can separate bone/calcification from iodine accurately. The three-material decomposition algorithm can generate a virtual non-contrast image, which helps to identify conditions such as brain hemorrhage. A virtual monochromatic image has the potential to eliminate metal artifacts by reducing beam-hardening effects. DECT also enables exploration of advanced imaging to make diagnosis easier. One such novel application of DECT is the X-Map, which helps to visualize ischemic stroke in the brain without using iodine contrast medium.

  10. Performance of metallic fuels in liquid-metal fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.; Kittel, J.H.

    1984-01-01

    Interest in metallic fuels for liquid-metal fast reactors has come full circle. Metallic fuels are once again a viable alternative for fast reactors because reactor outlet temperature of interest to industry are well within the range where metallic fuels have demonstrated high burnup and reliable performance. In addition, metallic fuel is very tolerant of off-normal events of its high thermal conductivity and fuel behavior. Futhermore, metallic fuels lend themselves to compact and simplified reprocessing and refabrication technologies, a key feature in a new concept for deployment of fast reactors called the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). The IFR concept is a metallic-fueled pool reactor(s) coupled to an integral-remote reprocessing and fabrication facility. The purpose of this paper is to review recent metallic fuel performance, much of which was tested and proven during the twenty years of EBR-II operation

  11. Dual-band dual-polarized array for WLAN applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Steyn, JM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available dual-band dual-polarized (DBDP) antenna design for WLAN applications. The antenna is in the form of an array consisting of four double-dipole radiators. The basic radiating element consists of a rhombus shaped dipole above a planar ground plane... the ground planes and the respective feedlines. Substrate cuts and difierent heights for the horizontal feedlines were necessary to achieve the latter. The 2nd conflguration (for vertical polarization) has a slightly difierent feeding network layout...

  12. [Treatment program for dual-diagnosis substance abusers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandel, Isack

    2007-01-01

    Dual-diagnosis mentally ill patients, i.e. those characterized with substance abuse problems combined with mental health problems, are a challenge both for systems treating substance abusers and for mental health services. These patients are not easily integrated in either of these healthcare systems and/or are treated only for one aspect of their problem by each of these systems. For such patients it is necessary to create a separate treatment model, combining care of the problem of substance abuse and attention to the patient's mental pathology, according to his individual personality traits. For purposes of this programme a treatment setting operating on the model of a therapeutic community is proposed. This setting will open an affiliated treatment programme for dual-diagnosed patients in a separate treatment programme that is not part of the therapeutic community but will be affiliated with it and will accept dual-diagnosis patients.

  13. Lp-dual affine surface area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wang; Binwu, He

    2008-12-01

    According to the notion of Lp-affine surface area by Lutwak, in this paper, we introduce the concept of Lp-dual affine surface area. Further, we establish the affine isoperimetric inequality and the Blaschke-Santaló inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area. Besides, the dual Brunn-Minkowski inequality for Lp-dual affine surface area is presented.

  14. Dual of QCD with One Adjoint Fermion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mojaza, Matin; Nardecchia, Marco; Pica, Claudio

    2011-01-01

    We construct the magnetic dual of QCD with one adjoint Weyl fermion. The dual is a consistent solution of the 't Hooft anomaly matching conditions, allows for flavor decoupling and remarkably constitutes the first nonsupersymmetric dual valid for any number of colors. The dual allows to bound...

  15. Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Kriss J.; Guirgis, Peggy L.; Boyle, Robert M.

    2013-01-01

    There is a need for an improvement over current NASA Extravehicular Activity (EVA) technology. The technology must allow the capacity for quicker, more efficient egress/ingress, allow for shirtsleeve suit maintenance, be compact in transport, and be applicable to environments ranging from planetary surface (partial-g) to orbital or deep space zero-g environments. The technology must also be resistant to dust and other foreign contaminants that may be present on or around a planetary surface. The technology should be portable, and be capable of docking with a variety of habitats, ports, stations, vehicles, and other pressurized modules. The Dual-Compartment Inflatable Suitlock (DCIS) consists of three hard inline bulkheads, separating two cylindrical membrane-walled compartments. The Inner Bulkhead can be fitted with a variety of hatch types, docking flanges, and mating hardware, such as the Common Berthing Mechanism (CBM), for the purpose of mating with vehicles, habitats, and other pressurized modules. The Inner Bulkhead and Center Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Inner Compartment, which during operations, would stay pressurized, either matching the pressure of the habitat or acting as a lower-pressure transitional volume. The Inner Compartment contains donning/doffing fixtures and inner suit-port hatches. The Center Bulkhead has two integrated suit-ports along with a maintenance hatch. The Center Bulkhead and Outer Bulkhead function as the end walls of the Outer Compartment, which stays at vacuum during normal operations. This allows the crewmember to quickly don a suit, and egress the suitlock without waiting for the Outer Compartment to depressurize. The Outer Compartment can be pressurized infrequently for both nominal and off-nominal suit maintenance tasks, allowing shirtsleeve inspections and maintenance/repair of the environmental suits. The Outer Bulkhead has a pressure-assisted hatch door that stays open and stowed during EVA operations, but can

  16. Symmetries of the dual metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, D.

    1998-01-01

    The geometric duality between the metric g μν and a Killing tensor K μν is studied. The conditions were found when the symmetries of the metric g μν and the dual metric K μν are the same. Dual spinning space was constructed without introduction of torsion. The general results are applied to the case of Kerr-Newmann metric

  17. Professionals’ perception on the management of patients with dual disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncero, Carlos; Szerman, Néstor; Terán, Antonio; Pino, Carlos; Vázquez, José María; Velasco, Elena; García-Dorado, Marta; Casas, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a need to evaluate the professionals’ perception about the consequences of the lack of therapeutic adherence in the evolution of patients with co-occurring disorders. Methods An online survey, released on the Socidrogalcohol [Spanish Scientific Society for Research on Alcohol, Alcoholism and other Drug Addictions] and Sociedad Española de Patología Dual [the Spanish Society of Dual Pathology] web pages, was answered by 250 professionals who work in different types of Spanish health centers where dual diagnosis patients are assisted. Results Most professionals perceived the existence of noncompliance among dual diagnosis patients. Almost all of these professionals (99%) perceived that noncompliance leads to a worsening of the progression of the patient’s disorder, in both the exacerbation of mental disorders and the consumption of addictive substances. Most of the professionals (69.2%) considered therapeutic alliance as the main aspect to take into account to improve the prognosis in this population. The primary purpose of treatment must be the improvement of psychotic-phase positive symptoms, followed by the control of behavior disorders, reduction of craving, improvement of social and personal performances, and reduction of psychotic-phase negative symptoms. Conclusion Most professionals perceived low adherence among dual diagnosis patients. This lack of adherence is associated with a worsening of their disease evolution, which is reflected in exacerbations of the psychopathology and relapse in substance use. Therefore, we propose to identify strategies to improve adherence. PMID:27698553

  18. Homogeneous M2 duals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueroa-O’Farrill, José; Ungureanu, Mara

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with N>4 supersymmetry — equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra osp(N|4) for N>4 — we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra so(n)⊕so(3,2) for n=5,6,7. We find that there are no new backgrounds with n=6,7 but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with n=5. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form AdS 4 ×P 7 , with P riemannian and homogeneous under the action of SO(5), or S 4 ×Q 7 with Q lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of SO(3,2). At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only N=2) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund-Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  19. Dual temperature concentration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1975-01-01

    In a dual temperature isotope exchange system--exemplified by exchange of deuterium and protium between water and hydrogen sulfide gas in hot and cold towers, in which the feed stream (water) containing the desired isotope is passed through a pair of towers maintained at different temperatures wherein it effects isotope exchange with countercurrently circulated auxiliary fluid (H 2 S) and is impoverished in said isotope and then disposed of, e.g. discharged to waste,--the flow of isotope enriched auxiliary fluid between said towers (hot H 2 S saturated with water vapor) is divided and a part thereof is adjusted in its temperature (to cold tower conditions) and then passed to the auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower, while the remainder of the divided flow of such enriched auxiliary fluid is passed through a subsequent isotope concentration treatment to produce a product more highly enriched in the desired isotope and wherein it is also adjusted in its temperature and is impoverished in said isotope during said subsequent treatment before it is delivered to the said auxiliary fluid impoverishing (cold) tower. Certain provisions are made for returning to the hot tower liquid carried as vapor by the remainder of the divided flow to the subsequent isotope concentration treatment, for recovering sensible and latent heat, and for reducing passage of auxiliary fluid to waste

  20. Homogeneous M2 duals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa-O’Farrill, José [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences,The University of Edinburgh,James Clerk Maxwell Building, The King’s Buildings, Peter Guthrie Tait Road,Edinburgh EH9 3FD, Scotland (United Kingdom); Ungureanu, Mara [Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Mathematik,Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin (Germany)

    2016-01-25

    Motivated by the search for new gravity duals to M2 branes with N>4 supersymmetry — equivalently, M-theory backgrounds with Killing superalgebra osp(N|4) for N>4 — we classify (except for a small gap) homogeneous M-theory backgrounds with symmetry Lie algebra so(n)⊕so(3,2) for n=5,6,7. We find that there are no new backgrounds with n=6,7 but we do find a number of new (to us) backgrounds with n=5. All backgrounds are metrically products of the form AdS{sub 4}×P{sup 7}, with P riemannian and homogeneous under the action of SO(5), or S{sup 4}×Q{sup 7} with Q lorentzian and homogeneous under the action of SO(3,2). At least one of the new backgrounds is supersymmetric (albeit with only N=2) and we show that it can be constructed from a supersymmetric Freund-Rubin background via a Wick rotation. Two of the new backgrounds have only been approximated numerically.

  1. Preliminary analysis of basic reactor physics of the Dual Fluid Reactor - 15270

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, X.; Macian-Juan, R.; Seidl, M.

    2015-01-01

    The Dual Fluid Reactor (DFR) is a novel fast nuclear reactor concept invented by the IFK based on the Generation IV Molten Salt Reactor and the Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor. The DFR uses a chloride based molten fuel salt in order to harden the neutron spectrum. The molten fuel salt is cooled with a separated liquid lead loop, which in principle allows for higher power densities and better breeding performance. The DFR does not combine heat removal and breeding into a single circuit but separates the two functions into two independent circuits. Since there are attractive features mentioned in this design, the main task of this paper is to verify the model of the whole reactor based on this concept. For this purpose several calculations are presented, including steady state calculations, sensitivity calculations with regard to the nuclide cross sections, the temperature and geometry coefficient of k eff as well as the burnup calculation. The Monte Carlo calculation codes MCNP, SERPENT and SCALE are used for the analysis. As expected the study shows a significant negative reactivity feedback with temperature in the overall fission zone. For the coupled coolant and reflector design the temperature feedback is rather small for practical purposes such as reactor control during normal operation. In the view of these results the DFR in principle can be self-regulated totally by the temperature change of its own fuel salt and consequently can rely on fully passive safety systems for accident management

  2. Comparison of dual photon and dual energy X-ray bone densitometers in a clinic setting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.A.; Shaffer, S.; Brown, E.B.; Flynn, M.J.; Cody, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    Two separate studies were conducted. We evaluated the relationships between results of lumbar spine measurements using two dual photon absorptiometry (DPA1 and DPA2) instruments and one dual energy X-ray (DXA) instrument with the same subject (49 volunteers), and also in 65 patients who were measured on the DPA1 and DXA machines. Second, we measured the lumbar spine and the proximal femur in three groups of 12 female volunteers three times on one instrument within 1 week. We purposely simulated a busy clinic setting with different technologists, older radioactive sources, and a heterogeneous patient group. The comparison study indicated a significant difference between the mean bone density values reported by the machines, but the results were highly correlated (R 2 = 0.89-0.96). This study emphasizes the differences between instruments, the potential for greater error in busy clinic environments, and the apparent superiority of dual energy X-ray absorptiometry under these less than ideal conditions. (orig./GDG)

  3. Multilevel Dual Damascene copper interconnections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshminarayanan, S.

    Copper has been acknowledged as the interconnect material for future generations of ICs to overcome the bottlenecks on speed and reliability present with the current Al based wiring. A new set of challenges brought to the forefront when copper replaces aluminum, have to be met and resolved to make it a viable option. Unit step processes related to copper technology have been under development for the last few years. In this work, the application of copper as the interconnect material in multilevel structures with SiO2 as the interlevel dielectric has been explored, with emphasis on integration issues and complete process realization. Interconnect definition was achieved by the Dual Damascene approach using chemical mechanical polishing of oxide and copper. The choice of materials used as adhesion promoter/diffusion barrier included Ti, Ta and CVD TiN. Two different polish chemistries (NH4OH or HNO3 based) were used to form the interconnects. The diffusion barrier was removed during polishing (in the case of TiN) or by a post CMP etch (as with Ti or Ta). Copper surface passivation was performed using boron implantation and PECVD nitride encapsulation. The interlevel dielectric way composed of a multilayer stack of PECVD SiO2 and SixNy. A baseline process sequence which ensured the mechanical and thermal compatibility of the different unit steps was first created. A comprehensive test vehicle was designed and test structures were fabricated using the process flow developed. Suitable modifications were subsequently introduced in the sequence as and when processing problems were encountered. Electrical characterization was performed on the fabricated devices, interconnects, contacts and vias. The structures were subjected to thermal stressing to assess their stability and performance. The measurement of interconnect sheet resistances revealed lower copper loss due to dishing on samples polished using HNO3 based slurry. Interconnect resistances remained stable upto 400o

  4. Metal artifact correction for x-ray computed tomography using kV and selective MV imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Meng, E-mail: mengwu@stanford.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Keil, Andreas [microDimensions GmbH, Munich 81379 (Germany); Constantin, Dragos; Star-Lack, Josh [Varian Medical Systems, Inc., Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States); Zhu, Lei [Nuclear and Radiological Engineering and Medical Physics Programs, The George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Fahrig, Rebecca [Department of Radiology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The overall goal of this work is to improve the computed tomography (CT) image quality for patients with metal implants or fillings by completing the missing kilovoltage (kV) projection data with selectively acquired megavoltage (MV) data that do not suffer from photon starvation. When both of these imaging systems, which are available on current radiotherapy devices, are used, metal streak artifacts are avoided, and the soft-tissue contrast is restored, even for regions in which the kV data cannot contribute any information. Methods: Three image-reconstruction methods, including two filtered back-projection (FBP)-based analytic methods and one iterative method, for combining kV and MV projection data from the two on-board imaging systems of a radiotherapy device are presented in this work. The analytic reconstruction methods modify the MV data based on the information in the projection or image domains and then patch the data onto the kV projections for a FBP reconstruction. In the iterative reconstruction, the authors used dual-energy (DE) penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) methods to simultaneously combine the kV/MV data and perform the reconstruction. Results: The authors compared kV/MV reconstructions to kV-only reconstructions using a dental phantom with fillings and a hip-implant numerical phantom. Simulation results indicated that dual-energy sinogram patch FBP and the modified dual-energy PWLS method can successfully suppress metal streak artifacts and restore information lost due to photon starvation in the kV projections. The root-mean-square errors of soft-tissue patterns obtained using combined kV/MV data are 10–15 Hounsfield units smaller than those of the kV-only images, and the structural similarity index measure also indicates a 5%–10% improvement in the image quality. The added dose from the MV scan is much less than the dose from the kV scan if a high efficiency MV detector is assumed. Conclusions: The authors have shown that it

  5. Metal artifact correction for x-ray computed tomography using kV and selective MV imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Meng; Keil, Andreas; Constantin, Dragos; Star-Lack, Josh; Zhu, Lei; Fahrig, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The overall goal of this work is to improve the computed tomography (CT) image quality for patients with metal implants or fillings by completing the missing kilovoltage (kV) projection data with selectively acquired megavoltage (MV) data that do not suffer from photon starvation. When both of these imaging systems, which are available on current radiotherapy devices, are used, metal streak artifacts are avoided, and the soft-tissue contrast is restored, even for regions in which the kV data cannot contribute any information. Methods: Three image-reconstruction methods, including two filtered back-projection (FBP)-based analytic methods and one iterative method, for combining kV and MV projection data from the two on-board imaging systems of a radiotherapy device are presented in this work. The analytic reconstruction methods modify the MV data based on the information in the projection or image domains and then patch the data onto the kV projections for a FBP reconstruction. In the iterative reconstruction, the authors used dual-energy (DE) penalized weighted least-squares (PWLS) methods to simultaneously combine the kV/MV data and perform the reconstruction. Results: The authors compared kV/MV reconstructions to kV-only reconstructions using a dental phantom with fillings and a hip-implant numerical phantom. Simulation results indicated that dual-energy sinogram patch FBP and the modified dual-energy PWLS method can successfully suppress metal streak artifacts and restore information lost due to photon starvation in the kV projections. The root-mean-square errors of soft-tissue patterns obtained using combined kV/MV data are 10–15 Hounsfield units smaller than those of the kV-only images, and the structural similarity index measure also indicates a 5%–10% improvement in the image quality. The added dose from the MV scan is much less than the dose from the kV scan if a high efficiency MV detector is assumed. Conclusions: The authors have shown that it

  6. Synthetic CT: Simulating low dose single and dual energy protocols from a dual energy scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Adam S.; Pelc, Norbert J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The choice of CT protocol can greatly impact patient dose and image quality. Since acquiring multiple scans at different techniques on a given patient is undesirable, the ability to predict image quality changes starting from a high quality exam can be quite useful. While existing methods allow one to generate simulated images of lower exposure (mAs) from an acquired CT exam, the authors present and validate a new method called synthetic CT that can generate realistic images of a patient at arbitrary low dose protocols (kVp, mAs, and filtration) for both single and dual energy scans. Methods: The synthetic CT algorithm is derived by carefully ensuring that the expected signal and noise are accurate for the simulated protocol. The method relies on the observation that the material decomposition from a dual energy CT scan allows the transmission of an arbitrary spectrum to be predicted. It requires an initial dual energy scan of the patient to either synthesize raw projections of a single energy scan or synthesize the material decompositions of a dual energy scan. The initial dual energy scan contributes inherent noise to the synthesized projections that must be accounted for before adding more noise to simulate low dose protocols. Therefore, synthetic CT is subject to the constraint that the synthesized data have noise greater than the inherent noise. The authors experimentally validated the synthetic CT algorithm across a range of protocols using a dual energy scan of an acrylic phantom with solutions of different iodine concentrations. An initial 80/140 kVp dual energy scan of the phantom provided the material decomposition necessary to synthesize images at 100 kVp and at 120 kVp, across a range of mAs values. They compared these synthesized single energy scans of the phantom to actual scans at the same protocols. Furthermore, material decompositions of a 100/120 kVp dual energy scan are synthesized by adding correlated noise to the initial material

  7. New metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, U.

    1983-12-01

    The aim of this report is to estimate the exposure to various metals and metal compounds and discuss the available information of the possible toxic effects of these metals and compounds. In the first section, some metals are defined as those with either a large or a fast increasing exposure to living organisms. The available information on toxicity is discussed in the second section. In the third section interesting metals are defined as compounds having a large exposure and an apparent insufficient knowledge of their possible toxic effects. Comments on each of these metals are also to be found in the third section. (G.B.)

  8. Behavior of Metals in Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major issues of concern to the Forum is the mobility of metals in soils as related to subsurface remediation. For the purposes of this Issue Paper, those metals most commonly found at Superfund sites will be discussed in terms of the processes..

  9. Machine for dismantling metal parts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopov, O.I.; Loginovskiy, V.I.; Yagudin, S.Z.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to reduce the outlays of time for dismantling metal parts under conditions of eliminating open gas and oil gushers in operational drilling. This goal is achieved because the machine for dismantling the metal parts is equipped with a set of clamping elements arranged on the chassis, where each of them has a drive.

  10. No clinical difference between large metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty and 28-mm-head total hip arthroplasty?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Wierd P; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; Zee, Mark J M; van Raay, Jos J A M

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to test the claim of greater range of motion (ROM) with large femoral head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. METHODS: We compared 28-mm metal-on-polyethylene (MP) total hip arthroplasty with large femoral head metal-on-metal (MM) total hip arthroplasty in a randomised clinical

  11. A photo-excited broadband to dual-band tunable terahertz prefect metamaterial polarization converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jianfeng; Yang, Yang; Li, Shufang

    2018-04-01

    A new and simple design of photo-excited broadband to dual-band tunable terahertz (THz) metamaterial cross polarization converter is proposed in this paper. The tunable converter is a sandwich structure with the center-cut cross-shaped metallic patterned structure as a resonator, the middle dielectric layer as a spacer and the bottom metallic film as the ground. The conductivity of the photoconductive semiconductor (Silicon) filled in the gap of the cross-shaped metallic resonator can be tuned by the incident pump power, leading to an easy modulation of the electromagnetic response of the proposed converter. The results show that the proposed cross-polarization converter can be tuned from a broadband with polarization conversion ratio (PCR) beyond 95% (1.86-2.94 THz) to dual frequency bands (fl = 1 . 46 THz &fh = 2 . 9 THz). The conversion peaks can reach 99.9% for the broadband and, 99.5% (fl) and 99.7% (fh) for the dual-band, respectively. Most importantly, numerical simulations demonstrate that the broadband/dual-band polarization conversion mechanism of the converter originates from the localized surface plasmon modes, which make the design simple and different from previous designs. With these good features, the proposed broadband to dual-band tunable polarization converter is expected to be used in widespread applications.

  12. Entrapment of metal clusters in metal-organic framework channels by extended hooks anchored at open metal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shou-Tian; Zhao, Xiang; Lau, Samuel; Fuhr, Addis; Feng, Pingyun; Bu, Xianhui

    2013-07-17

    Reported here are the new concept of utilizing open metal sites (OMSs) for architectural pore design and its practical implementation. Specifically, it is shown here that OMSs can be used to run extended hooks (isonicotinates in this work) from the framework walls to the channel centers to effect the capture of single metal ions or clusters, with the concurrent partitioning of the large channel spaces into multiple domains, alteration of the host-guest charge relationship and associated guest-exchange properties, and transfer of OMSs from the walls to the channel centers. The concept of the extended hook, demonstrated here in the multicomponent dual-metal and dual-ligand system, should be generally applicable to a range of framework types.

  13. Novel Dual Stage Membrane Bioreactor for the Continuous Remediation of Electroplating Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    B. A. Q. Santos; S. K. O. Ntwampe; G. Muchatibaya

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the designed dual stage membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was conceptualized for the treatment of cyanide and heavy metals in electroplating wastewater. The design consisted of a primary treatment stage to reduce the impact of fluctuations and the secondary treatment stage to remove the residual cyanide and heavy metal contaminants in the wastewater under alkaline pH conditions. The primary treatment stage contained hydrolyzed Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) p...

  14. Motor-cognitive dual-task deficits in individuals with early-mid stage Huntington disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Nora E; Hamana, Katy; Kelson, Mark; Rosser, Anne; Busse, Monica; Quinn, Lori

    2016-09-01

    Huntington disease (HD) results in a range of cognitive and motor impairments that progress throughout the disease stages; however, little research has evaluated specific dual-task abilities in this population, and the degree to which they may be related to functional ability. The purpose of this study was to a) examine simple and complex motor-cognitive dual-task performance in individuals with HD, b) determine relationships between dual-task walking ability and disease-specific measures of motor, cognitive and functional ability, and c) examine the relationship of dual-task measures to falls in individuals with HD. Thirty-two individuals with HD were evaluated for simple and complex dual-task ability using the Walking While Talking Test. Demographics and disease-specific measures of motor, cognitive and functional ability were also obtained. Individuals with HD had impairments in simple and complex dual-task ability. Simple dual-task walking was correlated to disease-specific motor scores as well as cognitive performance, but complex dual-task walking was correlated with total functional capacity, as well as a range of cognitive measures. Number of prospective falls was moderately-strongly correlated to dual-task measures. Our results suggest that individuals with HD have impairments in cognitive-motor dual-task ability that are related to disease progression and specifically functional ability. Dual-task measures appear to evaluate a unique construct in individuals with early to mid-stage HD, and may have value in improving the prediction of falls risk in this population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Silicone metalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maghribi, Mariam N. (Livermore, CA); Krulevitch, Peter (Pleasanton, CA); Hamilton, Julie (Tracy, CA)

    2008-12-09

    A system for providing metal features on silicone comprising providing a silicone layer on a matrix and providing a metal layer on the silicone layer. An electronic apparatus can be produced by the system. The electronic apparatus comprises a silicone body and metal features on the silicone body that provide an electronic device.

  16. Measuring treatment effects on dual-task performance: a framework for research and clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence ePlummer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of dual-task walking to everyday ambulation is widely acknowledged, and numerous studies have demonstrated that dual-task interference can significantly impact recovery of functional walking in people with neurological disorders. The magnitude and direction of dual-task interference is influenced by the interaction between the two tasks, including how individuals spontaneously prioritize their attention. Therefore, to accurately interpret and characterize dual-task interference and identify changes over time, it is imperative to evaluate single and dual-task performance in both tasks, as well as the tasks relative to each other. Yet, reciprocal dual-task effects are frequently ignored. The purpose of this perspective paper is to present a framework for measuring treatment effects on dual-task interference, specifically taking into account the interactions between the two tasks and how this can provide information on whether overall dual-task capacity has improved or a different attentional strategy has been adopted. In discussing the clinical implications of using this framework, we provide specific examples of using this method and provide some explicit recommendations for research and clinical practice.

  17. The Dual Half-Arc data structure: towards the universal B-rep data structure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anton, François; Bugoslawski, P.; Mioc, Darka

    2014-01-01

    , or more generally, the topology of any topological space. For this purpose, we generalize an existing data structure from 2D to 3D and design a new 3D data structure that realizes the synthesis between an existing 3D data structure (the Dual Half-Edge (See Footonote 1) data structure) and the generalized...... 3D Quad-Arc data structure, (See Footonote 2) and at the same time, improves the Dual Half-Edge towards a simpler and more effective representation of cell complexes through B-rep structures. We generalize the idea of the Quad-Arc data structure from 2D to 3D, but instead of transforming a simple...... edge of the Quad-Edge data structure to an arc with multiple points along it, we group together primal edges of the Dual Half-Edge that have the same dual Half-Edge vertex tags (volume tags) into one Dual Half-Arc whose dual is the common Dual Half-Edge and primal faces corresponding to dual...

  18. Muscles Activity in the elderly with Balance Impairments in walking under Dual tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaheh Azadian

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Each step during gait requires different attention demands that will affect muscles activity. The study of changes in the timing and intensity of the muscles activity in walking with dual task has received less attention from researchers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in electromyography patterns of gait with cognitive dual tasks in balance impaired elderly. Methods: Thirty older adults were recruited for this study. People were selected through berg balance test. Subjects walked 12-meters in two conditions, normal walking and walking with a cognitive dual task. Spatial-temporal kinematic parameters were recorded through the motion analysis and muscles activities were recorded through electromyography system. The data obtained was analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA at a significant level of p< 0.05.  Results: The results showed that walking under dual tasks would decrease gait speed and increase stride time and stance time. Also muscle activity in Tibialis anterior and Vastus lateralis in stance-phase would decrease significantly in dual tasks as compared with single task (p< 0.05, but timing of muscle activity would not change in dual task conditions.  Conclusions: Based on the results, it can be argued that walking under a dual task can change spatial-temporal parameters and muscle activity in gait pattern in the elderly with balance impairment. One explanation could be that the decreased control of the central nervous system on muscle activity in stance phase due to the performing of a dual task.

  19. A Quantitative Study Identifying Political Strategies Used by Principals of Dual Language Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Guadalupe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this quantitative study was to identify the external and internal political strategies used by principals that allow them to successfully navigate the political environment surrounding dual language programs. Methodology. This quantitative study used descriptive research to collect, analyze, and report data that identified…

  20. Online Manifold Regularization by Dual Ascending Procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boliang Sun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel online manifold regularization framework based on the notion of duality in constrained optimization. The Fenchel conjugate of hinge functions is a key to transfer manifold regularization from offline to online in this paper. Our algorithms are derived by gradient ascent in the dual function. For practical purpose, we propose two buffering strategies and two sparse approximations to reduce the computational complexity. Detailed experiments verify the utility of our approaches. An important conclusion is that our online MR algorithms can handle the settings where the target hypothesis is not fixed but drifts with the sequence of examples. We also recap and draw connections to earlier works. This paper paves a way to the design and analysis of online manifold regularization algorithms.

  1. Models of color confinement based on dual superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ripka, Georges; Hosek, Jiri

    2003-01-01

    Recently, the relatively old speculation that the physical QCD vacuum might be a kind of dual superconductor, in which color-magnetic monopoles have condensed, seems to have received some 'experimental' confirmation in lattice calculations. The lattice calculations do not dictate, however, the form of the effective low-energy theory. And indeed, a rather wide panoply of possible effective theories has been proposed. The purpose of this talk is to review them in order to contrast their properties

  2. On the derivation of Darboux form for the action- angle dual of trigonometric BCn Sutherland system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Görbe, Tamás F

    2014-01-01

    Recently Fehér and the author have constructed the action-angle dual of the trigonometric BC n Sutherland system via Hamiltonian reduction. In this paper a reduction- based calculation is carried out to verify the canonical Poisson bracket relations on the phase space of this dual model. Hence the material serves complementary purposes whilst it can also be regarded as a suitable modification of the hyperbolic case previously sorted out by Pusztai

  3. The Use of Dual Forms in the “Collection of Lives of Greek Saints” by Saint Nilus of Sora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polina Yuryevna Karavaeva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article we reveal the key principles of dual contexts in Hagiography 'Life of Saint Simeon Stylites of the Admirable Mountain' and 'Life of Saint Onoufrios of the Desert', which are included into the "Collection of Lives of Greek Saints". We proceed from the discrepancy between the history of dual number in colloquial language and book-Slavic language. And we consider the form of dual number as a sign of book-Slavic grammatical norm in the period of the end of 15th - beginning of the 16th centuries. St. Nilus of Sora uses dual number not only with certain stylistic purposes, but also as a clear indication that a text is a monument, that implements strict grammatical norms of Church Slavonic Russian. We provide the most detailed description of the features of the use of free dual forms and also the description of the features of the use of associated dual number. According to the classification, which was proposed by A. Belich, free dual number refers to symmetrical objects, usually of the free dual number are the most stable and consistent in its use. So, one of the features of the representations of St. Nilus of Sora and his disciples about the grammatical norm of using dual number forms is used as a grammatical synonymic forms of the plural and dual number of verb forms in the combination of a noun with a numeral "two".

  4. Dual recycling for GEO 600

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grote, H; Freise, A; Malec, M; Heinzel, G; Willke, B; Lueck, H; Strain, K A; Hough, J; Danzmann, K

    2004-01-01

    Dual recycling is the combination of signal recycling and power recycling; both optical techniques improve the shot-noise-limited sensitivity of interferometric gravitational-wave detectors. In addition, signal recycling can reduce the loss of light power due to imperfect interference and allows us, in principle, to beat the standard quantum limit. The interferometric gravitational-wave detector GEO 600 is the first of the kilometre-scale detectors to use signal recycling. We have recently equipped the detector with a signal-recycling mirror with a transmittance of 1%. In this paper, we present details of the detector commissioning and the first locks of the dual-recycled interferometer

  5. UWB dual burst transmit driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallum, Gregory E [Livermore, CA; Pratt, Garth C [Discovery Bay, CA; Haugen, Peter C [Livermore, CA; Zumstein, James M [Livermore, CA; Vigars, Mark L [Livermore, CA; Romero, Carlos E [Livermore, CA

    2012-04-17

    A dual burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a pair of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. An input trigger pulse produces two oscillator trigger pulses, an initial pulse and a delayed pulse, in a dual trigger generator. The two oscillator trigger pulses drive a gated RF burst (power output) oscillator. A bias driver circuit gates the RF output oscillator on and off and sets the RF burst packet width. The bias driver also level shifts the drive signal to the level that is required for the RF output device.

  6. Towards a big crunch dual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, Thomas E-mail: hertog@vulcan2.physics.ucsb.edu; Horowitz, Gary T

    2004-07-01

    We show there exist smooth asymptotically anti-de Sitter initial data which evolve to a big crunch singularity in a low energy supergravity limit of string theory. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity. A preliminary study of this dual theory suggests that the big crunch is an endpoint of evolution even in the full string theory. We also show that any theory with scalar solitons must have negative energy solutions. The results presented here clarify our earlier work on cosmic censorship violation in N=8 supergravity. (author)

  7. The dual description of long-distance QCD (Dual QCD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, M.

    1990-01-01

    We construct and solve a local field theory which describes in terms of dual variables a system having an A μ propagator behaving like M 2 /q 4 in the infrared and discuss how this theory can be used as a starting point for describing long-distance QCD. 3 refs

  8. CARDIOVASCULAR ENDOCRINOLOGY Dual RAAS blockade has dual effects on outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerspink, Hiddo J. Lambers; de Zeeuw, Dick

    Makani and colleagues report that dual blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is associated with harm despite previous studies showing that this approach decreases blood pressure and albuminuria. Do these results imply that we should abandon surrogate markers? Or should we become more

  9. Liquid metal heat transfer issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, H.W.; Yoder, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    An alkali liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor coupled with an alkali metal Rankine cycle provides a practicable option for space systems/missions requiring power in the 1 to 100 MW(e) range. Thermal issues relative to the use of alkali liquid metals for this purpose are identified as these result from the nature of the alkali metal fluid itself, from uncertainties in the available heat transfer correlations, and from design and performance requirements for system components operating in the earth orbital microgravity environment. It is noted that, while these issues require further attention to achieve optimum system performance, none are of such magnitude as to invalidate this particular space power concept

  10. Dual modality densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tjugum, Stein-Arild

    2003-01-01

    Different measurement principles and design issues for gamma-ray densitometry for pipe flow are investigated. The dual modality densitometry (DMD) principle for salinity measurement and flow regime identification by multibeam densitometry are tested and verified. The measurement principles are implemented in a compact instrument design with low energy source and compact detectors. The DMD principle is experimentally verified for 3 inch and 2 inch pipes. These measurements are done on homogenous brine/gas mixtures. Both salinity independent GVF measurements and salinity measurements are obtained. The standard deviation of the salinity measurements are about 2 percent. This measurement inaccuracy is mainly caused by inhomogeneity in the liquid/gas distribution, and measurements are thus sensitive to changes in the flow regime. Models for the generation of scattered radiation are developed, and these have been used in the data-analysis and for producing special sensitivity maps for the generation of scattered radiation. The models are a useful tool for further development of the DMD principle. The work on multibeam gamma-ray densitometry has shown that flow regimes can be identified with as few as two detectors. This is verified in the flow-loop tests. Unambiguous flow regime identification will often require that the multibeam measurements are combined with other flow measurements. With a higher number of detectors more detailed information is found, and from the 9-beam measurements with the University of Bergen (UoB) gamma-ray tomography different flow regimes could clearly be identified from time series plots of the data. A laboratory prototype compact gamma-ray densitometer, the MiniGamma, has been built up and tested. Both the DMD measurement principle and the multibeam arrangement for flow regime identification are implemented in the instrument, and are successfully tested. The detector-types tested are CdZnTe semiconductor detectors, a miniature scintillation

  11. Some dual relations in twistor theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarski, J.

    1983-08-01

    The option of employing twistors or dual twistors in integral representations, etc., is considered. In particular, dual-space analyses are presented which relate to the problem of background electromagnetic fields, and to the inverse transformation. (author)

  12. Dual-Doppler Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Lisa L.

    2012-01-01

    When two or more Doppler weather radar systems are monitoring the same region, the Doppler velocities can be combined to form a three-dimensional (3-D) wind vector field thus providing for a more intuitive analysis of the wind field. A real-time display of the 3-D winds can assist forecasters in predicting the onset of convection and severe weather. The data can also be used to initialize local numerical weather prediction models. Two operational Doppler Radar systems are in the vicinity of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS); these systems are operated by the 45th Space Wing (45 SW) and the National Weather Service Melbourne, Fla. (NWS MLB). Dual-Doppler applications were considered by the 45 SW in choosing the site for the new radar. Accordingly, the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS), NWS MLB and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to investigate the feasibility of establishing dual-Doppler capability using the two existing systems. This study investigated technical, hardware, and software requirements necessary to enable the establishment of a dual-Doppler capability. Review of the available literature pertaining to the dual-Doppler technique and consultation with experts revealed that the physical locations and resulting beam crossing angles of the 45 SW and NWS MLB radars make them ideally suited for a dual-Doppler capability. The dual-Doppler equations were derived to facilitate complete understanding of dual-Doppler synthesis; to determine the technical information requirements; and to determine the components of wind velocity from the equation of continuity and radial velocity data collected by the two Doppler radars. Analysis confirmed the suitability of the existing systems to provide the desired capability. In addition, it is possible that both 45 SW radar data and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar data from Orlando International Airport could be used to alleviate any

  13. Teaching English for Specific Purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nijolė Netikšienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Teaching English for Specific Purposes and General English is analysed in the article. The scientific approach of a scientist M. Rosenberg is presented. The experience of teaching English for Specific Purposesat VGTU is alsopresented. The ideas and teaching methods from the classes of general English can be transferred to the classes of English for Specific Purposes.

  14. Sparsity and spectral properties of dual frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krahmer, Felix; Kutyniok, Gitta; Lemvig, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    We study sparsity and spectral properties of dual frames of a given finite frame. We show that any finite frame has a dual with no more than $n^2$ non-vanishing entries, where $n$ denotes the ambient dimension, and that for most frames no sparser dual is possible. Moreover, we derive an expressio...

  15. Dual Enrollment for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Linsey; Hughes, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Dual enrollment programs allow high school students to enroll in college courses and potentially earn college credit. The term concurrent enrollment is sometimes used interchangeably with dual enrollment, and sometimes to refer to a particular model of dual enrollment. In some programs, students earn high school and college credit simultaneously;…

  16. Dual Processing and Diagnostic Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical,…

  17. Dual descriptions of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrilligator, K.; Thomas, S.

    1996-08-01

    Dynamical supersymmetry breaking is considered in models which admit descriptions in terms of electric, confined, or magnetic degrees of freedom in various limits. In this way, a variety of seemingly different theories which break supersymmetry are actually interrelated by confinement or duality. Specific examples are given in which there are two dual descriptions of the supersymmetry breaking ground state

  18. Dual temperature isotope exchange system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spevack, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Improvements in the method for isotope concentration by dual temperature exchange between feed and auxiliary fluids in a multistage system are described. In a preferred embodiment the first is a vaporizable liquid and the auxiliary fluid a gas, comprising steps for improving the heating and/or cooling and/or humidifying and/or dehumidifying operations

  19. Psychosocial approaches to dual diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, R E; Mueser, K T

    2000-01-01

    Recent research elucidates many aspects of the problem of co-occurring substance use disorder (SUD) in patients with severe mental illness, which is often termed dual diagnosis. This paper provides a brief overview of current research on the epidemiology, adverse consequences, and phenomenology of dual diagnosis, followed by a more extensive review of current approaches to services, assessment, and treatment. Accumulating evidence shows that comorbid SUD is quite common among individuals with severe mental illness and that these individuals suffer serious adverse consequences of SUD. The research further suggests that traditional, separate services for individuals with dual disorders are ineffective, and that integrated treatment programs, which combine mental health and substance abuse interventions, offer more promise. In addition to a comprehensive integration of services, successful programs include assessment, assertive case management, motivational interventions for patients who do not recognize the need for substance abuse treatment, behavioral interventions for those who are trying to attain or maintain abstinence, family interventions, housing, rehabilitation, and psychopharmacology. Further research is needed on the organization and financing of dual-diagnosis services and on specific components of the integrated treatment model, such as group treatments, family interventions, and housing approaches.

  20. Physical Health and Dual Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Debbie; Keen, Sarah; Mauro, Pia

    2008-01-01

    The physical health of people with mental illness may be neglected for a variety of reasons. This paper looks at the common physical health problems experienced by people with a dual diagnosis of substance misuse and serious mental illness, and suggests ways of assessing and managing them.

  1. Dual model for parton densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Hassouni, A.; Napoly, O.

    1981-01-01

    We derive power-counting rules for quark densities near x=1 and x=0 from parton interpretations of one-particle inclusive dual amplitudes. Using these rules, we give explicit expressions for quark distributions (including charm) inside hadrons. We can then show the compatibility between fragmentation and recombination descriptions of low-p/sub perpendicular/ processes

  2. Dual fields and E11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riccioni, Fabio; West, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We show that the adjoint representation of E 11 contains generators corresponding to the infinite possible dual descriptions of the bosonic on-shell degrees of freedom of eleven-dimensional supergravity. We also give an interpretation for the fields corresponding to many of the other generators in the adjoint representation

  3. Management and leadership: a dual role in nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calpin-Davies, Philomena J

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the dual concepts of leadership and management in nursing education. It provides a consideration of caring as the end purpose of nursing education and argues that empowered caring makes use of professional academic credentials to form collaborative alliances that influence health care delivery. Inspiring and empowering leadership also transform educational services. In particular the key issues of investing in technology, supporting life long learning and creating a community workplace are addressed. It concludes with the suggestion that the nurse education ought to be led and managed differently.

  4. Photonic Choke-Joints for Dual-Polarization Waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollack, Edward J.; U-yen, Kongpop; Chuss, David T.

    2010-01-01

    Photonic choke joint (PCJ) structures for dual-polarization waveguides have been investigated for use in device and component packaging. This interface enables the realization of a high performance non-contacting waveguide joint without degrading the in-band signal propagation properties. The choke properties of two tiling approaches, symmetric square Cartesian and octagonal quasi-crystal lattices of metallic posts, are explored and optimal PCJ design parameters are presented. For each of these schemes, the experimental results for structures with finite tilings demonstrate near ideal transmission and reflection performance over a full waveguide band.

  5. Communicative Purpose as Genre Determinant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Askehave, Inger

    1999-01-01

    Through the years researchers and LSP teachers alike have used various parameters for classifying texts. This article sets out to discuss the notion of "communicative purpose" as a means for classifying text. It points to some of the difficulties associated with the functional approaches to genre...... classification in general and the notion of "communicative purpose" in particular.......Through the years researchers and LSP teachers alike have used various parameters for classifying texts. This article sets out to discuss the notion of "communicative purpose" as a means for classifying text. It points to some of the difficulties associated with the functional approaches to genre...

  6. Dual approaches for defects condensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rougemont, Romulo; Grigorio, Leonardo de Souza; Wotzasek, Clovis [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil); Guimaraes, Marcelo Santos [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Full text. Due to the fact that the QCD running coupling constant becomes larger as we go into the low energy (or large distance) limit of the theory, a perturbative treatment of its infrared (IR) region is impossible. In particular, a formal mathematical demonstration of color confinement and a complete physical understanding of the exact mechanism that confines quarks and gluons are two missing points in our current knowledge of the IR-QCD. It was known that due to the Meissner effect of expulsion of magnetic fields in a electric condensate that usual superconductors should confine magnetic monopoles. That point led to the conjecture that the QCD vacuum could be a condensate of chromomagnetic monopoles, a dual superconductor (DSC). Such a chromomagnetic condensate should be responsible for the dual Meissner effect which is expected to lead to the confinement of color charges immersed in this medium. In dual superconductor models of color confinement, magnetic monopoles appear as topological defects in points of the space where the abelian projection becomes singular. Also, condensation of other kinds of defects such as vortices in superfluids and line-like defects in solids are responsible for a great variety of phase transitions, which once more proves the relevance of the subject. In the present work we review two methods that allow us to approach the condensation of defects: the Kleinert Mechanism (KM) and the Julia-Toulouse Mechanism (JTM). We show that in the limit where the vortex gauge field goes to zero, which we identify as the signature of the condensation of defects in the dual picture, these are two equivalent dual prescriptions for obtaining an effective theory for a phase where defects are condensed, starting from the fundamental theory defined in the normal phase where defects are diluted. (author)

  7. Comparing the da Vinci si single console and dual console in teaching novice surgeons suturing techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusco, Salvatore; Jackson, Tiffany; Advincula, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery is often taught with the surgical mentor at the surgeon console and the trainee at the patient's bedside. The da Vinci dual console (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, California) allows a surgical mentor to teach with both the mentor and the trainee working at a surgeon console simultaneously. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the dual console versus the single console for teaching medical students robotic tasks. Forty novice medical students were randomized to either the da Vinci single-console or dual-console group and were taught 4 knot-tying techniques by a surgical mentor. The students were timed while performing the tasks. No statistically significant differences in mean task times were observed between the single- and dual-console groups: interrupted stitch with a 2-handed knot (300 seconds for single vs 294 seconds for dual, P=.59), interrupted stitch with a 1-handed knot (198 seconds for single vs 212 seconds for dual, P=.88), figure-of-8 stitch with a 2-handed knot (261 seconds for single vs 219 seconds for dual, P=.20), and figure-of-8 stitch with a 1-handed knot (200 seconds for single vs 199 seconds for dual, P=.53). No significant difference was observed in performance time when teaching knot-tying techniques to medical students using the da Vinci dual console compared with the single console. More research needs to be performed on the utility of the da Vinci dual console in surgical training.

  8. Safety Assessment of a Metal Cask under Aircraft Engine Crash

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghoon Lee

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The structural integrity of a dual-purpose metal cask currently under development by the Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD was evaluated, through numerical simulations and a model test, under high-speed missile impact reflecting targeted aircraft crash conditions. The impact conditions were carefully chosen through a survey on accident cases and recommendations from literature. In the impact scenario, a missile flying horizontally hits the top side of the cask, which is freestanding on a concrete pad, with a velocity of 150 m/s. A simplified missile simulating a commercial aircraft engine was designed from an impact load–time function available in literature. In the analyses, the dynamic behavior of the metal cask and the integrity of the containment boundary were assessed. The simulation results were compared with the test results for a 1:3 scale model. Although the dynamic behavior of the cask in the model test did not match exactly with the prediction from the numerical simulation, other structural responses, such as the acceleration and strain history during the impact, showed very good agreement. Moreover, the containment function of the cask survived the missile impact as expected from the numerical simulation. Thus, the procedure and methodology adopted in the structural numerical analyses were successfully validated.

  9. Metallic nanomesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Sun, Tianyi; Guo, Chuanfei

    2018-02-20

    A transparent flexible nanomesh having at least one conductive element and sheet resistance less than 300.OMEGA./.quadrature. when stretched to a strain of 200% in at least one direction. The nanomesh is formed by depositing a sacrificial film, depositing, etching, and oxidizing a first metal layer on the film, etching the sacrificial film, depositing a second metal layer, and removing the first metal layer to form a nanomesh on the substrate.

  10. Multi-Purpose Storage Complex description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Multi-Purpose Storage Complex will provide interim storage of radioactive material (irradiated fuel, cesium/strontium capsules, plutonium residuals, canisters of vitrified high-level waste glass, and other radioactive material) at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. A Storage Preparation and Shipping Facility is included that will have the capability to stabilize failed metal fuel, segregate high-level solid waste, and package/repackage any of the materials for interim storage/final disposal or subsequent processing. Current technology, both domestic and foreign, will be adapted with the expectation that no new technology will be required. This cost-effective approach will use fuel casks, transport systems, and/or modular vaults that have been licensed in the United States. The complex will have a central control room, and appropriate safeguards and security measures will be incorporated. A specific design objective will be to minimize the amount of secondary waste

  11. Multi-Purpose Test Stand

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Multi-Purpose Test Stand is used for a wide variety of tests. The Stand is designed to be rotated through a range of fixed yaw positions to allow engines to be...

  12. Dual-purpose power plants, experiences with exhaust gas purification plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.

    1993-01-01

    From 1984 to 1988, the research and development project ''pollutant reduction for exhaust gases from heat production systems'' sponsored by the Federal Ministry of Research and Technology (BMFT) has been carried out by TUeV in Bavaria. This project was to show the state of exhaust gas technology for small and medium-sized plants (boilers and motoric heat generators). When publishing the final report, no positive balance could be given. Based on the results, the succession project ''Exhaust gas purification plants in field test'' (ARIF) has been started. This project has the following objectives: -Measuring technical investigation of the exhaust gas purification of motoric driven heat generator systems in field test. - Suitability of hand measuring devices for emissions for a discontinuous control of the exhaust gas purification plat by the operator. - Control of new methods regarding pollutant reduction for motoric and conventional heat generators. (orig.) [de

  13. Dual-purpose cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) straw as sole ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    L.) Walp.) (IT89KD-391; IT86D-716; IT86D-719; IT81D-994) using 24 West African dwarf (WAD) rams solefed the straw over a 60-d period. Voluntary dry matter (57 to 88 g kg-1 W0.75 d-1), organic matter (OM) ranged from 50.5 to 78.9 g kg-1 ...

  14. Operation efficiency increasing of dual-purpose NPP's by means of improving turbine plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, V.A.; Borovkov, V.M.; Levit, I.G.; Averbakh, Yu.A.; Titova, I.B.

    1984-01-01

    Ways of operation efficiency increasing power plants for combined electrisity prodUction and centralized heating with WWER-440 reactors and wet-steam heating-condensating turbines are considered. Two variants of floWsheets of by-pass steam distribution permitting to use energy of excess steam in a wide pressure range in the secondary circuit for keeping electric or thermal power of the power unit at a possibly higher level are analyzed. Optimum time of operating cycle prolongation of a heating WWER-440 poWer unit when using the suggested flowsheets with pipelines of by-pass distribution of excess steam covers 16-40 days for the range of change in expenditures at reconstruction for electric power and heat 13.5-17 rub/MWxh and 2-3 rub./MWxh. The maximum time of the reactor operating cycle prolongation for the considered situations makes up 30-80 days

  15. A ferrite LTCC based dual purpose helical antenna providing bias for tunability

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.

    2015-03-30

    Typically, magnetically tunable antennas utilize large external magnets or coils to provide the magneto-static bias. In this work, we present a novel concept of combining the antenna and the bias coil in one structure. A helical antenna has been optimized to act as the bias coil in a ten layer ferrite LTCC package, thus performing two functions. This not only reduces the overall size of the system by getting rid of the external bias source but also eliminates demagnetization effect (fields lost at air-to-substrate interface), which reduces the required magneto-static field strength and makes the design efficient. RF choking inductor and DC blocking capacitor have been monolithically integrated as package elements to allow the magnetostatic and microwave excitation at the same time. The design has been optimized for its low frequency and high frequency performance in two different simulators. A measured tuning range of 10% is achieved at a center frequency of 13 GHz. The design is highly suitable for low cost, compact, light-weight and tunable microwave systems. © 2002-2011 IEEE.

  16. yield and yield components of intercropped dual-purpose lablab and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user pc

    1,3 Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. 2Department of Agronomy, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria. *Corresponding author: ...... Bangladesh. Journal of ...

  17. Dual-purpose self-deliverable lunar surface PV electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Jack H.; Harris, David W.; Cross, Eldon R.; Flood, Dennis J.

    1991-01-01

    A safe haven and work supported PV power systems on the lunar surface will likely be required by NASA in support of the manned outpost scheduled for the post-2000 lunar/Mars exploration and colonization initiative. Initial system modeling and computer analysis shows that the concept is workable and contains no major high risk technology issues which cannot be resolved in the circa 2000 to 2025 timeframe. A specific selection of the best suited type of electric thruster has not been done; the initial modeling was done using an ion thruster, but Rocketdyne must also evaluate arc and resisto-jets before a final design can be formulated. As a general observation, it appears that such a system can deliver itself to the Moon using many system elements that must be transported as dead payload mass in more conventional delivery modes. It further appears that a larger power system providing a much higher safe haven power level is feasible if this delivery system is implemented, perhaps even sufficient to permit resource prospecting and/or lab experimentation. The concept permits growth and can be expanded to include cargo transport such as habitat and working modules. In short, the combined payload could be manned soon after landing and checkout. NASA has expended substantial resources in the development of electric propulsion concepts and hardware that can be applied to a lunar transport system such as described herein. In short, the paper may represent a viable mission on which previous investments play an invaluable role. A more comprehensive technical paper which embodies second generation analysis and system size will be prepared for near-term presentation.

  18. Dual purpose QA tool developed for teletherapy unit and CT scan in SNDH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilvant, D.V.; Tamane, C.J.; Pangam, S.B.; Raees, M.D.; Aynoor, S.K.; Pol, P.S.; Verghese, Aju; Ghorpade, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    To make a simple device used in Teletherapy unit and CT scan for depth data measurement. The accurate depth data is essential and very important factor for precise treatment in SAD isocentric setup calculation. In CT scan based treatment planning, the calculation obtained is from the depth given by the CT scan. The success of treatment depends on the same parameters in treatment unit matched with diagnostic CT scan data. To check the depth parameters in both CT scan and Teletherapy unit we have developed a single QA tool in our hospital. As this tool is precise, handy and easily accessible the results obtained from it assures the quality of Teletherapy unit as well as CT scan depth data. This small device resulted data helps a lot in calculations of complicated SAD setup in Telecobalt and also useful in recent new treatment modalities such as IMRT, micro MLC, etc

  19. Site selection of a dual purpose nuclear power plant in Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, F.M.; Obeid, M.A.; El-Malahy, K.S.

    1987-01-01

    Selecting a nuclear power plant site for power production and water desalination is a very complex problem, especially in countries with moderate technology. Many interrelated factors affect the process, and professional judgments by various experts are involved. Four sites, all located on the West Coast of Saudi Arabia along the Red Sea, were chosen as potential sites for building such a plant. (All sites were in either the northern or southern section of the coast; the central part was excluded for pilgrims' safety.) The East Coast was completely eliminated in the initial screening process due to its strategic location, the existence of oil fields and refineries, and its proximity to other Arabian (Persian) Gulf countries (to minimize radioactive releases to these countries in case of an accident). A computer code based on Saaty's eigenvalue technique and developed in a previous study was used in this analysis. Twenty-one main criteria were considered, and the sites were ranked to determine which was most desirable. Site 4 was found to be most suitable, followed by site 3

  20. Yield and forage value of a dual-purpose bmr-12 sorghum hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] is an important crop for rainfed production systems with 2.7 million ha grown in the USA in 2013. The brown-midrib (bmr) mutations, especially bmr-12, have resulted in low stover lignin and high fiber digestibility without reducing grain yield in some sor...

  1. Implementation of the dual-purpose principle in Iran, Bushehr desalination and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edalat, M.; Mansoori, F.S.; Entessari, J.; Hamidi, H.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements for electrical power and fresh water and the past and present desalination projects in Iran are discussed. The different methods usually employed in coupling the desalination plants with power plants are outlined, and the interdependency of the two plants and the safety aspects due to radioactive contamination are considered. Finally, the method utilizing a pressurized hot water loop as a safety barrier for the two proposed desalination plants to be coupled with the Bushehr Nuclear Power Plants under construction in Iran is described. (author)

  2. Assessing the potential of dual-purpose maize in southern Africa: A multi-level approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homann-Kee Tui, S.; Blümmel, M.; Valbuena, D.F.; Chirima, A.; Maskati, P.; Rooyen, van A.F.; Kassie, G.T.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the potential and challenges of increasing production of food and feed on existing maize fields in mixed crop-livestock systems in the semi-arid areas of southern Africa. It integrates results from different sources of data and analysis: 1. Spatial stratification using secondary

  3. Dual purpose scanner for thyroid imaging in the fluorescence and emission modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charleston, D.; Beck, R.; Yasillo, N.; Atkins, F.; Cooper, M.; Kirchner, P.

    1981-01-01

    Quantitative elemental analysis by the use of stimulated fluorescence x-rays has been applied in an imaging modality whereby the relative concentration of iodine-127 in the thyroid can be mapped, and total iodine in the gland estimated for the diagnosis of malignant and benign nodules. To further the development of fluorescence imaging of the thyroid, three areas of work are described which include theoretical studies, empirical studies and hardware development, and clinical feasibility studies

  4. A ferrite LTCC based dual purpose helical antenna providing bias for tunability

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.; Shamim, Atif

    2015-01-01

    Typically, magnetically tunable antennas utilize large external magnets or coils to provide the magneto-static bias. In this work, we present a novel concept of combining the antenna and the bias coil in one structure. A helical antenna has been optimized to act as the bias coil in a ten layer ferrite LTCC package, thus performing two functions. This not only reduces the overall size of the system by getting rid of the external bias source but also eliminates demagnetization effect (fields lost at air-to-substrate interface), which reduces the required magneto-static field strength and makes the design efficient. RF choking inductor and DC blocking capacitor have been monolithically integrated as package elements to allow the magnetostatic and microwave excitation at the same time. The design has been optimized for its low frequency and high frequency performance in two different simulators. A measured tuning range of 10% is achieved at a center frequency of 13 GHz. The design is highly suitable for low cost, compact, light-weight and tunable microwave systems. © 2002-2011 IEEE.

  5. Dual purpose use of preterm piglets as a model of pediatric GI disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oosterloo, Berthe C; Premkumar, Muralidhar; Stoll, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most common gastrointestinal complication in human neonates, yet the pathogenesis of this disease remains poorly understood. A fundamental approach to understanding the etiology and underlying biology of NEC is the use of in vivo experimental animal models, ...

  6. Generator, mechanical, smoke: For dual-purpose unit, XM56, Yuma Proving Ground, Yuma, Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.; Ligotke, M.W.; Moore, E.B. Jr. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Bowers, J.F. (Dugway Proving Ground, UT (United States))

    1991-10-01

    The US Army Chemical Research, Development and Engineering Center (CRDEC) is planning to perform a field test of the XM56 smoke generator at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground (YPG), Arizona. The XM56, enabling the use of fog oil in combination with other materials, such as graphite flakes, is part of an effort to improve the efficiency of smoke generation and to extend the effectiveness of the resulting obscurant cloud to include the infrared spectrum. The plan field operation includes a road test and concurrent smoke- generation trials. Three M1037 vehicles with operation XM56 generators will be road-tested for 100 h. Smoke will be generated for 30 min from a single stationary XM56 four times during the road test, resulting in a total of 120 min of smoke generation. The total aerial release of obscurant materials during this test is expected to be 556 kg (1,220 lb) of fog oil and 547 kg (1,200 lb) of graphite flakes. This environmental assessment has evaluated the consequences of the proposed action. Air concentrations and surface deposition levels were estimated using an atmospheric dispersion model. Degradation of fog oil and incorporation of graphite in the soil column will limit the residual impacts of the planned action. No significant impacts to air, water, and soil quality are anticipated. risks to the environment posed by the proposed action were determined to be minimal or below levels previously found to pose measurable impacts. Cultural resources are present on YPG and have been identified in adjacent areas; therefore, off-road activities should be preceded by a cultural resource survey. A Finding of No Significant Impact is recommended. 61 refs., 1 fig.

  7. The Dual Orlicz-Brunn-Minkowski Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Richard J.; Hug, Daniel; Weil, Wolfgang; Ye, Deping

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the dual Orlicz-Brunn-Minkowski theory for star sets. A radial Orlicz addition of two or more star sets is proposed and a corresponding dual Orlicz-Brunn-Minkowski inequality is established. Based on a radial Orlicz linear combination of two star sets, a formula for the dual Orlicz mixed volume is derived and a corresponding dual Orlicz-Minkowski inequality proved. The inequalities proved yield as special cases the precise duals of the conjectured log-Brunn-Minkowski and...

  8. 30 CFR 210.153 - What reports must I submit for Indian gas valuation purposes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Reporting address. You must submit completed Forms MMS-4410 and MMS-4411 by: (1) U.S. Postal Service regular... INTERIOR MINERALS REVENUE MANAGEMENT FORMS AND REPORTS Special-Purpose Forms and Reports-Oil, Gas, and... following forms: (1) Form MMS-4410, Accounting for Comparison (Dual Accounting), Part A or Part B; and/or (2...

  9. The dual fluid reactor - a new concept for a highly effective fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huke, A.; Ruprecht, G. [Institut fur Festkorper-Kernphysik gGmbH, Leistikowstr, Berlin (Germany); WeiBbach, D. [Institut fur Festkorper-Kernphysik gGmbH, Leistikowstr, Berlin (Germany); Univ. Szczecin, ul. Wielkopolska, Inst. Fizyki, Wydzial Matematyczno-Fizyczny, Szczecin, (Poland); Gottlieb, S. [Institut fur Festkorper-Kernphysik gGmbH, Leistikowstr, Berlin (Germany); Hussein, A. [Institut fur Festkorper-Kernphysik gGmbH, Leistikowstr, Berlin (Germany); Univ. of Northern British Columbia, Dept. of Physics, Prince George, BC (Canada); Czerski, K. [Institut fur Festkorper-Kernphysik gGmbH, Leistikowstr, Berlin (Germany); Univ. Szczecin, ul. Wielkopolska, Inst. Fizyki, Wydzial Matematyczno-Fizyczny, Szczecin, (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    The Dual Fluid Reactor, DFR, is a novel concept of a fast heterogeneous nuclear reactor. Its key feature is the employment of two separate liquid cycles, one for fuel and one for the coolant. As opposed to other liquid-fuel concepts like the molten-salt fast reactor (MSFR), in the DFR both cycles can be separately optimized for their respective purpose, leading to advantageous consequences: A very high power density resulting in enormous cost savings, and a highly negative temperature feedback coefficient, enabling a self-regulation without any control rods or mechanical parts in the core. The fuel liquid, an undiluted actinide trichloride (consisting of isotope-purified {sup 37}Cl) in the reference design, circulates at an operating temperature of 1300 K and can be processed on-line in a small internal processing unit utilizing fractionated distillation or electro refining. Medical radioisotopes like Mo-99/Tc-99m are by-products and can be provided right away. In a more advanced design, an actinide metal alloy melt with an appropriately low solidus temperature is well possible which further compactifies the core and allows to further increase the operating temperature due to its high heat conductivity. The best choice for the coolant is pure lead which yields a very hard neutron spectrum. (author)

  10. Effect of dual modification with hydroxypropylation and cross-linking on physicochemical properties of taro starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Bidyut Jyoti; Sit, Nandan

    2016-04-20

    Dual modification of taro starch by hydroxypropylation and cross-linking was carried out and the properties of the modified starches were investigated. Two different levels of hydroxypropylation (5 and 10%) and cross-linking (0.05 and 0.10%) were used in different sequences. The amylose contents of the starch decreased due to single and dual modification. For the dual-modified starches, the swelling, solubility and clarity was found to increase with level of hydroxypropylation and decrease with level of cross-linking. The freeze-thaw stability of the dual-modified starches was also affected by the sequence of modification. The viscosities of the cross-linked and dual-modified starches were more than native and hydroxypropylated starches. The firmness of the dual-modified starches was also higher than native and single modified starches. The dual-modified starches have benefits of both type of modifications and could be used for specific purposes e.g. food products requiring high viscosity as well as freeze-thaw stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Protection of Lithium (Li) Anodes Using Dual Phase Electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikhaylik, Yuriy [Sion Power Corporation, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Sion Power focused on metallic lithium anode protection, employing the Dual-Phase Electrolyte approach. The objective of this project was to develop a unique electrolyte providing two liquid phases having good Li+ conductivity, self-partitioning and immiscibility, serving separately the cathode and anode electrodes. This Dual-Phase Electrolyte was combined with thin film multi-layer, physical barrier membranes developed partially under a separate ARPA-E funded project. All these protective structures were stabilized by externally applied pressure. This strategy was used for Li-S cells. The development directly addressed cell safety, particularly higher thermal stability, while also allowing higher energies and cycle life. Safety tests showed that 100% of cells with Dual-Phase Electrolyte were intact and did not exhibit thermal runaway up to 178 °C and thus met the project objective of increasing the runaway temperature to >165°C. Cells also passed cycling at USABC Dynamic Stress Test conditions developed for Electric Vehicle applications and generated specific energy > 300 Wh/kg.

  12. Dual resolution cone beam breast CT: A feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lingyun; Shen Youtao; Lai, Chao-Jen; Han Tao; Zhong Yuncheng; Ge Shuaiping; Liu Xinming; Wang Tianpeng; Yang, Wei T.; Whitman, Gary J.; Shaw, Chris C.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors investigated the feasibility of a dual resolution volume-of-interest (VOI) cone beam breast CT technique and compared two implementation approaches in terms of dose saving and scatter reduction. Methods: With this technique, a lead VOI mask with an opening is inserted between the x-ray source and the breast to deliver x-ray exposure to the VOI while blocking x rays outside the VOI. A CCD detector is used to collect the high resolution projection data of the VOI. Low resolution cone beam CT (CBCT) images of the entire breast, acquired with a flat panel (FP) detector, were used to calculate the projection data outside the VOI with the ray-tracing reprojection method. The Feldkamp-Davis-Kress filtered backprojection algorithm was used to reconstruct the dual resolution 3D images. Breast phantoms with 180 μm and smaller microcalcifications (MCs) were imaged with both FP and FP-CCD dual resolution CBCT systems, respectively. Two approaches of implementing the dual resolution technique, breast-centered approach and VOI-centered approach, were investigated and evaluated for dose saving and scatter reduction with Monte Carlo simulation using a GEANT4 package. Results: The results showed that the breast-centered approach saved more breast absorbed dose than did VOI-centered approach with similar scatter reduction. The MCs in fatty breast phantom, which were invisible with FP CBCT scan, became visible with the FP-CCD dual resolution CBCT scan. Conclusions: These results indicate potential improvement of the image quality inside the VOI with reduced breast dose both inside and outside the VOI.

  13. Temporal subtraction of dual-energy chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armato, Samuel G. III; Doshi, Devang J.; Engelmann, Roger; Caligiuri, Philip; MacMahon, Heber

    2006-01-01

    Temporal subtraction and dual-energy imaging are two enhanced radiography techniques that are receiving increased attention in chest radiography. Temporal subtraction is an image processing technique that facilitates the visualization of pathologic change across serial chest radiographic images acquired from the same patient; dual-energy imaging exploits the differential relative attenuation of x-ray photons exhibited by soft-tissue and bony structures at different x-ray energies to generate a pair of images that accentuate those structures. Although temporal subtraction images provide a powerful mechanism for enhancing visualization of subtle change, misregistration artifacts in these images can mimic or obscure abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether dual-energy imaging could improve the quality of temporal subtraction images. Temporal subtraction images were generated from 100 pairs of temporally sequential standard radiographic chest images and from the corresponding 100 pairs of dual-energy, soft-tissue radiographic images. The registration accuracy demonstrated in the resulting temporal subtraction images was evaluated subjectively by two radiologists. The registration accuracy of the soft-tissue-based temporal subtraction images was rated superior to that of the conventional temporal subtraction images. Registration accuracy also was evaluated objectively through an automated method, which achieved an area-under-the-ROC-curve value of 0.92 in the distinction between temporal subtraction images that demonstrated clinically acceptable and clinically unacceptable registration accuracy. By combining dual-energy soft-tissue images with temporal subtraction, misregistration artifacts can be reduced and superior image quality can be obtained

  14. Novel Materials, Processing, and Device Technologies for Space Exploration with Potential Dual-Use Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, A. F.; Bailey, S. G.; McNatt, J. S.; Chandrashekhar, M. V. S.; Harris, J. D.; Rusch, A. W.; Nogales, K. A.; Goettsche, K. V.; Hanson, W.; Amos, D.; hide

    2015-01-01

    We highlight results of a broad spectrum of efforts on lower-temperature processing of nanomaterials, novel approaches to energy conversion, and environmentally rugged devices. Solution-processed quantum dots of copper indium chalcogenide semiconductors and multi-walled carbon nanotubes from lower-temperature spray pyrolysis are enabled by novel (precursor) chemistry. Metal-doped zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructured components of photovoltaic cells have been grown in solution at low temperature on a conductive indium tin oxide substrate. Arrays of ZnO nanorods can be templated and decorated with various semiconductor and metallic nanoparticles. Utilizing ZnO in a more broadly defined energy conversion sense as photocatalysts, unwanted organic waste materials can potentially be re-purposed. Current efforts on charge carrier dynamics in nanoscale electrode architectures used in photoelectrochemical cells for generating solar electricity and fuels are described. The objective is to develop oxide nanowire-based electrode architectures that exhibit improved charge separation, charge collection and allow for efficient light absorption. Investigation of the charge carrier transport and recombination properties of the electrodes will aid in the understanding of how nanowire architectures improve performance of electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nanomaterials can be incorporated in a number of advanced higher-performance (i.e. mass specific power) photovoltaic arrays. Advanced technologies for the deposition of 4H-silicon carbide are described. The use of novel precursors, advanced processing, and process studies, including modeling are discussed from the perspective of enhancing the performance of this promising material for enabling technologies such as solar electric propulsion. Potential impact(s) of these technologies for a variety of aerospace applications are highlighted throughout. Finally, examples are given of technologies with potential spin-offs for dual

  15. QCD as a dual superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariasen, F.

    1986-01-01

    The author describes the construction of an effective action describing long-range Yang-Mills theory. This action is motivated by a study of the system of Dyson equations and Ward identities, but cannot (yet) be derived from the underlying quantum theory. The effective action turns out to describe a medium very much like a dual relativistic superconductor; that is, with electric and magnetic fields interchanged. There is a dual Meissner effect, which serves to compress color electric fields into flux tubes, containing quantized units of color electric flux. This produces electric confinement. There is a magnetic condensate, resulting from a spontaneous symmetry breaking analogous to that in the relativistic superconductor, as in the Abelian Higgs model. He gives the motivation leading to the effective action, and describes the quantized electric flux tube solutions. Finally, he mentions briefly some other applications

  16. Vacuum transitions in dual models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pashnev, A.I.; Volkov, D.V.; Zheltukhin, A.A.

    1976-01-01

    The investigation is continued of the spontaneous vacuum transition problem in the Neview-Schwartz dual model (NSDM). It is shown that vacuum transitions allow disclosing of supplementary degeneration in the resonance state spectrum. The dual amplitudes possess an internal structure corresponding to the presence of an infinite number of quarks with increasing masses and retained charges. The Adler principle holds. Analytic continuation on the constant of induced vacuum transitions makes it possible to establish the existence of spontaneous vacuum transitions in the NSDM. The consequence of this fact is the exact SU(2) symmetry of π, rho meson trajectories and the Higgs mechanism in the model. In this case the ratios of masses of particles leading trajectories are analogous to those obtained in the current algebra. It is shown that in the NSDM there arises chiral SU(2) x SU(2) x U(1) x U(1) x ... symmetry resulting from spontaneous vacuum transitions

  17. Wavelet frames and their duals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    frames with good time localization and other attractive properties. Furthermore, the dual wavelet frames are constructed in such a way that we are guaranteed that both frames will have the same desirable features. The construction procedure works for any real, expansive dilation. A quasi-affine system....... The signals are then represented by linear combinations of the building blocks with coefficients found by an associated frame, called a dual frame. A wavelet frame is a frame where the building blocks are stretched (dilated) and translated versions of a single function; such a frame is said to have wavelet...... structure. The dilation of the wavelet building blocks in higher dimension is done via a square matrix which is usually taken to be integer valued. In this thesis we step away from the "usual" integer, expansive dilation and consider more general, expansive dilations. In most applications of wavelet frames...

  18. Plasma metallization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowther, J.M.

    1997-09-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of surface contamination of the films due to plasma treatment was observed but was easily removed by argon ion cleaning. Hydrogen plasma reduction of glass supported silver(l) nitrate and palladium(ll) acetate films reveals that this metallization technique is applicable to a wide variety of metal salts and supports, and has also shown the ability of plasma reduction to retain the complex 'fern-like' structures seen for spin coated silver(l) nitrate layers. Some metal salts are susceptible to decomposition by X-rays. The reduction of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride films by soft X-rays to produce nanoscopic gold particles has been studied. The spontaneous reduction of these X-ray irradiated support gold(lll) chloride films on exposure to the atmosphere to produce gold rich metallic films has also been reported. (author)

  19. Towards Strange Metallic Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    We initiate a holographic model building approach to 'strange metallic' phenomenology. Our model couples a neutral Lifshitz-invariant quantum critical theory, dual to a bulk gravitational background, to a finite density of gapped probe charge carriers, dually described by D-branes. In the physical regime of temperature much lower than the charge density and gap, we exhibit anomalous scalings of the temperature and frequency dependent conductivity. Choosing the dynamical critical exponent z appropriately we can match the non-Fermi liquid scalings, such as linear resistivity, observed in strange metal regimes. As part of our investigation we outline three distinct string theory realizations of Lifshitz geometries: from F theory, from polarized branes, and from a gravitating charged Fermi gas. We also identify general features of renormalization group flow in Lifshitz theories, such as the appearance of relevant charge-charge interactions when z (ge) 2. We outline a program to extend this model building approach to other anomalous observables of interest such as the Hall conductivity.

  20. Dual Atrioventricular Nodal Pathways Physiology: A Review of Relevant Anatomy, Electrophysiology, and Electrocardiographic Manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhalaghuru Chokkalingam Mani, MD

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available More than half a century has passed since the concept of dual atrioventricular (AV nodal pathways physiology was conceived. Dual AV nodal pathways have been shown to be responsible for many clinical arrhythmia syndromes, most notably AV nodal reentrant tachycardia. Although there has been a considerable amount of research on this topic, the subject of dual AV nodal pathways physiology remains heavily debated and discussed. Despite advances in understanding arrhythmia mechanisms and the widespread use of invasive electrophysiologic studies, there is still disagreement on the anatomy and physiology of the AV node that is the basis of discontinuous antegrade AV conduction. The purpose of this paper is to review the concept of dual AV nodal pathways physiology and its varied electrocardiographic manifestations.

  1. General Purpose (office) Network reorganisation

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2016-01-01

    On Saturday 27 August, the IT Department’s Communication Systems group will perform a major reorganisation of CERN’s General Purpose Network.   This reorganisation will cause network interruptions on Saturday 27 August (and possibly Sunday 28 August) and will be followed by a change to the IP addresses of connected systems that will come into effect on Monday 3 October. For further details and information about the actions you may need to take, please see: https://information-technology.web.cern.ch/news/general-purpose-office-network-reorganisation.

  2. Dual topological unitarization -- phenomenological aspect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, C.I.

    1978-01-01

    An assessment is provided on the viability of dual topological unitarization as a practical scheme for organizing and interpreting hadronic phenomena at current machine energies. Previous detailed reviews are complemented, with emphasis on phenomenological aspects and more recent developments. Diffraction scattering, a test of P--f identity hypothesis, the flavor model, the P--f identity versus the Veneziano two-jet picture, and an illustration of the new phenomenology are included. 24 references

  3. Dual arm master controller concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1984-01-01

    The Advanced Servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. 6 references, 3 figures

  4. Dual arm master controller development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuban, D. P.; Perkins, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed to human factor design and performance tradeoffs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented.

  5. Dual energy MDCT assessment of renal lesions: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mileto, Achille; Marin, Daniele; Nelson, Rendon C.; Boll, Daniel T.; Ascenti, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    With the expansion of cross-sectional imaging, the number of renal lesions that are incidentally discovered has increased. Multidetector CT (MDCT) is the investigation of choice for characterising and staging renal lesions. Although a definitive diagnosis can be confidently posed for most of them, a number of renal lesions remain indeterminate following MDCT. Further imaging tests are therefore needed, with subsequent increase of healthcare costs, radiation exposure, and patient anxiety. By addressing most of the issues with conventional MDCT imaging, dual-energy MDCT can improve the diagnosis of renal lesions and, potentially, may represent a paradigm shift from a merely attenuation-based to a material-specific spectral imaging investigation. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current clinical applications of dual-energy CT in the evaluation of renal lesions. Key Points. (orig.)

  6. Non self-dual Yang-Mills fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor, G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the thesis is to prove the existence of a new family of non self-dual finite-energy solutions to the Yang-Mills equations on Euclidean four-space, with SU(2) as a gauge group. The approach is that of equivalent geometry: attention is restricted to a special class of fields, those that satisfy a certain kind of rotational symmetry which it is proved that (1) a solution to the Yang-Mills equations exists for among them, and (2) no solution to the self-duality equations exists among them. The first assertion is proved by an application of the direct method of the calculus of variations (existence and regularity of minimizers), and the second assertion by showing that the self-duality equations, linearized at a symmetric self-dual solution, cannot possess the required symmetry

  7. Yang-Mills fields which are not self-dual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bor, G.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to prove the existence of a new family of non-self-dual finite-energy solutions to the Yang-Mills equations on Euclidean four-space, with SU(2) as a gauge group. The approach is that of 'equivariant geometry': Attention is restricted to a special class of fields, those that satisfy a certain kind of rotational symmetry, for which it is proved that (1) a solution to the Yang-Mills equations exists among them; and (2) no solution to the self-duality equations exists among them. The first assertion is proved by an application of the direct method of the calculus of variations (existence and regularity of minimizers), and the second assertion by studying the symmetry properties of the linearized-self-duality equations. The same technique yields a new family of non-self-dual solutions on the complex projective plane. (orig.)

  8. Dual energy MDCT assessment of renal lesions: an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mileto, Achille [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); University of Messina, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Morphologic and Functional Imaging, Policlinico ' ' G. Martino' ' , Messina (Italy); Marin, Daniele; Nelson, Rendon C.; Boll, Daniel T. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Durham, NC (United States); Ascenti, Giorgio [University of Messina, Department of Biomedical Sciences and Morphologic and Functional Imaging, Policlinico ' ' G. Martino' ' , Messina (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    With the expansion of cross-sectional imaging, the number of renal lesions that are incidentally discovered has increased. Multidetector CT (MDCT) is the investigation of choice for characterising and staging renal lesions. Although a definitive diagnosis can be confidently posed for most of them, a number of renal lesions remain indeterminate following MDCT. Further imaging tests are therefore needed, with subsequent increase of healthcare costs, radiation exposure, and patient anxiety. By addressing most of the issues with conventional MDCT imaging, dual-energy MDCT can improve the diagnosis of renal lesions and, potentially, may represent a paradigm shift from a merely attenuation-based to a material-specific spectral imaging investigation. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of current clinical applications of dual-energy CT in the evaluation of renal lesions. Key Points. (orig.)

  9. Professionals’ perception on the management of patients with dual disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roncero C

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Carlos Roncero,1,2 Néstor Szerman,3 Antonio Terán,4 Carlos Pino,5 José María Vázquez,6 Elena Velasco,7 Marta García-Dorado,7 Miguel Casas1,2 1Addiction and Dual Diagnosis Unit, CIBERSAM, Hospital Vall Hebron, Barcelona Public Health Agency (ASPB, Barcelona, Spain; 2Department of Psychiatry, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; 3Outpatient Mental Health Clinic El Retiro, Gregorio Marañón University Hospital, Madrid, Spain; 4Outpatient Drug Clinic, Hospital San Juan de Dios, Palencia, Spain; 5Pontevedra City Council Drug Dependence Service, Galician Health Service (Xunta de Galicia, Pontevedra, Spain; 6Outpatient Drug Clinic Sants, Barcelona Public Health Agency (ASPB, Barcelona, Spain; 7Medical Affairs Department, Janssen-Cilag S.A., Madrid, Spain Background: There is a need to evaluate the professionals’ perception about the consequences of the lack of therapeutic adherence in the evolution of patients with co-occurring disorders.Methods: An online survey, released on the Socidrogalcohol [Spanish Scientific Society for Research on Alcohol, Alcoholism and other Drug Addic­tions] and Sociedad Española de Patología Dual [the Spanish Society of Dual Pathology] web pages, was answered by 250 professionals who work in different types of Spanish health centers where dual diagnosis patients are assisted.Results: Most professionals perceived the existence of noncompliance among dual diagnosis patients. Almost all of these professionals (99% perceived that noncompliance leads to a worsening of the progression of the patient’s disorder, in both the exacerbation of mental disorders and the consumption of addictive substances. Most of the professionals (69.2% considered therapeutic alliance as the main aspect to take into account to improve the prognosis in this population. The primary purpose of treatment must be the improvement of psychotic-phase positive symptoms, followed by the control of behavior disorders, reduction of

  10. Dual-energy perfusion-CT of pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klauß, M.; Stiller, W.; Pahn, G.; Fritz, F.; Kieser, M.; Werner, J.; Kauczor, H.U.; Grenacher, L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of dual-energy CT (DECT)-perfusion of pancreatic carcinomas for assessing the differences in perfusion, permeability and blood volume of healthy pancreatic tissue and histopathologically confirmed solid pancreatic carcinoma. Materials and methods: 24 patients with histologically proven pancreatic carcinoma were examined prospectively with a 64-slice dual source CT using a dynamic sequence of 34 dual-energy (DE) acquisitions every 1.5 s (80 ml of iodinated contrast material, 370 mg/ml, flow rate 5 ml/s). 80 kV p , 140 kV p , and weighted average (linearly blended M0.3) 120 kV p -equivalent dual-energy perfusion image data sets were evaluated with a body-perfusion CT tool (Body-PCT, Siemens Medical Solutions, Erlangen, Germany) for estimating perfusion, permeability, and blood volume values. Color-coded parameter maps were generated. Results: In all 24 patients dual-energy CT-perfusion was. All carcinomas could be identified in the color-coded perfusion maps. Calculated perfusion, permeability and blood volume values were significantly lower in pancreatic carcinomas compared to healthy pancreatic tissue. Weighted average 120 kV p -equivalent perfusion-, permeability- and blood volume-values determined from DE image data were 0.27 ± 0.04 min −1 vs. 0.91 ± 0.04 min −1 (p −1 vs. 0.67 ± 0.05 *0.5 min −1 (p = 0.06) and 0.49 ± 0.07 min −1 vs. 1.28 ± 0.11 min −1 (p p the standard deviations of the kV p 120 kV p -equivalent values were manifestly smaller. Conclusion: Dual-energy CT-perfusion of the pancreas is feasible. The use of DECT improves the accuracy of CT-perfusion of the pancreas by fully exploiting the advantages of enhanced iodine contrast at 80 kV p in combination with the noise reduction at 140 kV p . Therefore using dual-energy perfusion data could improve the delineation of pancreatic carcinomas

  11. Creep Deformation and Rupture Behavior of Single- and Dual-Pass 316LN Stainless-Steel-Activated TIG Weld Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayanand, V. D.; Vasudevan, M.; Ganesan, V.; Parameswaran, P.; Laha, K.; Bhaduri, A. K.

    2016-06-01

    Creep deformation and rupture behavior of single-pass and dual-pass 316LN stainless steel (SS) weld joints fabricated by an autogenous activated tungsten inert gas welding process have been assessed by performing metallography, hardness, and conventional and impression creep tests. The fusion zone of the single-pass joint consisted of columnar zones adjacent to base metals with a central equiaxed zone, which have been modified extensively by the thermal cycle of the second pass in the dual-pass joint. The equiaxed zone in the single-pass joint, as well as in the second pass of the dual-pass joint, displayed the lowest hardness in the joints. In the dual-pass joint, the equiaxed zone of the first pass had hardness comparable to the columnar zone. The hardness variations in the joints influenced the creep deformation. The equiaxed and columnar zone in the first pass of the dual-pass joint was more creep resistant than that of the second pass. Both joints possessed lower creep rupture life than the base metal. However, the creep rupture life of the dual-pass joint was about twofolds more than that of the single-pass joint. Creep failure in the single-pass joint occurred in the central equiaxed fusion zone, whereas creep cavitation that originated in the second pass was blocked at the weld pass interface. The additional interface and strength variation between two passes in the dual-pass joint provides more restraint to creep deformation and crack propagation in the fusion zone, resulting in an increase in the creep rupture life of the dual-pass joint over the single-pass joint. Furthermore, the differences in content, morphology, and distribution of delta ferrite in the fusion zone of the joints favors more creep cavitation resistance in the dual-pass joint over the single-pass joint with the enhancement of creep rupture life.

  12. Analytical purpose electron backscattering system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desdin, L.; Padron, I.; Laria, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this work an analytical purposes electron backscattering system improved at the Center of Applied Studies for Nuclear Development is described. This system can be applied for fast, exact and nondestructive testing of binary and AL/Cu, AL/Ni in alloys and for other applications

  13. Machine Translation for Academic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Grace Hui-chin; Chien, Paul Shih Chieh

    2009-01-01

    Due to the globalization trend and knowledge boost in the second millennium, multi-lingual translation has become a noteworthy issue. For the purposes of learning knowledge in academic fields, Machine Translation (MT) should be noticed not only academically but also practically. MT should be informed to the translating learners because it is a…

  14. supplementary foods for weaning purposes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Nigeria. ABSTRACT. The paper focuses on complementary and supplementary foods for weaning purposes. While ... decision, which guides when to introduce semi-solid foods to infants. It considers the .... readiness of many healthy infants. ... foods. However, caution should be exercised .... Attitudes and practices of infants.

  15. Common Courses for Common Purposes:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaub Jr, Gary John

    2014-01-01

    (PME)? I suggest three alternative paths that increased cooperation in PME at the level of the command and staff course could take: a Nordic Defence College, standardized national command and staff courses, and a core curriculum of common courses for common purposes. I conclude with a discussion of how...

  16. Purposes and Effects of Lying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hample, Dale

    Three exploratory studies were aimed at describing the purposes of lies and the consequences of lying. Data were collected through a partly open-ended questionnaire, a content analysis of several tape-recorded interviews, and a large-scale survey. The results showed that two of every three lies were told for selfish reasons, while three of every…

  17. General purpose programmable accelerator board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Perry J.; Witzke, Edward L.

    2001-01-01

    A general purpose accelerator board and acceleration method comprising use of: one or more programmable logic devices; a plurality of memory blocks; bus interface for communicating data between the memory blocks and devices external to the board; and dynamic programming capabilities for providing logic to the programmable logic device to be executed on data in the memory blocks.

  18. Single/Dual-Polarized Infrared Rectenna for Solar Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Zainud-Deen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Single and dual linearly-polarized receiving mode nanoantennas are designed for solar energy harvesting at 28.3 THz. The infrared rectennas are used to harvest the solar energy and converting it to electrical energy.  The proposed infrared rectenna is a thin dipole made of gold and printed on a silicon dioxide substrate. Different shapes of the dipole arms have been investigated for maximum collected energy. The two poles of the dipole have been determined in a rectangular, circular and rhombus shapes. The rectenna dipole is used to concentrate the electromagnetic energy into a small localized area at the inner tips of the gap between the dipole arms. The dimensions of the different dipole shapes are optimized for maximum near electric field intensity at a frequency of 28.3 THz. A Metal Insulator Metal (MIM diode is incorporated with the nanoantenna dipole to rectify the received energy. The receiving efficiency of the solar energy collector with integrated MIM diode has been investigated. A dual-polarized, four arms, rhombus shaped nanoantenna dipole for solar energy harvesting has been designed and optimized for 28.3 THz applications.

  19. Eco-efficiency assessment of options for metal recovery from incineration residues: a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meylan, Grégoire; Spoerri, Andy

    2014-01-01

    Residues from municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration in Switzerland have been a hot topic in recent years, both in the research and practice communities. Regarded by many as an economically and environmentally sound solution to this issue, technological retrofitting of existing grate incinerators has the dual purpose of enhancing the metal recovery of bottom and fly ashes and improving the inertization of residues to be landfilled. How does context influence the economic and environmental performance of this particular technological option? Under which conditions would this technological option be implemented nationwide in the future? What are stakeholders' views on sustainable transitions of MSW incineration? We propose a three-stage methodological procedure to address these questions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.; Smith, Casey; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  1. Amorphous metal based nanoelectromechanical switch

    KAUST Repository

    Mayet, Abdulilah M.

    2013-04-01

    Nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is an interesting ultra-low power option which can operate in the harsh environment and can be a complementary element in complex digital circuitry. Although significant advancement is happening in this field, report on ultra-low voltage (pull-in) switch which offers high switching speed and area efficiency is yet to be made. One key challenge to achieve such characteristics is to fabricate nano-scale switches with amorphous metal so the shape and dimensional integrity are maintained to achieve the desired performance. Therefore, we report a tungsten alloy based amorphous metal with fabrication process development of laterally actuated dual gated NEM switches with 100 nm width and 200 nm air-gap to result in <5 volts of actuation voltage (Vpull-in). © 2013 IEEE.

  2. Identifying HIV-1 dual infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelissen Marion

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV is no exception to the phenomenon that a second, productive infection with another strain of the same virus is feasible. Experiments with RNA viruses have suggested that both coinfections (simultaneous infection with two strains of a virus and superinfections (second infection after a specific immune response to the first infecting strain has developed can result in increased fitness of the viral population. Concerns about dual infections with HIV are increasing. First, the frequent detection of superinfections seems to indicate that it will be difficult to develop a prophylactic vaccine. Second, HIV-1 superinfections have been associated with accelerated disease progression, although this is not true for all persons. In fact, superinfections have even been detected in persons controlling their HIV infections without antiretroviral therapy. Third, dual infections can give rise to recombinant viruses, which are increasingly found in the HIV-1 epidemic. Recombinants could have increased fitness over the parental strains, as in vitro models suggest, and could exhibit increased pathogenicity. Multiple drug resistant (MDR strains could recombine to produce a pan-resistant, transmittable virus. We will describe in this review what is presently known about super- and re-infection among ambient viral infections, as well as the first cases of HIV-1 superinfection, including HIV-1 triple infections. The clinical implications, the impact of the immune system, and the effect of anti-retroviral therapy will be covered, as will as the timing of HIV superinfection. The methods used to detect HIV-1 dual infections will be discussed in detail. To increase the likelihood of detecting a dual HIV-1 infection, pre-selection of patients can be done by serotyping, heteroduplex mobility assays (HMA, counting the degenerate base codes in the HIV-1 genotyping sequence, or surveying unexpected increases in the

  3. 3D printing with metals

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, António Fernando

    1998-01-01

    Rapid Prototyping is a recently developed technique that ‘prints’ a component, instead of manufacturing it in traditional terms, by using materials ranging from photopolymers to thermoplastics, including paper. Since these materials are in most cases not suitable for assessement purposes a new approach has been created. It has similar ‘build up’ technique but uses metal as raw material. The process entails the use of a gas metal arc fusion welding robot which deposits successive layers of met...

  4. Rethinking Spanish: Understanding Spanish Speakers Motivations and Reasons to Opt for Either an English Only or a Dual English-Spanish Educational Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Adrienne C.

    2017-01-01

    Spanish-speaking parents choose to enroll their children in either an English only or English-Spanish dual immersion program when presented with both choices. This ethnographic study explored parent's perceptions of the purpose, advantages, and disadvantages of learning in school in English only or in a dual English-Spanish. Through focus group…

  5. Universal medium-range order of amorphous metal oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishio, Kengo; Miyazaki, Takehide; Nakamura, Hisao

    2013-10-11

    We propose that the structure of amorphous metal oxides can be regarded as a dual-dense-random-packing structure, which is a superposition of the dense random packing of metal atoms and that of oxygen atoms. Our ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that the medium-range order of amorphous HfO2, ZrO2, TiO2, In2O3, Ga2O3, Al2O3, and Cu2O is characterized by the pentagonal-bipyramid arrangement of metal atoms and that of oxygen atoms, and prove the validity of our dual-random-sphere-packing model. In other words, we find that the pentagonal medium-range order is universal independent of type of metal oxide.

  6. Educational Purpose Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGHICIU Nicolae

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Along with the development of computers and other sciences we can use in our personal projects complex structures built with microcontrollers. They miniaturise and simplify the final project, instead they depend/rely on the computer, through the programming of the microcontroller/s/them. This project presents the application of electronics in order to achieve a resuscitation mannequin for didactic purpose, using Arduino Prototyping Platform.

  7. Multiphase Venturi Dual Energy Gamma Ray combination performance in NUEX flow loop; Desempenho no flowloop do NUEX da medicao multifasica Venturi Dual Energy Gamma Ray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barreiros, Claudio; Taranto, Cleber; Costa, Alcemir [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pinguet, Bruno; Heluey, Vitor; Bessa, Fabiano; Loicq, Olivier [Schlumberger Servicos de Petroleo Ltda., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The Multiphase Venturi Dual Energy Gamma Ray Combination, Vx* technology, arrived in Brazil in 2000. PETROBRAS, Brazilian Oil Company, has been putting big efforts in its production business and also has demonstrated a large interest in having a multiphase meter approved by ANP for back allocation purposes. The oil industry was looking for ways to improve the back allocation process using an approved on line multiphase flow measurement device, thus replacing punctual test done today by a permanent monitoring device. Considering this scenario, a partnership project between PETROBRAS and Schlumberger was created in Brazil. The main objective of this project, which was held in NUEX flow loop, was to demonstrate to INMETRO (Brazilian Metrology Institute) that the Multiphase Venturi Dual Energy Gamma Ray Combination meter is able to be used for back allocation purpose. PETROBRAS and Schlumberger elaborated a complete methodology in the NUEX flow loop to demonstrate the results and benefits of the Multiphase Venturi Dual Energy Gamma Ray Combination meter. The test was witnessed by INMETRO and had a very good performance at the end. The results were within what was expected by Schlumberger, PETROBRAS and INMETRO. These results has been very useful to PETROBRAS in order to start using the Venturi Dual Energy Gamma Ray technology for well allocation purposes. (author)

  8. A Hodge dual for soldered bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, Tiago Gribl; Pereira, J G

    2009-01-01

    In order to account for all possible contractions allowed by the presence of the solder form, a generalized Hodge dual is defined for the case of soldered bundles. Although for curvature the generalized dual coincides with the usual one, for torsion it gives a completely new dual definition. Starting from the standard form of a gauge Lagrangian for the translation group, the generalized Hodge dual yields precisely the Lagrangian of the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity, and consequently also the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian of general relativity

  9. Alkylamine functionalized metal-organic frameworks for composite gas separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeffrey R.; McDonald, Thomas M.; D'Alessandro, Deanna M.

    2018-01-09

    Functionalized metal-organic framework adsorbents with ligands containing basic nitrogen groups such as alkylamines and alkyldiamines appended to the metal centers and method of isolating carbon dioxide from a stream of combined gases and carbon dioxide partial pressures below approximately 1 and 1000 mbar. The adsorption material has an isosteric heat of carbon dioxide adsorption of greater than -60 kJ/mol at zero coverage using a dual-site Langmuir model.

  10. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  11. Nonword Reading: Comparing Dual-Route Cascaded and Connectionist Dual-Process Models with Human Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Stephen C.; Coltheart, Max; Palethorpe, Sallyanne; Castles, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Two prominent dual-route computational models of reading aloud are the dual-route cascaded (DRC) model, and the connectionist dual-process plus (CDP+) model. While sharing similarly designed lexical routes, the two models differ greatly in their respective nonlexical route architecture, such that they often differ on nonword pronunciation. Neither…

  12. Dual Syntax for XML Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2005-01-01

    XML is successful as a machine processable data interchange format, but it is often too verbose for human use. For this reason, many XML languages permit an alternative more legible non-XML syntax. XSLT stylesheets are often used to convert from the XML syntax to the alternative syntax; however......, such transformations are not reversible since no general tool exists to automatically parse the alternative syntax back into XML. We present XSugar, which makes it possible to manage dual syntax for XML languages. An XSugar specification is built around a context-free grammar that unifies the two syntaxes...

  13. Dual arm master controller development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Perkins, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    The advanced servomanipulator (ASM) slave was designed with an anthropomorphic stance, gear/torque tube power drives, and modular construction. These features resulted in increased inertia, friction, and backlash relative to tape-driven manipulators. Studies were performed which addressed the human factors design and performance trade-offs associated with the corresponding master controller best suited for the ASM. The results of these studies, as well as the conceptual design of the dual arm master controller, are presented. This work was performed as part of the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  14. Solar stills for agricultural purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selcuk, M. K.; Tran, V. V.

    1975-01-01

    Basic concepts of using desalinated water for agricultural purposes are outlined. A mathematical model describing heat and mass transfer in a system combining a solar still with a greenhouse, its solution, and test results of a small-scale unit built at the Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey, are discussed. The unit was employed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the system. Further development and modifications are necessary for larger-scale operations. The basis of an optimization study which is underway at the Brace Research Institute of McGill University in Montreal, Canada, aimed at finding the best combination of design and operation parameters is also presented.

  15. Fatigue characteristics of dual-phase steel sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onn, Irwan Herman; Ahmad, Norhayati; Tamin, Mohd Nasir [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai (Malaysia)

    2015-01-15

    Fatigue characteristics of dual-phase steel sheets, commonly used in automobile body construction were established. For this purpose, a series of fatigue tests, each at constant stress amplitude were conducted on 1.2 mm-thick, dual-phase DP600 steel sheet specimens with two different load ratios of minimum-to-maximum stress, R = 0.1 and -1. The resulting fatigue behavior is expressed in terms of fatigue strength-life (S-N) curves. Fatigue behavior of the steel sheets in the high-cycle fatigue region can be represented by Basquin's equation with coefficient and exponent value of 921.2 and 0.093, respectively. An endurance limit of 255 MPa is observed. In addition, fatigue strengths of the dual-phase steel sheets display lower magnitude than their bulk counterparts. Effect of mean stress on fatigue behavior of the steel sheets is well predicted by Walker's model. Exponential calibration factor is introduced to the models by SWT, Goodman and Morrow with comparable prediction to the Walker's model.

  16. Dual use and the ethical responsibility of scientists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehni, Hans-Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The main normative problem in the context of dual use is to determine the ethical responsibility of scientists especially in the case of unintended, harmful, and criminal dual use of new technological applications of scientific results. This article starts from an analysis of the concepts of responsibility and complicity, examining alternative options regarding the responsibility of scientists. Within the context of the basic conflict between the freedom of science and the duty to avoid causing harm, two positions are discussed: moral skepticism and the ethics of responsibility by Hans Jonas. According to these reflections, four duties are suggested and evaluated: stopping research, systematically carrying out research for dual-use applications, informing public authorities, and not publishing results. In the conclusion it is argued that these duties should be considered as imperfect duties in a Kantian sense and that the individual scientist should be discharged as much as possible from obligations which follow from them by the scientific community and institutions created for this purpose.

  17. Comparison of neutron and high-energy X-ray dual-beam radiography for air cargo inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.; Sowerby, B.D.; Tickner, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dual-beam radiography techniques utilising various combinations of high-energy X-rays and neutrons are attractive for screening bulk cargo for contraband such as narcotics and explosives. Dual-beam radiography is an important enhancement to conventional single-beam X-ray radiography systems in that it provides additional information on the composition of the object being imaged. By comparing the attenuations of transmitted dual high-energy beams, it is possible to build a 2D image, colour coded to indicate material. Only high-energy X-rays, gamma-rays and neutrons have the required penetration to screen cargo containers. This paper reviews recent developments and applications of dual-beam radiography for air cargo inspection. These developments include dual high-energy X-ray techniques as well as fast neutron and gamma-ray (or X-ray) radiography systems. High-energy X-ray systems have the advantage of generally better penetration than neutron systems, depending on the material being interrogated. However, neutron systems have the advantage of much better sensitivity to material composition compared to dual high-energy X-ray techniques. In particular, fast neutron radiography offers the potential to discriminate between various classes of organic material, unlike dual energy X-ray techniques that realistically only offer the ability to discriminate between organic and metal objects

  18. Preschool Teachers' Language and Literacy Practices with Dual Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Brook E; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Cycyk, Lauren M; López, Lisa; Blair, Clancy; Sandilos, Lia; Komaroff, Eugene

    The purposes of this study were to (a) examine the degree to which teachers used linguistically responsive practices to support the language and literacy development of Spanish-speaking Dual Language Learners (DLL) and (b) to investigate the associations between these practices and select teacher-level factors. The sample consisted of 72 preschool teachers. Observational data were collected on practices. Teachers self-reported on language and culture beliefs, Spanish speaking ability, and classroom composition. Results indicated that teachers, including those who spoke Spanish, used few linguistically responsive practices to support preschool DLLs. Only Spanish-speaking ability was related to practices. Implications for targeted professional development are discussed.

  19. Rural-urban migration: policy simulations in a dual economy model of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S

    1986-03-01

    The process of rural-urban migration in Bangladesh is analyzed using a dual economy model. The focus is on the period 1976-1985. The main purpose of the paper is to examine alternative policies designed to reduce the level of such migration without adversely affecting the country's economy.

  20. Elaborations on the Socioegocentric and Dual-Level Connectionist Models of Group Interaction Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewes, Dean E.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the author's contribution to this colloquy was to spark conversation on the theoretical nature of communication processes and the evidentiary requirements for testing their relationship to group outcomes. Co-discussants have raised important issues concerning the philosophical basis of the socioegocentric model (SM) and dual-level…

  1. Heavy metals burden of Keenjhar Lake, District Thatta, Sindh, Pakistan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Detection of heavy metals (HMs) content from Keenjhar Lake water was carried out monthly from January to December, 2003. Zinc, chromium, copper, iron, manganese, nickel and cadmium were analyzed by dual mode of analytical methods flame atomic absorption spectrometry and electrothermal atomic absorption ...

  2. Metal chemistry of the transactinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichler, B.

    2000-12-01

    The elements with atomic numbers between 104 and 116 are expected to behave as metals. Their interaction with metal surfaces is of uppermost importance both to design experimental separation procedures as well as for their chemical characterization. This interaction is quantified by the net adsorption enthalpy. The determination of the net adsorption enthalpy requires the calculation of the solution enthalpy of transactinides in the bulk-phases of the solid adsorbent metals. These solution enthalpies have been calculated with the Miedema-model. For that purpose the necessary parameters of the transactinides: the metal radius, the molar volume, the electronic density at the Wigner-Seitz-Cell boundary and the electronegativity (Miedema Scale) have been obtained on the basis of empirical correlations starting from the entropies of solid transactinides. These entropies were estimated by extrapolations as a function of atomic masses along the groups of the periodic table. The results of the calculations show a strong dependence on the cohesion energy of the solid adsorbent metals as well as on the solution enthalpies of transactinides in the bulk-phase of these metals. The enthalpies of segregation of transactinides from the metallic bulk-phases as the 'driving forces' of the surface enrichment process were calculated. The calculated data allow the selection of the best suitable materials for the gas phase transport as well as of the adsorbent metal for chromatographic separations, for sampling and for electrochemical deposition in experiments with the transactinides. (author)

  3. Dual-sensing porphyrin-containing copolymer nanosensor as full-spectrum colorimeter and ultra-sensitive thermometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Qiang; Yuan, Jinying; Kang, Yan; Cai, Zhinan; Zhou, Lilin; Yin, Yingwu

    2010-04-28

    A porphyrin-containing copolymer has dual-sensing in response to metal ions and temperature as a novel nanosensor. Triggered by ions, the sensor exhibits full-color tunable behavior as a cationic detector and colorimeter. Responding to temperature, the sensor displays an "isothermal" thermochromic point as an ultra-sensitive thermometer.

  4. Tuning into blue and red luminescence in dual-phase nano-glass–ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Daqin; Wan, Zhongyi; Zhou, Yang; Zhong, Jiasong; Ding, Mingye; Yu, Hua; Lu, Hongwei; Xiang, Weidong; Ji, Zhenguo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Ga 2 O 3 and YF 3 dual-phase embedded glass ceramics were fabricated. • RE 3+ and Cr 3+ dopants incorporated into YF 3 and Ga 2 O 3 lattice respectively. • Intense blue and red emissions are simultaneously achieved in the sample. • Such glass ceramics had possible application in photosynthesis of plants. - Abstract: A series of γ-Ga 2 O 3 and β-YF 3 nanocrystals embedded dual-phase glass ceramics co-doped with rare earth (Eu 3+ or Tm 3+ ) and transition metal (Cr 3+ ) activators were successfully prepared by high-temperature melt-quenching to explore blue/red luminescent materials for potential application in photosynthesis of green plants. It is experimentally verified that Eu 3+ (or Tm 3+ ) ions partitioned into the crystallized orthorhombic YF 3 nanophases, while Cr 3+ ones entered into the precipitated cubic Ga 2 O 3 nanocrystals after glass crystallization. Such spatial separation of the different active ions in the dual-phase glass ceramics can effectively suppress adverse energy transfers between rare earth and transition metal ions, resulting in their independent and efficient luminescence. As an example, it is experimentally demonstrated that both intense Tm 3+ blue and Cr 3+ deep-red emissions are easily achieved in the Tm 3+ /Cr 3+ co-doped dual-phase glass ceramics

  5. Characteristics of dual-gate thin-film transistors for applications in digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waechter, D.; Huang, Z.; Zhao, W.; Blevis, I.; Rowlands, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    A large-area flat-panel detector for digital radiology is being developed. The detector uses an array of dual-gate thin-film transistors (TFTs) to read out X-ray-generated charge produced in an amorphous selenium (a-Se) layer. The TFTs use CdSe as the semiconductor and use the bottom gate for row selection. The top gate can be divided into a 'deliberate' gate, covering most of the channel length, and small 'parasitic' gates that consist of: overlap of source or drain metal over the top-gate oxide; and gap regions in the metal that are covered only by the a-Se. In this paper we present the properties of dual-gate TFTs and examine the effect of both the deliberate and parasitic gates on the detector operation. Various options for controlling the top-gate potential are analyzed and discussed. (author)

  6. Numerical Simulation of Dual-Channel Communication of Column Plasma Antenna Excited by a Surface Wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duanmu Gang; Zhao Changming; Liang Chao; Xu Yuemin

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the application of plasma as wireless antenna. In order to reveal the radiation characteristics of column plasma antenna, we chose the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical analysis method to simulate radiation impedance and efficiencies of each channel for a few sets of plasma densities and plasma collision frequencies. Simulation results demonstrate that a plasma antenna shares similar characteristics with a metallic antenna in radiation impedance and efficiency of each channel when an appropriate setting is adopted. Unlike a metallic antenna, a plasma antenna is capable of realizing such functions as dynamic reconfiguration, digital control and dual-channel communication. Thus it is possible to carry out dual-channel communication by plasma antenna, indicating a new path for modern intelligent communication. (plasma technology)

  7. The thermophysical properties of metallic liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Iida, Takamichi

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of materials science and engineering is to make the best use of all the elements in the periodic table. This leads to the effective use and conservation of natural resources. For this purpose, in any liquid metallic processing operation, accurate data for the thermophysical properties of all metallic liquids (i.e. liquid metals, semimetals, and semiconductors) is needed. However, in addition, a clear understanding of the essence of their thermophysical properties, based on these data, is indispensable. The second volume continues from the first volume to provide explanations for the thermophysical properties of metallic liquids. The two volumes identify new dimensionless parameters, extracted from the velocity of sound. In spite of being simple parameters, they provide useful information on the nature and behaviour of metallic liquids. This volume covers several basic concepts needed to understand the thermophysical properties of metallic liquids and for developing reliable models to accurate...

  8. Dual-energy compared to single-energy CT in pediatric imaging: a phantom study for DECT clinical guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Xiaowei; Servaes, Sabah; Darge, Kassa [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); University of Pennsylvania, The Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); McCullough, William P. [University of Virginia Health System, Department of Radiology and Medical Imaging, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Mecca, Patricia [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Dual-energy CT technology is available on scanners from several vendors and offers significant advantages over classic single-energy CT technology in multiple clinical applications. Many studies have detailed dual-energy CT applications in adults and several have evaluated the relative radiation dose performance of dual-energy CT in adult imaging. However, little has been published on dual-energy CT imaging in the pediatric population, and the relative dose performance of dual-energy CT imaging in the pediatric population is not well described. When evaluating dual-energy CT technology for implementation into a routine clinical pediatric imaging practice, the radiation dose implications must be considered, and when comparing relative CT dose performance, image quality must also be evaluated. Therefore the purpose of this study is to develop dual-energy CT scan protocols based on our optimized single-energy scan protocols and compare the dose. We scanned the head, chest and abdomen regions of pediatric-size anthropomorphic phantoms with contrast inserts, using our optimized single-energy clinical imaging protocols on a Siemens Flash {sup registered} CT scanner. We then scanned the phantoms in dual-energy mode using matching image-quality reference settings. The effective CT dose index volume (CTDI{sub vol}) of the scans was used as a surrogate for relative dose in comparing the single- and dual-energy scans. Additionally, we evaluated image quality using visual assessment and contrast-to-noise ratio. Dual-energy CT scans of the head and abdomen were dose-neutral for all three phantoms. Dual-energy CT scans of the chest showed a relative dose increase over the single-energy scan for 1- and 5-year-old child-based age-equivalent phantoms, ranging 11-20%. Quantitative analysis of image quality showed no statistically significant difference in image quality between the single-energy and dual-energy scans. There was no clinically significant difference in image quality by

  9. Dual-energy compared to single-energy CT in pediatric imaging: a phantom study for DECT clinical guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiaowei; Servaes, Sabah; Darge, Kassa; McCullough, William P.; Mecca, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Dual-energy CT technology is available on scanners from several vendors and offers significant advantages over classic single-energy CT technology in multiple clinical applications. Many studies have detailed dual-energy CT applications in adults and several have evaluated the relative radiation dose performance of dual-energy CT in adult imaging. However, little has been published on dual-energy CT imaging in the pediatric population, and the relative dose performance of dual-energy CT imaging in the pediatric population is not well described. When evaluating dual-energy CT technology for implementation into a routine clinical pediatric imaging practice, the radiation dose implications must be considered, and when comparing relative CT dose performance, image quality must also be evaluated. Therefore the purpose of this study is to develop dual-energy CT scan protocols based on our optimized single-energy scan protocols and compare the dose. We scanned the head, chest and abdomen regions of pediatric-size anthropomorphic phantoms with contrast inserts, using our optimized single-energy clinical imaging protocols on a Siemens Flash "r"e"g"i"s"t"e"r"e"d CT scanner. We then scanned the phantoms in dual-energy mode using matching image-quality reference settings. The effective CT dose index volume (CTDI_v_o_l) of the scans was used as a surrogate for relative dose in comparing the single- and dual-energy scans. Additionally, we evaluated image quality using visual assessment and contrast-to-noise ratio. Dual-energy CT scans of the head and abdomen were dose-neutral for all three phantoms. Dual-energy CT scans of the chest showed a relative dose increase over the single-energy scan for 1- and 5-year-old child-based age-equivalent phantoms, ranging 11-20%. Quantitative analysis of image quality showed no statistically significant difference in image quality between the single-energy and dual-energy scans. There was no clinically significant difference in image quality

  10. L p -Dual geominimal surface area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Lutwak proposed the notion of Lp -geominimal surface area according to the Lp -mixed volume. In this article, associated with the Lp -dual mixed volume, we introduce the Lp -dual geominimal surface area and prove some inequalities for this notion. 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 52A20 52A40.

  11. Dual EC : a standardized back door

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernstein, D.J.; Lange, T.; Niederhagen, R.F.

    2015-01-01

    Dual EC is an algorithm to compute pseudorandom numbers starting from some random input. Dual EC was standardized by NIST, ANSI, and ISO among other algorithms to generate pseudorandom numbers. For a long time this algorithm was considered suspicious -- the entity designing the algorithm could have

  12. Dual-Career Couples: Keeping Them Together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf-Wendel, Lisa E.; Twombly, Susan; Rice, Suzanne

    2000-01-01

    Reports results of a survey of 360 chief academic officers at member institutions of the American Association of Colleges and Universities regarding their policies and practices for assisting dual-career couples. Examines the motivations, barriers, consequences, and policy implications of institutional responses to dual-career couples. (DB)

  13. A Dual Processing Approach to Stereotype Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Lucy; Coolen, Petra

    1995-01-01

    Considered stereotype change within a framework of dual process models. Using three experiments, manipulated task involvement, source credibility, and message quality. Findings proved dual process as appropriate when considering the processing of stereotype-disconfirming information and processing's impact on existing stereotypes. Different…

  14. 7 CFR 7.17 - Dual office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dual office. 7.17 Section 7.17 Agriculture Office of... STATE, COUNTY AND COMMUNITY COMMITTEES § 7.17 Dual office. (a) County committee membership. A member of... any other county office employee. (b) Community committee membership. A member of the community...

  15. Dual wound dc brush motor gearhead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henson, Barrie W.

    1986-01-01

    The design requirements, the design, development tests and problems, the qualification and life test and the findings of the strip examination of a dual wound DC brushed motor gearhead are described. It is the only space qualified dual wound dc brushed motor gearhead in Europe.

  16. Dual chiral density wave in quark matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Toshitaka

    2002-01-01

    We prove that quark matter is unstable for forming a dual chiral density wave above a critical density, within the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. Presence of a dual chiral density wave leads to a uniform ferromagnetism in quark matter. A similarity with the spin density wave theory in electron gas and the pion condensation theory is also pointed out. (author)

  17. Symmetries of Taub-NUT dual metrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baleanu, D.; Codoban, S.

    1998-01-01

    Recently geometric duality was analyzed for a metric which admits Killing tensors. An interesting example arises when the manifold has Killing-Yano tensors. The symmetries of the dual metrics in the case of Taub-NUT metric are investigated. Generic and non-generic symmetries of dual Taub-NUT metric are analyzed

  18. Quotient functions of dual quermassintegrals | Zhao | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Motivated by the notion of volume difference functions, we introduce quotient functions of dual quermassintegrals and establish Brunn-Minkowski type inequalities for them, which have several recent results as special cases. Keywords: Volume difference function, dual quermassintegrals, quotient function, radial Blaschke ...

  19. Limitations in dual-task performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, Merel Mathilde

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the effect of information-processing overload on working-memory dependent information processing was examined using dual-task paradigms. The experiments described strengthen the importance of a functional explanation for dual-task limitations. First, it showed evidence for a unified

  20. A research on radiation calibration of high dynamic range based on the dual channel CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Kai; Shi, Zhan; Pan, Xiaodong; Wang, Yongsheng; Wang, Jianghua

    2017-10-01

    The dual channel complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) can get high dynamic range (HDR) image through extending the gray level of the image by using image fusion with high gain channel image and low gain channel image in a same frame. In the process of image fusion with dual channel, it adopts the coefficients of radiation response of a pixel from dual channel in a same frame, and then calculates the gray level of the pixel in the HDR image. For the coefficients of radiation response play a crucial role in image fusion, it has to find an effective method to acquire these parameters. In this article, it makes a research on radiation calibration of high dynamic range based on the dual channel CMOS, and designs an experiment to calibrate the coefficients of radiation response for the sensor it used. In the end, it applies these response parameters in the dual channel CMOS which calibrates, and verifies the correctness and feasibility of the method mentioned in this paper.

  1. Decision and intuition during organizational change : an evolutionary critique of dual process theory

    OpenAIRE

    Talat, U; Chang, K; Nguyen, B

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review intuition in the context of organizational change. We argue that intuition as a concept requires attention and its formulation is necessary prior to its application in organizations. The paper provides a critique of Dual Process Theory and highlights shortcomings in organization theorizing of intuition.\\ud Design/methodology/approach: The paper is conceptual and provides in-depth theoretical discussions by drawing from the literature on decision...

  2. General Purpose Heat Source Simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emrich, Bill

    2008-01-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) simulator project is designed to replicate through the use of electrical heaters, the form, fit, and function of actual GPHS modules which generate heat through the radioactive decay of Pu238. The use of electrically heated modules rather than modules containing Pu238 facilitates the testing of spacecraft subsystems and systems without sacrificing the quantity and quality of the test data gathered. Previous GPHS activities are centered around developing robust heater designs with sizes and weights that closely matched those of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks. These efforts were successful, although their maximum temperature capabilities were limited to around 850 C. New designs are being pursued which also replicate the sizes and weights of actual Pu238 fueled GPHS blocks but will allow operation up to 1100 C.

  3. Iris Cryptography for Security Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajith, Srighakollapu; Balaji Ganesh Kumar, M.; Latha, S.; Samiappan, Dhanalakshmi; Muthu, P.

    2018-04-01

    In today's world, the security became the major issue to every human being. A major issue is hacking as hackers are everywhere, as the technology was developed still there are many issues where the technology fails to meet the security. Engineers, scientists were discovering the new products for security purpose as biometrics sensors like face recognition, pattern recognition, gesture recognition, voice authentication etcetera. But these devices fail to reach the expected results. In this work, we are going to present an approach to generate a unique secure key using the iris template. Here the iris templates are processed using the well-defined processing techniques. Using the encryption and decryption process they are stored, traversed and utilized. As of the work, we can conclude that the iris cryptography gives us the expected results for securing the data from eavesdroppers.

  4. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.

    2012-01-01

    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  5. Metal cyanides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    From the biewpoint of general crystal T chemistry principles and on the basis of modern data the structural chemistry of metal cyanites is presented. The features of the structure of the following compounds are considered: simple ionic alkali cyanides (Li-Cs) containing CN - ions; molybdenum (4,5), tungsten (4,5), rhenium (5,6) complexes etc, where-CN group is only connected with one metal atom; covalent cyanides of cadmium and other elements in which the CN-group serves as a bridge

  6. CAPSULE REPORT - MANAGING CYANIDE IN METAL FINISHING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this document is to provide guidance to surface finishing manufacturers, metal finishing decision maker and regulators on management practices and control technologies for managing cyanide in the workplace. This information can benefit key industry stakeholder gro...

  7. Performance Enhancements Under Dual-task Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, A. F.; Wickens, C. D.; Donchin, E.

    1984-01-01

    Research on dual-task performance has been concerned with delineating the antecedent conditions which lead to dual-task decrements. Capacity models of attention, which propose that a hypothetical resource structure underlies performance, have been employed as predictive devices. These models predict that tasks which require different processing resources can be more successfully time shared than tasks which require common resources. The conditions under which such dual-task integrality can be fostered were assessed in a study in which three factors likely to influence the integrality between tasks were manipulated: inter-task redundancy, the physical proximity of tasks and the task relevant objects. Twelve subjects participated in three experimental sessions in which they performed both single and dual-tasks. The primary task was a pursuit step tracking task. The secondary tasks required the discrimination between different intensities or different spatial positions of a stimulus. The results are discussed in terms of a model of dual-task integrality.

  8. El anillo de los números duales

    OpenAIRE

    Jiménez, Haydee; Luque, Carlos Julio

    2007-01-01

    Se inicia con una presentación de la estructura de * - Álgebra de los números duales; se muestran diferentes representaciones que permiten la definición de potencias racionales de números duales, lo que exige una extensión de su estructura a un anillo de números duales con coeficientes complejos. Seguidamente se estudian la función exponencial dual y la función logaritmo dual que permiten la definición de potencias duales de un número dual; luego se estudian ecuaciones en los números duales h...

  9. Metal detector technology data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, L.K.; Gallo, L.R.; Murray, D.W.

    1990-08-01

    The tests described in this report were conducted to obtain information on the effects target characteristics have on portal type metal detector response. A second purpose of the tests was to determine the effect of detector type and settings on the detection of the targets. Although in some cases comparison performance of different types and makes of metal detectors is found herein, that is not the primary purpose of the report. Further, because of the many variables that affect metal detector performance, the information presented can be used only in a general way. The results of these tests can show general trends in metal detection, but do little for making accurate predictions as to metal detector response to a target with a complex shape such as a handgun. The shape of an object and its specific metal content (both type and treatment) can have a significant influence on detection. Thus it should not be surprising that levels of detection for a small 100g stainless steel handgun are considerably different than for detection of the 100g stainless steel right circular cylinder that was used in these tests. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Heavy metal biosorption by bacterial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vecchio, A; Finoli, C; Di Simine, D; Andreoni, [No Value

    Microbial biomass provides available ligand groups on which metal ions bind by different mechanisms. Biosorption of these elements from aqueous solutions represents a remediation technology suitable for the treatment of metal-contaminated effluents. The purpose of the present investigation was the

  11. Quantitative analysis of orthopedic metal artefact reduction in 64-slice computed tomography scans in large head metal-on-metal total hip replacement, a phantom study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, Martijn F.; Warringa, Niek; Edens, Mireille A.; Mueller, Dirk; Ettema, Harmen B.; Verheyen, Cees C. P. M.; Maas, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Quantification of the effect of O-MAR on decreasing metal artefacts caused by large head metal on metal total hip arthroplasty (MoM THA) in a dedicated phantom setup of the hip. Background: Pathological reactions of the hip capsule on Computed tomography (CT) can be difficult to diagnose

  12. heavy metals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    aDepartment of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P.O. Box 56208, Arcadia, 0007, South Africa. bSchool of Health Systems and Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, ... ing the levels of toxic metals in food.15,19 Compared to ET-AAS or .... mum pressure 350 psi and maximum temperature 210 °C. The.

  13. Quantum dynamics in dual spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudarshan, E.C.G.

    1993-01-01

    Quantum mechanics gives us information about spectra of dynamical variables and transition rates including scattering cross sections. They can be exhibited as spectral information in analytically continued spaces and their duals. Quantum mechanics formulated in these generalized spaces is used to study scattering and time evolution. It is shown that the usual asymptotic condition is inadequate to deal with scattering of composite or unstable particles. Scattering theory needs amendment when the interacting system is not isospectral with the free Hamiltonian, and the amendment is formulated. Perturbation theory in generalized spaces is developed and used to study the deletion and augmentation of the spectrum of the Hamiltonian. A complete set of algebraically independent constants for an interacting system is obtained. The question of the breaking of time symmetry is discussed

  14. Dual Syntax for XML Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2005-01-01

    XML is successful as a machine processable data interchange format, but it is often too verbose for human use. For this reason, many XML languages permit an alternative more legible non-XML syntax. XSLT stylesheets are often used to convert from the XML syntax to the alternative syntax; however......, such transformations are not reversible since no general tool exists to automatically parse the alternative syntax back into XML. We present XSugar, which makes it possible to manage dual syntax for XML languages. An XSugar specification is built around a context-free grammar that unifies the two syntaxes...... of a language. Given such a specification, the XSugar tool can translate from alternative syntax to XML and vice versa. Moreover, the tool statically checks that the transformations are reversible and that all XML documents generated from the alternative syntax are valid according to a given XML schema....

  15. The yang mills gravity dual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, David E.; Evans, Nick

    2003-01-01

    We describe a ten dimensional supergravity geometry which is dual to a gauge theory that is non-supersymmetric Yang Mills in the infra-red but reverts to N=4 super Yang Mills in the ultra-violet. A brane probe of the geometry shows that the scalar potential of the gauge theory is stable. We discuss the infra-red behaviour of the solution. The geometry describes a Schroedinger equation potential that determines the glueball spectrum of the theory; there is a mass gap and a discrete spectrum. The glueball mass predictions match previous AdS/CFT Correspondence computations in the non-supersymmetric Yang Mills theory, and lattice data, at the 10% level. (author)

  16. Dual-band infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, H.; Schlemmer, H.

    2005-10-01

    Every year, numerous accidents happen on European roads due to bad visibility (fog, night, heavy rain). Similarly, the dramatic aviation accidents of year 2001 in Milan and Zurich have reminded us that aviation safety is equally affected by reduced visibility. A dual-band thermal imager was developed in order to raise human situation awareness under conditions of reduced visibility especially in the automotive and aeronautical context but also for all transportation or surveillance tasks. The chosen wavelength bands are the Short Wave Infrared SWIR and the Long Wave Infrared LWIR band which are less obscured by reduced visibility conditions than the visible band. Furthermore, our field tests clearly show that the two different spectral bands very often contain complementary information. Pyramidal fusion is used to integrate complementary and redundant features of the multi-spectral images into a fused image which can be displayed on a monitor to provide more and better information for the driver or pilot.

  17. Dual-ROI radionuclide ventriculography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standke, R.; Hoer, G.; Kanemoto, N.; Maul, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    Accurate determination of the left ventricular activity function is the precondition for a quantitative analysis of the ventricular volume function. During the volume reduction period, extra-myocardial tissue penetrates into the ROI of the late diastole. This curve-distorting activity cannot be eliminated by a single-ROI technique. Of the multiple-ROI techniques, the dual-ROI method is the least complex and tedions and involves the least methodological error. At the time of maximum volume change rates, the curve may be distorted if the late diastolic ROI is inaccurately defined. A method is described which uses only the counting rate over the late diastolic ROI and corrects it only on the basis of the counting rate of the late systolic ROI. The time parameters remain uninfluenced by this correction method while the volumetric parameters are corrected. (orig./APR) [de

  18. Dual manifold heat pipe evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

    1994-01-04

    An improved evaporator section is described for a dual manifold heat pipe. Both the upper and lower manifolds can have surfaces exposed to the heat source which evaporate the working fluid. The tubes in the tube bank between the manifolds have openings in their lower extensions into the lower manifold to provide for the transport of evaporated working fluid from the lower manifold into the tubes and from there on into the upper manifold and on to the condenser portion of the heat pipe. A wick structure lining the inner walls of the evaporator tubes extends into both the upper and lower manifolds. At least some of the tubes also have overflow tubes contained within them to carry condensed working fluid from the upper manifold to pass to the lower without spilling down the inside walls of the tubes. 1 figure.

  19. Saturation in dual radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, H.H.; Zaider, M.

    1988-01-01

    The theory of dual radiation action (TDRA) was developed with the aim of applying microdosimetry to radiobiology. It therefore can deal only with the first phases in a long chain of events that results in patent effects. It is, however, clear that the initial spatial and temporal pattern of energy deposition has a profound influence on the ultimate outcome. As often happens, the early formulation of the theory contained a number of simplifying assumptions. Although most of these were explicitly stated when the first version of the TDRA was published experimental data obtained when the limitations are important were cited as contrary evidence causing considerable confusion. A more advanced version eliminated some of the restrictions but there remain others, one of which relates to certain aspects of saturation which are addressed here

  20. Dual processing and diagnostic errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Geoff

    2009-09-01

    In this paper, I review evidence from two theories in psychology relevant to diagnosis and diagnostic errors. "Dual Process" theories of thinking, frequently mentioned with respect to diagnostic error, propose that categorization decisions can be made with either a fast, unconscious, contextual process called System 1 or a slow, analytical, conscious, and conceptual process, called System 2. Exemplar theories of categorization propose that many category decisions in everyday life are made by unconscious matching to a particular example in memory, and these remain available and retrievable individually. I then review studies of clinical reasoning based on these theories, and show that the two processes are equally effective; System 1, despite its reliance in idiosyncratic, individual experience, is no more prone to cognitive bias or diagnostic error than System 2. Further, I review evidence that instructions directed at encouraging the clinician to explicitly use both strategies can lead to consistent reduction in error rates.