WorldWideScience

Sample records for dual mode transportation systems

  1. Joint EPA/UMTA/FEA strategy for urban transportation and air quality. Volume 3. The potential of dual mode. Literature review, 1964--1974

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzyczkowski, R.; Henneman, S.S.

    1974-12-01

    Interdependence of goals of the three agencies, EPA, UMTA, and FEA generates this four-volume study. The common issue around which all three agencies' policies revolve is the use of the private auto involving both incentives and penalties to catalyze a change in existing urban travel characteristics. This third volume expresses INTERPLAN's judgment about the applicability, timing, and impact of dual mode urban transportation technologies. A three-system, three-phase, gradual evolution of demand for dual mode is suggested. The dual mode essay is prefaced by a short overview and comparison of the propulsion and energy use characteristics of conventional and future urban transportation modes.

  2. The competitive advantage of a dual-transporter system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Sagi; Kafri, Moshe; Carmi, Miri; Barkai, Naama

    2011-12-09

    Cells use transporters of different affinities to regulate nutrient influx. When nutrients are depleted, low-affinity transporters are replaced by high-affinity ones. High-affinity transporters are helpful when concentrations of nutrients are low, but the advantage of reducing their abundance when nutrients are abundant is less clear. When we eliminated such reduced production of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae high-affinity transporters for phosphate and zinc, the elapsed time from the initiation of the starvation program until the lack of nutrients limited growth was shortened, and recovery from starvation was delayed. The latter phenotype was rescued by constitutive activation of the starvation program. Dual-transporter systems appear to prolong preparation for starvation and to facilitate subsequent recovery, which may optimize sensing of nutrient depletion by integrating internal and external information about nutrient availability.

  3. Adaptive lesion formation using dual mode ultrasound array system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dalong; Casper, Andrew; Haritonova, Alyona; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2017-03-01

    We present the results from an ultrasound-guided focused ultrasound platform designed to perform real-time monitoring and control of lesion formation. Real-time signal processing of echogenicity changes during lesion formation allows for identification of signature events indicative of tissue damage. The detection of these events triggers the cessation or the reduction of the exposure (intensity and/or time) to prevent overexposure. A dual mode ultrasound array (DMUA) is used for forming single- and multiple-focus patterns in a variety of tissues. The DMUA approach allows for inherent registration between the therapeutic and imaging coordinate systems providing instantaneous, spatially-accurate feedback on lesion formation dynamics. The beamformed RF data has been shown to have high sensitivity and specificity to tissue changes during lesion formation, including in vivo. In particular, the beamformed echo data from the DMUA is very sensitive to cavitation activity in response to HIFU in a variety of modes, e.g. boiling cavitation. This form of feedback is characterized by sudden increase in echogenicity that could occur within milliseconds of the application of HIFU (see http://youtu.be/No2wh-ceTLs for an example). The real-time beamforming and signal processing allowing the adaptive control of lesion formation is enabled by a high performance GPU platform (response time within 10 msec). We present results from a series of experiments in bovine cardiac tissue demonstrating the robustness and increased speed of volumetric lesion formation for a range of clinically-relevant exposures. Gross histology demonstrate clearly that adaptive lesion formation results in tissue damage consistent with the size of the focal spot and the raster scan in 3 dimensions. In contrast, uncontrolled volumetric lesions exhibit significant pre-focal buildup due to excessive exposure from multiple full-exposure HIFU shots. Stopping or reducing the HIFU exposure upon the detection of such an

  4. Design of a dual-mode electrochemical measurement and analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jr-Fu; Wei, Chia-Ling; Wu, Jian-Fu; Liu, Bin-Da

    2013-01-01

    A dual-mode electrochemical measurement and analysis system is proposed. This system includes a dual-mode chip, which was designed and fabricated by using TSMC 0.35 µm 3.3 V/5 V 2P4M mixed-signal CMOS process. Two electrochemical measurement and analysis methods, chronopotentiometry and voltammetry, can be performed by using the proposed chip and system. The proposed chip and system are verified successfully by performing voltammetry and chronopotentiometry on solutions.

  5. NOVEL COMPOSITE CVT SYSTEMS WITH DIVERGING AND DUAL-MODE CONVERGING POWER FLOW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Shodao; Huang Xiangdong; Zhao Kegang; Luo Yutao

    2004-01-01

    A new type of composite CVT(continuously variable transmission) systems featured by power flow divergence and dual-mode convergence,capable of improving CVT's efficiency and power capacity or making AMTs(automated manual transmissions) become continuously variable,is studied.With specific mechano-mechanical and electromechanical composite CVT systems as detailed examples,its basic working principles are expatiated.General methods and key points in designing and realizing such systems are also analyzed and discussed.

  6. A dual working mode mobile robot system based on visual guiding and visual servoing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Yizhun; Yuan Kui; Zou Wei; Hu Huosheng

    2007-01-01

    A dual operational modes mobile robot system based on visual guiding and visual servo control is presented.This system consists of a mobile robot with a two-axis manipulator and a tele-operation station.In the visual guiding mode,for the robot works in an open loop visual servo control mode,the manipulating burden of the operator is reduced largely.In the visual servo mode the robot can locate the position of the target assigned by the operator and pick it up by its manipulator.With the help of the operator,the difficult problems of finding and handling a target in a complicated environment by the robot Can be solved easily.

  7. Structural Design of Dual-Mode Ramjets and Associated System Issues (Conception structurale des statoreacteurs mixtes et defis systeme associes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    a rubber (“ caoutchouc ”) dual-mode ramjet : its “rubber” geometry was optimized without any concern of feasibility, except the fact that the inner...3000 3500 4000 4500 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Flight Mach Number B2 Caoutchouc Thrust / (Captation area.Dynamic Pressure) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 0 2 4 6 8 10...12 14 Flight Mach Number B2 Caoutchouc Figure 8: System comparison: potential interest of movable geometry. Structural Design of Dual-Mode Ramjets

  8. Comments on dual-mode nuclear space power and propulsion system concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, J. Preston; Grey, Jerry

    1991-01-01

    Some form of Dual-Mode Nuclear Space Power & Propulsion System (D-MNSP&PS) will be essential to spacefaring throughout teh solar system and that such systems must evolve as mankind moves into outer space. The initial D-MNPSP&PS Reference System should be based on (1) present (1990), and (2) advanced (1995) technology for use on comparable mission in the 2000 and 2005 time period respectively. D-MNSP&PS can be broken down into a number of subsystems: Nuclear subsystems including the energy source and controls for the release of thermal power at elevated temperatures; power conversion subsystems; waste heat rejection subsystems; and control and safety subsystems. These systems are briefly detailed.

  9. Dual-mode, high energy utilization system concept for mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a dual-mode, high energy utilization system concept based on the Pellet Bed Reactor (PeBR) to support future manned missions to Mars. The system uses proven Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) engines to partially convert the reactor thermal power to electricity. The electric power generated is kept the same during the propulsion and the power modes, but the reactor thermal power in the former could be several times higher, while maintaining the reactor temperatures almost constant. During the propulsion mode, the electric power of the system, minus ~1-5 kWe for house keeping, is used to operate a Variable Specific Impulse Magnetoplasma Rocket (VASIMR). In addition, the reactor thermal power, plus more than 85% of the head load of the CBC engine radiators, are used to heat hydrogen. The hot hydrogen is mixed with the high temperature plasma in a VASIMR to provide both high thrust and Isp>35,000 N.s/kg, reducing the travel time to Mars to about 3 months. The electric power also supports surface exploration of Mars. The fuel temperature and the inlet temperatures of the He-Xe working fluid to the nuclear reactor core and the CBC turbine are maintained almost constant during both the propulsion and power modes to minimize thermal stresses. Also, the exit temperature of the He-Xe from the reactor core is kept at least 200 K below the maximum fuel design temperature. The present system has no single point failure and could be tested fully assembled in a ground facility using electric heaters in place of the nuclear reactor. Operation and design parameters of a 40-kWe prototype are presented and discussed to illustrate the operation and design principles of the proposed system. .

  10. A Decision Support System to Compare the Transportation Modes in Logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eren Özceylan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The selection of an optimal transportation mode is one of the most important factors in supply chain and logistic planning. Furthermore, the selection transportation mode is a complex, multi-criteria decision problem. The decision makers have to face and take attention with a lot of criteria; such as cost, quality, delivery time, safety, accessibility and etc while choosing the best mode. Under these criteria, there must be a selection between motorway, seaway, airway, pipeline, railway and also intermodal modes. Selection the transportation mode is very promising issue because it affects about 60-65 % of total logistic cake. There are some techniques which can be heuristics and logical approaches are used to reach the best option. The analytical hierarchy process (AHP which is one of the mathematical methods can be very useful in involving several decision makers with different conflicting objectives to arrive at a consensus decision. In this paper, the selection of an optimal transportation mode using an AHP-based model was evaluated for logistic activities. To solve this transportation mode selection problem, we developed a decision support system based AHP. By using the developed decision support system, the best transportation modes is determined and discussed.

  11. Assessing the performance of a permeable reactive barrier-aquifer system using a dual-domain solute transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jui-Sheng; Hsu, Shao-Yiu; Li, Ming-Hsu; Liu, Chen-Wuing

    2016-12-01

    Transport behavior through a permeable reactive barrier (PRB)-aquifer system is complicated because of the different physical and chemical properties of the PRB and the aquifer. Dual-domain solute transport models are efficient tools for better understanding the various processes and mechanisms of reactive solute transport through a PRB-aquifer system. This study develops a dual-domain analytical model to assess the physical and chemical processes of two-dimensional reactive solute transport through a PRB-aquifer system. The dispersion processes of a dual-domain system on the solute transport are investigated. The results show that the dispersion parameters in a dual-domain system synchronously govern the dynamic shape of the contaminant plume. The low longitudinal and transverse dispersion coefficients of a dual-domain system may restrict the spreading of the plume and elevate the plume's concentration level. The derived analytical solution is applied to explore how the different reactive transport processes affect the performance of a PRB-aquifer system. The results show that the first-order decay rate constant of the PRB has a critical effect on the performance of the PRB-aquifer system, whereas the effects of the physical dispersion properties on PRB performance are less significant.

  12. Dual Mode Slotted Monopole Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    of 15 DUAL MODE SLOTTED MONOPOLE ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by...REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present invention is directed...such as this that is capable of radiating at a different frequency below this cutoff. The present invention provides a means by which the overall

  13. Turning performance in squid and cuttlefish: unique dual-mode, muscular hydrostatic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrebsky, Rachel A; Bartol, Ian K; Krueger, Paul S

    2016-05-01

    Although steady swimming has received considerable attention in prior studies, unsteady swimming movements represent a larger portion of many aquatic animals' locomotive repertoire and have not been examined extensively. Squids and cuttlefishes are cephalopods with unique muscular hydrostat-driven, dual-mode propulsive systems involving paired fins and a pulsed jet. These animals exhibit a wide range of swimming behavior, but turning performance has not been examined quantitatively. Brief squid, Lolliguncula brevis, and dwarf cuttlefish, Sepia bandensis, were filmed during turns using high-speed cameras. Kinematic features were tracked, including the length-specific radius of the turn (R/L), a measure of maneuverability, and angular velocity (ω), a measure of agility. Both L. brevis and S. bandensis demonstrated high maneuverability, with (R/L)min values of 3.4×10(-3)±5.9×10(-4) and 1.2×10(-3)±4.7×10(-4) (mean±s.e.m.), respectively, which are the lowest measures of R/L reported for any aquatic taxa. Lolliguncula brevis exhibited higher agility than S. bandensis (ωa,max=725.8 versus 485.0 deg s(-1)), and both cephalopods have intermediate agility when compared with flexible-bodied and rigid-bodied nekton of similar size, reflecting their hybrid body architecture. In L. brevis, jet flows were the principal driver of angular velocity. Asymmetric fin motions played a reduced role, and arm wrapping increased turning performance to varying degrees depending on the species. This study indicates that coordination between the jet and fins is important for turning performance, with L. brevis achieving faster turns than S. bandensis and S. bandensis achieving tighter, more controlled turns than L. brevis.

  14. Comparing Two Numerical Models in Simulating Hydrodynamics and Sediment Transport at a Dual Inlet System, West-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-15

    1 COMPARING TWO NUMERICAL MODELS IN SIMULATING HYDRODYNAMICS AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT AT A DUAL INLET SYSTEM, WEST-CENTRAL FLORIDA PING WANG1...numerical modeling systems, CMS and DELFT3D, in simulating the hydrodynamic and sediment transport processes. The model results are compared with...Introduction Simulating complex fields of wave, current, sediment transport , and morphology change in the vicinity of tidal inlets is a

  15. SINGULAR ANALYSIS OF BIFURCATION OF NONLINEAR NORMAL MODES FOR A CLASS OF SYSTEMS WITH DUAL INTERNAL RESONANCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣业; 陈予恕; 吴志强

    2002-01-01

    The nonlinear normal modes (NNMs) associated with integrnal resonance can be classified into two kinds: uncoupled and coupled.The bifurcation problem of the coupled NNM of systems with 1: 2: 5 dual internal resonance is in two variables.The singular analysis of it is presented after separating the two variables by taking advantage of Maple algebra, and some new bifurcation patterns are found.Different from the NNMs of systems with single internal resonance, the number of the NNMs of systems with dual internal resonance may be more or less than the number of the degrees of freedom.At last, it is pointed out that bifurcation problems in two variables can be conveniently solved by separating variables as well as using coupling equations.

  16. DUAL MODE WIDEBAND BAND-PASS FILTER WITH NOTCHED BAND FOR COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Hui; Yang Guo; Wu Wen; Ge Sheng

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a planar microstrip wideband dual mode Band-Pass Filter (BPF) from 2 GHz to 3.4 GHz with a notched band at 2.62 GHz.The dual mode band-pass filter consists of a ring resonator with two quarter-wavelength open-circuited stubs at φ -90° and φ =0°,respectively.A square perturbation stub has been put at the corner of the ring resonator to increase the narrow stopbands and improve the performance of selectivity.By using a parallel-coupled feed line,a narrow notched band is introduced at the required frequency and its Fractional BandWidth (FBW) is about 5%.The proposed filter has a narrow notched band and a wide pass-band with a sharp cutoff frequency characteristic,the attenuation rate for the sharp cutoff frequency responses is 297.17 dB/GHz (calculated from 1.959 GHz with -34.43 dB to 2.065 GHz with -2.93 dB) and 228.10 dB/GHz (calculated from 3.395 GHz with -2.873 dB to 3.507 GHz with -28.42 dB).This filter has the advantages of good insertion loss in both operating bands and two rejections of greater than 16 dB in the range of 1.59 GHz to 1.99 GHz and 3.49 GHz to 3.98 GHz.Having been presented in this article,the measurement results agree well with the simulation results,which validates our idea.

  17. Application of a dual deposition mode model to evaluate transport of Escherichia coli D21 in porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2006-12-01

    Controlled laboratory-scale column deposition experiments were conducted using a well-characterized mutant of the Escherichia coli (E. coli) K12 strain to obtain insight into the mechanisms that give rise to the observed deviation from classical colloid filtration theory (CFT). Both the suspended effluent bacteria concentration and the spatial distribution of retained bacteria were systematically measured over a wide range of solution conditions using columns packed with spherical glass beads. Calculations of Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) interaction energies based on measured cell zeta potentials indicated that the bacteria should experience considerable repulsive interaction forces when approaching the glass bead surface. In spite of these predictions, bacterial adhesion was observed even at the lowest solution ionic strength investigated (3 mM) and increased with solution salt concentration. Comparison of these results with measurements obtained using model colloidal particles (polystyrene latex microspheres) and a different microbe (Cryptosporidium parvum) suggested that another non-DLVO-type interaction may be contributing to the observed deposition behavior. Furthermore, predictions based on a discrete dual deposition mode (DDM) model disagreed with measured fractions of released cells. Taken together, the experimental and modeling results suggest that the deposition behavior of bacteria in saturated porous media is influenced by additional interaction mechanism(s) or factors not considered in classical DLVO theory, such as local charge heterogeneities of the cell membrane and surface biomolecule-specific interactions.

  18. On Teaching Mode of German Dual Track System%德国双轨制教学模式解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婉青

    2015-01-01

    结合在柏林工程与经济应用技术大学交流与学习的经历,阐述对德国双轨制教育模式的理解与认识,并提出此种模式下可能隐藏的弊端。%In this paper, combing the experiences of the exchange and learning in the University of Berlin engineering and economic application technology, the author set forth the understanding and recognition of the German dual track system education mode, and proposed the potential of this model may hide.

  19. 2.7-4.0 GHz PLL with dual-mode auto frequency calibration for navigation system on chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈志坚; 蔡敏; 贺小勇; 徐肯

    2016-01-01

    A 2.7−4.0 GHz dual-mode auto frequency calibration (AFC) fast locking PLL was designed for navigation system on chip (SoC). The SoC was composed of one radio frequency (RF) receiver, one baseband and several system control parts. In the proposed AFC block, both analog and digital modes were designed to complete the AFC process. In analog mode, the analog part sampled and detected the charge pump output tuning voltage, which would give the indicator to digital part to adjust the voltage control oscillator (VCO) capacitor bank. In digital mode, the digital part counted the phase lock loop (PLL) divided clock to judge whether VCO frequency was fast or slow. The analog and digital modes completed the auto frequency calibration function independently by internal switch. By designing a special switching algorithm, the switch of the digital and analog mode could be realized anytime during the lock and unlock detecting process for faster and more stable locking. This chip is fabricated in 0.13μm RF complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, and the VCO supports the frequency range from 2.7 to 4.0 GHz. Tested 3.96 GHz frequency phase noise is−90 dBc/Hz@100 kHz frequency offset and−120 dBc/Hz@1 MHz frequency offset. By using the analog mode in lock detection and digital mode in unlock detection, tested AFC time is less than 9μs and the total PLL lock time is less than 19μs. The SoC acquisition and tracking sensitivity are about−142 dBm and−155 dBm, respectively. The area of the proposed PLL is 0.35 mm2 and the total SoC area is about 9.6 mm2.

  20. Dual-mode Propulsion System Enabling CubeSat Exploration of the Solar System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — With the cost of planetary exploration rising and budgets for such missions declining newer, cheaper, i.e. low mass, systems must be developed to perform...

  1. Rapid determination of dopamine in human plasma using a gold nanoparticle-based dual-mode sensing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yali; Qi, Suijian; Liu, Zhonggang; Shi, Yupeng; Yue, Wanqing; Yi, Changqing

    2016-04-01

    Dopamine plays a very important role in biological systems and has a direct relationship with the ability of learning and cognition, human desires, feelings and mental state, as well as motor functions. Traditional methods for the detection of dopamine are complicated and time-consuming, therefore it is necessary to explore rapid and accurate detection of dopamine with high sensitivity and specificity. Herein we report a dual-mode system of colorimetric and fluorometric analyses based on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and aptamers specifically targeting dopamine. Aptamers modified with the fluorophore were used as dopamine specific recognition probe and the sensing mechanism is based on the color change of AuNPs and the fluorescence recovery of fluorophore conjugated on the aptamers in the presence of dopamine. The addition of aptamers into AuNPs colloid solution would prevent the AuNPs from aggregation in the high-salt solution. The close distance between AuNPs and fluorophore conjugated on the aptamers would lead to the quenching of fluorescence signal. In the presence of dopamine, the conformation of the aptamers and the inter-particle distance would be changed, leading to the aggregation of AuNPs, which subsequently results in color change from red to blue and fluorescence signal recovery. The dual-mode sensing system demonstrated high specificity towards dopamine with the detection limit as low as 78.7 nM. The sensing system reflects on its simplicity as no surface functionalization is required for the nanoparticles, leading to less laborious and more cost-effective synthesis. The reaction time is only 6 min, demonstrating a simple approach for rapid analysis of dopamine. More importantly, the sensing system allows the detection of dopamine in both aqueous solution and complicated biological sample with sensitive response, illustrating the feasibility and reliability for the potential applications in clinical and biomedical analysis in the future.

  2. A Google Glass navigation system for ultrasound and fluorescence dual-mode image-guided surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zeshu; Pei, Jing; Wang, Dong; Hu, Chuanzhen; Ye, Jian; Gan, Qi; Liu, Peng; Yue, Jian; Wang, Benzhong; Shao, Pengfei; Povoski, Stephen P.; Martin, Edward W.; Yilmaz, Alper; Tweedle, Michael F.; Xu, Ronald X.

    2016-03-01

    Surgical resection remains the primary curative intervention for cancer treatment. However, the occurrence of a residual tumor after resection is very common, leading to the recurrence of the disease and the need for re-resection. We develop a surgical Google Glass navigation system that combines near infrared fluorescent imaging and ultrasonography for intraoperative detection of sites of tumor and assessment of surgical resection boundaries, well as for guiding sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping and biopsy. The system consists of a monochromatic CCD camera, a computer, a Google Glass wearable headset, an ultrasonic machine and an array of LED light sources. All the above components, except the Google Glass, are connected to a host computer by a USB or HDMI port. Wireless connection is established between the glass and the host computer for image acquisition and data transport tasks. A control program is written in C++ to call OpenCV functions for image calibration, processing and display. The technical feasibility of the system is tested in both tumor simulating phantoms and in a human subject. When the system is used for simulated phantom resection tasks, the tumor boundaries, invisible to the naked eye, can be clearly visualized with the surgical Google Glass navigation system. This system has also been used in an IRB approved protocol in a single patient during SLN mapping and biopsy in the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University, demonstrating the ability to successfully localize and resect all apparent SLNs. In summary, our tumor simulating phantom and human subject studies have demonstrated the technical feasibility of successfully using the proposed goggle navigation system during cancer surgery.

  3. Integration of geospatial multi-mode transportation Systems in Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M. A.; Said, M. N.

    2014-06-01

    Public transportation serves people with mobility and accessibility to workplaces, health facilities, community resources, and recreational areas across the country. Development in the application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) to transportation problems represents one of the most important areas of GIS-technology today. To show the importance of GIS network analysis, this paper highlights the determination of the optimal path between two or more destinations based on multi-mode concepts. The abstract connector is introduced in this research as an approach to integrate urban public transportation in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia including facilities such as Light Rapid Transit (LRT), Keretapi Tanah Melayu (KTM) Komuter, Express Rail Link (ERL), KL Monorail, road driving as well as pedestrian modes into a single intelligent data model. To assist such analysis, ArcGIS's Network Analyst functions are used whereby the final output includes the total distance, total travelled time, directional maps produced to find the quickest, shortest paths, and closest facilities based on either time or distance impedance for multi-mode route analysis.

  4. Evaluation of dual-mode rainwater harvesting system to mitigate typhoon-induced water shortage in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M M; Chou, F N-F; Liaw, C-H

    2010-01-01

    The water shortage of today's world is one of the most challenging problems and the world is looking for the best solution to reduce it. Some human made causes and also natural causes are liable for the shortage of the existing water supply system. In Taiwan, especially during typhoon, the turbidity of raw water increases beyond the treatment level and the plant cannot supply required amount of water. To make the system effective, a couple of days are needed and the shortage occurs. The purpose of this study is to solve this emergency shortage problem. A dual-mode Rainwater Harvesting System (RWHS) was designed for this study as a supplement to the existing water supply system to support some selected non-potable components such as toilet and urinal flushing of an elementary school. An optimal design algorithm was developed using YAS (yield after spillage) and YBS (yield before spillage) release rules. The study result proved that an optimum volume of tank can solve the emergency water shortage properly. The system was found to be more reliable in Taipei area than that of Tainan area. The study also discovered that a government subsidy would be needed to promote the system in Taiwan.

  5. Atmospheric science facility pallet-only mode space transportation system payload (feasibility study), Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The economic and technical feasibility is assessed of employing a pallet-only mode for conducting Atmospheric Magnetospheric Plasmas-in-Space experiments. A baseline design incorporating the experiment and instrument descriptions is developed. The prime instruments are packaged into four pallets in a physical and functional manner compatible with the Space Transportation System capabilities and/or constraints and an orbiter seven-day mission timeline. Operational compatibility is verified between the orbiter/payload and supporting facilities. The development status and the schedule requirements applicable to the Atmospheric Science Facility mission are identified. Conclusions and recommendations are presented and discussed.

  6. RADIOISOTOPE-DRIVEN DUAL-MODE PROPULSION SYSTEM FOR CUBESAT-SCALE PAYLOADS TO THE OUTER PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. D. Jerred; T. M. Howe; S. D. Howe; A. Rajguru

    2014-02-01

    It is apparent the cost of planetary exploration is rising as mission budgets declining. Currently small scientific beds geared to performing limited tasks are being developed and launched into low earth orbit (LEO) in the form of small-scale satellite units, i.e., CubeSats. These micro- and nano-satellites are gaining popularity among the university and science communities due to their relatively low cost and design flexibility. To date these small units have been limited to performing tasks in LEO utilizing solar-based power. If a reasonable propulsion system could be developed, these CubeSat platforms could perform exploration of various extra-terrestrial bodies within the solar system engaging a broader range of researchers. Additionally, being mindful of mass, smaller cheaper launch vehicles (approximately 1,000 kgs to LEO) can be targeted. Thus, in effect, allows for beneficial exploration to be conducted within limited budgets. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) are proposing a low mass, radioisotope-based, dual-mode propulsion system capable of extending the exploration realm of these CubeSats out of LEO.

  7. Mode Competition in Dual-Mode Quantum Dots Semiconductor Microlaser

    CERN Document Server

    Chusseau, Laurent; Viktorovitch, P; Letartre, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the modeling of quantum dots lasers with the aim of assessing the conditions for stable cw dual-mode operation when the mode separation lies in the THz range. Several possible models suited for InAs quantum dots in InP barriers are analytically evaluated, in particular quantum dots electrically coupled through a direct exchange of excitation by the wetting layer or quantum dots optically coupled through the homogeneous broadening of their optical gain. A stable dual-mode regime is shown possible in all cases when quantum dots are used as active layer whereas a gain medium of quantum well or bulk type inevitably leads to bistable behavior. The choice of a quantum dots gain medium perfectly matched the production of dual-mode lasers devoted to THz generation by photomixing.

  8. Effect of curing modes of dual-curing core systems on microtensile bond strength to dentin and formation of an acid-base resistant zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Takagaki, Tomohiro; Sadr, Alireza; Waidyasekera, Kanchana; Ikeda, Masaomi; Chen, Jihua; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and acid-base resistant zone (ABRZ) of two dualcuring core systems to dentin using four curing modes. Sixty-four caries-free human molars were randomly divided into two groups according to two dual-curing resin core systems: (1) Clearfil DC Core Automix; (2) Estelite Core Quick. For each core system, four different curing modes were applied to the adhesive and core resin: (1) dual-cured and dual-cured (DD); (2) chemically cured and dual-cured (CD); (3) dual-cured and chemically cured (DC); (4) chemically cured and chemically cured (CC). The specimens were sectioned into sticks (n = 20 for each group) for the microtensile bond test. μTBS data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and the Dunnett T3 test. Failure patterns were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to determine the proportion of each mode. Dentin sandwiches were produced and subjected to an acid-base challenge. After argon-ion etching, the ultrastructure of ABRZ was observed using SEM. For Clearfil DC Core Automix, the μTBS values in MPa were as follows: DD: 29.1 ± 5.4, CD: 21.6 ± 5.6, DC: 17.9 ± 2.8, CC: 11.5 ± 3.2. For Estelite Core Quick, they were: DD: 48.9 ±5.7, CD: 20.5 ± 4.7, DC: 41.4 ± 8.3, CC: 19.1 ± 6.0. The bond strength was affected by both material and curing mode, and the interaction of the two factors was significant (p core systems affects bond strength to dentin, but has no significant effect on the formation of ABRZ.

  9. Dual Zinc Transporter Systems in Vibrio cholerae Promote Competitive Advantages over Gut Microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ying; Fan, Fenxia; Jensen, Owen; Zhong, Zengtao; Kan, Biao; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Jun

    2015-10-01

    Zinc is an essential trace metal required for numerous cellular processes in all forms of life. In order to maintain zinc homeostasis, bacteria have developed several transport systems to regulate its uptake. In this study, we investigated zinc transport systems in the enteric pathogen Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera. Bioinformatic analysis predicts that two gene clusters, VC2081 to VC2083 (annotated as zinc utilization genes znuABC) and VC2551 to VC2555 (annotated as zinc-regulated genes zrgABCDE), are regulated by the putative zinc uptake regulator Zur. Using promoter reporter and biochemical assays, we confirmed that Zur represses znuABC and zrgABCDE promoters in a Zn(2+)-dependent manner. Under Zn(2+)-limiting conditions, we found that mutations in either the znuABC or zrgABCDE gene cluster affect bacterial growth, with znuABC mutants displaying a more severe growth defect, suggesting that both ZnuABC and ZrgABCDE are involved in Zn(2+) uptake and that ZnuABC plays the predominant role. Furthermore, we reveal that ZnuABC and ZrgABCDE are important for V. cholerae colonization in both infant and adult mouse models, particularly in the presence of other intestinal microbiota. Collectively, our studies indicate that these two zinc transporter systems play vital roles in maintaining zinc homeostasis during V. cholerae growth and pathogenesis.

  10. 48 CFR 47.305-14 - Mode of transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mode of transportation. 47... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-14 Mode of transportation. Generally, solicitations shall not specify a particular mode of transportation or a particular carrier....

  11. The use of low power dual mode nuclear thermal rocket engines to support space exploration missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert M.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of dual mode concepts is presented, focusing on advantages and problems associated with both low and high temperature dual mode conversion systems. It is concluded that dual mode nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) systems using high temperature Brayton cycle conversion technology offer a high payoff enhancement of conventional NTR, with a comparatively minor increase of technological challenge. It is recommended that NTR engines be designed so that dual mode conversion systems can be attached to them in a modular way, thus enabling the production of electric power on all missions where it is needed.

  12. Design of Dual band Modified Inverted F-Antenna for Military and Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) Applications by Numerical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Robiul; Karmokar, Debabrata Kumar

    2012-11-01

    A design of single feed Dual Band Modified Inverted F-Antenna (IFA) operating at 4.45 GHz (4.4-4.7GHz) and 5.9 GHz (5.850-5.925 GHz) has been proposed in this paper. The design is initiated by trial and error method of Numerical Analysis and method of moments (MoMís) in Numerical Electromagnetic code (NEC) is used to design, simulate and analyze this antenna. The results exhibit a proper operation of the antenna in terms of return loss, bandwidth, efficiency, VSWR, and gain at both bands. Proposed antenna is designed to achieve multi-serving purposes. Military applications and applications in the Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) are the most important applications within the above mentioned frequency bands respectively. The simulated results including performance parameters of antenna are presented and all are acceptable for the standard antennas.

  13. Dual coil ignition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huberts, Garlan J.; Qu, Qiuping; Czekala, Michael Damian

    2017-03-28

    A dual coil ignition system is provided. The dual coil ignition system includes a first inductive ignition coil including a first primary winding and a first secondary winding, and a second inductive ignition coil including a second primary winding and a second secondary winding, the second secondary winding connected in series to the first secondary winding. The dual coil ignition system further includes a diode network including a first diode and a second diode connected between the first secondary winding and the second secondary winding.

  14. Modeling of Ad-hoc and Infrastructure Dual Mode Mobile Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Hung Chen; Hui-Nien Hung; Yi-Bing Lin; Nan-Fu Peng

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates a mobile telecommunications system that supports both ad hoc and infrastructure mode operations. Based on analytic and simulation models, our study investigates how base station (BS) and ad hoc channel capacity, and the mobility and locality of mobile stations affect the performance of a dual mode system. We show that a dual mode system can significantly outperform a single mode (infrastructure) system when the degree of locality is high. Furthermore, a dual mode system can support much faster mobile users with less BS channels in comparison to an infrastructure mode system. Our study quantitatively identifies the threshold value for the number of ad hoc channels such that beyond this threshold, increasing ad hoc channel capacity will not improve the performance of a dual mode system.

  15. Optically controllable dual-mode switching in single-mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode subject to one side-mode feedback and external single mode injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Wei; Won, Yong Hyub

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, broadly tunable dual-mode lasing system is presented and demonstrated based on single-mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode subject to the feedback of one side mode amplified by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier in the external feedback cavity. The spacing between two resonance modes in output lasing spectrum is broadly tuned by introducing differently amplified side mode into the single-mode laser via the external cavity consisted of amplifier, filter, and polarization controller so that two difference frequencies of 1 THz and 0.6 THz are given to display the tunable behavior of dual-mode emission in this work. Therefore, under an external injection mode into the laser condition, the power dependent injection locking and optical bistability of generated dual-mode emission are discussed in detail. At different wavelength detunings, the emitted two resonance modes including the dominant and feedback modes are switched to on- or off-state by selecting proper high-low power level of the external injection mode. As a consequence, the maximum value of achieved dual-mode on-off ratio is as high as up to 45 dB.

  16. Dual-fuel, dual-mode rocket engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, James A. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    The invention relates to a dual fuel, dual mode rocket engine designed to improve the performance of earth-to-orbit vehicles. For any vehicle that operates from the earth's surface to earth orbit, it is advantageous to use two different fuels during its ascent. A high density impulse fuel, such as kerosene, is most efficient during the first half of the trajectory. A high specific impulse fuel, such as hydrogen, is most efficient during the second half of the trajectory. The invention allows both fuels to be used with a single rocket engine. It does so by adding a minimum number of state-of-the-art components to baseline single made rocket engines, and is therefore relatively easy to develop for near term applications. The novelty of this invention resides in the mixing of fuels before exhaust nozzle cooling. This allows all of the engine fuel to cool the exhaust nozzle, and allows the ratio of fuels used throughout the flight depend solely on performance requirements, not cooling requirements.

  17. Effect of propulsion system characteristics on ascent performance of dual-fueled single-stage earth-to-orbit transports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The results of a parametric study of ascent performance are presented for a vertical take off, horizontal landing, single stage earth-to-orbit transport vehicle. Two dual fueled concepts, series burn and parallel burn, were investigated, both of which utilized dual position rocket nozzles. The analysis was made by systematically varying a set of propulsion similarity parameters, initial thrust-weight ratio, the proportion of the thrust due to dual position nozzle engines, expansion ratios of the rocket nozzle, and the relative split between the two fuels, hydrogen and hydrocarbon. The data are presented as a series of curves of mass ratio plotted against each of the similarity parameters for various combinations of the other similarity parameters.

  18. GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The positioning of the GPS or Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) software receiver was developed on a software receiver platform. The structure of the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver was put forward after analyzing the differences in the satellite identification, ranging code, spread spectrum, coordinate system, time system, carrier band, and navigation data between GPS and CAPS. Based on Matlab software on a personal computer, baseband signal processing and positioning procedures were completed using real GPS and CAPS radio frequency signals received by two antennas. Three kinds of experiments including GPS positioning, CAPS positioning, and GPS/CAPS positioning were carried out. Stability and precision of the results were analyzed and compared. The experimental results show that the precision of CAPS is similar to that of GPS, while the positioning precision of the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver is 1-2 m higher than that of CAPS or GPS. The smallest average variance of the positioning can be obtained by using the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver.

  19. GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING ChunLin; SHI HuLi; HU Chao

    2009-01-01

    The positioning of the GPS or Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) software receiver was developed on a software receiver platform.The structure of the GPSlCAPS dual-mode software receiver was put forward after analyzing the differences in the satellite identification,ranging code,spread spectrum,coordinate system,time system,carrier band,and navigation data between GPS and CAPS.Based on Matlab software on a personal computer,baseband signal processing and positioning procedures were completed using real GPS and CAPS radio frequency signals received by two antennas.Three kinds of experiments including GPS positioning,CAPS positioning,and GPS/CAPS positioning were carried out.Stability and precision of the results were analyzed and compared.The experimental results show that the precision of CAPS is similar to that of GPS,while the positioning precision of the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver is 1-2 m higher than that of CAPS or GPS.The smallest average variance of the positioning can be obtained by using the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver.

  20. Dual mode acoustic wave sensor for precise pressure reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Xiaojing; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Wang, Yong; Randles, Andrew Benson; Chuan Chai, Kevin Tshun; Cai, Hong; Gu, Yuan Dong

    2014-09-01

    In this letter, a Microelectromechanical system acoustic wave sensor, which has a dual mode (lateral field exited Lamb wave mode and surface acoustic wave (SAW) mode) behavior, is presented for precious pressure change read out. Comb-like interdigital structured electrodes on top of piezoelectric material aluminium nitride (AlN) are used to generate the wave modes. The sensor membrane consists of single crystalline silicon formed by backside-etching of the bulk material of a silicon on insulator wafer having variable device thickness layer (5 μm-50 μm). With this principle, a pressure sensor has been fabricated and mounted on a pressure test package with pressure applied to the backside of the membrane within a range of 0 psi to 300 psi. The temperature coefficient of frequency was experimentally measured in the temperature range of -50 °C to 300 °C. This idea demonstrates a piezoelectric based sensor having two modes SAW/Lamb wave for direct physical parameter—pressure readout and temperature cancellation which can operate in harsh environment such as oil and gas exploration, automobile and aeronautic applications using the dual mode behavior of the sensor and differential readout at the same time.

  1. Dual cavity modes in photonic microcavity-integrated graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattari, M.; Pourali, N.; Sadri, B.

    2017-08-01

    The interaction of dual-micro-cavity defect modes in a one-dimensional photonic crystal consisting of graphene layers is studied by using the transfer matrix method. The numerical relation of resonances and splitting condition of them are determined in this structure. Results show that for specific repetition numbers of surrounding and middle cells of the structure, a defect mode is split into two completely separated modes. Also, threshold states for merging the defect modes are determined for different amounts of these parameters. In addition, the transmission coefficients and the Faraday rotation angles of these states are calculated and compared with each other. By calculation of light intensity distribution inside the structure at resonance wavelengths, we present consistent qualitative interpretation of the analytical results. The information achieved by this research can be useful to fabricate a variety of graphene-based photonic systems and magneto-optical integrated devices such as miniaturized isolators and circulators.

  2. Momentum Transport and Stable Modes in Kelvin-Helmholtz Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, A E; Zweibel, E G

    2016-01-01

    The Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability, which arises in astrophysical and fusion systems where turbulent momentum transport is important, has an unstable and a stable mode at the same scales. We show that in KH turbulence, as in other types of turbulence, the stable mode affects transport, nonlinearly removing energy from the inertial-range cascade to small scales. We quantify energy transfer to stable modes and its associated impact on turbulent amplitudes and transport, demonstrating that stable modes regulate transfer in KH systems. A quasilinear momentum transport calculation is performed to quantify the reduction in momentum transport due to stable modes.

  3. DUAL-MODE PROPULSION SYSTEM ENABLING CUBESAT EXPLORATION OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts (NIAC) Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nathan Jerred; Troy Howe; Adarsh Rajguru; Dr. Steven Howe

    2014-06-01

    It is apparent the cost of planetary exploration is rising as mission budgets declining. Currently small scientific beds geared to performing limited tasks are being developed and launched into low earth orbit (LEO) in the form of small-scale satellite units, i.e., CubeSats. These micro- and nano-satellites are gaining popularity among the university and science communities due to their relatively low cost and design flexibility. To date these small units have been limited to performing tasks in LEO utilizing solar-based power. If a reasonable propulsion system could be developed, these CubeSat platforms could perform exploration of various extra-terrestrial bodies within the solar system engaging a broader range of researchers. Additionally, being mindful of mass, smaller cheaper launch vehicles (~1,000 kgs to LEO) can be targeted. This, in effect, allows for beneficial explora-tion to be conducted within limited budgets. Researchers at the Center for Space Nuclear Re-search (CSNR) are proposing a low mass, radioisotope-based, dual-mode propulsion system capable of extending the exploration realm of these CubeSats out of LEO. The proposed radioisotope-based system would leverage the high specific energies [J/kg] associated with radioisotope materials and enhance their inherent low specific powers [W/g]. This is accomplished by accumulating thermal energy from nuclear decay within a central core over time. This allows for significant amounts of power to be transferred to a flowing gas over short periods of time. In the proposed configuration the stored energy can be utilized in two ways: (1) with direct propellant injection to the core, the energy can be converted into thrust through the use of a converging-diverging nozzle and (2) by flowing a working fluid through the core and subsequent Brayton engine, energy within the core can be converted to electrical energy. The first scenario achieves moderate ranges of thrust, but at a higher Isp than traditional chemical

  4. Computer code and users' guide for the preliminary analysis of dual-mode space nuclear fission solid core power and propulsion systems, NUROC3A. AMS report No. 1239b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, R.A.; Smith, W.W.

    1976-06-30

    The three-volume report describes a dual-mode nuclear space power and propulsion system concept that employs an advanced solid-core nuclear fission reactor coupled via heat pipes to one of several electric power conversion systems. The second volume describes the computer code and users' guide for the preliminary analysis of the system.

  5. Bluetooth Low Power Modes Applied to the Data Transportation Network in Home Automation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etxaniz, Josu; Aranguren, Gerardo

    2017-04-30

    Even though home automation is a well-known research and development area, recent technological improvements in different areas such as context recognition, sensing, wireless communications or embedded systems have boosted wireless smart homes. This paper focuses on some of those areas related to home automation. The paper draws attention to wireless communications issues on embedded systems. Specifically, the paper discusses the multi-hop networking together with Bluetooth technology and latency, as a quality of service (QoS) metric. Bluetooth is a worldwide standard that provides low power multi-hop networking. It is a radio license free technology and establishes point-to-point and point-to-multipoint links, known as piconets, or multi-hop networks, known as scatternets. This way, many Bluetooth nodes can be interconnected to deploy ambient intelligent networks. This paper introduces the research on multi-hop latency done with park and sniff low power modes of Bluetooth over the test platform developed. Besides, an empirical model is obtained to calculate the latency of Bluetooth multi-hop communications over asynchronous links when links in scatternets are always in sniff or the park mode. Smart home devices and networks designers would take advantage of the models and the estimation of the delay they provide in communications along Bluetooth multi-hop networks.

  6. 14 CFR 25.399 - Dual control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dual control system. 25.399 Section 25.399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 25.399 Dual control system. (a) Each dual control system must be designed for the pilots operating in opposition,...

  7. 14 CFR 29.399 - Dual control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dual control system. 29.399 Section 29.399... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Control Surface and System Loads § 29.399 Dual control system. Each dual primary flight control system must be able to withstand the loads that...

  8. Interference of Spin-2 Self-Dual Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Ilha, A; Ilha, Anderson; Wotzasek, Clovis

    2001-01-01

    We study the effects of interference between the self-dual and anti self-dual massive modes of the linearized Einstein-Chern-Simons topological gravity. The dual models to be used in the interference process are carefully analyzed with special emphasis on their propagating spectrum. We identify the opposite dual aspects, necessary for the application of the interference formalism on this model. The soldered theory so obtained displays explicitly massive modes of the Proca type. It may also be written in a form of Polyakov-Weigman identity to a better appreciation of its physical contents.

  9. Dual cure photocatalyst systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoe, R.J.; Brown-Wensley, K.A.; Holmes, G.L.; Mathis, M.D.; McCormick, F.B.; Palazzotto, M.C.; Spurgeon, K.M. (Minnesota Mining and Mfg. Co., St. Paul, MN (USA). Corporate Research Labs.)

    1990-01-01

    A family of dual cure photocatalyst systems is being developed to be used in the solventless processing of organic coatings. The photocatalyst systems consist of organometallic compounds often in combination with other agents. Upon photolysis, the photocatalyst system generates a Lewis acid and a free radical. The Lewis acid can initiate the polymerization of epoxies or the addition of isocyanates and polyols to form polyurethanes while the free radical can initiate the polymerization of acrylates. The performance of the various photocatalyst systems will be compared on the basis of the physical properties of the cured compositions they produce. 17 figs.

  10. New Edge Coherent Mode Providing Continuous Transport in Long Pulse H-mode Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.Q.; Xu, G.S.; Wan, B.N.

    2014-01-01

    An electrostatic coherent mode near the electron diamagnetic frequency (20–90 kHz) is observed in the steep-gradient pedestal region of long pulse H-mode plasmas in the Experimental Advanced Super-conducting Tokamak, using a newly developed dual gas-puff-imaging system and diamond-coated reciproc......An electrostatic coherent mode near the electron diamagnetic frequency (20–90 kHz) is observed in the steep-gradient pedestal region of long pulse H-mode plasmas in the Experimental Advanced Super-conducting Tokamak, using a newly developed dual gas-puff-imaging system and diamond......-coated reciprocating probes. The mode propagates in the electron diamagnetic direction in the plasma frame with poloidal wavelength of ∼8 cm. The mode drives a significant outflow of particles and heat as measured directly with the probes, thus greatly facilitating long pulse H-mode sustainment. This mode shows...

  11. New Edge Coherent Mode Providing Continuous Transport in Long-Pulse H-mode Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. Q.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Ding, S. Y.; Guo, H. Y.; Shao, L. M.; Liu, S. C.; Xu, X. Q.; Wang, E.; Yan, N.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A. H.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Candy, J.; Bravenec, R.; Sun, Y. W.; Shi, T. H.; Liang, Y. F.; Chen, R.; Zhang, W.; Wang, L.; Chen, L.; Zhao, N.; Li, Y. L.; Liu, Y. L.; Hu, G. H.; Gong, X. Z.

    2014-05-01

    An electrostatic coherent mode near the electron diamagnetic frequency (20-90 kHz) is observed in the steep-gradient pedestal region of long pulse H-mode plasmas in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak, using a newly developed dual gas-puff-imaging system and diamond-coated reciprocating probes. The mode propagates in the electron diamagnetic direction in the plasma frame with poloidal wavelength of ˜8 cm. The mode drives a significant outflow of particles and heat as measured directly with the probes, thus greatly facilitating long pulse H-mode sustainment. This mode shows the nature of dissipative trapped electron mode, as evidenced by gyrokinetic turbulence simulations.

  12. USB Dual-Mode Function IP Core Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the specification and implement of a Universal Serial Bus (USB) dual-mode function IP core used for embedded system. Controlled by micro controller/CPU, the novel IP core can function as a USB host controller or USB peripheral controller. When configured as a USB host controller, it supports all USB 1.1 transaction types; supports automatic preamble insertion, and automatic SOF generation and transmission. Otherwise, when it is configured as a USB device by a microprocessor, it operates as a USB peripheral controller compliant with USB2.0 specification.

  13. SPHERICAL COVERAGE DUAL MODE SENSOR FOR UAS SEPARATION ASSURANCE Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proposed is a dual-mode sensor for use aboard unmanned aircraft for safe operation in the NAS that: 1. Incorporates high resolution Millimeter Wave radar with high...

  14. Focusing-schlieren visualization in a dual-mode scramjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchi, Toshinori; Goyne, Christopher P.; Rockwell, Robert D.; McDaniel, James C.

    2015-12-01

    Schlieren imaging is particularly suited to measuring density gradients in compressible flowfields and can be used to capture shock waves and expansion fans, as well as the turbulent structures of mixing and wake flows. Conventional schlieren imaging, however, has difficulty clearly capturing such structures in long-duration supersonic combustion test facilities. This is because the severe flow temperatures locally change the refractive index of the window glass that is being used to provide optical access. On the other hand, focusing-schlieren imaging presents the potential of reduced sensitivity to thermal distortion of the windows and to clearly capture the flow structures even during a combustion test. This reduced sensitivity is due the technique's ability to achieve a narrow depth of focus. As part of this study, a focusing-schlieren system was developed with a depth of focus near ±5 mm and was applied to a direct-connect, continuous-flow type, supersonic combustion test facility with a stagnation temperature near 1200 K. The present system was used to successfully visualize the flowfield inside a dual-mode scramjet. The imaging system captured combustion-induced volumetric expansion of the fuel jet and an anchored bifurcated shock wave at the trailing edge of the ramp fuel injector. This is the first time successful focusing-schlieren measurements have been reported for a dual-mode scramjet.

  15. Process for Operating a Dual-Mode Combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trefny, Charles J. (Inventor); Dippold, Vance F. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A new dual-mode ramjet combustor used for operation over a wide flight Mach number range is described. Subsonic combustion mode is usable to lower flight Mach numbers than current dual-mode scramjets. High speed mode is characterized by supersonic combustion in a free-jet that traverses the subsonic combustion chamber to a variable nozzle throat. Although a variable combustor exit aperture is required, the need for fuel staging to accommodate the combustion process is eliminated. Local heating from shock-boundary-layer interactions on combustor walls is also eliminated.

  16. Review of Transportation Mode Detection techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo Biancat

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the works found in the literature in the field of Transportation Mode Detection (TMD which is a subfield of Activity Recognition aiming at indentifying (i.e. classifying the mean of transportation a person is using. The solutions found in literature have different characteristics according to the device for which the solution was tailored (smartphones or other systems such as, e.g., GPS loggers and to the algorithm used for the classification task. This may vary a lot according to the number and type of input used (e.g. accelerations, GPS, maps information or GIS - Geographical Information System information and to the identified classes of transportation mode. These two aspects are the most relevant to consider when evaluating and comparing the accuracies claimed by each work. A comparison of the works is proposed taking into account the characteristics discussed above. In general the accelerometer is the most widely used sensor for TMD applications, as it limits battery consumption and captures relevant features for detecting motion. Indeed a key challenge in TMD is to detect different motorized classes such as bus, car, train and metro because they share common characteristics (such as e.g. the average speed and accelerations which make hard identifying suitable features for the classification algorithm. Identifying the “walk” and “stationary” transportation modes is a simpler task because they are characterized by distinct features.

  17. A Sliding Mode LCO Regulation Strategy for Dual-Parallel Underactuated UAV Systems Using Synthetic Jet Actuators

    OpenAIRE

    N. Ramos-Pedroza; MacKunis, W.; Reyhanoglu, M.

    2015-01-01

    A sliding mode control- (SMC-) based limit cycle oscillation (LCO) regulation method is presented, which achieves asymptotic LCO suppression for UAVs using synthetic jet actuators (SJAs). With a focus on applications involving small UAVs with limited onboard computational resources, the controller is designed with a simplistic structure, requiring no adaptive laws, function approximators, or complex calculations in the control loop. The control law is rigorously proven to achieve asymptoti...

  18. Financial Management of Distance Learning in Dual-Mode Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumble, Greville

    2012-01-01

    Dual-mode universities operating in a tough economic environment need to be able to answer a range of questions concerning their use of different teaching modes accurately and with confidence. Only an activity-based costing approach will provide them with this tool. Cost studies of other distance learning projects may provide benchmarks against…

  19. An engineering treatise on the CARE II dual mode and coverage models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model used to calculate the reliability of any dual-mode, spare-switching computer system was described, and some illustrative examples were presented. The possibility of extending the resultant computer program further was also examined, enabling it, in particular, to accommodate computer configurations involving more than two modes of operation.

  20. Interaction between dual cavity modes in a planar photonic microcavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Elizabeth; Nair, Rajesh V.; Jagatap, B. N.

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically study the interaction between dual cavity modes in a planar photonic microcavity structure in the optical communication wavelength range. The merging and splitting of cavity mode is analysed with realistic microcavity structures. The merging of dual cavity resonance into a single cavity resonance is achieved by changing the number of layers between the two cavities. The splitting of single cavity resonance into dual cavity resonance is obtained with an increase in the reflectivity of mirrors in the front and rear side of the microcavity structure. The threshold condition for the merging and splitting of cavity mode is established in terms of structural parameters. The physical origin of the merging of dual cavity modes into a single cavity resonance is discussed in terms of the electric field intensity distribution in the microcavity structure. The microcavity structure with dual cavity modes is useful for the generation of entangled photon pairs, for achieving the strong-coupling regime between exciton and photon and for high-resolution multi-wavelength filters in optical communication.

  1. A Sliding Mode LCO Regulation Strategy for Dual-Parallel Underactuated UAV Systems Using Synthetic Jet Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ramos-Pedroza

    2015-01-01

    careful algebraic manipulation in the regulation error system development, along with innovative design of the sliding surface. A detailed model of the UAV LCO dynamics is utilized, and a rigorous analysis is provided to prove asymptotic regulation of the pitching and plunging displacements. Numerical simulation results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the control law.

  2. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  3. Dual-mode latching ferrite devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y.; Jiang, Z.

    1986-05-01

    A primary consideration with microwave ferrite control devices is related to the switching speed. In order to achieve fast switching with the considered devices, an operation in the latching mode is required. A description is given of a new class of ferrite latching devices, taking into account latching quadrupole devices and their modifications. It is pointed out that the advantages of the new devices include fast switching, high electrical performance, and simple construction. According to the utilization of external or internal magnetic return paths, there are two modes of operation in latching ferrite devices. Attention is given to constructions and calculations, the design of a model for each of the two modes of operation, polarization insensitive phase shifters (PIPS) with external magnetic return paths, and PIPS with internal magnetic return paths.

  4. Transportation Modes Classification Using Sensors on Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Hau Fang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the transportation and vehicular modes classification by using big data from smartphone sensors. The three types of sensors used in this paper include the accelerometer, magnetometer, and gyroscope. This study proposes improved features and uses three machine learning algorithms including decision trees, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine to classify the user’s transportation and vehicular modes. In the experiments, we discussed and compared the performance from different perspectives including the accuracy for both modes, the executive time, and the model size. Results show that the proposed features enhance the accuracy, in which the support vector machine provides the best performance in classification accuracy whereas it consumes the largest prediction time. This paper also investigates the vehicle classification mode and compares the results with that of the transportation modes.

  5. Transportation Modes Classification Using Sensors on Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shih-Hau; Liao, Hao-Hsiang; Fei, Yu-Xiang; Chen, Kai-Hsiang; Huang, Jen-Wei; Lu, Yu-Ding; Tsao, Yu

    2016-08-19

    This paper investigates the transportation and vehicular modes classification by using big data from smartphone sensors. The three types of sensors used in this paper include the accelerometer, magnetometer, and gyroscope. This study proposes improved features and uses three machine learning algorithms including decision trees, K-nearest neighbor, and support vector machine to classify the user's transportation and vehicular modes. In the experiments, we discussed and compared the performance from different perspectives including the accuracy for both modes, the executive time, and the model size. Results show that the proposed features enhance the accuracy, in which the support vector machine provides the best performance in classification accuracy whereas it consumes the largest prediction time. This paper also investigates the vehicle classification mode and compares the results with that of the transportation modes.

  6. Nonlinear control for dual quaternion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, William D.

    The motion of rigid bodies includes three degrees of freedom (DOF) for rotation, generally referred to as roll, pitch and yaw, and 3 DOF for translation, generally described as motion along the x, y and z axis, for a total of 6 DOF. Many complex mechanical systems exhibit this type of motion, with constraints, such as complex humanoid robotic systems, multiple ground vehicles, unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), multiple spacecraft vehicles, and even quantum mechanical systems. These motions historically have been analyzed independently, with separate control algorithms being developed for rotation and translation. The goal of this research is to study the full 6 DOF of rigid body motion together, developing control algorithms that will affect both rotation and translation simultaneously. This will prove especially beneficial in complex systems in the aerospace and robotics area where translational motion and rotational motion are highly coupled, such as when spacecraft have body fixed thrusters. A novel mathematical system known as dual quaternions provide an efficient method for mathematically modeling rigid body transformations, expressing both rotation and translation. Dual quaternions can be viewed as a representation of the special Euclidean group SE(3). An eight dimensional representation of screw theory (combining dual numbers with traditional quaternions), dual quaternions allow for the development of control techniques for 6 DOF motion simultaneously. In this work variable structure nonlinear control methods are developed for dual quaternion systems. These techniques include use of sliding mode control. In particular, sliding mode methods are developed for use in dual quaternion systems with unknown control direction. This method, referred to as self-reconfigurable control, is based on the creation of multiple equilibrium surfaces for the system in the extended state space. Also in this work, the control problem for a class of driftless nonlinear systems is

  7. Thermodynamic Analysis of Dual-Mode Scramjet Engine Operation and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggins, David; Tacket, Regan; Taylor, Trent; Auslender, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Recent analytical advances in understanding the performance continuum (the thermodynamic spectrum) for air-breathing engines based on fundamental second-law considerations have clarified scramjet and ramjet operation, performance, and characteristics. Second-law based analysis is extended specifically in this work to clarify and describe the performance characteristics for dual-mode scramjet operation in the mid-speed range of flight Mach 4 to 7. This is done by a fundamental investigation of the complex but predictable interplay between heat release and irreversibilities in such an engine; results demonstrate the flow and performance character of the dual mode regime and of dual mode transition behavior. Both analytical and computational (multi-dimensional CFD) studies of sample dual-mode flow-fields are performed in order to demonstrate the second-law capability and performance and operability issues. The impact of the dual-mode regime is found to be characterized by decreasing overall irreversibility with increasing heat release, within the operability limits of the system.

  8. A dual-chamber pacing mode to minimize ventricular pacing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rakovec

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Though patients with sick sinus syndrome theoretically need an atrial pacemaker only, they usually receive a ventricular or a dual-chamber pacemaker because of possible developement of atrioventricular conduction abnormalities. Right ventricular pacing produces left bundle branch block (i.e. pacing-induced ventricular desynchronization, promoting heart failure and atrial fibrillation. This problem can be solved by a special pacing mode which on one hand preserves the safety of dual-chamber pacing and on the other hand minimizes right ventricular pacing.

  9. Experimental study on a -60 ℃ cascade refrigerator with dual running mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiu-fang LIU; Jiong-hui LIU; Hong-li ZHAO; Qiao-yu ZHANG; Juan-li MA

    2012-01-01

    In this study,an experimental setup is designed and built to investigate the feasibility and performance of the proposed dual-mode cascade refrigeration cycle.The apparatus can be operated in two modes:dual-stage mode and single-stage mode such that the low temperature cycle (LTC) can be operated together with the high temperature cycle (HTC) or can run independently.Experimental results validate the feasibility of independent operation of LTC.The performance of the independent operation of LTC mode is theoretically investigated using experimental data as bases.Detailed suggestions are made for the improvement of the coefficient of performance (COP) of the experimental system.Theoretically,high COP of the cycle provides excellent application for the presented refrigeration cycle.

  10. Experimental Array for Generating Dual Circularly-Polarized Dual-Mode OAM Radio Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xu-Dong; Liang, Xian-Ling; Sun, Yun-Tao; Hu, Peng-Cheng; Yao, Yu; Wang, Kun; Geng, Jun-Ping; Jin, Rong-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Recently, vortex beam carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM) for radio communications has attracted much attention for its potential of transmitting multiple signals simultaneously at the same frequency, which can be used to increase the channel capacity. However, most of the methods for getting multi-mode OAM radio beams are of complicated structure and very high cost. This paper provides an effective solution of generating dual circularly-polarized (CP) dual-mode OAM beams. The antenna consists of four dual-CP elements which are sequentially rotated 90 degrees in the clockwise direction. Different from all previous published research relating to OAM generation by phased arrays, the four elements are fed with the same phase for both left-hand circular polarization (LHCP) and right-hand circular polarization (RHCP). The dual-mode operation for OAM is achieved through the opposite phase differences generated for LHCP and RHCP, when the dual-CP elements are sequentially rotated in the clockwise direction. The measured results coincide well with the simulated ones, which verified the effectiveness of the proposed design.

  11. The Methodology of Selecting the Transport Mode for Companies on the Slovak Transport Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černá, Lenka; Zitrický, Vladislav; Daniš, Jozef

    2017-03-01

    Transport volume in the Slovak Republic is growing continuously every year. This rising trend is influenced by the development of car industry and its suppliers. Slovak republic has also a geographic strategy position in middle Europe from the side of transport corridors (east-west and north-south). The development of transport volume in freight transport depends on the transport and business processes between the European Union and China and it is an opportunity for Slovak republic to obtain transit transport flows. In the Slovak Republic, road transport has a dominant position in the transport market. The volume of road transport has gradually increased over the past years. The increase of road transport is reflected on the highways and speed roads in regions which have higher economic potential. The increase of rail transport as seen on the main rail corridors is not as significant as in road transport. Trade globalization also has an influence on the increase of transport volume in intermodal transport. Predicted increase in transport volume for this transport mode is from 2,3 mil ton per year at present to 8 mil ton in the year 2020. Selection of transport mode and carrier is an important aspect for logistic management, because companies (customers) want to reduce the number of carriers which they trade and they create the system of several key carriers. Bigger transport volume and more qualitative transport service give a possibility to reduce transport costs. This trend is positive for carriers too, because the carriers can focus only on the selected customers and provide more qualitative services. The paper is focused on the selection of transport mode based on the proposed methodology. The aims of the paper are, definition of criteria which directly influence the selection of transport modes, determination of criteria based on the subjectively methods, creation of process for the selection of transport modes and practical application of proposed

  12. Active power filter for harmonic compensation using a digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zou, Zhixiang; Wang, Zheng; Cheng, Ming;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an digital dual-mode-structure repetitive control approach for the single-phase shunt active power filter (APF), which aims to enhance the tracking ability and eliminate arbitrary order harmonic. The proposed repetitive control scheme blends the characteristics of both odd......-harmonic repetitive control and even-harmonic repetitive control. Moreover, the convergence rate is faster than conventional repetitive controller. Additionally, the parameters have been designed and optimized for the dual-mode structure repetitive control to improve the performance of APF system. Experimental...... results on a laboratory setup are given to verify the proposed control scheme....

  13. A Compact Dual-Mode Wearable Antenna for Body-Centric Wireless Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hsien Lin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The miniaturization of electronic devices is leading to the creation of body-centric wireless communications (BCWCs, in which wireless devices are attached to the human body. In particular, personal healthcare is considered as the biggest potential application. In this paper, we propose a compact wearable dual-mode (on-body and off-body modes antenna for personal healthcare systems. For on-body mode at 10 MHz, received voltages are analyzed with a chest phantom, while for the off-body mode in the 2.4 GHz ISM band, reflection coefficient (S11 and radiation patterns are studied.

  14. Switchable dual-mode all-fiber laser with few-mode fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Wenxing; Qi, Yanhui; Yang, Yuguang; Jiang, Youchao; Wu, Yue; Xu, Yao; Yao, Shuzhi; Jian, Shuisheng

    2017-09-01

    We propose a new approach to realize switchable mode operation in a few-mode erbium-doped fiber laser. The ring fiber laser structure is constructed with a core-offset splicing between single-mode fiber and dual-mode fiber. Stable operating on the fundamental mode laser and second-order mode laser individually or simultaneously is realized by appropriately adjusting the state of the polarization controller and bending status of the few-mode fiber Bragg grating. The narrow 3 dB linewidth less than 0.02 nm and high optical signal to noise ratio more than 42 dB are obtained for both modes in either separate laser or simultaneous laser operating conditions.

  15. Analysis method and principle of dual-mode electro-mechanical variable transmission program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongcai; Yan, Qingdong; Xiang, Changle; Wang, Weida

    2012-05-01

    Automotive industry, as an important pillar of the national economy, has been rapidly developing in recent years. But proplems such as energy comsumption and environmental pollution are posed at the same time. Electro-mechanical variable transmission system is considered one of avilable workarounds. It is brought forward a kind of design methods of dual-mode electro-mechanical variable transmission system rotational speed characteristics and dual-mode drive diagrams. With the motor operating behavior of running in four quadrants and the speed characteristics of the simple internal and external meshing single planetary gear train, four kinds of dual-mode electro-mechanical transmission system scheme are designed. And the velocity, torque and power characteristics of one of the programs are analyzed. The magnitude of the electric split-flow power is an important factor which influences the system performance, so in the parameters matching design, it needs to reduce the power needs under the first mode of the motor. The motor, output rotational speed range and the position of the mode switching point have relationships with the characteristics design of the planetary gear set. The analysis method is to provide a reference for hybrid vehicles' design. As the involved rotational speed and torque relationships are the natural contact of every part of transmission system, a theory basis of system program and performance analysis is provided.

  16. The Design of the Vehicle Terminal System for Navigation Based on BD2/GPS Dual-mode%BD2/GPS双模车载导航终端系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 蒋玉东

    2013-01-01

    As a satellite navigation system that has independently developed and testablished by china, the use of the BDS wil fundamental y solve the problem of facing the risk of long-term dependence on GPS system. However, before the technology is not ful y mature, the dual-mode navigation based BD2/GPS wil be the development trend of the vehicle navigation. This paper presents a design program of the vehicle terminal system for navigation based on BD2/GPS dual-mode, including hardware and software systems, and describes the design ideas.%  作为中国自主研制和建立的卫星导航系统,BDS的运行将从根本上解决长期依赖于GPS系统面临的风险问题。但在技术没完全成熟之前, BD2/GPS双模导航将是车载导航的发展趋势。文章提出了一种基于BD2/GPS的双模车载导航终端系统的设计方案,包括硬件系统和软件系统,并介绍了设计思路。

  17. Electromagnetic Transport From Microtearing Mode Turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenfelder, W; Kaye, S M; Nevins, W M; Wang, E; Bell, R E; Hammett, G W; LeBlanc, B P; Mikkelsen, D R

    2011-03-23

    This Letter presents non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing mode turbulence. The simulations include collisional and electromagnetic effects and use experimental parameters from a high beta discharge in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The predicted electron thermal transport is comparable to that given by experimental analysis, and it is dominated by the electromagnetic contribution of electrons free streaming along the resulting stochastic magnetic field line trajectories. Experimental values of flow shear can significantly reduce the predicted transport.

  18. Tuning the relaxation rates of dual-mode T1/T2 nanoparticle contrast agents: a study into the ideal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keasberry, Natasha A.; Bañobre-López, Manuel; Wood, Christopher; Stasiuk, Graeme. J.; Gallo, Juan; Long, Nicholas. J.

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent imaging modality. However the low sensitivity of the technique poses a challenge to achieving an accurate image of function at the molecular level. To overcome this, contrast agents are used; typically gadolinium based agents for T1 weighted imaging, or iron oxide based agents for T2 imaging. Traditionally, only one imaging mode is used per diagnosis although several physiological situations are known to interfere with the signal induced by the contrast agents in each individual imaging mode acquisition. Recently, the combination of both T1 and T2 imaging capabilities into a single platform has emerged as a tool to reduce uncertainties in MR image analysis. To date, contradicting reports on the effect on the contrast of the coupling of a T1 and T2 agent have hampered the application of these specialised probes. Herein, we present a systematic experimental study on a range of gadolinium-labelled magnetite nanoparticles envisioned to bring some light into the mechanism of interaction between T1 and T2 components, and advance towards the design of efficient (dual) T1 and T2 MRI probes. Unexpected behaviours observed in some of the constructs will be discussed. In this study, we demonstrate that the relaxivity of such multimodal probes can be rationally tuned to obtain unmatched potentials in MR imaging, exemplified by preparation of the magnetite-based nanoparticle with the highest T2 relaxivity described to date.Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an excellent imaging modality. However the low sensitivity of the technique poses a challenge to achieving an accurate image of function at the molecular level. To overcome this, contrast agents are used; typically gadolinium based agents for T1 weighted imaging, or iron oxide based agents for T2 imaging. Traditionally, only one imaging mode is used per diagnosis although several physiological situations are known to interfere with the signal induced by the contrast agents in

  19. Design of Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Using Dual-Mode Defected Stub Loaded Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dechang Huang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach for designing a dual-band bandpass filter (BPF using defected stub loaded resonator (DSLR is presented in this paper. The proposed DSLR consists of two fundamental resonant modes and some resonant characteristics have been investigated by EM software of Ansoft HFSS. Then, based on two coupled DSLRs, a dual-band response BPF that operates at 2.4 GHz and 3.5 GHz is designed and implemented for WLAN and WIMAX application. The first passband is constructed by two lower frequencies of the coupled DSLRs and the second passband is produced by two higher ones; the coupling scheme of them is also given. Finally, the dual-band BPF is fabricated and measured; a good agreement between simulation and measurement is obtained, which verifies the validity of the design methodology.

  20. Dual Transport Process for Targeted Delivery in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, W.; Fan, J.

    2015-12-01

    The targeted delivery in porous media is a promising technology to encapsulate the solute (i.e., the cargo) in colloid-like microcapsules (i.e., the carriers), transport the microcapsules in the targeted location in porous media, and then release the solute. While extensive literatures and applications about the drug delivery in human and animal bodies exist, the targeted delivery using similar delivery carriers in subsurface porous media is not well understood. The dual transport process study is an explorative study for the targeted delivery in porous media. While the colloid transport is dominated by the advection process and the solute transport is dominated by the advection-dispersion, the dual transport process is the process with the first step of carrier transport, which is dominated by advection, and then after the release of cargo, the transport of cargo is dominated by advection-dispersion. By applying the random walk particle tracking (RWPT) approach, we investigate how the carriers transport in porous media and how the cargo release mechanisms affect the cargo distribution for the targeted delivery in various patterns of porous media. The RWPT numerical model will be verified against the experimental results of dual transport process in packed-disk 2D micromodels. The understanding of the mechanism of dual transport process is crucial to achieve the potential applications of targeted delivery in improved oil and gas recovery, CO2 sequestration, environmental remediation, and soil biomediation.

  1. Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength Tm-doped mode-locked fiber laser by nonlinear polarization evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhiyu; Li, Xiaohui; Tang, Yulong; Shum, Perry Ping; Yu, Xia; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Qi Jie

    2015-02-23

    We propose and demonstrate a tunable and switchable dual-wavelength ultra-fast Tm-doped fiber laser. The tunability is based on nonlinear polarization evolution (NPE) technique in a passively mode-locked laser cavity. The NPE effect induces wavelength-dependent loss in the cavity to effectively alleviate mode competition and enables the multiwavelength mode locking. The laser exhibits tunable dual-wavelength mode locking over a wide range from 1852 to 1886 nm. The system has compact structure and both the wavelength tuning and switching capabilities can be realized by controlling the polarization in the fiber ring cavity.

  2. Extended State Observer Based Adaptive Back-Stepping Sliding Mode Control of Electronic Throttle in Transportation Cyber-Physical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongfu Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the high accuracy requirement of information exchange via vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V communications, an extended state observer (ESO is designed to estimate the opening angle change of an electronic throttle (ET, wherein the emphasis is placed on the nonlinear uncertainties of stick-slip friction and spring in the system as well as the existence of external disturbance. In addition, a back-stepping sliding mode controller incorporating an adaptive control law is presented, and the stability and robustness of the system are analyzed using Lyapunov technique. Finally, numerical experiments are conducted using simulation. The results show that, compared with back-stepping control (BSC, the proposed controller achieves superior performance in terms of the steady-state error and rising time.

  3. Dual-polarization and dual-mode orbital angular momentum radio vortex beam generated by using reflective metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shixing; Li, Long; Shi, Guangming

    2016-08-01

    A metasurface, which is composed of printed cross-dipole elements with different arm lengths, is designed, fabricated, and experimentally demonstrated to generate orbital angular momentum (OAM) vortex waves of dual polarizations and dual modes in the radio frequency domain simultaneously. The prototype of a practical metasurface is fabricated and measured to validate the results of theoretical analysis and design at 5.8 GHz. Numerical and experimental results verify that vortex waves with dual OAM modes and dual polarizations can be flexibly generated by using a reflective metasurface. The proposed method paves a way to generate diverse OAM vortex waves for radio frequency and microwave wireless communication applications.

  4. 50 MHz dual-mode buck DC—DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhang; Xing, Wang; Wencheng, Yu; Ye, Tan; Yizhong, Yang; Guangjun, Xie

    2016-08-01

    A 50 MHz 1.8/0.9 V dual-mode buck DC—DC converter is proposed in this paper. A dual-mode control for high-frequency DC—DC converter is presented to enhance the conversion efficiency of light-load in this paper. A novel zero-crossing detector is proposed to shut down synchronous rectification transistor NMOS when the inductor crosses zero, which can decrease the power loss caused by reverse current and the trip point is adjusted by regulating IBIAS (BIAS current). A new logic control for pulse-skipping modulation loop is also presented in this paper, which has advantages of simple structure and low power loss. The proposed converter is realized in SMIC 0.18 μm 1-poly 6-metal mixed signal CMOS process. With switching loss, conduction loss and reverse current related loss optimized, an efficiency of 57% is maintained at 10 mA, and a peak efficiency of 71% is measured at nominal operating conditions with a voltage conversion of 1.8 to 0.9 V. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61404043, 61401137), the Key Laboratory of Infrared Imaging Material and Detectors, Shanghai Institute of Technical Physics, CAS (Nos. IIMDKFJJ-13-06, IIMDKFJJ-14-03), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central University (No. 2015HGZX0026).

  5. Thermal transport in fractal systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjems, Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    Recent experiments on the thermal transport in systems with partial fractal geometry, silica aerogels, are reviewed. The individual contributions from phonons, fractons and particle modes, respectively, have been identified and can be described by quantitative models consistent with heat capacity...... data. The interpretation in the particle mode regime sheds light on the mechanisms for thermal conductivity in normal vitreous silica....

  6. Sistim Tampilan Jadwal Pesawat Udara Dengan Mode Dual Display Di Bandara Ahmad Yani Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Suseno

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Schedule for airline passengers is important information that is provided by the airport manager. Airport flight information on the display screen using a media schedule called flight information display system (FIDS. FIDS system comes from two processes that display arrival and departure information. The device comes from the appearance of two separate computer with information for each. The use of two computers that are used to the old system at the airport FIDS devices. This research aims to create an integrated FIDS system device to combine the information into one unified display in dual display mode pattern display (dual view. Design systems using software programming VB6 and hardware modifications applied to design a system FIDS new on view flight schedules. With a centralized system obtained an interactive display schedules for flight schedule. Keywords : FIDS system; Flight schedule; Display  information

  7. 双模式风光互补发电系统结构研究%Research on Structure of Photovoltaic and Wind Hybrid Generation System with Dual-Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴威; 张吉; 崔琛; 范秋杰; 张帆

    2012-01-01

    介绍了小型风光互补发电系统的运行原理,分析了并网型和离网型系统的常用结构,并针对系统离网运行可能存在的极端情况,提出一种双模式智能切换运行的风光互补系统结构,实现智能离/并网运行功能,引入双向电能表,记录电能在系统与电网间的双向流动,实现新能源发电在电力市场的流通,对风光互补发电系统的研究提供了一定的借鉴作用。%Introduction was made to the operational principle of photovoltaic and wind hybrid generation system. Analysis was made to the common structures of grid-on and grid-off systems. This paper raised a kind of photovoltaic and wind hybrid generation system with dual-mode, which could change the grid-on and grid-off mode intelligently under extreme conditions. What is more, a dual-direction electric meter was used to record the mutual power flow between hybrid system and grid, which aimed to imply the new power generation in the flow of the electricity market, providing a reference for the research ofphotovoltaic and wind hybrid generation system.

  8. A dual-mediated liposomal drug delivery system targeting the brain: rational construction, integrity evaluation across the blood–brain barrier, and the transporting mechanism to glioma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Liu, Xiao-Na; Wang, Gui-Ling; Hei, Yu; Meng, Shuai; Yang, Ling-Fei; Yuan, Lan; Xie, Ying

    2017-01-01

    As the global population ages, cancer rates increase worldwide, and degenerative diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), brain tumors, and inflammation threaten human health more frequently. We designed a dual-mediated (receptor-mediated and adsorption-mediated) liposome, named transferrin–cell penetrating peptide–sterically stabilized liposome (TF-CPP-SSL), to improve therapy for gliomas through combining molecular recognition of transferrin receptors (TF-Rs) on the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and glioma cells with the internalization and lysosomal escaping ability of CPP. Based on the systematic investigation of structure–activity relations on the cellular level, we constructed TF-CPP-SSL rationally by conjugating TF and CPP moieties to the liposomes via PEG3.4K and PEG2.0K, respectively, and found the optimum densities of TF and CPP were 1.8% and 4%, respectively. These liposomes had the highest targeting efficacy for brain microvascular endothelial cell and C6 cell uptake but avoided capture by normal cells. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer technology and coculture models of BBB and glioma C6 cells indicated that TF-CPP-SSL was transported across the BBB without drug leakage, liposome breakup, or cleavage of ligand. TF-CPP-SSL offered advantages for crossing the BBB and entering into glioma C6 cells. Real-time confocal viewing revealed that TF-CPP-SSL was entrapped in endosomes of glioma C6 cells and then escaped from lysosomes successfully to release the liposomal contents into the cytosol. Entrapped contents, such as doxorubicin, could then enter the nucleus to exert pharmacological effects. PMID:28405164

  9. System with potential dual modes of metal-ligand cooperation: highly catalytically active pyridine-based PNNH-Ru pincer complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogler, Eran; Garg, Jai Anand; Hu, Peng; Leitus, Gregory; Shimon, Linda J W; Milstein, David

    2014-11-24

    Metal-ligand cooperation (MLC) plays an important role in catalysis. Systems reported so far are generally based on a single mode of MLC. We report here a system with potential for MLC by both amine-amide and aromatization-dearomatization ligand transformations, based on a new class of phosphino-pyridyl ruthenium pincer complexes, bearing sec-amine coordination. These pincer complexes are effective catalysts under unprecedented mild conditions for acceptorless dehydrogenative coupling of alcohols to esters at 35 °C and hydrogenation of esters at room temperature and 5 atm H2. The likely actual catalyst, a novel, crystallographically characterized monoanionic de-aromatized enamido-Ru(II) complex, was obtained by deprotonation of both the N-H and the methylene proton of the N-arm of the pincer ligand. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Using smart phone sensors to detect transportation modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hao; Qiao, Yanyou; Jian, Jun; Chang, Yuanfei

    2014-11-04

    The proliferation of mobile smart devices has led to a rapid increase of location-based services, many of which are amassing large datasets of user trajectory information. Unfortunately, current trajectory information is not yet sufficiently rich to support classification of user transportation modes. In this paper, we propose a method that employs both the Global Positioning System and accelerometer data from smart devices to classify user outdoor transportation modes. The classified modes include walking, bicycling, and motorized transport, in addition to the motionless (stationary) state, for which we provide new depth analysis. In our classification, stationary mode has two sub-modes: stay (remaining in the same place for a prolonged time period; e.g., in a parked vehicle) and wait (remaining at a location for a short period; e.g., waiting at a red traffic light). These two sub-modes present different semantics for data mining applications. We use support vector machines with parameters that are optimized for pattern recognition. In addition, we employ ant colony optimization to reduce the dimension of features and analyze their relative importance. The resulting classification system achieves an accuracy rate of 96.31% when applied to a dataset obtained from 18 mobile users.

  11. Using Smart Phone Sensors to Detect Transportation Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Xia

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of mobile smart devices has led to a rapid increase of location-based services, many of which are amassing large datasets of user trajectory information. Unfortunately, current trajectory information is not yet sufficiently rich to support classification of user transportation modes. In this paper, we propose a method that employs both the Global Positioning System and accelerometer data from smart devices to classify user outdoor transportation modes. The classified modes include walking, bicycling, and motorized transport, in addition to the motionless (stationary state, for which we provide new depth analysis. In our classification, stationary mode has two sub-modes: stay (remaining in the same place for a prolonged time period; e.g., in a parked vehicle and wait (remaining at a location for a short period; e.g., waiting at a red traffic light. These two sub-modes present different semantics for data mining applications. We use support vector machines with parameters that are optimized for pattern recognition. In addition, we employ ant colony optimization to reduce the dimension of features and analyze their relative importance. The resulting classification system achieves an accuracy rate of 96.31% when applied to a dataset obtained from 18 mobile users.

  12. Nonlinear interface optical switch structure for dual mode switching revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bussjager, Rebecca J.; Osman, Joseph M.; Chaiken, Joseph

    1998-07-01

    There is a need for devices which will allow integration of photonic/optical computing subsystems into electronic computing architectures. This presentation reviews the nonlinear interface optical switch (NIOS) concept and then describes a new effect, the erasable optical memory (EOM) effect. We evaluate an extension of the NIOS device to allow simultaneous optical/electronic, i.e. dual mode, switching of light utilizing the EOM effect. Specific devices involve the fabrication of thin film tungsten (VI) oxide (WO3) and tungsten (V) oxide (W2O5) on the hypotenuse of glass (BK-7), fused silica (SiO2) and zinc selenide (ZnSe) right angle prisms. Chemical reactions and temporal response tests were performed and are discussed.

  13. The Research of the dual-mode automatic solar tracking system%双模式太阳能自动跟踪系统的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩玥; 白迪; 刘磊

    2016-01-01

    In orderto improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy,the paper established a solar eclipse system of the microcontroller as the core controlle. The system judge the weather conditions,and then adopt the appropriate tracking mode, so s to realize the automatic tracking of the sun.The design of the system has a certain theoretical and practical significance to improve the utilization efficiency of solar energy.%为了提高太阳能的光电转换率,该课题构建了一套以单片机为核心控制器的太阳能自动跟踪系统。该系统根据天气条件,相应的选择光电跟踪或太阳运动轨迹跟踪方式对太阳实现跟踪。系统的设计对提高太阳能的利用效率具有一定的理论和实际意义。

  14. Social marketing of alternative transportation modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    Researchers and practitioners working with travel demand management (TDM) seem to be increasingly interested in social marketing as a means for promoting non-car modes of transportation. However, as is true for social marketing in general, there is little clarity of the social marketing approach...... associated with TDM. Hence, it is not surprising that the effectiveness of this means is subject to considerable uncertainty. This chapter outlines the field and definition of social marketing and reviews practical experience and research on social marketing in TDM as a basis for evaluating the usefulness...... of social marketing in this area....

  15. Social marketing of alternative transportation modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    Researchers and practitioners working with travel demand management (TDM) seem to be increasingly interested in social marketing as a means for promoting non-car modes of transportation. However, as is true for social marketing in general, there is little clarity of the social marketing approach...... associated with TDM. Hence, it is not surprising that the effectiveness of this means is subject to considerable uncertainty. This chapter outlines the field and definition of social marketing and reviews practical experience and research on social marketing in TDM as a basis for evaluating the usefulness...... of social marketing in this area....

  16. Single vs. dual mode stimulation in spinal cord stimulation - what is the difference?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manola, L.; Holsheimer, J.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. Stimulation with dual percutaneous leads is often used in SCS. Either a single generator gives pulses to both leads simultaneously (single mode), or two generators give pulses to each lead alternately (dual mode) [1]. The aim was to compare theoretically the performance of these stimul

  17. Silicon Integrated Dual-Mode Interferometer with Differential Outputs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas Hoppe

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The dual-mode interferometer (DMI is an attractive alternative to Mach-Zehnder interferometers for sensor purposes, achieving sensitivities to refractive index changes close to state-of-the-art. Modern designs on silicon-on-insulator (SOI platforms offer thermally stable and compact devices with insertion losses of less than 1 dB and high extinction ratios. Compact arrays of multiple DMIs in parallel are easy to fabricate due to the simple structure of the DMI. In this work, the principle of operation of an integrated DMI with differential outputs is presented which allows the unambiguous phase shift detection with a single wavelength measurement, rather than using a wavelength sweep and evaluating the optical output power spectrum. Fluctuating optical input power or varying attenuation due to different analyte concentrations can be compensated by observing the sum of the optical powers at the differential outputs. DMIs with two differential single-mode outputs are fabricated in a 250 nm SOI platform, and corresponding measurements are shown to explain the principle of operation in detail. A comparison of DMIs with the conventional Mach-Zehnder interferometer using the same technology concludes this work.

  18. A Wearable Goggle Navigation System for Dual-Mode Optical and Ultrasound Localization of Suspicious Lesions: Validation Studies Using Tissue-Simulating Phantoms and an Ex Vivo Human Breast Tissue Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zeshu; Pei, Jing; Wang, Dong; Gan, Qi; Ye, Jian; Yue, Jian; Wang, Benzhong; Povoski, Stephen P; Martin, Edward W; Hitchcock, Charles L; Yilmaz, Alper; Tweedle, Michael F; Shao, Pengfei; Xu, Ronald X

    2016-01-01

    Surgical resection remains the primary curative treatment for many early-stage cancers, including breast cancer. The development of intraoperative guidance systems for identifying all sites of disease and improving the likelihood of complete surgical resection is an area of active ongoing research, as this can lead to a decrease in the need of subsequent additional surgical procedures. We develop a wearable goggle navigation system for dual-mode optical and ultrasound imaging of suspicious lesions. The system consists of a light source module, a monochromatic CCD camera, an ultrasound system, a Google Glass, and a host computer. It is tested in tissue-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo human breast tissue model. Our experiments demonstrate that the surgical navigation system provides useful guidance for localization and core needle biopsy of simulated tumor within the tissue-simulating phantom, as well as a core needle biopsy and subsequent excision of Indocyanine Green (ICG)-fluorescing sentinel lymph nodes. Our experiments support the contention that this wearable goggle navigation system can be potentially very useful and fully integrated by the surgeon for optimizing many aspects of oncologic surgery. Further engineering optimization and additional in vivo clinical validation work is necessary before such a surgical navigation system can be fully realized in the everyday clinical setting.

  19. A Wearable Goggle Navigation System for Dual-Mode Optical and Ultrasound Localization of Suspicious Lesions: Validation Studies Using Tissue-Simulating Phantoms and an Ex Vivo Human Breast Tissue Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeshu Zhang

    Full Text Available Surgical resection remains the primary curative treatment for many early-stage cancers, including breast cancer. The development of intraoperative guidance systems for identifying all sites of disease and improving the likelihood of complete surgical resection is an area of active ongoing research, as this can lead to a decrease in the need of subsequent additional surgical procedures. We develop a wearable goggle navigation system for dual-mode optical and ultrasound imaging of suspicious lesions. The system consists of a light source module, a monochromatic CCD camera, an ultrasound system, a Google Glass, and a host computer. It is tested in tissue-simulating phantoms and an ex vivo human breast tissue model. Our experiments demonstrate that the surgical navigation system provides useful guidance for localization and core needle biopsy of simulated tumor within the tissue-simulating phantom, as well as a core needle biopsy and subsequent excision of Indocyanine Green (ICG-fluorescing sentinel lymph nodes. Our experiments support the contention that this wearable goggle navigation system can be potentially very useful and fully integrated by the surgeon for optimizing many aspects of oncologic surgery. Further engineering optimization and additional in vivo clinical validation work is necessary before such a surgical navigation system can be fully realized in the everyday clinical setting.

  20. Center Frequency Stabilization in Planar Dual-Mode Resonators during Mode-Splitting Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Adham; Soliman, Mina H.

    2017-03-01

    Shape symmetry in dual-mode planar electromagnetic resonators results in their ability to host two degenerate resonant modes. As the designer enforces a controllable break in the symmetry, the degeneracy is removed and the two modes couple, exchanging energy and elevating the resonator into its desirable second-order resonance operation. The amount of coupling is controlled by the degree of asymmetry introduced. However, this mode coupling (or splitting) usually comes at a price. The centre frequency of the perturbed resonator is inadvertently drifted from its original value prior to coupling. Maintaining centre frequency stability during mode splitting is a nontrivial geometric design problem. In this paper, we analyse the problem and propose a novel method to compensate for this frequency drift, based on field analysis and perturbation theory, and we validate the solution through a practical design example and measurements. The analytical method used works accurately within the perturbational limit. It may also be used as a starting point for further numerical optimization algorithms, reducing the required computational time during design, when larger perturbations are made to the resonator. In addition to enabling the novel design example presented, it is hoped that the findings will inspire akin designs for other resonator shapes, in different disciplines and applications.

  1. Center Frequency Stabilization in Planar Dual-Mode Resonators during Mode-Splitting Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, Adham; Soliman, Mina H.

    2017-01-01

    Shape symmetry in dual-mode planar electromagnetic resonators results in their ability to host two degenerate resonant modes. As the designer enforces a controllable break in the symmetry, the degeneracy is removed and the two modes couple, exchanging energy and elevating the resonator into its desirable second-order resonance operation. The amount of coupling is controlled by the degree of asymmetry introduced. However, this mode coupling (or splitting) usually comes at a price. The centre frequency of the perturbed resonator is inadvertently drifted from its original value prior to coupling. Maintaining centre frequency stability during mode splitting is a nontrivial geometric design problem. In this paper, we analyse the problem and propose a novel method to compensate for this frequency drift, based on field analysis and perturbation theory, and we validate the solution through a practical design example and measurements. The analytical method used works accurately within the perturbational limit. It may also be used as a starting point for further numerical optimization algorithms, reducing the required computational time during design, when larger perturbations are made to the resonator. In addition to enabling the novel design example presented, it is hoped that the findings will inspire akin designs for other resonator shapes, in different disciplines and applications. PMID:28272422

  2. Some issues of passenger choice of suburban transport mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Тetyana М. Grigorova

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article the passenger choice of transport mode for moving to suburban is discussed. The analysis of methods of Transport Management in suburban transportation showed that they did not fully take into account the effect of the transport process parameters on the passenger choice of transport mode for travel. The aim of research is to determine the value of the factors that influence passenger choice of suburban transport. The study was conducted on the basis of passenger survey on the factors affecting the choice of transport mode, and the importance of these factors. Kendall's coefficient of concordance its statistical significance were used to evaluate the consistency of expert opinion. The main factors for choosing the mode of suburban transport are identified. The identified factors can then be used in determining selection patterns of suburban transport mode.

  3. Unidirectional, dual-comb lasing under multiple pulse formation mechanisms in a passively mode-locked fiber ring laser

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Ya; Hu, Guoqing; Li, Cui; Zhao, Bofeng; Zheng, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Dual-comb lasers from which asynchronous ultrashort pulses can be simultaneously generated have recently become an interesting research subject. They could be an intriguing alternative to the current dual-laser optical-frequency-comb source with highly sophisticated electronic control systems. If generated through a common light path traveled by all pulses, the common-mode noises between the spectral lines of different pulse trains could be significantly reduced. Therefore, coherent dual-comb generation from a completely common-path, unidirectional lasing cavity would be an interesting territory to explore. In this paper, we demonstrate such a dual-comb lasing scheme based on a nanomaterial saturable absorber with additional pulse narrowing and broadening mechanisms concurrently introduced into a mode-locked fiber laser. The interactions between multiple soliton formation mechanisms result in unusual bifurcation into two-pulse states with quite different characteristics. Simultaneous oscillation of pulses wit...

  4. Localization of Germany’ s Dual System of Personnel Training Mode%德国“双元制”人才培养模式本土化实践研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹久

    2014-01-01

    The Dual System of personnel training mode in Germany is a well known vocational education system throughout the world. Because of the different educational mode in China and Germany, it is impracticable to use the above mode in China. Hubei Light Industry Technology Institute absorbs the quintessence of Germany’ s vocational education, with the objective of serving for e-conomic development in central China, cooperating with the German beverage packaging Giant Clowns Company, makes a localiza-tion practice, works out the difficulties, has created a localized practicing way with clear characteristics of central China.%德国“双元制”人才培养模式,是享誉世界的职业教育模式,但是由于中德两国教育体制不同,在中国照搬该模式行不通。湖北轻工职院认真吸取德国职业教育的精髓,以服务中部经济发展为目标,与德国饮料包装机械巨头克朗斯公司深度合作进行“双元制”本土化实践,破解了“双元制”中企业“元”短缺的难题,走出了一条具有中部特色的“双元制”本土化实践道路。

  5. Research on Adaptive Dual-Mode Switch Control Strategy for Vehicle Maglev Flywheel Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the jamming signal is real-time changeable and control algorithm cannot timely tracking control flywheel rotor, this paper takes vehicle maglev flywheel battery as the research object. One kind of dual-model control strategy is developed based on the analysis of the vibration response impact of the flywheel battery control system. In view of the complex foundation vibration problems of electric vehicles, the nonlinear dynamic simulation model of vehicle maglev flywheel battery is solved. Through analyzing the nonlinear vibration response characteristics, one kind of dual-mode adaptive hybrid control strategy based on H∞ control and unbalance displacement feed-forward compensation control is presented and a real-time switch controller is designed. The reliable hybrid control is implemented, and the stability in the process of real-time switch is solved. The results of this project can provide important basic theory support for the research of vehicle maglev flywheel battery control system.

  6. Increased wavelength options in the visible and ultraviolet for Raman lasers operating on dual Raman modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildren, R P; Piper, J A

    2008-03-01

    We report increased wavelength options from Raman lasers for Raman media having two Raman modes of similar gain coefficient. For an external-cavity potassium gadolinium tungstate Raman laser pumped at 532 nm, we show that two sets of Stokes orders are generated simultaneously by appropriate orientation of the Raman crystal, and also wavelengths that correspond to sums of the two Raman modes. Up to 14 visible Stokes lines were observed in the wavelength range 555-675 nm. The increase in Stokes wavelengths also enables a much greater selection of wavelengths to be accessed via intracavity nonlinear sum frequency and difference frequency mixing. For example, we demonstrate 30 output wavelength options for a wavelength-selectable 271-321 nm Raman laser with intracavity sum frequency mixing in BBO. We also present a theoretical analysis that enables prediction of wavelength options for dual Raman mode systems.

  7. Corrugated waveguide mode purifier for TEM output in a dual-mode operation overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhen; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang; Zhang, Dian

    2017-01-01

    A coaxial corrugated waveguide mode purifier is designed for a dual-mode operation overmoded coaxial millimeter-wave generator. With the purifier, the mixed TEM and TM01 modes output are purified into a pure TEM mode. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation shows that the purifier would not decrease the total output power of the generator, and plays an independent role to the upstream structure. Effects of mode composition ratio and phase difference on the purification ability of the purifier are also researched by both electromagnetism and PIC simulations, which show that the purifier has a certain tolerance for both the mode composition ratio and phase difference.

  8. Dual collection mode optical microscope with single-pixel detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A. D.; Clemente, P.; Fernández-Alonso, Mercedes; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.

    2015-07-01

    In this work we have developed a single-pixel optical microscope that provides both re ection and transmission images of the sample under test by attaching a diamond pixel layout DMD to a commercial inverted microscope. Our system performs simultaneous measurements of re ection and transmission modes. Besides, in contrast with a conventional system, in our single-element detection system both images belong, unequivocally, to the same plane of the sample. Furthermore, we have designed an algorithm to modify the shape of the projected patterns that improves the resolution and prevents the artifacts produced by the diamond pixel architecture.

  9. Robust sliding mode control with ESO for dual-control missile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Shang; Shengjing Tang; Jie Guo; Yueyue Ma; Yuhang Yun

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel composite dual-control by combing the integral sliding mode control (ISMC) method based on the finite time convergence theory with extended state observer (ESO) for a tracking problem of a missile with tail fins and reaction-jet control system (RCS). First, the ISMC method based on finite time convergence is utilized to design the control law of tail fins and the pulse control of RCS for the dual-control system, ensuring the system with rapid response and high accuracy of tracking. Then, ESO is employed for the estimation of aerodynamic disturbances influenced by the airflow of thruster jets. With the characteristic of high accuracy estimation of ESO, the chattering free tracking performance of the attack angle command and the robustness of the control law are achieved. Meanwhile, the stability of the dual-control system is analyzed based on finite time convergence stability theorem and Lyapunov’s theorem. Final y, numerical sim-ulations demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design.

  10. A Dual-Mode UWB Wireless Platform with Random Pulse Length Detection for Remote Patient Monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reyes, Carlos; Bisbe, Sergi; Shen, Ming

    2013-01-01

    on a single hardware platform, but it is capable of both monitoring and data transmission. This is achieved by employing a new random pulse length detection method that allows data transmission by using a modulated monitoring signal. To prove the proposed concept a test system has been built, using commercial......This paper presents a dual-mode ultra-wideband platform for wireless Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM). Existing RPM solutions are typically based on two different hardware platforms; one responsible for medical-data monitoring and one to handle data transmission. The proposed RPM topology is based...

  11. Testosterone and the Male Skeleton: A Dual Mode of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieke Sinnesael

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Testosterone is an important hormone for both bone gain and maintenance in men. Hypogonadal men have accelerated bone turnover and increased fracture risk. In these men, administration of testosterone inhibits bone resorption and maintains bone mass. Testosterone, however, is converted into estradiol via aromatization in many tissues including male bone. The importance of estrogen receptor alpha activation as well of aromatization of androgens into estrogens was highlighted by a number of cases of men suffering from an inactivating mutation in the estrogen receptor alpha or in the aromatase enzyme. All these men typically had low bone mass, high bone turnover and open epiphyses. In line with these findings, cohort studies have confirmed that estradiol contributes to the maintenance of bone mass after reaching peak bone mass, with an association between estradiol and fractures in elderly men. Recent studies in knock-out mice have increased our understanding of the role of androgens and estrogens in different bone compartments. Estrogen receptor activation, but not androgen receptor activation, is involved in the regulation of male longitudinal appendicular skeletal growth in mice. Both the androgen and the estrogen receptor can independently mediate the cancellous bone-sparing effects of sex steroids in male mice. Selective KO studies of the androgen receptor in osteoblasts in male mice suggest that the osteoblast in the target cell for androgen receptor mediated maintenance of trabecular bone volume and coordination of bone matrix synthesis and mineralization. Taken together, both human and animal studies suggest that testosterone has a dual mode of action on different bone surfaces with involvement of both the androgen and estrogen receptor.

  12. Investigation on utilization of biogas and Karanja oil biodiesel in dual fuel mode in a single cylinder DI diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhabani Prasanna Pattanaik, Chandrakanta Nayak, Basanta Kumar Nanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, experiments were performed on a single cylinder DI diesel engine by using bio-gas as a primary fuel and Karanja oil biodiesel and diesel oil as secondary fuels in dual fuel operation. The experiments were performed to measure performance parameters i.e. (brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature and emission parameters such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide unburned hydro carbon and smoke etc. at different load conditions. For the dual-fuel system, the intake system of the test engine was modified to convert into biogas and biodiesel of a dual-fueled combustion engine. Biogas was injected during the intake process by gas injectors. The study showed that, the engine performance parameters like BP, BTE and EGT gradually increase with increase in engine load for all test conditions using both pilot fuels diesel and KOBD. However, the BSFC of the engine showed decreasing slope with increase in engine load for all test conditions. Above 40% engine load the BSFC values for all test fuels are very close to each other. The engine emission analysis showed that the CO2, CO and NOx emissions increase with increase in engine load for both single and dual fuel mode operation using both pilot fuels. The NOx concentration of exhaust gases in dual fuel mode is superior than that of single mode.

  13. Investigation on utilization of biogas and Karanja oil biodiesel in dual fuel mode in a single cylinder DI diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasanna Pattanaik, Bhabani; Nayak, Chandrakanta [Department of Mechanical Eng., Gandhi Institute for Technological Advancement, Madanpur, Bhubaneswar - 752054, Odisha (India); Kumar Nanda, Basanta [Department of Mechanical Eng., Maharaja Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha (India)

    2013-07-01

    In this work, experiments were performed on a single cylinder DI diesel engine by using bio-gas as a primary fuel and Karanja oil biodiesel and diesel oil as secondary fuels in dual fuel operation. The experiments were performed to measure performance parameters i.e. (brake specific fuel consumption, brake thermal efficiency and exhaust gas temperature) and emission parameters such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide unburned hydro carbon and smoke etc. at different load conditions. For the dual-fuel system, the intake system of the test engine was modified to convert into biogas and biodiesel of a dual-fueled combustion engine. Biogas was injected during the intake process by gas injectors. The study showed that, the engine performance parameters like BP, BTE and EGT gradually increase with increase in engine load for all test conditions using both pilot fuels diesel and KOBD. However, the BSFC of the engine showed decreasing slope with increase in engine load for all test conditions. Above 40% engine load the BSFC values for all test fuels are very close to each other. The engine emission analysis showed that the CO2, CO and NOx emissions increase with increase in engine load for both single and dual fuel mode operation using both pilot fuels. The NOx concentration of exhaust gases in dual fuel mode is superior than that of single mode.

  14. Towards Indoor Transportation Mode Detection using Mobile Sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prentow, Thor Siiger; Blunck, Henrik; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2015-01-01

    Transportation mode detection is a growing field of research, in which a variety of methods have been developed for detecting transportation modes foremost for outdoor travels. It has been employed in application areas such as public transportation, environmental footprint profiling, and context......-aware mobile assistants. For indoor travels the problem of transportation mode detection has received comparatively little attention, even though diverse transportation modes, such as biking, electric vehicles, and scooters, are used indoors, especially in large building complexes. The potential applications...... are diverse, may also extend beyond indoor variants of the above outdoor applications, and include, e.g., scheduling and progress tracking for mobile workers, management of vehicular resources, and navigation support. However, for indoor transportation mode detection, both the physical environment as well...

  15. A Dual-Mode Actinic EUV Mask Inspection Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y; Barty, A; Gullikson, E; S.Taylor, J; Liddle, J A; Wood, O

    2005-03-21

    To qualify the performance of non-actinic inspection tools, a novel EUV mask inspection system has been installed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) synchrotron facility at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Similar to the older generation actinic mask inspection tool, the new system can operate in scanning mode, when mask blanks are scanned for defects using 13.5-nm in-band radiation to identify and map all locations on the mask that scatter a significant amount of EUV light. By modifying and optimizing beamline optics (11.3.2 at ALS) and replacing K-B focusing mirrors with a high quality Schwarzschild illuminator, the new system achieves an order of magnitude improvement on in-band EUV flux density at the mask, enabling faster scanning speed and higher sensitivity to smaller defects. Moreover, the system can also operate in imaging mode, when it becomes a zone-plate-based full-field EUV microscope with spatial resolution better than 100 nm. The microscope utilizes an off-axis setup, making it possible to obtain bright field images over a field-of-view of 5 x 5 {micro}m.

  16. Comparison between a dual-head and a brain-dedicated SPECT system in the measurement of the loss of dopamine transporters with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varrone, Andrea [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Stockholm (Sweden); Sansone, Valeria; Pappata, Sabina; Salvatore, Marco [University Federico II, Biostructure and Bioimaging Institute, National Research Council/Department of Biomorphological and Functional Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Pellecchia, Maria T.; Salvatore, Elena; de Michele, Giuseppe; Filla, Alessandro; Barone, Paolo [University Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy); Amboni, Marianna [University Federico II, Department of Neurological Sciences, Napoli (Italy); IDC-Hermitage, Capodimonte, Napoli (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    Dual-head SPECT systems are used by many clinical departments for [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT SPECT imaging, while triple-head or brain-dedicated systems with better imaging performance are more commonly used by research institutions. There are limited data comparing the capability of the two types of system to measure dopamine transporter (DAT) loss in vivo. The aim of this study was to compare the ability of a dual-head and a brain-dedicated SPECT system to estimate the degree of DAT loss in different movement disorders with variable nigrostriatal impairment, with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. Four patients with essential tremor, 24 with Parkinson's disease (PD), six with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 and six controls were studied with [{sup 123}I]FP-CIT. SPECT scans were performed on a dual-head (E.CAM - Siemens) and subsequently on a brain-dedicated system (Ceraspect - DSI). Striatal DAT outcome measures on the E.CAM and the Ceraspect were strongly correlated and the putamen-to-caudate ratios were almost identical. Although the measured values were lower by 52 {+-} 25% in caudate and by 51 {+-} 31% in putamen on the E.CAM (p < 0.0001), the average striatal DAT decrease in each patient group compared with controls was similar for both systems. In PD patients, similar correlations (p < 0.05) were found between motor UPDRS or Hoehn and Yahr stage and striatal DAT density. Despite underestimation of striatal DAT outcome measures, the E.CAM showed similar capability as the Ceraspect in measuring the degree of nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit and assessing the correlation between DAT outcome measures and clinical variables of PD severity and stage. (orig.)

  17. Properties of the Measurement Phase Operator in Dual-Mode Entangle Coherent States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Shen-Yong; YANG Kuo

    2011-01-01

    @@ A class of measurement phase operators of dual-mode is defined and their properties in a class of entangle coherent states are investigated.Numerical results indicate that the entangle coherent states display some non-classical squeezed effects.%A class of measurement phase operators of dual-mode is defined and their properties in a class of entangle coherent states are investigated. Numerical results indicate that the entangle coherent states display some non-classical squeezed effects.

  18. A Dual-Band Coaxial Waveguide Mode Converter for High-Power Microwave Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qiang; YUAN Cheng-Wei; LIU Lie

    2011-01-01

    @@ A dual-band coaxial waveguide mode converter is investigated.In the converter, the TEM mode (Coa.TEM) and TMol circular waveguide (Cir.TM) mode are transformed simultaneously into TE coaxial waveguide (Coa.TE) mode and TE circular waveguide (Cir.TE) mode, respectively.The optimized geometrical di- mensions are achieved by employing the mode coupling theory.A mode converter at 1.3GHz and 5.0GHz is designed, and conversion efficiencies of Coa.TEM-to-Coa.TE and Cir.TM-to-Cir.TE are 99.88% and 99.70% at central frequency, respectively.Over the frequency ranges 1.15 1.51 GHz and 4.87-5.19CHz, the conversion efficiency exceeds 90%.A good agreement between theoretical calculations and computer simulations is observed, demonstrating the feasibility of the dual-band mode converter.

  19. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective is to en......The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...... is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection...... problem which can be formulated as a dynamic version of the vehicle routing problem with time windows (VRPTW)....

  20. Flow field characteristics analysis and combustion modes classification for a strut/cavity dual-mode combustor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenlin; Chang, Juntao; Zhang, Yuanshi; Wang, Youyin; Bao, Wen

    2017-08-01

    Experimental and numerical study of a strut/cavity dual-mode combustor has been conducted in this paper. Under different fuel equivalence ratio and allocation proportion conditions, the pressure distribution and flow field structure of combustor show distinct characteristics. For strut fuel injecting at a low equivalence ratio, the luminosity images show that combustion zone distributes in the shear layer behind the strut. The wall fuel injecting before strut would change the starting point of pressure rising. Based on the flow field structure, the dual-mode combustor operation process is classified into three combustion modes, including scramjet mode, weak ramjet mode and strong ramjet mode. Because of a strong interaction of the shock wave with the boundary layer, weak ramjet mode has a stronger isolator compression effect and higher combustion efficiency than scramjet mode. With heat release increasing, the thermal throat formation is an indication of the strong ramjet mode, which has a subsonic gap in the isolator. Further, by judging the pressure from dominant pressure sensor before the strut, the three different combustion modes could be classified. Comparing the specific impulse of combustor, it has an obvious distinction in the different combustion modes.

  1. Complete leaky mode coupling in dual-core photonic crystal fibre based on the coupled-mode theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Jin-Hui; Yu Chong-Xiu; Sang Xin-Zhu; Zhang Jin-Long; Zhou Gui-Yao; Hou Lan-Tian

    2011-01-01

    This paper theoretically investigates the dependence of leaky mode coupling between inner core fundamental mode and outer core defect mode on phase and loss matching in pure silica dual-core photonic crystal fibres with the multi-pole method. The complete mode coupling can take place when both the phase and loss matching conditions are satisfied at the avoided anti-crossing wavelength. It shows the influences of cladding structure parameters including the diameters of cladding air holes d1, diameters of outer core holes d2 and hole to hole pitch A on the characteristics of leaky modes coupling. The coupled-mode theory is used to analyse the mode transition characteristics and the complete coupling can be clearly indicated by comparing the real and imaginary parts of propagation constant of the leaky modes.

  2. Real-Time Transportation Mode Identification Using Artificial Neural Networks Enhanced with Mode Availability Layers: A Case Study in Dubai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ji Byon

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, departments of transportation (DOTs have dispatched probe vehicles with dedicated vehicles and drivers for monitoring traffic conditions. Emerging assisted GPS (AGPS and accelerometer-equipped smartphones offer new sources of raw data that arise from voluntarily-traveling smartphone users provided that their modes of transportation can correctly be identified. By introducing additional raster map layers that indicate the availability of each mode, it is possible to enhance the accuracy of mode detection results. Even in its simplest form, an artificial neural network (ANN excels at pattern recognition with a relatively short processing timeframe once it is properly trained, which is suitable for real-time mode identification purposes. Dubai is one of the major cities in the Middle East and offers unique environments, such as a high density of extremely high-rise buildings that may introduce multi-path errors with GPS signals. This paper develops real-time mode identification ANNs enhanced with proposed mode availability geographic information system (GIS layers, firstly for a universal mode detection and, secondly for an auto mode detection for the particular intelligent transportation system (ITS application of traffic monitoring, and compares the results with existing approaches. It is found that ANN-based real-time mode identification, enhanced by mode availability GIS layers, significantly outperforms the existing methods.

  3. A dual-mode complex filter for GNSS receivers with frequency tuning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan Yebing; Yuan Guoshun [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Ma Chengyan, E-mail: ganyebing@casic.ac.c [Hangzhou Zhongke Microelectronics Co, Ltd, Hangzhou 310053 (China)

    2009-10-15

    A fifth/seventh order dual-mode OTA-C complex filter for global navigation satellite system receivers is implemented in a 0.18 {mu}m CMOS process. This filter can be configured as the narrow mode of a 4.4 MHz bandwidth center at 4.1 MHz or the wide mode of a 22 MHz bandwidth center at 15.42 MHz. A fully differential OTA with source degeneration is used to provide sufficient linearity. Furthermore, a ring CCO based frequency tuning scheme is proposed to reduce frequency variation. The measured results show that in narrow-band mode the image rejection ratio (IMRR) is 35 dB, the filter dissipates 0.8 mA from the 1.8 V power supply, and the out-of-band rejection is 50 dB at 6 MHz offset. In wide-band mode, IMRR is 28 dB and the filter dissipates 3.2 mA. The frequency tuning error is less than {+-}2%.

  4. Development of Dual Power Multirotor System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2017-01-01

    .... This paper proposes a dual power multirotor system to combine a quadrotor using gasoline engines to provide major lift in shorter arm with another quadrotor using brushless DC motors to offer most...

  5. Transportation System Requirements Document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  6. Lyapunov modes in extended systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Liu; Radons, Günter

    2009-08-28

    Hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes, which have recently been observed in many extended systems with translational symmetry, such as hard sphere systems, dynamic XY models or Lennard-Jones fluids, are nowadays regarded as fundamental objects connecting nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics. We review here our recent results on Lyapunov modes in extended system. The solution to one of the puzzles, the appearance of good and 'vague' modes, is presented for the model system of coupled map lattices. The structural properties of these modes are related to the phase space geometry, especially the angles between Oseledec subspaces, and to fluctuations of local Lyapunov exponents. In this context, we report also on the possible appearance of branches splitting in the Lyapunov spectra of diatomic systems, similar to acoustic and optical branches for phonons. The final part is devoted to the hyperbolicity of partial differential equations and the effective degrees of freedom of such infinite-dimensional systems.

  7. Dual-mode imaging with radiolabeled gold nanorods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ashish; Shao, Xia; Rajian, Justin R.; Zhang, Huanan; Chamberland, David L.; Kotov, Nicholas A.; Wang, Xueding

    2011-05-01

    Many nanoparticle contrast agents have difficulties with deep tissue and near-bone imaging due to limited penetration of visible photons in the body and mineralized tissues. We are looking into the possibility of mediating this problem while retaining the capabilities of the high spatial resolution associated with optical imaging. As such, the potential combination of emerging photoacoustic imaging and nuclear imaging in monitoring of antirheumatic drug delivery by using a newly developed dual-modality contrast agent is investigated. The contrast agent is composed of gold nanorods (GNRs) conjugated to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) antibody and is subsequently radiolabeled by 125I. ELISA experiments designed to test TNF-α binding are performed to prove the specificity and biological activity of the radiolabeled conjugated contrast agent. Photoacoustic and nuclear imaging are performed to visualize the distribution of GNRs in articular tissues of the rat tail joints in situ. Findings from the two imaging modalities correspond well with each other in all experiments. Our system can image GNRs down to a concentration of 10 pM in biological tissues and with a radioactive label of 5 μCi. This study demonstrates the potential of combining photoacoustic and nuclear imaging modalities through one targeted contrast agent for noninvasive monitoring of drug delivery as well as deep and mineralized tissue imaging.

  8. A dual-mode microwave resonator for double electron-electron spin resonance spectroscopy at W-band microwave frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkach, Igor; Sicoli, Giuseppe; Höbartner, Claudia; Bennati, Marina

    2011-04-01

    We present a dual-mode resonator operating at/near 94 GHz (W-band) microwave frequencies and supporting two microwave modes with the same field polarization at the sample position. Numerical analysis shows that the frequencies of both modes as well as their frequency separation can be tuned in a broad range up to GHz. The resonator was constructed to perform pulsed ELDOR experiments with a variable separation of "pump" and "detection" frequencies up to Δ ν = 350 MHz. To examine its performance, test ESE/PELDOR experiments were performed on a representative biradical system.

  9. Dual Z-Source Inverter With Three-Level Reduced Common-Mode Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2007-01-01

    . Modulationwise, the dual inverter can be controlled using a carefully designed carrier-based pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) scheme that will always ensure balanced voltage boosting of the Z-source network while simultaneously achieving reduced common-mode switching. Because of the omission of dead-time delays...... in the dual-inverter PWM scheme, its switched common-mode voltage can be completely eliminated, unlike in traditional inverters, where narrow common-mode spikes are still generated. Under semiconductor failure conditions, the presented PWM schemes can easily be modified to allow the inverter to operate......This paper presents the design of a dual Z-source inverter that can be used with either a single dc source or two isolated dc sources. Unlike traditional inverters, the integration of a properly designed Z-source network and semiconductor switches to the proposed dual inverter allows buck...

  10. Magnon Mode Selective Spin Transport in Compensated Ferrimagnets

    KAUST Repository

    Cramer, Joel

    2017-04-13

    We investigate the generation of magnonic thermal spin currents and their mode selective spin transport across interfaces in insulating, compensated ferrimagnet/normal metal bilayer systems. The spin Seebeck effect signal exhibits a nonmonotonic temperature dependence with two sign changes of the detected voltage signals. Using different ferrimagnetic garnets, we demonstrate the universality of the observed complex temperature dependence of the spin Seebeck effect. To understand its origin, we systematically vary the interface between the ferrimagnetic garnet and the metallic layer, and by using different metal layers we establish that interface effects play a dominating role. They do not only modify the magnitude of the spin Seebeck effect signal but in particular also alter its temperature dependence. By varying the temperature, we can select the dominating magnon mode and we analyze our results to reveal the mode selective interface transmission probabilities for different magnon modes and interfaces. The comparison of selected systems reveals semiquantitative details of the interfacial coupling depending on the materials involved, supported by the obtained field dependence of the signal.

  11. Wideband Fully-Programmable Dual-Mode CMOS Analogue Front-End for Electrical Impedance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgilio Valente

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a multi-channel dual-mode CMOS analogue front-end (AFE for electrochemical and bioimpedance analysis. Current-mode and voltage-mode readouts, integrated on the same chip, can provide an adaptable platform to correlate single-cell biosensor studies with large-scale tissue or organ analysis for real-time cancer detection, imaging and characterization. The chip, implemented in a 180-nm CMOS technology, combines two current-readout (CR channels and four voltage-readout (VR channels suitable for both bipolar and tetrapolar electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS analysis. Each VR channel occupies an area of 0.48 mm 2 , is capable of an operational bandwidth of 8 MHz and a linear gain in the range between −6 dB and 42 dB. The gain of the CR channel can be set to 10 kΩ, 50 kΩ or 100 kΩ and is capable of 80-dB dynamic range, with a very linear response for input currents between 10 nA and 100 μ A. Each CR channel occupies an area of 0.21 mm 2 . The chip consumes between 530 μ A and 690 μ A per channel and operates from a 1.8-V supply. The chip was used to measure the impedance of capacitive interdigitated electrodes in saline solution. Measurements show close matching with results obtained using a commercial impedance analyser. The chip will be part of a fully flexible and configurable fully-integrated dual-mode EIS system for impedance sensors and bioimpedance analysis.

  12. Transportation mode detection by using smartphone sensors and machine learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensar Arif Sağbaş

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to detect transportation modes of the users by using smartphone sensors. Therefore, GPS (Global Positioning System, accelerometer and gyroscope sensor data have been collected while walking, running, cycling and travelling by bus or by car from the smartphone of the user. Sensor data were tagged with 12 second interval and 2500 pattern were obtained. 14 features were acquired from the dataset. Machine learning methods were tested on the dataset. Best result was obtained from GPS, accelerometer and gyroscope sensor combination and Random Forest method with 99.4% accuracy rate.

  13. Numerical analysis and optimization of a dual-order mode all-optical wavelength converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Lønstrup; Wolfson, David; Kloch, Allan;

    2001-01-01

    A numerical analysis of a dual-order mode (DOMO) wavelength converter has been carried out. We optimize the waveguide dimensions for high speed and compare to a single mode device. We also identify a crosstalk penalty when converting to wavelengths close to the original....

  14. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    OpenAIRE

    Vladislav Mor; Debangsu Roy; Moty Schultz; Lior Klein

    2016-01-01

    We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a) an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b) an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make ...

  15. Controllable spin transport in dual-gated silicene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yu, E-mail: ywang@semi.ac.cn [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650500 Yunnan (China); Lou, Yiyi [Center of Student Community Education and Management, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming, 650500 Yunnan (China)

    2014-07-11

    Based on the dual-gated silicene, we have evaluated theoretically the spin-dependent transport in lateral resonant tunneling structure. By aligning the completely valley-polarized beam with spin-resolved well state in concerned structure, large spin polarization can be expected owing to spin-dependent resonant tunneling mechanism. Under the gate electric field modulation, the forming quantum well state can be externally manipulated, triggering further the emergence of externally-controllable spin polarization. Importantly, integrating the considered structure with a proper valley-filter, which might be constructed from valley-contrasting physics as that in graphene valleytronics, completely-polarized spin beam can also be attained without the assistance of ferromagnetic component, providing thus some profitable strategies to develop nonmagnetic spintronic devices residing on silicene. - Highlights: • Dual-gated silicene forms a lateral spin-resonant tunneling diode. • Resonant spin polarization can be electrically modulated in the concerned spin-RTD. • Dual-gated silicene can be used as beam-dependent spin/valley filter.

  16. Design of a TW-SLIM Module for Dual Polarity Confinement, Transport, and Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Webb, Ian K.; Prabhakaran, Aneesh; Attah, Isaac K.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-07-01

    Here we describe instrumental approaches for performing dual polarity ion confinement, transport, ion mobility separations, and reactions in structures for lossless ion manipulations (SLIM). Previous means of ion confinement in SLIM, based upon rf-generated pseudopotentials and DC fields for lateral confinement, cannot trap ions of opposite polarity simultaneously. Here we explore alternative approaches to provide simultaneous lateral confinement of both ion polarities. Traveling wave ion mobility (IM) separations experienced in such SLIM cause ions of both polarities to migrate in the same directions and exhibit similar separations. The ion motion (and relative motion of the two polarities) under both surfing and IM separation conditions are discussed. In surfing conditions the two polarities are transported losslessly and non-reactively in their respective potential minima (higher absolute voltage regions confine negative polarities, and lower absolute potential regions are populated by positive polarities). In separation mode, where ions roll over an overtaking traveling wave, the two polarities can interact during the rollovers. Strategies to minimize overlap of the two ion populations to prevent reactive losses during separations are presented. A theoretical treatment of the time scales over which two populations (injected into a DC field-free region of the dual polarity SLIM device) interact is considered, and SLIM designs for allowing ion/ion interactions and other manipulations with dual polarities at 4 Torr are presented.

  17. Evaluación energética de un sistema de generación de 400 kWe en modo diesel‐gas licuado de petróleo//Energy analysis of a 400 kWe power system operated on dual fuel mode with diesel‐liquefied petroleum gas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos‐A. Forero-Núñez

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El constante aumento en los precios de los combustibles impulsó el desarrollo de sistemas energéticos cada vez más eficientes y flexibles, los cuales permitan el uso de distintos tipos de combustibles, tales como el gas licuado de petróleo (GLP. El presente trabajo buscó analizar el comportamiento energético y ambiental que tiene una planta de generación de 400 kWe operada en modo diesel y dual diesel-GLP de pozo. La eficiencia energética total del sistema en el punto de máxima carga fue igual a 39,9 % en modo diesel y 35,1 % con una relación de sustitución del 28,5 % en modo dual. La adición de GLP resultó en una disminución del índice de emisiones de CO2 de 0,76 a 0,71 kgkWh-1. El adecuado comportamiento del sistema genera interesantes oportunidades para la disminución del impacto ambiental causado por los sistemas diesel, la diversificación de la canasta energética y la reducción de costos de generación eléctrica en pozos petroleros.Palabras claves: eficiencia energética, diesel, GLP, modo dual.________________________________________________________________________________AbstractThe continuous increase of the fuel costs promoted the development of more efficient and flexible power systems, which could use alternative fuels such as liquefied petroleum gas (LPG. This work aimed to analyze the performance and environmental effect of a 400kWe power system fed with diesel and diesel-LGP on a dual fuel mode. The total electric efficiency of this system at his maximum load was 39,9 % with diesel and 35,1 % at a 28,5 % substitution level on a dual fuel mode. The addition of LPG decreased the CO2 emission index from 0,76 to 0,71 kgkWh-1. The proper behavior of this system on a dual fuel mode mitigated the environmental impact of diesel internal combustion engines, diversified the energy market, and reduced the power generation costs onto petroleum extraction wells.Key words: energy efficiency, diesel, LPG, dual fuel mode.

  18. A numerical study on combustion process in a small compression ignition engine run dual-fuel mode (diesel-biogas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Widodo, T. I.; Nasution, D. M.

    2017-01-01

    In order to reduce the consumption of fossil fuel of a compression ignition (CI) engines which is usually used in transportation and heavy machineries, it can be operated in dual-fuel mode (diesel-biogas). However, the literature reviews show that the thermal efficiency is lower due to incomplete combustion process. In order to increase the efficiency, the combustion process in the combustion chamber need to be explored. Here, a commercial CFD code is used to explore the combustion process of a small CI engine run on dual fuel mode (diesel-biogas). The turbulent governing equations are solved based on finite volume method. A simulation of compression and expansions strokes at an engine speed and load of 1000 rpm and 2500W, respectively has been carried out. The pressure and temperature distributions and streamlines are plotted. The simulation results show that at engine power of 732.27 Watt the thermal efficiency is 9.05%. The experiment and simulation results show a good agreement. The method developed in this study can be used to investigate the combustion process of CI engine run on dual-fuel mode.

  19. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Vladislav; Roy, Debangsu; Schultz, Moty; Klein, Lior

    2016-02-01

    We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a) an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b) an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.

  20. Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladislav Mor

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.

  1. Modelling Transportation of Efavirenz: Inference on possibility of mixed modes of transportation and kinetic solubility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tafireyi eNemaura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding drug transportation mechanisms in the human body is of paramount importance in modelling Pharmacokinetic-Pharmacodynamic relationships. This work gives a novel general model of efavirenz transportation projections based on concentrations simulated from patients on a dose of 600mg. The work puts forward a proposition that transportation can wholly be modeled by concentration and time in a uniform volumetric space. Furthermore, movement entities are used to inform the state of kinetic solubility of a solution. There is use of Ricker’s model, and forms of the Hill’s equation in modelling transportation. Characterization on the movement rates of solution particle are suggested in relation to advection rate of solution particle. At turning points on the transportation rate of solution particle vs concentration curve, a suggestion of possibly change of dominance in the mode of transportation and saturation is made. There are four movement rates postulated at primary micro-level transportation, that are attributed to convection, diffusion (passive transportation ( EI and energy dependent system transportation ( ED in relation to advection. Furthermore, a new parameter is introduced which is defined as an advection rate constant of solution particle. It is postulated to be dependent on two rate constants of solution particle, that is a convection rate constant of solution particle and a saturable transportation rate constant of solution particle. At secondary micro-level transportation, the results show convection as sum of advection and saturable transportation. The kinetics of dissolution of efavirenz in the solution space is postulated. Relatively, a good level of kinetics of dissolution is projected in the concentration region 0−32.82μg/ml.

  2. Design of dual-mode optical fibres for the FTTH applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Yang; Li, Yu-Rong; Zhang, Yin; Zhu, Yuan-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Kang; Zhou, Jun

    2011-01-01

    We present in this article a proposal and design for dual-mode optical fibres for fibre-to-the-home applications. High-order modes in the fibre can be effectively suppressed by the connection of the fibre with standard single-mode optical fibres at the two ends of the fibre. The alignment tolerance at the splicing process is presented. In particular, a low bending loss operation with low splice loss is demonstrated using the proposed technique.

  3. Thermal Control of a Dual Mode Parametric Sapphire Transducer

    CERN Document Server

    Belfi, Jacopo; De Michele, Andrea; Gabbriellini, Gianluca; Mango, Francesco; Passaquieti, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    We propose a method to control the thermal stability of a sapphire dielectric transducer made with two dielectric disks separated by a thin gap and resonating in the whispering gallery (WG) modes of the electromagnetic field. The simultaneous measurement of the frequencies of both a WGH mode and a WGE mode allows one to discriminate the frequency shifts due to gap variations from those due to temperature instability. A simple model, valid in quasi equilibrium conditions, describes the frequency shift of the two modes in terms of four tuning parameters. A procedure for the direct measurement of them is presented.

  4. Second generation 50 K dual-mode sapphire oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstie, James D; Hartnett, John G; Tobar, Michael E; Ivanov, Eugene N; Stanwix, Paul L

    2006-02-01

    Low-temperature, high-precision sapphire resonators exhibit a turning point in mode frequency-temperature dependence at around 10 K. This, along with sapphire's extremely low dielectric losses at microwave frequencies, results in oscillator fractional frequency stabilities on the order of 10(-15). At higher temperatures the lack of a turning point makes single-mode oscillators very sensitive to temperature fluctuations. By exciting two quasi-orthogonal whispering gallery (WG) modes in a single sapphire resonator, a turning point in the frequency-temperature dependence can be found in the beat frequency between the two modes. A temperature control technique based on mode frequency temperature dependence has been used to maintain the sapphire at this turning point and the fractional frequency instability of the beat frequency has been measured to be at a level of 4.3 X 10(-14) over 1 s, dropping to 3.5 X 10(-14) over 4 s integration time.

  5. Vertical Transport of Subwavelength Localized Surface Electromagnetic Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fei; Zhang, Youming; Shi, Xihang; Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2015-01-01

    Transport of subwavelength electromagnetic (EM) energy has been achieved through near-field coupling of highly confined surface EM modes supported by plasmonic nanoparticles, in a configuration usually staying on a two-dimensional (2D) substrate. Vertical transport of similar modes along the third dimension, on the other hand, can bring more flexibility in designs of functional photonic devices, but this phenomenon has not been observed in reality. In this paper, designer (or spoof) surface plasmon resonators (plasmonic meta-atoms) are stacked in the direction vertical to their individual planes in demonstrating vertical transport of subwavelength localized surface EM modes. Dispersion relation of this vertical transport is determined from coupled mode theory and is verified with near-field transmission spectrum and field mapping with a microwave near-field scanning stage. This work extends the near-field coupled resonator optical waveguide (CROW) theory into the vertical direction, and may find applications ...

  6. Dual mode antibacterial activity of ion substituted calcium phosphate nanocarriers for bone infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Kumar eT.S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology has tremendous potential for the management of infectious diseases caused by multi-drug resistant (MDR bacteria, through the development of newer antibacterial materials and efficient modes of antibiotic delivery. Calcium phosphate (CaP bioceramics are commonly used as bone substitutes due to their similarity to bone mineral and are widely researched upon for the treatment of bone infections associated with bone loss. CaPs can be used as local antibiotic delivery agents for bone infections and can be substituted with antibacterial ions in their crystal structure to have a wide spectrum, sustained antibacterial activity even against drug resistant bacteria. In the present work, a dual mode antibiotic delivery system with antibacterial ion substituted calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA nanoparticles has been developed. Antibacterial ions such as zinc, silver and strontium have been incorporated into CDHA at concentrations of 6 at. %, 0.25-0.75 at. % and 2.5-7.5 at. % respectively. The samples were found to be phase pure, acicular nanoparticles of length 40-50 nm and width 5-6 nm approximately. The loading and release profile of doxycycline, a commonly used antibiotic, was studied from the nanocarriers. The drug release was studied for five days and the release profile was influenced by the ion concentrations. The release of antibacterial ions was studied over a period of 21 days. The ion substituted CDHA samples were tested for antibacterial efficacy on S.aureus and E.coli by MIC/MBC studies and time-kill assay. AgCDHA and ZnCDHA showed high antibacterial activity against both bacteria while SrCDHA was weakly active against S.aureus. Present study shows that the antibiotic release can provide the initial high antibacterial activity and the sustained ion release can provide a long-term antibacterial activity. Such dual mode antibiotic and antibacterial ion release offers an efficient and potent way to treat an incumbent drug

  7. Lunar articulated remote transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    The students of the Florida A&M/Florida State University College of Engineering continued their design from 1988 to 1989 on a first generation lunar transportation vehicle for use on the surface of the Moon between the years 2010 and 2020. Attention is focused on specific design details on all components of the Lunar Articulated Remote Transportation System (Lunar ARTS). The Lunar ARTS will be a three-cart, six-wheeled articulated vehicle. Its purpose will be the transportation of astronauts and/or materials for excavation purposes at a short distance from the base (37.5 km). The power system includes fuel cells for both the primary system and the back-up system. The vehicle has the option of being operated in a manned or unmanned mode. The unmanned mode includes stereo imaging with signal processing for navigation. For manned missions the display console is a digital readout displayed on the inside of the astronaut's helmet. A microprocessor is also on board the vehicle. Other components of the vehicle include a double wishbone/flexible hemispherical wheel suspension; chassis; a steering system; motors; seat retraints; heat rejection systems; solar flare protection; dust protection; and meteoroid protection. A one-quarter scale dynamic model has been built to study the dynamic behavior of the vehicle. The dynamic model closely captures the mechanical and electrical details of the total design.

  8. Terahertz field control of interlayer transport modes in cuprate superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlawin, Frank; Dietrich, Anastasia S. D.; Kiffner, Martin; Cavalleri, Andrea; Jaksch, Dieter

    2017-08-01

    We theoretically show that terahertz pulses with controlled amplitude and frequency can be used to switch between stable transport modes in layered superconductors, modeled as stacks of Josephson junctions. We find pulse shapes that deterministically switch the transport mode between superconducting, resistive, and solitonic states. We develop a simple model that explains the switching mechanism as a destabilization of the center-of-mass excitation of the Josephson phase, made possible by the highly nonlinear nature of the light-matter coupling.

  9. Instantaneous Gradient Based Dual Mode Feed-Forward Neural Network Blind Equalization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Xiao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To further improve the performance of feed-forward neural network blind equalization based on Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA cost function, an instantaneous gradient based dual mode between Modified Constant Modulus Algorithm (MCMA and Decision Directed (DD algorithm was proposed. The neural network weights change quantity of the adjacent iterative process is defined as instantaneous gradient. After the network converges, the weights of neural network to achieve a stable energy state and the instantaneous gradient would be zero. Therefore dual mode algorithm can be realized by criterion which set according to the instantaneous gradient. Computer simulation results show that the dual mode feed-forward neural network blind equalization algorithm proposed in this study improves the convergence rate and convergence precision effectively, at the same time, has good restart and tracking ability under channel burst interference condition.

  10. A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor based on cooperative sensing for robot skin applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying; Cai, Xia; Kan, Wenqing; Qiu, Shihua; Guo, Xiaohui; Liu, Caixia; Liu, Ping

    2017-08-01

    A flexible dual-mode proximity sensor has been designed and implemented, which is capable of combining capacitive-resistive detection in this paper. The capacitive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-C, and the resistive type proximity sensor detecting is defined as mode-R. The characteristics of the proximity sensor are as follows: (1) the theoretical mode is developed which indicates that this proximity sensor can reflect proximity information accurately; (2) both sensing modes are vertically integrated into a sandwich-like chip with an 8 mm × 12 mm unit area. The thickness of a mode-R sensing material (graphene nanoplatelets) and mode-C dielectric (the mixture of carbon black and silicone rubber) is 1 mm and 2.5 mm, respectively; (3) for mode-R, the linearity of temperature-resistance curve can achieve 0.998 in the temperature range from 25°C to 65°C. And for mode-C, various materials can be successfully detected with fast response and high reversibility. Meanwhile, the study compensated the influence of object temperature to ensure mode-C properly works. A cooperative sensing test shows that R-C dual modes sense effectively which can enlarge the sensing distance compared with the single mode proximity sensor. The fabrication of this sensor is convenient, and the integrity of a flexible sandwich-like structure based on dual modes is beneficial to form arrays, which is suitable to be used in skin-like sensing applications.

  11. A dual-porosity model for simulating solute transport in oil shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glover, K.C.

    1987-01-01

    A model is described for simulating three-dimensional groundwater flow and solute transport in oil shale and associated geohydrologic units. The model treats oil shale as a dual-porosity medium by simulating flow and transport within fractures using the finite-element method. Diffusion of solute between fractures and the essentially static water of the shale matrix is simulated by including an analytical solution that acts as a source-sink term to the differential equation of solute transport. While knowledge of fracture orientation and spacing is needed to effectively use the model, it is not necessary to map the locations of individual fractures. The computer program listed in the report incorporates many of the features of previous dual-porosity models while retaining a practical approach to solving field problems. As a result the theory of solute transport is not extended in any appreciable way. The emphasis is on bringing together various aspects of solute transport theory in a manner that is particularly suited to the unusual groundwater flow and solute transport characteristics of oil shale systems. (Author 's abstract)

  12. Observation of dual-mode, Kelvin-Helmholtz instability vortex merger in a compressible flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, W. C.; Malamud, G.; Shimony, A.; Di Stefano, C. A.; Trantham, M. R.; Klein, S. R.; Shvarts, D.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.

    2017-05-01

    We report the first observations of Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices evolving from well-characterized, dual-mode initial conditions in a steady, supersonic flow. The results provide the first measurements of the instability's vortex merger rate and supplement data on the inhibition of the instability's growth rate in a compressible flow. These experimental data were obtained by sustaining a shockwave over a foam-plastic interface with a precision-machined seed perturbation. This technique produced a strong shear layer between two plasmas at high-energy-density conditions. The system was diagnosed using x-ray radiography and was well-reproduced using hydrodynamic simulations. Experimental measurements imply that we observed the anticipated vortex merger rate and growth inhibition for supersonic shear flow.

  13. Atomic dynamics in the mode-mode competition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qin; Fang Mao-Fa

    2004-01-01

    The atomic dynamical properties in the system with competing k-photon and l-photon transitions are studied fully by means of quantum theory. We discuss the influences of the mode-mode competition, the relative competing strengths of the atom and the two-mode field, and the initial state of the system on the atomic dynamics. We show that the presence of the mode-mode competition can result in quite a periodical collapses-revivals of the atomic inversion and the increase of the initial photons of the system can lead to the collapse-revival phenomenon and prolong the revival time of the atomic inversion.

  14. Tunable single and dual mode operation of an external cavity quantum-dot injection laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biebersdorf, A [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799 Munich (Germany); Lingk, C [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799 Munich (Germany); De Giorgi, M [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799 Munich (Germany); Feldmann, J [Photonics and Optoelectronics Group, Physics Department and CeNS, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet, Amalienstrasse 54, D-80799 Munich (Germany); Sacher, J [Sacher Lasertechnik GmbH, Hannah Arendt Strasse 3-7, D-35037 Marburg (Germany); Arzberger, M [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Ulbrich, C [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Boehm, G [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Amann, M-C [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Abstreiter, G [Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2003-08-21

    We investigate quantum-dot (QD) lasers in an external cavity using Littrow and Littman configurations. Here, we report on a continuously tunable QD laser with a broad tuning range from 1047 to 1130 nm with high stability and efficient side mode suppression. The full-width at half-maximum of the laser line is 0.85 nm determined mainly by the quality of the external grating. This laser can be operated in a dual-mode modus, where the mode-spacing can be tuned continuously between 1.1 and 34 nm. Simultaneous emission of the two laser modes is shown by sum frequency generation experiments.

  15. Design of an Efficient ALU Using Low-Power Dual Mode Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vinay Kumar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The dual mode logic is an efficient model, which is starts working in between the static and dynamic mode of operations. Since both of the static and dynamic modes having some disadvantages like speed and power dissipations. In this paper we are going to implement a faster and efficient ALU using the DML mode of logic. A performance valuation of designed DML ALU is done with respect to the ordinary normal ALU. And we are implementing this on CADENCE Platform in 180 nm technology. And for a variation of length and width ratio’s (W/L how the design will work is going to be done. Key words -

  16. Chemiresistive and Gravimetric Dual-Mode Gas Sensor toward Target Recognition and Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Hao; Feng, Zhihong; Zhang, Hongxiang; Zhang, Rui; Yu, Yuanyuan; Tao, Jin; Zhao, Hongyuan; Guo, Wenlan; Pang, Wei; Duan, Xuexin; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Daihua

    2016-08-24

    We demonstrate a dual-mode gas sensor for simultaneous and independent acquisition of electrical and mechanical signals from the same gas adsorption event. The device integrates a graphene field-effect transistor (FET) with a piezoelectric resonator in a seamless manner by leveraging multiple structural and functional synergies. Dual signals resulting from independent physical processes, i.e., mass attachment and charge transfer can reflect intrinsic properties of gas molecules and potentially enable target recognition and quantification at the same time. Fabrication of the device is based on standard Integrated Circuit (IC) foundry processes and fully compatible with system-on-a-chip (SoC) integration to achieve extremely small form factors. In addition, the ability of simultaneous measurements of mass adsorption and charge transfer guides us to a more precise understanding of the interactions between graphene and various gas molecules. Besides its practical functions, the device serves as an effective tool to quantitatively investigate the physical processes and sensing mechanisms for a large library of sensing materials and target analytes.

  17. Dual-polarization mode-locked Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thévenin, J; Vallet, M; Brunel, M

    2012-07-15

    A mode-locked solid-state laser containing a birefringent element is shown to emit synchronously two frequency combs associated to the two polarization eigenstates of the cavity. An analytical model predicts the polarization evolution of the pulse train, which is determined by the adjustable intracavity birefringence. Experiments realized with a Nd:YAG laser passively mode locked by a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror are in perfect agreement with the model. Locking between the two combs arises for particular values of their frequency difference, e.g., half the repetition rate, and the pulse train polarization sequence is then governed by the relative overall phase offset of the two combs.

  18. Improved Multi-Mode anomalous transport module for tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, L.; Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.

    2013-10-01

    The Multi-Mode anomalous transport module version 7.1 (MMM7.1) is a theory-based transport model that is used to predict temperature, density and rotation profiles for tokamak plasmas in integrated whole device modeling codes. The theoretical foundation of the current version, MMM7.1, has been significantly advanced since the first released version in 1995, MMM95. The latest version of the Multi-Mode model, MMM7.1, includes an improved Weiland model for the ITG, TEM, and MHD modes, the Horton model for short wavelength ETG modes and the Rafiq model for the drift resistive inertial ballooning modes (DRIBMs). The ETG transport threshold in the Horton model is refined by using the threshold obtained from toroidal gyrokinetic ETG turbulence simulations. The different components of the MMM7.1 model provide contributions to transport in the different regions of plasma discharge. To facilitate the implementation of the latest version of the Multi-Mode module in integrated predictive modeling codes, a clearly specified interface is described and a test program is provided in order to examine the predictions provided by MMM7.1. MMM7.1 is documented and organized as a standalone module, which fully complies with the National Transport Code Collaboration (NTCC) standards. The MMM7.1 module has been used both with a standalone driver program as well as within the PTRANSP code. Results are presented to illustrate the extent to which the various component models contribute to transport in both L-mode and H-mode discharges.

  19. Development of Dual Power Multirotor System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin E. Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertical take-off and landing (VTOL aircraft has good flight characteristics and system performance without runway. The multirotor system has been tried to expand into larger size for longer endurance or higher payload. But the motor power to endurance ratio has been limited. Due to the specific energy of gasoline being much higher than battery, introducing gasoline engine into multirotor system can be considered. This paper proposes a dual power multirotor system to combine a quadrotor using gasoline engines to provide major lift in shorter arm with another quadrotor using brushless DC motors to offer most controllable force with longer arm. System design, fabrication, and verification of the proposed dual power multirotor system development are presented. Preliminary flights have achieved 16 kg payload for long endurance flight. This is useful for various applications with advanced improvements.

  20. A Novel Wind Power System With a Dual-rotor and the Dual-mode Power Control Strategy Thereof%新型双转子结构风力发电系统及其双模功率控制策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔总泽; 李子健; 项群杰; 孟祥瑞; 宋立伟

    2014-01-01

    A novel wind power system was proposed, which was composed of a generator, an auxiliary motor, a planetary gear and a wind turbine. The generator was connected to the sun wheel, while auxiliary motor was connected to the ring gear, and the shaft of the wind turbine was connected to the planetary carrier. The working mode and power flow about this type of structure in different working conditions were presented, and a novel speed-torque mode control strategy in all wind conditions was proposed. The generator can be connected to the grid by controlling the speed of the auxiliary motor when the wind velocity is under the rating value, and the active power of the generator can be kept around the rating value by controlling the torque of the auxiliary motor when the wind velocity is above the rating value. The dual-mode smooth switching rule was given, and the validity was tested by the simulation study. Moreover, experimental results were given to verify the theoretical analysis, and the feasibility of the system structure also was verified.%研究了一种新型风力发电机系统,包括发电机、调速电机、行星齿轮和风力机,发电机与太阳轮连接,调速电机与内齿圈连接,风力机轴与行星架连接。分析了不同工况下两台电机的工作模式与功率流的变化,针对此种结构提出一种全风况下转速−转矩模式控制策略,低于额定风速时调速电机转速控制能够实现发电机恒频并网,高于额定风速时通过控制调速电机转矩限制发电机输出有功功率在额定值附近。对控制策略进行仿真研究,并给出转速−转矩控制平滑切换规则,搭建了双转子风力发电实验平台,实现了并网操作,验证了该系统结构的可行性与控制策略的有效性。

  1. Dual-cavity Nd:YAG laser with Laguerre-Gaussian (LG0n) mode output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D. J.; Kim, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Direct excitation of an arbitrary Laguerre-Gaussian (LG0n) mode with helical wavefronts in a diode-end-pumped solid state laser employing a dual-cavity configuration is reported. Through simple adjustments of the intra-cavity apertures in the dual-cavity laser configuration, the spatial gain distribution and the cavity loss could be optimized for the targeted LG0 n mode. This approach has been applied to a diode-pumped Nd: YAG laser to achieve selective lasing of the LG01, LG02, and LG03 modes. Also, an optical vortex laser beam was produced directly from the laser resonator by determining the wavefront handedness of each LG mode output using an intra-cavity etalon. The prospects of further power scaling and laser performance improvements will be discussed.

  2. Micro generation of electricity with gasification gas in a engine generator in dual mode; Microgeracao de eletricidade com gas de gaseificacao num motor gerador dual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Marcelo Jose da; Souza, Samuel Nelson Melegari de; Souza, Abel Alves de; Ricieri, Reinaldo P. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana (UNIOESTE), Cascavel, PE (Brazil)], E-mail: marcelo_js07@hotmail.com

    2010-07-01

    Among the alternatives to the increase of world energy demand the use of biomass as energy source is one of the most promising as it contributes to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Gasification is a process technology of biomass energy in a gaseous biofuel. The fuel gas got a low calorific value that can be used in diesel engine in dual mode for power generation in isolated communities. This study aimed to evaluate the reduction in the consumption of oil diesel an engine generator, using gas from gasification of wood. The engine generator brand used, it was a BRANCO, with direct injection power of 10 hp and mated to an electric generator 5,5 kW. The fuel gas was produced in a gasifier type co-current. The engine generator was put on load system from 0.5 kW to 3.5 kW through electric bank of heaters. For the oil diesel savings, the gas was injected mixed with intake air, as the oil diesel was normally injected by the injector of the engine (motor dual). The consumption od diesel was measured diesel by means of a precision scale. It was concluded that the engine converted to dual mode when using the gas for the gasification of wood showed a decrease in diesel consumption by up to 57%. (author)

  3. The Development of CyberLearning in Dual-Mode: Higher Education Institutions in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau-Jane Chen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Open and distance education in Taiwan has evolved into the third phase – cyberlearning – conceptualized as teaching and learning interactions mediated entirely through the application of state-of-the-art information and communications technologies (ICT, such as the Internet and World Wide Web. Socio-economic influences, the development of new technologies and a marked shift in learning paradigms have increased the utilization of ICT at all levels of the Taiwanese education system. Since the advent and provision of cyberlearning programs, well over half (56 percent of the conventional universities and colleges have been upgraded to dual-mode higher educational institutions. They offer real-time multicast instructional systems using videoconferencing and cable TV technology, virtual classroom systems via network-based instructional management systems, and curriculum-on-demand systems utilizing video-on-demand technology. Critical success factors in the development of these cyber universities and the opportunities, challenges and implications inherent in these are analyzed. ICT and the provision of cyberlearning have gradually been changing the structure and vision of higher education institutions as well as the entire learning environment and educational systems. Because the Ministry of Education (MOE has initiated a policy on credit-based degrees for cyberlearning courses/ programs, the development of open and distance education is anticipated to hasten the transformation of Taiwan’s education system towards one which will create an ideal learning society in the 21st century.

  4. Modeling Shock Train Leading Edge Detection in Dual-Mode Scramjets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeinde, Foluso; Lou, Zhipeng; Li, Wenhai

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to accurately model the detection of shock train leading edge (STLE) in dual-mode scramjet (DMSJ) engines intended for hypersonic flight in air-breathing propulsion systems. The associated vehicles have applications in military warfare and intelligence, and there is commercial interest as well. Shock trains are of interest because they play a significant role in the inability of a DMSJ engine to develop the required propulsive force. The experimental approach to STLE detection has received some attention; as have numerical calculations. However, virtually all of the numerical work focus on mechanically- (i.e., pressure-) generated shock trains, which are much easier to model relative to the phenomenon in the real system where the shock trains are generated by combustion. A focus on combustion, as in the present studies, enables the investigation of the effects of equivalence ratio, which, together with the Mach number, constitutes an important parameter determining mode transition. The various numerical approaches implemented in our work will be reported, with result comparisons to experimental data. The development of an STLE detection procedure in an a priori manner will also be discussed.

  5. New dual mode gadolinium nanoparticle contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketan B Ghaghada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Liposomal-based gadolinium (Gd nanoparticles have elicited significant interest for use as blood pool and molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI contrast agents. Previous generations of liposomal MR agents contained gadolinium-chelates either within the interior of liposomes (core-encapsulated gadolinium liposomes or presented on the surface of liposomes (surface-conjugated gadolinium liposomes. We hypothesized that a liposomal agent that contained both core-encapsulated gadolinium and surface-conjugated gadolinium, defined herein as dual-mode gadolinium (Dual-Gd liposomes, would result in a significant improvement in nanoparticle-based T1 relaxivity over the previous generations of liposomal agents. In this study, we have developed and tested, both in vitro and in vivo, such a dual-mode liposomal-based gadolinium contrast agent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: THREE TYPES OF LIPOSOMAL AGENTS WERE FABRICATED: core-encapsulated, surface-conjugated and dual-mode gadolinium liposomes. In vitro physico-chemical characterizations of the agents were performed to determine particle size and elemental composition. Gadolinium-based and nanoparticle-based T1 relaxivities of various agents were determined in bovine plasma. Subsequently, the agents were tested in vivo for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (CE-MRA studies. Characterization of the agents demonstrated the highest gadolinium atoms per nanoparticle for Dual-Gd liposomes. In vitro, surface-conjugated gadolinium liposomes demonstrated the highest T1 relaxivity on a gadolinium-basis. However, Dual-Gd liposomes demonstrated the highest T1 relaxivity on a nanoparticle-basis. In vivo, Dual-Gd liposomes resulted in the highest signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and contrast-to-noise ratio in CE-MRA studies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The dual-mode gadolinium liposomal contrast agent demonstrated higher particle-based T1 relaxivity, both in vitro and in vivo, compared to either the

  6. Intelligent transportation systems problems and perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Pamuła, Wiesław

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a discussion of problems encountered in the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). It puts emphasis on the early tasks of designing and proofing the concept of integration of technologies in Intelligent Transport Systems. In its first part the book concentrates on the design problems of urban ITS. The second part of the book features case studies representative for the different modes of transport. These are freight transport, rail transport and aerospace transport encompassing also space stations. The book provides ideas for deployment which may be developed by scientists and engineers engaged in the design of Intelligent Transport Systems. It can also be used in the training of specialists, students and post-graduate students in universities and transport high schools.    .

  7. 14 CFR 23.399 - Dual control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dual control system. 23.399 Section 23.399... STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Structure Control Surface and System Loads § 23.399 Dual control system. (a) Each dual control system must be designed to withstand the...

  8. 14 CFR 27.399 - Dual control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dual control system. 27.399 Section 27.399... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Strength Requirements Control Surface and System Loads § 27.399 Dual control system. Each dual primary flight control system must be designed to withstand the loads that...

  9. A dual-mode proximity sensor with integrated capacitive and temperature sensing units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Shihua; Huang, Ying; He, Xiaoyue; Sun, Zhiguang; Liu, Ping; Liu, Caixia

    2015-10-01

    The proximity sensor is one of the most important devices in the field of robot application. It can accurately provide the proximity information to assistant robots to interact with human beings and the external environment safely. In this paper, we have proposed and demonstrated a dual-mode proximity sensor composed of capacitive and resistive sensing units. We defined the capacitive type proximity sensor perceiving the proximity information as C-mode and the resistive type proximity sensor detecting as R-mode. Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) were chosen as the R-mode sensing material because of its high performance. The dual-mode proximity sensor presents the following features: (1) the sensing distance of the dual-mode proximity sensor has been enlarged compared with the single capacitive proximity sensor in the same geometrical pattern; (2) experiments have verified that the proposed sensor can sense the proximity information of different materials; (3) the proximity sensing capability of the sensor has been improved by two modes perceive collaboratively, for a plastic block at a temperature of 60 °C: the R-mode will perceive the proximity information when the distance d between the sensor and object is 6.0-17.0 mm and the C-mode will do that when their interval is 0-2.0 mm additionally two modes will work together when the distance is 2.0-6.0 mm. These features indicate our transducer is very valuable in skin-like sensing applications.

  10. Single-Mode and Dual-Mode Nongomogeneous Dissipative Structures in the Nonlocal Model of Erosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Kovaleva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider a periodic boundary-value problem for a nonlinear equation with the deviating spatial argument in the case when the deviation is small. This equation is called a spatially nonlocal erosion equation. It describes the formation of undulating surface relief under the influence of ion bombardment and can be interpreted as a development of the well-known Bradley-Harper model. It is shown that the nonhomogeneous surface relief can occur when the stability of the homogeneous states of equilibrium changes. In this boundary value problem the loss of stability can occur at the higher modes and a number of such modes. The mode number depends on many factors. For example, it depends on the angle of incidence. It is also shown that the nonlinear boundary value problem can be included into the class of abstract parabolic equations. Solvability of this problem was studied in the works by P.E. Sobolevsky, and this method assumes to use the analytical theory of semigroups of bounded linear operators. In order to solve the occurring bifurcation problems there were used the investigation methods of dynamical systems with an infinite-dimensional phase space (a space of initial conditions such as: the method of integral manifolds, the method of Poincare–Dulac normal forms and asymptotic methods of analysis. Both possible in the given situation problems were studied: in codimension one and in codimension two. In particular, asymptotic formulas were obtained for solutions which describe nonhomogeneous undulating surface relief. The question about the stability of these solutions was studied. And the analysis of normal form was given. Also the asymptotic formulas for the nonhomogeneous undulating solutions were obtained. In conclusion some possible interpretations of the obtained results are indicated.

  11. Dual mode cobaloxime crystals: Acceleration of trans-cis photochromic reaction rate by photoisomerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, Akiko

    2016-08-01

    Our recent results on the photochromic reactions in dual mode cobaloxime crystals containing azobenzene derivatives are briefly reviewed. This work represents the first step toward the design of functional materials which can be controlled by two independent external stimuli, one by visible light and the other by UV radiation.

  12. Dual mode microwave tool for dielectric analysis and thermal ablation treatment of organic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puentes, Margarita; Bashir, Fahed; Schüssler, Martin; Jakoby, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    A dual mode tool design to analyze organic tissue and locally perform thermal ablation treatment is presented. The tool is made of an array of split-ring resonators. It can operate on a sensing mode to track the relative dielectric changes from the organic tissue and on a treatment mode to perform thermal ablation at different input powers. The measurements were done with phantoms of human tissue. The tool is able to focus a hot spot of approximately 0.2mm with a temperature of 109 °C at an input power of 10W.

  13. Correlates of mode of transportation work among Norwegian parents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkelund, Oline Anita; Dengerud, Hanna; Bere, Elling

    Background: Cycling and brisk-walking to work represents an opportunity to incorporate sustainable transport related moderate- to- vigorous physical activity (MVPA) into daily routine among adults, and thus, may make an important contributing to health. Despite the fact that walking and cycling...... is an option for many commuters and also brings a number of benefits, a considerable proportion of commuters choose to use other means of transport when cycling and walking would be a highly appropriate transport mode. The object of this study was to assess the associations between modes of commuting...... and Telemark. Commuting behavior, socio- demographic determinants, personal and environmental factors were ascertained using questionnaire data from the Fruit and Vegetables Makes the Marks project (FVMM) and The Active Transportation in Norway project (ATN). Multivariate logistic regressions were applied...

  14. Coupling Mode of Dual-Core Micro Structured Fibers

    CERN Document Server

    Debbal, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The photonic crystal fibers (PCF) or air-silica microstructured fibers consist of a periodic array of dielectric transverse. By introducing a defect in this structure, it is possible to guide the light by a photonic bandgap effect, whose properties are different fundamentally from the guide by total internal reflection that takes place in conventional fibers. PCF with two cores have significant potential, and this is one of the main motivations witches led us to approach this theme in this article. Analysis of the inter-core coupling was also necessary to study the problem of crosstalk. Their knowledge is important because it is a preliminary work to the study and understanding of multi-core PCF or an array of guides in the microstructured cladding. It then presents the main results on the effects of beating between the various modes under linear conditions.

  15. Development of Cassava Grating Machine: A Dual-Operational Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed B. NDALIMAN

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Design of a Cassava grating machine which has two modes of operation was made. It can be powered either electrically or manually. It takes care of power failure problems, and can be used in rural settlements where electricity supply is not in existence. Cassava is fed with the Machine through the hopper made of metal sheet to the granting drum, which rotates at a constant speed. This process grates the cassava into cassava pulp. The chute constructed of metal sheet accepts the pulp and send it out because of its inclination which operated manually, the efficiency of the machine was found to be 92.4%, which the efficiency of the electrically powered machine was found to be 91.9%.

  16. Pedelecs as a physically active transportation mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, James E; Morris, Kalee L; Kram, Rodger; Byrnes, William C

    2016-08-01

    Pedelecs are bicycles that provide electric assistance only when a rider is pedaling and have become increasingly popular. Our purpose was to quantify usage patterns over 4 weeks of real-world commuting with a pedelec and to determine if pedelec use would improve cardiometabolic risk factors. Twenty sedentary commuters visited the laboratory for baseline physiological measurements [body composition, maximum oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), blood lipid profile, and 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)]. The following 4 weeks, participants were instructed to commute using a pedelec at least 3 days week(-1) for 40 min day(-1) while wearing a heart rate monitor and a GPS device. Metabolic equivalents (METS) were estimated from heart rate data. Following the intervention, we repeated the physiological measurements. Average total distance and time were 317.9 ± 113.8 km and 15.9 ± 3.4 h, respectively. Participants averaged 4.9 ± 1.2 METS when riding. Four weeks of pedelec commuting significantly improved 2-h post-OGTT glucose (5.53 ± 1.18-5.03 ± 0.91 mmol L(-1), p < 0.05), [Formula: see text] (2.21 ± 0.48-2.39 ± 0.52 L min(-1), p < 0.05), and end of [Formula: see text] test power output (165.1 ± 37.1-189.3 ± 38.2 W, p < 0.05). There were trends for improvements in MAP (84.6 ± 10.5-83.2 ± 9.4 mmHg, p = 0.15) and fat mass (28.6 ± 11.3-28.2 ± 11.4 kg, p = 0.07). Participants rode a pedelec in the real world at a self-selected moderate intensity, which helped them meet physical activity recommendations. Pedelec commuting also resulted in significant improvements in 2-h post-OGTT glucose, [Formula: see text], and power output. Pedelecs are an effective form of active transportation that can improve some cardiometabolic risk factors within only 4 weeks.

  17. Dual-Band Dual-Mode Button Antenna for On-Body and Off-Body Communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu Yin; Wong, Hang; Mo, Te; Cao, Yun Fei

    2017-08-01

    A dual-band dual-mode button antenna for body centric communications is presented. At the lower band, a spiral inverted-F antenna is designed with omnidirectional radiation pattern for on-body communication. At the upper band, the high-order mode of the inverted-F antenna is utilized together with a metal reflector to realize broadside radiation for off-body communication. For demonstration, a prototype is implemented. The measured peak gains on the phantom at the lower and upper bands are -0.6 and 4.3 dBi, respectively. The antenna operating on the phantom has measured efficiencies of 46.3% at the lower band and 69.3% at the upper band. The issue of specific absorption rate (SAR) is studied. The maximum transmitted power under the SAR regulation of 1.6 W/kg is found to be 26.4 dB·m, which is high enough for body centric communications. In addition, the transmission performance between two proposed antennas mounted on the body is investigated by measuring the transmission loss. With an overall miniaturized size, the robust button antenna could be integrated in clothes and be a potential candidate for wireless body area network applications.

  18. Actuator System with Dual Chambers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to an actuator system with a magnetic lead screw (50), comprises a magnetic rotor (5) and a translator cylinder (2), the translator cylinder (2) comprises a magnetic stator (16), the translator cylinder (2) has a closed first end (14) and a second end confined by a lid...... (8), the lid having a shaft opening (17) for a shaft (6) coupled to the magnetic rotor (5), wherein the magnetic rotor (5), when inserted in the translator cylinder (2), is arranged to translate a linear movement of the translator cylinder (2) into a rotational movement of the magnetic rotor by using...... movement in the shaft opening (17), the lid (8) being arranged for confining the second end (15) of the translator cylinder (2), the translator cylinder confined by the lid (8) forms,when divided by the magnetic rotor (5), a first chamber (TC) with a first volume and a second chamber(BC) with a second...

  19. A lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    Due to large amounts of oxygen required for space travel, a method of mining, transporting, and storing this oxygen in space would facilitate further space exploration. The following project deals specifically with the methods for transporting liquid oxygen from the lunar surface to the Lunar Orbit (LO) space station, and then to the Lower Earth Orbit (LEO) space station. Two vehicles were designed for operation between the LEO and LO space stations. The first of these vehicles is an aerobraked design vehicle. The Aerobrake Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is capable of transporting 5000 lbm of payload to LO while returning to LEO with 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen, and thus meet mission requirements. The second vehicle can deliver 18,000 lbm of payload to LO and is capable of bringing 60,000 lbm of liquid oxygen back to LEO. A lunar landing vehicle was also designed for operation between LO and the established moon base. The use of an electromagnetic railgun as a method for launching the lunar lander was also investigated. The feasibility of the railgun is doubtful at this time. A system of spheres was also designed for proper storing and transporting of the liquid oxygen. The system assumes a safe means for transferring the liquid oxygen from tank to tank is operational. A sophisticated life support system was developed for both the OTV and the lunar lander. This system focuses on such factors as the vehicle environment, waste management, water requirements, food requirements, and oxygen requirements.

  20. Development of Signal Processing Circuit for Side-absorber of Dual-mode Compton Camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jong Hoon; Kim, Young Su; Kim, Chan Hyeong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju Hahn; Lee, Chun Sik [Dept. of Physics, Chung-Ang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    In the present study, a gamma-ray detector and associated signal processing circuit was developed for a side-absorber of a dual-mode Compton camera. The gamma-ray detector was made by optically coupling a CsI(Tl) scintillation crystal to a silicon photodiode. The developed signal processing circuit consists of two parts, i.e., the slow part for energy measurement and the fast part for timing measurement. In the fast part, there are three components: (1) fast shaper, (2) leading-edge discriminator, and (3) TTL-to-NIM logic converter. AC coupling configuration between the detector and front-end electronics (FEE) was used. Because the noise properties of FEE can significantly affect the overall performance of the detection system, some design criteria were presented. The performance of the developed system was evaluated in terms of energy and timing resolutions. The evaluated energy resolution was 12.0% and 15.6% FWHM for 662 and 511 keV peaks, respectively. The evaluated timing resolution was 59.0 ns. In the conclusion, the methods to improve the performance were discussed because the developed gamma-ray detection system showed the performance that could be applicable but not satisfactory in Compton camera application.

  1. Pickering UDM transportation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, P.J.; Vissers, J.J. [GE Canada Nuclear Products, Mechanical Engineering, Peterborough, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: patrick.brennan@cdnnuc.ge.com; jeff.vissers@cdnnuc.ge.com; Brown, R. [Ontario Power Generation, Inspection Services Div., Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    The Universal Delivery Machine (UDM) is a new CANDU reactor maintenance tool that allows safe, timely, and cost-effective inspection and maintenance of fuel channels. The UDM had to be transported through the Pickering nuclear station and installed onto the reactor bridge. This involved lifting the UDM between station levels, navigating it through several challenging airlock and vault areas, and traversing the bridge opening directly in front of the reactor. This paper describes the system used to transport and install the Pickering UDM. (author)

  2. A reusable biosensor chip for SERS-fluorescence dual mode immunoassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Fan, Kequan; Zong, Shenfei; Cui, Yiping

    2015-05-01

    Research continues in an effort to develop a versatile platform for clinical diagnosis with easy operation and low cost. In the present study, a biosensor chip has been designed and fabricated for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)- fluorescence dual mode immunoassay. Here, a dual channel microfluidic chip was employed for simultaneous SERS and fluorescence detection. Unlike previously reported microfluidic immunoassays using fluorescence or SERS method independently, the proposed dual mode biosensor combined the advantages of these two optical detection techniques. The fluorescence mode can be used for fast screening of biomolecules while the SERS mode can be employed for accurate and sensitive quantitative analysis. In addition, the chip-based microfluidic platform greatly reduced the reagents cost and complicated operation. The whole detection process from sample preparation to optical detection can be finished in 90 min. Moreover, the reversibly bonded biosensor chip could be reused after cleaning, which further reduced the cost for each assay. All these merits make it a potential powerful tool for practical clinical diagnosis.

  3. Dual-mode immunoassay based on shape code and infrared absorption fingerprint signals of silica nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Pengfei; Ni, Ran; Wang, Kexin; Hong, Xia; Ding, Yadan; Cong, Tie; Liu, Junping; Zhao, Huiying

    2017-07-01

    Silica nanorods were synthesized through a simple one-pot emulsion-droplet-based growth method, in which tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) was used as the silica source, ammonia as the catalyst, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as the structure-directing agent and stabilizer. By controlling hydrolysis and condensation in the reaction process, we regulated the aspect ratios and the infrared (IR) absorption fingerprint signals (the transverse optical and the longitudinal optical phonon modes) of the silica nanorods. Based on this, a dual-mode immunoassay was performed for detecting model target analyte, human IgG. The shape code of the silica nanorods was used for simple, rapid qualitative, and sensitive semi-quantitative immunoassay by using a conventional optical microscope. The characteristic IR absorption fingerprint signals of the silica nanorods allowed for reliable quantitative immunoassay with good selectivity and high specificity. The detection limit and the linear range were found out to be 0.5 pM and 1 pM-10 nM, respectively. We expect that such dual-mode immunoassay could be applied for the detection of other analytes, such as protein, nucleic acids, bacteria, viruses, explosives, toxins, and so on. Graphical abstract A simple dual-mode immunoassay was performed using the shape code and infrared absorption fingerprint signals of silica nanorods as detection signals.

  4. Physics basis of Multi-Mode anomalous transport module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; Luo, L. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Weiland, J. [Departments of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology and Euratom-VR Assoc., S41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado (United States)

    2013-03-15

    The derivation of Multi-Mode anomalous transport module version 8.1 (MMM8.1) is presented. The MMM8.1 module is advanced, relative to MMM7.1, by the inclusion of peeling modes, dependence of turbulence correlation length on flow shear, electromagnetic effects in the toroidal momentum diffusivity, and the option to compute poloidal momentum diffusivity. The MMM8.1 model includes a model for ion temperature gradient, trapped electron, kinetic ballooning, peeling, collisionless and collision dominated magnetohydrodynamics modes as well as model for electron temperature gradient modes, and a model for drift resistive inertial ballooning modes. In the derivation of the MMM8.1 module, effects of collisions, fast ion and impurity dilution, non-circular flux surfaces, finite beta, and Shafranov shift are included. The MMM8.1 is used to compute thermal, particle, toroidal, and poloidal angular momentum transports. The fluid approach which underlies the derivation of MMM8.1 is expected to reliably predict, on an energy transport time scale, the evolution of temperature, density, and momentum profiles in plasma discharges for a wide range of plasma conditions.

  5. Identifying Different Transportation Modes from Trajectory Data Using Tree-Based Ensemble Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of transportation modes can be used in different applications including human behavior research, transport management and traffic control. Previous work on transportation mode recognition has often relied on using multiple sensors or matching Geographic Information System (GIS information, which is not possible in many cases. In this paper, an approach based on ensemble learning is proposed to infer hybrid transportation modes using only Global Position System (GPS data. First, in order to distinguish between different transportation modes, we used a statistical method to generate global features and extract several local features from sub-trajectories after trajectory segmentation, before these features were combined in the classification stage. Second, to obtain a better performance, we used tree-based ensemble models (Random Forest, Gradient Boosting Decision Tree, and XGBoost instead of traditional methods (K-Nearest Neighbor, Decision Tree, and Support Vector Machines to classify the different transportation modes. The experiment results on the later have shown the efficacy of our proposed approach. Among them, the XGBoost model produced the best performance with a classification accuracy of 90.77% obtained on the GEOLIFE dataset, and we used a tree-based ensemble method to ensure accurate feature selection to reduce the model complexity.

  6. TESTING OF THE DUAL ROTARY FILTER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herman, D.; Fowley, M.; Stefanko, D.

    2011-08-29

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) installed and tested two hydraulically connected SpinTek rotary microfilter (RMF) units to determine the behavior of a multiple filter system. Both units were successfully controlled by a control scheme written in DELTA-V architecture by Savannah River Remediation (SRR) Process Control Engineering personnel. The control system was tuned to provide satisfactory response to changing conditions during the operation of the multi-filter system. Stability was maintained through the startup and shutdown of one of the filter units while the second was still in operation. The installation configuration originally proposed by the Small Colum Ion Exchange (SCIX) project of independent filter and motor mountings may be susceptible to vibration. Significant stiffening of the filter and motor mounts was required to minimize the vibration. Alignment of the motor to the filter was a challenge in this test configuration. The deployment configuration must be easy to manipulate and allow for fine adjustment. An analysis of the vibration signature of the test system identified critical speeds. Whether it corresponds to the resonance frequency of a rotor radial vibration mode that was excited by rotor unbalance is uncertain based upon the measurements. A relative motion series should be completed on the filter with the final shaft configuration to determine if the resonances exist in the final filter design. The instrumentation selected for deployment, including the concentrate discharge control valve and flow meters, performed well. Automation of the valve control integrated well with the control scheme and when used in concert with the other control variables, allowed automated control of the dual RMF system. The one area of concern with the instrumentation was the condition resulting when the filtrate flow meter operated with less than three gpm. This low flow was at the lower range of performance for the flow meter. This should not be

  7. Inverted hybrid CdSe-polymer solar cells adopting PEDOT:PSS/MoO3 as dual hole transport layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Leize; Richardson, Beau J; Yu, Qiuming

    2016-02-07

    Inverted CdSe quantum dots (QDs):poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) organic/inorganic hybrid solar cells (OIHSCs) with the PSS/MoO3 dual hole transport layers (HTLs) showed superior performance over those with a single HTL of PSS or MoO3. The enhanced electron blocking at the active layer/anode interface as well as the prevention of leakage current accounted for the enhancement in the efficiency of the solar cells with the dual HTLs. By adopting the inverted structure and using the dual HTLs, the resistive losses of the CdSe QDs:P3HT hybrid system at high illumination power were effectively prevented. Further study showed the structure of dual HTLs was applicable to the solar cells with CdSe QDs and nanorods (NRs) blended with poly(thienothiophene-co-benzodithiophenes)7-F20 (PTB7-F20).

  8. Design of up/down counter based on dual mode logic and Low power Hybrid dual mode dynamic flip-flop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandhya Venugopal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a 4-b Johnson up-down counter that incorporates low power dual dynamic node pulsed hybrid flip-flop (DDFF with clock gating technology and a dual mode logic (DML in the counter. Clock gating disable the clock signal when the input data does not change the stored data. A DML mode logic is introduced here which improves the speed performance of the design, also achieving significant energy consumption reduction. The large capacitance in precharge node is eliminated by the DDFF and DDFF-ELM designs by following a split dynamic node structure. The DDFF offers power reduction. The DDFF-ELM reduces pipeline overhead. 4-b Johnson up-down counter is used to magnify the performance improvement of the designs, to which the DML logic is introduced. An area, power, and speed efficient method is presented here that incorporates complex logic functions into the flip-flop. The DML logic used in DDFF-ELM helps to achieve low power and high speed requirements. The simulation results are compared using T-Spice

  9. Dual states estimation of a subsurface flow-transport coupled model using ensemble Kalman filtering

    KAUST Repository

    El Gharamti, Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    Modeling the spread of subsurface contaminants requires coupling a groundwater flow model with a contaminant transport model. Such coupling may provide accurate estimates of future subsurface hydrologic states if essential flow and contaminant data are assimilated in the model. Assuming perfect flow, an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) can be used for direct data assimilation into the transport model. This is, however, a crude assumption as flow models can be subject to many sources of uncertainty. If the flow is not accurately simulated, contaminant predictions will likely be inaccurate even after successive Kalman updates of the contaminant model with the data. The problem is better handled when both flow and contaminant states are concurrently estimated using the traditional joint state augmentation approach. In this paper, we introduce a dual estimation strategy for data assimilation into a one-way coupled system by treating the flow and the contaminant models separately while intertwining a pair of distinct EnKFs, one for each model. The presented strategy only deals with the estimation of state variables but it can also be used for state and parameter estimation problems. This EnKF-based dual state-state estimation procedure presents a number of novel features: (i) it allows for simultaneous estimation of both flow and contaminant states in parallel; (ii) it provides a time consistent sequential updating scheme between the two models (first flow, then transport); (iii) it simplifies the implementation of the filtering system; and (iv) it yields more stable and accurate solutions than does the standard joint approach. We conducted synthetic numerical experiments based on various time stepping and observation strategies to evaluate the dual EnKF approach and compare its performance with the joint state augmentation approach. Experimental results show that on average, the dual strategy could reduce the estimation error of the coupled states by 15% compared with the

  10. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  11. Dual Z-Source Inverter With Three-Level Reduced Common-Mode Switching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Feng; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the design of a dual Z-source inverter that can be used with either a single dc source or two isolated dc sources. Unlike traditional inverters, the integration of a properly designed Z-source network and semiconductor switches to the proposed dual inverter allows buck......-boost power conversion to be performed over a wide modulation range, with three-level output waveforms generated. The connection of an additional transformer to the inverter ac output also allows all generic wye-or delta-connected loads with three-wire or four-wire configuration to be supplied by the inverter....... Modulationwise, the dual inverter can be controlled using a carefully designed carrier-based pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) scheme that will always ensure balanced voltage boosting of the Z-source network while simultaneously achieving reduced common-mode switching. Because of the omission of dead-time delays...

  12. Particle transport in density gradient driven TE mode turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Skyman, Andreas; Strand, P I

    2011-01-01

    The turbulent transport of main ion and trace impurities in a tokamak device in the presence of steep electron density gradients has been studied. The parameters are chosen for trapped electron (TE) mode turbulence, driven primarily by steep electron density gradients relevant to H-mode physics, but with a transition to temperature gradient driven turbulence as the density gradient flattens. Results obtained through non-linear (NL) and quasilinear (QL) gyrokinetic simulations using the GENE code are compared with results obtained from a fluid model. Main ion and impurity transport is studied by examining the balance of convective and diffusive transport, as quantified by the density gradient corresponding to zero particle flux (peaking factor). Scalings are obtained for the impurity peaking with the background electron density gradient and the impurity charge number. It is shown that the impurity peaking factor is weakly dependent on impurity charge and significantly smaller than the driving electron density ...

  13. Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Saul Lizondo

    1990-03-01

    Full Text Available Adoption and Abandonment of Dual Exchange Rate Systems When facing persistent balance of payments problems, some countries have resorted to a dual exchange rate system as an alternative to a uniform exchange rate adjustment. Typically, under the dual system, certain selected transactions take place at a fixed official exchange rate, while there remaining transactions are effected at a more depreciated rate, which is usually determined by market forces. This paper examines the circumstances that lead to the adoption of a dual system, and the conditions under which the foreign exchange market can be unified successfully or a later stage. In this paper, the adoption of the dual system is linked to the unsustainability of a crawling peg (or a fixed exchange rate system in the presence of large budgret deficits. We show that the initiai spiral between the financial at the commercial exchange rates and the extent of capital flight largely depends on whether the switch in regime is anticipated or unanticipated. Although the dual system improves the external position of the economy, to the extent that there is no change in domestic noticies the country will continue to experience a deficit in the balance of payments. A correction of these policies is the only enduring solution to the external imbalance, and a precondition for a successful unification of the foreirg exchange market. If the economv unifies the foreign exchange market into a crawling peg, the financial exchahnge rate could be an adequate indicator of the initlal level of which the new exchange rate should be set if a capital outflow is to be avoided. If the economy instead moves to a flexible exchange rate system, the initial value of the exchange rate could be higher or lower than the prevailing financial exchange rate.

  14. Dual-Mode Dual-Band Microstrip Bandpass Filter Based on Fourth Iteration T-Square Fractal and Shorting Pin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new class of dual mode microstrip fractal resonator is proposed and developed for miniaturization of the dual band bandpass filter. The perimeter of the proposed resonator is increased by employing fourth iteration T-square fractal shape. Consequently the lower resonant frequency of the filter is decreased without increasing the usable space. The self similarity of the usable structure enables it to produce the two degenerate modes which are coupled using the proper perturbation technique. The shorting pin is placed at the null in the surface current distribution at the center of the resonator. This shorting pin is coactively coupled to the resonant circuit of the resonator, effectively coupled to the lower degenerate mode and reduces the lower edge band resonant frequency. By adjusting the resonator dimensions and the size of the shorting pin, the resonant frequency and the out-of-band rejection around the transmission bands can be controlled to meet the design requirements. The simulated response of the designed filter has two transmission bands, the first band is from 2.34-3.65 GHz with resonant frequencies at 2.47GHz and 3.55GHz, the second band is from 4.37-5.324GHz with resonant frequencies at 4.5GHz and 5.13GHz. In the pass bands, the group delay is less than 0.65 ns. The proposed filter can be applied to WLAN (2.4 GHz and 5.2 GHz and WiMAX (3.5 GHz and Bluetooth and ZigBee (4.9 GHz.

  15. A low power dual-band multi-mode RF front-end for GNSS applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Hao; Li Zhiqun; Wang Zhigong, E-mail: zhhseu@gmail.com [Institute of RF- and OE- ICs, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

    2010-11-15

    A CMOS dual-band multi-mode RF front-end for the global navigation satellite system receivers of all GPS, Bei-Dou, Galileo and Glonass systems is presented. It consists of a reconfigurable low noise amplifier (LNA), a broadband active balun, a high linearity mixer and a bandgap reference (BGR) circuit. The effect of the input parasitic capacitance on the input impedance of the inductively degenerated common source LNA is analyzed in detail. By using two different LC networks at the input port and the switched capacitor at the output port, the LNA can work at two different frequency bands (1.2 GHz and 1.5 GHz) under low power consumption. The active balun uses a hybrid-connection structure to achieve high bandwidth. The mixer uses the multiple gated transistors technique to acquire a high linearity under low power consumption but does not deteriorate other performances. The measurement results of the proposed front-end achieve a noise figure of 2.1/2.0 dB, again of 33.9/33.8 dB and an input 1-dB compression point of 0/1 dBm at 1227.6/1575.42 MHz. The power consumption is about 16 mW under a 1.8 V power supply.

  16. Estimating Energy Consumption of Transport Modes in China Using DEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weibin Lin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of transport requirements in China will incur increasing transport energy demands and associated environmental pressures. In this paper, we employ a generalized data envelopment analysis (DEA to evaluate the relative energy efficiency of rail, road, aviation and water transport from 1971 to 2011 by considering the energy input and passenger-kilometers (PKM and freight ton-kilometers (TKM outputs. The results show that the optimal energy efficiencies observed in 2011 are for rail and water transport, with the opposite observed for the energy efficiencies of aviation and road transport. In addition, we extend the DEA model to estimate future transport energy consumption in China. If each transport mode in 2020 is optimized throughout the observed period, the national transport energy consumption in 2020 will reach 497,701 kilotons coal equivalent (ktce, whereas the annual growth rate from 2011 to 2020 will be 5.7%. Assuming that efficiency improvements occur in this period, the estimated national transport energy consumption in 2020 will be 443,126 ktce, whereas the annual growth rate from 2011 to 2020 will be 4.4%, which is still higher than that of the national total energy consumption (3.8%.

  17. Differential expression of vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 may identify distinct modes of glutamatergic transmission in the macaque visual system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaram, Pooja; Hackett, Troy A; Kaas, Jon H

    2013-05-01

    Glutamate is the primary neurotransmitter utilized by the mammalian visual system for excitatory neurotransmission. The sequestration of glutamate into synaptic vesicles, and the subsequent transport of filled vesicles to the presynaptic terminal membrane, is regulated by a family of proteins known as vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs). Two VGLUT proteins, VGLUT1 and VGLUT2, characterize distinct sets of glutamatergic projections between visual structures in rodents and prosimian primates, yet little is known about their distributions in the visual system of anthropoid primates. We have examined the mRNA and protein expression patterns of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in the visual system of macaque monkeys, an Old World anthropoid primate, in order to determine their relative distributions in the superior colliculus, lateral geniculate nucleus, pulvinar complex, V1 and V2. Distinct expression patterns for both VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 identified architectonic boundaries in all structures, as well as anatomical subdivisions of the superior colliculus, pulvinar complex, and V1. These results suggest that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 clearly identify regions of glutamatergic input in visual structures, and may identify common architectonic features of visual areas and nuclei across the primate radiation. Additionally, we find that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 characterize distinct subsets of glutamatergic projections in the macaque visual system; VGLUT2 predominates in driving or feedforward projections from lower order to higher order visual structures while VGLUT1 predominates in modulatory or feedback projections from higher order to lower order visual structures. The distribution of these two proteins suggests that VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 may identify class 1 and class 2 type glutamatergic projections within the primate visual system (Sherman and Guillery, 2006).

  18. Modeling of dual gradient elution in ion exchange and mixed-mode chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi Feng; Schmidt, Michael; Graalfs, Heiner; Hafner, Mathias; Frech, Christian

    2015-10-23

    Protein retention using dual gradient elution in ion exchange- and mixed-mode chromatography can be modeled using the combination of a modified Yamamoto's LGE model and a conversion term to correlate the elution salt concentration and pH at any given gradient slope. Incorporation of the pH dependence of the binding charges into the model also provides some insights on the dual effects of salt and pH in protein-ligand interaction. The fitted thermodynamic parameters (ΔGP(0)/RT, ΔGS(0)/RT, number of charged amino acids involved in binding) of the dual gradient elution data using lysozyme and mAbs on SP Sepharose(®) FF, Eshmuno(®) HCX, and Capto(®) MMC ImpRes were consistent to the results of mono gradient data. This gives rise to an approach to perform thermodynamic modeling of protein retention in ion exchange- and mixed-mode chromatography by combining both salt and pH gradient into a single run of dual gradient elution which will increase time and cost efficiency. The dual gradients used in this study encompassed a wide range of pH (4-8) and NaCl concentrations (0-1M). Curve fits showed that ΔGP(0)/RT is protein type and ligand dependent. ΔGS(0)/RT is strongly dependent on the stationary phase but not the protein. For mAb04 on mixed-mode resin Capto(®) MMC, ΔGS(0)/RT is 5-6 times higher than the result reported for the same protein on cation exchanger Fractogel(®) EMD SO3(-) (S).

  19. NERVA-Derived Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Dual Mode Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Herbert R.; Hundal, Rolv

    1994-07-01

    Generation of electrical power using the nuclear heat source of a NERVA-derived nuclear thermal rocket engine is presented. A 111,200 N thrust engine defined in a study for NASA-LeRC in FY92 is the reference engine for a three-engine vehicle for which a 50 kWe capacity is required. Processes are described for energy extraction from the reactor and for converting the energy to electricity. The tie tubes which support the reactor fuel elements are the source of thermal energy. The study focuses on process systems using Stirling cycle energy conversion operating at 980 K and an alternate potassium-Rankine system operating at 1,140 K. Considerations are given of the effect of the power production on turbopump operation, ZrH moderator dissociation, creep strain in the tie tubes, hydrogen permeation through the containment materials, requirements for a backup battery system, and the effects of potential design changes on reactor size and criticality. Nuclear considerations include changing tie tube materials to TZM, changing the moderator to low vapor-pressure yttrium hydride, and changing the fuel form from graphite matrix to a carbon-carbide composite.

  20. Development of Hardware Dual Modality Tomography System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Zain

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the hardware development and performance of the Dual Modality Tomography (DMT system. DMT consists of optical and capacitance sensors. The optical sensors consist of 16 LEDs and 16 photodiodes. The Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT electrode design use eight electrode plates as the detecting sensor. The digital timing and the control unit have been developing in order to control the light projection of optical emitters, switching the capacitance electrodes and to synchronize the operation of data acquisition. As a result, the developed system is able to provide a maximum 529 set data per second received from the signal conditioning circuit to the computer.

  1. From Dual-Mode Triboelectric Nanogenerator to Smart Tactile Sensor: A Multiplexing Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zou, Jingdian; Xing, Fei; Zhang, Meng; Cao, Xia; Wang, Ning; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-04-25

    Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) can be applied for the next generation of artificial intelligent products, where skin-like tactile sensing advances the ability of robotics to feel and interpret environment. In this paper, a flexible and thin tactile sensor was developed on the basis of dual-mode TENGs. The effective transduction of touch and pressure stimulus into independent and interpretable electrical signals permits the instantaneous sensing of location and pressure with a plane resolution of 2 mm, a high-pressure-sensing sensitivity up to 28 mV·N(-1), and a linear pressure detection ranging from 40 to 140 N. Interestingly, this self-powered dual-mode sensor can even interpret contact and hardness of objects by analyzing the shape of the current peak, which makes this low-cost TENG-based sensor promising for applications in touch screens, electronic skins, healthcare, and environmental survey.

  2. Dual Mode of Action for Plusbacin A3 in Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Robert D; Singh, Manmilan; Chang, James; Kim, Sung Joon; VanNieuwenhze, Michael; Schaefer, Jacob

    2017-02-23

    We have used C{F}, N{F}, and N{P} rotational-echo double resonance NMR to determine the location and conformation of (19)F and (15)N double-labeled plusbacin A3 and of double-labeled deslipo-plusbacin A3, each bound to the cell walls of whole cells of Staphyloccocus aureus grown in media containing [1-(13)C]glycine. The (31)P is primarily in wall teichoic acid. Approximately 25% of plusbacin headgroups (the cyclic depsipeptide backbone) are in a closed conformation (N-F separation of 6 Å), while 75% are in a more open conformation (N-F separation of 12 Å). The closed headgroups have no contact with wall teichoic acid, whereas the open headgroups have a strong contact. This places the closed headgroups in hydrophobic regions of the cell wall and the open headgroups in hydrophilic regions. None of the plusbacin tails have contact with the (31)P of either wall teichoic acid or the cell membrane and thus are in hydrophobic regions of the cell wall. In addition, both heads and tails of plusbacin A3 have contact with the glycyl (13)C incorporated in cell-wall peptidoglycan pentaglycyl bridges and with (13)C-labeled purines near the membrane surface. We interpret these results in terms of a dual mode of action for plusbacin A3: first, disruption of the peptidoglycan layer nearest to the membrane surface by closed-conformation plusbacin A3 leading to an inhibition of chain extension by transglycosylation; second, thinning and disruption of the membrane (possibly including disruption of ATP-binding cassette transporters embedded in the membrane) by open-conformation plusbacin A3, thereby leading to release of ATP to the hydrophilic regions of the cell wall and subsequent binding by plusbacin A3.

  3. Study of thermal and emission performance of small gasifier-dual-fuel engine systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parikh, P.P.; Bhave, A.G.; Kapse, D.V.; Shashikantha (Indian Inst. of Tech., Bombay (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1989-01-01

    Performance of a downdraft, biomass gasifier-engine system is reported. Two types of diesel (direct injected and indirect injected) engines used in agricultural applications have been operated with the same gasifier system in the producer gas-cum-diesel, dual-fuel mode. The biomass used in these investigations is Subabool (Leucaena leucocephala). The systems have been evaluated with reference to their thermal, power and emission performance levels. Percentage diesel replacement at different loads has been evaluated as a parameter of interest. It was observed that the various performance facets of dual-fuel operation are considerably influenced by the engine design and operating parameters such as the design of the cooling-cleaning system, especially its volume, which is an important parameter determining the level of diesel replacement as well as the power capacity under dual-fuel mode. The low speed engine was found to be more sensitive to the volume of cooling-cleaning system. (author).

  4. Development of a dual mode satellite traveling wave tube 11GHz, 12W/6W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deml, L.

    1981-02-01

    A high power 11GHz dual mode traveling wave tube (TWT) was developed for use in communication satellites. The tube is based on the technology of previous space-qualified tubes (TL12006, TL12022, and TL12025). The tube operates at 12 or 6W, separated by 3dB, without a dramatic efficiency loss in the low power mode. Gain, efficiency and nonlinear distortion criteria are all met, by channel tuning the tube within the operating band (from 10.9 to 11.8 GHz). The channel bandwidth is 100MHz.

  5. VDCC Based Dual-Mode Quadrature Sinusoidal Oscillator with Outputs at Appropriate Impedance Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Srivastava

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a new dual-mode (i.e. both current-mode and voltage-mode quadrature sinusoidal oscillator using two Voltage Differencing Current Conveyors (VDCCs, two resistors and two capacitors. The proposed configuration use only grounded passive elements and enjoys independent resistor/electronic tuning of both Condition of Oscillation (CO as well as Frequency of Oscillation (FO. The quadrature current and voltage mode outputs of this circuit are available at appropriate impedance terminals. The behavior of presented oscillator is also examined under non ideal/parasitic conditions. The validity of the proposed configuration has been confirmed by SPICE simulations with TSMC 0.18μm process parameters.

  6. Comparison and Digital Circuit Analysis Based on Low Power Subthreshold Dual Mode Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.Naveen Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this brief, we propose new low power techniques such as Variable body bias method. This technique reduces the leakage power by increasing the body to source voltage of the sleep transistor in the design. By reducing the leakage power overall power of the design is reduced. The proposed logic switches between the active mode and sleep mode. To reduce the leakage current in sleep mode, the body to source voltage of the sleep transistor increased. To increase the voltage of Sleep transistor another transistor is connected to it. Average power and delay are the parameters compared between proposed logic to their CMOS and Dual Mode Logic counter parts in 180-nm process.

  7. SUBSURFACE EMPLACEMENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Wilson; R. Novotny

    1999-11-22

    The objective of this analysis is to identify issues and criteria that apply to the design of the Subsurface Emplacement Transportation System (SET). The SET consists of the track used by the waste package handling equipment, the conductors and related equipment used to supply electrical power to that equipment, and the instrumentation and controls used to monitor and operate those track and power supply systems. Major considerations of this analysis include: (1) Operational life of the SET; (2) Geometric constraints on the track layout; (3) Operating loads on the track; (4) Environmentally induced loads on the track; (5) Power supply (electrification) requirements; and (6) Instrumentation and control requirements. This analysis will provide the basis for development of the system description document (SDD) for the SET. This analysis also defines the interfaces that need to be considered in the design of the SET. These interfaces include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Waste handling building; (2) Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) surface site layout; (3) Waste Emplacement System (WES); (4) Waste Retrieval System (WRS); (5) Ground Control System (GCS); (6) Ex-Container System (XCS); (7) Subsurface Electrical Distribution System (SED); (8) MGR Operations Monitoring and Control System (OMC); (9) Subsurface Facility System (SFS); (10) Subsurface Fire Protection System (SFR); (11) Performance Confirmation Emplacement Drift Monitoring System (PCM); and (12) Backfill Emplacement System (BES).

  8. Theoretical modeling of a self-referenced dual mode SPR sensor utilizing indium tin oxide film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Sachin K.; Verma, Roli; Gupta, Banshi D.

    2016-06-01

    A prism based dual mode SPR sensor was theoretically modeled to work as a self-referenced sensor in spectral interrogation scheme. Self-referenced sensing was achieved by sandwiching an indium tin oxide thin film in between the prism base and the metal layer. The proposed sensor possesses two plasmon modes similar to long and short range SPRs (LR- and SR-SPRs) and we have analogically used LRSPR and SRSPR for them. However, these modes do not possess usual long range character due to the losses introduced by the imaginary part of indium tin oxide (ITO) dielectric function. One of the two plasmon modes responds to change in analyte refractive index while the other remains fixed. The influence of various design parameters on the performance of the sensor was evaluated. The performance of the proposed sensor was compared, via control simulations, with established dual mode geometries utilizing silicon dioxide (SiO2), Teflon AF-1600 and Cytop. The design parameters of the established geometries were optimized to obtain self-referenced sensing operation. Trade-offs between the resonance spectral width, minimum reflectivity, shift in resonance wavelength and angle of incidence were examined for optimal design. The present study will be useful in the fabrication of self-referenced sensors where the ambient conditions are not quite stable.

  9. A digitally controlled PWM/PSM dual-mode DC/DC converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Shaowei; Zhang Bo; Luo Ping; Hou Sijian; Ye Jingxin; Ma Xiao

    2011-01-01

    A digitally controlled pulse width modulation/pulse skip modulation (PWM/PSM) dual-mode buck DC/DC converter is proposed.Its operation mode can be automatically chosen as continuous conduction mode (CCM) or discontinuous conduction mode (DCM).The converter works in PSM at DCM and in 2 MHz PWM at CCM.Switching loss is reduced at a light load by skipping cycles.Thus high conversion efficiency is realized in a wide load current.The implementations of PWM control blocks,such as the ADC,the digital pulse width modulator (DPWM) and the loop compensator,and PSM control blocks are described in detail.The parameters of the loop compensator can be programmed for different external component values and switching frequencies,which is much more flexible than its analog rivals.The chip is manufactured in 0.13 μm CMOS technology and the chip area is 1.21 mm2.Experimental results show that the conversion efficiency is high,being 90% at 200 mA and 67% at 20 mA.Meanwhile,the measured load step response shows that the proposed dual-mode converter has good stability.

  10. Nanodiamond-Manganese dual mode MRI contrast agents for enhanced liver tumor detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Weixin; Toh, Tan Boon; Abdullah, Lissa Nurrul; Yvonne, Tay Wei Zheng; Lee, Kuan J; Guenther, Ilonka; Chow, Edward Kai-Hua

    2017-04-01

    Contrast agent-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is critical for the diagnosis and monitoring of a number of diseases, including cancer. Certain clinical applications, including the detection of liver tumors, rely on both T1 and T2-weighted images even though contrast agent-enhanced MR imaging is not always reliable. Thus, there is a need for improved dual mode contrast agents with enhanced sensitivity. We report the development of a nanodiamond-manganese dual mode contrast agent that enhanced both T1 and T2-weighted MR imaging. Conjugation of manganese to nanodiamonds resulted in improved longitudinal and transverse relaxivity efficacy over unmodified MnCl2 as well as clinical contrast agents. Following intravenous administration, nanodiamond-manganese complexes outperformed current clinical contrast agents in an orthotopic liver cancer mouse model while also reducing blood serum concentration of toxic free Mn(2+) ions. Thus, nanodiamond-manganese complexes may serve as more effective dual mode MRI contrast agent, particularly in cancer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Perturbative momentum transport in MAST L-mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttenfelder, W.; Field, A. R.; Lupelli, I.; Tala, T.; Kaye, S. M.; Ren, Y.; Solomon, W. M.

    2017-05-01

    Non-axisymmetric magnetic fields are used to perturbatively probe momentum transport physics in MAST L-mode plasmas. The low beta L-mode target was chosen to complement previous experiments conducted in high beta NSTX H-mode plasmas (β N  =  3.5-4.6) where an inward momentum pinch was measured. In those cases quasi-linear gyrokinetic simulations of unstable ballooning micro-instabilities predict weak or outward momentum convection, in contrast to the measurements. The weak pinch was predicted to be due to both electromagnetic effects at high beta and low aspect ratio minimizing the symmetry-breaking of the instabilities responsible for momentum transport. In an attempt to lessen these electromagnetic effects at low aspect ratio, perturbative experiments were run in MAST L-mode discharges at lower beta (β N  =  2). The perturbative transport analysis used the time-dependent response following the termination of applied 3D fields that briefly brake the plasma rotation (similar to the NSTX H-mode experiments). Assuming time-invariant diffusive (χ φ ) and convective (V φ ) transport coefficients, an inward pinch is inferred with magnitudes, (RV φ /χ φ )  =  (-1)-(-9), similar to those found in NSTX H-modes and in conventional tokamaks. However, if experimental uncertainties due to non-stationary conditions during and after the applied 3D field are considered, a weak pinch or even outward convection is inferred, (RV φ /χ φ )  =  (-1)-(+5). Linear gyrokinetic simulations indicate that for these lower beta L-modes, the predicted momentum pinch is predicted to be relatively small, (RV φ /χ φ )sim  ≈  -1. While this falls within the experimentally inferred range, the uncertainties are practically too large to quantitatively validate the predictions. Challenges and implications for this particular experimental technique are discussed, as well as additional possible physical mechanisms that may be important in

  12. Photonic transport explains the confinement of random laser modes

    CERN Document Server

    Frank, Regine; Kalt, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    The co-existence of two spectrally well separated and though fundamentally different but spatially overlapping types of random lasing modes is a phenomenon which has never been derived to full extent in theory. We propose here a framework of diagrammatic transport theory including self- constistent nonlinear enhancement and dissipation in the multiple scattering regime which yields qualitatively and quantitatively both types and diameters of random laser modes. The comparison with the experiment shows that our results hold up to volume filling fractions of 60% of arbitraryly positioned ZnO Mie scatterers.

  13. Dual-mode optical microscope based on single-pixel imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A. D.; Clemente, P.; Tajahuerce, E.; Lancis, J.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate an inverted microscope that can image specimens in both reflection and transmission modes simultaneously with a single light source. The microscope utilizes a digital micromirror device (DMD) for patterned illumination altogether with two single-pixel photosensors for efficient light detection. The system, a scan-less device with no moving parts, works by sequential projection of a set of binary intensity patterns onto the sample that are codified onto a modified commercial DMD. Data to be displayed are geometrically transformed before written into a memory cell to cancel optical artifacts coming from the diamond-like shaped structure of the micromirror array. The 24-bit color depth of the display is fully exploited to increase the frame rate by a factor of 24, which makes the technique practicable for real samples. Our commercial DMD-based LED-illumination is cost effective and can be easily coupled as an add-on module for already existing inverted microscopes. The reflection and transmission information provided by our dual microscope complement each other and can be useful for imaging non-uniform samples and to prevent self-shadowing effects.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of dual-mode floating gastroretentive tablets containing itraconazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Young; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Park, Chun-Woong; Ha, Jung-Myung; Park, Eun-Seok

    2014-11-01

    The aims of the present study were to prepare new dual-mode floating gastroretentive tablets (DF-GRT) containing itraconazole (ITR) and to evaluate influence of the dosage forms on pharmacokinetic parameters of ITR. The solubility of ITR was enhanced around 200 times (from 1.54 to 248.38 µg/mL) by preparing solid dispersion (SD) with hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose. Buoyancy of DF-GRT containing ITR-SD was established by both camphor sublimation and gas generation. Camphor sublimation decreased density of DF-GRT by making pores in tablet matrix, which led to elimination of lag time for floating. Carbon dioxide generated by sodium bicarbonate and citric acid helped to maintain buoyancy of DF-GRT. Therefore DF-GRT floated on the medium without lag time until disintegrated entirely during in vitro release study. They released 89.11% of the drug at 2 h. Residual camphor was sublimation. The pharmacokinetics of DF-GRT was evaluated in six miniature pigs and compared to immediate release tablets (IRT). Mean AUC ratio of GRT/IRT was 1.36 but there was no statistical difference between AUC values. However delayed tmax, increased MRT and equivalent Cmax of DF-GRT supposed it could be a promising tool for gastroretentive drug delivery system containing ITR.

  15. Colorimetry and SERS dual-mode detection of telomerase activity: combining rapid screening with high sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Shenfei; Wang, Zhuyuan; Chen, Hui; Hu, Guohua; Liu, Min; Chen, Peng; Cui, Yiping

    2014-01-01

    As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted considerable attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Here, we present a colorimetry and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dual-mode telomerase activity detection method, which has several distinctive advantages. First, colorimetric functionality allows rapid preliminary discrimination of telomerase activity by the naked eye. Second, the employment of SERS technique results in greatly improved detection sensitivity. Third, the combination of colorimetry and SERS into one detection system can ensure highly efficacious and sensitive screening of numerous samples. Besides, the avoidance of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) procedures further guarantees fine reliability and simplicity. Generally, the presented method is realized by an "elongate and capture" procedure. To be specific, gold nanoparticles modified with Raman molecules and telomeric repeat complementary oligonucleotide are employed as the colorimetric-SERS bifunctional reporting nanotag, while magnetic nanoparticles functionalized with telomerase substrate oligonucleotide are used as the capturing substrate. Telomerase can synthesize and elongate telomeric repeats onto the capturing substrate. The elongated telomeric repeats subsequently facilitate capturing of the reporting nanotag via hybridization between telomeric repeat and its complementary strand. The captured nanotags can cause a significant difference in the color and SERS intensity of the magnetically separated sediments. Thus both the color and SERS can be used as indicators of the telomerase activity. With fast screening ability and outstanding sensitivity, we anticipate that this method would greatly promote practical application of telomerase-based early-stage cancer diagnosis.

  16. General Calibration Algorithm for Single-transmitting-dual-receiving Polarimetric SAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The single-transmitting-dual-receiving polarimetric SAR system has only two receving channels, which induces lack of prior information for calibration. Due to the polarization diversity of this kind of system (which operates on different dual and compact polarimetric modes, there has not a general algorithm currently. In this paper, a new general calibration algorithm is proposed for single-transmitting-dual-receiving polarimetric SAR system, which can be widely applied to diverse polarization modes. The transmitting and receiving distortion can be estimated using trihedral, 0° dihedral and 45° dihedral as ideal point targets without any assumption on the scene and system. The basic principle of this new algorithm is induced theoretically. The effect of calibrator error on the distortion estimation is analyzed by simulation. Point targets’calibration results and polarization signatures verify this algorithm.

  17. Factors associated with mode of transport decision making for pediatric-neonatal interfacility transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, Janis M; Pierce, Mary Clyde; Adler, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Transport professionals must routinely engage in complex decision making. One challenging decision is the determination of mode of transport. This study explores the decisional factors involved in the determination of mobilizing ground ambulance versus helicopter for pediatric-neonatal interfacility transport. The aim was to gather initial qualitative data to aid in the development of an objective scoring tool that would be used to guide the mode of transport decision for pediatric and neonatal interfacility transport. The focus of the study was to elicit the factors that influence the mode of transport decision among professionals who are involved in this decision. This study was conducted in an urban, freestanding children's hospital with a dedicated pediatric/neonatal transport team. Subjects were given written scenarios that represented a phone call requesting transport from a referring hospital. Subjects were asked to choose between 2 modes of transport: ambulance or helicopter. Weather was assumed to be clear. Decision-making factors were gathered and tallied. For group comparison, the Fisher exact, Pearson chi-square, Student t, or Wilcoxon rank sum tests for scale data was used. A multivariate logistic regression was performed to assess factors associated with the mode of transport decision. Responses were received from a total of 19 subjects. Nurses represented 58% (11) of the respondents, and physicians represented 42% (8). The nurses were all either currently employed on the transport team or had left the team within the past 2 years. The physicians were all critical care or emergency medicine fellows and attending physicians who serve in the medical control role for the transport team. All subjects reported a minimum of five years in their respective professions. The decision to mobilize a helicopter for interfacility transport was significantly associated with the provider's level of clinical concern in conjunction with the perceived distance and if

  18. Impacts of Urban Transportation Mode Split on CO2 Emissions in Jinan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebin He

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available As the world’s largest developing country, China currently is undergoing rapid urbanization and motorization, which will result in far-reaching impacts on energy and the environment. According to estimates, energy use and carbon emissions in the transportation sector will comprise roughly 30% of total emissions by 2030. Since the late 1990s, transportation-related issues such as energy, consumption, and carbon emissions have become a policy focus in China. To date, most research and policies have centered on vehicle technologies that promote vehicle efficiency and reduced emissions. Limited research exists on the control of greenhouse gases through mode shifts in urban transportation—in particular, through the promotion of public transit. The purpose of this study is to establish a methodology to analyze carbon emissions from the urban transportation sector at the Chinese city level. By using Jinan, the capital of China’s Shandong Province, as an example, we have developed an analytical model to simulate energy consumption and carbon emissions based on the number of trips, the transportation mode split, and the trip distance. This model has enabled us to assess the impacts of the transportation mode split on energy consumption and carbon emissions. Furthermore, this paper reviews a set of methods for data collection, estimation, and processing for situations where statistical data are scarce in China. This paper also describes the simulation of three transportation system development scenarios. The results of this study illustrate that if no policy intervention is implemented for the transportation mode split (the business-as-usual (BAU case, then emissions from Chinese urban transportation systems will quadruple by 2030. However, a dense, mixed land-use pattern, as well as transportation policies that encourage public transportation, would result in the elimination of 1.93 million tons of carbon emissions—approximately 50% of the BAU

  19. Using dual-domain advective-transport simulation to reconcile multiple-tracer ages and estimate dual-porosity transport parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Niel Plummer, L.; Casile, Gerolamo; Busenberg, Ed; Nelms, David L.; Schlosser, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Dual-domain transport is an alternative conceptual and mathematical paradigm to advection-dispersion for describing the movement of dissolved constituents in groundwater. Here we test the use of a dual-domain algorithm combined with advective pathline tracking to help reconcile environmental tracer concentrations measured in springs within the Shenandoah Valley, USA. The approach also allows for the estimation of the three dual-domain parameters: mobile porosity, immobile porosity, and a domain exchange rate constant. Concentrations of CFC-113, SF6, 3H, and 3He were measured at 28 springs emanating from carbonate rocks. The different tracers give three different mean composite piston-flow ages for all the springs that vary from 5 to 18 years. Here we compare four algorithms that interpret the tracer concentrations in terms of groundwater age: piston flow, old-fraction mixing, advective-flow path modeling, and dual-domain modeling. Whereas the second two algorithms made slight improvements over piston flow at reconciling the disparate piston-flow age estimates, the dual-domain algorithm gave a very marked improvement. Optimal values for the three transport parameters were also obtained, although the immobile porosity value was not well constrained. Parameter correlation and sensitivities were calculated to help quantify the uncertainty. Although some correlation exists between the three parameters being estimated, a watershed simulation of a pollutant breakthrough to a local stream illustrates that the estimated transport parameters can still substantially help to constrain and predict the nature and timing of solute transport. The combined use of multiple environmental tracers with this dual-domain approach could be applicable in a wide variety of fractured-rock settings.

  20. Dual Mode Offering As Viable Approach 
For Promotion Of Higher Education In Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad HUSSAIN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a developing with 148 universities and degree awarding institutions including public and private sector. The enrolment as given in the National Educational Policy 2009 was up to 5% only. It reflects greater demands of higher/tertiary education and calls for alternative strategic measures for addressing the issue. An innovative approach was necessary to address the issue of access. Therefore, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur –a formal mode university took an innovative initiative to become a dual mode university by establishing an Institute of Distance Education (IDE in 2011. The institute offered along with others, an M.Phill programme in ten disciplines through distance education mode in semester fall 2011. More than eight hundred applications were received by potential learners against 275 seats. However, after test and interview 189 students were enrolled in M.Phill programme in Applied Psychology, Arabic, Education, English, Media Studies, Islamic Studies, Pakistan Studies, History, Persian, and Urdu. In the beginning, the Institute organized an orientation workshop for learners to guide them studying in distance education system. The programme was offered under semester system and the semester was broke up into two halves –mid-term and final term. The respective departments provided learning materials to students whereas the IDE provided instructional booklet. Submission of two assignments was compulsory for the entire semester; one before mid-term and second before final-term workshop/ examination for each of the courses. Similarly, students’ presence in workshops for 24 hours (12 during mid-term and 12 during final-term workshop for one 3-credit hour course was mandatory. Students’ support services were provided through Skype conference, social media and mobile phones. Students necessarily had to give presentations and submit their assignments after checking their similarity index by using turnitin software. At the

  1. DUAL MODE OFFERING AS VIABLE APPROACH FOR PROMOTION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irshad HUSSAIN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a developing with 148 universities and degree awarding institutions including public and private sector. The enrolment as given in the National Educational Policy 2009 was up to 5% only. It reflects greater demands of higher/tertiary education and calls for alternative strategic measures for addressing the issue. An innovative approach was necessary to address the issue of access. Therefore, the Islamia University of Bahawalpur –a formal mode university took an innovative initiative to become a dual mode university by establishing an Institute of Distance Education (IDE in 2011. The institute offered along with others, an M.Phill programme in ten disciplines through distance education mode in semester fall 2011. More than eight hundred applications were received by potential learners against 275 seats. However, after test and interview 189 students were enrolled in M.Phill programme in Applied Psychology, Arabic, Education, English, Media Studies, Islamic Studies, Pakistan Studies, History, Persian, and Urdu. In the beginning, the Institute organized an orientation workshop for learners to guide them studying in distance education system. The programme was offered under semester system and the semester was broke up into two halves –mid-term and final term. The respective departments provided learning materials to students whereas the IDE provided instructional booklet. Submission of two assignments was compulsory for the entire semester; one before mid-term and second before final-term workshop/ examination for each of the courses. Similarly, students’ presence in workshops for 24 hours (12 during mid-term and 12 during final-term workshop for one 3-credit hour course was mandatory. Students’ support services were provided through Skype conference, social media and mobile phones. Students necessarily had to give presentations and submit their assignments after checking their similarity index by using turnitin software. At the

  2. Multiplexed Millimeter Wave Communication with Dual Orbital Angular Momentum (OAM) Mode Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Xiaonan; Zheng, Shilie; Chen, Yiling; Hu, Yiping; Jin, Xiaofeng; Chi, Hao; Zhang, Xianmin

    2015-05-19

    Communications using the orbital angular momentum (OAM) of radio waves have attracted much attention in recent years. In this paper, a novel millimeter-wave dual OAM mode antenna is cleverly designed, using which a 60 GHz wireless communication link with two separate OAM channels is experimentally demonstrated. The main body of the dual OAM antenna is a traveling-wave ring resonator using two feeding ports fed by a 90° hybrid coupler. A parabolic reflector is used to focus the beams. All the antenna components are fabricated by 3D printing technique and the electro-less copper plating surface treatment process. The performances of the antenna, such as S-parameters, near-fields, directivity, and isolation between the two OAM modes are measured. Experimental results show that this antenna can radiate two coaxially propagating OAM modes beams simultaneously. The multiplexing and de-multiplexing are easily realized in the antennas themselves. The two OAM mode channels have good isolation of more than 20 dB, thus ensuring the reliable transmission links at the same time.

  3. Impurity transport in trapped electron mode driven turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Mollén, A; Moradi, S; Fülöp, T

    2013-01-01

    Collisionless trapped electron mode turbulence is studied by gyrokinetic simulations with the GYRO code. Its impact on radial transport of high-Z trace impurities close to the core is thoroughly investigated, including the situation when a poloidally varying equilibrium electrostatic potential is present, and the dependence of the zero-flux impurity density gradient (peaking factor) on local plasma parameters is presented. Parameters such as ion-to-electron temperature ratio, electron temperature gradient and main species density gradient mainly affect the impurity peaking through their impact on mode characteristics. The poloidal asymmetry, the safety factor and magnetic shear have the strongest effect on impurity peaking, and it is shown that under certain scenarios where trapped electron modes are dominant, core accumulation of high-Z impurities can be avoided.

  4. FUZZY COMPREHENSIVE EVALUATION OF CONTAINER TRANSPORTATION MODES ALONG THE CHANGJIANG RIVER MAIN LINE AND ITS DELTA AREA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shi-yu; XIAO Han-liang

    2003-01-01

    The Changjiang River (Yangtze) is one of the fastest growth areas of container transportation in Chi-na. Rail, road and water transportation have competed against each other for container transportation in the Chang-jiang River main line and its delta area. It is of significance to assess these different transportation modes scientifi-cally in order to organize container transportation efficiently in this area and make decision for integral plan and construction of transportation system in this area. This paper outlines application of fuzzy comprehensive evaluation to appraise different modes of typical direction of containers. Twelve assessment indexes were decided. Membership functions were formulated. Evaluation results indicated that road transportation was optimal mode in the Changjiang River delta area, however water transportation was the primary way in the Changjiang River main line.

  5. Establishment and Practice on Personnel -cultivating Mode by Localization of German Dual -system%“定岗双元、三站互动、分段轮换”双元制本土化人才培养模式的构建与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓刚

    2015-01-01

    The paper systematically elaborates on the connotation,the core content and the approaches of personnel cultivation mode,which involves "dual placement,three -station interaction,piecewise rotation".It is the localized practice based on the German dual system mode,aiming to solve the problems of cooperativeness,comprehensiveness,stableness and effective-ness among the college -business participants in combination of learning and working.%为了解决工学结合、校企合作人才培养中企业参与教学的协同性、全面性、稳定性和有效性问题,进行了德国双元制模式的本土化实践,构建“定岗双元、三站互动、分段轮换”人才培养模式,系统阐述了该人才培养模式的内涵、核心内容和建设路径。

  6. Negligible birefringence in dual-mode ion-exchanged glass waveguide gratings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yliniemi, Sanna; Albert, Jacques; Laronche, Albane; Castro, Jose M; Geraghty, David; Honkanen, Seppo

    2006-09-01

    Polarization dependence of UV-written Bragg gratings in buried ion-exchanged glass waveguides is investigated. A polarization-dependent shift in Bragg wavelength of less than 0.02 nm is measured, both for the even and the odd modes of a laterally dual-mode waveguide. The measured wavelength shift corresponds to a waveguide birefringence of the order of 10(-5), which is negligible for most applications in optical communications. It is observed that the UV-induced birefringence is small, within the limits of the measurement accuracy. The thermal stability of the fabricated gratings is also very good. The results are of particular importance for devices considered here since they require a polarization-independent mode-converting waveguide Bragg grating. Polarization-independent performance of these gratings enables the fabrication of a new class of integrated optical devices for telecommunication applications.

  7. A dual-modal retinal imaging system with adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadway, Alexander; Girkin, Christopher A; Zhang, Yuhua

    2013-12-02

    An adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscope (AO-SLO) is adapted to provide optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging. The AO-SLO function is unchanged. The system uses the same light source, scanning optics, and adaptive optics in both imaging modes. The result is a dual-modal system that can acquire retinal images in both en face and cross-section planes at the single cell level. A new spectral shaping method is developed to reduce the large sidelobes in the coherence profile of the OCT imaging when a non-ideal source is used with a minimal introduction of noise. The technique uses a combination of two existing digital techniques. The thickness and position of the traditionally named inner segment/outer segment junction are measured from individual photoreceptors. In-vivo images of healthy and diseased human retinas are demonstrated.

  8. Synchronized PWM Scheme for Dual Inverter-Fed Drives with Zero Common-Mode Voltages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oleschuk, Valentin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe;

    2005-01-01

    the whole control range including the zone of overmodulation. Spectra of the phase voltage do not contain even harmonics and sub-harmonics (combined harmonics), which is especially important for the drive systems with increased power rating. Simulations gave the behaviour of dual inverter-fed system...

  9. Monte Carlo modeling of the dual-mode regime in quantum-well and quantum-dot semiconductor lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chusseau, Laurent; Philippe, Fabrice; Disanto, Filippo

    2014-03-10

    Monte Carlo markovian models of a dual-mode semiconductor laser with quantum well (QW) or quantum dot (QD) active regions are proposed. Accounting for carriers and photons as particles that may exchange energy in the course of time allows an ab initio description of laser dynamics such as the mode competition and intrinsic laser noise. We used these models to evaluate the stability of the dual-mode regime when laser characteristics are varied: mode gains and losses, non-radiative recombination rates, intraband relaxation time, capture time in QD, transfer of excitation between QD via the wetting layer... As a major result, a possible steady-state dual-mode regime is predicted for specially designed QD semiconductor lasers thereby acting as a CW microwave or terahertz-beating source whereas it does not occur for QW lasers.

  10. Dual-keel electrodynamic maglev system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Jianliang (Naperville, IL); Wang, Zian (Downers Grove, IL); Rote, Donald M. (Lagrange, IL); Coffey, Howard T. (Darien, IL); Hull, John R. (Westmont, IL); Mulcahy, Thomas M. (Western Springs, IL); Cal, Yigang (Woodridge, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A propulsion and stabilization system with a plurality of superconducting magnetic devices affixed to the dual-keels of a vehicle, where the superconducting magnetic devices produce a magnetic field when energized. The system also includes a plurality of figure-eight shaped null-flux coils affixed to opposing vertical sides of slots in a guideway. The figure-eight shaped null-flux coils are vertically oriented, laterally cross-connected in parallel, longitudinally connected in series, and continue the length of the vertical slots providing levitation and guidance force. An external power source energizes the figure-eight shaped null-flux coils to create a magnetic traveling wave that interacts with the magnetic field produced by the superconducting magnets to impart motion to the vehicle.

  11. A dual mode charge pump with adaptive output used in a class G audio power amplifier*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Yong; Peng Zhenfei; Yang Shanshan; Hong Zhiliang; Liu Yang

    2011-01-01

    A dual mode charge pump to produce an adaptive power supply for a class G audio power amplifier is presented. According to the amplitude of the input signals, the charge pump has two level output voltage rails available to save power. It operates both in current mode at high output load and in pulse frequency modulation (PFM) at light load to reduce the power dissipation. Also, dynamic adjustment of the power stage transistor size based on load current at the PFM mode is introduced to reduce the output voltage ripple and prevent the switching frequency from audio range. The prototype is implemented in 0.18μm 3.3 V CMOS technology. Experimental results show that the maximum power efficiency of the charge pump is 79.5% @ 0.5x mode and 83.6% @ lx mode. The output voltage ripple is less than 15 mV while providing 120 mA of the load current at PFM control and less than 18 mV while providing 300 mA of the load current at current mode control. An analytical model for ripple voltage and efficiency calculation of the proposed PFM control demonstrates reasonable agreement with measured results.

  12. A dual mode charge pump with adaptive output used in a class G audio power amplifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Yong; Peng Zhenfei; Yang Shanshan; Hong Zhiliang [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University Shanghai 201203 (China); Liu Yang, E-mail: zlhong@fudan.edu.cn [Shanghai Design Center, Analog Devices, Shanghai 200021 (China)

    2011-04-15

    A dual mode charge pump to produce an adaptive power supply for a class G audio power amplifier is presented. According to the amplitude of the input signals, the charge pump has two level output voltage rails available to save power. It operates both in current mode at high output load and in pulse frequency modulation (PFM) at light load to reduce the power dissipation. Also, dynamic adjustment of the power stage transistor size based on load current at the PFM mode is introduced to reduce the output voltage ripple and prevent the switching frequency from audio range. The prototype is implemented in 0.18 {mu}m 3.3 V CMOS technology. Experimental results show that the maximum power efficiency of the charge pump is 79.5% - 0.5x mode and 83.6% - 1x mode. The output voltage ripple is less than 15 mV while providing 120 mA of the load current at PFM control and less than 18 mV while providing 300 mA of the load current at current mode control. An analytical model for ripple voltage and efficiency calculation of the proposed PFM control demonstrates reasonable agreement with measured results. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  13. High-Precision Half-Wave Rectifier Circuit In Dual Phase Output Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerayut Jamjaem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper present high-precision half-wave rectifier circuit in dual phase output mode by 0.5 μm CMOS technology, +/- 1.5 V low voltage, it has received input signal and sent output current signal, respond in high frequency. The main structure compound with CMOS inverter circuit, common source circuit, and current mirror circuit. Simulation and confirmation quality of working by PSpice program, then it able to operating at maximum frequency about 100 MHz, maximum input current range about 400 μAp-p, high precision output signal, low power dissipation, and uses a little transistor.Keywords-component; half-wave; rectifier circuit; highprecession; dual phase;

  14. Silica nanocapsules of fluorescent conjugated polymers and superparamagnetic nanocrystals for dual-mode cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Happy; Wang, Miao; Yang, Chang-Tong; Pant, Shilpa; Bhakoo, Kishore Kumar; Wong, Siew Yee; Chen, Zhi-Kuan; Li, Xu; Wang, John

    2011-06-01

    We describe here a facile and benign synthetic strategy to integrate the fluorescent behavior of conjugated polymers and superparamagnetic properties of iron oxide nanocrystals into silica nanocapsules, forming a new type of bifunctional magnetic fluorescent silica nanocapsule (BMFSN). The resultant BMFSNs are uniform, colloidally stable in aqueous medium, and exhibit the desired dual functionality of fluorescence and superparamagnetism in a single entity. Four conjugated polymers with different emissions were used to demonstrate the versatility of employing this class of fluorescent materials for the preparation of BMFSNs. The applicability of BMFSNs in cellular imaging was studied by incubating them with human liver cancer cells, the result of which demonstrated that the cells could be visualized by dual-mode fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, the superparamagnetic behavior of the BMFSNs was exploited for in vitro magnetic-guided delivery of the nanocapsules into the cancer cells, thereby highlighting their potential for targeting biomedical applications.

  15. Switchable dual-wavelength all-fiber laser mode-locked by carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Y. C.; Yang, H. R.; Li, W. L.; Chen, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    We have proposed a compact dual-wavelength all-fiber pulse laser based on a single-walled carbon nanotube and chirped fiber Bragg gratings (CFBGs). A transmission filter is composed of a circulator and two CFBGs and is capable of controlling the operation of the proposed fiber laser. Mode-locking operations can be switched between 1551.2 and 1548.6 nm with the appropriate adjustment of polarization controller. Our laser delivers the pulses with the spectral bandwidth of about 0.6 nm and the pulse duration of about 7 ps. This work provides a low-cost, stable, and dual-wavelength ultrafast-pulsed laser source suitable for practical applications.

  16. Linking the dual system with higher education in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian Helms

    2013-01-01

    As more than half of every new generation of youth enter higher education in Den-mark the strength of the dual system of vocational education is becoming its weakness. Completing a programme in the dual system doesn’t give access to higher ed-ucation, and the system is increasingly seen as a ‘blind...

  17. Dual-Mode Measurement and Theoretical Analysis of Evaporation Kinetics of Binary Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hanyu; He, Chi-Ruei; Basdeo, Carl; Li, Ji-Qin; Ye, Dezhuang; Kalonia, Devendra; Li, Si-Yu; Fan, Tai-Hsi

    Theoretical and experimental investigations are presented for the precision measurement of evaporation kinetics of binary mixtures using a quartz crystal resonator. A thin layer of light alcohol mixture including a volatile (methanol) and a much less volatile (1-butanol) components is deployed on top of the resonator. The normal or acoustic mode is to detect the moving liquid-vapor interface due to evaporation with a great spatial precision on the order of microns, and simultaneously the shear mode is used for in-situ detection of point viscosity or concentration of the mixture near the resonator. A one-dimensional theoretical model is developed to describe the underlying mass transfer and interfacial transport phenomena. Along with the modeling results, the transient evaporation kinetics, moving interface, and the stratification of viscosity of the liquid mixture during evaporation are simultaneously measured by the impedance response of the shear and longitudinal waves emitted from the resonator. The system can be used to characterize complicated evaporation kinetics involving multi-component fuels. American Chemical Society Petroleum Research Fund, NSF CMMI-0952646.

  18. 基于fuzzy-PI双模控制的光伏发电系统最大功率点跟踪仿真研究%THE SIMULATIVE RESEARCH ON MPPT METHODS OF PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER GENERATION SYSTEM BASED ON FUZZY-PI DUAL-MODE CONTROL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程启明; 程尹曼; 倪仁杰; 汪明媚

    2011-01-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of solar cell army and the stability of photovoltaic(PV) power system, the PV system must contain a Maximum Power Point Tracking(MPPT) function. To eliminate oscillation phenomenon near the MPPT in conventional fuzzy tracking algorithm, on the basis of the Volt-Ampere characteristic of the PV battery, the fuzzy-PI dual-mode control strategy was proposed, the principle of the control algorithm and the control system were analyzed and designed. The simulative results on Matlab/Simulink showed that the fuzzy-PI dual-mode control can track the maximum power point of PV cells quickly and accurately, avoid the oscillation near MPPT and improve the system stability and efficiency of energy conversion, so that the entire dual-mode MPPT control of both the accuracy and rapidity.%为了提高太阳电池阵列的工作效率和整个光伏发电系统的稳定性,在光伏发电系统中需要对光伏电池的最大功率点进行跟踪.为了消除常规模糊跟踪算法在最大功率点附近出现的振荡问题,在分析光伏电池伏安特性的基础上,提出了fuzzy-PI双模控制策略,分析了该控制算法的原理,并对控制系统做了设计.Matlab/Simulink仿真表明fuzzy-PI双模控制能够快速、准确地跟踪最大功率点,避免了最大功率点处的振荡,提高了系统稳定性和能量转换效率,从而使整个双模控制兼有了MPPT精确性与快速性.

  19. Mode Choice between Private and Public Transport in Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Yusoff, Sumiani

    2014-01-01

    In 2010, Klang Valley has only 17% trips each day were completed using public transport, with the rest of the 83% trips were made through private transport. The inclination towards private car usage will only get worse if the transport policy continues to be inefficient and ineffective. Under the National Key Economic Area, the priority aimed to stimulate the increase of modal share of public transport in the Klang Valley to 50% by 2020. In the 10th Malaysia Plan, the Klang Valley Mass Rapid Transit was proposed, equipped with 141 km of MRT system, and will integrate with the existing rail networks. Nevertheless, adding kilometers into the rail system will not help, if people do not make the shift from private into public transport. This research would like to assess the possible mode shift of travellers in the Klang Valley towards using public transport, based on the utility function of available transport modes. It intends to identify the criteria that will trigger their willingness to make changes in favour of public transport as targeted by the NKEA. PMID:24701165

  20. Dual-mode operation of 2D material-base hot electron transistors

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Yann-Wen

    2016-09-01

    Vertical hot electron transistors incorporating atomically-thin 2D materials, such as graphene or MoS2, in the base region have been proposed and demonstrated in the development of electronic and optoelectronic applications. To the best of our knowledge, all previous 2D material-base hot electron transistors only considered applying a positive collector-base potential (V-CB > 0) as is necessary for the typical unipolar hot-electron transistor behavior. Here we demonstrate a novel functionality, specifically a dual-mode operation, in our 2D material-base hot electron transistors (e.g. with either graphene or MoS2 in the base region) with the application of a negative collector-base potential (V-CB < 0). That is, our 2D material-base hot electron transistors can operate in either a hot-electron or a reverse-current dominating mode depending upon the particular polarity of VCB. Furthermore, these devices operate at room temperature and their current gains can be dynamically tuned by varying VCB. We anticipate our multi-functional dual-mode transistors will pave the way towards the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density and low-energy hot-carrier electronic applications.

  1. 60-GHz Millimeter-wave Over Fiber with Directly Modulated Dual-mode Laser Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Ting; Lin, Chi-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Ting; Chi, Yu-Chieh; Lin, Gong-Ru

    2016-06-01

    A directly modulated dual-mode laser diode (DMLD) with third-order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) suppression is proposed for a 60-GHz millimeter-wave over fiber (MMWoF) architecture, enabling new fiber-wireless communication access to cover 4-km single-mode-fiber (SMF) and 3-m wireless 16-QAM OFDM transmissions. By dual-mode injection-locking, the throughput degradation of the DMLD is mitigated with saturation effect to reduce its threshold, IMD3 power and relative intensity noise to 7.7 mA, ‑85 dBm and ‑110.4 dBc/Hz, respectively, providing huge spurious-free dynamic range of 85.8 dB/Hz2/3. This operation suppresses the noise floor of the DMLD carried QPSK-OFDM spectrum by 5 dB. The optical receiving power is optimized to restrict the power fading effect for improving the bit error rate to 1.9 × 10‑3 and the receiving power penalty to 1.1 dB. Such DMLD based hybrid architecture for 60-GHz MMW fiber-wireless access can directly cover the current optical and wireless networks for next-generation indoor and short-reach mobile communications.

  2. Highly sensitive dual mode electrochemical platform for microRNA detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Pawan; Batistuti, Marina R.; Miodek, Anna; Zhurauski, Pavel; Mulato, Marcelo; Lindsay, Mark A.; Estrela, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial regulatory roles in various human diseases including cancer, making them promising biomarkers. However, given the low levels of miRNAs present in blood, their use as cancer biomarkers requires the development of simple and effective analytical methods. Herein, we report the development of a highly sensitive dual mode electrochemical platform for the detection of microRNAs. The platform was developed using peptide nucleic acids as probes on gold electrode surfaces to capture target miRNAs. A simple amplification strategy using gold nanoparticles has been employed exploiting the inherent charges of the nucleic acids. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used to monitor the changes in capacitance upon any binding event, without the need for any redox markers. By using thiolated ferrocene, a complementary detection mode on the same sensor was developed where the increasing peaks of ferrocene were recorded using square wave voltammetry with increasing miRNA concentration. This dual-mode approach allows detection of miRNA with a limit of detection of 0.37 fM and a wide dynamic range from 1 fM to 100 nM along with clear distinction from mismatched target miRNA sequences. The electrochemical platform developed can be easily expanded to other miRNA/DNA detection along with the development of microarray platforms.

  3. Effect of vortex formation on sediment transport at dual pipe intakes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M R KHANARMUEI; H RAHIMZADEH; A R KAKUEI; H SARKARDEH

    2016-09-01

    Vortex formation and subsequent sediment transport into the intake due to sea water withdrawal is one of the problems in coastal engineering. The effect of vortex formation on rate of sediment transport at coastal dual pipe intakes was investigated using a scaled physical model. Experiments were performed on dual pipe intakes at three common intake withdrawal directions (vertical, horizontal and with angle of 45°). In eachexperiment, the class of vortex with respect to its strength was determined. Particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) was employed to measure tangential velocity of vortices. Results indicated that the rate of sediment transport was considerably affected by the strength of formed vortices. The rate of transported sediment was increased by increasing the strength of formed vortex. Moreover, amount of sediment transport was affected by angle of pipe intakes. It could be concluded that the minimum and maximum rates of sediment transport occur for inclined and horizontal intakes, respectively.

  4. Integrated Hydrogeophysical and Hydrogeologic Driven Parameter Upscaling for Dual-Domain Transport Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Flach; Mary Harris; Susan Hubbard; Camelia Knapp; Mike Kowalsky; Maggie Millings; John Shafer; Mike Waddell

    2006-06-01

    Our research project is motivated by the observations that conventional characterization approaches capture only a fraction of heterogeneity affecting field-scale transport, and that conventional modeling approaches, which use this sparse data, typically do not successfully predict long term plume behavior with sufficient accuracy to guide remedial strategies. Our working hypotheses are that improved prediction of contaminant transport can be achieved using a dual-domain transport approach and field-scale characterization approaches. Our overall objectives are to: (1) develop a dual-domain modeling approach using the TOUGH2 family of codes that incorporates the key interactions between mobile and immobile transport regions that are expected to play a role in long term plume behavior; (2) develop a facies-based multi-scale characterization approach that utilizes log, crosshole, and surface-based characterization information and that is guided by the parameterization needs of the dual domain modeling; and (3) evaluate the approaches by applying them to the prediction of plume behavior at the P-Area at the Savannah River Site (Figure 1). Our three-year project scope includes development of multi-scale characterization and dual-domain modeling approach and field-scale data acquisition (Year 1); Numerical simulations and field-scale characterization (Year 2); and Plume transport simulations and exploration of optimal dual-domain parameters (Year 3).

  5. Research on near-field EMC in EGSM/TD-LTE dual-mode dual-link mobile phones%EGSM/TD - LTE双模双连接手机近场电磁兼容的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江勇; 高安明; 彭宏利; 毛军发

    2012-01-01

    针对EGSM/TD - LTE双模双连接手机,研究了手机近场的电磁兼容问题.首先构建了EGSM和TD - LTE两个模式的手机近场电磁兼容问题的评估模型;其次基于该评估模型研究了近场射频干扰与双模双连接手机接收性能的关系,当EGSM的发射功率为30dBm,TD - LTE系统的接收灵敏度会恶化2dB;最后给出了一种提高多频段双天线隔离度的解决方案,并通过仿真表明,该方法能够有效提高双模双连接手机的天线隔离度,从而克服双模双连接手机的电磁兼容问题.%For EGSM / TD-LTE dual-mode dual-link cell phones, some research was completed on cell phone near-field electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). First, the cell phone near-field EMC assessment model of EGSM and TD-LTE was build; second the relationship between he near-field RF interference and dual-mode dual-link mobile reception performance was researched based on the assessment model, when the EGSM transmitter power is 30dBm, the sensitivity of TD-LTE system receiver will deteriorate by 2dB; finally, an improved multi-band dual-antenna isolation solution is given, and the simulation shows that the method can effectively improve the dual-mode dual-link cell phone antenna isolation, so the problem of dual-mode dual-link mobile phone EMC has been overcome.

  6. Transportation System Concept of Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Slater-Thompson

    2006-08-16

    The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA), as amended, authorized the DOE to develop and manage a Federal system for the disposal of SNF and HLW. OCRWM was created to manage acceptance and disposal of SNF and HLW in a manner that protects public health, safety, and the environment; enhances national and energy security; and merits public confidence. This responsibility includes managing the transportation of SNF and HLW from origin sites to the Repository for disposal. The Transportation System Concept of Operations is the core high-level OCRWM document written to describe the Transportation System integrated design and present the vision, mission, and goals for Transportation System operations. By defining the functions, processes, and critical interfaces of this system early in the system development phase, programmatic risks are minimized, system costs are contained, and system operations are better managed, safer, and more secure. This document also facilitates discussions and understanding among parties responsible for the design, development, and operation of the Transportation System. Such understanding is important for the timely development of system requirements and identification of system interfaces. Information provided in the Transportation System Concept of Operations includes: the functions and key components of the Transportation System; system component interactions; flows of information within the system; the general operating sequences; and the internal and external factors affecting transportation operations. The Transportation System Concept of Operations reflects OCRWM's overall waste management system policies and mission objectives, and as such provides a description of the preferred state of system operation. The description of general Transportation System operating functions in the Transportation System Concept of Operations is the first step in the OCRWM systems engineering process, establishing the starting point for the lower

  7. Dual arm robotic system with sensory input

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozguner, U.

    1987-01-01

    The need for dual arm robots in space station assembly and satellite maintainance is of increasing significance. Such robots will be in greater demand in the future when numerous tasks will be assigned to them to relieve the direct intervention of humans in space. Technological demands from these robots will be high. They will be expected to perform high speed tasks with a certain degree of autonomy. Various levels of sensing will have to be used in a sophisticated control scheme. Ongoing research in control, sensing and real-time software to produce a two-arm robotic system than can accomplish generic assembly tasks is discussed. The control hierarchy and the specific control approach are discussed. A decentralized implementation of model-reference adaptive control using Variable Structure controllers and the incorporation of tactile feedback is considered.

  8. Integrated Hydrogeophysical and Hydrogeologic Driven Parameter Upscaling for Dual-Domain Transport Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory Flach; Mary Harris; Susan Hubbard; Camelia Knapp; Mike Kowalsky; Maggie Millings; John Shafer; Mike Waddell

    2006-06-01

    Our research project is motivated by the observations that conventional characterization approaches capture only a fraction of heterogeneity affecting field-scale transport, and that conventional modeling approaches, which use this sparse data, typically do not successfully predict long term plume behavior with sufficient accuracy to guide remedial strategies. Our working hypotheses are that improved prediction of contaminant transport can be achieved using a dual-domain transport approach and field-scale characterization approaches.

  9. On The TerraSAR-X Dual-Mode For Oil Slick Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velotto, D.; Migliaccio, M.; Nunziata, F.; Lehner, S.

    2010-04-01

    In this study a polarimetric approach is for the first time developed and applied to X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data for sea oil slick observation. Following this an electromagnetic model which, based on the Co-polarized Phase Difference (CPD), allows describing the slick-free and slick-covered sea surface scattering is proposed. Single Look Complex (SSC) TerraSAR-X (TSX) data, gathered in dual polarimetric mode, in which both certified oil slicks and look-alikes are present, are analyzed. Several experiments are shown here and discussed in detail.

  10. Novel dual-mode immunomagnetic method for studying reactivation of nerve agent-inhibited butyrylcholinesterase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abney, Carter W; Knaack, Jennifer L S; Ali, Ahmed A I; Johnson, Rudolph C

    2013-05-20

    A novel immunomagnetic method has been developed for the simultaneous measurement of organophosphorus nerve agent (OPNA) adducts to butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE) and free OPNAs in serum. This new approach, deemed dual-mode immunomagnetic analysis (Dual-Mode IMA), combines immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and immunomagnetic scavenging (IMSc) and has been used to measure the effectiveness of cholinesterase reactivators on OPNA-inhibited BuChE in serum. BuChE inhibited by the nerve agent VX, uninhibited BuChE, and unbound VX were measured up to 1 h after the addition of oxime reactivators pralidoxime (2-PAM) and obidoxime. IMS experiments consisted of extracting BuChE and VX-BuChE serum adducts using antibutyrylcholinesterase monoclonal antibodies conjugated to protein-G ferromagnetic particles. In a parallel set of experiments using IMSc, BuChE-coated magnetic beads were used to extract free VX from protein-depleted serum. Adducts from both IMS and IMSc were analyzed using a published IMS liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (IMS-LC-MS/MS) protocol, which has also been demonstrated with other OPNAs. By applying this Dual-Mode IMA approach, 2-PAM was observed to be more potent than obidoxime in reactivating VX-adducted BuChE. VX-BuChE peptide concentrations initially measured at 19.7 ± 0.7 ng/mL decreased over 1 h to 10.6 ± 0.6 ng/mL when reactivated with 2-PAM and 14.4 ± 1.2 ng/mL when reactivated with obidoxime. These experiments also show that previously published IMS-LC-MS/MS analyses are compatible with serum treated with oximes. Dual-Mode IMA is the first immunoaffinity method developed for the simultaneous measurement of OPNA adducted BuChE, unadducted BuChE, and free nerve agent in serum and is a promising new tool for studying reactivator effectiveness on cholinesterases inhibited by nerve agents.

  11. The Integrated Air Transportation System Evaluation Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingrove, Earl R., III; Hees, Jing; Villani, James A.; Yackovetsky, Robert E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Throughout U.S. history, our nation has generally enjoyed exceptional economic growth, driven in part by transportation advancements. Looking forward 25 years, when the national highway and skyway systems are saturated, the nation faces new challenges in creating transportation-driven economic growth and wealth. To meet the national requirement for an improved air traffic management system, NASA developed the goal of tripling throughput over the next 20 years, in all weather conditions while maintaining safety. Analysis of the throughput goal has primarily focused on major airline operations, primarily through the hub and spoke system.However, many suggested concepts to increase throughput may operate outside the hub and spoke system. Examples of such concepts include the Small Aircraft Transportation System, civil tiltrotor, and improved rotorcraft. Proper assessment of the potential contribution of these technologies to the domestic air transportation system requires a modeling capability that includes the country's numerous smaller airports, acting as a fundamental component of the National Air space System, and the demand for such concepts and technologies. Under this task for NASA, the Logistics Management Institute developed higher fidelity demand models that capture the interdependence of short-haul air travel with other transportation modes and explicitly consider the costs of commercial air and other transport modes. To accomplish this work, we generated forecasts of the distribution of general aviation based aircraft and GA itinerant operations at each of nearly 3.000 airport based on changes in economic conditions and demographic trends. We also built modules that estimate the demand for travel by different modes, particularly auto, commercial air, and GA. We examined GA demand from two perspectives: top-down and bottom-up, described in detail.

  12. Baseline projections of transportation energy consumption by mode: 1981 update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, M; Bunch, J; Vyas, A; Kaplan, M; Knorr, R; Mendiratta, V; Saricks, C

    1982-04-01

    A comprehensive set of activity and energy-demand projections for each of the major transportation modes and submodes is presented. Projections are developed for a business-as-usual scenario, which provides a benchmark for assessing the effects of potential conservation strategies. This baseline scenario assumes a continuation of present trends, including fuel-efficiency improvements likely to result from current efforts of vehicle manufacturers. Because of anticipated changes in fuel efficiency, fuel price, modal shifts, and a lower-than-historic rate of economic growth, projected growth rates in transportation activity and energy consumption depart from historic patterns. The text discusses the factors responsible for this departure, documents the assumptions and methodologies used to develop the modal projections, and compares the projections with other efforts.

  13. Development of Real-Time Dual-Display Handheld and Bench-Top Hybrid-Mode SD-OCTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Hyun Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a dual-display handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT system for retina and optic-nerve-head diagnosis beyond the volunteer motion constraints is reported. The developed system is portable and easily movable, containing the compact portable OCT system that includes the handheld probe and computer. Eye posterior chambers were diagnosed using the handheld probe, and the probe could be fixed to the bench-top cradle depending on the volunteers’ physical condition. The images obtained using this handheld probe were displayed in real time on the computer monitor and on a small secondary built-in monitor; the displayed images were saved using the handheld probe’s built-in button. Large-scale signal-processing procedures such as k-domain linearization, fast Fourier transform (FFT, and log-scaling signal processing can be rapidly applied using graphics-processing-unit (GPU accelerated processing rather than central-processing-unit (CPU processing. The Labview-based system resolution is 1,024 × 512 pixels, and the frame rate is 56 frames/s, useful for real-time display. The 3D images of the posterior chambers including the retina, optic-nerve head, blood vessels, and optic nerve were composed using real-time displayed images with 500 × 500 × 500 pixel resolution. A handheld and bench-top hybrid mode with a dual-display handheld OCT was developed to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional method.

  14. 2-μm switchable dual-wavelength fiber laser with cascaded filter structure based on dual-channel Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial mode beating effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shun; Lu, Ping; Zhao, Shui; Liu, Deming; Yang, Wei; Zhang, Jiangshan

    2014-06-01

    We demonstrated a 2-μm switchable dual-wavelength fiber laser with cascaded filter structure based on dual-channel Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial mode beating effect. Few-mode fiber-embedded Sagnac ring configuration and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer are cascaded to form a multiwavelength filter for our previous 2-μm fiber laser. By adopting suitable fiber length and adjusting the polarization controller, we obtained a 2-μm dual-wavelength fiber laser with switchable wavelength interval. Experimental results revealed that the proposed laser shows higher quality and better stability compared with our previous work and it has potential applications in the fields of atmospheric propagation and microwave photonics.

  15. Application of Dual Throttling Air-Conditioning System to Explosion-Proof Frequency Converter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张于峰; 高岩; 盛颖

    2015-01-01

    An explosion-proof dual throttling air-conditioning system was put forward to solve the heat dissipation and internal dewing problems of explosion-proof frequency converter in the underground coal mine. This study inves-tigated the feasibility and benefits of explosion-proof dual throttling cooling and dehumidification air-conditioning system applied to the explosion-proof frequency converter. The physical model of dual throttling air-conditioning sys-tem was established and its performance parameter was described by mathematical method. The design calculation of the system has also been done. The experimental result showed that the system reached the steady state at the refrig-eration mode after running 45 min, and the maximum internal temperature of the flame-proof cavity was 31.0℃. The system reached the steady state at the dehumidification mode after running 37 min. The maximum internal relative humidity and temperature of the flame-proof cavity were 33.4% and 36.3 ℃, respectively. Therefore, the proposed system had excellent ability of heat dissipation and avoided internal dewing. Compared with water cooling system, it was more energy-saving and economical. The airflow field of dual throttling air-conditioning system was also studied by CFD simulation. It was found that the result of CFD numerical simulation was highly consistent with the experi-mental data.

  16. Analysis of Abnormal Modes of Hoisting DC Electric Drive System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosmas Zdrozis

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Host number of publications in which special attention was given to the behavior of the hoisting drives in abnormal modes was found. The effect of the failure of the main power supply on the electrical and mechanical parts of the hoisting drive when the motor is operating in the regenerative braking mode was not enough studied. Approach: In this study, the effect of the failure of the main power supply on the electrical and mechanical parts of the hoisting drive when the motor was operating in the regenerative braking mode and give recommendations and solutions to minimize the negative consequences of that abnormal mode. A special comprehensive mathematical mode was developed. The model comprised different submodels that describe the real operation of the power supply, four-quadrant thyristor AC/DC dual converter, firing system, protective devices and mechanism including the elastic elements like ropes and long shafts. This comprehensive model was used to study the behavior of the drive and choose the optimum protective device against the corresponding abnormal mode. Results: The failure of the supplying voltage of the dc hoisting drive at power regeneration leads to a significant increase in the motor armature current due to the formed closed loop comprising the armature winding, pair of thyristors and the secondary coil of the supplying transformer, in this mode the converter counter EMF will disappear. The protective device should protect the converter and the motor against such abnormal mode. The produced inrush current in role generates a huge motor torque that result in possible ropes and crane boom deformation, thus the mechanism design should include such possible abnormal mode. Conclusion: These results were implemented in the design of a special fast-responding circuit breaker which guarantees the exclusion of the armature current increase in the mentioned mode.

  17. Simultaneous determination of hydride (Se) and non-hydride-forming (Ca, Mg, K, P, S and Zn) elements in various beverages (beer, coffee, and milk), with minimum sample preparation, by ICP-AES and use of a dual-mode sample-introduction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asfaw, Alemayehu; Wibetoe, Grethe [University of Oslo, Department of Chemistry, Blindern (Norway)

    2005-05-01

    A method has been developed enabling direct analysis (i.e. after dilution only) of beer, instant coffee, milk, and milk powder by ICP-AES. Analysis of the beverages after dilution with a low concentration of HNO{sub 3} was used for accurate determination of essential minor and trace elements (Ca, Mg, K, P, S, and Zn). Selenium, introduced as the hydride, was determined simultaneously with the other non-hydride-forming elements using the commercial multi-mode sample-introduction system (MSIS). To obtain accurate results, however, some simple pre-treatment was needed. Analysis was also performed after microwave-assisted decomposition of the samples. Three different modes of sample-preparation, i.e. dilution only, partial decomposition (aqua regia treatment), and complete decomposition were compared. The results obtained by use of the three different sample-preparation methods were in very good agreement. Results from analysis of certified reference material (SRM 1459 non-fat milk powder) also verified the accuracy of the methods. The limit of detection obtained for Se using dual-mode sample introduction was 0.5 ng mL{sup -1}, which corresponds to approximately 2 ng g{sup -1} in beer and approximately 4 ng g{sup -1} in coffee and milk when using the recommended procedure. (orig.)

  18. Strong coupling of plasmon and nanocavity modes for dual-band, near-perfect absorbers and ultrathin photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Hägglund, Carl; Zeltzer, Gabriel; Ruiz, Ricardo; Wangperawong, Artit; Roelofs, Katherine E.; Bent, Stacey F.

    2016-01-01

    When optical resonances interact strongly, hybridized modes are formed with mixed properties inherited from the basic modes. Strong coupling therefore tends to equalize properties such as damping and oscillator strength of the spectrally separate resonance modes. This effect is here shown to be very useful for the realization of near perfect dual-band absorption with ultrathin (~10 nm) layers in a simple geometry. Absorber layers are constructed by atomic layer deposition of the heavy-damping...

  19. Experimental observation of spatially resolved photo-luminescence intensity distribution in dual mode upconverting nanorod bundles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pawan; Singh, Satbir; Singh, V. N.; Singh, Nidhi; Gupta, R. K.; Gupta, Bipin Kumar

    2017-02-01

    A novel method for demonstration of photoluminescence intensity distribution in upconverting nanorod bundles using confocal microscopy is reported. Herein, a strategy for the synthesis of highly luminescent dual mode upconverting/downshift Y1.94O3:Ho3+0.02/Yb3+0.04 nanorod bundles by a facile hydrothermal route has been introduced. These luminescent nanorod bundles exhibit strong green emission at 549 nm upon excitations at 449 nm and 980 nm with quantum efficiencies of ~6.3% and ~1.1%, respectively. The TEM/HRTEM results confirm that these bundles are composed of several individual nanorods with diameter of ~100 nm and length in the range of 1–3 μm. Furthermore, two dimensional spatially resolved photoluminescence intensity distribution study has been carried out using confocal photoluminescence microscope throughout the nanorod bundles. This study provides a new direction for the potential use of such emerging dual mode nanorod bundles as photon sources for next generation flat panel optical display devices, bio-medical applications, luminescent security ink and enhanced energy harvesting in photovoltaic applications.

  20. Single file and normal dual mode diffusion in highly confined hard sphere mixtures under flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanasundara, Surajith N; Spiteri, Raymond J; Bowles, Richard K

    2012-09-14

    We use Monte Carlo simulations to study the dual-mode diffusion regime of binary and tertiary mixtures of hard spheres confined in narrow cylindrical pores under the influence of an imposed flow. The flow is introduced to the dynamics by adding a small bias directed along the long axis of the pore to the random displacement of each Monte Carlo move. As a result, the motion of the particles in all the components is dominated by a drift velocity that causes the mean squared displacements to increase quadratically in the long time limit. However, an analysis of the mean squared displacements at intermediate time scales shows that components of the mixture above and below their passing thresholds still exhibit behaviors consistent with normal and single-file diffusion, respectively. The difference between the mean squared displacements of the various components is shown to go though a maximum, suggesting there may be an optimal pore diameter for the separation of mixtures exhibiting dual-mode diffusion.

  1. A dual-mode 6-9 GHz transmitter for OFDM-UWB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Yunfeng; Gao Ting; Li Wei; Li Ning; Ren Junyan, E-mail: jyren@fudan.edu.cn, E-mail: w-li@fudan.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of ASIC and System, Fudan University, Shanghai 201203 (China)

    2011-05-15

    This paper presents a fully integrated dual-mode 6 to 9 GHz transmitter for both WiMedia and China MB-OFDM UWB applications. The proposed transmitter consists of a dual-mode I/QLPF, an up-conversion mixer, a two-stage power driver amplifier and a broadband high-speed frequency divider with LO buffers for I/Q LO carrier generation. The measurement results show that the gain ripple of the transmitter is within {+-}1.5/{+-}2.8 dB from 6 to 8.7/9 GHz. The output IP3 is about +13.2 dBm, the output 1dBCP is around +2.8 dBm, and the LO leakage/sideband rejection ratio is about -35/-38 dBc. The ESD protected chip is fabricated with a TSMC 0.13 {mu}m RFCMOS process with a die size of 1.6 x 1.3 mm{sup 2} and the core circuit consumes only 46 mA under a 1.2 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. Particle and thermal transport due to drift resistive ballooning modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, T.; Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H.; Bateman, G.; Pankin, A. Y.

    2009-11-01

    The ion-temperature-gradient and trapped electron modes are primary candidates for producing the turbulence that drives anomalous transport in the core of magnetically confined plasmas. The situation at the edge is different. Since the edge plasma is influenced strongly by collisions, it is expected that resistive ballooning modes (RBMs) are an important driver of turbulence in the edge region. In this work, a new advanced RBM model [1] is tested as a function of plasma parameters. In this model, the eigenvalues and eigenvectors are used together with a quasi-linear mixing length estimate to determine fluxes and diffusivities. Particle and thermal transport coefficients are investigated in systematic scans over plasma density, density gradient, electron and ion temperature gradients, magnetic q, collisions, magnetic shear, finite Larmor radius effects, and pressure gradient. In the low temperature plasma region, it is found that RBM diffusivities increase with increasing density gradient, magnetic q, and collisionality.[4pt] [1] T. Rafiq, et al, poster at this APS meeting

  3. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography for dopamine and serotonin transporters in normal and parkinsonian monkey brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, I-H. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Huang, W.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Yeh, C.-B. [Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Liao, M.-H.; Chen, C.-C.; Shen, L.-H. [Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyaun, 325 Taiwan (China); Liu, J.-C. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Ma, K.-H. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kuohsing91@yahoo.com.tw

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects both dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated dopamine and serotonin transporters in primates using dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and compared the results with traditional single-isotope imaging. Methods: Four healthy and one 6-OHDA-induced PD monkeys were used for this study. SPECT was performed over 4 h after individual or simultaneous injection of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 (a dopamine transporter imaging agent) and [{sup 123}I]ADAM (a serotonin transporter imaging agent). Results: The results showed that the image quality and uptake ratios in different brain regions were comparable between single- and dual-isotope studies. The striatal [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 uptake in the PD monkey was markedly lower than that in normal monkeys. The uptake of [{sup 123}I]ADAM in the midbrain of the PD monkey was comparable to that in the normal monkeys, but there were decreased uptakes in the thalamus and striatum of the PD monkey. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dual-isotope SPECT using [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 and [{sup 123}I]ADAM can simultaneously evaluate changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in a PD model.

  4. Dual-frequency plasmon lasing modes in active three-layered bimetallic Ag/Au nanoshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, DaJian; Wu, XueWei; Cheng, Ying; Jin, BiaoBing; Liu, XiaoJun

    2015-11-01

    The optical properties of three-layered silver-gold-silica (SGS) nanoshells with gain have been investigated theoretically by using Mie theory. Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation (spaser) phenomena can be observed at two plasmon modes of the active SGS nanoshell in the visible region. It is found with the decrease in the radius of the inner Ag core that the critical value of ɛg″(ωg ) for the super-resonance of the low-energy mode increases first and then decreases while that for the high-energy mode decreases. An interesting overlap between the two curves for the critical value of ɛg″(ωg ) can be found at a special core radius. At this point, two super-resonances can be achieved concurrently at the low- and high-energy modes of the active SGS nanoshell with the same gain coefficient. This dual-frequency spaser based on the bimetallic Ag/Au nanoshell may be an efficient candidate for designing the nanolaser.

  5. Active control of electromagnetically induced transparency with dual dark mode excitation pathways using MEMS based tri-atomic metamolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchappa, Prakash; Manjappa, Manukumara; Ho, Chong Pei; Singh, Ranjan; Singh, Navab; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-11-01

    We report experimental results of the active switching of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) analogue by controlling the dark mode excitation pathways in a microelectromechanical system based tri-atomic metamolecule, operating in the terahertz spectral region. The tri-atomic metamolecule consists of two bright cut wire resonators (CWRs) on either side of the dark split ring resonators (SRRs). Each of the CWRs can independently excite the dark inductive-capacitive resonance mode of the SRRs through inductive coupling, and this allows for the dual pathways of dark mode excitation. The CWRs are made movable along the out-of-plane direction and electrically isolated to achieve selective reconfiguration. Hence, by controlling the physical position of these CWRs, the excitation pathways can be actively reconfigured. This enables the strong excitation of EIT analogue at 0.65 THz, only when one of the pathways is made accessible. Moreover, the transparency peak is completely modulated when both pathways are made either inaccessible or equally accessible. The proposed approach of realizing independent control of constituent resonators in a multi-resonator coupled system, enables the realization of efficient slow light devices and tunable high-Q resonators in terahertz spectral region.

  6. Human mobility in space from three modes of public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shixiong; Guan, Wei; Zhang, Wenyi; Chen, Xu; Yang, Liu

    2017-10-01

    The human mobility patterns have drew much attention from researchers for decades, considering about its importance for urban planning and traffic management. In this study, the taxi GPS trajectories, smart card transaction data of subway and bus from Beijing are utilized to model human mobility in space. The original datasets are cleaned and processed to attain the displacement of each trip according to the origin and destination locations. Then, the Akaike information criterion is adopted to screen out the best fitting distribution for each mode from candidate ones. The results indicate that displacements of taxi trips follow the exponential distribution. Besides, the exponential distribution also fits displacements of bus trips well. However, their exponents are significantly different. Displacements of subway trips show great specialties and can be well fitted by the gamma distribution. It is obvious that human mobility of each mode is different. To explore the overall human mobility, the three datasets are mixed up to form a fusion dataset according to the annual ridership proportions. Finally, the fusion displacements follow the power-law distribution with an exponential cutoff. It is innovative to combine different transportation modes to model human mobility in the city.

  7. Flow and transport in the drift shadow in a dual-continuum model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houseworth, J.E.; Finsterle, S.; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    2002-09-01

    The current concept for high-level radioactive waste disposal at Yucca Mountain is for the waste to be placed in underground tunnels (or drifts) in the middle of a thick unsaturated zone. Flow modeling and field testing have shown that not all flow encountering a drift will seep into the drift. The underlying reason for the diversion of unsaturated flow around a drift is that capillary forces in the fractures and matrix prevent water entry into the drift unless the capillary pressure in the rock decreases sufficiently to allow for gravity forces to overcome the capillary barrier. As a result of the capillary barrier effect, flow tends to be diverted around the drift, affecting the flow pattern beneath the drift. For some distance beneath the drift, water saturation and flux are reduced. This drift shadow zone is much more pronounced in the fractures than in the matrix due to dominance of gravity over capillary forces in the fractures. Moving downward, away from the drift, the shadow zone asymptotically re-equilibrates to the undisturbed flow conditions due to capillary forces. The behavior of radionuclide transport in this zone of reduced flow is investigated here because this will affect the amount of time required for radionuclides to penetrate the unsaturated zone. The delay of radio nuclide movement in the geosphere is one aspect of the potential repository system that could limit public exposure to radioactive waste. The behavior of flow and transport are calculated using a two-dimensional, drift-scale dual permeability model extending to nine drift diameters below the potential waste emplacement drift. The flow model is first compared with an analytical model for a single-continuum. Then the dual-continuum flow model is investigated with respect to drift-scale and mountain-scale property sets. Transport calculations are performed for a wide range of flow conditions and for different aqueous radionuclides and colloids. Findings indicate that transport times

  8. Detecting Urban Transport Modes Using a Hybrid Knowledge Driven Framework from GPS Trajectory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Deb Das

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Transport mode information is essential for understanding people’s movement behavior and travel demand estimation. Current approaches extract travel information once the travel is complete. Such approaches are limited in terms of generating just-in-time information for a number of mobility based applications, e.g., real time mode specific patronage estimation. In order to detect the transport modalities from GPS trajectories, various machine learning approaches have already been explored. However, the majority of them produce only a single conclusion from a given set of evidences, ignoring the uncertainty of any mode classification. Also, the existing machine learning approaches fall short in explaining their reasoning scheme. In contrast, a fuzzy expert system can explain its reasoning scheme in a human readable format along with a provision of inferring different outcome possibilities, but lacks the adaptivity and learning ability of machine learning. In this paper, a novel hybrid knowledge driven framework is developed by integrating a fuzzy logic and a neural network to complement each other’s limitations. Thus the aim of this paper is to automate the tuning process in order to generate an intelligent hybrid model that can perform effectively in near-real time mode detection using GPS trajectory. Tests demonstrate that a hybrid knowledge driven model works better than a purely knowledge driven model and at per the machine learning models in the context of transport mode detection.

  9. Informal public transport modes in India: A case study of five city regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha Kumar

    2016-03-01

    The paper highlights that these systems bridge a large transport supply gap and play an important role in Indian cities. The modes may follow some illegitimate practices, but they do it to become profitable, which in turn helps them provide the much-needed mobility services. The study also shows that these systems are not as unsafe and polluting as people often perceive them to be. However, there is significant room for improvements in terms of vehicle efficiency and compliance with regulatory provisions related to public transport.

  10. OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS ON SUBURBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Grigorovа

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems that permit to solve such issue as organization of  transport service for suburban population with due account of passenger transport fatigue which is considered as one of subconscious criteria for selection of a travel mode. Improvement of transportation process entails an increase in demand for such service. Demands predetermine transport supply and situation on the market depends on supply-and-demand balance.  The paper presents an analysis of approaches to the estimation of  parameters for a suburban transport system with due regard for influence of transport process parameters on the rate of passenger transport fatigue.  This rate is estimated through value of an index which demonstrates an activity of passenger’s regulatory systems while performing every element of motion process. Nonlinear regression equation has been used to describe changes in the activity index of the passenger’s regulatory systems when a passenger is taking a standing position in a passenger compartment of a suburban transport facility. In this case value of activity index of regulatory systems  before transportation, passenger age, transportation duration,   operation factor of transport  capacity and ratio of new bus cost to nominal capacity have been taken as variables for calculations.The paper proposes an index change model for assessment of passenger’s transport fatigue when a passenger has a standing position in a transport facility. The model has shown that an impact of the activity index of passenger’s regulatory systems before  making any elemental motion is rather pertinent because this index provides information on an initial condition of a person before executing any other elemental motion. The influence of the activity index of passenger’s regulatory systems before  making any elemental motion is considered as an important characteristic because it has an impact on passenger’s condition after executing

  11. Transmission Control of Transport and Technological Cars in Acceleration Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. I. Plujnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In most structures a transmission of the transport-technological machine (TTM is controlled by automatic systems. In their creating it is necessary to specify the appropriate parameters and algorithms. In the total balance of the machine run time the acceleration mode is the most important. Therefore, an algorithm of the transmission gear ratio change during acceleration largely provides desirable rating of machines.It is known that the process of acceleration is estimated by its dynamic quality and fuel economy. To reach the best rating of both simultaneously is impossible. Therefore, as the criteria of estimate, were chosen the time and fuel consumption during acceleration to a fixed speed value.From a mathematical point of view, these criteria represent the sum of integrals, each of which defines the time or the fuel consumption during acceleration with a certain transmission gear ratio. The problem is formulated as follows: to determine the speed values of the TTM at the moments when the transmission gear ratio is changed providing the minimum values during fixed fuel supply for the estimate criteria. The latter condition in a certain way limits the task, but in explicit form there is no this control action in the dependence data.Given the variety of possible design options for the TTM, the solution is given by a specific example that simplifies the mathematics and makes it easier to understand the results obtained. As a TTM, is considered a passenger car with petrol engine and automatic transmission, which includes a hydrodynamic transformer and three-speed gearbox.A chosen way of solving the problem involves using the theory of ordinary maxima and minima, which allows finding the unknown values of independent variables. The expressions of sub-integral functions are in explicit form obtained and studied for meeting the necessary and sufficient conditions for existence of the extreme point. The result was a proof that in the case of

  12. Inelastic transport theory for nanoscale systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This thesis describes theoretical and numerical investigations of inelastic scat- tering and energy dissipation in electron transport through nanoscale sys- tems. A computational scheme, based on a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and nonequilibrium Green’s functions (NEGF), has been...... the conductance. The methods have been applied to a number of specific systems, includ- ing monatomic gold chains, atomic point contacts, and metal-molecule-metal configurations. These studies have clarified the inelastic effects in the elec- tron transport and characterized the vibrational modes that couple...... to the current. For instance, the dominant scattering for gold chains could be traced back to the longitudinal “alternating bond-length” mode. Furthermore, the results have been compared critically with experimental measurements for the different systems, and provided a microscopic understanding for the im...

  13. Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport System Planning:An Exploration of Sustainable Urban Transport Development on Condition of Limited Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With "integration" as the direction,Shenzhen Comprehensive Transport Planning integrates the plan,construction and management of all kinds of transport mode in the transport system,and integrates the transport with the social,economic and environment development.The planning specifies the strategic targets,key indicators,development strategies as well as major policies of the comprehensive transport system,which explores an alternative way for the sustainable urban transport development under the condition of limited resources in Shenzhen.

  14. Dual fuel mode operation in diesel engines using renewable fuels: Rubber seed oil and coir-pith producer gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramadhas, A.S.; Jayaraj, S.; Muraleedharan, C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Calicut, Calicut-673601 (India)

    2008-09-15

    Partial combustion of biomass in the gasifier generates producer gas that can be used as supplementary or sole fuel for internal combustion engines. Dual fuel mode operation using coir-pith derived producer gas and rubber seed oil as pilot fuel was analyzed for various producer gas-air flow ratios and at different load conditions. The engine is experimentally optimized with respect to maximum pilot fuel savings in the dual fuel mode operation. The performance and emission characteristics of the dual fuel engine are compared with that of diesel engine at different load conditions. Specific energy consumption in the dual-fuel mode of operation with oil-coir-pith operation is found to be in the higher side at all load conditions. Exhaust emission was found to be higher in the case of dual fuel mode of operation as compared to neat diesel/oil operation. Engine performance characteristics are inferior in fully renewable fueled engine operation but it suitable for stationary engine application, particularly power generation. (author)

  15. The dual-gain mode: a way to enhance the dynamic range of X-ray detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Matsinos, E; Kaissl, Wolfgang; Matsinos, Evangelos

    2006-01-01

    Varian Medical Systems has manufactured and recently put into operation a clinically-applicable solution for image-guided radiation therapy. Cone-beam CT imaging, one of the operation modes of the imaging unit of this device, aims at high-quality volumetric reconstruction. To boost the image quality, the dual-gain mode, a successful means for enhancing the dynamic range of the flat-panel detectors and obtaining better results in the contrast of the reconstructed image, was developed and successfully tested during the last few years. The important steps in the calibration of this mode involve a correction to the pulse widths associated with the X-ray production, the assessment of the detector signal above which nonlinear effects become significant and the determination of some properties of the detector pixels, namely, of dark fields, flatness corrections, etc. Finally, the defect-pixel map is obtained, containing dead and flickering pixels, as well as pixels with properties which are sufficiently `out of rang...

  16. Development of Optical Voltage Transducer Based on Dual-Mode Highly Elliptical-Core Polarization Maintenance Fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Hong Bi; Feng Liu; Xuan Guo

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an optical voltage transducer (OVT) for the 35 kV electric power system based on modular interference in dual-mode highly elliptical-core polarization maintenance fiber (E-Core PMIF). The temperature and environmental perturb-bation can be compensated automatically. In the scheme, a quartz crystal cylinder wrapped with highly elliptical-core fiber plays the role of voltage sensor head. The two interference output lobes' intensity from the E-core PMF is modulated with the converse piezoelectric effect of quartz crystal. A PZT wrapped with E-core PMF at ground potential serves as the static modular phase difference control and temperature compensation unit. The experiment results indicate that the OVT designed in this paper has satisfying performance and could successfully rejects the temperature perturbation.

  17. A Single-Longitudinal-Mode Dual-Wavelength cw Tm,Ho: GdVO4 Microchip Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JU You-Lun; WANG Zhen-Guo; LI Yu-Feng; WANG Yue-Zhu

    2008-01-01

    A liquid nitrogen cooled dual-wavelength Tm,Ho:GdVO4 microchip laser is reported. The output dual wavelengths are at 2038.9nm and 2050.1nm. At each wavelength, the laser has a single longitudinal mode. The threshold power is nearly 20mW and the slope efficiency is 18.7%. The single longitudinal mode output power reaches 98mW, and the ratio of power is about 60% (2038.9nm) and 40% (2050.1 nm).

  18. Tunable narrow-bandpass filter based on an asymmetric photonic bandgap structure with a dual-mode liquid crystal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiao-Tsung; Timofeev, Ivan V; Chang, Kai; Zyryanov, Victor Ya; Lee, Wei

    2014-06-16

    A one-dimensional asymmetric photonic crystal with dual-frequency liquid crystal as a central defect layer was demonstrated. Such asymmetric structure was characterized by the dramatic increase in intensity of the electric field of light localized at the overlapped photonic bandgap edges, thereby enhancing the observed transmittance of the spectral windows originating from the defect layer. The defect layer was made of a dual-mode liquid crystal that exhibited not only electrical tunability and switchability but also optical bistability. Consequently, tunable and bistable defect modes can be realized in the photonic structure. This asymmetric photonic crystal structure is promising and should be further explored for photonic device applications.

  19. Dual mode operation, highly selective nanohole array-based plasmonic colour filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouladi Mahani, Fatemeh; Mokhtari, Arash; Mehran, Mahdiyeh

    2017-09-01

    Taking advantage of nanostructured metal films as plasmonic colour filters (PCFs) has been evolved remarkably as an alternative to the conventional technologies of chemical colour filtering. However, most of the proposed PCFs depict a poor colour purity focusing on generating either the additive or subtractive colours. In this paper, we present dual mode operation PCFs employing an opaque aluminium film patterned with sub-wavelength holes. Subtractive colours like cyan, magenta, and yellow are the results of reflection mode of these filters yielding optical efficiencies as high as 70%–80% and full width at half maximum of the stop-bands up to 40–50 nm. The colour selectivity of the transmission mode for the additive colours is also significant due to their enhanced performance through the utilization of a relatively thick aluminium film in contact with a modified dielectric environment. These filters provide a simple design with one-step lithography in addition to compatibility with the conventional CMOS processes. Moreover, they are polarization insensitive due to their symmetric geometry. A complete palette of pure subtractive and additive colours has been realized with potential applications, such as multispectral imaging, CMOS image sensors, displays, and colour printing.

  20. Influence of transportation policy on the multi-mode transportation choice behavior between megacity and satellite city and the system benefit estimation%交通政策对主卫城间多模式交通选择行为的影响及系统效益测算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马书红; 孙言涵

    2015-01-01

    交通政策和管理措施的实施会对主卫城间多模式复合交通出行行为选择方式和系统整体效益产生影响,需要科学评估其影响程度,为城间交通模式的协调配置提供参考。在对城间交通模式及其出行行为特征进行分析的基础上,将基于随机效用理论的MNL模型和基于Logsun 差异的效益测算方法相结合,针对城间4种典型的交通模式,通过构建基准情景和多种可能情景,测算了不同交通政策实施对城间交通出行选择的影响和出行者效益。结果表明,实施公交优先(减少乘客出行时间)对城间交通出行选择行为的影响较大,并具有较明显的系统经济效益,在协调城间交通模式配置时可优先考虑。%Transport policy and management measures have an influence on muti-mode transporta-tion choice behavior between megacity and satellite city and the system’s whole benefits , which makes it necessary to make a scientific evaluation of the influence and provide a reference for the coordinated con-figuration of the intercity transportation mode .Based on the analysis of intercity transportation mode and the characteristics of travel behavior , MNL on the basis of random utility theory and benefit estimation method on the basis of Logsum differences were combined together .According to the four typical intercity traffic patterns, the influence of the different transportation policies on the intercity travel choice and travelers'benefits were estimated by constructing a baseline scenario and a variety of possible scenarios . The results show that the implementation of bus priority policy ( to reduce passenger travel time ) has a significant impact on intercity travelers'behavior choice and achieves obvious system economic benefits , which should be given priority in the coordination of intercity transportation mode .

  1. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  2. Displaced dual-mode imaging with desorption electrospray ionization for simultaneous mass spectrometry imaging in both polarities and with several scan modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janfelt, Christian; Wellner, Niels; Hansen, Harald S

    2013-01-01

    Displaced dual-mode imaging (DDI) is introduced as a method for simultaneous imaging in positive and negative-ion mode on the same sample with desorption electrospray ionization imaging, as well as a method for simultaneous imaging in full-scan and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) mode. DDI...... is performed by using a smaller row distance in the y-direction than the desired image resolution and recording for example every second row in positive-ion mode and the other half of the rows in negative-ion mode, thus resulting in two separate images. This causes some degree of oversampling, which is thus...... utilized to obtain complementary mass spectrometric of the sample. Imaging with both polarities is exemplified on an imprint of a Hypericum perforatum leaf containing secondary metabolites which ionize in both polarites and a mouse kidney containing phospholipids which ionize in positive or negative mode...

  3. Performance and Emissions of a Small Compression Ignition Engine Run on Dual-fuel Mode (Diesel-Raw biogas)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Sinulingga, E. P.; Nasution, M. KM; Kawai, H.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, a compression ignition (CI) engine is tested in dual-fuel mode (Diesel-Raw biogas). The objective is to examine the performance and emission characteristics of the engine when some of the diesel oil is replaced by biogas. The specifications of the CI engine are air cooled single horizontal cylinder, four strokes, and maximum output power of 4.86 kW. It is coupled with a synchronous three phase generator. The load, engine revolution, and biogas flow rate are varied from 600 W to 1500 W, 1000 rpm to 1500 rpm, 0 to 6 L/minute, respectively. The electric power, specific fuel consumption, thermal efficiency, gas emission, and diesel replacement ratio are analyzed. The results show that there is no significant difference of the power resulted by CI run on dual-fuel mode in comparison with pure diesel mode. However, the specific fuel consumption and efficiency decrease significantly as biogas flow rate increases. On the other hand, emission of the engine on dual-fuel mode is better. The main conclusion can be drawn is that CI engine without significant modification can be operated perfectly in dual-fuel mode and diesel oil consumption can be decreased up to 87.5%.

  4. Hysteresis of mode transition in a dual-struts based scramjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhang; Shaohua, Zhu; Bing, Chen; Xu, Xu

    2016-11-01

    Tests and numerical simulations were performed to investigate the combustion performance of a dual-staged scramjet combustor. High enthalpy vitiated inflow at a total temperature of 1231 K was supplied using a hydrogen-combustion heater. The inlet Mach number was 2.0. Liquid kerosene was injected into the combustor using the dual crossed struts. Three-dimensional Reynolds averaged reacting flow was solved using a two-equation k-ω SST turbulence model to calculate the effect of turbulent stress, and a partial-premixed flamelet model to model the effects of turbulence-chemistry interactions. The discrete phase model was utilized to simulate the fuel atomization and vaporization. For simplicity, the n-decane was chosen as the surrogate fuel with a reaction mechanism of 40 species and 141 steps. The predicted wall pressure profiles at three fuel injection schemes basically captured the axial varying trend of the experimental data. With the downstream equivalence ratio held constant, the upstream equivalence ratio was numerically increased from 0.1 to 0.4 until a steady combustion was obtained. Subsequently, the upstream equivalence ratio was decreased from 0.4 to 0.1 once again. Two ramjet modes with different wall pressure profiles and corresponding flow structures were captured under the identical upstream equivalence ratio of 0.1, illustrating an obvious hysteresis phenomenon. The mechanism of this hysteresis was explained by the transition hysteresis of the pre-combustion shock train in the isolator.

  5. A dual mode pulsed electro-magnetic cell stimulator produces acceleration of myogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Salas, Walter D; Rizk, Hatem; Mo, Chenglin; Weisleder, Noah; Brotto, Leticia; Abreu, Eduardo; Brotto, Marco

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents the design and test of a dual-mode electric and magnetic biological stimulator (EM-Stim). The stimulator generates pulsing electric and magnetic fields at programmable rates and intensities. While electric and magnetic stimulators have been reported before, this is the first device that combines both modalities. The ability of the dual stimulation to target bone and muscle tissue simultaneously has the potential to improve the therapeutic treatment of osteoporosis and sarcopenia. The device is fully programmable, portable and easy to use, and can run from a battery or a power supply. The device can generate magnetic fields of up to 1.6 mT and output voltages of +/- 40 V. The EM-Stim accelerated myogenic differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes as evidenced by morphometric, gene expression, and protein content analyses. Currently, there are many patents concerned with the application of single electrical or magnetic stimulation, but none that combine both simultaneously. However, we applied for and obtained a provisional patent for new device to fully explore its therapeutic potential in pre-clinical models.

  6. Dual-mode nested search method for categorical uncertain multi-objective optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Long; Wang, Hu

    2016-10-01

    Categorical multi-objective optimization is an important issue involved in many matching design problems. Non-numerical variables and their uncertainty are the major challenges of such optimizations. Therefore, this article proposes a dual-mode nested search (DMNS) method. In the outer layer, kriging metamodels are established using standard regular simplex mapping (SRSM) from categorical candidates to numerical values. Assisted by the metamodels, a k-cluster-based intelligent sampling strategy is developed to search Pareto frontier points. The inner layer uses an interval number method to model the uncertainty of categorical candidates. To improve the efficiency, a multi-feature convergent optimization via most-promising-area stochastic search (MFCOMPASS) is proposed to determine the bounds of objectives. Finally, typical numerical examples are employed to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed DMNS method.

  7. Effects of temperature and difference-wavelength on mode stability in Dual-λ QD lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shutts, Samuel; Smowton, Peter M.; Krysa, Andrey B.

    2015-03-01

    We employ a device which exploits the properties of InP quantum dots (QD), (emitting from 650-730 nm), to produce simultaneous dual-λ lasing from a single ridge-waveguide comprising two sections. Due to the effects of state-filling in an inhomogeneously broadened QD ensemble, the wavelength is strongly dependent on magnitude of the gain (or cavity loss). Therefore, by altering the loss of each section of the device we are able to demonstrate a large range of difference-wavelengths, up to 63 nm. Here, we test the performance of the device and measure effects of temperature and difference-wavelength on the stability of the two lasing modes.

  8. T₁ and T₂ dual-mode MRI contrast agent for enhancing accuracy by engineered nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Tae-Hyun; Choi, Jin-sil; Yun, Seokhwan; Kim, Il-Sun; Song, Ho-Taek; Kim, Youngmee; Park, Kook In; Cheon, Jinwoo

    2014-04-22

    One of the holy grails in biomedical imaging technology is to achieve accurate imaging of biological targets. The development of sophisticated instrumentation and the use of contrast agents have improved the accuracy of biomedical imaging. However, the issue of false imaging remains a problem. Here, we developed a dual-mode artifact filtering nanoparticle imaging agent (AFIA) that comprises a combination of paramagnetic and superparamagnetic nanomaterials. This AFIA has the ability to perform "AND logic gate" algorithm to eliminate false errors (artifacts) from the raw images to enhance accuracy of the MRI. We confirm the artifact filtering capability of AFIA in MRI phantoms and further demonstrate that artifact-free imaging of stem cell migration is possible in vivo.

  9. Dual-mode bioenabled nano-plasmonic sensors for biological and chemical detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xianming; Squire, Kenny; Xi, Yuting; LeDuff, Paul; Rorrer, Gregory L.; Wang, Alan X.

    2016-03-01

    Plasmonic biosensors have greatly overcome the limitations of conventional optical sensors in terms of sensitivity, tunability, photo-stability, and in vivo applicability. In this paper, we present plasmonic biosensors using bioenabled nanomaterials diatom biosilica, with active surface functionalities as affordable and eco-friendly integration platforms of Ag nanoparticles for label-free detection of biomolecules. Dual-mode plasmon sensing mechanisms, including surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and refractive-index (RI) sensing will be simultaneously implemented on the plasmonic-biosilica nanostructures to obtain quantitative biosensing with structural resolution of the biomolecules. We have achieved ultra-sensitive detection of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) at concentrations as low as 10-10 M. Furthermore, this substrate was used to detect TNT, illustrating the potential application as viable substrates for monitoring pollutant and toxics in environment.

  10. Gauge fermions with flat bands and anomalous transport via chiral modes from breaking gauge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Xi

    2016-01-01

    The dispersionless longitudinal photon in Maxwell theory is thought of as a redundant degree of freedom due to the gauge symmetry. We find that when there exist exactly flat bands with zero energy in a condensed matter system, the fermion field may locally transform as a gauge field and the system possesses a gauge symmetry. As the longitudinal photon, the redundant degrees of freedom from the flat bands must be gauged away from the physical states. As an example, we study spinless fermions on a generalized Lieb lattice in three dimensions. The flat band of the longitudinal fermion induces a gauge symmetry. An external magnetic field breaks this gauge symmetry and emerges a bunch of non-topologically chiral modes. Combining these emergent chiral modes with the chiral anomaly mode which is of an opposite chirality, rich anomalous electric transport phenomena exhibit and are expected to be observed in Pd$_3$Bi$_2$S$_2$ and Ag$_3$Se$_2$Au.

  11. On implementation of "whole-course dual tutorial system"pre-service English teacher training mode at local normal college%“全学程双导师制”职前英语教师培养模式探究--以地方师范院校英语专业为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡红梅

    2014-01-01

    基于对“全学程双导师制”产生背景和内涵的分析,本研究指出了“全学程双导师制”职前英语教师培养模式实施的必要性,并在此基础上提出了在地方师范院校英语专业职前英语教师培养过程中实施“全学程双导师制”的构想,即由地方师范院校英语专业教育教学理论指导教师和中小学教育实践基地优秀英语实践指导教师共同承担职前英语教师的培养任务,在时间上将“双导师制”贯穿于英语专业职前英语教师培养的全过程,在空间上将师范院校的教育教学和基础教育教学实践结合起来,以达到培养高素质英语师资的目的。%Based on the analysis of the background and perceptions of "whole-course dual tutorial system"and the necessity for implementing the"whole-course dual tutorial system"pre-service teacher training mode , this thesis advances the pro-posal of implementing the teacher training mode in pre -service English teacher training at local normal college , that is, both the tutors at the English Department at local college and the mentors at local schools are involved in co -training pre-service English teachers with the mode running throughout the whole course of pre -service English teacher training programs in time and combining the theoretical training at local college with the teaching practices at basic education scenes in space , thus a-chieving the goal of training high -quality English teachers .

  12. Internal Transport Barrier Broadening through Subdominant Mode Stabilization in Reversed Field Pinch Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzini, R.; Auriemma, F.; Fassina, A.; Martines, E.; Terranova, D.; Sattin, F.

    2016-05-01

    The reversed field pinch (RFP) device RFX-mod features strong internal transport barriers when the plasma accesses states with a single dominant helicity. Such transport barriers enclose a hot helical region with high confinement whose amplitude may vary from a tiny one to an amplitude encompassing an appreciable fraction of the available volume. The transition from narrow to wide thermal structures has been ascribed so far to the transport reduction that occurs when the dominant mode separatrix, which is a preferred location for the onset of stochastic field lines, disappears. In this Letter we show instead that the contribution from the separatrix disappearance, by itself, is marginal and the main role is instead played by the progressive stabilization of secondary modes. The position and the width of the stochastic boundary encompassing the thermal structures have been estimated by applying the concept of a 3D quasiseparatrix layer, developed in solar physics to treat reconnection phenomena without true separatrices and novel to toroidal laboratory plasmas. Considering the favorable scaling of secondary modes with the Lundquist number, these results open promising scenarios for RFP plasmas at temperatures higher than the presently achieved ones, where lower secondary modes and, consequently, larger thermal structures are expected. Furthermore, this first application of the quasiseparatrix layer to a toroidal plasma indicates that such a concept is ubiquitous in magnetic reconnection, independent of the system geometry under investigation.

  13. A monolithically integrated dual-mode laser for photonic microwave generation and all-optical clock recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Liqiang; Zhou, Daibing; Zhao, Lingjuan

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate a monolithically integrated dual-mode laser (DML) with narrow-beat-linewidth and wide-beat-tunability. Using a monolithic DFB laser subjected to amplified feedback, photonic microwave generation of up to 45 GHz is obtained with higher than 15 GHz beat frequency tunability. Thanks to the high phase correlation of the two modes and the narrow mode linewidth, a RF linewidth of lower than 50 kHz is measured. Simulations are also carried out to illustrate the dual-mode beat characteristic. Furthermore, using the DML, an all-optical clock recovery for 40  Gbaud NRZ-QPSK signals is demonstrated. Timing jitter of lower than 363 fs (integrated within a frequency range from 100 Hz to 1 GHz) is obtained.

  14. Guaranteed performance in reaching mode of sliding mode controlled systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Singh; K E Holé

    2004-02-01

    Conventionally, the parameters of a sliding mode controller (SMC) are selected so as to reduce the time spent in the reaching mode. Although, an upper bound on the time to reach (reaching time) the sliding surface is easily derived, performance guarantee in the state/error space needs more consideration. This paper addresses the design of constant plus proportional rate reaching law-based SMC for second-order nonlinear systems. It is shown that this controller imposes a bounding second-order error-dynamics, and thus guarantees robust performance during the reaching phase. The choice of the controller parameters based on the time to reach a desirable level of output tracking error (OTE), rather than on the reaching time is proposed. Using the Lyapunov theory, it is shown that parameter selections, based on the reaching time criterion, may need substantially larger time to achieve the OTE. Simulation results are presented for a nonlinear spring-massdamper system. It is seen that parameter selections based on the proposed OTE criterion, result in substantially quicker tracking, while using similar levels of control effort.

  15. Pyrene-based dual-mode fluorescence switches and logic gates that function in solution and film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weidong; Li, Yongjun; Li, Yuliang; Liu, Huibiao; Wang, Shu; Li, Cuihong; Yuan, Mingjian; Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Daoben

    2006-07-17

    A dual-mode fluorescence switch controlled by external inputs such as protons and metal ions is described, and each state corresponds to a specific fluorescent emission peak. Based on the reversible changes of the fluorescence emission of the switch responding to different external stimuli, the corresponding integrated logic gates and communication networks have been constructed in solid film or in solution.

  16. Synthesis of Hymecromone Derivatives Containing Chiral 1,1'-Bi-2-naphthyl Moiety for Dual-mode Molecular Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Xing SHAN; Chun Guang XIAO

    2004-01-01

    Some hymecromone derivatives containing chiral 1,1(-bi-2-naphthyl moiety were synthesized and their photodimerizations were investigated.It was found that fluorescence intensity and optical rotation of the new chiral hymecromone derivatives could be regulated by light.This property has potential significance for developing a new type of dual-mode molecular switch.

  17. Influence of polymerization mode and C-factor on cohesive strength of dual-cured resin cements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, L.A.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Pallav, P.; Feilzer, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to determine the influence of the C-factor and the mode of polymerization on the cohesive strength of various dual-cure resin cements. Methods Three curing conditions were tested; chemical curing with free shrinkage conditions (C = 0), and constraint shrinkage con

  18. Quality Factor and Radiation Efficiency of Dual-Mode Self-Resonant Spherical Antennas With Lossy Magnetodielectric Cores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Troels Vejle; Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2014-01-01

    determine the relative mode excitation, as a function of the core material parameters, which ensures self-resonance. For the specific case of a dual-${\\rm TE}_{m1}$ , ${\\rm TM}_{m1}$ dipole antenna of half a wavelength circumference, we show quantitatively, how $Q/e$ and $e$ behave, and can be optimized...

  19. Twin peak HF QPOs as a spectral imprint of dual oscillation modes of accretion tori

    CERN Document Server

    Bakala, Pavel; Török, Gabriel; Šrámková, Eva; Abramowicz, Marek A; Vincent, Frederic H; Mazur, Grzegorz P

    2015-01-01

    High frequency (millisecond) quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) are observed in the X-ray power-density spectra of several microquasars and low mass X-ray binaries. Two distinct QPO peaks, so-called twin peak QPOs, are often detected simultaneously exhibiting their frequency ratio close or equal to 3/2. Following the analytic theory and previous studies of observable spectral signatures, we aim to model the twin peak QPOs as a spectral imprint of specific dual oscillation regime defined by a combination of the lowest radial and vertical oscillation mode of optically thick slender tori with constant specific angular momentum. We examined power spectra and fluorescent K$\\alpha$ iron line profiles for two different simulation setups with the mode frequency relations corresponding to the epicyclic resonance HF QPOs model and modified relativistic precession QPOs model. We use relativistic ray-tracing implemented in parallel simulation code LSDplus. In the background of the Kerr spacetime geometry, we analyze t...

  20. Salinity stress induced lipid synthesis to harness biodiesel during dual mode cultivation of mixotrophic microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkata Mohan, S; Devi, M Prathima

    2014-08-01

    Influence of salinity as a stress factor to harness biodiesel was assessed during dual mode cultivation of microalgae by integrating biomass growth phase (BGP) and salinity induced lipid induction phase (LIP). BGP was evaluated in mixotrophic mode employing nutrients (NPK) and carbon (glucose) source while LIP was operated under stress environment with varying salt concentrations (0, 0.5, 1 and 2gNaCl/l). Salinity stress triggered both biomass growth and lipid synthesis in microalgae significantly. BGP showed higher increments in biomass growth (2.55g/l) while LIP showed higher lipid productivity (1gNaCl/l; total/neutral lipid, 23.4/9.2%) than BGP (total/neutral lipid, 15.2/6%). Lower concentrations of salinity showed positive influence on the process while higher concentrations showed marked inhibition. Salinity stress also facilitated in maintaining saturated fatty acid methyl esters in higher amounts which associates with the improved fuel properties. Efficient wastewater treatment was observed during BGP operation indicating the assimilation of carbon/nutrients by microalgae.

  1. Fatigue Failure Modes of the Grain Size Transition Zone in a Dual Microstructure Disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabb, Timothy P.; Kantzos, Pete T.; Palsa, Bonnie; Telesman, Jack; Gayda, John; Sudbrack, Chantal K.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanical property requirements vary with location in nickel-based superalloy disks. In order to maximize the associated mechanical properties, heat treatment methods have been developed for producing tailored grain microstructures. In this study, fatigue failure modes of a grain size transition zone in a dual microstructure disk were evaluated. A specialized heat treatment method was applied to produce varying grain microstructure in the bore to rim portions of a powder metallurgy processed nickel-based superalloy disk. The transition in grain size was concentrated in a zone of the disk web, between the bore and rim. Specimens were extracted parallel and transversely across this transition zone, and multiple fatigue tests were performed at 427 C and 704 C. Grain size distributions were characterized in the specimens, and related to operative failure initiation modes. Mean fatigue life decreased with increasing maximum grain size, going out through the transition zone. The scatter in limited tests of replicates was comparable for failures of uniform gage specimens in all transition zone locations examined.

  2. A fully integrated frequency synthesizer for a dual-mode GPS and Compass receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chu Xiaojie; Lin Min; Shi Yin; Dai F F

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a fully integrated frequency synthesizer for a dual-mode GPS and Compass receiver fabricated in a 0.13 μm CMOS technology.The frequency synthesizer is implemented with an on-chip symmetric inductor and an on-chip loop filter.A capacitance multiplying approach is proposed in the on-chip loop filter design for area-saving consideration.Pulse-swallow topology with a multistage noise shaping △ Σ modulator is adopted in the frequency divider design.The synthesizer generates local oscillating signals at 1571.328 MHz and 1568.259 MHz with a 16.368 MHz reference clock by working in integer and fractional modes.Measurement results show that the phase noise of the synthesizer achieves -91.3 dBc/Hz and -117 dBc/Hz out of band at 100 kHz and 1 MHz frequency offset,separately.The proposed frequency synthesizer consumes 8.6 mA from a 1.2 V power supply and occupies an area of 0.92 mm2.

  3. Measurement of electron particle transport coefficients in different operational modes of DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. R.; Wade, M. R.; Jackson, G. L.; Maingi, R.; Stockdale, R. E.; de Grassie, J. S.; Groebner, R. J.; Forest, C. B.; Porter, G. D.; DIII-D Team

    1998-04-01

    Electron transport coefficients have been obtained for different operational modes on the DIII-D tokamak. The operational modes are: double null diverted (DND) low confinement (L mode), DND high confinement (H mode) without edge localized modes (ELM-free), single null diverted (SND) ELM-free H mode and pumped SND ELMing H mode. Various values of plasma current and safety factor (q) profiles were investigated. For the L mode and ELMing H mode, the coefficients were obtained by a modulated puff of deuterium gas at the edge. For the ELM-free modes, the coefficients were obtained by analysing the temporal evolution of the electron density profile immediately after the L-H transition. The results show clearly that the radial profile of the electron diffusion coefficient depends on the operational mode of DIII-D. The difference in the radial dependences of the transport coefficients between the different tokamak operational modes is significant. In the L mode and the ELMing H mode, the diffusion coefficient increases with radius. In ELMing H mode, the diffusion coefficient increases with the edge value of q. The value at the edge for L mode is about twice that for ELMing H mode. In ELM-free H mode, the diffusion coefficient decreases rapidly outside a normalized radius of about 0.8. Within the (relatively large) error bars for ELM-free H mode, there is no measurable difference in diffusion coefficient between the DND and SND plasmas.

  4. Energy Efficient Hybrid Dual Axis Solar Tracking System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashid Ahammed Ferdaus

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design and implementation of an energy efficient solar tracking system from a normal mechanical single axis to a hybrid dual axis. For optimizing the solar tracking mechanism electromechanical systems were evolved through implementation of different evolutional algorithms and methodologies. To present the tracker, a hybrid dual-axis solar tracking system is designed, built, and tested based on both the solar map and light sensor based continuous tracking mechanism. These light sensors also compare the darkness and cloudy and sunny conditions assisting daily tracking. The designed tracker can track sun’s apparent position at different months and seasons; thereby the electrical controlling device requires a real time clock device for guiding the tracking system in seeking solar position for the seasonal motion. So the combination of both of these tracking mechanisms made the designed tracker a hybrid one. The power gain and system power consumption are compared with a static and continuous dual axis solar tracking system. It is found that power gain of hybrid dual axis solar tracking system is almost equal to continuous dual axis solar tracking system, whereas the power saved in system operation by the hybrid tracker is 44.44% compared to the continuous tracking system.

  5. Advanced transport systems analysis, modeling, and evaluation of performances

    CERN Document Server

    Janić, Milan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a systematic analysis, modeling and evaluation of the performance of advanced transport systems. It offers an innovative approach by presenting a multidimensional examination of the performance of advanced transport systems and transport modes, useful for both theoretical and practical purposes. Advanced transport systems for the twenty-first century are characterized by the superiority of one or several of their infrastructural, technical/technological, operational, economic, environmental, social, and policy performances as compared to their conventional counterparts. The advanced transport systems considered include: Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) and Personal Rapid Transit (PRT) systems in urban area(s), electric and fuel cell passenger cars, high speed tilting trains, High Speed Rail (HSR), Trans Rapid Maglev (TRM), Evacuated Tube Transport system (ETT), advanced commercial subsonic and Supersonic Transport Aircraft (STA), conventionally- and Liquid Hydrogen (LH2)-fuelled commercial air trans...

  6. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properties. Every transportation system has advantages and disadvantages over each other. Therefore, comprehensive plans for future periods have to be prepared and how the sources of the country should be reasonably distributed among transportation systems must be investigated. Also, transportation plans have to be prepared to get coordinated operations among transportation systems while great investments are instituted in the entire country. There is no doubt that it is possible with combined transportation instead of concentration on one transportation system. Transportation policies in Turkey should be questioned since the level of highway transportation usage reaches to 95 % and level of sea transportation usage drops to less than 1 % in spite of being surrounded with sea in three sides of our land. In this paper, transportation systems and transportation policies in Turkey are evaluated in general and problems are analysed. Proposals are presented for the solutions of these problems.

  7. European Transportation Policy for better Integration. Shifting the Balance between the Modes of Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhet Genç

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing need for transportation and mobility of citizen gives raises the importance oftransportation policy. The development of the European transportation policy has a great significance for theEuropean Union. The common transportation policy of the European Union is reviewed and updated everynine years. The first common transportation policy of the European Commission was published in December1992. Besides the railway sector, most of the objectives listed in this policy were realized in ten years. In2001, the European Commission proffered a new transportation policy with sixty new measures. Thus, thispaper shows the importance of transportation projects -especially in the field of railways- for European Unionmember states. In accounting, cross-border sections of projects are more or less neglected, as member statestend to prioritize the development of sections of the projects, which are economically viable for themselves,thereby delaying the overall connectivity of the trans-European network. The railway modal is the hardestmodal to interoperate between the member countries. Therefore it is not a surprise that the objectives listed inthe first European transportation policy were not realized in the railway sector. There were enormousdifferences between railway systems before the European Union. Some of them still have an influence oncurrent railway infrastructure and operations today. To sum up, this research shall deal with the crucialaspects of common transportation policies as well as problems of its implications.

  8. Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John J.

    1990-01-01

    NASA-Langley's Advanced Transport Operating Systems Program employs a heavily instrumented, B 737-100 as its Transport Systems Research Vehicle (TRSV). The TRSV has been used during the demonstration trials of the Time Reference Scanning Beam Microwave Landing System (TRSB MLS), the '4D flight-management' concept, ATC data links, and airborne windshear sensors. The credibility obtainable from successful flight test experiments is often a critical factor in the granting of substantial commitments for commercial implementation by the FAA and industry. In the case of the TRSB MLS, flight test demonstrations were decisive to its selection as the standard landing system by the ICAO.

  9. Optothermal transport behavior in whispering gallery mode optical cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soltani, Soheil [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering-Electrophysics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Armani, Andrea M., E-mail: armani@usc.edu [Ming Hsieh Department of Electrical Engineering-Electrophysics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    Over the past century, whispering gallery mode optical cavities have enabled numerous advances in science and engineering, such as discoveries in quantum mechanics and non-linear optics, as well as the development of optical gyroscopes and add drop filters. One reason for their widespread appeal is their ability to confine light for long periods of time, resulting in high circulating intensities. However, when sufficiently large amounts of optical power are coupled into these cavities, they begin to experience optothermal or photothermal behavior, in which the optical energy is converted into heat. Above the optothermal threshold, the resonance behavior is no longer solely defined by electromagnetics. Previous work has primarily focused on the role of the optothermal coefficient of the material in this instability. However, the physics of this optothermal behavior is significantly more complex. In the present work, we develop a predictive theory based on a generalizable analytical expression in combination with a geometry-specific COMSOL Multiphysics finite element method model. The simulation couples the optical and thermal physics components, accounting for geometry variations as well as the temporal and spatial profile of the optical field. To experimentally verify our theoretical model, the optothermal thresholds of a series of silica toroidal resonant cavities are characterized at different wavelengths (visible through near-infrared) and using different device geometries. The silica toroid offers a particularly rigorous case study for the developed optothermal model because of its complex geometrical structure which provides multiple thermal transport paths.

  10. Theory-based transport simulations of TFTR L-mode temperature profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, G.

    1991-10-24

    The temperature profiles from a selection of TFTR L-mode discharges are simulated with the 1-1/2-D BALDUR transport code using a combination of theoretically derived transport models, called the Multi-Mode Model. The present version of the Multi-Mode Model consists of effective thermal diffusivities resulting from trapped electron modes and ion temperature gradient ({eta}{sub i}) modes, which dominate in the core of the plasma, together with resistive ballooning modes, which dominate in the periphery. Within the context of this transport model and the TFTR simulations reported here, the scaling of confinement with heating power comes from the temperature dependence of the {eta}{sub i} and trapped electron modes, while the scaling with current comes mostly from resistive ballooning modes. 24 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Transport mode preferences, risk perception and worry in a Norwegian urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche-Cerasi, Isabelle; Rundmo, Torbjørn; Sigurdson, Johannes Foss; Moe, Dagfinn

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of the present study was to compare risk perception among Norwegians (n=512) living in the region of Oslo. This study was part of an ERANET 13 project entitled PETRIS, Perception of transport risk in France and Norway. The data collection was carried out in January 2011. The response rate was 51 percent. The results showed that respondents, divided in two groups according to their transport mode preferences, assessed differently risk perception in public and private transportation. Respondents who preferred collective transportation assessed the probability of experiencing criminality in collective transport modes as higher than those who preferred private modes. They were also more worried of experiencing accidents, criminality, and terror attacks in collective transportation. The relationship between transport mode preferences and use, risk perception and worry are discussed.

  12. Rotary Mode Core Sample System availability improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, W.W.; Bennett, K.L.; Potter, J.D. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Cross, B.T.; Burkes, J.M.; Rogers, A.C. [Southwest Research Institute (United States)

    1995-02-28

    The Rotary Mode Core Sample System (RMCSS) is used to obtain stratified samples of the waste deposits in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The samples are used to characterize the waste in support of ongoing and future waste remediation efforts. Four sampling trucks have been developed to obtain these samples. Truck I was the first in operation and is currently being used to obtain samples where the push mode is appropriate (i.e., no rotation of drill). Truck 2 is similar to truck 1, except for added safety features, and is in operation to obtain samples using either a push mode or rotary drill mode. Trucks 3 and 4 are now being fabricated to be essentially identical to truck 2.

  13. Modeling Regional-Scale Sediment Transport and Medium-Term Morphology Change at a Dual-Inlet System Examined with the Coastal Modeling System (CMS): A Case Study at Johns Pass and Blind Pass, West-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    and 2008. The bathymetry surveys were conducted using a synchronized, precision echo sounder and RTK - GPS (Real Time Kinematic Global Positioning...integrate hydrodynamics, sediment transport, and morphology change through the coupling of two modules , CMS- Flow and CMS-Wave. CMS-Flow solves depth

  14. A dual-systems perspective on addiction: contributions from neuroimaging and cognitive training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Samuel M; Bickel, Warren K

    2014-10-01

    Dual-systems theories explain lapses in self-control in terms of a conflict between automatic and deliberative modes of behavioral control. Numerous studies have now tested whether the brain areas that control behavior are organized in a manner consistent with dual-systems models. Brain regions directly associated with the mesolimbic dopamine system, the nucleus accumbens and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in particular, capture some of the features assumed by automatic processing. Regions in the lateral prefrontal cortex are more closely linked to deliberative processing and the exertion of self-control in the suppression of impulses. While identifying these regions crudely supports dual-systems theories, important modifications to what constitutes automatic and deliberative behavioral control are also suggested. Experiments have identified various means by which automatic processes may be sculpted. Additional work decomposes deliberative processes into component functions such as generalized working memory, reappraisal of emotional stimuli, and prospection. The importance of deconstructing dual-systems models into specific cognitive processes is clear for understanding and treating addiction. We discuss intervention possibilities suggested by recent research, and focus in particular on cognitive training approaches to bolster deliberative control processes that may aid quit attempts.

  15. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  16. The impact of governance modes on sustainable transport - the case of bus transport in Greater Manchester, UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Claus Hedegaard; Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    'Sustainable transport' has become a priority for transport planning and policy making around the world. Sustainable transport plans often promote efforts to shift passengers from private cars to other modes such as public transport. However, the actual success of such efforts is likely to depend...... contributions. Second, we apply theoretical notions of 'governance modes', to examine whether the strengths and failures of 'market', 'hierarchy' and 'network' governance respectively can help to explain the results we observe. We find that these concepts are particularly useful to clarify the conditions under...

  17. A comparative study on dual colour soft aperture cascaded second-order mode-locking with different nonlinear optical crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shyamal Mondal; Satya Pratap Singh; Sourabh Mukhopadhyay; Aditya Date; Kamal Hussain; Shouvik Mukherjee; Prasanta Kumar Datta

    2014-02-01

    A comparative study in terms of optimized output power and stability is made on cascaded second-order nonlinear optical mode-locking with KTP, BBO and LBO crystals for both 1064 nm and 532 nm. Large nonlinear optical phase shift achieved in a non-phase-matched second harmonic generating crystal, is transformed into amplitude modulation through soft aperturing the nonlinear cavity mode variation at the laser gain medium to mode-lock a Nd:YVO4 laser. The laser delivers stable dual wavelength cw mode-locked pulse train with pulse duration 10.3 ps and average power of 1.84 W and 255 mW at 1064 nm and 532 nm respectively for the optimum performance in type-II KTP crystal. The exceptional stability achieved with KTP is accounted by simulating the mode-size variation with phase mismatch.

  18. Effects of mixing system and pilot fuel quality on diesel-biogas dual fuel engine performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedoya, Iván Darío; Arrieta, Andrés Amell; Cadavid, Francisco Javier

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes results obtained from CI engine performance running on dual fuel mode at fixed engine speed and four loads, varying the mixing system and pilot fuel quality, associated with fuel composition and cetane number. The experiments were carried out on a power generation diesel engine at 1500 m above sea level, with simulated biogas (60% CH(4)-40% CO(2)) as primary fuel, and diesel and palm oil biodiesel as pilot fuels. Dual fuel engine performance using a naturally aspirated mixing system and diesel as pilot fuel was compared with engine performance attained with a supercharged mixing system and biodiesel as pilot fuel. For all loads evaluated, was possible to achieve full diesel substitution using biogas and biodiesel as power sources. Using the supercharged mixing system combined with biodiesel as pilot fuel, thermal efficiency and substitution of pilot fuel were increased, whereas methane and carbon monoxide emissions were reduced.

  19. Intelligent Transport Systems in the Management of Road Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalupová, Blanka; Hlavoň, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Extension of European Union causes increase of free transfer of people and goods. At the same time they raised the problems associated with the transport, e.g. congestion and related accidents on roads, air traffic delays and more. To increase the efficiency and safety of transport, the European Commission supports the introduction of intelligent transport systems and services in all transport sectors. Implementation of intelligent transport systems and services in the road transport reduces accident frequency, increases the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces congestions. Use of toll systems provides resources needed for the construction and operation of a new road network, improves public transport, cycling transport and walking transport, and also their multimodal integration with individual car transport.

  20. Emulation of lossless exciton-polariton condensates by dual-core optical waveguides: Stability, collective modes, and dark solitons

    CERN Document Server

    Salasnich, Luca; Toigo, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    We propose a possibility to simulate the exciton-polariton (EP) system in the lossless limit, which is not currently available in semiconductor microcavities, by means of a simple optical dual-core waveguide, with one core carrying the nonlinearity and operating close to the zero-group-velocity-dispersion (GVD) point, and the other core being linear and dispersive. Both 2D and 1D EP systems may be emulated by means of this optical setting. In the framework of this system, we find that, while the uniform state corresponding to the lower branch of the nonlinear dispersion relation is stable against small perturbations, the upper branch is always subject to the modulational instability (MI). The stability and instability are verified by direct simulations too. We analyze collective excitations on top of the stable lower-branch state, which include a Bogoliubov-like gapless mode and a gapped one. Analytical results are obtained for the corresponding sound velocity and energy gap. The effect of a uniform phase gra...

  1. Emulation of lossless exciton-polariton condensates by dual-core optical waveguides: stability, collective modes, and dark solitons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salasnich, Luca; Malomed, Boris A; Toigo, Flavio

    2014-10-01

    We propose a possibility to simulate the exciton-polariton (EP) system in the lossless limit, which is not currently available in semiconductor microcavities, by means of a simple optical dual-core waveguide, with one core carrying the nonlinearity and operating close to the zero-group-velocity-dispersion point, and the other core being linear and dispersive. Both two-dimensional (2D) and one-dimensional (1D) EP systems may be emulated by means of this optical setting. In the framework of this system, we find that, while the uniform state corresponding to the lower branch of the nonlinear dispersion relation is stable against small perturbations, the upper branch is always subject to the modulational instability. The stability and instability are verified by direct simulations too. We analyze collective excitations on top of the stable lower-branch state, which include a Bogoliubov-like gapless mode and a gapped one. Analytical results are obtained for the corresponding sound velocity and energy gap. The effect of a uniform phase gradient (superflow) on the stability is considered too, with a conclusion that the lower-branch state becomes unstable above a critical wave number of the flux. Finally, we demonstrate that the stable 1D state may carry robust dark solitons.

  2. Charge transport model in nanodielectric composites based on quantum tunneling mechanism and dual-level traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guochang; Chen, George; Li, Shengtao

    2016-08-01

    Charge transport properties in nanodielectrics present different tendencies for different loading concentrations. The exact mechanisms that are responsible for charge transport in nanodielectrics are not detailed, especially for high loading concentration. A charge transport model in nanodielectrics has been proposed based on quantum tunneling mechanism and dual-level traps. In the model, the thermally assisted hopping (TAH) process for the shallow traps and the tunnelling process for the deep traps are considered. For different loading concentrations, the dominant charge transport mechanisms are different. The quantum tunneling mechanism plays a major role in determining the charge conduction in nanodielectrics with high loading concentrations. While for low loading concentrations, the thermal hopping mechanism will dominate the charge conduction process. The model can explain the observed conductivity property in nanodielectrics with different loading concentrations.

  3. Dual-mode operation of a twisted nematic liquid crystal cell by switching between dynamic and memory modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dong Han; Kim, Ki-Han; Kim, Jung-Wook; Kim, Jae Chang; Yoon, Tae-Hoon

    2011-06-01

    We propose a twisted nematic liquid crystal device that can be operated in dynamic or memory mode, based on the information content to be displayed at that time. +90°-twisted and -90°-twisted states are used as two stable states for operation in the memory mode. A vertical electric field is applied to realize gray levels for operation in the dynamic mode. The proposed device has a memory retention time of over a month for the memory mode and a response time of 12 ms for the dynamic mode. Contrast ratios of over 500∶1 can be obtained in both the dynamic and memory modes.

  4. Analysis of Dual- and Full-Circular Polarimetric SAR Modes for Rice Phenology Monitoring: An Experimental Investigation through Ground-Based Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Izumi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Circularly polarized synthetic aperture radar (CP-SAR is known to be insensitive to polarization mismatch losses caused by the Faraday rotation effect and antenna misalignment. Additionally, the dual-circular polarimetric (DCP mode has proven to have more polarimetric information than that of the corresponding mode of linear polarization, i.e., the dual-linear polarimetric (DLP mode. Owing to these benefits, this paper investigates the feasibility of CP-SAR for rice monitoring. A ground-based CP-radar system was exploited, and C-band anechoic chamber data of a self-cultivated Japanese rice paddy were acquired from germination to ripening stages. Temporal variations of polarimetric observables derived from full-circular polarimetric (FCP and DCP as well as synthetically generated DLP data are analyzed and assessed with regard to their effectiveness in phenology retrieval. Among different observations, the H / α ¯ plane and triangle plots obtained by three scattering components (surface, double-bounce, and volume scattering for both the FCP and DCP modes are confirmed to have reasonable capability in discriminating the relevant intervals of rice growth.

  5. Non-invasive transcranial surgery with dual-mode ultrasound arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritonova, Alyona; Liu, Dalong; Wilken-Resman, Elias; Bayat, Mahdi; Wang, Xiao; Chen, Wei; Divani, Afshin; Ebbini, Emad

    2017-03-01

    We present the first transcranial mapping of temperature with Dual-Mode Ultrasound Arrays (DMUAs), with subsequent validation of transskull ultrasound therapy guidance and monitoring in a small rodent model. Experiments were conducted in sacrificed rats, utilizing the custom designed DMUA platform manufactured in our laboratory. First, careful examination of DMUA imaging through the skull was conducted, where a fine 50μm wire was embedded within the brain tissue. Second, anatomical landmarks were visualized by co-registering two volumes, volume of synthetic aperture (SA) images acquired with DMUA and a 9.4T MRI volume acquired in live rats prior to the sacrifice. Third, subtherapeutic shot delivery through the skull was tested, where a set of five varying intensity shots were deposited below the skull surface. Shot delivery and temperature monitoring were performed with DMUA, and compared with the thermocouple data acquired close to the therapeutic focus. This study was an exploratory effort to validate ultrasound therapy delivery and monitoring in transcranial applications with DMUAs. In conclusion, DMUAs offer a unique advantage by providing real-time feedback by means of temperature monitoring with a high degree of spatial localization.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Vitiation Effects on a Hydrogen-Fueled Dual-Mode Scramjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Manan A.; Engblom, William A.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Trefny, Charles J.; Bhagwandin, Vishal A.

    2010-01-01

    The Wind-US computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solver was used to simulate dual-mode direct-connect ramjet/scramjet engine flowpath tests conducted in the University of Virginia (UVa) Supersonic Combustion Facility (SCF). The objective was to develop a computational capability within Wind-US to aid current hypersonic research and provide insight to flow as well as chemistry details that are not resolved by instruments available. Computational results are compared with experimental data to validate the accuracy of the numerical modeling. These results include two fuel-off non-reacting and eight fuel-on reacting cases with different equivalence ratios, split between one set with a clean (non-vitiated) air supply and the other set with a vitiated air supply (12 percent H2O vapor). The Peters and Rogg hydrogen-air chemical kinetics model was selected for the scramjet simulations. A limited sensitivity study was done to investigate the choice of turbulence model and inviscid flux scheme and led to the selection of the k-epsilon model and Harten, Lax and van Leer (for contact waves) (HLLC) scheme for general use. Simulation results show reasonably good agreement with experimental data and the overall vitiation effects were captured.

  7. Polysulfated Trehalose as a Novel Anticoagulant Agent with Dual Mode of Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qudsia Rashid

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiological hemostatic balance is a coordinated outcome of counteracting coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. An imbalance of procoagulant and anticoagulant factors may result in life threatening thromboembolism. Presently, anticoagulant administration is the first line of therapy for the treatment of these conditions and several anticoagulants have been approved, including various forms of heparin. However, the polyanionic nature and multispecificity of heparin pose several complications. Generally, the polysulfated compounds with antithrombotic potential are thought to have feasible synthetic procedures with much less bleeding, thus having favourable safety profiles. Here we report the synthesis of a novel compound, trehalose octasulfate and the assessment of its anticoagulation potential. Molecular docking of trehalose and trehalose octasulfate with antithrombin showed a specificity switch in binding affinity on sulfation, where trehalose octasulfate interacts with critical residues of AT that are either directly involved in heparin binding or in the conformational rearrangement of AT on heparin binding. An in vitro analysis of trehalose octasulfate demonstrated prolonged clotting time. Lead compound when intravenously injected in occlusion induced thrombotic rats showed remarkable reduction in the size and weight of the clot at a low dose. Delay in coagulation time was observed by analysing blood plasma isolated from rats preinjected with trehalose octasulfate. A decrease in Adenosine 5′-Diphosphate (ADP induced platelet aggregation indicated a probable dual anticoagulant and antiplatelet mechanism of action. To summarize, this study presents trehalose octasulfate as a novel, effective, dual acting antithrombotic agent.

  8. Unintentional consequences of dual mode plasma reactors: Implications for upscaling lab-record silicon surface passivation by silicon nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Jingnan; To, Alexander; Lennon, Alison; Hoex, Bram

    2017-08-01

    Silicon nitride (SiN x ) synthesised by low-temperature plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) is the most extensively used antireflection coating for crystalline silicon solar cells because of its tunable refractive index in combination with excellent levels of surface and bulk passivation. This has attracted a significant amount of research on developing SiN x films towards an optimal electrical and optical performance. Typically, recipes are first optimised in lab-scale reactors and subsequently, the best settings are transferred to high-throughput reactors. In this paper, we show that for one particular, but widely used, PECVD reactor configuration this upscaling is severely hampered by an important experimental artefact. Specifically, we report on the unintentional deposition of a dual layer structure in a dual mode AK 400 plasma reactor from Roth & Rau which has a significant impact on its surface passivation performance. It is found that the radio frequency (RF) substrate bias ignites an unintentional depositing plasma before the ignition of the main microwave (MW) plasma. This RF plasma deposits a Si-rich intervening SiN x layer (refractive index = 2.4) while using a recipe for stoichiometric SiN x . This layer was found to be 18 nm thick in our case and had an extraordinary impact on the Si surface passivation, witnessed by a reduction in effective surface recombination velocity from 22.5 to 6.2 cm/s. This experimental result may explain some “out of the ordinary” excellent surface passivation results reported recently for nearly stoichiometric SiN x films and has significant consequences when transferring these results to high-throughput deposition systems.

  9. A major facilitator superfamily transporter plays a dual role in polar auxin transport and drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remy, Estelle; Cabrito, Tânia R; Baster, Pawel; Batista, Rita A; Teixeira, Miguel C; Friml, Jiri; Sá-Correia, Isabel; Duque, Paula

    2013-03-01

    Many key aspects of plant development are regulated by the polarized transport of the phytohormone auxin. Cellular auxin efflux, the rate-limiting step in this process, has been shown to rely on the coordinated action of PIN-formed (PIN) and B-type ATP binding cassette (ABCB) carriers. Here, we report that polar auxin transport in the Arabidopsis thaliana root also requires the action of a Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) transporter, Zinc-Induced Facilitator-Like 1 (ZIFL1). Sequencing, promoter-reporter, and fluorescent protein fusion experiments indicate that the full-length ZIFL1.1 protein and a truncated splice isoform, ZIFL1.3, localize to the tonoplast of root cells and the plasma membrane of leaf stomatal guard cells, respectively. Using reverse genetics, we show that the ZIFL1.1 transporter regulates various root auxin-related processes, while the ZIFL1.3 isoform mediates drought tolerance by regulating stomatal closure. Auxin transport and immunolocalization assays demonstrate that ZIFL1.1 indirectly modulates cellular auxin efflux during shootward auxin transport at the root tip, likely by regulating plasma membrane PIN2 abundance. Finally, heterologous expression in yeast revealed that ZIFL1.1 and ZIFL1.3 share H(+)-coupled K(+) transport activity. Thus, by determining the subcellular and tissue distribution of two isoforms, alternative splicing dictates a dual function for the ZIFL1 transporter. We propose that this MFS carrier regulates stomatal movements and polar auxin transport by modulating potassium and proton fluxes in Arabidopsis cells.

  10. Coal transportation by MGR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daga, P.R.

    1980-08-01

    34000 tonnes of coal per day will need to be transported nearly 34 km by rail to India's coal-fired Korba Super Thermal Power Project. The Merry-go-Round rail system was adopted because it has a much higher rate of loading and unloading of wagons than the Tippler Arrangement. The route for the railway is described, together with regulations that the route has satisfied. Details are given of the track, wagons, locomotives, loading station, unloading station, signalling, telecommunications, maintenance workshop and total capital costs. The MGR system of coal transportation will provide greater reliability and reduced time factor.

  11. A Dual-Core System Solution for Wearable Health Monitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Santana Arnaiz, O.A.; Bouwens, F.; Huisken, J.A.; De Groot, H.; Bennebroek, M.T.; Van Meerbergen, J.L.; Abbo, A.A.; Fraboulet, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a system design study for wearable sensor devices intended for healthcare and lifestyle applications based on ECG,EEG and activity monitoring. In order to meet the low-power requirement of these applications, a dual-core signal processing system is proposed which combines an ultr

  12. On extensions of wavelet systems to dual pairs of frames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole; Kim, Hong Oh; Kim, Rae Young

    2015-01-01

    It is an open problem whether any pair of Bessel sequences with wavelet structure can be extended to a pair of dual frames by adding a pair of singly generated wavelet systems. We consider the particular case where the given wavelet systems are generated by the multiscale setup with trigonometric...

  13. Special Education Teacher Preparation in Singapore's Dual Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    Global comparisons of teacher education programs should start with an understanding of the school systems that teachers are being prepared for in their local contexts. The purpose of this article is to describe Singapore's dual education system as well as teacher preparation in a country that educates many students with disabilities in a separate…

  14. Minimal solution of general dual fuzzy linear systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasbandy, S. [Department of Mathematics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 14778 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin 34194-288 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: abbasbandy@yahoo.com; Otadi, M.; Mosleh, M. [Department of Mathematics, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 14778 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Mathematics, Islamic Azad University, Firuozkooh Branch, Firuozkooh (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    Fuzzy linear systems of equations, play a major role in several applications in various area such as engineering, physics and economics. In this paper, we investigate the existence of a minimal solution of general dual fuzzy linear equation systems. Two necessary and sufficient conditions for the minimal solution existence are given. Also, some examples in engineering and economic are considered.

  15. Surveillance systems for intermodal transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakovlev, Sergej; Voznak, Miroslav; Andziulis, Arunas

    2015-05-01

    Intermodal container monitoring is considered a major security issue in many major logistic companies and countries worldwide. Current representation of the problem, we face today, originated in 2002, right after the 9/11 attacks. Then, a new worldwide Container Security Initiative (CSI, 2002) was considered that shaped the perception of the transportation operations. Now more than 80 larger ports all over the world contribute to its further development and integration into everyday transportation operations and improve the regulations for the developing regions. Although, these new improvements allow us to feel safer and secure, constant management of transportation operations has become a very difficult problem for conventional data analysis methods and information systems. The paper deals with a proposal of a whole new concept for the improvement of the Containers Security Initiative (CSI) by virtually connecting safety, security processes and systems. A conceptual middleware approach with deployable intelligent agent modules is proposed to be used with possible scenarios and a testbed is used to test the solution. Middleware examples are visually programmed using National Instruments LabView software packages and Wireless sensor network hardware modules. An experimental software is used to evaluate he solution. This research is a contribution to the intermodal transportation and is intended to be used as a means or the development of intelligent transport systems.

  16. Inventory theory, mode choice and network structure in freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Combes, F.; Tavasszy, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    In passenger transport, hub-and-spoke networks allow the transportation of small passenger flows with competitive frequencies, in a way that direct line networks cannot. Equivalently, in freight transport, it can be expected that small shipper-receiver flows of high added value commodities transit t

  17. Thermodynamic evidence for a dual transport mechanism in a POT peptide transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Joanne L; Mindell, Joseph A; Newstead, Simon

    2014-12-02

    Peptide transport plays an important role in cellular homeostasis as a key route for nitrogen acquisition in mammalian cells. PepT1 and PepT2, the mammalian proton coupled peptide transporters (POTs), function to assimilate and retain diet-derived peptides and play important roles in drug pharmacokinetics. A key characteristic of the POT family is the mechanism of peptide selectivity, with members able to recognise and transport >8000 different peptides. In this study, we present thermodynamic evidence that in the bacterial POT family transporter PepTSt, from Streptococcus thermophilus, at least two alternative transport mechanisms operate to move peptides into the cell. Whilst tri-peptides are transported with a proton:peptide stoichiometry of 3:1, di-peptides are co-transported with either 4 or 5 protons. This is the first thermodynamic study of proton:peptide stoichiometry in the POT family and reveals that secondary active transporters can evolve different coupling mechanisms to accommodate and transport chemically and physically diverse ligands across the membrane.

  18. Design of the Dual Stone Locating System on an Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotriptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chen Chang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotriptors are very popular for the treatment of urinary stones all over the world. They depend basically upon either X-ray fluoroscopy or ultrasound scans to detect the stones before therapy begins. To increase the effectiveness of treatment this study took advantage of both X-ray and ultrasound to develop a dual stone locating system with image processing modules. Its functions include the initial stone locating mode with stone detection by fluorescent images and the follow-up automatic stone tracking mode made by constant ultrasound scanning. The authors have integrated both apparatus and present the operating principles for both modes. The system used two in vitro experiments to justify its abilities of stone location in all procedures.

  19. Terminal Sliding Modes In Nonlinear Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Subramanian T.; Gulati, Sandeep

    1993-01-01

    Control systems of proposed type called "terminal controllers" offers increased precision and stability of robotic operations in presence of unknown and/or changing parameters. Systems include special computer hardware and software implementing novel control laws involving terminal sliding modes of motion: closed-loop combination of robot and terminal controller converge, in finite time, to point of stable equilibrium in abstract space of velocity and/or position coordinates applicable to particular control problem.

  20. Pure Pairing Modes in Trapped Fermion Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuzzi, P.; Hernández, E. S.; Szybisz, L.

    2013-05-01

    We present numerical predictions for the shape of the pairing fluctuations in harmonically trapped atomic 6Li with two spin projections, based on the fluiddynamical description of cold fermions with pairing interactions. In previous works it has been shown that when the equilibrium of a symmetric mixture is perturbed, the linearized fluiddynamic equations decouple into two sets, one containing the sound mode of fermion superfluids and the other the pairing mode. The latter corresponds to oscillations of the modulus of the complex gap and is driven by the kinetic energy densities of the particles and of the pairs. Assuming proportionality between the heat flux and the energy gradient, the particle kinetic energy undergoes a diffusive behavior and the diffusion parameter is the key parameter for the relaxation time scale. We examine a possible range of values for this parameter and find that the shape of the pairing oscillation is rather insensitive to the precise value of the transport coefficient. Moreover, the pairing fluctuation is largely confined to the center of the trap, and the energy of the pairing mode is consistent with the magnitude of the equilibrium gap.

  1. A dual-mode phase-shift modulation control scheme for voltage multiplier based X-ray power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iqbal, S [School of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang (Malaysia); Besar, R; Venkataseshaiah, C, E-mail: shahidsidu@hotmail.co [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2010-05-15

    This paper proposes a dual-mode phase-shift modulation control scheme for series resonant inverter fed voltage multiplier (VM) based X-ray power supply. In this control scheme the outputs voltage of two parallel connected series resonant inverters are mixed before supplying to VM circuit. The output voltage of the power supply is controlled by varying the phase-shift between the output voltages of two inverters. In order to achieve quick rise of output voltage, the power supply is started with zero phase-shift and as the output voltage reaches 90% of the target voltage, the phase-shift is increased to a value which corresponds to target output voltage to prevent overshoot. The proposed control scheme has been shown to have good performance. Experimental results based on the scaled-down laboratory prototype are presented to validate the effectiveness of proposed dual-mode phase shift modulation control scheme.

  2. Design of a TW-SLIM Module for Dual Polarity Confinement, Transport, and Reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garimella, Sandilya V. B.; Webb, Ian K.; Prabhakaran, Aneesh; Attah, Isaac K.; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Smith, Richard D.

    2017-05-30

    Here we describe instrumental approaches for performing dual polarity ion confinement, transport, ion mobility separations and reactions in Structures for Lossless Ion Manipulations (SLIM). Previous means of ion confinement in SLIM based upon rf- generated pseudopotentials and dc fields for lateral confinement cannot trap ions of opposite polarity simultaneously. Here we explore alternative approaches to provide lateral confinement of both ion polarities. Traveling wave ion mobility (IM) separations experienced by both polarities in such SLIM cause ions of both polarities migrate in the same directions and exhibit similar separations. The ion motion (and relative motion of the two polarities) under both surfing and IM separation conditions are discussed. Strategies to separate the two populations to minimize reactive losses during transport are presented. A theoretical treatment of the time scales over which two populations (injected into a dc field-free region of the dual polarity SLIM device) interact is considered, and SLIM designs for allowing ion/ion interactions and other manipulations with dual polarities at 4 torr are presented.

  3. INFORMATION SUPPORT TRANSPORTATION PROCESS MULTIMODAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Filippova

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: is to improve information support for the organization and functioning of multimodal systems delive-ry modes of transport in the northern regions of the Russian Federation on the basis of the development of theoretical and methodological and practical provisions, criteria, methods and mathematical models.Method or methodology of the work: a methodology placement vehicle logistics center (TLC in the Nordic region, providing links all transport modes involved in the delivery of energy, developed a model to optimize the parameters of the transport network, used for traffic, the most effective schemes of delivery of goods in multimodal report, taking into account the specifics of the Nordic region, and funding.Results: Studies have applied and may be used by the fe-deral and regional authorities and management in the deve-lopment of integrated programs for energy-Northern regions. Proposed in the theoretical research and methodological approaches are one way to increase the efficiency of the delivery of goods in the event of a little predictable situations on the route, TLC and transhipment points. The developed techniques are used and can be used to improve the northern region of the process control of cargo delivery.Conclusion: Therefore, based on the analysis of the status of the issue, it is quite obvious that the very topical area of optimization of the transport needs of the region to ensure the development and implementation of methods to improve the efficiency and quality of freight traffic by improving organizational structures and technology traffic control all transport space in the region.

  4. A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength fiber laser incorporating a reconfigurable dual-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer and its application in microwave generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Xu, En-Ming; Dong, Jian-Ji; Zhang, Xin-Liang

    2011-05-01

    A tunable and switchable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) dual-wavelength fiber laser incorporating a reconfigurable dual-pass Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) filter was proposed and demonstrated, which can be applied in microwave generation. By incorporating a high extinction ratio (ER) dual-pass MZI into an erbium-doped fiber ring cavity, SLM dual-wavelength lasing can be achieved even using a MZI with relatively little free spectrum range (FSR), and by beating the two wavelengths at a photodetector, a 9.76 GHz microwave signal with a 3-dB bandwidth of less than 10 kHz is obtained. Moreover, by direct linking the two outputs of the MZI, the high ER dual-pass MZI is easily reconfigured as a half FSR dual-pass MZI. Using this structure, switchable SLM dual-wavelength lasing can be conveniently realized.

  5. Spin diffusive modes and thermal transport in neutron star crusts

    CERN Document Server

    Sedrakian, Armen

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we first review a method for obtaining the collective modes of pair-correlated neutron matter as found in a neutron star inner crust. We discuss two classes of modes corresponding to density and spin perturbations with energy spectra $\\omega = \\omega_0 + \\alpha q^2$, where $\\omega_0 = 2\\Delta$ is the threshold frequency and $\\Delta$ is the gap in the neutron fluid spectrum. For characteristic values of Landau parameters in neutron star crusts the exitonic density modes have $\\alpha 0$ and they exist above $\\omega_0$ which implies that these modes are damped. As an application of these findings we compute the thermal conductivity due to spin diffusive modes and show that it scales as $T^{1/2} \\exp(-2\\omega_0/T)$ in the case where their two-by-two scattering cross-section is weakly dependent on temperature.

  6. OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS ON SUBURBAN TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    T. M. Grigorovа

    2015-01-01

    The paper considers problems that permit to solve such issue as organization of  transport service for suburban population with due account of passenger transport fatigue which is considered as one of subconscious criteria for selection of a travel mode. Improvement of transportation process entails an increase in demand for such service. Demands predetermine transport supply and situation on the market depends on supply-and-demand balance.  The paper presents an analysis of approaches to the...

  7. Topological edge modes in multilayer graphene systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ge, Lixin

    2015-08-10

    Plasmons can be supported on graphene sheets as the Dirac electrons oscillate collectively. A tight-binding model for graphene plasmons is a good description as the field confinement in the normal direction is strong. With this model, the topological properties of plasmonic bands in multilayer graphene systems are investigated. The Zak phases of periodic graphene sheet arrays are obtained for different configurations. Analogous to Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model in electronic systems, topological edge plasmon modes emerge when two periodic graphene sheet arrays with different Zak phases are connected. Interestingly, the dispersion of these topological edge modes is the same as that in the monolayer graphene and is invariant as the geometric parameters of the structure such as the separation and period change. These plasmonic edge states in multilayer graphene systems can be further tuned by electrical gating or chemical doping. © 2015 Optical Society of America.

  8. 浅析高职院校"双师型"教师在职培训机制%On-the-job Training of Dual-mode Teachers in Higher Vocational Colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑思

    2015-01-01

    As for the on-the-job training of Dual-mode teachers in higher vocational colleges, there are a number of problems needed to cause social concerns, for example, the continuing education system of Dual-mode teachers is not perfect, foreign exchange activities in the period of on-the-job training are neglected and the standards of title assessment of Dual-mode teachers are vague, etc. So a qualified Dual-mode teacher group should be established in order to improve the continuing education system of Dual-mode teachers, strengthen foreign exchange activities in the period of the on-the-job training, regulate the standards of title assessment of Dual-mode teachers and implement the work of the on-the-job training of Dual-mode teachers. It becomes the critical tasks to enhance the quality of Dual-mode teachers in China's higher vocational education.%纵观我国高职院校"双师型"教师在职培训工作,不难发现尚存一些有待于引起社会关注的问题,如"双师型"教师在职继续教育体系不健全、此类教师在职培训期间的对外交流活动易被忽视以及教师职称和能力考核标准模糊等. 鉴于此,打造一支合格的"双师型"教师队伍,完善教师在职继续教育体系,加强此类教师在职培训期间的对外交流活动,规范教师职称和能力考核标准,真正落实"双师型"教师在职培训工作,成为当前全面提升我国高职院校教师队伍综合素质的关键性任务.

  9. Three-Input Single-Output Electronically Controllable Dual-Mode Universal Biquad Filter Using DO-CCCIIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Siripruchyanun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a dual-mode (voltage-mode and current-mode universal biquadratic filter performing completely standard functions: lowpass, highpass, bandpass, band-reject, and allpass functions, based on plus-type dual-output second-generation, current controlled, current conveyor (DO-CCCII+. The features of the circuit are that the bandwidth and natural frequency can be tuned electronically via the input bias currents: the circuit description is very simple, consisting of merely 2 DO-CCCIIs and 2 capacitors: the circuit can provide either the voltage-mode or current-mode filter without changing circuit topology. Additionally, each function response can be selected by suitably selecting input signals with digital method. Without any external resistors, the proposed circuit is very suitable to further develop into an integrated circuit. The PSPICE simulation results are depicted. The given results agree well with the theoretical anticipation. The maximum power consumption is approximately 1.81 mW at ±1.5 V supply voltages.

  10. Melanin-originated carbonaceous dots for triple negative breast cancer diagnosis by fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-mode imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Wei; Li, Yuan; Hu, Chuan; Huang, Yuan; He, Qin; Gao, Huile

    2017-07-01

    Carbonaceous dots exhibit increasing applications in diagnosis and drug delivery due to excellent photostability and biocompatibility properties. However, relative short excitation and emission of melanin carbonaceous dots (MCDs) limit the applicability in fluorescence bioimaging. Furthermore, the generally poor spatial resolution of fluorescence imaging limits potential in vivo applications. Due to a variety of beneficial properties, in this study, MCDs were prepared exhibiting great potential in fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-mode bioimaging. The MCDs exhibited a long excitation peak at 615nm and emission peak at 650nm, further highlighting the applicability in fluorescence imaging, while the absorbance peak at 633nm renders MCDs suitable for photoacoustic imaging. In vivo, the photoacoustic signal of MCDs was linearly correlated with the concentration of MCDs. Moreover, the MCDs were shown to be taken up into triple negative breast cancer cell line 4T1 in both a time- and concentration-dependent manner. In vivo fluorescence and photoacoustic imaging of subcutaneous 4T1 tumor demonstrated that MCDs could passively target triple negative breast cancer tissue by enhanced permeability and retention effects and may therefore be used for tumor dual-mode imaging. Furthermore, fluorescence distribution in tissue slices suggested that MCDs may distribute in 4T1 tumor with high efficacy. In conclusion, the MCDs studied offer potential application in fluorescence and photoacoustic dual-mode imaging.

  11. Quantum Collapse and Revival of Atom in Mode-Mode Competing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qin; FANG Mao-Fa

    2005-01-01

    The atomic inversion dynamics in the mode-mode competing system is studied by means of fully quantum theory. A general solution to the Schrodinger equation of this system is obtained. The influence of the relative competing strength between the atom and the two-mode field on the atomic inversion is disccussed. We show that the presence of the mode-mode competition can result in periodical collapses-revivals of the atomic inversion.

  12. Experimental demonstration of change of dynamical properties of a passively mode-locked semiconductor laser subject to dual optical feedback by dual full delay-range tuning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, O; Jaurigue, L; Drzewietzki, L; Lüdge, K; Breuer, S

    2016-06-27

    In this contribution we experimentally demonstrate the change and improvement of dynamical properties of a passively mode-locked semiconductor laser subject to optical feedback from two external cavities by coupling the feedback pulses back into the gain segment. Hereby, we tune the full delay-phase of the pulse-to-pulse period of both external cavities separately and demonstrate the change of the repetition rate, timing jitter, multi-pulse formation and side-band suppression for the first time for such a dual feedback configuration. In addition, we thereby confirm modeling predictions by achieving both a good qualitative and quantitative agreement of experimental and simulated results. Our findings suggest a path towards the realization of side-band free all-optical photonic oscillators based on mode-locked lasers.

  13. Singular Perturbation Analysis of a Mode Initialization Algorithm for Simulating Mode Switching Systems, long version

    OpenAIRE

    Edström, Krister

    1998-01-01

    An initialization algorithm for the continuous states in mode switching systems is shown to give correct initial values. The mode switching systems are modeled with switched bond graphs, and the proof is based on singular perturbation theory.

  14. Singular Perturbation Analysis of a Mode Initialization Algorithm for Simulating Mode Switching Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Edström, Krister

    1998-01-01

    An initialization algorithm for the continuous states in mode switching systems is shown to give correct initial values. The mode switching systems are modeled with switched bond graphs, and the proof is based on the singular perturbation theory.

  15. Dual mode action of mangiferin in mouse liver under high fat diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihyeon Lim

    Full Text Available Chronic over-nutrition is a major contributor to the spread of obesity and its related metabolic disorders. Development of therapeutics has been slow compared to the speedy increase in occurrence of these metabolic disorders. We have identified a natural compound, mangiferin (MGF (a predominant component of the plants of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Mangifera indica, that can protect against high fat diet (HFD induced obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in mice. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby MGF exerts these beneficial effects are unknown. To understand MGF mechanisms of action, we performed unbiased quantitative proteomic analysis of protein profiles in liver of mice fed with HFD utilizing 15N metabolically labeled liver proteins as internal standards. We found that out of 865 quantified proteins 87 of them were significantly differentially regulated by MGF. Among those 87 proteins, 50% of them are involved in two major processes, energy metabolism and biosynthesis of metabolites. Further classification indicated that MGF increased proteins important for mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative activity including oxoglutarate dehydrogenase E1 (Dhtkd1 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B1 (Cox6b1. Conversely, MGF reduced proteins critical for lipogenesis such as fatty acid stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (Acac1. These mass spectrometry data were confirmed and validated by western blot assays. Together, data indicate that MGF upregulates proteins pivotal for mitochondrial bioenergetics and downregulates proteins controlling de novo lipogenesis. This novel mode of dual pharmacodynamic actions enables MGF to enhance energy expenditure and inhibit lipogenesis, and thereby correct HFD induced liver steatosis and prevent adiposity. This provides a molecular basis supporting development of MGF or its metabolites into therapeutics to treat metabolic disorders.

  16. Dual Mode Action of Mangiferin in Mouse Liver under High Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jihyeon; Liu, Zhongbo; Apontes, Pasha; Feng, Daorong; Pessin, Jeffrey E.; Sauve, Anthony A.; Angeletti, Ruth H.; Chi, Yuling

    2014-01-01

    Chronic over-nutrition is a major contributor to the spread of obesity and its related metabolic disorders. Development of therapeutics has been slow compared to the speedy increase in occurrence of these metabolic disorders. We have identified a natural compound, mangiferin (MGF) (a predominant component of the plants of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Mangifera indica), that can protect against high fat diet (HFD) induced obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in mice. However, the molecular mechanisms whereby MGF exerts these beneficial effects are unknown. To understand MGF mechanisms of action, we performed unbiased quantitative proteomic analysis of protein profiles in liver of mice fed with HFD utilizing 15N metabolically labeled liver proteins as internal standards. We found that out of 865 quantified proteins 87 of them were significantly differentially regulated by MGF. Among those 87 proteins, 50% of them are involved in two major processes, energy metabolism and biosynthesis of metabolites. Further classification indicated that MGF increased proteins important for mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative activity including oxoglutarate dehydrogenase E1 (Dhtkd1) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 6B1 (Cox6b1). Conversely, MGF reduced proteins critical for lipogenesis such as fatty acid stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (Acac1). These mass spectrometry data were confirmed and validated by western blot assays. Together, data indicate that MGF upregulates proteins pivotal for mitochondrial bioenergetics and downregulates proteins controlling de novo lipogenesis. This novel mode of dual pharmacodynamic actions enables MGF to enhance energy expenditure and inhibit lipogenesis, and thereby correct HFD induced liver steatosis and prevent adiposity. This provides a molecular basis supporting development of MGF or its metabolites into therapeutics to treat metabolic disorders. PMID:24598864

  17. In vitro evaluation of dual mode ultrasonic thrombolysis method for transcranial application with an occlusive thrombosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuojun; Moehring, Mark A; Voie, Arne H; Furuhata, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    A recent clinical trial of transcranial low-frequency ultrasound-mediated tPA thrombolysis (LFUT) showed cerebral hemorrhages associated with high spatial peak pulse average intensity (I(SPPA)), wide beam and long pulse duration. We developed an alternative approach to LFUT wherein diagnostic power M-mode Doppler (PMD) ultrasound is combined with LFUT, with a goal of increased safety. The effectiveness of such a dual mode ultrasonic thrombolysis (DMUT) was explored in vitro. The DMUT system emitted PMD (2 MHz) and LFUT (550 kHz) beams in alternating fashion from a small 12 mm diameter probe. The LFUT had a low I(SPPA) (2 W/cm(2)) and a short pulse duration (55 micros). Occlusive clots made in plastic tips from bovine plasma and thrombin were placed in flow models pressurized to 800 mH(2)O, with 600 IU/mL monteplase injected upstream. Recanalization times were then compared among three groups: the control (monteplase alone), PMD (monteplase + PMD) and DMUT (monteplase + PMD + LFUT). The capability of the DMUT device to monitor recanalization was demonstrated by observing with Doppler the degree of flow of a blood-mimicking fluid in the vicinity of the clot. Recanalization times were 37.9 +/- 22.9, 38.9 +/- 12.4 and 18.5 +/- 8.0 min, respectively, for the control, PMD and DMUT. There were significant differences between DMUT and the control (p = 0.0004) and between DMUT and PMD (p = 0.0004). Recanalization flows were clearly detected. It is anticipated that this DMUT method presents a safer and more efficient approach than normal LFUT.

  18. Concept for a LNG Gas Handling System for a Dual Fuel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Rachow

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, ships are using LNG as main engine fuel because based on the facts that LNG has no sulphur content, and its combustion process, LNG produces low NOx content compared to heavy fuel oil and marine diesel oil. LNG is not only produces low gas emission, but may have economic advantages. In the engine laboratory of maritime studies department in Warnemunde, Germany, there is a diesel engine type MAN 6L23/30 A, where the mode operation of these engine would be changed to dual fuel engine mode operation. Therefore, in this thesis, the use dual fuel engine will be compared where it will utilize natural gas and marine diesel oil and select the required components for fuel gas supply system. By conducting the process calculation, engine MAN 6L23/30 A requires the capacity natural gas of 12.908  for 5 days at full load. A concept for LNG supply system would be arranged from storage tank until engine manifold. Germanischer Lloyd and Project Guide of dual fuel engine will be used as a guidelines to develop an optimal design and arrangement which comply with the regulation.

  19. Drift Mode Growth Rate and Associated Ion Thermal Transport in Reversed Magnetic Shear Tokamak Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ai-Ke; QIU Xiao-Ming

    2001-01-01

    Drift mode linear growth rate and quasi-linear ion thermal transport in the reversed magnetic shear plasma are investigated by using the two-fluid theory, previously developed by Weiland and the Chalmers group [J. Nucl.Fusion, 29 (1989) 1810; ibid. 30 (1990) 983]. The theory is here extended to include both the radial electrical field shear (dEr/dr) and the electron fluid velocity (Ve) in the sheared coordinate system. Here, Ve describes the coupling between the safety factor q and the Er × B velocity V E. Their influences on the growth rate and associated ion thermal transport are obtained numerically. In addition, the ion heat pinch in the reversed shear plasma is observed. Qualitatively, the present conclusions are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  20. [The Study of Characteristics of Cladding-Reduced Coated Long-Period Fiber Grating Based on Mode Transition and Dual Peak Resonance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Jin-long; Gu, Zheng-tian

    2015-11-01

    Based on coupled-mode theory, the mode transition of the high-order cladding modes in a coated long-period tiber grating (LPFG) has been studied firstly; the mode transition region and non-mode transition region of high-order cladding modes are divided. The response characteristic of cladding mode effective index with increasing the overlay thickness is analyzed; the shift of resonant wavelength in the mode transition region will be larger than that in the non-mode transition region. Further, the changes of the resonant wavelength of some high-order cladding modes with grating period are investigated when the cladding radius are different, the shift between two resonant wavelengths of dual peak in the mode transition region is bigger than that in non-mode transition region when the cladding radius are uniform. And the shift between two resonant wavelengths of dual peak will be increased by the decrease of the cladding radius in both mode transition and non-mode transition regions. Finally, the response characteristics of film refractive index of coated LPFG are investigated for a high-order cladding mode while the cladding radius are different and the overlay thickness is located in mode transition region and non-transition mode region, then the optimized design scheme is come up with. The higher sensitivity dual-peak sensor of coated LPFG than the traditional dual-peak sensor will be obtained when the overlay thickness and refractive index is located in the mode transition region and the grating period close to the phase matching turning points. Further, the resolution power of coated LPFG sensor will further be improved by the appropriate reducing of the cladding radius.

  1. Computer program aids dual reflector antenna system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firnett, P.; Gerritsen, R.; Jarvie, P.; Ludwig, A.

    1968-01-01

    Computer program aids in the design of maximum efficiency dual reflector antenna systems. It designs a shaped cassegrainian antenna which has nearly 100 percent efficiency, and accepts input parameters specifying an existing conventional antenna and produces as output the modifications necessary to conform to a shaped design.

  2. A multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aleta, Alberto; Moreno, Yamir

    2016-01-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same transportation mode are grouped together, we study the interconnected structure of 9 different cities in Europe raging from small towns to mega-cities like London and Berlin highlighting their vulnerabilities and possible improvements. Finally, for the city of Zaragoza in Spain, we also consider data about service schedule and waiting times, which allow us to create a simple yet realistic model for urban mobility able to reproduce real-world facts and to test for network improvements.

  3. A Multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2017-03-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same transportation mode are grouped together, we study the interconnected structure of 9 different cities in Europe raging from small towns to mega-cities like London and Berlin highlighting their vulnerabilities and possible improvements. Finally, for the city of Zaragoza in Spain, we also consider data about service schedule and waiting times, which allow us to create a simple yet realistic model for urban mobility able to reproduce real-world facts and to test for network improvements.

  4. A Multilayer perspective for the analysis of urban transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleta, Alberto; Meloni, Sandro; Moreno, Yamir

    2017-01-01

    Public urban mobility systems are composed by several transportation modes connected together. Most studies in urban mobility and planning often ignore the multi-layer nature of transportation systems considering only aggregated versions of this complex scenario. In this work we present a model for the representation of the transportation system of an entire city as a multiplex network. Using two different perspectives, one in which each line is a layer and one in which lines of the same transportation mode are grouped together, we study the interconnected structure of 9 different cities in Europe raging from small towns to mega-cities like London and Berlin highlighting their vulnerabilities and possible improvements. Finally, for the city of Zaragoza in Spain, we also consider data about service schedule and waiting times, which allow us to create a simple yet realistic model for urban mobility able to reproduce real-world facts and to test for network improvements. PMID:28295015

  5. A New Method for Solving General Dual Fuzzy Linear Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Otadi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available . According to fuzzy arithmetic, general dual fuzzy linear system (GDFLS cannot be replaced by a fuzzy linear system (FLS. In this paper, we use new notation of fuzzy numbers and convert a GDFLS to two linear systems in crisp case, then we discuss complexity of the proposed method. Conditions for the existence of a unique fuzzy solution to n × n GDFLS are derived

  6. Saenger II, a hypersonic flight and space transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.

    The paper presents the actual design status of the Saenger advanced space transportation system which comprises a hypersonic aircraft as first stage (EHTV). This vehicle (European Hypersonic Transport Vehicle) has been conceived for a dual purpose: to serve as the first stage of a launch vehicle with cruise capability, which is required to reach the space station orbit (28.5 deg) from Europe, and in the same basic configuration as passenger plane with some 230 passengers for a range of more than 10,000 km. The optimum cruise speed seems to be Mach 4.4 in 24.5 km altitude for economic and environmental reasons.

  7. The Laser Shaft Alignment System with Dual PSDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Guohua; LI Yulin; ZHANG Dongbo; LI Tonghai; HU Baowen

    2006-01-01

    Shaft alignment is an important technique during installation and maintenance of a rotating machine. A high-precision laser alignment system has been designed with dual PSDs (Position Sensing Detector) to change traditional manual way of shaft alignment and to make the measurement easier and more accurate. The system is comprised of two small measuring units (laser transmitter and detector) and a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) with the measurement software. The laser alignment system with dual PSDs was improved on a single PSD system, and it gets higher measurement accuracy than the previous design, and it has been succeeded in designing and implement for actual shaft alignment. In the system, the range of offset measurement is ±4 mm, and the resolution is 1.5 μm, and the accuracy is less than 2 μm.

  8. A laser shaft alignment system with dual PSDs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Guo-hua; LI Yu-lin; ZHANG Dong-bo; LI Tong-hai; HU Bao-wen

    2006-01-01

    Shaft alignment is an important technique during installation and maintenance of a rotating machine. A high-precision laser alignment system has been designed with dual PSDs (Position Sensing Detector) to change traditional manual way of shaft alignment and to make the measurement easier and more accurate. The system is comprised of two small measuring units (laser transmitter and detector) and a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) with measurement software. The laser alignment system with dual PSDs was improved on a single PSD system, and yields higher measurement accuracy than the previous design, and has been successful for designing and implements actual shaft alignment. In the system, the range of offset measurement is ±4 mm, and the resolution is 1.5 μm, with accuracy being less than 2 μm.

  9. Multi-Agent Competition Simulation of Integrated Transportation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiashun Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation networks have been developed during the recent decades with the rapid growth of economy. At the same time, the conflicts between different transportation modes were getting more and more intense. To describe the competition relationship in integrated transportation system, a multi-agent competition model was presented. It is important to provide decision support for regulators to lead more reasonable distribution of resources for planning and operating the integrated transportation network. Thus, a simulation program was developed to implement the proposed model and provide computer-aid decision support. Finally, several experiments were conducted to illustrate the effectiveness of this technique.

  10. Numerical exploration of mixing and combustion in a dual-mode combustor with backward-facing steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Lang-quan; Yan, Li; Liao, Lei

    2016-10-01

    Dual-mode scramjet combustor is the crucial component for the combined cycle engine of space mission vehicles. The Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations, Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model and the finite-rate reaction model have been utilized to investigate the mixing and combustion in a dual-mode combustor with backward-facing steps, and the species distributions and the Mach number profile of a turbulent diffusion combustion problem have been employed to validate the numerical approach. Moreover, the influences of the injection strategy and the fuel equivalence ratio arrangement on its mixing and combustion flow fields have been explored. The obtained results show that the vertical injection is beneficial for mode transition, and an obvious high pressure region is generated with the vertical injection strategy. Accordingly, its mass-weighted average Mach number drops more sharply. The lower total equivalence ratio is beneficial for the mixing augmentation, as well the smaller fuel equivalence ratio discrepancy. However, the larger total equivalence ratio is beneficial for the mode transition.

  11. Composite nanoparticle of Au and quantum dots for X-ray computed tomography and fluorescence dual-mode imaging in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ji-Tao; Yang, Xiao-Quan; Zhang, Xiao-Shuai; Yan, Dong-Mei; Yao, Ming-Hao; Qin, Meng-Yao; Zhao, Yuan-Di, E-mail: zydi@mail.hust.edu.cn [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Britton Chance Center for Biomedical Photonics at Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics - Hubei Bioinformatics & Molecular Imaging Key Laboratory, Department of Biomedical Engineering, College of Life Science and Technology (China)

    2015-12-15

    In this study, composite nanoparticles comprising Au nanoparticle and quantum dots were built and used for contrast-enhanced computed tomography imaging (CT) and fluorescence dual-mode imaging in vivo. The nanoparticle exhibited good monodispersity and good biocompatibility, and had excellent CT contrast-enhancement effect and fluorescence imaging capability. They were appropriate for being used as dual-mode imaging probe in vivo.

  12. Dual, use-based definition of "system"

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gonçalves, DP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The standard definition (ISO 15288, 2008) of the concept of a system is not complete and is the definition of a closed system. Such a definition is inadequate for systems engineering. A use-based definition is proposed which spans the open...

  13. Dual-channel and multifrequency radar system calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stjernman, Anders; Vivekanandan, J.; Nystrom, Anders

    1995-03-01

    Uncertainty in absolute gain and crosstalk factors are the primary sources of error in dual-channel radar measurements. A full two-port calibration technique compensates for the errors introduced due to an imperfect antenna system and improves the isolation between orthogonal polarization channels as long as the observed cross section is above the equivalent system noise cross section. A novel technique for calibrating a dual-polarized network analyzer-based scatterometer system is discussed. Rigorous two-port S-parameter representation is used to describe absolute gain and crosstalk characteristics. Validity of the crosstalk correction is demonstrated by measuring the point target scattering matrix. Correction factors are obtained by measuring the S-parameters of trihedral and dihedral corner reflectors of known sizes. Results of absolute gain of the antenna system are verified using independent test target cross section measurements.

  14. Speed Synchronization of web winding System with Sliding Mode Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachemi Glaoui

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A continuous web winding system is a large-scale, complex interconnected dynamic system with numerous tension zones to transport the web while processing it. There are two control schemes for large-scale system control: the centralized scheme and the decentralized scheme. Centralized control is the traditional control method, which considers all the information about the system to be a single dynamic model and design a control system for this model. A speed synchronization control strategy for multiple induction motors, based on adjacent cross-coupling control structure, is developed by employing total sliding mode control method. The proposed control strategy is to stabilize speed tracking of each induction motor while synchronizing its speed with the speed of the other motors so as to make speed synchronization error amongst induction motors converge to zero. The global stability and the convergence of the designed controller are proved by using Lyapunov method. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. A Dual-Mode Step-up DC/DC Converter IC with Current-Limiting and EMI Reduction Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Rone Liou; Chun-Ting Kuo; Mei-Ling Yeh; Ping-Hsing Chen; Marynelle L. Z. Rosales

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel dual-mode step-up (boost) DC/DC converter. Pulse-frequency modulation (PFM) is used to improve the efficiency at light load. This converter can operate between pulse-width modulation (PWM) and pulse-frequency modulation. The converter will operate in PFM mode at light load and in PWM mode at heavy load. The maximum conversion efficiency of this converter is 96%. The conversion efficiency is greatly improved when load current is below 100 mA. Additionally, a soft-start circuit and a variable-sawtooth frequency circuit are proposed in this paper. The former is used to avoid the large switching current at the start up of the converter and the latter is utilized to reduce the EMI of the converter.

  16. PERFORMANCE, EMISSION, AND COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF A CI ENGINE USING LIQUID PETROLEUM GAS AND NEEM OIL IN DUAL FUEL MODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palanimuthu Vijayabalan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased environmental awareness and depletion of resources are driving the industries to develop viable alternative fuels like vegetable oils, compresed natural gas, liquid petroleum gas, producer gas, and biogas in order to provide suitable substitute to diesel for compression ignition engine. In this investigation, a single cylinder, vertical, air-cooled diesel engine was modified to use liquid petroleum gas in dual fuel mode. The liquefied petroleum gas, was mixed with air and supplied through intake manifold. The liquid fuel neem oil or diesel was injected into the combustion chamber. The performance, emission, and combustion characteristics were studied and compared for neat fuel and dual fuel mode. The experimental results on dual fuel engine show a reduction in oxides of nitrogen up to 70% of the rated power and smoke in the entire power range. However the brake thermal efficiency was found decreased in low power range due to lower calorific value of liquid petroleum gas, and increase in higher power range due to the complete burning of liquid petroleum gas. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions were increased significantly at lower power range and marginal variation in higher power range.

  17. 无刷直流电动机双模式控制%Dual Mode Control for Brushless DC Motor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵建勇; 许林荣; 徐交建

    2012-01-01

    在分析电机运行原理和应用要求的基础上,引用基于新型逆变器的无刷直流电动机双模式控制方法,设计出无刷直流电动机双模式控制器,基速以下采用双闭环控制方法,基速以上采用弱磁扩速控制方法.仿真和实验验证该方案可行,实现无刷直流电动机在宽速度范围内稳定工作.%Dual mode control method based on a new inverter for brushless DC motor was cited by analyzing the operation principle of brushless DC motor and application requirements. Dual mode controller for brushless DC motor was designed, which used dual closed loop control when motor was running below base speed and field-weakening control when motor was running above base speed. The simulation and experiment results show that brushless DC motor can operate in a wide speed range.

  18. Dual systems of speech category learning across the lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, W. Todd; Chandrasekaran, Bharath; Smayda, Kirsten; Yi, Han-Gyol

    2013-01-01

    Although categorization is fundamental to speech processing, little is known about the learning systems that mediate auditory categorization and even less is known about changes across the lifespan. Vision research supports dual-learning systems that are grounded in neuroscience and are partially-dissociable. The reflective, rule-based system is prefrontally mediated and uses working memory and executive attention to develop and test rules for classifying in an explicit fashion. The reflexive, information-integration system is striatally mediated and operates by implicitly associating perception with actions that lead to reinforcement. We examine the extent to which dual-learning systems mediate auditory and speech learning in younger and older adults. We examined auditory category learning when a rule-based strategy (Experiment 1) or information-integration strategy (Experiment 2) was optimal, and found an age-related rule-based deficit, but intact information-integration learning. Experiment 3 examined natural auditory category learning, and found an age-related performance deficit. Computational modeling suggested that this was due to older adults’ persistent reliance on sub-optimal, uni-dimensional strategies when two-dimensional strategies were optimal. Working memory capacity was also found to be associated with improved rule-based and natural auditory category learning, but not information-integration category learning. These results suggest that dual-learning systems are operative in speech category learning across the lifespan, and that performance deficits, when present are due to deficiencies in frontally-mediated, rule-based processes. PMID:24364408

  19. Dual-mode ultrasound arrays for image-guided targeting of atheromatous plaques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, John R.; Casper, Andrew J.; Liu, Dalong; Haritonova, Alyona; Shehata, Islam A.; Troutman, Mitchell; Ebbini, Emad S.

    2012-11-01

    A feasibility study was undertaken in order to investigate alternative noninvasive treatment options for atherosclerosis. In particular, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential use of Dual-Mode Ultrasound Arrays (DMUAs) for image guided treatment of atheromatous plaques. DMUAs offer a unique treatment paradigm for image-guided surgery allowing for robust image-based identification of tissue targets for localized application of HIFU. In this study we present imaging and therapeutic results form a 3.5 MHz, 64-element fenestrated prototype DMUA for targeting lesions in the femoral artery of familial hypercholesterolemic (FH) swine. Before treatment, diagnostic ultrasound was used to verify the presence of plaque in the femoral artery of the swine. Images obtained with the DMUA and a diagnostic (HST 15-8) transducer housed in the fenestration were analyzed and used for guidance in targeting of the plaque. Discrete therapeutic shots with an estimated focal intensity of 4000-5600 W/cm2 and 500-2000 msec duration were performed at several planes in the plaque. During therapy, pulsed HIFU was interleaved with single transmit focus imaging from the DMUA and M2D imaging from the diagnostic transducer for further analysis of lesion formation. After therapy, the swine's were recovered and later sacrificed after 4 and 7 days for histological analysis of lesion formation. At sacrifice, the lower half of the swine was perfused and the femoral artery with adjoining muscle was fixed and stained with H&E to characterize HIFU-induced lesions. Histology has confirmed that localized thermal lesion formation within the plaque was achieved according to the planned lesion maps. Furthermore, the damage was confined to the plaque tissue without damage to the intima. These results offer the promise of a new treatment potentially suited for vulnerable plaques. The results also provide the first real-time demonstration of DMUA technology in targeting fine tissue structures for

  20. Optimal Design and Hybrid Control for the Electro-Hydraulic Dual-Shaking Table System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianpeng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper is to develop an optimal electro-hydraulic dual-shaking table system with high waveform replication precision. The parameters of hydraulic cylinders, servo valves, hydraulic supply power and gravity balance system are designed and optimized in detail. To improve synchronization and tracking control precision, a hybrid control strategy is proposed. The cross-coupled control using a novel based on sliding mode control based on adaptive reaching law (ASMC, which can adaptively tune the parameters of sliding mode control (SMC, is proposed to reduce the synchronization error. To improve the tracking performance, the observer-based inverse control scheme combining the feed-forward inverse model controller and disturbance observer is proposed. The system model is identified applying the recursive least squares (RLS algorithm and then the feed-forward inverse controller is designed based on zero phase error tracking controller (ZPETC technique. To compensate disturbance and model errors, disturbance observer is used cooperating with the designed inverse controller. The combination of the novel ASMC cross-coupled controller and proposed observer-based inverse controller can improve the control precision noticeably. The dual-shaking table experiment system is built and various experiments are performed. The experimental results indicate that the developed system with the proposed hybrid control strategy is feasible and efficient and can reduce the tracking errors to 25% and synchronization error to 16% compared with traditional control schemes.

  1. Capital Controls and Foreign Investor Subsidies Implicit in South Africa's Dual Exchange Rate System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Windt, P.C.; Schaling, E.; Huizinga, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Both in theory and practice, capital controls and dual exchange rate systems can be part of a country's optimal tax policy. We first show how a dual exchange rate system can be interpreted as a tax (or subsidy) on international capital income. We show that a dual exchange rate system, with separate

  2. Single-fluorophore membrane transport activity sensors with dual-emission read-out.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ast, Cindy; De Michele, Roberto; Kumke, Michael U; Frommer, Wolf B

    2015-06-19

    We recently described a series of genetically encoded, single-fluorophore-based sensors, termed AmTrac and MepTrac, which monitor membrane transporter activity in vivo (De Michele et al., 2013). However, being intensiometric, AmTrac and Meptrac are limited in their use for quantitative studies. Here, we characterized the photophysical properties (steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy as well as anisotropy decay analysis) of different AmTrac sensors with diverging fluorescence properties in order to generate improved, ratiometric sensors. By replacing key amino acid residues in AmTrac we constructed a set of dual-emission AmTrac sensors named deAmTracs. deAmTracs show opposing changes of blue and green emission with almost doubled emission ratio upon ammonium addition. The response ratio of the deAmTracs correlated with transport activity in mutants with altered capacity. Our results suggest that partial disruption of distance-dependent excited-state proton transfer is important for the successful generation of single-fluorophore-based dual-emission sensors.

  3. Design of dual DC motor control system based on DSP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Peicheng; Wang, Suo; Xu, Zengwei; Xiao, Ping

    2017-08-01

    Multi-motor control systems are widely used in actual production and life, such as lifting stages, robots, printing systems. This paper through serial communication between PC and DSP, dual DC motor control system consisting of PC as the host computer, DSP as the lower computer with synchronous PWM speed regulation, commutation and selection functions is designed. It sends digital control instructions with host computer serial debugger to lower computer, to instruct the motor to complete corresponding actions. The hardware and software design of the control system are given, and feasibility and validity of the control system are verified by experiments. The expected design goal is achieved.

  4. Decentralized Sliding Mode Observer Based Dual Closed-Loop Fault Tolerant Control for Reconfigurable Manipulator against Actuator Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Li, Chenghao; Liu, Derong; Li, Yuanchun

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a decentralized fault tolerant control (DFTC) scheme for reconfigurable manipulators. With the appearance of norm-bounded failure, a dual closed-loop trajectory tracking control algorithm is proposed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Characterized by the modularization property, the actuator failure is estimated by the proposed decentralized sliding mode observer (DSMO). Moreover, the actuator failure can be treated in view of the local joint information, so its control performance degradation is independent of other normal joints. In addition, the presented DFTC scheme is significantly simplified in terms of the structure of the controller due to its dual closed-loop architecture, and its feasibility is highly reflected in the control of reconfigurable manipulators. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed DFTC scheme is demonstrated using simulations.

  5. Decentralized Sliding Mode Observer Based Dual Closed-Loop Fault Tolerant Control for Reconfigurable Manipulator against Actuator Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhao

    Full Text Available This paper considers a decentralized fault tolerant control (DFTC scheme for reconfigurable manipulators. With the appearance of norm-bounded failure, a dual closed-loop trajectory tracking control algorithm is proposed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Characterized by the modularization property, the actuator failure is estimated by the proposed decentralized sliding mode observer (DSMO. Moreover, the actuator failure can be treated in view of the local joint information, so its control performance degradation is independent of other normal joints. In addition, the presented DFTC scheme is significantly simplified in terms of the structure of the controller due to its dual closed-loop architecture, and its feasibility is highly reflected in the control of reconfigurable manipulators. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed DFTC scheme is demonstrated using simulations.

  6. Decentralized Sliding Mode Observer Based Dual Closed-Loop Fault Tolerant Control for Reconfigurable Manipulator against Actuator Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Li, Yuanchun

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a decentralized fault tolerant control (DFTC) scheme for reconfigurable manipulators. With the appearance of norm-bounded failure, a dual closed-loop trajectory tracking control algorithm is proposed on the basis of the Lyapunov stability theory. Characterized by the modularization property, the actuator failure is estimated by the proposed decentralized sliding mode observer (DSMO). Moreover, the actuator failure can be treated in view of the local joint information, so its control performance degradation is independent of other normal joints. In addition, the presented DFTC scheme is significantly simplified in terms of the structure of the controller due to its dual closed-loop architecture, and its feasibility is highly reflected in the control of reconfigurable manipulators. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed DFTC scheme is demonstrated using simulations. PMID:26181826

  7. Vapor phase heat transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedstrom, J.C.; Neeper, D.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes progress in theoretical and experimental investigations of various forms of a vapor transport system for solar space heating, which could also be applied to service water heating. Refrigerant is evaporated in a solar collector, which may be located on the external wall or roof of a building. The vapor is condensed in a passively discharged thermal storage unit located within the building. The condensed liquid can be returned to the collector either by a motor-driven pump or by a completely passive self-pumping mechanism in which the vapor pressure lifts the liquid from the condenser to the collector. The theoretical investigation analyzes this self-pumping scheme. Experiments in solar test cells compare the operation of both passive and active forms of the vapor system with the operation of a passive water wall. The vapor system operates as expected, with potential advantages over other passive systems in design flexibility and energy yield.

  8. Red cell properties after different modes of blood transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asya Makhro

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Transportation of blood samples is unavoidable for assessment of specific parameters in blood of patients with rare anemias, blood doping testing or for research purposes. Despite the awareness that shipment may substantially alter multiple parameters, no study of that extend has been performed to assess these changes and optimize shipment conditions to reduce transportation-related artifacts. Here we investigate the changes in multiple parameters in blood of healthy donors over 72 hours of simulated shipment conditions. Three different anticoagulants (K3EDTA, Sodium Heparin and citrate-based CPDA for two temperatures (4oC and room temperature were tested to define the optimal transportation conditions. Parameters measured cover common cytology and biochemistry parameters (complete blood count, hematocrit, morphological examination, red blood cell (RBC volume, ion content and density, membrane properties and stability (hemolysis, osmotic fragility, membrane heat stability, patch-clamp investigations and formation of micro vesicles, Ca2+ handling, RBC metabolism, activity of numerous enzymes and O2 transport capacity. Our findings indicate that individual sets of parameter may require different shipment settings (anticoagulants, temperature. Most of the parameters except for ion (Na+, K+, Ca2+ handling and, possibly, reticulocytes counts, tend to favor transportation at 4oC. Whereas plasma and intraerythrocytic Ca2+ cannot be accurately measured in the presence of chelators such as citrate and EDTA, majority of Ca2+-dependent parameters are stabilized in CPDA samples. Even in blood samples from healthy donors transported using optimized shipment protocol the majority of parameters were stable within 24 hours, the condition that may not hold for the samples of patients with rare anemias. This implies for the as short as possible shipping using fast courier services to the closest expert laboratory at reach. Mobile laboratories or the travel of the

  9. Cooling system having dual suction port compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Guolian

    2017-08-29

    A cooling system for appliances, air conditioners, and other spaces includes a compressor, and a condenser that receives refrigerant from the compressor. The system also includes an evaporator that receives refrigerant from the condenser. Refrigerant received from the condenser flows through an upstream portion of the evaporator. A first portion of the refrigerant flows to the compressor without passing through a downstream portion of the evaporator, and a second portion of the refrigerant from the upstream portion of the condenser flows through the downstream portion of the evaporator after passing through the upstream portion of the evaporator. The second portion of the refrigerant flows to the compressor after passing through the downstream portion of the evaporator. The refrigeration system may be configured to cool an appliance such as a refrigerator and/or freezer, or it may be utilized in air conditioners for buildings, motor vehicles, or other such spaces.

  10. Refrigeration system having dual suction port compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guolian

    2016-01-05

    A cooling system for appliances, air conditioners, and other spaces includes a compressor, and a condenser that receives refrigerant from the compressor. The system also includes an evaporator that receives refrigerant from the condenser. Refrigerant received from the condenser flows through an upstream portion of the evaporator. A first portion of the refrigerant flows to the compressor without passing through a downstream portion of the evaporator, and a second portion of the refrigerant from the upstream portion of the condenser flows through the downstream portion of the evaporator after passing through the upstream portion of the evaporator. The second portion of the refrigerant flows to the compressor after passing through the downstream portion of the evaporator. The refrigeration system may be configured to cool an appliance such as a refrigerator and/or freezer, or it may be utilized in air conditioners for buildings, motor vehicles, or other such spaces.

  11. Singular Perturbation Theory-Based Qualitative Dynamics Investigation of Flywheel Energy Storage System in Discharge Mode

    OpenAIRE

    Weiya Zhang; Yongli Li; Xiaoyong Chang; Nan Wang

    2014-01-01

    An investigation on qualitative dynamics in a voltage-current dual-loop controlled flywheel energy storage system (FESS) operating in discharge mode is presented in this paper, providing novel insights into the effect of two-timescale characteristics on the safety and stability of energy transmission of FESS. Based on singular perturbation theory, a two-timescale approach is proposed to separate the FESS into the fast and slow subsystems. Stability analysis of the transient fixed points confi...

  12. Fuel control system for dual fuel engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, M.J.; Ryan, W.P.; Marvin, D.H.

    1987-11-24

    A fuel governing system for an engine adapted for operation on a first fuel and a second fuel is described comprising: a first fuel governing system including a spontaneous motion metering means; and a second fuel governing system, the second fuel governing system further comprising: means for providing a first signal indicative of position of the first fuel metering means, which signal approximates total load on the engine, means for providing a second signal of the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load, means for controlling flow of the second fuel to the engine, which flow causes reflective displacement of the first fuel metering means, means for determining the difference between the first signal and the second signal, which difference is indicative of distance the first fuel metering means must be moved to attain the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load, and means for causing operation of the means for controlling flow of the second fuel to the engine to cause displacement of the first fuel metering means equal to the distance the first fuel metering means must be moved to attain the selected percentage of first fuel relative to total load.

  13. A Dual-Mode Bandpass Filter with Multiple Controllable Transmission-Zeros Using T-Shaped Stub-Loaded Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Yao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A dual-mode broadband bandpass filter (BPF with multiple controllable transmission-zeros using T-shaped stub-loaded resonators (TSSLRs is presented. Due to the symmetrical plane, the odd-even-mode theory can be adopted to characterize the BPF. The proposed filter consists of a dual-mode TSSLR and two modified feed-lines, which introduce two capacitive and inductive source-load (S-L couplings. Five controllable transmission zeros (TZs can be achieved for the high selectivity and the wide stopband because of the tunable amount of coupling capacitance and inductance. The center frequency of the proposed BPF is 5.8 GHz, with a 3 dB fraction bandwidth of 8.9%. The measured insertion and return losses are 1.75 and 28.18 dB, respectively. A compact size and second harmonic frequency suppression can be obtained by the proposed BPF with S-L couplings.

  14. A dual-mode nanosensor based on carbon quantum dots and gold nanoparticles for discriminative detection of glutathione in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yupeng; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Heng; Zhang, Zhaomin; Li, Mei-Jin; Yi, Changqing; Yang, Mengsu

    2014-06-15

    Glutathione (GSH) plays key roles in biological systems and serves many cellular functions. Since biothiols all incorporate thiol, carboxylic and amino groups, discriminative detection of GSH over cysteine (Cys) and homocysteine (Hcy) is still challenging. We herein report a dual-mode nanosensor with both colorimetric and fluorometric readout based on carbon quantum dots and gold nanoparticles for discriminative detection of GSH over Cys/Hcy. The proposed sensing system consists of AuNPs and fluorescent carbon quantum dots (CQDs), where CQDs function as fluorometric reporter, and AuNPs serve a dual function as colorimetric reporter and fluorescence quencher. The mechanism of the nanosensor is based on two distance-dependent phenomenons, color change of AuNPs and FRET. Through controlling the surface properties of as-prepared nanoparticles, the addition of CQDs into AuNPs colloid solution might induce the aggregation of AuNPs and CQDs, leading to AuNPs color changing from red to blue and CQDs fluorescence quench. However, the presence of GSH can protect AuNPs from being aggregated and enlarge the inter-particle distance, which subsequently produces color change and fluorescent signal recovery. The nanosensor described in this report reflects on its simplicity and flexibility, where no further surface functionalization is required for the as-prepared nanoparticles, leading to less laborious and more cost-effective synthesis. The proposed dual-mode nanosensor demonstrated highly selectivity toward GSH, and allows the detection of GSH as low as 50 nM. More importantly, the nanosensor could not only function in aqueous solution for GSH detection with high sensitivity but also exhibit sensitive responses toward GSH in complicated biological environments, demonstrating its potential in bioanalysis and biodection, which might be significant in disease diagnosis in the future.

  15. 高精度太阳能跟踪控制器%A Dual-Mode Solar Tracking Controller

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小鑫; 胡红利; 王博

    2012-01-01

    针对目前采用的传统太阳能跟踪控制器传感器形式单一、抗干扰性差、跟踪精度不高等问题,设计了一种基于可编程逻辑控制器(Programmable Logic Controller,PLC)的太阳能跟踪控制器系统.该系统将固定轨迹粗略跟踪方式与光电传感器精确跟踪方式有效地结合起来,并重点将光电传感器加以改进,从而有效地提高了太阳能利用率.由伺服电机作为执行机构控制太阳能板对太阳位置的跟踪,可以实现对太阳高度角和方位角的双自由度跟踪,使太阳能跟踪装置始终正对着太阳光线位置.通过对比实验表明,该跟踪控制器可以达到较高的跟踪精度.%Considering the problems of the current solar tracking controller, such as poor immunity, poor tracking accuracy and the single form of traditional sensor, we designed a dual-mode, high-precision solar tracking system based on Programmable Logic Controller ( PLC). The system effectively combines the rough tracking of fixed trajectory with the accurate tracking of photoelectric sensor, and improves the solar tracking controller's photoelectric sensor tracking mode, thus can increase the utilization of solar energy. The controller has two degrees of freedom, which can track the solar altitude angle and azimuth, and the servo motor as executive agency controls the position of the sun solar tracker, make solar tracking device always vertical to the sun's rays. The experiments results show that the tracking controller can achieve high tracking accuracy.

  16. Dual-Actuator Active Vibration-Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kascak, Albert F.; Kiraly, Louis J.; Montague, Gerald T.; Palazzolo, Alan B.; Manchala, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    Dual-actuator active vibration-control (DAAVC) system is developmental system of type described in "Active Vibration Dampers for Rotating Machinery" (LEW-15427). System features sensors and actuators positioned and oriented at bearings to measure and counteract vibrations of shaft along either of two axes perpendicular to axis of rotation. Effective in damping vibrations of helicopter-engine test stand, making it safer to operate engine at speeds near and above first resonance of engine/test-stand system. Opens new opportunities for engine designers to draw more power from engine, and concept applicable to other rotating machines.

  17. Stochastic image reconstruction for a dual-particle imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamel, M.C., E-mail: mchamel@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Polack, J.K., E-mail: kpolack@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Poitrasson-Rivière, A., E-mail: alexispr@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Flaska, M., E-mail: mflaska@psu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, Pennsylvania State University, 137 Reber Building, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Clarke, S.D., E-mail: clarkesd@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Pozzi, S.A., E-mail: pozzisa@umich.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Sciences, University of Michigan, 2355 Bonisteel Blvd, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Tomanin, A., E-mail: alice.tomanin@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, 21027 Ispra, VA (Italy); Lainsa-Italia S.R.L., via E. Fermi 2749, 21027 Ispra, VA (Italy); Peerani, P., E-mail: paolo.peerani@jrc.ec.europa.eu [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Transuranium Elements, 21027 Ispra, VA (Italy)

    2016-02-21

    Stochastic image reconstruction has been applied to a dual-particle imaging system being designed for nuclear safeguards applications. The dual-particle imager (DPI) is a combined Compton-scatter and neutron-scatter camera capable of producing separate neutron and photon images. The stochastic origin ensembles (SOE) method was investigated as an imaging method for the DPI because only a minimal estimation of system response is required to produce images with quality that is comparable to common maximum-likelihood methods. This work contains neutron and photon SOE image reconstructions for a {sup 252}Cf point source, two mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel canisters representing point sources, and the MOX fuel canisters representing a distributed source. Simulation of the DPI using MCNPX-PoliMi is validated by comparison of simulated and measured results. Because image quality is dependent on the number of counts and iterations used, the relationship between these quantities is investigated.

  18. Transportation Mode Detection Based on Permutation Entropy and Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increasing prevalence of GPS devices and mobile phones, transportation mode detection based on GPS data has been a hot topic in GPS trajectory data analysis. Transportation modes such as walking, driving, bus, and taxi denote an important characteristic of the mobile user. Longitude, latitude, speed, acceleration, and direction are usually used as features in transportation mode detection. In this paper, first, we explore the possibility of using Permutation Entropy (PE of speed, a measure of complexity and uncertainty of GPS trajectory segment, as a feature for transportation mode detection. Second, we employ Extreme Learning Machine (ELM to distinguish GPS trajectory segments of different transportation. Finally, to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, we make experiments on GeoLife dataset. Experiments results show that we can get more than 50% accuracy when only using PE as a feature to characterize trajectory sequence. PE can indeed be effectively used to detect transportation mode from GPS trajectory. The proposed method has much better accuracy and faster running time than the methods based on the other features and SVM classifier.

  19. Dual Banking Systems and Interest Rate Risk for Islamic Banks

    OpenAIRE

    Bacha, Obiyathulla I.

    2004-01-01

    In introducing Islamic banking in Malaysia, the basic strategy was to replicate the products/ services offered by conventional banks. The successful implementation of such a strategy has meant that Malaysia today has a truly dual banking system. Islamic banks in Malaysia not only have product similarity with conventional banks but share the same overall economic environment and a common customer base. The ability of non Muslim customers/depositors to switch between the two banking syste...

  20. The Impact of Transport Mode and Carbon Policy on Low-Carbon Retailer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-carbon retail has become a strategic target for many developed and developing economies. This study discusses the impact of transport mode and carbon policy on achieving this objective. We investigated the retailer transportation mode, pricing, and ordering strategy, which all consider carbon-sensitive demand under the carbon cap-and-trade policy. We analyzed the optimal decision of retailer and their maximum profit affected by transport mode and cap-and-trade policy parameters. Results show that the two elements (cap-and-trade policy and consumer low-carbon awareness could encourage the retailer to choose low-carbon transportation. The two elements also influence the profit and optimal decision of retailer. Finally, a numerical example is presented to illustrate the applicability of the model.

  1. Radial transport of poloidal momentum in ASDEX Upgrade in L-mode and H-mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlmann, F.; Schrittwieser, R.; Naulin, Volker

    2012-01-01

    A reciprocating probe was used for localized measurements of the radial transport of poloidal momentum in the scrape-off layer (SOL) of ASDEX Upgrade (AUG). The probe measured poloidal and radial electric field components and density. We concentrate on three components of the momentum transport: ......: Reynolds stress, convective momentum flux and triple product of the fluctuating components of density, radial and poloidal electric field. For the evaluation we draw mainly on the probability density functions (PDFs)....

  2. Ballooning mode spectrum in general toroidal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dewar, R.L.; Glasser, A.H.

    1982-04-01

    A WKB formalism for constructing normal modes of short-wavelength ideal hydromagnetic, pressure-driven instabilities (ballooning modes) in general toroidal magnetic containment devices with sheared magnetic fields is developed. No incompressibility approximation is made. A dispersion relation is obtained from the eigenvalues of a fourth order system of ordinary differential equations to be solved by integrating along a line of force. Higher order calculations are performed to find the amplitude equation and the phase change at a caustic. These conform to typical WKB results. In axisymmetric systems, the ray equations are integrable, and semiclassical quantization leads to a growth rate spectrum consisting of an infinity of discrete eigenvalues, bounded above by an accumulation point. However, each eigenvalue is infinitely degenerate. In the nonaxisymmetric case, the rays are unbounded in a four dimensional phase space, and semiclassical quantization breaks down, leading to broadening of the discrete eigenvalues and accumulation point of the axisymmetric case into continuum bands. Analysis of a model problem indicates that the broadening of the discrete eigenvalues is numerically very small, the dominant effect being broadening of the accumulation point.

  3. Modes of Growth in Dynamic Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Garrett, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    Regardless of a system's complexity or scale, its growth can be considered to be a spontaneous thermodynamic response to a local convergence of down-gradient material flows. Here it is shown how growth can be constrained to a few distinct modes that depend on the availability of material and energetic resources. These modes include a law of diminishing returns, logistic behavior and, if resources are expanding very rapidly, super-exponential growth. For a case where a system has a resolved sink as well as a source, growth and decay can be characterized in terms of a slightly modified form of the predator-prey equations commonly employed in ecology, where the perturbation formulation of these equations is equivalent to a damped simple harmonic oscillator. Thus, the framework presented here suggests a common theoretical under-pinning for emergent behaviors in the physical and life sciences. Specific examples are described for phenomena as seemingly dissimilar as the development of rain and the evolution of fish...

  4. Warehousing Location Decision in Northern Europe: Transportation Mode Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olli-Pekka Hilmola

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Manufacturing employment has continuously declined in developed economies for more than decade time, but service sector in turn has significantly grown. Services also include warehousing, which connects customers and globally concentrated manufacturing units together. In this manuscript we examine location criteria for warehouses in Northern European companies (Finland and Sweden as well as location of their warehouse network in larger Europe. Our research shows based on multiyear survey that primarily warehouses are established to have: (1 low distribution costs, (2 road transportation connection, and (3 assembly/manufacturing units are near-by. Currently in different contexts is being emphasized intermodal transports, railway connectivity, future potential of location as well as low labour cost are considered to have secondary up to quinary importance. In country level differences we show based on completed surveys that Finnish companies are more active in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEEC, while Swedish companies have been extremely cautious with this regard.

  5. ZigBee和 Wi Fi的双模无线网关设计%Dual Mode Wireless Gateway Based on ZigBee and WiFi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜永慧; 李允俊

    2013-01-01

    通过分析ZigBee和WiFi协议,结合嵌入式技术,提出了一种实现双模无线网关的方案。借助于ZigBee2007,自定义通信传输协议帧,设计Linux和CC2530F256串口传输协议。其次,建立通信模型,进行协议解析,实现协议转换。最后设计系统软件,验证双模无线网关可行性。%The paper puts forward a schema that can achieve dual mode wireless gateway with ZigBee and WiFi through embedded tech-nology .Based on the communication protocol frame defined by ourselves , it designs serial transfer protocol between Linux and CC2530F256 by means of ZigBee2007 ;secondly ,it parses the protocols to achieve conversion through setting up a communication model ;finally ,we verify the feasibility of the dual mode wireless gateway by designing system software .

  6. Polydopamine-based coordination nanocomplex for T1/T2 dual mode magnetic resonance imaging-guided chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan; Ai, Kelong; Liu, Jianhua; Ren, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Chunhuan; Lu, Lehui

    2016-01-01

    Despite the progress in the design and synthesis of theranostic agents, limitations on efficiency and safety offer significant room for improvement in these agents. Inspired by the natural binding ability of polydopamine nanospheres (PDAs) with iron ion, a simple and versatile synthesis strategy is developed to prepare biodegradable coordination polymer (CP) encapsulated PDAs nanocomplex (PDAs@CPx, x = 3, 6, 9). We found that the PDAs@CP3 can serve as a T1/T2 dual mode contrast agent (DMCA) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which possesses high longitudinal (r1 = 7.524 mM(-1) s(-1)) and transverse (r2 = 45.92 mM(-1) s(-1)) relaxivities. In this system, benefitting from the high photothermal conversion efficiency derived from PDAs, DOX loaded PDAs@CP3 nanocomplex is able to not only destroy the tumor directly by heat, but also stimulate the chemotherapy by enabling NIR-responsive on demand delivery of DOX. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example exploring the potential of PDAs@CPx nanocomplex for T1/T2 dual mode MRI-guided chemo-photothermal synergistic therapy. This work extends the currently available theranostic agents, and opens up new avenues to rationally design the high-performance T1/T2 DMCA.

  7. Large-area, uniform and low-cost dual-mode plasmonic naked-eye colorimetry and SERS sensor with handheld Raman spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhida; Jiang, Jing; Wang, Xinhao; Han, Kevin; Ameen, Abid; Khan, Ibrahim; Chang, Te-Wei; Liu, Gang Logan

    2016-03-21

    We demonstrated a highly-sensitive, wafer-scale, highly-uniform plasmonic nano-mushroom substrate based on plastic for naked-eye plasmonic colorimetry and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). We gave it the name FlexBrite. The dual-mode functionality of FlexBrite allows for label-free qualitative analysis by SERS with an enhancement factor (EF) of 10(8) and label-free quantitative analysis by naked-eye colorimetry with a sensitivity of 611 nm RIU(-1). The SERS EF of FlexBrite in the wet state was found to be 4.81 × 10(8), 7 times stronger than in the dry state, making FlexBrite suitable for aqueous environments such as microfluid systems. The label-free detection of biotin-streptavidin interaction by both SERS and colorimetry was demonstrated with FlexBrite. The detection of trace amounts of the narcotic drug methamphetamine in drinking water by SERS was implemented with a handheld Raman spectrometer and FlexBrite. This plastic-based dual-mode nano-mushroom substrate has the potential to be used as a sensing platform for easy and fast analysis in chemical and biological assays.

  8. FDNS CFD Code Benchmark for RBCC Ejector Mode Operation: Continuing Toward Dual Rocket Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Jeff; Ruf, Joseph H.; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis results are compared with benchmark quality test data from the Propulsion Engineering Research Center's (PERC) Rocket Based Combined Cycle (RBCC) experiments to verify fluid dynamic code and application procedures. RBCC engine flowpath development will rely on CFD applications to capture the multi -dimensional fluid dynamic interactions and to quantify their effect on the RBCC system performance. Therefore, the accuracy of these CFD codes must be determined through detailed comparisons with test data. The PERC experiments build upon the well-known 1968 rocket-ejector experiments of Odegaard and Stroup by employing advanced optical and laser based diagnostics to evaluate mixing and secondary combustion. The Finite Difference Navier Stokes (FDNS) code [2] was used to model the fluid dynamics of the PERC RBCC ejector mode configuration. Analyses were performed for the Diffusion and Afterburning (DAB) test conditions at the 200-psia thruster operation point, Results with and without downstream fuel injection are presented.

  9. The Empirical Study on Chinese Style Dual System Basing on Foxconn Training Base Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Nan

    2012-01-01

      So far many existing papers have made study on dual system.While most scholars take the opinion that dual system can give obviously positive effect to skilled talent training, some theorists argue that the precondition of dual system performs excellently is dual system should be localized according to the reality of a country or a district.This paper analyzes dual system practice in China from an example of Foxconn Training Base,the conclusion is that in Foxconn Training Base Program,dual system has been localized successfully and evolved into trian-gle system,and this program management pattern can be used in other areas of China as a mature,standard Chinese dual system pattern for skil ed talent training.

  10. Mode evolution in polarization maintain few mode fibers and applications in mode-division-multiplexing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zeng, Xinglin; Mo, Qi; Li, Wei; Liu, Zhijian; Wu, Jian

    2016-10-01

    In few-mode polarization-maintaining-fiber (FM-PMF), the effective-index splitting exists not only between orthogonally polarization state but also between degenerated modes within a high-order mode group. Hence besides the polarization state evolution, the mode patterns in each LP set are need to be analyzed. In this letter, the completed firstorder mode (LP11 mode) evolution in PM-FMF is analyzed and represented by analogous Jones vector and Poincarésphere respectively. Furthermore, with Jones matrix analysis, the modal dynamics in FM-PMFs is conveniently analyzed. The conclusions are used to propose a PM-FMF based LP11 mode rotator and an PM-FMF based OAM generator. Both simulation and experiments are conducted to investigate performance of the two devices.

  11. Research on advanced transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Ryouhei; Nosaka, Masataka; Koyari, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshio; Noda, Keiichirou; Shinohara, Suetsugu; Itou, Tetsuichi; Etou, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the researches on advanced space transportation systems is presented. Conceptual study is conducted on fly back boosters with expendable upper stage rocket systems assuming a launch capacity of 30 tons and returning to the launch site by the boosters, and prospect of their feasibility is obtained. Reviews are conducted on subjects as follows: (1) trial production of 10 tons sub scale engines for the purpose of acquiring hardware data and picking up technical problems for full scale 100 tons thrust engines using hydrocarbon fuels; (2) development techniques for advanced liquid propulsion systems from the aspects of development schedule, cost; (3) review of conventional technologies, and common use of component; (4) oxidant switching propulsion systems focusing on feasibility of Liquefied Air Cycle Engine (LACE) and Compressed Air Cycle Engine (CACE); (5) present status of slosh hydrogen manufacturing, storage, and handling; (6) construction of small high speed dynamometer for promoting research on mini pump development; (7) hybrid solid boosters under research all over the world as low-cost and clean propulsion systems; and (8) high performance solid propellant for upper stage and lower stage propulsion systems.

  12. The Methodology of Selecting the Transport Mode for Companies on the Slovak Transport Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Černá Lenka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transport volume in the Slovak Republic is growing continuously every year. This rising trend is influenced by the development of car industry and its suppliers. Slovak republic has also a geographic strategy position in middle Europe from the side of transport corridors (east-west and north-south. The development of transport volume in freight transport depends on the transport and business processes between the European Union and China and it is an opportunity for Slovak republic to obtain transit transport flows.

  13. A dual-mode analog baseband with digital-assisted DC-offset calibration for WCDMA/GSM receivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Renzhong; Jiang Chen; Li Weinan; Huang Yumei; Hong Zhiliang

    2011-01-01

    A dual-mode analog baseband with digital-assisted DC-offsset calibration(DCOC)for WCDMA/GSM receiver is presented.A digital-assisted DCOC is proposed to solve the DC-offset problem by removing the DCoffset component only.This method has no bandwidth sacrifice.After calibration the measured output residual offset voltage is within 5 mV at most gain settings and the IIP2 is more than 60 dBm.The baseband is designed to be reconfigurable at bandwidths of 200 kHz and 2.1 MHz.Total baseband gain can be programmed from 6 to 54 dB.The chip is manufactured with 0.13 μm CMOS technology and consumes 10 mA from a 1.5 V supply in the GSM mode including an on-chip buffer while the core area occupies 1.2 mm2.

  14. A Dual-Mode Step-up DC/DC Converter IC with Current-Limiting and EMI Reduction Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Rone Liou; Chun-Ting Kuo; Mei-Ling Yeh; Ping-Hsing Chen; Marynelle L. Z. Rosales

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel dual-modestep-up (boost) DC/DC converter. Pulse-frequencymodulation (PFM) is used to improve the efficiency atlight load. This converter can operate betweenpulse-width modulation (PWM) and pulse-frequencymodulation. The converter will operate in PFM mode atlight load and in PWM mode at heavy load. Themaximum conversion efficiency of this converter is 96%.The conversion efficiency is greatly improved when loadcurrent is below 100 mA. Additionally, a soft-startcircuit and a variable-sawtooth frequency circuit areproposed in this paper. The former is used to avoid thelarge switching current at the start up of the converterand the latter is utilized to reduce the EMI of theconverter.

  15. Shear Fracture of Dual Phase AHSS in the Process of Stamping: Macroscopic Failure Mode and Micro-level Metallographical Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wurong; Wei, Xicheng; Yang, Jun; Shi, Gang

    2011-08-01

    Due to its excellent strength and formability combinations, dual phase (DP) steels offer the potential to improve the vehicle crashworthiness performance without increasing car body weight and have been increasingly used into new vehicles. However, a new type of crack mode termed as shear fracture is accompanied with the application of these high strength DP steel sheets. With the cup drawing experiment to identify the limit drawing ratio (LDR) of three DP AHSS with strength level from 600 MPa to 1000 MPa, the study compared and categorized the macroscopic failure mode of these three types of materials. The metallographical observation along the direction of crack was conducted for the DP steels to discover the micro-level propagation mechanism of the fracture.

  16. An automatic mode-locked system for passively mode-locked fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Xu, Jun; Chen, Guoliang; Mei, Li; Yi, Bo

    2013-12-01

    This paper designs and implements one kind of automatic mode-locked system. It can adjust a passively mode-locked fiber laser to keep steady mode-locked states automatically. So the unsteadiness of traditional passively mode-locked fiber laser can be avoided. The system transforms optical signals into electrical pulse signals and sends them into MCU after processing. MCU calculates the frequency of the signals and judges the state of the output based on a quick judgment algorithm. A high-speed comparator is used to check the signals and the comparison voltage can be adjusted to improve the measuring accuracy. Then by controlling two polarization controllers at an angle of 45degrees to each other, MCU extrudes the optical fibers to change the polarization until it gets proper mode-locked output. So the system can continuously monitor the output signal and get it back to mode-locked states quickly and automatically. States of the system can be displayed on the LCD and PC. The parameters of the steady mode-locked states can be stored into an EEPROM so that the system will get into mode-locked states immediately next time. Actual experiments showed that, for a 6.238MHz passively mode-locked fiber lasers, the system can get into steady mode-locked states automatically in less than 90s after starting the system. The expected lock time can be reduced to less than 20s after follow up improvements.

  17. Auxiliary transportation mode in a fully-mechanized face in a nearly horizontal thin coal seam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen; Tu Shihao; Zhang Lei; Yang Qianlong; Tu Hongsheng

    2015-01-01

    On fully-mechanized faces in nearly horizontal thin coal seams (NHTCS), the selection of the auxiliary transportation mode is difficult. Generally, auxiliary transportation mainly includes trackless or rail transportation. Combined with a familiar NHTCS fully-mechanized face, a multi-attribute decision-making model was set up for the decision. The index weight was objectively determined with the fuzzy number and entropy method. The priority order of auxiliary transportation modes was obtained from the Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE). The results show that: the net flow of the mode can be expressed by the function of the surrounding rock deformation of the roadway, the dimension of equipment and the thickness of the coal seam;Based on the cost type index, there is a positive correlation between the net flow with the height and width of the trackless aux-iliary transportation equipment, respectively. The trackless auxiliary transportation equipment selection principle should be‘height first then width”. Combined with the field application of the trackless auxil-iary transportation in Liangshuijing coal mine, the proper method to achieve the safe and high-efficient exploitation of a NHTCS fully-mechanized face is trackless tyred vehicle auxiliary transportation.

  18. Stable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode ring erbium-doped fiber laser for optical generation of microwave frequency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Liang, G.; Miao, X.; Zhou, X.; Li, Q.

    2012-05-01

    We demonstrate a simple dual-wavelength ring erbium-doped fiber laser operating in single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) at room temperature. A pair of reflection type short-period fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs), which have two different center wavelengths of 1545.072 and 1545.284 nm, are used as the wavelength-selective component of the laser. A segment of unpumped polarization maintaining erbium-doped fiber (PM-EDF) is acted as a narrow multiband filter. By turning the polarization controller (PC) to enhance the polarization hole burning (PHB), the single-wavelength and dual-wavelength laser oscillations are observed at 1545.072 and 1545.284 nm. The output power variation is less than 0.6 dB for both wavelengths over a five-minute period and the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) is greater than 50 dB. By beating the dual-wavelengths at a photodetector (PD), a microwave signal at 26.44 GHz is demonstrated.

  19. Reproducibility of trabecular bone score with different scan modes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandirali, Michele; Messina, Carmelo [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Scuola di Specializzazione in Radiodiagnostica, Milano (Italy); Di Leo, Giovanni [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Pastor Lopez, Maria Juana; Ulivieri, Fabio M. [Servizio di Medicina Nucleare, Ospedale Maggiore, Mineralometria Ossea Computerizzata e Ambulatorio Malattie Metabolismo Minerale e Osseo, Milano (Italy); Mai, Alessandro [Universita degli Studi di Milano, Tecniche di Radiologia Medica, per Immagini e Radioterapia, Milano (Italy); Sardanelli, Francesco [Unita di Radiologia, IRCCS Policlinico San Donato, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Milano, Dipartimento di Scienze Biomediche per la Salute, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2014-08-12

    The trabecular bone score (TBS) accounts for the bone microarchitecture and is calculated on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We estimated the reproducibility of the TBS using different scan modes compared to the reproducibility bone mineral density (BMD). A spine phantom was used with a Hologic QDR-Discovery A densitometer. For each scan mode [fast array, array, high definition (HD)], 25 scans were automatically performed without phantom repositioning; a further 25 scans were performed with phantom repositioning. For each scan, the TBS was obtained. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between standard deviation and mean; percent least significant change (LSC%) as 2.8 x CoV; reproducibility as the complement to 100 % of LSC%. Differences among scan modes were assessed using ANOVA. Without phantom repositioning, the mean TBS (mm{sup -1}) was: 1.352 (fast array), 1.321 (array), and 1.360 (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 1.345, 1.332, and 1.362, respectively. Reproducibility of the TBS without phantom repositioning was 97.7 % (fast array), 98.3 % (array), and 98.2 % (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 97.9 %, 98.7 %, and 98.4 %, respectively. LSC% was ≤2.26 %. Differences among scan modes were all statistically significant (p ≤ 0.019). Reproducibility of BMD was 99.1 % with all scan modes, while LSC% was from 0.86 % to 0.91 %. Reproducibility error of the TBS was 2-3-fold higher than that of BMD. Although statistically significant, differences in TBS among scan modes were within the highest LSC%. Thus, the three scan modes can be considered interchangeable. (orig.)

  20. Reproducibility of trabecular bone score with different scan modes using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry: a phantom study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandirali, Michele; Di Leo, Giovanni; Messina, Carmelo; Pastor Lopez, Maria Juana; Mai, Alessandro; Ulivieri, Fabio M; Sardanelli, Francesco

    2015-04-01

    The trabecular bone score (TBS) accounts for the bone microarchitecture and is calculated on dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). We estimated the reproducibility of the TBS using different scan modes compared to the reproducibility bone mineral density (BMD). A spine phantom was used with a Hologic QDR-Discovery A densitometer. For each scan mode [fast array, array, high definition (HD)], 25 scans were automatically performed without phantom repositioning; a further 25 scans were performed with phantom repositioning. For each scan, the TBS was obtained. The coefficient of variation (CoV) was calculated as the ratio between standard deviation and mean; percent least significant change (LSC%) as 2.8 × CoV; reproducibility as the complement to 100 % of LSC%. Differences among scan modes were assessed using ANOVA. Without phantom repositioning, the mean TBS (mm(-1)) was: 1.352 (fast array), 1.321 (array), and 1.360 (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 1.345, 1.332, and 1.362, respectively. Reproducibility of the TBS without phantom repositioning was 97.7 % (fast array), 98.3 % (array), and 98.2 % (HD); with phantom repositioning, it was 97.9 %, 98.7 %, and 98.4 %, respectively. LSC% was ≤ 2.26 %. Differences among scan modes were all statistically significant (p ≤ 0.019). Reproducibility of BMD was 99.1 % with all scan modes, while LSC% was from 0.86 % to 0.91 %. Reproducibility error of the TBS was 2-3-fold higher than that of BMD. Although statistically significant, differences in TBS among scan modes were within the highest LSC%. Thus, the three scan modes can be considered interchangeable.

  1. Thermodynamic modeling of protein retention in mixed-mode chromatography: An extended model for isocratic and dual gradient elution chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yi Feng; Graalfs, Heiner; Frech, Christian

    2016-09-16

    An extended model is developed to describe protein retention in mixed-mode chromatography based on thermodynamic principles. Special features are the incorporation of pH dependence of the ionic interaction on a mixed-mode resin and the addition of a water term into the model which enables one to describe the total number of water molecules released at the hydrophobic interfaces upon protein-ligand binding. Examples are presented on how to determine the model parameters using isocratic elution chromatography. Four mixed-mode anion-exchanger prototype resins with different surface chemistries and ligand densities were tested using isocratic elution of two monoclonal antibodies at different pH values (7-10) and encompassed a wide range of NaCl concentrations (0-5M). U-shape mixed-mode retention curves were observed for all four resins. By taking into account of the deprotonation and protonation of the weak cationic functional groups in these mixed-mode anion-exchanger prototype resins, conditions which favor protein-ligand binding via mixed-mode strong cationic ligands as well as conditions which favor protein-ligand binding via both mixed-mode strong cationic ligands and non-hydrophobic weak cationic ligands were identified. The changes in the retention curves with pH, salt, protein, and ligand can be described very well by the extended model using meaningful thermodynamic parameters like Gibbs energy, number of ionic and hydrophobic interactions, total number of released water molecules as well as modulator interaction constant. Furthermore, the fitted model parameters based on isocratic elution data can also be used to predict protein retention in dual salt-pH gradient elution chromatography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Automating Risk Assessments of Hazardous Material Shipments for Transportation Routes and Mode Selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara H. Dolphin; William D. RIchins; Stephen R. Novascone

    2010-10-01

    The METEOR project at Idaho National Laboratory (INL) successfully addresses the difficult problem in risk assessment analyses of combining the results from bounding deterministic simulation results with probabilistic (Monte Carlo) risk assessment techniques. This paper describes a software suite designed to perform sensitivity and cost/benefit analyses on selected transportation routes and vehicles to minimize risk associated with the shipment of hazardous materials. METEOR uses Monte Carlo techniques to estimate the probability of an accidental release of a hazardous substance along a proposed transportation route. A METEOR user selects the mode of transportation, origin and destination points, and charts the route using interactive graphics. Inputs to METEOR (many selections built in) include crash rates for the specific aircraft, soil/rock type and population densities over the proposed route, and bounding limits for potential accident types (velocity, temperature, etc.). New vehicle, materials, and location data are added when available. If the risk estimates are unacceptable, the risks associated with alternate transportation modes or routes can be quickly evaluated and compared. Systematic optimizing methods will provide the user with the route and vehicle selection identified with the lowest risk of hazardous material release. The effects of a selected range of potential accidents such as vehicle impact, fire, fuel explosions, excessive containment pressure, flooding, etc. are evaluated primarily using hydrocodes capable of accurately simulating the material response of critical containment components. Bounding conditions that represent credible accidents (i.e; for an impact event, velocity, orientations, and soil conditions) are used as input parameters to the hydrocode models yielding correlation functions relating accident parameters to component damage. The Monte Carlo algorithms use random number generators to make selections at the various decision

  3. Artemisinin inhibits chloroplast electron transport activity: mode of action.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adyasha Bharati

    Full Text Available Artemisinin, a secondary metabolite produced in Artemisia plant species, besides having antimalarial properties is also phytotoxic. Although, the phytotoxic activity of the compound has been long recognized, no information is available on the mechanism of action of the compound on photosynthetic activity of the plant. In this report, we have evaluated the effect of artemisinin on photoelectron transport activity of chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The inhibitory effect of the compound, under in vitro condition, was pronounced in loosely and fully coupled thylakoids; being strong in the former. The extent of inhibition was drastically reduced in the presence of uncouplers like ammonium chloride or gramicidin; a characteristic feature described for energy transfer inhibitors. The compound, on the other hand, when applied to plants (in vivo, behaved as a potent inhibitor of photosynthetic electron transport. The major site of its action was identified to be the Q(B; the secondary quinone moiety of photosystemII complex. Analysis of photoreduction kinetics of para-benzoquinone and duroquinone suggest that the inhibition leads to formation of low pool of plastoquinol, which becomes limiting for electron flow through photosystemI. Further it was ascertained that the in vivo inhibitory effect appeared as a consequence of the formation of an unidentified artemisinin-metabolite rather than by the interaction of the compound per se. The putative metabolite of artemisinin is highly reactive in instituting the inhibition of photosynthetic electron flow eventually reducing the plant growth.

  4. Transport and micro-instability analysis of JET H-mode plasma during pellet fueling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaywittaphat, P.; Onjun, T.

    2017-02-01

    Transport and micro-instability analysis in a JET H-mode plasma discharge 53212 during the pellet fueling operation is carried out using the BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code with a combination of the NCLASS neoclassical transport model and an anomalous core transport model (either Mixed B/gB or MMM95 model). In this work, the evolution of plasma current, plasma density and temperature profiles is carried out and, consequently, the plasma’s behaviors during the pellet operation can be observed. The NGS pellet model with the Grad-B drift effect included is used to describe pellet ablation and its behaviors when a pellet is launched into hot plasma. The simulation shows that after each pellet enters the plasma, there is a strong perturbation on the plasma causing a sudden change of both thermal and particle profiles, as well as the thermal and particle transports. For the simulation using MMM95 transport model, the change of both thermal and particle transports during pellet injection are found to be dominated by the transport due to the resistive ballooning modes due to the increase of collisionality and resistivity near the plasma edge. For the simulation based on mixed B/gB transport model, it is found that the change of transport during the pellet injection is dominated by the Bohm term. Micro-instability analysis of the plasma during the time of pellet operation is also carried out for the simulations based on MMM95 transport model. It is found that the ion temperature gradient mode is destabilized due to an increase of temperature gradient in the pellet effective region, while the trapped electron mode is stabilized due to an increase of collisionality in that region.

  5. An Optimal Allocation Model of Public Transit Mode Proportion for the Low-Carbon Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linjun Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Public transit has been widely recognized as a potential way to develop low-carbon transportation. In this paper, an optimal allocation model of public transit mode proportion (MPMP has been built to achieve the low-carbon public transit. Optimal ratios of passenger traffic for rail, bus, and taxi are derived by running the model using typical data. With different values of traffic demand, construction cost, travel time, and accessibilities, MPMP can generate corresponding optimal ratios, benefiting decision impacts analysis and decision makers. Instead of considering public transit as a united system, it is separated into units in this paper. And Shanghai is used to test model validity and practicality.

  6. Anomalous transport in the H-mode pedestal of Alcator C-Mod discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankin, A. Y.; Hughes, J. W.; Greenwald, M. J.; Kritz, A. H.; Rafiq, T.

    2017-02-01

    Anomalous transport in the H-mode pedestal region of five Alcator C-Mod discharges, representing a collisionality scan is analyzed. The understanding of anomalous transport in the pedestal region is important for the development of a comprehensive model for the H-mode pedestal slope. In this research, a possible role of the drift resistive inertial ballooning modes (Rafiq et al 2010 Phys. Plasmas 17 082511) in the edge of Alcator C-Mod discharges is analyzed. The stability analysis, carried out using the TRANSP code, indicates that the DRIBM modes are strongly unstable in Alcator C-Mod discharges with large electron collisionality. An improved interpretive analysis of H-mode pedestal experimental data is carried out utilizing the additive flux minimization technique (Pankin et al 2013 Phys. Plasmas 20 102501) together with the guiding-center neoclassical kinetic XGC0 code. The neoclassical and neutral physics are simulated in the XGC0 code and the anomalous fluxes are computed using the additive flux minimization technique. The anomalous fluxes are reconstructed and compared with each other for the collisionality scan Alcator C-Mod discharges. It is found that the electron thermal anomalous diffusivities at the pedestal top increase with the electron collisionality. This dependence can also point to the drift resistive inertial ballooning modes as the modes that drive the anomalous transport in the plasma edge of highly collisional discharges.

  7. A laboratory breadboard system for dual-arm teleoperation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejczy, A. K.; Szakaly, Z.; Kim, W. S.

    1990-01-01

    The computing architecture of a novel dual-arm teleoperation system is described. The novelty of this system is that: (1) the master arm is not a replica of the slave arm; it is unspecific to any manipulator and can be used for the control of various robot arms with software modifications; and (2) the force feedback to the general purpose master arm is derived from force-torque sensor data originating from the slave hand. The computing architecture of this breadboard system is a fully synchronized pipeline with unique methods for data handling, communication and mathematical transformations. The computing system is modular, thus inherently extendable. The local control loops at both sites operate at 100 Hz rate, and the end-to-end bilateral (force-reflecting) control loop operates at 200 Hz rate, each loop without interpolation. This provides high-fidelity control. This end-to-end system elevates teleoperation to a new level of capabilities via the use of sensors, microprocessors, novel electronics, and real-time graphics displays. A description is given of a graphic simulation system connected to the dual-arm teleoperation breadboard system. High-fidelity graphic simulation of a telerobot (called Phantom Robot) is used for preview and predictive displays for planning and for real-time control under several seconds communication time delay conditions. High fidelity graphic simulation is obtained by using appropriate calibration techniques.

  8. Microgeneration of electricity with producer gas in dual fuel mode operation Microgeração de eletricidade com gás de gaseificação num motor gerador dual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo J. Silva

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Among the alternatives to meet the increasing of world demand for energy, the use of biomass as energy source is one of the most promising as it contributes to reducing emissions of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Gasification is a technological process of biomass energy production of a gaseous biofuel. The fuel gas has a low calorific value that can be used in Diesel engine in dual mode for power generation in isolated communities. This study aimed to evaluate the reduction in the consumption of oil Diesel an engine generator, using gas from gasification of wood. The engine generator brand used was a BRANCO, with direct injection power of 7.36 kW (10 HP coupled to an electric generator 5.5 kW. Diesel oil mixed with intake air was injected, as the oil was injected via an injector of the engine (dual mode. The fuel gas was produced in a downdraft gasifier. The engine generator was put on load system from 0.5 kW to 3.5 kW through a set of electrical resistances. Diesel oil consumption was measured with a precision scale. It was concluded that the engine converted to dual mode when using the gas for the gasification of wood decreased Diesel consumption by up to 57%.Dentre as alternativas à crescente demanda energética mundial, o uso da biomassa como fonte de energia é uma das formas mais promissoras, pois contribui para a redução das emissões de dióxido de carbono na atmosfera. A gaseificação é uma tecnologia de transformação energética da biomassa num biocombustível gasoso. O gás de gaseificação é um combustível de baixo poder calorífico que pode ser utilizado em motor ciclo Diesel no modo dual para geração de energia elétrica em comunidades isoladas. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a redução no consumo de Diesel num motor gerador, com a utilização de gás da gaseificação da madeira. O motor avaliado foi da marca BRANCO, com injeção direta e potência de 7,36 kW (10 cv acoplado a um gerador elétrico de 5

  9. In situ, dual-mode monitoring of organ-on-a-chip with smartphone-based fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soohee; Islas-Robles, Argel; Nicolini, Ariana M; Monks, Terrence J; Yoon, Jeong-Yeol

    2016-12-15

    The use of organ-on-a-chip (OOC) platforms enables improved simulation of the human kidney's response to nephrotoxic drugs. The standard method of analyzing nephrotoxicity from existing OOC has majorly consisted of invasively collecting samples (cells, lysates, media, etc.) from an OOC. Such disruptive analyses potentiate contamination, disrupt the replicated in vivo environment, and require expertize to execute. Moreover, traditional analyses, including immunofluorescence microscopy, immunoblot, and microplate immunoassay are essentially not in situ and require substantial time, resources, and costs. In the present work, the incorporation of fluorescence nanoparticle immunocapture/immunoagglutination assay into an OOC enabled dual-mode monitoring of drug-induced nephrotoxicity in situ. A smartphone-based fluorescence microscope was fabricated as a handheld in situ monitoring device attached to an OOC. Both the presence of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) on the apical brush-border membrane of 786-O proximal tubule cells within the OOC surface, and the release of GGT to the outflow of the OOC were evaluated with the fluorescence scatter detection of captured and immunoagglutinated anti-GGT conjugated nanoparticles. This dual-mode assay method provides a novel groundbreaking tool to enable the internal and external in situ monitoring of the OOC, which may be integrated into any existing OOCs to facilitate their subsequent analyses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. A dual mode targeting probe for distinguishing HER2-positive breast cancer cells using silica-coated fluorescent magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; An, Yan-Li; Zang, Feng-Chao; Zong, Shen-Fei; Cui, Yi-Ping; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2013-10-01

    We report a composite nanoprobe based on silica-coated magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) for distinguishing breast cancers at different HER2 statuses. The nanoprobe has a core-shell structure, with Fe3O4 NPs as the magnetic core and dye-embedded silica as the fluorescent shell, whose average size is about 150 nm. Besides, the outmost surfaces of the probes were modified with specific antibodies to endow the probe with a targeting ability. With such a structure, the nanoprobe can accomplish dual mode targeting of human breast cancer cells based on fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the experiments, three human breast cancer cell lines were used to test the targeting ability of the nanoprobe. Specifically, SKBR3 cells with a high HER2 expression level were used as the model target cells, while MCF7 cells with a lower HER2 expression levels and HER2-negative MDA-MB-231 cells were used as the controls. Both the fluorescence and MRI imaging results confirmed that the nanoprobe can distinguish three cancer cell lines with different HER2 expression levels. With the dual mode imaging and specific targeting properties, we anticipate that the presented nanoprobe may have a great potential in the diagnosis and treatment of cancerous diseases.

  11. Success and failures in urban transport planning in Europe — understanding the transport system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hermann Knoflacher

    2007-08-01

    Technological determinism has become a kind of religion for many people since it appears to offer solutions for societal problems as never before in history. Transport is one of the fascinating technology branches developed during the last 200 years. Effortless movement over long distances has become possible for car users as long as cheap fossil energy is available. However, the effect of fast transport on urban structures and society was not taken into account when developing these technical means. Technologists and economists have used indicators for expected benefits of these fast transport modes without taking into account the real system effects on society and urban structures. Plausible assumptions and hopes instead of scientific understanding of the complex system are used in practice. In contradiction to widely held beliefs of transportation planners, there is actually no growth of mobility if counted in number of trips per person per day, no time saving by increasing speed in the system, and no real freedom of modal choice. Modal choice is dependent on physical and other structures, the artificial environment built by urban planners, transport experts and political decisions. The core hypothesis of traditional urban and transport planning ‘growth of mobility’, ‘travel time saving by increasing speed’ and ‘freedom of modal choice’ are myths and do not exist in the real urban and transport system. This is the reason why urban planning and transport planning based on traditional non-scientific assumptions is creating continuously not only more transport problems, but also environmental and social as well as economic problems all over the world, where these principals are applied. Urban transport planning in Europe, understanding the transport system and the solutions are presented in this paper.

  12. Railway intelligent transportation system and its applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin Yong; Jia Limin; Zhang Yuan

    2011-01-01

    With the development of artificial intelligence, communication, computer and other related technologies, it becomes feasible to rebuild traditional railway with such advanced technologies in order to establish a new generation railway transport system. The railway intelligent transportation system is the trend of railway transportation system in China, and it is also the research focus of international railway transport industry. This paper presents the definition, characters, architecture, key technologies and developing pattern of the RITS (railway intelligent transportation system). Then three typical applications are introduced. Finally, the prospect of the RITS is summarized.

  13. Dual-Mode Encoded Magnetic Composite Microsphere Based on Fluorescence Reporters and Raman Probes as Covert Tag for Anticounterfeiting Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruimin; Zhang, Yuting; Tan, Jing; Wan, Jiaxun; Guo, Jia; Wang, Changchun

    2016-04-13

    Utilizing fluorescence reporters and SERS probes as the security labels, a series of dual-mode encoded magnetic composite microspheres with micrometer size was designed and prepared for anticounterfeiting applications. At first, the micro-meter-sized melamine formaldehyde microspheres with different fluorescence molecules (FMF) were prepared by precipitation polymerization, and then the magnetite composite microspheres (FMF/MNPs) were fabricated by direct immobilization of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) onto the surface of FMF microspheres. After deposition of Ag nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) onto FMF/MNPs microspheres, the SERS probes were absorbed onto the surface of Ag-NPs, and then a protection layer of silica was coated on the composite microspheres by Stöber method. The combination of different fluorescence reporters and SERS probes greatly increased the encoding complexity and volume for high-level anticounterfeiting. The structure of the dual-encoded FMF/MNPs/Ag-NPs/SiO2 composite microspheres was characterized by FESEM, TEM, FLS(fluorescence spectrometer), XRD, VSM, UV-vis and EDS. The embedded magnetic nanoparticles enable the composite microspheres to be quickly isolated from the marked latex paint by magnet at the concentration of as low as 1 ppm, and the covert tag information can be read out even from one composite microsphere. In addition, the covert security information in the marked coating film can be also read out in situ and the existence of the composite microspheres does not influence the visible appearance of the coating film. All the above outstanding properties will make these dual-mode encoded composite microspheres as advanced security tags for next-generation anticounterfeiting applications.

  14. Simultaneous Control of Phenanthrene and Drought by Dual Exposure System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Stine N.; Holmstrup, Martin; Damgaard, Christian;

    2014-01-01

    and independent control of chemical and drought exposure in bioassays with terrestrial organisms: Passive dosing from silicone controlled the chemical activity of phenanthrene (chemical stress), while saline solutions controlled the water activity (drought stress) in the closed exposure system. The dual exposure...... system was then applied in a full factorial experiment with seven exposure levels (72), which aimed at determining the combined effects of phenanthrene and drought on the survival of the terrestrial springtail Folsomia candida after 7 d exposure. Fitting an "independent action" model to the complete data...... set revealed statistically significant synergy between phenanthrene and drought (p

  15. Dual-frequency feed system for 26-meter antenna conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartop, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    New cassegrain feed cone assemblies were designed as part of the upgrade of three 26-meter diameter antennas to 34-meter diameter with improved performance. The new dual-frequency feed cone (SXD) will provide both S- and X-band feed systems and traveling wave masers, with a reflex reflector system to permit simultaneous operation analogous to the 64-meter antennas. Tasks involved in adding the X-band receiving capability and improving the S-band feed performance in support of Voyager and later missions described in.

  16. 3D MODELING OF TRANSPORT BINARY ELECTROLYTE IN THE GALVANOSTATIC MODE IN THE CONDITION OF ELECTRONEUTRALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovalenko A. V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article we have derived mathematical models of non-stationary transport binary electrolyte in EMS (electromembrane systems: electrodialysis apparatus, electromembrane cell, etc. for the galvanostatic mode. To be specific, as EMS viewed channel of desalting of EDA (electrodialysis apparatus and EMS with RMD (rotating membrane disk. We present a formula expressing the intensity of the electric field through the current density and concentration. Also, we have received the differential equation for the current density. The fundamental point here is derived new equation for the unknown vector function of current density of the initial system of equations of Nernst-Planck. In addition, the article shows the output equation for the current density in three dimensions; we have proposed various methods for solving the equation of the current density and the boundary conditions for the current density. The proposed mathematical models of transport binary electrolyte are easy to be generalized to an arbitrary electrolyte. However, the corresponding equations are cumbersome. It should be also noted that the boundary conditions can be varied and depend on the purpose of a particular study in this regard, in this work are just the equation having the general form

  17. In-fiber liquid-level probe based on Michelson interferometer via dual-mode elliptical multilayer-core fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Ren, Guobin; Li, Yang; Liu, Zhibo; Wei, Huai; Jian, Shuisheng

    2016-07-01

    An in-fiber liquid-level probe fabricated from homemade dual-mode elliptical multilayer-core fiber (EMCF) was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The proposed sensor simply consists of a segment of the EMCF with one end coated with silver film, and a Michelson interferometer is roughly established when light from single-mode fiber incident from the other end. The detected interference patterns, rather clean due to the few-mode property, shift as the liquid level due to strong interaction between high-order modes and measurands through evanescent waves. Both the propagation characteristics and operation principle of such a sensor were demonstrated in detail, and sensitivities of 33.48, 43.35, and 48.93 pm/mm corresponding to liquid indices of 1.333, 1.353, and 1.373 were successfully achieved with a 50-mm EMCF probe, respectively. Moreover, the proposed sensor had the potential to discriminate measurand index after proper calibration.

  18. Single-mode SOA-based 1kHz-linewidth dual-wavelength random fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Zhang, Liang; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2017-07-10

    Narrow-linewidth multi-wavelength fiber lasers are of significant interests for fiber-optic sensors, spectroscopy, optical communications, and microwave generation. A novel narrow-linewidth dual-wavelength random fiber laser with single-mode operation, based on the semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) gain, is achieved in this work for the first time, to the best of our knowledge. A simplified theoretical model is established to characterize such kind of random fiber laser. The inhomogeneous gain in SOA mitigates the mode competition significantly and alleviates the laser instability, which are frequently encountered in multi-wavelength fiber lasers with Erbium-doped fiber gain. The enhanced random distributed feedback from a 5km non-uniform fiber provides coherent feedback, acting as mode selection element to ensure single-mode operation with narrow linewidth of ~1kHz. The laser noises are also comprehensively investigated and studied, showing the improvements of the proposed random fiber laser with suppressed intensity and frequency noises.

  19. Mode of transport to work, car ownership and CO{sub 2} emissions in Mauritius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaunky, V.C. (ETH Zuerich. Centre for Energy Policy and Economics, Zuerich (Switzerland)); Bundhoo, M.N.; Moco, S.Y. (Mauritius (Mauritius))

    2011-05-15

    Fast economical and demographic revolution in the small island developing state of Mauritius over the last decades has led to an unprecedented rise in private vehicle utilization. In this arena, the cognition of ongoing travel practices and their determinants is sine qua non. This paper examines the determinants of mode of transport, rise in car ownership and its related environmental impacts. We employ cross-section micro-data obtained from our household drop-off survey to estimate a multinomial logistic regression model of transport mode choice coupled with an exhaustive ordinary least squares analysis of carbon emissions. Empirical results indicate that factors such as travel time, expenses and time lost in traffic jam coupled with demographic and socio-economic characteristics such as age of individual and household income have profound upshots on transport mode decisions. On the other hand, fuel type, residential distance from work and age of individual displays statistically significant impacts on carbon dioxide emissions. (Author)

  20. Plasma transport simulation modeling for helical confinement systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamazaki, K.; Amano, T.

    1991-08-01

    New empirical and theoretical transport models for helical confinement systems are developed based on the neoclassical transport theory including the effect of radial electric field and multi-helicity magnetic components, and the drift wave turbulence transport for electrostatic and electromagnetic modes, or the anomalous semi-empirical transport. These electron thermal diffusivities are compared with CHS (Compact Helical System) experimental data, which indicates that the central transport coefficient of the ECH plasma agrees with the neoclassical axi-symmetric value and the transport outside the half radius is anomalous. On the other hand, the transport of NBI-heated plasmas is anomalous in the whole plasma region. This anomaly is not explained by the electrostatic drift wave turbulence models in these flat-density-profile discharges. For the detailed prediction of plasma parameters in LHD (Large Helical Device), 3-D(dimensional) equilibrium/1-D transport simulations including empirical or drift wave turbulence models are carried out, which suggests that the global confinement time of LHD is determined mainly by the electron anomalous transport near the plasma edge region rather than the helical ripple transport in the core region. Even if the ripple loss can be eliminated, the increase of the global confinement is 10%. However, the rise in the central ion temperature is more than 20%. If the anomalous loss can be reduced to the half level of the present scaling, like so-called `H-mode` of the tokamak discharge, the neoclassical ripple loss through the ion channel becomes important even in the plasma core. The 5% radial inward shift of the plasma column with respect to the major radius is effective for improving plasma confinement and raising more than 50% of the fusion product by reducing this neoclassical asymmetric ion transport loss and increasing 10% in the plasma radius. (author).

  1. A Training System for Export? The German Dual Vocational Training System and Its Transferability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroter, H. Gunter

    1995-01-01

    Problems with vocational education and training in developing countries include insufficient resources and lack of workplace experience. The German dual vocational training system is being promoted as a potential solution. (SK)

  2. Classical transport in disordered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Antonios

    This thesis reports on the manifestation of structural disorder on molecular transport and it consists of two parts. Part I discusses the relations between classical transport and the underlying structural complexity of the system. Both types of molecular diffusion, namely Gaussian and non- Gaussian are presented and the relevant time regimes are discussed. In addition the concept of structural universality is introduced and connected with the diffusion metrics. One of the most robust techniques for measuring molecular mean square displacements is magnetic resonance. This method requires encoding and subsequently reading out after an experimentally controlled time, a phase φ to the spins using magnetic field gradients. The main limitation for probing short diffusion lengths L(t) ˜ 1micro m with magnetic resonance is the requirement to encode and decode the phase φ in very short time intervals. Therefore, to probe such displacements a special probe was developed equipped with a gradient coil capable of delivering magnetic field gradients of approximately 90 G/cmA . The design of the probe is reported. Part I also includes a discussion of experiments of transport in two qualitatively different disordered phantoms and reports on a direct observation of universality in one-dimension. The results reveal the universal power law scaling of the diffusion coefficient at the long-time regime and illustrate the essence of structural universality by experimentally determining the structure correlation function of the phantoms. In addition, the scaling of the diffusive permeability of the phantoms with respect to the pore size is investigated. Additional work presented includes a detailed study of adsorption of methane gas in Vycor disordered glass. The techniques described in Part I of this thesis are widely used for measuring structural parameters of porous media, such as the surface-to-volume ratio or diffusive permeability. Part II of this thesis discusses the

  3. Sliding Mode Speed Control for DC Drive Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Guldemir, H.

    2003-01-01

    In this study, the Sliding Mode Control theory of the Variable Structure System has been applied to the speed control of a de motor. The dynamic performance of the sliding mode speed control system has been studied against system parameter variations and external load disturbance and the simulation results are given. The application of the sliding mode control theory to controller design for DC drive control system shows a robust system performance.

  4. 双模式全断面掘进机探讨%Discussion on Dual-mode Full-face Tunnel Boring Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁川; 李光

    2013-01-01

    为适应地质的复杂性以及中国国情,探讨双模式全断面掘进机的未来发展趋势,并举例说明双模式全断面掘进机的设计理念,详述其主要结构及适用范围.与单模式掘进机相比,双模式全断面掘进机地质适应性广、设备利用率高、施工成本低,是隧道掘进设备技术发展的主要方向之一,具有良好的发展前景.%The development trend of dual-mode full-face tunnel boring machines is discussed,the design concept of dual-mode full-face tunnel boring machines is presented and the main structure and applicability scope of dual-mode fullface tunnel boring machines are described in detail.The study shows that,compared to single-mode tunnel boring machines,the applicability scope of dual-mode full-face tunnel boring machines is more extensive,the availability of dualmode full-face tunnel boring machines is higher and the tunneling cost of dual-mode full-face tunnel boring machines is lower.Conclusion is drawn that the dual-mode full-face tunnel boring machine,which is the main development trend of tunnel boring machines,has a splendid future.

  5. Design and synthesis of dual inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase and serotonin transporter targeting potential agents for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogen, Hiroshi; Toda, Narihiro; Tago, Keiko; Marumoto, Shinji; Takami, Kazuko; Ori, Mayuko; Yamada, Naho; Koyama, Kazuo; Naruto, Shunji; Abe, Kazumi; Yamazaki, Reina; Hara, Takao; Aoyagi, Atsushi; Abe, Yasuyuki; Kaneko, Tsugio

    2002-10-03

    Highly efficient acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and serotonin transporter (SERT) dual inhibitors, (S)-4 and (R)-13 were designed and synthesized on the basis of the hypothetical model of AChE active site. Both compounds showed potent inhibitory activities against AChE and SERT. [structure: see text

  6. Dual-beam laser autofocusing system based on liquid lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fumin; Yao, Yannan; Qu, Xinghua; Zhang, Tong; Pei, Bing

    2017-02-01

    A dual-beam laser autofocusing system is designed in this paper. The autofocusing system is based on a liquid lens with less moving parts and fast response time, which makes the system simple, reliable, compact and fast. A novel scheme "Time-sharing focus, fast conversion" is innovatively proposed. The scheme effectively solves the problem that the guiding laser and the working laser cannot focus at the same target point because of the existence of chromatic aberration. This scheme not only makes both guiding laser and working laser achieve optimal focusing in guiding stage and working stage respectively, but also greatly reduces the system complexity and simplifies the focusing process as well as makes autofocusing time of the working laser reduce to about 10 ms. In the distance range of 1 m to 30 m, the autofocusing spot size is kept under 4.3 mm at 30 m and just 0.18 mm at 1 m. The spot size is much less influenced by the target distance compared with the collimated laser with a micro divergence angle for its self-adaptivity. The dual-beam laser autofocusing system based on liquid lens is fully automatic, compact and efficient. It is fully meet the need of dynamicity and adaptivity and it will play an important role in a number of long-range control applications.

  7. Dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode erbium-doped fiber laser based on inverse-Gaussian apodized fiber Bragg grating and its application in microwave generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bo; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Zhang, Han; Tang, Dingyuan; Liang, Sheng; Hao, Jianzhong; Dong, Bo

    2011-03-01

    We propose a simple erbium-doped fiber ring laser. It consists of an inverse-Gaussian apodized fiber Bragg grating filter which has two ultra-narrow transmission bands, and an unpumped erbium-doped fiber as a saturable absorber. Stable dual-wavelength single-longitudinal-mode lasing with a wavelength separation of approximately 0.082 nm is achieved. A microwave signal at 10.502 GHz is demonstrated by beating the dual wavelengths at a photodetector.

  8. Anomalous transport in disordered fracture networks: Spatial Markov model for dispersion with variable injection modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Peter K.; Dentz, Marco; Le Borgne, Tanguy; Lee, Seunghak; Juanes, Ruben

    2017-08-01

    We investigate tracer transport on random discrete fracture networks that are characterized by the statistics of the fracture geometry and hydraulic conductivity. While it is well known that tracer transport through fractured media can be anomalous and particle injection modes can have major impact on dispersion, the incorporation of injection modes into effective transport modeling has remained an open issue. The fundamental reason behind this challenge is that-even if the Eulerian fluid velocity is steady-the Lagrangian velocity distribution experienced by tracer particles evolves with time from its initial distribution, which is dictated by the injection mode, to a stationary velocity distribution. We quantify this evolution by a Markov model for particle velocities that are equidistantly sampled along trajectories. This stochastic approach allows for the systematic incorporation of the initial velocity distribution and quantifies the interplay between velocity distribution and spatial and temporal correlation. The proposed spatial Markov model is characterized by the initial velocity distribution, which is determined by the particle injection mode, the stationary Lagrangian velocity distribution, which is derived from the Eulerian velocity distribution, and the spatial velocity correlation length, which is related to the characteristic fracture length. This effective model leads to a time-domain random walk for the evolution of particle positions and velocities, whose joint distribution follows a Boltzmann equation. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed model can successfully predict anomalous transport through discrete fracture networks with different levels of heterogeneity and arbitrary tracer injection modes.

  9. Deliverable 2.1 'State-of-the-art research and practices in construction methods across the four transport modes' (Collaborative and Scientific Action FOX)

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The FOX project aims to practically implement the aspects of this step relevant to the construction, maintenance, inspection and recycle & reuse activities of the transport network. The general objective of the FOX project is to identify the potential and develop the functionality of all transport modes (road, air, Rail and water) in order to form a holistic transport system for the future. The project will start with the exploration of the state-of-the-art research and practices for all the ...

  10. Dual mode diffraction phase microscopy for quantitative functional assessment of biological cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaikova, N. A.; Popov, A. P.; Kalyanov, A. L.; Ryabukho, V. P.; Meglinski, I. V.

    2017-10-01

    A diffraction phase microscopy approach with a combined use of transmission and reflection imaging modes has been developed and applied for non-invasive quantitative assessment of the refractive index of red blood cells (RBCs). We present the theoretical background of signal formation for both imaging modes, accompanied by the results of experimental studies. We demonstrate that simultaneous use of the two modes has great potential for accurate assessment of the refractive index of biological cells, and we perform a reconstruction of spatial distribution of the refractive index of RBC in 3D.

  11. Collective effects for long bunches in dual harmonic RF systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN Shi-Zhong; Klaus Bongardt; Rudolf Maier; TANG Jing-Yu; ZHANG Tian-Jue

    2008-01-01

    The storage of long bunches for large time intervals needs flattened stationary buckets with a large bucket height.Collective effects from the space charge and resistive impedance are studied by looking at the incoherent particle motion for the matched and mismatched bunches.Increasing the RF amplitude with particle number provides r.m.s wise matching for modest intensities.The incoherent motion of large amplitude particles depends on the details of the RF system.The resulting debunching process is a combination of the too small full RF acceptance together with the mismatch,enhanced by the collective effects.Irregular single particle motion is not associated with the coherent dipole instability.For the stationary phase space distribution of the Hofmann-Pedersen approach and for the dual harmonic RF system,stability limits are presented,which are too low if using realistic input distributions.For single and dual harmonic RF system with d=0.31,the tracking results are shown for intensities,by a factor of 3 above the threshold values.Small resistive impedances lead to coherent oscillations around the equilibrium phase value,as energy loss by resistive impedance is compensated by the energy gain of the RF system.

  12. The dual systems model: Review, reappraisal, and reaffirmation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth P. Shulman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the dual systems perspective, risk taking peaks during adolescence because activation of an early-maturing socioemotional-incentive processing system amplifies adolescents’ affinity for exciting, pleasurable, and novel activities at a time when a still immature cognitive control system is not yet strong enough to consistently restrain potentially hazardous impulses. We review evidence from both the psychological and neuroimaging literatures that has emerged since 2008, when this perspective was originally articulated. Although there are occasional exceptions to the general trends, studies show that, as predicted, psychological and neural manifestations of reward sensitivity increase between childhood and adolescence, peak sometime during the late teen years, and decline thereafter, whereas psychological and neural reflections of better cognitive control increase gradually and linearly throughout adolescence and into the early 20s. While some forms of real-world risky behavior peak at a later age than predicted, this likely reflects differential opportunities for risk-taking in late adolescence and young adulthood, rather than neurobiological differences that make this age group more reckless. Although it is admittedly an oversimplification, as a heuristic device, the dual systems model provides a far more accurate account of adolescent risk taking than prior models that have attributed adolescent recklessness to cognitive deficiencies.

  13. The dual systems model: Review, reappraisal, and reaffirmation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Elizabeth P; Smith, Ashley R; Silva, Karol; Icenogle, Grace; Duell, Natasha; Chein, Jason; Steinberg, Laurence

    2016-02-01

    According to the dual systems perspective, risk taking peaks during adolescence because activation of an early-maturing socioemotional-incentive processing system amplifies adolescents' affinity for exciting, pleasurable, and novel activities at a time when a still immature cognitive control system is not yet strong enough to consistently restrain potentially hazardous impulses. We review evidence from both the psychological and neuroimaging literatures that has emerged since 2008, when this perspective was originally articulated. Although there are occasional exceptions to the general trends, studies show that, as predicted, psychological and neural manifestations of reward sensitivity increase between childhood and adolescence, peak sometime during the late teen years, and decline thereafter, whereas psychological and neural reflections of better cognitive control increase gradually and linearly throughout adolescence and into the early 20s. While some forms of real-world risky behavior peak at a later age than predicted, this likely reflects differential opportunities for risk-taking in late adolescence and young adulthood, rather than neurobiological differences that make this age group more reckless. Although it is admittedly an oversimplification, as a heuristic device, the dual systems model provides a far more accurate account of adolescent risk taking than prior models that have attributed adolescent recklessness to cognitive deficiencies.

  14. A Novel Dual-input Isolated Current-Fed DC-DC Converter for Renewable Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Thomsen, Ole Cornelius; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a novel isolated current-fed DC-DC converter (boost-type) with two input power sources based on multi-transformer structure, which is suitable for fuel cells and super-capacitors hybrid energy system, is proposed and designed. With particular transformer windings connection strategy......, the proposed converter can draw power from two different DC sources with lower voltage and deliver it to the higher voltage DC bus or load individually and simultaneously. The detailed operation principle of the proposed converter has been analyzed in dual-input mode and single-input mode, respectively...

  15. Quantum transport of two-species Dirac fermions in dual-gated three-dimensional topological insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yang; Miotkowski, Ireneusz; Chen, Yong P

    2016-05-04

    Topological insulators are a novel class of quantum matter with a gapped insulating bulk, yet gapless spin-helical Dirac fermion conducting surface states. Here, we report local and non-local electrical and magneto transport measurements in dual-gated BiSbTeSe2 thin film topological insulator devices, with conduction dominated by the spatially separated top and bottom surfaces, each hosting a single species of Dirac fermions with independent gate control over the carrier type and density. We observe many intriguing quantum transport phenomena in such a fully tunable two-species topological Dirac gas, including a zero-magnetic-field minimum conductivity close to twice the conductance quantum at the double Dirac point, a series of ambipolar two-component half-integer Dirac quantum Hall states and an electron-hole total filling factor zero state (with a zero-Hall plateau), exhibiting dissipationless (chiral) and dissipative (non-chiral) edge conduction, respectively. Such a system paves the way to explore rich physics, ranging from topological magnetoelectric effects to exciton condensation.

  16. Dual readout 3D direct/induced-signals pixel systems

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Sherwood; Deile, Mario; Hansen, Thor-Erik; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Christopher; Kok, Angela; Watts, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, 3D-electrode pixel detectors are described, in which the bias electrode systems have additional elements. Adding resistors between the bias supply line and each bias electrode together with a signal electrode readout that can measure pulse heights of both polarities could simultaneously provide lower capacitance and improved spatial resolution in both directions. A separate paper (“Dual-readout—strip/pixel systems”) covers an alternative—pixels with an added strip readout in one direction which could be used with either planar or 3D-electrodes, and could simultaneously provide a fast trigger and significantly increase the spatial resolution in both directions.

  17. Dual inductive link coil design for a neural recording system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Alexander; Troyk, Philip R

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an approach to the physical design of the coils used in a dual inductive link to provide two-way wireless communication and power for a neural recording system. The design approach makes use of an analytic model of the link performance in terms of the physical parameters of the link, which allows physical parameters to be iterated on a computer rather than on the bench to find the optimal design within the physical restrictions imposed. In particular, this approach was used to choose the optimal implant data coil sizing to maximize the difference between the contributions of the constructive and destructive paths of the reverse telemetry signal.

  18. Note: Modified π-type Butterworth-Van Dyke model for dual-mode Lamb-wave resonator with precise two-port Y-parameter characterizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Hong, Yan; Goh, Wang Ling; Mu, Xiaojing

    2016-10-01

    Dual-mode Lamb-wave resonator has become a powerful component for clock reference and sensing applications, enabling efficient compensations of temperature effects, concurrent measurements of multiple environmental parameters, etc. An equivalent circuit model for the dual-mode Lamb-wave resonator is indispensable as it provides a means as well as being an effective tool for evaluating device characteristics and to aid the designing of circuitry for the resonators. This could be the first time ever that an efficient equivalent-circuit model, i.e., modified π-type Butterworth-Van Dyke model for dual-mode Lamb-wave resonators is reported. Evaluated by experiments, this model attains noteworthy agreements on both the magnitudes and phases of Y11 and Y21 of the measurement results. Compared to literature, the proposed model is capable of modeling the dual resonances efficiently. Moreover, this work also proves more accurate when viewing the Y-parameters across a wide frequency range. The gained features of this model are most beneficial for the analysis of the dual-mode Lamb-wave resonator and also for the designing of circuits.

  19. Note: Modified π-type Butterworth-Van Dyke model for dual-mode Lamb-wave resonator with precise two-port Y-parameter characterizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Hong, Yan; Goh, Wang Ling; Mu, Xiaojing

    2016-10-01

    Dual-mode Lamb-wave resonator has become a powerful component for clock reference and sensing applications, enabling efficient compensations of temperature effects, concurrent measurements of multiple environmental parameters, etc. An equivalent circuit model for the dual-mode Lamb-wave resonator is indispensable as it provides a means as well as being an effective tool for evaluating device characteristics and to aid the designing of circuitry for the resonators. This could be the first time ever that an efficient equivalent-circuit model, i.e., modified π-type Butterworth-Van Dyke model for dual-mode Lamb-wave resonators is reported. Evaluated by experiments, this model attains noteworthy agreements on both the magnitudes and phases of Y11 and Y21 of the measurement results. Compared to literature, the proposed model is capable of modeling the dual resonances efficiently. Moreover, this work also proves more accurate when viewing the Y-parameters across a wide frequency range. The gained features of this model are most beneficial for the analysis of the dual-mode Lamb-wave resonator and also for the designing of circuits.

  20. Mode shifting in school travel mode: examining the prevalence and correlates of active school transport in Ontario, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buliung Ron

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies examining the correlates of school transport commonly fail to make the distinction between morning and afternoon school trips. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of mode shift from passive in the morning to active in the afternoon among elementary and secondary school students in Ontario, Canada. Methods Data were derived from the 2009 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey (OSDUHS. 3,633 students in grades 7 through 12 completed self-administered questionnaires. Socio-demographic, behavioural, psychological, and environmental predictors of active school transport (AST were assessed using logistic regression. Results Overall, 47% and 38% of elementary school students reported AST to and from school, respectively. The corresponding figures were 23% and 32% for secondary school students. The prevalence of AST varied temporarily and spatially. There was a higher prevalence of walking/biking found for elementary school students than for secondary school students, and there was an approximate 10% increase in AST in the afternoon. Different correlates of active school transport were also found across elementary and secondary school students. For all ages, students living in urban areas, with a shorter travel time between home and school, and having some input to the decision making process, were more likely to walk to and from school. Conclusions Future research examining AST should continue to make the analytic distinction between the morning and afternoon trip, and control for the moderating effect of age and geography in predicting mode choice. In terms of practice, these variations highlight the need for school-specific travel plans rather than 'one size fits all' interventions in promoting active school transport.

  1. Normal modes of confined cold ionic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schiffer, J.P.; Dubin, D.H. [Univ. of California, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The normal modes of a cloud of confined ions forming a strongly-correlated plasma were investigated. The results of molecular-dynamics simulations were compared to predictions of a cold fluid mode. Mode frequencies are observed to shift slightly compared to the cold fluid predictions, and the modes are also observed to damp in time. Simulations also reveal a set of torsional oscillations which have no counterpart in cold fluid theory. The frequency shift, damping, and torsional effects are compared to a model that treats trapped plasmas as a visco-elastic spheroid. It may be possible to measure high-frequency bulk and shear moduli of a strongly-correlated plasma from mode excitation experiments on trapped non-neutral plasmas. An example of the results of the calculation is presented.

  2. Binding Mode Selection Determines the Action of Ecstasy Homologs at Monoamine Transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandtner, Walter; Stockner, Thomas; Hasenhuetl, Peter S; Partilla, John S; Seddik, Amir; Zhang, Yuan-Wei; Cao, Jianjing; Holy, Marion; Steinkellner, Thomas; Rudnick, Gary; Baumann, Michael H; Ecker, Gerhard F; Newman, Amy Hauck; Sitte, Harald H

    2016-01-01

    Determining the structural elements that define substrates and inhibitors at the monoamine transporters is critical to elucidating the mechanisms underlying these disparate functions. In this study, we addressed this question directly by generating a series of N-substituted 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine analogs that differ only in the number of methyl substituents on the terminal amine group. Starting with 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine, 3,4-methylenedioxy-N,N-dimethylamphetamine (MDDMA) and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N,N,N-trimethylamphetamine (MDTMA) were prepared. We evaluated the functional activities of the compounds at all three monoamine transporters in native brain tissue and cells expressing the transporters. In addition, we used ligand docking to generate models of the respective protein-ligand complexes, which allowed us to relate the experimental findings to available structural information. Our results suggest that the 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine analogs bind at the monoamine transporter orthosteric binding site by adopting one of two mutually exclusive binding modes. 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine and 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine adopt a high-affinity binding mode consistent with a transportable substrate, whereas MDDMA and MDTMA adopt a low-affinity binding mode consistent with an inhibitor, in which the ligand orientation is inverted. Importantly, MDDMA can alternate between both binding modes, whereas MDTMA exclusively binds to the low-affinity mode. Our experimental results are consistent with the idea that the initial orientation of bound ligands is critical for subsequent interactions that lead to transporter conformational changes and substrate translocation.

  3. Transport Efficiency of Gas-jet Tape Transport System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WandXudong; MaRuichang; XieYuanxiang; XingYebin; XuShuwei; LiZhankui

    2003-01-01

    The Gas-jet Tape Transport System (GTTS) was used in several on-line experiments. The transport efficiency of GTTS was studied with three different inorganic salts, PbI2, PbC12 and NaC1, by using a 252 Cf source. The fission fragments of 252Cf were transported and collected by the GTTS before measurement. Nitrogen gas was used as a substitute of cxpensive Helium gas, in consideration of longer stopping range of fragments. The fragments were also directly collected on Aluminum foils with thickness of 50μm for original yield measurement.

  4. Dual Heat Pulse, Dual Layer Thermal Protection System Sizing Analysis and Trade Studies for Human Mars Entry Descent and Landing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Mary Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    NASA has been recently updating design reference missions for the human exploration of Mars and evaluating the technology investments required to do so. The first of these started in January 2007 and developed the Mars Design Reference Architecture 5.0 (DRA5). As part of DRA5, Thermal Protection System (TPS) sizing analysis was performed on a mid L/D rigid aeroshell undergoing a dual heat pulse (aerocapture and atmospheric entry) trajectory. The DRA5 TPS subteam determined that using traditional monolithic ablator systems would be mass expensive. They proposed a new dual-layer TPS concept utilizing an ablator atop a low thermal conductivity insulative substrate to address the issue. Using existing thermal response models for an ablator and insulative tile, preliminary hand analysis of the dual layer concept at a few key heating points indicated that the concept showed potential to reduce TPS masses and warranted further study. In FY09, the followon Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) project continued by focusing on Exploration-class cargo or crewed missions requiring 10 to 50 metric tons of landed payload. The TPS subteam advanced the preliminary dual-layer TPS analysis by developing a new process and updated TPS sizing code to rapidly evaluate mass-optimized, full body sizing for a dual layer TPS that is capable of dual heat pulse performance. This paper describes the process and presents the results of the EDL-SA FY09 dual-layer TPS analyses on the rigid mid L/D aeroshell. Additionally, several trade studies were conducted with the sizing code to evaluate the impact of various design factors, assumptions and margins.

  5. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, P.

    2008-01-01

    No single technology can solve the problem of ever increasing CO2 emissions from transport. Here, a coherent effort to integrate transport into energyplanning is proposed, using multiple means promoting sustainable transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system...... is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production of food. The integration of the transport with the energy system is crucial as is a multi-pronged strategy. Short term solutions have to consider...

  6. Band gaps and cavity modes in dual phononic and photonic strip waveguides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Pennec

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available We discuss theoretically the simultaneous existence of phoxonic, i.e., dual phononic and photonic, band gaps in a periodic silicon strip waveguide. The unit-cell of this one-dimensional waveguide contains a hole in the middle and two symmetric stubs on the sides. Indeed, stubs and holes are respectively favorable for creating a phononic and a photonic band gap. Appropriate geometrical parameters allow us to obtain a complete phononic gap together with a photonic gap of a given polarization and symmetry. The insertion of a cavity inside the perfect structure provides simultaneous confinement of acoustic and optical waves suitable to enhance the phonon-photon interaction.

  7. Inland-transport modes for coal and coal-derived energy: an evaluation method for comparing environmental impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertram, K.M.

    1983-06-01

    This report presents a method for evaluating relative environmental impacts of coal transportation modes (e.g., unit trains, trucks). Impacts of each mode are evaluated (rated) for a number of categories of environmental effects (e.g., air pollution, water pollution). The overall environmental impact of each mode is determined for the coal origin (mine-mouth area), the coal or coal-energy product destination (demand point), and the line-haul route. These origin, destination, and en route impact rankings are then combined into a systemwide ranking. Thus the method accounts for the many combinations of transport modes, routes, and energy products that can satisfy a user's energy demand from a particular coal source. Impact ratings and system rankings are not highly detailed (narrowly defined). Instead, environmental impacts are given low, medium, and high ratings that are developed using environmental effects data compiled in a recent Argonne National Laboratory report entitled Data for Intermodal Comparison of Environmental Impacts of Inland Transportation Alternatives for Coal Energy (ANL/EES-TM-206). The ratings and rankings developed for this report are generic. Using the method presented, policy makers can apply these generic data and the analytical framework given to particular cases by adding their own site specific data and making some informed judgements. Separate tables of generic ratings and rankings are developed for transportation systems serving coal power plants, coal liquefaction plants, and coal gasification plants. The final chapter presents an hypothetical example of a site-specific application and adjustment of generic evaluations. 44 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  8. A Dual Launch Robotic and Human Lunar Mission Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, David L.; Mulqueen, Jack; Percy, Tom; Griffin, Brand; Smitherman, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a comprehensive lunar exploration architecture developed by Marshall Space Flight Center's Advanced Concepts Office that features a science-based surface exploration strategy and a transportation architecture that uses two launches of a heavy lift launch vehicle to deliver human and robotic mission systems to the moon. The principal advantage of the dual launch lunar mission strategy is the reduced cost and risk resulting from the development of just one launch vehicle system. The dual launch lunar mission architecture may also enhance opportunities for commercial and international partnerships by using expendable launch vehicle services for robotic missions or development of surface exploration elements. Furthermore, this architecture is particularly suited to the integration of robotic and human exploration to maximize science return. For surface operations, an innovative dual-mode rover is presented that is capable of performing robotic science exploration as well as transporting human crew conducting surface exploration. The dual-mode rover can be deployed to the lunar surface to perform precursor science activities, collect samples, scout potential crew landing sites, and meet the crew at a designated landing site. With this approach, the crew is able to evaluate the robotically collected samples to select the best samples for return to Earth to maximize the scientific value. The rovers can continue robotic exploration after the crew leaves the lunar surface. The transportation system for the dual launch mission architecture uses a lunar-orbit-rendezvous strategy. Two heavy lift launch vehicles depart from Earth within a six hour period to transport the lunar lander and crew elements separately to lunar orbit. In lunar orbit, the crew transfer vehicle docks with the lander and the crew boards the lander for descent to the surface. After the surface mission, the crew returns to the orbiting transfer vehicle for the return to the Earth. This

  9. The modulation of oceanic moisture transport by the hemispheric annular modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel eNieto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Leaving aside the contribution made by recycling, it is the main oceanic moisture sources that are responsible for most of the precipitation that falls on the continents. The transport of moisture from these sources can be affected by large-scale variability according to the hemispheric annular modes. The influence of the two dominant modes of extratropical winter climate: the Northern and the Southern Annular Modes (NAM and SAM are herein investigated to assess how they affect the transport of moisture from the major oceanic moisture sources. A Lagrangian model was used, together with ERA-Interim reanalysis data (1979-2012, and differences between the composites of the six strongest higher and lower events observed for both phases of the two modes for the period were analysed. The method is able to reproduce the general pattern of known variations for both annular patterns. Lower values of the NAM Index are associated with the displacement of the storm track towards tropical latitudes. Thus, moisture transport is enhanced from the Northern Pacific towards the northeastern basin and from the Northern Atlantic and Mediterranean towards southern Europe. On the other hand, during higher values of NAM, moisture transport is favoured from the Northern Pacific towards eastern Asia, and moisture transport is enhanced from the Northern Atlantic towards the Caribbean Sea. In the Southern Hemisphere, during higher values of SAM more moisture is transported from the Atlantic and Indian oceanic sources southwards and eastwards than during the opposite phase. In this SAM phase it is also noted by an enhancement of moisture transport from the Coral Sea and Southern Pacific sources towards the Indian Ocean/West Pacific Warm Pool. Southeastern South America received more moisture from the Pacific and Atlantic sources during years with a lower SAM, episodes which also favoured the influx of moisture from the Southern Atlantic towards Africa, causing monsoon

  10. Fuzzy Sliding Mode Control for Discrete Nonlinear Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F.Qiao.Q.M.Zhu; A.Winfield; C.Melhuish

    2003-01-01

    Sliding mode control is introduced into classical model free fuzzy logic control for discrete time nonlinear systems with uncertainty to the design of a novel fuzzy sliding mode control to meet the requirement of necessary and sufficient reaching conditions of sliding mode control. The simulation results show that the proposed controller outperforms the original fuzzy sliding mode controller and the classical fuzzy logic controller in stability, convergence and robustness.

  11. Ubiquity of non-diffusive momentum transport in JET H-modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisen, H.; Camenen, Y.; Salmi, A.; Versloot, T. W.; de Vries, P. C.; Maslov, M.; Tala, T.; Beurskens, M.; Giroud, C.; JET-EFDA Contributors,

    2012-01-01

    A broad survey of the experimental database of neutral beam heated baseline H-modes and hybrid scenarios in the JET tokamak has established the ubiquity of non-diffusive momentum transport mechanisms in rotating plasmas. As a result of their presence, the normalized angular frequency gradient R &

  12. METHODS OF INTEGRATED OPTIMIZATION MAGLEV TRANSPORT SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lasher

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To demonstrate feasibility of the proposed integrated optimization of various MTS parameters to reduce capital investments as well as decrease any operational and maintenance expense. This will make use of MTS reasonable. At present, the Maglev Transport Systems (MTS for High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT almost do not apply. Significant capital investments, high operational and maintenance costs are the main reasons why Maglev Transport Systems (MTS are hardly currently used for the High-Speed Ground Transportation (HSGT. Therefore, this article justifies use of Theory of Complex Optimization of Transport (TCOT, developed by one of the co-authors, to reduce MTS costs. Methodology. According to TCOT, authors developed an abstract model of the generalized transport system (AMSTG. This model mathematically determines the optimal balance between all components of the system and thus provides the ultimate adaptation of any transport systems to the conditions of its application. To identify areas for effective use of MTS, by TCOT, the authors developed a dynamic model of distribution and expansion of spheres of effective use of transport systems (DMRRSEPTS. Based on this model, the most efficient transport system was selected for each individual track. The main estimated criterion at determination of efficiency of application of MTS is the size of the specific transportation tariff received from calculation of payback of total given expenses to a standard payback period or term of granting the credit. Findings. The completed multiple calculations of four types of MTS: TRANSRAPID, MLX01, TRANSMAG and TRANSPROGRESS demonstrated efficiency of the integrated optimization of the parameters of such systems. This research made possible expending the scope of effective usage of MTS in about 2 times. The achieved results were presented at many international conferences in Germany, Switzerland, United States, China, Ukraine, etc. Using MTS as an

  13. Optimal second order sliding mode control for nonlinear uncertain systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Madhulika; Mahanta, Chitralekha

    2014-07-01

    In this paper, a chattering free optimal second order sliding mode control (OSOSMC) method is proposed to stabilize nonlinear systems affected by uncertainties. The nonlinear optimal control strategy is based on the control Lyapunov function (CLF). For ensuring robustness of the optimal controller in the presence of parametric uncertainty and external disturbances, a sliding mode control scheme is realized by combining an integral and a terminal sliding surface. The resulting second order sliding mode can effectively reduce chattering in the control input. Simulation results confirm the supremacy of the proposed optimal second order sliding mode control over some existing sliding mode controllers in controlling nonlinear systems affected by uncertainty.

  14. From Lyapunov modes to their exponents for hard disk systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Tony; Truant, Daniel; Morriss, Gary P

    2010-06-01

    We demonstrate the preservation of the Lyapunov modes in a system of hard disks by the underlying tangent space dynamics. This result is exact for the Zero modes and correct to order ϵ for the Transverse and Longitudinal-Momentum modes, where ϵ is linear in the mode number. For sufficiently large mode numbers, the ϵ terms become significant and the dynamics no longer preserves the mode structure. We propose a modified Gram-Schmidt procedure based on orthogonality with respect to the center zero space that produces the exact numerical mode. This Gram-Schmidt procedure can also exploit the orthogonality between conjugate modes and their symplectic structure in order to find a simple relation that determines the Lyapunov exponent from the Lyapunov mode. This involves a reclassification of the modes into either direction preserving or form preserving. These analytic methods assume a knowledge of the ordering of the modes within the Lyapunov spectrum, but gives both predictive power for the values of the exponents from the modes and describes the modes in greater detail than was previously achievable. Thus the modes and the exponents contain the same information.

  15. TDMA-based dual-mode communication for mobile wireless sensor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ankur; Kerkez, Branko; Glaser, Steven D; Pister, Kristofer S J

    2012-11-22

    Small highly mobile robots, and in particular micro air vehicles (MAVs), are well suited to the task of exploring unknown indoor environments such as buildings and caves. Such a task imposes a number of requirements on the underlying communication infrastructure, with differing goals during various stages of the mission. This work addresses those requirements with a hybrid communications infrastructure consisting of a stationary mesh network along with the mobile nodes. The combined network operates in two independent modes, coupling a highly efficient, low duty cycle, low throughput mode for routing and persistent sensing with a burst mode for high data rate communication. By strategically distributing available frequency channels between the mobile agents and the stationary nodes, the overall network provides reliable long-term communication paths while maximizing data throughput when needed.

  16. Design of high efficiency dual-mode buck DC-DC converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinquan, Lai; Huali, Zeng; Qiang, Ye; Huisen, He; Shasha, Zhang; Yuqing, Sun

    2010-11-01

    A buck DC—DC switching regulator with high efficiency is implemented by automatically altering the modulation mode according to load current, and it can operate with an input range of 4.5 to 30 V. At light load current, the converter operates in skip mode. The converter enters PWM mode operation with increasing load current. It reduces the switching loss at light load and standby state, which results in prolonging battery lifetime and stand-by time. Meanwhile, externally adjustable soft-start minimizes the inrush supply current and avoids the overshoot of output voltage at initial startup. The regulator is fabricated by a 0.6 μm CDMOS process. The test results show that, under the condition of 3.3 V output, the efficiency is up to 64% at 5 mA and the maximum efficiency is 95.5%.

  17. Design of high efficiency dual-mode buck DC-DC converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai Xinquan; Zeng Huali; Ye Qiang; He Huisen; Zhang Shasha; Sun Yuqing, E-mail: zenghuali4213@126.com, E-mail: xqlai@mail.xidian.edu.cn [Institute of Electronic CAD, Xidian University, Xi' an 710071 (China)

    2010-11-15

    A buck DC-DC switching regulator with high efficiency is implemented by automatically altering the modulation mode according to load current, and it can operate with an input range of 4.5 to 30 V. At light load current, the converter operates in skip mode. The converter enters PWM mode operation with increasing load current. It reduces the switching loss at light load and standby state, which results in prolonging battery lifetime and stand-by time. Meanwhile, externally adjustable soft-start minimizes the inrush supply current and avoids the overshoot of output voltage at initial startup. The regulator is fabricated by a 0.6 {mu}m CDMOS process. The test results show that, under the condition of 3.3 V output, the efficiency is up to 64% at 5 mA and the maximum efficiency is 95.5%.

  18. TDMA-Based Dual-Mode Communication for Mobile Wireless Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Mehta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Small highly mobile robots, and in particular micro air vehicles (MAVs, are well suited to the task of exploring unknown indoor environments such as buildings and caves. Such a task imposes a number of requirements on the underlying communication infrastructure, with differing goals during various stages of the mission. This work addresses those requirements with a hybrid communications infrastructure consisting of a stationary mesh network along with the mobile nodes. The combined network operates in two independent modes, coupling a highly efficient, low duty cycle, low throughput mode for routing and persistent sensing with a burst mode for high data rate communication. By strategically distributing available frequency channels between the mobile agents and the stationary nodes, the overall network provides reliable long-term communication paths while maximizing data throughput when needed.

  19. Dual source multidetector CT-angiography before transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) using a high-pitch spiral acquisition mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, W.; Anders, K.; May, M.S.; Uder, M. [University of Erlangen, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Schuhbaeck, A.; Gauss, S.; Marwan, M.; Arnold, M.; Muschiol, G.; Daniel, W.G.; Achenbach, S. [University of Erlangen, Department of Cardiology, Erlangen (Germany); Ensminger, S. [University of Erlangen, Department of Cardiac Surgery, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-01-15

    Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is an alternative to surgical valve replacement in high risk patients. Angiography of the aortic root, aorta and iliac arteries is required to select suitable candidates, but contrast agents can be harmful due to impaired renal function. We evaluated ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral dual source Computed Tomography (CT) with minimized volume of contrast agent to assess aortic root anatomy and vascular access. 42 patients (82 {+-} 6 years) scheduled for TAVI underwent dual source (DS) CT angiography (CTA) of the aorta using a prospectively ECG-triggered high-pitch spiral mode (pitch = 3.4) with 40 mL iodinated contrast agent. We analyzed aortic root/iliac dimensions, attenuation, contrast to noise ratio (CNR), image noise and radiation exposure. Aortic root/iliac dimensions and distance of coronary ostia from the annulus could be determined in all cases. Mean aortic and iliac artery attenuation was 320 {+-} 70 HU and 340 {+-} 77 HU. Aortic/iliac CNR was 21.7 {+-} 6.8 HU and 14.5 {+-} 5.4 HU using 100 kV (18.8 {+-} 4.1 HU and 8.7 {+-} 2.6 HU using 120 kV). Mean effective dose was 4.5 {+-} 1.2 mSv. High-pitch spiral DSCTA can be used to assess the entire aorta and iliac arteries in TAVI candidates with a low volume of contrast agent while preserving diagnostic image quality. (orig.)

  20. A wavelength-switchable single-longitudinal-mode dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser for switchable microwave generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shilong; Yao, Jianping

    2009-03-30

    A novel wavelength-switchable single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) implemented based on a sigma architecture that is composed of a ring loop and a linear standing wave arm is experimentally demonstrated. Gain competition that prevents stable dual-wavelength oscillation is effectively suppressed by placing the gain medium in the standing-wave arm and by introducing polarization hole burning (PHB) via polarization multiplexing of the two lasing wavelengths in the ring loop. The SLM operation is guaranteed by an ultranarrow Fabry- Perot filter (FPF) introduced by absorption saturation in an unpumped erbium-doped fiber (EDF) and the gain saturation in the gain medium. In addition, the ring cavity forms a Lyot filter for each wavelength. Thus, wavelength switching is achieved by simply adjusting the polarization state of either wavelength. By beating the two SLM wavelengths at a photodetector (PD), a microwave signal with a frequency tunable from approximately 10 to approximately 50 GHz is experimentally generated.

  1. Tunable, Low Frequency Microwave Generation from AWG Based Closely-Spaced Dual-Wavelength Single Longitudinal-Mode Fibre Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, H.; Latif, A. A.; Talib, J. M.; Harun, S. W.

    2013-06-01

    Stable, closely-spaced Dual-Wavelength Fibre Lasers (DWFLs) have high potential for applications such as Radio-over-Fibre and optical sensing. In this work, a DWFL using two Arrayed Waveguide Gratings (AWGs) to generate a closely-spaced dual-wavelength output is proposed and demonstrated. A 1 m long highly doped Leikki Er80-8/125 Erbium Doped Fibre (EDF) is used as the linear gain medium, while two AWGs are used to generate the closely-spaced lasing wavelengths. A Mach-Zehnder modulator, driven at 180 kHz, splits the closely spaced wavelengths into two clearly defined wavelengths, while a 7 cm long un-pumped Leikki Er80-8/125 EDF and sub-ring cavity is used to suppress unwanted side-modes. Close spacing of between 0.01 to 0.03 nm are obtained, with beating frequencies of between 1.4 to 3.2 GHz. The output is highly stable, with almost no fluctuations over the test period.

  2. Design of a search and rescue terminal based on the dual-mode satellite and CDMA network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The current goal is to create a set of portable terminals with GPS/BD2 dual-mode satellite positioning, vital signs monitoring and wireless transmission functions. The terminal depends on an ARM processor to collect and combine data related to vital signs and GPS/BD2 location information, and sends the message to headquarters through the military CDMA network. It integrates multiple functions as a whole. The satellite positioning and wireless transmission capabilities are integrated into the motherboard, and the vital signs sensors used in the form of belts communicate with the board through Bluetooth. It can be adjusted according to the headquarters’ instructions. This kind of device is of great practical significance for operations during disaster relief, search and rescue of the wounded in wartime, non-war military operations and other special circumstances.

  3. Automatic mode switching of a dual chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator induced by a ventricular escape rhythm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barold, S Serge; Van Heuverswyn, Frederic; Stroobandt, Roland X

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a form of group beating induced by a St Jude dual chamber ICD which interpreted a ventricular escape rhythm (with retrograde conduction) as premature ventricular complexes (PVC). These pacemaker-defined PVCs activated the atrial pace-PVC algorithm in 2 steps. 1. The postventricular atrial refractory period (PVARP) was terminated upon detecting a retrograde P wave within its unblanked portion, and 2. An atrial stimulus was released 330ms after the end of the PVARP. This response resulted in automatic mode switching because the 330ms interatrial interval was shorter than the atrial tachycardia detection interval. The arrhythmia may be considered to represent an unusual form of pacemaker escape-capture bigeminy.

  4. Trapping multiple dual mode centrifugal partition chromatography for the separation of intermediately-eluting components: Operating parameter selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goll, Johannes; Morley, Raena; Minceva, Mirjana

    2017-05-05

    The preparative separation of intermediately-eluting components in liquid-liquid chromatography is commonly performed with isocratic batch injections, a technique which often leads to low yield and/or purity as a result of peak overlap. Two-column trapping multiple dual mode centrifugal partition chromatography, an alternative discontinuous method for the separation of a mixture into three product fractions (early-, intermediately-, and late-eluting components) at full recovery, is presented in this work. A mathematical shortcut method based on equilibrium theory assumptions is derived for the determination of the key operating parameters (i.e., step durations and number of steps). The feasibility of the technique and the accompanying short-cut method is demonstrated by proof-of-concept experiments for the separation of two paraben model mixtures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Design of a search and rescue terminal based on the dual-mode satellite and CDMA network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Junping; Zhang, Xuan; Zheng, Bing; Zhou, Yubin; Song, Hao; Song, Wei; Zhang, Meikui; Liu, Tongze; Zhou, Li

    2010-12-01

    The current goal is to create a set of portable terminals with GPS/BD2 dual-mode satellite positioning, vital signs monitoring and wireless transmission functions. The terminal depends on an ARM processor to collect and combine data related to vital signs and GPS/BD2 location information, and sends the message to headquarters through the military CDMA network. It integrates multiple functions as a whole. The satellite positioning and wireless transmission capabilities are integrated into the motherboard, and the vital signs sensors used in the form of belts communicate with the board through Bluetooth. It can be adjusted according to the headquarters' instructions. This kind of device is of great practical significance for operations during disaster relief, search and rescue of the wounded in wartime, non-war military operations and other special circumstances.

  6. Dual mode adaptive fractional order PI controller with feedforward controller based on variable parameter model for quadruple tank process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Prasanta; Roy, Binoy Krishna

    2016-07-01

    The Quadruple Tank Process (QTP) is a well-known benchmark of a nonlinear coupled complex MIMO process having both minimum and nonminimum phase characteristics. This paper presents a novel self tuning type Dual Mode Adaptive Fractional Order PI controller along with an Adaptive Feedforward controller for the QTP. The controllers are designed based on a novel Variable Parameter Transfer Function model. The effectiveness of the proposed model and controllers is tested through numerical simulation and experimentation. Results reveal that the proposed controllers work successfully to track the reference signals in all ranges of output. A brief comparison with some of the earlier reported similar works is presented to show that the proposed control scheme has some advantages and better performances than several other similar works.

  7. Perceived risk and modal choice: risk compensation in transportation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R B

    1995-08-01

    A transportation mode choice analysis is performed that examines behavioral responses to perceived risk in the choice of mode for daily commute trips. This methodology provides a technique for examining, by means of disaggregate individual level data, risk-compensating effects in transportation systems. Various measures of perceived risk are examined for explaining modal choice. Other studies have described how safety regulations have resulted in increases in "driving intensity." This study defines one component of driving intensity to be the increased probability of commuting by automobile. The results show that modal shifts occur when risk perceptions for a given mode are reduced. To demonstrate potential risk-compensating effects within the transportation system, an estimate of changes in accident fatalities due to commuting is derived using rough estimates of fatalities per person-mile travelled. It is shown that a given change in the perceived risk of commuting by automobile results in a less than proportionate change in net commuting fatalities. The relative magnitude is dependent on how objective reductions in risk translate into perceived reductions in risk. This study also shows that perceived safety improvements in bicycle transportation have an aggregate elasticity value that is greater than one. This means that bicycle safety improvements attract proportionately more people to bicycle commuting (i.e. a 10% increase in safety results in a greater than 10% increase in the share of people bicycle commuting).

  8. A novel tool-use mode in animals: New Caledonian crows insert tools to transport objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ivo F; von Bayern, Auguste; Osvath, Mathias

    2016-11-01

    New Caledonian crows (Corvus moneduloides) rely heavily on a range of tools to extract prey. They manufacture novel tools, save tools for later use, and have morphological features that facilitate tool use. We report six observations, in two individuals, of a novel tool-use mode not previously reported in non-human animals. Insert-and-transport tool use involves inserting a stick into an object and then moving away, thereby transporting both object and tool. All transported objects were non-food objects. One subject used a stick to transport an object that was too large to be handled by beak, which suggests the tool facilitated object control. The function in the other cases is unclear but seems to be an expression of play or exploration. Further studies should investigate whether it is adaptive in the wild and to what extent crows can flexibly apply the behaviour in experimental settings when purposive transportation of objects is advantageous.

  9. FACTORS THAT AFFECT TRANSPORT MODE PREFERENCE FOR GRADUATE STUDENTS IN THE NATIONAL UNIVERSITY OF MALAYSIA BY LOGIT METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI AHMED MOHAMMED

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to examine the perceptions and preferences of students on choosing the type of transportation for their travels in university campus. This study focused on providing personal transport users road transport alternatives as a countermeasure aimed at shifting car users to other modes of transportation. Overall 456 questionnaires were conducted to develop a choice of transportation mode preferences. Consequently, Logit model and SPSS were used to identify the factors that affect the determination of the choice of transportation mode. Results indicated that by reducing travel time by 70% the amount of private cars users will be reduced by 84%, while reduction the travel cost was found to be highly improving the public modes of utilization. This study revealed positive aspects is needed to shift travellers from private modes to public. The positive aspect contributes to travel time and travel cost reduction, hence improving the services, whereby contributing to sustainability.

  10. Rayleigh surface waves, phonon mode conversion, and thermal transport in nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Leon; Knezevic, Irena

    We study the effects of phonon mode conversion and Rayleigh (surface) waves on thermal transport in nanostructures. We present a technique to calculate thermal conductivity in the elastic-solid approximation: a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) solution of the elastic or scalar wave equations combined with the Green-Kubo formula. The technique is similar to an equilibrium molecular dynamics simulation, captures phonon wave behavior, and scales well to nanostructures that are too large to simulate with many other techniques. By imposing fixed or free boundary conditions, we can selectively turn off mode conversion and Rayleigh waves to study their effects. In the example case of graphenelike nanoribbons with rough edges, we find that mode conversion among bulk modes has little effect on thermal transport, but that conversion between bulk and Rayleigh waves can significantly reduce thermal conductivity. With increasing surface disorder, Rayleigh waves readily become trapped by the disorder and draw energy away from the propagating bulk modes, which lowers thermal conductivity. We discuss the implications on the accuracy of popular phonon-surface scattering models that stem from scalar wave equations and cannot capture mode conversion to Rayleigh waves.

  11. Fabrication of a novel dual mode cholesterol biosensor using titanium dioxide nanowire bridged 3D graphene nanostacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komathi, S; Muthuchamy, N; Lee, K-P; Gopalan, A-I

    2016-10-15

    Herein, we fabricated a novel electrochemical-photoelectrochemical (PEC) dual-mode cholesterol biosensor based on graphene (G) sheets interconnected-graphene embedded titanium nanowires (TiO2(G)-NWs) 3D nanostacks (designated as G/Ti(G) 3DNS) by exploiting the beneficial characteristics of G and TiO2-NWs to achieve good selectivity and high sensitivity for cholesterol detection. The G/Ti(G) 3DNS was fabricated by the reaction between functionalized G and TiO2(G)-NWs. Cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) was subsequently immobilized in to G/Ti(G) 3DNS using chitosan (CS) as the binder and the dual mode G/Ti(G) 3DNS/CS/ChOx biosensor was fabricated. The electro-optical properties of the G/Ti(G) 3DNS/CS/ChOx bioelectrode were characterized by cyclic voltammetry and UV-vis diffuse reflection spectroscopy. The cyclic voltammetry of immobilized ChOx showed a pair of well-defined redox peaks indicating direct electron transfer (DET) of ChOx. The amperometric reduction peak current (at -0.05V) linearly increased with increase in cholesterol concentration. The G/Ti(G) 3DNS/CS/ChOx bioelectrode was selective to cholesterol with a remarkable sensitivity (3.82μA/cm(2)mM) and a lower detection limit (6μM). Also, G/Ti(G) 3DNS/CS/ChOx functioned as photoelectrode and exhibited selective detection of cholesterol under a low bias voltage and light irradiation. Kinetic parameters, reproducibility, repeatability, storage stability and effect of temperature and pH were evaluated. We envisage that G/Ti(G) 3DNS with its prospective characteristics, would be a promising material for wide range of biosensing applications.

  12. Modelling the effect on injuries and fatalities when changing mode of transport from car to bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Philip; Stigson, Helena; Ohlin, Maria; Strandroth, Johan

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have estimated the health effects of active commuting, where a transport mode shift from car to bicycle reduces risk of mortality and morbidity. Previous studies mainly assess the negative aspects of bicycling by referring to fatalities or police reported injuries. However, most bicycle crashes are not reported by the police and therefore hospital reported data would cover a much higher rate of injuries from bicycle crashes. The aim of the present study was to estimate the effect on injuries and fatalities from traffic crashes when shifting mode of transport from car to bicycle by using hospital reported data. This present study models the change in number of injuries and fatalities due to a transport mode change using a given flow change from car to bicycle and current injury and fatality risk per distance for bicyclists and car occupants. show that bicyclists have a much higher injury risk (29 times) and fatality risk (10 times) than car occupants. In a scenario where car occupants in Stockholm living close to their work place shifts transport mode to bicycling, injuries, fatalities and health loss expressed in Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) were estimated to increase. The vast majority of the estimated DALY increase was caused by severe injuries and fatalities and it tends to fluctuate so that the number of severe crashes may exceed the estimation with a large margin. Although the estimated increase of traffic crashes and DALY, a transport mode shift is seen as a way towards a more sustainable society. Thus, this present study highlights the need of strategic preventive measures in order to minimize the negative impacts from increased bicycling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Size-Selective Modes of Aeolian Transport on Earth and Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swann, C.; Ewing, R. C.; Sherman, D. J.; McLean, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    Aeolian sand transport is a dominant driver of surface change and dust emission on Mars. Estimates of aeolian sand transport on Earth and Mars rely on terrestrial transport models that do not differentiate between transport modes (e.g., creep vs. saltation), which limits estimates of the critical threshold for transport and the total sand flux during a transport event. A gap remains in understanding how the different modes contribute to the total sand flux. Experiments conducted at the MARtian Surface WInd Tunnel separated modes of transport for uniform and mixed grain size surfaces at Earth and Martian atmospheric pressures. Crushed walnut shells with a density of 1.0 gm/cm3 were used. Experiments resolved grain size distributions for creeping and saltating grains over 3 uniform surfaces, U1, U2, and U3, with median grain sizes of 308 µm, 721 µm, and 1294 µm, and a mixed grain size surface, M1, with median grain sizes of 519 µm. A mesh trap located 5 cm above the test bed and a surface creep trap were deployed to capture particles moving as saltation and creep. Grains that entered the creep trap at angles ≥ 75° were categorized as moving in creep mode only. Only U1 and M1 surfaces captured enough surface creep at both Earth and Mars pressure for statistically significant grain size analysis. Our experiments show that size selective transport differs between Earth and Mars conditions. The median grain size of particles moving in creep for both uniform and mixed surfaces are larger under Earth conditions. (U1Earth = 385 µm vs. U1Mars = 355 µm; M1Earth = 762 vs. M1Mars = 697 µm ). However, particles moving in saltation were larger under Mars conditions (U1Earth = 282 µm; U1Mars = 309 µm; M1Earth = 347 µm; M1Mars = 454 µm ). Similar to terrestrial experiments, the median size of surface creep is larger than the median grain size of saltation. Median sizes of U1, U2, U3 at Mars conditions for creep was 355 µm, 774 µm and 1574 µm. Saltation at Mars

  14. Temporal mode sorting using dual-stage quantum frequency conversion by asymmetric Bragg scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper Bjerge; Reddy, Dileep V.; McKinstrie, C. J.;

    2015-01-01

    The temporal shape of single photons provides a high-dimensional basis of temporal modes, and can therefore support quantum computing schemes that go beyond the qubit. However, the lack of linear optical components to act as quantum gates has made it challenging to efficiently address specific...

  15. Control Optimization for a Dual-Mode Single-State Nuclear Shuttle,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    velocity. Thus a comparison between mixed-mode propulsion and straight hydrogen propulsion is warranted here. Using the same input parameters as in...only slightly improves the performance of a shuttle above pure hydrogen propulsion . This slight improvement would hardly justify the additional cost and

  16. Bend-insensitive single-mode photonic crystal fiber with ultralarge effective area for dual applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md. Asiful; Alam, M. Shah

    2013-05-01

    A novel photonic crystal fiber (PCF) having circular arrangement of cladding air holes has been designed and numerically optimized to obtain a bend insensitive single mode fiber with large mode area for both wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) communication and fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) application. The bending loss of the proposed bent PCF lies in the range of 10-3 to 10-4 dB/turn or lower over 1300 to 1700 nm, and 2 × 10-4 dB/turn at the wavelength of 1550 nm for a 30-mm bend radius with a higher order mode (HOM) cut-off frequency below 1200 nm for WDM application. When the whole structure of the PCF is scaled down, a bending loss of 6.78×10-4 dB/turn at 1550 nm for a 4-mm bend radius is obtained, and the loss remains in the order of 10-4 dB/turn over the same range of wavelength with an HOM cut-off frequency below 700 nm, and makes the fiber useful for FTTH applications. Furthermore, this structure is also optimized to show a splice loss near zero for fusion-splicing to a conventional single-mode fiber (SMF).

  17. Scenarios for solving a non-linear transportation problem in multi-agent systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brehm, Robert; Top, Søren; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    We introduce and provide an evaluation on two scenarios and related algorithms for implementation of a multi-agent system to solve a type of non-linear transportation problem using distributed optimization algorithms based on dual decomposition and consensus. The underlying fundamental optimization...

  18. Earthquake Damage to Transportation Systems

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Earthquakes represent one of the most destructive natural hazards known to man. A serious result of large-magnitude earthquakes is the disruption of transportation...

  19. Stability and Transport in Magnetic Confinement Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weiland, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Stability and Transport in Magnetic Confinement Systems provides an advanced introduction to the fields of stability and transport in tokamaks. It serves as a reference for researchers with its highly-detailed theoretical background, and contains new results in the areas of analytical nonlinear theory of transport using kinetic theory and fluid closure. The use of fluid descriptions for advanced stability and transport problems provide the reader with a better understanding of this topic. In addition, the areas of nonlinear kinetic theory and fluid closure gives the researcher the basic knowledge of a highly relevant area to the present development of transport physics.

  20. Integrated transport and renewable energy systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Lund, Henrik; Nørgaard, Per

    2007-01-01

    transport. It is concluded that a 100 per cent renewable energy transport system is possible but is connected to significant challenges in the path towards it. Biomass is a limited resource and it is important to avoid effecting the production. The integration of the transport with the remaining energy......Governments worldwide aim at reducing CO2 emissions and expanding renewable energy. A key element in achieving such a goal is to use renewable energy in transport such as biofuels. However, efforts to promote single transport technologies and single fuels only represent a partial solution...