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Sample records for dt laser fusion-fission

  1. Comparison of the Recently proposed Super Marx Generator Approach to Thermonuclear Ignition with the DT Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid Concept (LIFE) by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2009-05-01

    The recently proposed Super Marx pure deuterium micro-detonation ignition concept [1] is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser DT fusion-fission hybrid concept (LIFE) [2]. A typical example of the LIFE concept is a fusion gain 30, and a fission gain of 10, making up for a total gain of 300, with about 10 times more energy released into fission as compared to fusion. This means a substantial release of fission products, as in fusion-less pure fission reactors. In the Super Marx approach for the ignition of a pure deuterium micro-detonation gains of the same magnitude can in theory be reached. If the theoretical prediction can be supported by more elaborate calculations, the Super Marx approach is likely to make lasers obsolete as a means for the ignition of thermonuclear micro-explosions. [1] ``Ignition of a Deuterium Micro-Detonation with a Gigavolt Super Marx Generator,'' Winterberg, F., Journal of Fusion Energy, Springer, 2008. http://www.springerlink.com/content/r2j046177j331241/fulltext.pdf. [2] ``LIFE: Clean Energy from Nuclear Waste,'' https://lasers.llnl.gov/missions/energy&_slash;for&_slash;the&_slash;future/life/

  2. Comparison of the Recently proposed Super Marx Generator Approach to Thermonuclear Ignition with the DT Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid Concept by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Winterberg, Friedwardt

    2009-01-01

    The recently proposed Super Marx generator pure deuterium micro-detonation ignition concept is compared to the Lawrence Livermore National Ignition Facility (NIF) Laser DT fusion-fission hybrid concept (LiFE) [1]. In a Super Marx generator a large number of ordinary Marx generators charge up a much larger second stage ultra-high voltage Marx generator, from which for the ignition of a pure deuterium micro-explosion an intense GeV ion beam can be extracted. A typical example of the LiFE concept is a fusion gain of 30, and a fission gain of 10, making up for a total gain of 300, with about 10 times more energy released into fission as compared to fusion. This means a substantial release of fission products, as in fusion-less pure fission reactors. In the Super Marx approach for the ignition of a pure deuterium micro-detonation a gain of the same magnitude can in theory be reached [2]. If feasible, the Super Marx generator deuterium ignition approach would make lasers obsolete as a means for the ignition of ther...

  3. Laser Inertial Fusion-based Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Kevin James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by ...

  4. Control of a laser inertial confinement fusion-fission power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, Edward I.; Latkowski, Jeffery F.; Kramer, Kevin J.

    2015-10-27

    A laser inertial-confinement fusion-fission energy power plant is described. The fusion-fission hybrid system uses inertial confinement fusion to produce neutrons from a fusion reaction of deuterium and tritium. The fusion neutrons drive a sub-critical blanket of fissile or fertile fuel. A coolant circulated through the fuel extracts heat from the fuel that is used to generate electricity. The inertial confinement fusion reaction can be implemented using central hot spot or fast ignition fusion, and direct or indirect drive. The fusion neutrons result in ultra-deep burn-up of the fuel in the fission blanket, thus enabling the burning of nuclear waste. Fuels include depleted uranium, natural uranium, enriched uranium, spent nuclear fuel, thorium, and weapons grade plutonium. LIFE engines can meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the highly undesirable stockpiles of depleted uranium, spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials.

  5. Systems Modeling For The Laser Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, W R; Abbott, R; Beach, R; Blink, J; Caird, J; Erlandson, A; Farmer, J; Halsey, W; Ladran, T; Latkowski, J; MacIntyre, A; Miles, R; Storm, E

    2008-10-02

    A systems model has been developed for the Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) power plant. It combines cost-performance scaling models for the major subsystems of the plant including the laser, inertial fusion target factory, engine (i.e., the chamber including the fission and tritium breeding blankets), energy conversion systems and balance of plant. The LIFE plant model is being used to evaluate design trade-offs and to identify high-leverage R&D. At this point, we are focused more on doing self consistent design trades and optimization as opposed to trying to predict a cost of electricity with a high degree of certainty. Key results show the advantage of large scale (>1000 MWe) plants and the importance of minimizing the cost of diodes and balance of plant cost.

  6. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  7. Laser Intertial Fusion Energy: Neutronic Design Aspects of a Hybrid Fusion-Fission Nuclear Energy System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, Kevin James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2010-04-08

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 μm of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles

  8. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission

  9. Next generation laser optics for a hybrid fusion-fission power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stolz, C J; Latkowski, J T; Schaffers, K I

    2009-09-10

    The successful completion of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), followed by a campaign to achieve ignition, creates the proper conditions to begin exploring what development work remains to construct a power plant based on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) technology. Fundamentally, two distinct NIF laser properties must be overcome. The repetition rate must increase from a shot every four hours to several shots per second. Additionally, the efficiency of converting electricity to laser light must increase by 20x to roughly 10 percent. Solid state diode pumped lasers, commercially available for table top applications, have adequate repetition rates and power conversion efficiencies, however, they operate at a tiny fraction of the required energy for an ICF power plant so would need to be scaled in energy and aperture. This paper describes the optics and coatings that would be needed to support this type of laser architecture.

  10. The Complete Burning of Weapons Grade Plutonium and Highly Enriched Uranium with (Laser Inertial Fusion-Fission Energy) LIFE Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J C; Diaz de la Rubia, T; Moses, E

    2008-12-23

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) project, a laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiment designed to achieve thermonuclear fusion ignition and burn in the laboratory, is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and will be completed in April of 2009. Experiments designed to accomplish the NIF's goal will commence in late FY2010 utilizing laser energies of 1 to 1.3 MJ. Fusion yields of the order of 10 to 20 MJ are expected soon thereafter. Laser initiated fusion-fission (LIFE) engines have now been designed to produce nuclear power from natural or depleted uranium without isotopic enrichment, and from spent nuclear fuel from light water reactors without chemical separation into weapons-attractive actinide streams. A point-source of high-energy neutrons produced by laser-generated, thermonuclear fusion within a target is used to achieve ultra-deep burn-up of the fertile or fissile fuel in a sub-critical fission blanket. Fertile fuels including depleted uranium (DU), natural uranium (NatU), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), and thorium (Th) can be used. Fissile fuels such as low-enrichment uranium (LEU), excess weapons plutonium (WG-Pu), and excess highly-enriched uranium (HEU) may be used as well. Based upon preliminary analyses, it is believed that LIFE could help meet worldwide electricity needs in a safe and sustainable manner, while drastically shrinking the nation's and world's stockpile of spent nuclear fuel and excess weapons materials. LIFE takes advantage of the significant advances in laser-based inertial confinement fusion that are taking place at the NIF at LLNL where it is expected that thermonuclear ignition will be achieved in the 2010-2011 timeframe. Starting from as little as 300 to 500 MW of fusion power, a single LIFE engine will be able to generate 2000 to 3000 MWt in steady state for periods of years to decades, depending on the nuclear fuel and engine configuration. Because the fission

  11. Laser inertial fusion-based energy: Neutronic design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Kevin James

    This study investigates the neutronics design aspects of a hybrid fusion-fission energy system called the Laser Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LFFH). A LFFH combines current Laser Inertial Confinement fusion technology with that of advanced fission reactor technology to produce a system that eliminates many of the negative aspects of pure fusion or pure fission systems. When examining the LFFH energy mission, a significant portion of the United States and world energy production could be supplied by LFFH plants. The LFFH engine described utilizes a central fusion chamber surrounded by multiple layers of multiplying and moderating media. These layers, or blankets, include coolant plenums, a beryllium (Be) multiplier layer, a fertile fission blanket and a graphite-pebble reflector. Each layer is separated by perforated oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steel walls. The central fusion chamber is surrounded by an ODS ferritic steel first wall. The first wall is coated with 250-500 mum of tungsten to mitigate x-ray damage. The first wall is cooled by Li17Pb83 eutectic, chosen for its neutron multiplication and good heat transfer properties. The Li17Pb 83 flows in a jacket around the first wall to an extraction plenum. The main coolant injection plenum is immediately behind the Li17Pb83, separated from the Li17Pb83 by a solid ODS wall. This main system coolant is the molten salt flibe (2LiF-BeF2), chosen for beneficial neutronics and heat transfer properties. The use of flibe enables both fusion fuel production (tritium) and neutron moderation and multiplication for the fission blanket. A Be pebble (1 cm diameter) multiplier layer surrounds the coolant injection plenum and the coolant flows radially through perforated walls across the bed. Outside the Be layer, a fission fuel layer comprised of depleted uranium contained in Tristructural-isotropic (TRISO) fuel particles having a packing fraction of 20% in 2 cm diameter fuel pebbles. The fission blanket is cooled by

  12. Neutron Transport and Nuclear Burnup Analysis for the Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion-Fission Energy (LIFE) Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Boyd, J K; Powers, J J; Seifried, J E

    2008-10-24

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is currently developing a hybrid fusion-fission nuclear energy system, called LIFE, to generate power and burn nuclear waste. We utilize inertial confinement fusion to drive a subcritical fission blanket surrounding the fusion chamber. It is composed of TRISO-based fuel cooled by the molten salt flibe. Low-yield (37.5 MJ) targets and a repetition rate of 13.3 Hz produce a 500 MW fusion source that is coupled to the subcritical blanket, which provides an additional gain of 4-8, depending on the fuel. In the present work, we describe the neutron transport and nuclear burnup analysis. We utilize standard analysis tools including, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) transport code, ORIGEN2 and Monteburns to perform the nuclear design. These analyses focus primarily on a fuel composed of depleted uranium not requiring chemical reprocessing or enrichment. However, other fuels such as weapons grade plutonium and highly-enriched uranium are also under consideration. In addition, we have developed a methodology using {sup 6}Li as a burnable poison to replace the tritium burned in the fusion targets and to maintain constant power over the lifetime of the engine. The results from depleted uranium analyses suggest up to 99% burnup of actinides is attainable while maintaining full power at 2GW for more than five decades.

  13. Axisymmetric Magnetic Mirror Fusion-Fission Hybrid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moir, R. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martovetsky, N. N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Molvik, A. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ryutov, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Simonen, T. C. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-05-13

    The achieved performance of the gas dynamic trap version of magnetic mirrors and today’s technology we believe are sufficient with modest further efforts for a neutron source for material testing (Q=Pfusion/Pinput~0.1). The performance needed for commercial power production requires considerable further advances to achieve the necessary high Q>>10. An early application of the mirror, requiring intermediate performance and intermediate values of Q~1 are the hybrid applications. The Axisymmetric Mirror has a number of attractive features as a driver for a fusion-fission hybrid system: geometrical simplicity, inherently steady-state operation, and the presence of the natural divertors in the form of end tanks. This level of physics performance has the virtue of low risk and only modest R&D needed and its simplicity promises economy advantages. Operation at Q~1 allows for relatively low electron temperatures, in the range of 4 keV, for the DT injection energy ~ 80 keV. A simple mirror with the plasma diameter of 1 m and mirror-to-mirror length of 35 m is discussed. Simple circular superconducting coils are based on today’s technology. The positive ion neutral beams are similar to existing units but designed for steady state. A brief qualitative discussion of three groups of physics issues is presented: axial heat loss, MHD stability in the axisymmetric geometry, microstability of sloshing ions. Burning fission reactor wastes by fissioning actinides (transuranics: Pu, Np, Am, Cm, .. or just minor actinides: Np, Am, Cm, …) in the hybrid will multiply fusion’s energy by a factor of ~10 or more and diminish the Q needed to less than 1 to overcome the cost of recirculating power for good economics. The economic value of destroying actinides by fissioning is rather low based on either the cost of long-term storage or even deep geologic disposal so most of the revenues of hybrids will come from electrical power. Hybrids that obtain revenues from

  14. Measurement of tritium production rate distribution for a fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xin-Hua; GUO Hai-Ping; MOU Yun-Feng; ZHENG Pu; LIU Rong; YANG Xiao-Fei; YANG Jian

    2013-01-01

    A fusion-fission hybrid conceptual reactor is established.It consists of a DT neutron source and a spherical shell of depleted uranium and hydrogen lithium.The tritium production rate (TPR) distribution in the conceptual reactor was measured by DT neutrons using two sets of lithium glass detectors with different thicknesses in the hole in the vertical direction with respect to the D+ beam of the Cockcroft-Walton neutron generator in direct current mode.The measured TPR distribution is compared with the calculated results obtained by the threedimensional Monte Carlo code MCNP5 and the ENDF/B-Ⅵ data file.The discrepancy between the measured and calculated values can be attributed to the neutron data library of the hydrogen lithium lack S(α,β) thermal scattering model,so we show that a special database of low-energy and thermal neutrons should be established in the physics design of fusion-fission hybrid reactors.

  15. Fusion-fission energy systems evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teofilo, V.L.; Aase, D.T.; Bickford, W.E.

    1980-01-01

    This report serves as the basis for comparing the fusion-fission (hybrid) energy system concept with other advanced technology fissile fuel breeding concepts evaluated in the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP). As such, much of the information and data provided herein is in a form that meets the NASAP data requirements. Since the hybrid concept has not been studied as extensively as many of the other fission concepts being examined in NASAP, the provided data and information are sparse relative to these more developed concepts. Nevertheless, this report is intended to provide a perspective on hybrids and to summarize the findings of the rather limited analyses made to date on this concept.

  16. Proceedings of the Second Fusion-Fission Energy Systems Review Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-11-02

    The agenda of the meeting was developed to address, in turn, the following major areas: specific problem areas in nuclear energy systems for application of fusion-fission concepts; current and proposed fusion-fission programs in response to the identified problem areas; target costs and projected benefits associated with fusion-fission energy systems; and technical problems associated with the development of fusion-fission concepts. The greatest emphasis was placed on the characteristics of and problems, associated with fuel producing fusion-fission hybrid reactors.

  17. Proceedings of the Second Fusion-Fission Energy Systems Review Meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-11-02

    The agenda of the meeting was developed to address, in turn, the following major areas: specific problem areas in nuclear energy systems for application of fusion-fission concepts; current and proposed fusion-fission programs in response to the identified problem areas; target costs and projected benefits associated with fusion-fission energy systems; and technical problems associated with the development of fusion-fission concepts. The greatest emphasis was placed on the characteristics of and problems, associated with fuel producing fusion-fission hybrid reactors.

  18. Neutron transport-burnup code MCORGS and its application in fusion fission hybrid blanket conceptual research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xue-Ming; Peng, Xian-Jue

    2016-09-01

    Fusion science and technology has made progress in the last decades. However, commercialization of fusion reactors still faces challenges relating to higher fusion energy gain, irradiation-resistant material, and tritium self-sufficiency. Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactors (FFHR) can be introduced to accelerate the early application of fusion energy. Traditionally, FFHRs have been classified as either breeders or transmuters. Both need partition of plutonium from spent fuel, which will pose nuclear proliferation risks. A conceptual design of a Fusion Fission Hybrid Reactor for Energy (FFHR-E), which can make full use of natural uranium with lower nuclear proliferation risk, is presented. The fusion core parameters are similar to those of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor. An alloy of natural uranium and zirconium is adopted in the fission blanket, which is cooled by light water. In order to model blanket burnup problems, a linkage code MCORGS, which couples MCNP4B and ORIGEN-S, is developed and validated through several typical benchmarks. The average blanket energy Multiplication and Tritium Breeding Ratio can be maintained at 10 and 1.15 respectively over tens of years of continuous irradiation. If simple reprocessing without separation of plutonium from uranium is adopted every few years, FFHR-E can achieve better neutronic performance. MCORGS has also been used to analyze the ultra-deep burnup model of Laser Inertial Confinement Fusion Fission Energy (LIFE) from LLNL, and a new blanket design that uses Pb instead of Be as the neutron multiplier is proposed. In addition, MCORGS has been used to simulate the fluid transmuter model of the In-Zinerater from Sandia. A brief comparison of LIFE, In-Zinerater, and FFHR-E will be given.

  19. Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

    2012-01-02

    Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in

  20. Burning the DT-plasma with inert impurities and non-cryogenic ICF-target with solid fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gus'kov S.Yu.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The ignition criterion, ignition energy and gain of DT-plasma of ICF-target in the presence of impurities of light atoms such as beryllium, carbon and lithium at their arbitrary concentration are found. It is shown that the most promising type of non-cryogenic solid thermonuclear fuel is DT-hydride of beryllium (BeDT. It is suggested to apply the targets with such a fuel as: (1 Fast-ignited ICF-target at the ignition energy of 25–50 kJ and compression driver energy of 2–3 MJ; (2 ICF-target spark-ignited by 15–20 MJ heavy ion driver; (3 Spark-ignited target by 5–7 MJ laser as a neutron source for hybrid fusion-fission.

  1. Cluster fusion-fission dynamics in the Singapore stock exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Boon Kin; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate how the cross-correlations between stocks in the Singapore stock exchange (SGX) evolve over 2008 and 2009 within overlapping one-month time windows. In particular, we examine how these cross-correlations change before, during, and after the Sep-Oct 2008 Lehman Brothers Crisis. To do this, we extend the complete-linkage hierarchical clustering algorithm, to obtain robust clusters of stocks with stronger intracluster correlations, and weaker intercluster correlations. After we identify the robust clusters in all time windows, we visualize how these change in the form of a fusion-fission diagram. Such a diagram depicts graphically how the cluster sizes evolve, the exchange of stocks between clusters, as well as how strongly the clusters mix. From the fusion-fission diagram, we see a giant cluster growing and disintegrating in the SGX, up till the Lehman Brothers Crisis in September 2008 and the market crashes of October 2008. After the Lehman Brothers Crisis, clusters in the SGX remain small for few months before giant clusters emerge once again. In the aftermath of the crisis, we also find strong mixing of component stocks between clusters. As a result, the correlation between initially strongly-correlated pairs of stocks decay exponentially with average life time of about a month. These observations impact strongly how portfolios and trading strategies should be formulated.

  2. Mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics in neurodegeneration and neuronal plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertholet, A M; Delerue, T; Millet, A M; Moulis, M F; David, C; Daloyau, M; Arnauné-Pelloquin, L; Davezac, N; Mils, V; Miquel, M C; Rojo, M; Belenguer, P

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that continually move, fuse and divide. The dynamic balance of fusion and fission of mitochondria determines their morphology and allows their immediate adaptation to energetic needs, keeps mitochondria in good health by restoring or removing damaged organelles or precipitates cells in apoptosis in cases of severe defects. Mitochondrial fusion and fission are essential in mammals and their disturbances are associated with several diseases. However, while mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics, and the proteins that control these processes, are ubiquitous, associated diseases are primarily neurological disorders. Accordingly, inactivation of the main actors of mitochondrial fusion/fission dynamics is associated with defects in neuronal development, plasticity and functioning, both ex vivo and in vivo. Here, we present the central actors of mitochondrial fusion and fission and review the role of mitochondrial dynamics in neuronal physiology and pathophysiology. Particular emphasis is placed on the three main actors of these processes i.e. DRP1,MFN1-2, and OPA1 as well as on GDAP1, a protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane preferentially expressed in neurons. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Mitochondria & Brain.

  3. Fusion-fission study at IUAC: Recent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullanhiotan, Sugathan

    2016-10-01

    Several properties observed in heavy ion induced fission led to the conclusion that fission is not always originated from fully equilibrated compound nucleus. Soon after the collision of two nuclei, it forms a di-nuclear system than can fission before a compound nucleus is formed. This process termed quasi-fission is a major hurdle to the formation of heavier elements by fusion. Fission originated before complete equilibration showed anomalously large angular anisotropy and mass distribution wider than what is expected from compound nucleus fission. The standard statistical model fails to predict the outcome of quasi-fission and currently no dynamical model is fully developed to predict all the features of quasi-fission. Though much progress has been made in recent times, a full understanding of the fission dynamics is still missing. Experiments identifying the influence of entrance channel parameters on dynamics of fusion-fission showed contrasting results. At IUAC accelerator facility many experiments have been performed to make a systematic study of fission dynamics using mass distribution, angular distribution and neutron multiplicity measurements in mass region around A ∼ 200. Recent measurement on mass distribution of fission fragment from reaction 19 F +206,208 Pb around fusion barrier energy showed the influence of multi-mode fission in enhancing the mass variance at low excitation energy. In this talk I will present some of these results.

  4. Systems study of tokamak fusion--fission reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenney, F.H.; Bathke, C.G.; Price, W.G. Jr.; Bohlke, W.H.; Mills, R.G.; Johnson, E.F.; Todd, A.M.M.; Buchanan, C.H.; Gralnick, S.L.

    1978-11-01

    This publication reports the results of a two to three year effort at a systematic analysis of a wide variety of tokamak-driven fissioning blanket reactors, i.e., fusion--fission hybrids. It addresses the quantitative problems of determining the economically most desirable mix of the two products: electric power and fissionable fuel and shows how the price of electric power can be minimized when subject to a variety of constraints. An attempt has been made to avoid restricting assumptions, and the result is an optimizing algorithm that operates in a six-dimensional parameter space. Comparisons are made on sets of as many as 100,000 distinct machine models, and the principal results of the study have been derived from the examination of several hundred thousand possible reactor configurations.

  5. Angular anisotropy of the fusion-fission and quasifission fragments

    CERN Document Server

    Nasirov, A K; Utamuratov, R K; Fazio, G; Giardina, G; Hanappe, F; Mandaglio, G; Manganaro, M; Scheid, W

    2007-01-01

    The anisotropy in the angular distribution of the fusion-fission and quasifission fragments for the $^{16}$O+$^{238}$U, $^{19}$F+$^{208}$Pb and $^{32}$S+$^{208}$Pb reactions is studied by analyzing the angular momentum distributions of the dinuclear system and compound nucleus which are formed after capture and complete fusion, respectively. The orientation angles of axial symmetry axes of colliding nuclei to the beam direction are taken into account for the calculation of the variance of the projection of the total spin onto the fission axis. It is shown that the deviation of the experimental angular anisotropy from the statistical model picture is connected with the contribution of the quasifission fragments which is dominant in the $^{32}$S+$^{208}$Pb reaction. Enhancement of anisotropy at low energies in the $^{16}$O+$^{238}$U reaction is connected with quasifission of the dinuclear system having low temperature and effective moment of inertia.

  6. Burning high-level TRU waste in fusion fission reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yaosong

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the concept of actinide burning instead of a once-through fuel cycle for disposing spent nuclear fuel seems to get much more attention. A new method of burning high-level transuranic (TRU) waste combined with Thorium-Uranium (Th-U) fuel in the subcritical reactors driven by external fusion neutron sources is proposed in this paper. The thorium-based TRU fuel burns all of the long-lived actinides via a hard neutron spectrum while outputting power. A one-dimensional model of the reactor concept was built by means of the ONESN_BURN code with new data libraries. The numerical results included actinide radioactivity, biological hazard potential, and much higher burnup rate of high-level transuranic waste. The comparison of the fusion-fission reactor with the thermal reactor shows that the harder neutron spectrum is more efficient than the soft. The Th-U cycle produces less TRU, less radiotoxicity and fewer long-lived actinides. The Th-U cycle provides breeding of 233U with a long operation time (>20 years), hence significantly reducing the reactivity swing while improving safety and burnup.

  7. Hole boring in a DT Pellet and Fast-Ion Ignition with Ultraintense Laser Pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, N; Schlegel, T; Tikhonchuk, V T; Labaune, C; Sokolov, I V; Mourou, G

    2009-01-16

    Recently achieved high intensities of short laser pulses open new prospects in their application to hole boring in inhomogeneous overdense plasmas and for ignition in precompressed DT fusion targets. A simple analytical model and numerical simulations demonstrate that pulses with intensities exceeding 10;{22} W/cm;{2} may penetrate deeply into the plasma as a result of efficient ponderomotive acceleration of ions in the forward direction. The penetration depth as big as hundreds of microns depends on the laser fluence, which has to exceed a few tens of GJ/cm;{2}. The fast ions, accelerated at the bottom of the channel with an efficiency of more than 20%, show a high directionality and may heat the precompressed target core to fusion conditions.

  8. Short-Term Forecasting of Taiwanese Earthquakes Using a Universal Model of Fusion-Fission Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheong, S.A.; Tan, T.L.; Chen, C.-C.; Chang, W.-L.; Liu, Z.; Chew, L.Y.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Johnson, N.F.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting how large an earthquake can be, where and when it will strike remains an elusive goal in spite of the ever-increasing volume of data collected by earth scientists. In this paper, we introduce a universal model of fusion-fission processes that can be used to predict earthquakes starting fr

  9. Short-Term Forecasting of Taiwanese Earthquakes Using a Universal Model of Fusion-Fission Processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheong, S.A.; Tan, T.L.; Chen, C.-C.; Chang, W.-L.; Liu, Z.; Chew, L.Y.; Sloot, P.M.A.; Johnson, N.F.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting how large an earthquake can be, where and when it will strike remains an elusive goal in spite of the ever-increasing volume of data collected by earth scientists. In this paper, we introduce a universal model of fusion-fission processes that can be used to predict earthquakes starting

  10. TIME SCALES OF FUSION-FISSION REACTIONS CALCULATED FROM PRESCISSION NEUTRON MULTIPLICITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIWEKWILCZYNSKA, K; WILCZYNSKI, J; SIEMSSEN, RH; WILSCHUT, HW

    1995-01-01

    The time scale of fusion-fission reactions was found to be in the range from tau(f) = 5 . 10(-20) to 5 . 10(-19) s. This result was obtained from the analysis of the prescission neutron multiplicities with a new method combining the time-dependent statistical cascade calculations with the nuclear

  11. SABR fusion-fission hybrid transmutation reactor design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Weston

    2009-11-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a sub-critical advanced burner reactor (SABR) consisting of i) a sodium cooled fast reactor fueled with the transuranics (TRU) from spent nuclear fuel, and ii) a D-T tokamak fusion neutron source based on ITER physics and technology. Subcritical operation enables more efficient transmutation fuel cycles in TRU fueled reactors (without compromising safety), which may be essential for significant reduction in high-level waste repository requirements. ITER will serve as the prototype for the fusion neutron source, which means SABRs could be implemented to help close the nuclear fuel cycle during the 2^nd quarter of the century.

  12. Study on fission blanket fuel cycling of a fusion-fission hybrid energy generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z.; Yang, Y.; Xu, H.

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on neutron physics characteristics of a light water cooled fission blanket for a new type subcritical fusion-fission hybrid reactor aiming at electric power generation with low technical limits of fission fuel. The major objective is to study the fission fuel cycling performance in the blanket, which may possess significant impacts on the feasibility of the new concept of fusion-fission hybrid reactor with a high energy gain (M) and tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The COUPLE2 code developed by the Institute of Nuclear and New Energy Technology of Tsinghua University is employed to simulate the neutronic behaviour in the blanket. COUPLE2 combines the particle transport code MCNPX with the fuel depletion code ORIGEN2. The code calculation results show that soft neutron spectrum can yield M > 20 while maintaining TBR >1.15 and the conversion ratio of fissile materials CR > 1 in a reasonably long refuelling cycle (>five years). The preliminary results also indicate that it is rather promising to design a high-performance light water cooled fission blanket of fusion-fission hybrid reactor for electric power generation by directly loading natural or depleted uranium if an ITER-scale tokamak fusion neutron source is achievable.

  13. Study of thorium-uranium based molten salt blanket in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Jing, E-mail: zhao_jing@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Yang Yongwei; Zhou Zhiwei [INET, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A molten salt blanket has been designed for the fusion-fission hybrid reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of Thorium in the molten salt fuels has been studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The molten salt was consisted of F-Li-Be and with the thickness of 40 cm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The concentration of {sup 6}Li was chosen to be the natural enrichment ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The result shows that TBR is greater than 1, M is about 15-16. - Abstract: Not only solid fuels, but also liquid fuels can be used for the fusion-fission symbiotic reactor blanket. The operational record of the molten salt reactor with F-Li-Be was very successful, so the F-Li-Be blanket was chosen for research. The molten salt has several features which are suited for the fusion-fission applications. The fuel material uranium and thorium were dissolved in the F-Li-Be molten salt. A combined program, COUPLE, was used for neutronics analysis of the molten salt blanket. Several cases have been calculated and compared. Not only the influence of the different fuels have been studied, but also the thickness of the molten salt, and the concentration of the {sup 6}Li in the molten salt. Preliminary studies indicate that when thorium-uranium-plutonium fuels were added into a F-Li-Be molten salt blanket and with a component of 71% LiF-2% BeF{sub 2}-13.5% ThF{sub 4}-8.5% UF{sub 4}-5% PuF{sub 3}, and also with the molten salt thickness of 40 cm and natural concentration of {sup 6}Li, the appropriate blanket energy multiplication factor and TBR can be obtained. The result shows that thorium-uranium molten salt can be used in the blanket of a fusion-fission symbiotic reactor. The research on the molten salt blanket must be valuable for the design of fusion-fission symbiotic reactor.

  14. Dynamical Safety Analysis of the SABR Fusion-Fission Hybrid Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, Tyler; Stacey, Weston; Ghiaassian, Seyed

    2009-11-01

    A hybrid fusion-fission reactor for the transmutation of spent nuclear fuel is being developed at Georgia Tech. The Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) is a 3000 MWth sodium-cooled, metal TRU-Zr fueled fast reactor driven by a tokamak fusion neutron source based on ITER physics and technology. We are investigating the accident dynamics of SABR's coupled fission, fusion and heat removal systems to explore the safety characteristics of a hybrid reactor. Possible accident scenarios such as loss of coolant mass flow (LOFA), of power (LOPA) and of heat sink (LOHSA), as well as inadvertent reactivity insertions and fusion source excursion are being analyzed using the RELAP5-3D code, the ATHENA version of which includes liquid metal coolants.

  15. Fusion-fission probabilities, cross sections, and structure notes of superheavy nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Michał; Cap, Tomasz; Jachimowicz, Piotr; Skalski, Janusz; Siwek-Wilczyńska, Krystyna; Wilczyński, Janusz

    2016-12-01

    Fusion - fission probabilities in the synthesis of heaviest elements are discussed in the context of the latest experimental reports. Cross sections for superheavy nuclei are evaluated using the "Fusion by Diffusion" (FBD) model. Predictive power of this approach is shown for experimentally known Lv and Og isotopes and predictions given for Z = 119, 120. Ground state and saddle point properties as masses, shell corrections, pairing energies, and deformations necessary for cross-section estimations are calculated systematically within the multidimensional microscopic-macroscopic method based on the deformed Woods-Saxon single-particle potential. In the frame of the FBD approach predictions for production of elements heavier than Z = 118 are not too optimistic. For this reason, and because of high instability of superheavy nuclei, we comment on some structure effects, connected with the K-isomerism phenomenon which could lead to a significant increase in the stability of these systems.

  16. Dynamical approach to fusion-fission process in superheavy mass region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aritomo Y.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to describe heavy-ion fusion reactions around the Coulomb barrier with an actinide target nucleus, we propose a model which combines the coupled-channels approach and a fluctuation-dissipation model for dynamical calculations. This model takes into account couplings to the collective states of the interacting nuclei in the penetration of the Coulomb barrier and the subsequent dynamical evolution of a nuclear shape from the contact configuration. In the fluctuation-dissipation model with a Langevin equation, the effect of nuclear orientation at the initial impact on the prolately deformed target nucleus is considered. Fusion-fission, quasifission and deep quasifission are separated as different Langevin trajectories on the potential energy surface. Using this model, we analyze the experimental data for the mass distribution of fission fragments (MDFF in the reaction of 36S+238U at several incident energies around the Coulomb barrier.

  17. Fusion-fission probabilities, cross sections and structure notes of super-heavy nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Kowal, Michał; Jachimowicz, Piotr; Skalski, Janusz; Siwek-Wilczyńska, Krystyna; Wilczyński, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Fusion - fission probabilities in the synthesis of heaviest elements are discussed in the context of the latest experimental reports. Cross sections for superheavy nuclei are evaluated using "Fusion by Diffusion" (FBD) model. Predictive power of this approach is shown for experimentally known Lv, Og isotopes and predictions given for Z=119,120. Ground state and saddle point properties as: masses, shell corrections, pairing energies and deformations necessary for cross section estimations are calculated systematically within the multidimensional microscopic - macroscopic method based on the deformed Woods-Saxon single particle potential. In the frame of FBD approach predictions for production of elements heavier than Z = 118 are not too optimistic. For this reason, and because of high instability of superheavy nuclei, we comment on some structure effects, connected with the K-isomerism phenomenon which could lead to a significant increase in the stability of these systems.

  18. Short-Term Forecasting of Taiwanese Earthquakes Using a Universal Model of Fusion-Fission Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Siew Ann; Tan, Teck Liang; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chang, Wu-Lung; Liu, Zheng; Chew, Lock Yue; Sloot, Peter M. A.; Johnson, Neil F.

    2014-01-01

    Predicting how large an earthquake can be, where and when it will strike remains an elusive goal in spite of the ever-increasing volume of data collected by earth scientists. In this paper, we introduce a universal model of fusion-fission processes that can be used to predict earthquakes starting from catalog data. We show how the equilibrium dynamics of this model very naturally explains the Gutenberg-Richter law. Using the high-resolution earthquake catalog of Taiwan between Jan 1994 and Feb 2009, we illustrate how out-of-equilibrium spatio-temporal signatures in the time interval between earthquakes and the integrated energy released by earthquakes can be used to reliably determine the times, magnitudes, and locations of large earthquakes, as well as the maximum numbers of large aftershocks that would follow. PMID:24406467

  19. Isotopic fission fragment distributions as a deep probe to fusion-fission dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Farget, F; Delaune, O; Tarasov, O B; Derkx, X; Schmidt, K -H; Amthor, A M; Audouin, L; Bacri, C -O; Barreau, G; Bastin, B; Bazin, D; Blank, B; Benlliure, J; Caceres, L; Casarejos, E; Chibihi, A; Fernandez-Dominguez, B; Gaudefroy, L; Golabek, C; Grevy, S; Jurado, B; Kamalou, O; Lemasson, A; Lukyanov, S; Mittig, W; Morrissey, D J; Navin, A; Pereira, J; Perrot, L; Rejmund, M; Roger, T; Saint-Laurent, M -G; Savajols, H; Schmitt, C; Sherill, B M; Stodel, C; Taieb, J; Thomas, J -C; Villari, A C

    2012-01-01

    During the fission process, the nucleus deforms and elongates up to the two fragments inception and their final separation at scission deformation. The evolution of the nucleus energy with deformation is determined by the macroscopic properties of the nucleus, and is also strongly influenced by the single-particle structure of the nucleus. The fission fragment distribution is a direct consequence of the deformation path the nucleus has encountered, and therefore is the most genuine experimental observation of the potential energy landscape of the deforming nucleus. Very asymmetric fusion-fission reactions at energy close to the Coulomb barrier, produce well-defined conditions of the compound nucleus formation, where processes such as quasi-fission, pre-equilibrium emission and incomplete fusion are negligible. In the same time, the excitation energy is sufficient to reduce significantly structural effects, and mostly the macroscopic part of the potential is responsible for the formation of the fission fragmen...

  20. Whole fusion-fission process with Langevin approach and compared with analytical solution for barrier passage

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Jie

    2014-01-01

    We investigate time-dependent probability for a Brownian particle passing over the barrier to stay at a metastable potential pocket against escaping over the barrier. This is related to whole fusion-fission dynamical process and can be called the reverse Kramers problem. By the passing probability over the saddle point of inverse harmonic potential multiplying the exponential decay factor of a particle in the metastable potential, we present an approximate expression for the modified passing probability over the barrier, in which the effect of reflection boundary of potential is taken into account. Our analytical result and Langevin Monte-Carlo simulation show that the probability passing and against escaping over the barrier is a non-monotonous function of time and its maximal value is less than the stationary result of passing probability over the saddle point of inverse harmonic potential.

  1. Short-term forecasting of Taiwanese earthquakes using a universal model of fusion-fission processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Siew Ann; Tan, Teck Liang; Chen, Chien-Chih; Chang, Wu-Lung; Liu, Zheng; Chew, Lock Yue; Sloot, Peter M A; Johnson, Neil F

    2014-01-10

    Predicting how large an earthquake can be, where and when it will strike remains an elusive goal in spite of the ever-increasing volume of data collected by earth scientists. In this paper, we introduce a universal model of fusion-fission processes that can be used to predict earthquakes starting from catalog data. We show how the equilibrium dynamics of this model very naturally explains the Gutenberg-Richter law. Using the high-resolution earthquake catalog of Taiwan between Jan 1994 and Feb 2009, we illustrate how out-of-equilibrium spatio-temporal signatures in the time interval between earthquakes and the integrated energy released by earthquakes can be used to reliably determine the times, magnitudes, and locations of large earthquakes, as well as the maximum numbers of large aftershocks that would follow.

  2. Fusion-Fission Research Facility (FFRF) as a Practical Step Toward Hybrids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Zakharov, J. Li and Y. Wu

    2010-11-18

    The project of ASIPP (with PPPL participation), called FFRF, (R/a=4/1 m/m, Ipl=5 MA, Btor=4-6 T, PDT=50-100 MW, Pfission=80-4000 MW, 1 m thick blanket) is outlined. FFRF stands for the Fusion-Fission Research Facility with a unique fusion mission and a pioneering mission of merging fusion and fission for accumulation of design, experimental, and operational data for future hybrid applications. The design of FFRF will use as much as possible the EAST and ITER design experience. On the other hand, FFRF strongly relies on new, Lithium Wall Fusion plasma regimes, the development of which has already started in the US and China.

  3. Application of the X-ray laser to muon-catalyzed d-t fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Sachie; 10.1080/10420150701777991

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the alpha-muon sticking coefficient in the muon-catalysed d-t fusion in the framework of the Constrained Molecular Dynamics model. Especially the influence of muonic chaotic dynamics on the sticking coefficient is brought into focus. The chaotic motion of the muon affects not only the fusion cross section but also the muon-alpha sticking coefficient. Chaotic systems lead to lar ger enhancements with respect to regular systems because of the reduction of the tunneling region. Moreover they give smaller sticking probabilities than those of regular events. By utilizing a characteristic of the chaotic dynamics one can avoid losing the muon in the muCF cycle. W e propose that the application of the so-called microwave ionization of a Rydberg atom to the present case could lead to the enhancement of the reactivation process by using X-rays.

  4. Quasifission and fusion-fission in massive nuclei reactions. Comparison of reactions leading to the Z=120 element

    CERN Document Server

    Nasirov, A K; Hanappe, F; Heinz, S; Hofmann, S; Mandaglio, G; Manganaro, M; Muminov, A I; Scheid, W

    2008-01-01

    The yields of evaporation residues, fusion-fission and quasifission fragments in the $^{48}$Ca+$^{144,154}$Sm and $^{16}$O+$^{186}$W reactions are analyzed in the framework of the combined theoretical method based on the dinuclear system concept and advanced statistical model. The measured yields of evaporation residues for the $^{48}$Ca+$^{154}$Sm reaction can be well reproduced. The measured yields of fission fragments are decomposed into contributions coming from fusion-fission, quasifission, and fast-fission. The decrease in the measured yield of quasifission fragments in $^{48}$Ca+$^{154}$Sm at the large collision energies and the lack of quasifission fragments in the $^{48}$Ca+$^{144}$Sm reaction are explained by the overlap in mass-angle distributions of the quasifission and fusion-fission fragments. The investigation of the optimal conditions for the synthesis of the new element $Z$=120 ($A$=302) show that the $^{54}$Cr+$^{248}$Cm reaction is preferable in comparison with the $^{58}$Fe+$^{244}$Pu and ...

  5. Interaction of a self-focused laser beam with a DT fusion target in a plasma-loaded cone-guided ICF scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedjalil, N.; Mehrangiz, M.; Jafari, S.; Ghasemizad, A.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the interaction of a self-focused laser beam with a DT fusion target in a plasma-loaded cone-guided ICF scheme has been presented. We propose here to merge a plasma-loaded cone with the precompressed DT target in order to strongly focus the incident laser beam on the core to improve the fusion gain. The WKB approximation is used to derive a differential equation that governs the evolution of beamwidth of the incident laser beam with the distance of propagation in the plasma medium. The effects of initial plasma and laser parameters, such as initial plasma electron temperature, initial radius of the laser beam, initial laser beam intensity and plasma density, on self-focusing and defocusing of the Gaussian laser beam have been studied. Numerical results indicate that with increasing the plasma frequency (or plasma density) in the cone, the laser beam will be self-focused noticeably, while for a thinner laser beam (with small radius), it will diverge as propagate in the cone. By evaluating the energy deposition of the relativistic electron ignitors in the fuel, the importance of electron transportation in the cone-attached shell was demonstrated. Moreover, by lessening the least energy needed for ignition, the electrons coupling with the pellet enhances. Therefore, it increases the fusion efficiency. In this scheme, with employing a plasma-loaded cone, the fusion process improves without needing an ultrahigh-intensity laser beam in a conventional ICF.

  6. Study of the Fusion-Fission Process in the $^{35}Cl + ^{24}Mg$ Reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, C; Dayras, R; Cavallaro., Sl.

    1998-01-01

    Fusion-fission and fully energy-damped binary processes of the $^{35}$Cl+$^{24}$Mg reaction were investigated using particle-particle coincidence techniques at a $^{35}$Cl bombarding energy of E$_{lab}$ $\\approx$ 8 MeV/nucleon. Inclusive data were also taken in order to determine the partial wave distribution of the fusion process. The fragment-fragment correlation data show that the majority of events arises from a binary-decay process with a relatively large multiplicity of secondary light-charged particles emitted by the two primary excited fragments in the exit channel. No evidence is observed for ternary-breakup processes, as expected from the systematics recently established for incident energies below 15 MeV/nucleon and for a large number of reactions. The binary-process results are compared with predictions of statistical-model calculations. The calculations were performed using the Extended Hauser-Feshbach method, based on the available phase space at the scission point of the compound nucleus. This ...

  7. Dissipation strength of the tilting degree of freedom in fusion-fission reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadtochy P. N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The four-dimensional Langevin model was applied to calculate a wide set of experimental observables for compound nuclei, formed in heavy-ion fusion-fission reactions. A modified one-body mechanism for nuclear dissipation with a reduction coefficient ks of the contribution from a “wall” formula was used for shapes parameters. Different possibilities of deformation-dependent dissipation coefficient for the K coordinate (γK were investigated. Presented results demonstrate that the influence of the ks and γK parameters on the calculated quantities can be selectively probed. It was found that it is possible to describe experimental data with the deformation-dependent γK coefficient. One of the possibility is to use large values of γK ≃ 0.2 (MeV zs−1/2 for compact shapes featuring no neck and small values of γK ≃ 0.0077 (MeV zs−1/2 for elongated shapes.

  8. TRAP1 controls mitochondrial fusion/fission balance through Drp1 and Mff expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hironori Takamura

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that change in response to extracellular stimuli. These changes are essential for normal mitochondrial/cellular function and are controlled by a tight balance between two antagonistic pathways that promote fusion and fission. Although some molecules have been identified to mediate the mitochondrial fusion and fission process, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1 is a mitochondrial molecule that regulates a variety of mitochondrial functions. Here, we examined the role of TRAP1 in the regulation of morphology. Stable TRAP1 knockdown cells showed abnormal mitochondrial morphology, and we observed significant decreases in dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1 and mitochondrial fission factor (Mff, mitochondrial fission proteins. Similar results were obtained by transient knockdown of TRAP1 in two different cell lines, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells and KNS-42 glioma cells. However, TRAP1 knockdown did not affect expression levels of fusion proteins. The reduction in Drp1 and Mff protein levels was rescued following treatment with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. These results suggest that TRAP1 regulates the expression of fission proteins and controls mitochondrial fusion/fission, which affects mitochondrial/cellular function.

  9. Deceleration of fusion-fission cycles improves mitochondrial quality control during aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Thilo Figge

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy play a key role in ensuring mitochondrial quality control. Impairment thereof was proposed to be causative to neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, and cancer. Accumulation of mitochondrial dysfunction was further linked to aging. Here we applied a probabilistic modeling approach integrating our current knowledge on mitochondrial biology allowing us to simulate mitochondrial function and quality control during aging in silico. We demonstrate that cycles of fusion and fission and mitophagy indeed are essential for ensuring a high average quality of mitochondria, even under conditions in which random molecular damage is present. Prompted by earlier observations that mitochondrial fission itself can cause a partial drop in mitochondrial membrane potential, we tested the consequences of mitochondrial dynamics being harmful on its own. Next to directly impairing mitochondrial function, pre-existing molecular damage may be propagated and enhanced across the mitochondrial population by content mixing. In this situation, such an infection-like phenomenon impairs mitochondrial quality control progressively. However, when imposing an age-dependent deceleration of cycles of fusion and fission, we observe a delay in the loss of average quality of mitochondria. This provides a rational why fusion and fission rates are reduced during aging and why loss of a mitochondrial fission factor can extend life span in fungi. We propose the 'mitochondrial infectious damage adaptation' (MIDA model according to which a deceleration of fusion-fission cycles reflects a systemic adaptation increasing life span.

  10. Allowance for the tunnel effect in the entrance channel of fusion-fission reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litnevsky, V. L.; Kosenko, G. I.; Ivanyuk, F. A.

    2016-05-01

    A two-stage model is developed in order to describe fusion-fission reactions. The process in the course of which colliding ions approach each other is simulated at the first stage, the deformations and relative orientations of the ions being taken into account. The first stage of the calculation is completed as soon as colliding nuclei touch each other. A continuous nuclear system (monosystem) is formed at this instant. The emerging distributions of the angular momenta of this system and of its potential and internal energies at the point of touching are used as input data that are necessary for triggering the second stage of the calculation. The evolution of collective coordinates that describe the shape of the monosystem is calculated at the second stage. The description of this evolution is terminated either at the instant of its fission or upon the release of a major part of its excess energy via particle and photon emission. In the latter case, the probability for the fission of the monosystem or a further decrease in its excitation energy becomes extremely small. The ion-collision process and the evolution of the monosystem formed after primary nuclei come into contact are simulated on the basis of stochastic Langevin equations. The quantities appearing in them (which include the potential energy and inertial and friction parameters) are determined with allowance for the shell structure of nuclei. The tunneling of colliding nuclei through the Coulomb barrier is taken into account, and the effect of this phenomenon on model predictions is studied.

  11. The fusion-fission process in the reaction {sup 34}S+{sup 186}W near the interaction barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harca, I. M. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, (FLNR JINR) Dubna, Russia and Faculty of Physics, University of Bucharest - P.O. Box MG 11, RO 77125, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Dmitriev, S.; Itkis, J.; Kozulin, E. M.; Knyazheva, G.; Loktev, T.; Novikov, K. [Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, (FLNR JINR) Dubna (Russian Federation); Azaiez, F.; Gottardo, A.; Matea, I.; Verney, D. [IPN, CNRS/IN2P3, Univ. Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Chubarian, G. [Cyclotron Institute, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3366 (United States); Hanappe, F. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Bruxelles (Belgium); Piot, J.; Schmitt, C. [GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, Bd Henri Becquerel, BP 55027, F-14076 Caen Cedex 5 (France); Trzaska, W. H. [Accelerator Laboratory of University of Jyväskylä (JYFL), Jyväskylä (Finland); Vardaci, E. [Dipartamento di Scienze Fisiche and INFN (INFN-Na), Napoli (Italy)

    2015-02-24

    The reaction {sup 34}S+{sup 186}W at E{sub lab}=160 MeV was investigated with the aim of diving into the features of the fusion-fission process. Gamma rays in coincidence with binary reaction fragments were measured using the high efficiency gamma-ray spectrometer ORGAM at the TANDEM Accelerator facility of I.P.N., Orsay, and the time-of-flight spectrometer for fission fragments (FF) registration CORSET of the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions (FLNR), Dubna. The coupling of the ORGAM and CORSET setups offers the unique opportunity of extracting details for characterizing the fusion-fission process and gives information regarding production of neutron-rich heavy nuclei. The FF–γ coincidence method is of better use then the γ – γ coincidence method when dealing with low statistic measurements and also offers the opportunity to precisely correct the Dopler shift for in-flight emitted gamma rays. Evidence of symmetric and asymmetric fission modes were observed in the mass and TKE distributions, occurring due to shell effects in the fragments. Coincident measurements allow for discrimination between the gamma rays by accepting a specific range within the mass distribution of the reaction products. Details regarding the experimental setup, methods of processing the acquisitioned data and preliminary results are presented.

  12. The Radiological and Thermal Characteristics of Fission Waste from a Deep-Burn Fusion-Fission Hybrid (LIFE) and Implications for Repository Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, H F; Blink, J; Farmer, J; Latkowski, J; Kramer, K

    2009-09-08

    We are studying the use of a Laser Inertial-confinement Fusion Engine (LIFE) to drive a hybrid fusion-fission system that can generate electrical power and/or burn nuclear waste. The system uses the neutrons from laser driven ICF to produce tritium and to drive nuclear reactions in a subcritical fission blanket. The fusion neutron source obviates the need for a self-sustaining chain reaction in the fission blanket. Either fissile or fertile could be used as fission fuel, thus eliminating the need for isotopic enrichment. The 'driven' system potentially allows very high levels of burnup to be reached, extracting a large fraction of the available energy in the fission fuel without the need for reprocessing. In this note, we discuss the radionuclide inventory of a depleted uranium (DU) fuel burned to greater than 95% FIMA (Fissions per Initial heavy Metal Atom), the implications for thermal management of the resulting waste, and the implications of this waste for meeting the dose standards for releases from a geological repository for high-level waste. The fission waste discussed here would be that produced by a LIFE hybrid with a 500-MW fusion source. The fusion neutrons are multiplied and moderated by a sequence of concentric shells of materials before encountering the fission fuel, and fission in this region is largely due to thermal neutrons. The fission blanket consists of 40 metric tons (MT) of DU, assumed to be in the form of TRISO-like UOC fuel particles embedded in 2-cm-diameter graphite pebbles. (It is recognized that TRISO-based fuel may not reach the high burnup of the fertile fuel considered here, and other fuel options are being investigated. We postulate the existence of a fuel that can reach >95% FIMA so that the waste disposal implications of high burnup can be assessed.) The engine and plant design considered here would receive one load of fission fuel and produce {approx}2 GWt of power (fusion + fission) over its 50- to 70-year lifetime

  13. Dynamical fission life-times deduced from gamma-ray emission observed in the fusion-fission reaction : Ne-20 on Bi-209.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderPloeg, H; Bacelar, JCS; Buda, A; Dioszegi, [No Value; vantHof, G; vanderWoude, A

    1996-01-01

    The gamma-ray emission spectra between 4 and 20 MeV have been measured for the fusion-fission reactions Ne-20 on Bi-209 --> Np-229* at beam energies 150, 186 and 220 MeV. In addition for the latter experiment the angular dependence of the gamma-ray emission with respect to the spin axis has been

  14. A >2-MJ, 1014-W laser system for DT fusion—NIF: a note in celebration of the 75th birthday of Prof. Theodore Haensch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzrichter, John F.; Manes, Kenneth R.

    2017-01-01

    In 1970, Dr. Theodore Haensch joined A.L. Schawlow's group in the physics department at Stanford, as a NATO postdoctoral researcher. Within a short time, he and his colleagues had invented a new, high-resolution, tunable laser system using expanded reflection gratings and an N2 laser for pumping the fluorescing dyes. This work resulted in a high-brightness, high-repetition-rate, narrow-band laser probe for conducting optical spectroscopy at extreme levels of precision. Dr. Haensch, and his many colleagues, particularly Prof. Arthur Schawlow and their students at Stanford, then proceeded to revolutionize optical spectroscopy and to train several generations of exceptional young scientists. At the same time, the Siegman, Harris, and Byer laboratories also at Stanford were making major contributions to the laser and quantum electronics fields. Several students from both groups joined the Livermore Laboratory. That early work, and that of others, encouraged teams at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to design and build a series of increasing complicated, high-power multi-beam laser systems to investigate the potential of laser fusion. The National Ignition Facility, recently completed, is enabling investigations of matter at very high temperatures, T > 1 million K and densities 100-1000× normal. In addition, researchers are creating 1015 DT fusion neutrons per fusion experiment and generating new knowledge about unusual and important conditions of matter.

  15. Exogenous H2S modulates mitochondrial fusion-fission to inhibit vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation in a hyperglycemic state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Aili; Wang, Yan; Liu, Jiaqi; Yu, Xiangjing; Sun, Yu; Yang, Fan; Dong, Shiyun; Wu, Jichao; Zhao, Yajun; Xu, Changqing; Lu, Fanghao; Zhang, Weihua

    2016-01-01

    Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in response to hyperglycemia is an important process in the development of arterial vessel hyperplasia. The shape change of mitochondria is dynamic and closely related to fission and fusion. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) was confirmed to have anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative effects. However, little it is known about its effects on mitochondrial morphology induced by hyperglycemia. The aim of the study is to demonstrate that H2S inhibits VSMC proliferation through regulating mitochondrial fission. We observe lower H2S levels as well as higher proliferative protein expression levels for proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and cyclin D1 and higher mitochondrial fusion-fission protein expression levels for dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp 1) in human kidney arteries and in db/db mouse aorta. Exogenous H2S (100 μM NaHS) inhibits vascular smooth muscle cells of human pulmonary aorta(HPASMC) proliferation and migration in response to high glucose using the BrdU and scratch wound repair assays, decreases proliferative protein (PCNA and cyclin D1) expression, and reduces ROS production in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. When HPASMCs proliferate with a high glucose treatment, the mitochondria become small spheres with a short rod-shaped structure, whereas NaHS, a mitochondrial division inhibitor and siDrp prevent VSMC proliferation and maintain mitochondria as stationary and randomly dispersed with fixed structures. Exogenous H2S aids in inhibiting mitochondrial fragmentation and affects proliferation in db/db mice and HPASMCs by decreasing Drp 1 expression.

  16. Effect of tritium reduction in determining energy gain by using R-matrix method direct laser fusion in D-T reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.N. HOSSEINI MOTLAGH; Sh.S.MOHAMADY; M.Kh. MORADKHANI; R. SHAMSI

    2007-01-01

    The laser fusion criterion is known as the ρR-Criterion, also called high-gain condition. This parameter is temperature dependent and can be calculated by R-matrix method. This method is applied for determining improved fusion cross-section for the reactions T(d,n)4He, 3He(d,p)4He, D(d,p)T, D(d,n)3He. In this paper the time dependent reaction rate equations for fusion reaction T(d,n)4He are solved and by using the obtained results we computed the fusion power density, energy gain versus temperature and pR-parameter. The obtained results show that a suitable combination may be a deuterium fraction fD=0.65 and fT=0.35 which would lead 30% reduction in the tritium content of the fuel mixture, and this choice would not change the energy gain value very much. Finally, the obtained energy gain for D-T reaction by using R-matrix is in good agreement with other theories.

  17. Group dynamics and landscape features constrain the exploration of herds in fusion-fission societies: the case of European roe deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Pays

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of movement studies, the constraints that grouping imposes on movement decisions remain essentially unexplored, even for highly social species. Such constraints could be key, however, to understanding the dynamics and spatial organisation of species living in group fusion-fission systems. We investigated the winter movements (speed and diffusion coefficient of groups of free-ranging roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, in an agricultural landscape characterised by a mosaic of food and foodless patches. Most groups were short-lived units that merged and split up frequently during the course of a day. Deer groups decreased their speed and diffusion rate in areas where food patches were abundant, as well as when travelling close to main roads and crest lines and far from forests. While accounting for these behavioural adjustments to habitat features, our study revealed some constraints imposed by group foraging: large groups reached the limit of their diffusion rate faster than small groups. The ability of individuals to move rapidly to new foraging locations following patch depression thus decreases with group size. Our results highlight the importance of considering both habitat heterogeneity and group dynamics when predicting the movements of individuals in group fusion-fission societies. Further, we provide empirical evidence that group cohesion can restrain movement and, therefore, the speed at which group members can explore their environment. When maintaining cohesion reduces foraging gains because of movement constraints, leaving the group may become a fitness-rewarding decision, especially when individuals can join other groups located nearby, which would tend to maintain highly dynamical group fusion-fission systems. Our findings also provide the basis for new hypotheses explaining a broad range of ecological patterns, such as the broader diet and longer residency time reported for larger herbivore groups.

  18. TRISO Fuel Performance: Modeling, Integration into Mainstream Design Studies, and Application to a Thorium-fueled Fusion-Fission Hybrid Blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, Jeffrey James [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-11-30

    This study focused on creating a new tristructural isotropic (TRISO) coated particle fuel performance model and demonstrating the integration of this model into an existing system of neutronics and heat transfer codes, creating a user-friendly option for including fuel performance analysis within system design optimization and system-level trade-off studies. The end product enables both a deeper understanding and better overall system performance of nuclear energy systems limited or greatly impacted by TRISO fuel performance. A thorium-fueled hybrid fusion-fission Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) blanket design was used for illustrating the application of this new capability and demonstrated both the importance of integrating fuel performance calculations into mainstream design studies and the impact that this new integrated analysis had on system-level design decisions. A new TRISO fuel performance model named TRIUNE was developed and verified and validated during this work with a novel methodology established for simulating the actual lifetime of a TRISO particle during repeated passes through a pebble bed. In addition, integrated self-consistent calculations were performed for neutronics depletion analysis, heat transfer calculations, and then fuel performance modeling for a full parametric study that encompassed over 80 different design options that went through all three phases of analysis. Lastly, side studies were performed that included a comparison of thorium and depleted uranium (DU) LIFE blankets as well as some uncertainty quantification work to help guide future experimental work by assessing what material properties in TRISO fuel performance modeling are most in need of improvement. A recommended thorium-fueled hybrid LIFE engine design was identified with an initial fuel load of 20MT of thorium, 15% TRISO packing within the graphite fuel pebbles, and a 20cm neutron multiplier layer with beryllium pebbles in flibe molten salt coolant. It operated

  19. Research Needs for Fusion-Fission Hybrid Systems. Report of the Research Needs Workshop (ReNeW) Gaithersburg, Maryland, September 30 - October 2, 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-30

    Largely in anticipation of a possible nuclear renaissance, there has been an enthusiastic renewal of interest in the fusion-fission hybrid concept, driven primarily by some members of the fusion community. A fusion-fission hybrid consists of a neutron-producing fusion core surrounded by a fission blanket. Hybrids are of interest because of their potential to address the main long-term sustainability issues related to nuclear power: fuel supply, energy production, and waste management. As a result of this renewed interest, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), with the participation of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES), Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), and National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), organized a three-day workshop in Gaithersburg, Maryland, from September 30 through October 2, 2009. Participants identified several goals. At the highest level, it was recognized that DOE does not currently support any R&D in the area of fusion-fission hybrids. The question to be addressed was whether or not hybrids offer sufficient promise to motivate DOE to initiate an R&D program in this area. At the next level, the workshop participants were asked to define the research needs and resources required to move the fusion-fission concept forward. The answer to the high-level question was given in two ways. On the one hand, when viewed as a standalone concept, the fusion-fission hybrid does indeed offer the promise of being able to address the sustainability issues associated with conventional nuclear power. On the other hand, when participants were asked whether these hybrid solutions are potentially more attractive than contemplated pure fission solutions (that is, fast burners and fast breeders), there was general consensus that this question could not be quantitatively answered based on the known technical information. Pure fission solutions are based largely on existing both fusion and nuclear technology, thereby prohibiting a fair side-by-side comparison

  20. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle

    In the past months, the DT electronics has run in a stable and reliable way, demonstrated again through the CRAFT exercise. Operation when the CMS magnetic field was on has been satisfactory. The detector safety control and monitoring is improving constantly as the DT group accumulates running experience. The DT DAQ and DCS systems proved very stable during the intensive CRAFT period. The few issues that were identified by the DCS and on-line monitoring did not prevent the run to continue, so that the record of the DT in the data taking efficiency was very good. The long running period was also used to continue the transition from a system run by experts to one run by shifters, which was in the large part successful. Improvements, mostly in consolidation of error reporting, were identified and will be addressed in the coming shut-down. During the CRAFT data taking, DT triggered about 300 million cosmics with the magnet at 3.8T and the silicon strip tracker in the readout. Although a dedicated configuratio...

  1. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Redondo

    2011-01-01

    During the second quarter of 2011, the DT system has continued to operate successfully with a high fraction of good channels (>99 %) and causing extremely little downtime to CMS. The high fraction of operated channels did not come for free: DT requested 18 short UXC accesses in the 3 months from March to May 2011. The dominant causes for these interventions were HV related interventions (7), which typically affect a small fraction of a chamber, and interventions for dealing with overheated LV Anderson connectors (7), whose failure could affect larger fractions of the detector (a whole chamber, half a wheel). With respect to the CMS downtime, a successful effort with colleagues from the DT Track Finder of the Level-1 Trigger system allowed to overcome a relatively relevant source of downtime from DTTF FED Out-Of-Sync errors, which would appear randomly during data-taking. The DT group developed a system configuration that would make it possible to reproduce the error without beam, thereby sparing lumin...

  2. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    Marco Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    The DT group is undertaking substantial work both for detector maintenance and for detec-tor upgrade. Maintenance interventions on chambers and minicrates require close collaboration between DT, RPC and HO, and are difficult because they depend on the removal of thermal shields and cables on the front and rear of the chambers in order to gain access. The tasks are particularly critical on the central wheel due to the presence of fixed services. Several interventions on the chambers require extraction of the DT+RPC package: a delicate operation due to the very limited space for handling the big chambers, and the most dangerous part of the DT maintenance campaign. The interventions started in July 2013 and will go on until spring 2014. So far out of the 16 chambers with HV problems, 13 have been already repaired, with a global yield of 217 recovered channels. Most of the observed problems were due to displacement of impurities inside the gaseous volume. For the minicrates and FE, repairs occurred on 22 chambe...

  3. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle

    2012-01-01

      It is three years without access to the chambers and their front-end electronics, and the DT collaboration is preparing for a substantial work of maintenance and upgrade during LS1 in 2013/14. Even though, thanks to the constant care provided by the on-site operation team, the fraction of good channels is still very high at 98.8% and the downtime caused to CMS as a consequence of DT failures is to-date <1%, the original robustness of the system has deteriorated and many small local interventions are needed to restore it. The excellent stability and linearity with luminosity of the DT trigger rates has been
exploited and currently DT rates are published as an additional online luminometer in WBM.
The calibration is calculated from the correlation with pixel luminosity for 2011 data while
a preliminary independent calibration for 2012 data based on the analysis of Van der Meer scan data
 (project of CERN summer student Jessica Turner) has to be refined i...

  4. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    I. Redondo Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    The DT system has operated successfully during the entire 2011 data-taking: the fraction of good channels was always >99.4 % and the downtime caused to CMS amounts to a few inverse picobarns. This excellent performance does not come without a price: the DT group requested more than 30 short accesses to the underground experimental cavern (UXC).  A large fraction of interventions was for dealing with overheated LV Anderson connectors, whose failure can affect larger sections of the detector (a whole chamber, or half a wheel of the CMS barrel, etc.). A crash programme for reworking those connections will take place during the Year-End Technical Stop. The system of six vd chambers (VDC) that were installed on the DT exhaust gas line have operated successfully. The VDCs are small drift chambers the size of a shoebox that measure the drift velocity every 10 minutes. Possible deviations from the nominal value could be caused by a contamination of the gas mixture or changes in pressure or temperat...

  5. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    R.Carlin

    2010-01-01

    DT operation during 2010 LHC collisions, both in proton-proton and heavy ions, has been outstanding. The DT downtime has been below 0.1% throughout the whole year, mainly caused by the manual Resync commands that took around a minute for being processed. An automatic resynchronisation procedure has been enabled by August 27 and since then the downtime has been negligible (though constantly monitored). The need for these Resync commands is related to sporadic noise events that occasionally fill the RO buffers or unlock the readout links. Their rate is low, in the order of a few per week. Besides that, only one pp collisions run (1 hour 30 minutes run) has been marked as bad for DT, because of an incident with a temperature sensor that triggered a false alarm and powered off one wheel. Nevertheless, quite a large number of interventions (>30) have been made in the cavern during the year, in order to keep such a large fraction of the detector operational. Most of those are due to the overheating of the ...

  6. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

      It is three years since the last access to the chambers and their front-end electronics, and the DT collaboration is preparing for substantial maintenance and upgrade work LS1 in 2013-’14. The original robustness of the system has deteriorated and many small local interventions are needed to restore it, even though, thanks to the constant care provided by the on-site operation team, the fraction of good channels has still been very high (98.8%) during the 2012 data taking, and the downtime caused to CMS as a consequence of DT failures is to-date <1%. The upgrade activities planned for the LS1 evolve in good accordance to the schedule, both for the theta Trigger Board (TTRB) replacement and for the Sector Collector (SC) relocation from UXC to USC. The TTRB work aims at reconstituting the stock of spare boards for the long-term operation of the chamber minicrates. With the SC work, data and trigger primitives from each of the 250 DT chambers will be available in USC on optical fi...

  7. Axial Neutron Flux Evaluation in a Tokamak System: a Possible Transmutation Blanket Position for a Fusion-Fission Transmutation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Carlos E.; de P. Barros, Graiciany; Pereira, Claubia; Fortini Veloso, Maria A.; Costa, Antonella L.

    2012-08-01

    A sub-critical advanced reactor based on Tokamak technology with a D-T fusion neutron source is an innovative type of nuclear system. Due to the large number of neutrons produced by fusion reactions, such a system could be useful in the transmutation process of transuranic elements (Pu and minor actinides (MAs)). However, to enhance the MA transmutation efficiency, it is necessary to have a large neutron wall loading (high neutron fluence) with a broad energy spectrum in the fast neutron energy region. Therefore, it is necessary to know and define the neutron fluence along the radial axis and its characteristics. In this work, the neutron flux and the interaction frequency along the radial axis are evaluated for various materials used to build the first wall. W alloy, beryllium, and the combination of both were studied, and the regions more suitable to transmutation were determined. The results demonstrated that the best zone in which to place a transmutation blanket is limited by the heat sink and the shield block. Material arrangements of W alloy/W alloy and W alloy/beryllium would be able to meet the requirements of the high fluence and hard spectrum that are needed for transuranic transmutation. The system was simulated using the MCNP code, data from the ITER Final Design Report, 2001, and the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library/MC-2.1 nuclear data library.

  8. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle.

    The DT system is ready for the LHC start up. The status of detector hardware, control and safety, of the software for calibration and monitoring and of people has been reviewed at several meetings, starting with the CMS Action Matrix Review and with the Muon Barrel Workshop (October 5 to 7). The disconnected HV channels are at a level of about 0.1%. The loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the Read-Out and Trigger electronics is about 0.5%. The electronics failure rate has been lower this year: next year will tell us whether the rate has stabilised and hopefully will confirm that the number of spares is adequate for ten years operation. Although the detector safety control is very accurate and robust, incidents have happened. In particular the DT system suffered from a significant water leak, originated in the top part of YE+1, that generated HV trips in eighteen chambers going transversely down from the top sector in YB+2 to the bottom sector in YB-2. All chambers recovered and all t...

  9. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Fernandez Bedoya and M. Dallavalle

    2010-01-01

    The DT system operation since the 2010 LHC start up is remarkably smooth.
 All parts of the system have behaved very satisfactorily in the last two months of operation with LHC pp collisions. Disconnected HV channels remain at the level of 0.1%, and the loss in detector acceptance because of failures in the readout and Trigger electronics is about 0.4%. The DT DCS-LHC handshake mechanism, which was strengthened after the short 2009 LHC run, operates without major problems. A problem arose with the opto-receivers of the trigger links connecting the detector to USC; the receivers would unlock from transmission for specific frequencies of the LHC lock, in particular during the LHC ramp. For relocking the TX and RX a “re-synch” command had to be issued. The source of the problem has been isolated and cured in the Opto-RX boards and now the system is stable. The Theta trigger chain also has been commissioned and put in operation. Several interventions on the system have been made, pro...

  10. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Fernandez Bedova and M. Dallavalle

    2010-01-01

    After successful operation during the 2009 LHC run, a number of fixes and improvements were carried out on the DT system the winter shutdown. The main concern was related with the impact of the extensive water leak that happened in October in YE+1. Opening of CMS end-caps allowed the DT crew to check if any Minicrates (containing the first level of readout and trigger electronics) in YB+2 and YB-2 were flooded with water. The affected region from top sectors in YB+2 reaches down to the bottom sectors in YB-2 following the water path in the barrel from end to end. No evidence of water penetration was observed, though the passage of water left oxidation and white streaks on the iron and components. In particular, large signs of oxidation have been seen on the YB-2 MB1 top and bottom stations. Review of the impact in YB+1 remains for future openings of CMS wheels, and at present, effort is focused on setting up the water leak detection system in the detector. Another important issue during this shutd...

  11. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    Marco Dallavalle

    The April Muon Barrel Workshop marked the boundary between DT maintenance work and preparation for the LHC run. The thrust of the DT group was then directed, on one side, towards system safety and reliability, and, on the other side, towards enlarging the pool of experts and shifters. Analysis of the 2008 CRAFT data has provided details on the performance and a first set of calibration constants. Improvements to the safety system (both DSS and DCS) have been made: flow-meters inserted in the cooling system provide on-line information; an interlock signal is available from the gas racks; electronics racks have thermostats and fire detection systems; power to the mini-crates is cut when DCS communication is lost. Water leak detection cables were installed on the wheels: they provide an early warning before the HV trips and help in localizing the leak. On April 28, a short circuit in an opto-receiver board recently installed and cabled in USC caused a minor rack fire. This was satisfactorily mastered by the DS...

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) γ and PPARα Agonists Modulate Mitochondrial Fusion-Fission Dynamics: Relevance to Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS)-Related Neurodegenerative Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolezzi, Juan M.; Silva-Alvarez, Carmen; Ordenes, Daniela; Godoy, Juan A.; Carvajal, Francisco J.; Santos, Manuel J.; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C.

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies showed that the activation of the retinoid X receptor, which dimerizes with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), leads to an enhanced clearance of Aβ from the brain of transgenic mice model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), because an increased expression of apolipoprotein E and it main transporters. However, the effects observed must involve additional underlying mechanisms that have not been yet explored. Several studies conducted in our laboratory suggest that part of the effects observed for the PPARs agonist might involves mitochondrial function and, particularly, mitochondrial dynamics. In the present study we assessed the effects of oxidative stress challenge on mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial dynamics-related proteins in hippocampal neurons. Using immunofluorescence, we evaluated the PPARγ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), dynamin related protein 1 (DRP1), mitochondrial fission protein 1 (FIS1), and mitochondrial length, in order to determine if PPARs agonist pre-treatment is able to protect mitochondrial population from hippocampal neurons through modulation of the mitochondrial fusion-fission events. Our results suggest that both a PPARγ agonist (ciglitazone) and a PPARα agonist (WY 14.643) are able to protect neurons by modulating mitochondrial fusion and fission, leading to a better response of neurons to oxidative stress, suggesting that a PPAR based therapy could acts simultaneously in different cellular components. Additionally, our results suggest that PGC-1α and mitochondrial dynamics should be further studied in future therapy research oriented to ameliorate neurodegenerative disorders, such as AD. PMID:23675519

  13. Fusion-Fission process and gamma spectroscopy of binary products in light heavy ion collisions (40 {<=} A{sub CN} {<=} 60); Processus de fusion-fission et spectroscopie gamma des produits binaires dans les collisions entre ions lourds legers (40 {<=} A{sub NC} {<=} 60)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouicer, Rachid [Institut de Recherche Subatomique, CNRS-IN2P3 - Universite Louis Pasteur, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    1997-11-21

    During the work on which this Thesis is based, the significant role of the Fusion-Fission Asymmetric mechanism in light heavy ion collisions (A{sub NC} {<=} 60) has been emphasized. The Spin Dis-alignment in the oblate-oblate system has supplied evidence for the first time for the Butterfly mode in a resonant-like reaction. These two aspects, one macroscopic and the other more closely related to microscopic effects are certainly different from a conceptual point of view but are quite complementary for a global understanding of dinuclear systems. In the first part, inclusive and exclusive measurements of the {sup 35}Cl + {sup 12}C and {sup 35}Cl + {sup 24}Mg reaction have been performed at 8 MeV/nucleon in the Saclay experiment. These measurements have permitted us to verify the origin of products which have given rise of the asymmetric fusion-fission mechanism and which have demonstrated that the three-body process in this energy range is very weak. In the second part the {sup 28}Si + {sup 28}Si reaction has been performed at the resonance energy E{sub lab}> = 111.6 MeV at Strasbourg with the Eurogam phase II multi-detector array and VIVITRON accelerator. An angular momentum J{sup {pi}} 38{sup +} for inelastic and mutual channels of the {sup 28}Si + {sup 28}Si exit channel has been measured and has supplied evidence for a spin dis-alignment which has been interpreted in the framework of a molecular model by Butterfly motion. The spectroscopic study of {sup 32}S nucleus, has revealed the occurrence of a new {gamma}-ray transition 0{sup +}(8507.8 keV) {yields} 2{sub 1}{sup +}(2230.2 keV). (author) 105 refs., 116 figs., 26 tabs.

  14. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Dallavalle

    2013-01-01

    The DT collaboration is undertaking substantial work both for detector maintenance – after three years since the last access to the chambers and their front-end electronics – and upgrade. The most critical maintenance interventions are chambers and Minicrate repairs, which have not begun yet, because they need proper access to each wheel of the CMS barrel, meaning space for handling the big chambers in the few cases where they have to be extracted, and, more in general, free access from cables and thermal shields in the front and back side of the chambers. These interventions are planned for between the coming Autumn until next spring. Meanwhile, many other activities are happening, like the “pigtail” intervention on the CAEN AC/DC converters which has just taken place. The upgrade activities continue to evolve in good accordance with the schedule, both for the theta Trigger Board (TTRB) replacement and for the Sector Collector (SC) relocation from the UXC to the US...

  15. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Fernandez Bedoya

    2011-01-01

    The DT system has behaved highly satisfactorily throughout the LHC 2010 data-taking period, with more than 99% of the system operational and very few downtime periods. This includes operation with heavy ions collisions in which the rate of muons was low and no impact was observed in the buffer occupancies. An unexpected out-of-time high occupancy was observed in the outermost chambers (MB4) and its origin is under investigation. During the winter technical shutdown many interventions took place with the main goal of optimising the system. One of the main improvements is in the slow control mechanism through the DTTF boards: the problem that was preventing us from monitoring the OptoRX modules properly has been fixed satisfactorily. Other main changes include the installation of a new VME PCI controller to minimise the downtime in case of crate power cycle and the reduction from 10 to the design 5 FEDs, that became possible thanks to the good agreement of the event size with our expectations during LHC operat...

  16. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    A. Benvenuti

    The DT maintenance work that started in November is completed. All interventions have been successful: the total fraction of cells that are disconnected from the HV is back to the 0.2% inherited from construction and installation. Work on YB0 was not as difficult as anticipated. A basic requirement was to carefully plan and to setup the storage space for the EB LV cables. The cables were removed and reinstalled by the TC teams. It was a delicate operation that required a specific solution in each position. Special platforms, designed by Domenico Dattola, were used for stepping on the vacuum tank without removing the thermal screens. They worked very well for the maintenance of minicrates and to access the HO readout boxes in the top sectors of YB-1. For future interventions, the major worry is to intervene on the top sectors (S03, S04, S05) especially on YB+/-2, since heavy work must be done above the beam pipe. Massimo Benettoni is working on a sturdy protection to be anchored on the vacuum tank and the MB1...

  17. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Fernandez Bedoya

    2012-01-01

      The major activity of the DT group during this Year-End Technical Stop has been the reworking of LV modules. It has been a large campaign, carefully planned, to try to solve, once and for all, the long-standing problem of Anderson Power connectors overheating. The solution involved removing the 140 CAEN modules from the detector (6.5 kg each), soldering of “pigtails” in a temporary workshop in USC, and thorough testing of all the modules in a local system installed in USC. The operation has been satisfactorily smooth, taking into account the magnitude of the intervention. The system is now back in good shape and ready for commissioning. In addition, HV boards have been cleaned up, HV USC racks have been equipped with water detection cables, and the gas and HV have been switched back on smoothly. Other significant activities have also taken place during this YETS, such as the installation of a new and faster board for the Minicrates secondary link and the migration to Scienti...

  18. MUON DETECTORS: DT

    CERN Document Server

    Marco Dallavalle

    2012-01-01

      Although the year 2012 is the third year without access to the chambers and the Front-End electronics, the fraction of good channels is still very high at 99.1% thanks also to the constant care provided by the on-site operation team. The downtime caused to CMS as a consequence of DT failures is to-date <2%. The intervention on the LV power supplies, which required a large number of CAEN modules (137 A3050, 13 A3100, and 3 MAO) to be removed from the detector, reworked and tested during this Year-End Technical Stop, can now, after a few months of stable operation of the LV, be declared to have solved once-and-for-all the persistent problem with the overheating LV Anderson connectors. Another piece of very good news is that measurements of the noise from single-hit rate outside the drift-time box as a function of the LHC luminosity show that the noise rate and distribution are consistent with expectations of the simulations in the Muon TDR, which have guided the detector design and constru...

  19. 聚变-裂变混合能源堆球模型参数敏感性分析%Sensitivity Analysis on Parameters of Spherical Model of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Energy Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国明; 程和平; 邵增

    2012-01-01

    在聚变-裂变混合能源堆球模型基础上,使用蒙特卡罗方法中子学程序对中子源、铀水体积比、产氚区等相关参数进行了中子学的敏感性计算.分析了各参数对混合能源堆能量放大倍数M和氚增殖比TBR的影响,并总结其基本规律,为开展进一步的混合能源堆概念设计提供了重要参考.%The sensitivity analysis on neutronics parameters related to neutron source, uranium-water ratio and tritium breeding layers for spherical blanket model of fusion-fission hybrid reactor were presented. By using a Monte-Carlo method based neutron transport code, the effects of the parameters on energy multiplication factor M and tritium breeding ratio TBR were analyzed, and the general various laws of M and TBR were summarized, which were significant for the further conceptual design of fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor.

  20. High efficient ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks by PW-ps laser pulses for producing fusion flames in DT and HB11 of solid state density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustaizis, S.; Lalousis, P.; Hora, H.; Miley, G. H.

    2016-03-01

    Ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks in the range of 1020 cm/s2 has been confirmed experimentally after this was long predicted as a non-thermal direct conversion of optical energy into plasma motion due to dominating nonlinear (ponderomotive) forces [1]. The use of laser pulses of more than PW power and ps or shorter duration can ignite a nuclear fusion flame in solid density deuterium tritium because the necessary energy flux of >108J/cm2 according to the theory of Chu [2] is available [3]. For the studies of the necessary velocities of the generated fusion flames above 1000 km/s the detailed processes can be analyzed by using the advanced genuine two-fluid hydrodynamic model [4] where it was surprising that the ignition of the fusion flame by the picosecond interaction needs a comparably long development in the nanosecond range before the thermal processes result in shock fronts similar to the Rakine-Hugoniot theory. For the evaluation of power generation the problem of lateral energy losses was studied by using very high pulsed magnetic fields. The recently produced 10 Kilotesla magnetic fields [5] are very promising for solutions.

  1. Progress in physics design of fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor%次临界能源堆物理设计进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂生; 贾建平; 程和平; 蒋洁琼; 栗再新; 杨永伟; 吴宏春; 师学明; 刘荣; 鹿心鑫; 朱通华; 王新华; 余泳; 严钧; 唐涛

    2014-01-01

    聚变-裂变混合能源堆包括聚变中子源和次临界能源堆,主要目标是生产电能。回顾了国内外混合堆的发展历史,给出混合能源堆设计的边界条件和约束条件,说明次临界能源堆以铀锆合金为燃料、水为冷却剂的设计思想。利用输运燃耗耦合程序 MCORGS 计算了混合能源的燃耗,给出了中子有效增殖因数、能量放大倍数和氚增殖比等物理量随时间的变化。通过分析能谱和重要核素随燃耗时间的变化,说明混合能源堆与核燃料增殖、核废料嬗变混合堆的不同特点。论述了混合堆的热工设计并进行了安全分析。对于燃耗数值模拟程序,通过多家对算,保证其计算结果的可信性。针对次临界能源堆的特点,利用贫铀球壳建立了贫铀聚乙烯装置和贫铀 LiH 装置,并且专门设计加工了天然铀装置,开展铀裂变率、造钚率、产氚率等中子学积分实验,验证了数值模拟的可靠性。%In this paper,we propose a preliminary design for a fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor (FFHER),based on cur-rent fusion science and technology and well-developed fission technology.Design rules are listed and a primary concept blanket with uranium alloy as fuel and water as coolant is put forward.The uranium fuel can be natural uranium,LWR spent fuel,or de-pleted uranium.The FFHER design can increase the utilization rate of uranium in a comparatively simple way to sustain the de-velopment of nuclear energy.The interaction between the fusion neutron and the uranium fuel with the aim of achieving greater energy multiplication and tritium sustainability is studied.Other concept hybrid reactor designs are also reviewed.Integral neu-tron experiments were carried out to verify the credibility of our proposed physical design.The combination of the physical design with the related thermal hydraulic design,alloy fuel manufacture,and nuclear fuel cycle programs provides the

  2. Simulation on advanced operation mode for the compact fusion-fission hybrid reactor%紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆先进运行模式的数值模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美霞; 刘成岳; 吴斌

    2012-01-01

    Reversed shear (RS) operation mode is simulated with Jsolver and TSC codes on some important issues, such as RS Plasma configuration, bootstrap current fraction and RS operation mode discharge simulation etc.. To some degree, the modeling results show that the RS operation mode is advanced and feasible for the compact Fusion-fission hybrid reactor.%使用Jsolver程序及托卡马克模拟程序TSC对紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆系统的反剪切平衡位形、自举电流份额及放电模拟进行数值模拟研究,以此探讨该混合堆的可行性和先进性.

  3. 紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆自举电流的数值模拟研究%Simulation on bootstrap current for the compact fusion-fission hybrid reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美霞; 刘成岳; 舒双宝

    2015-01-01

    On the basis of the equilibrium code Jsolver, the compact fusion-fission hybrid reactor’s advanced equilibrium configuration design is carried out, especially for the reversed shear operation mode. And the calculation, distribution and fraction of bootstrap current are also simulated.%以平衡程序Jsolver为基础开展了紧凑型聚变裂变混合堆先进等离子体平衡位形设计,重点研究了反剪切运行模式,并在此位形下研究了自举电流的计算、分布及份额。

  4. TFTR D-T results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, D.M.

    1995-03-01

    Temperatures, densities and confinement of deuterium plasmas confined in tokamaks have been achieved within the last decade that are approaching those required for a D-T reactor. As a result, the unique phenomena present in a D-T reactor plasma can now be studied in the laboratory. Recent experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been the first magnetic fusion experiments to study plasmas with reactor fuel concentrations of tritium. The injection of {approximately} 20 MW of tritium and 14 MW of deuterium neutral beams into the TFTR produced a plasma with a T/D density ratio of {approximately} 1 and yielded a maximum fusion power of {approximately} 9.2 MW. The fusion power density in the core of the plasma was {approximately} 1.8 MW m{sup {minus}3} approximating that expected in a D-T fusion reactor. A TFTR plasma with T/D density ratio of {approximately} 1 was found to have {approximately} 20% higher energy confinement time than a comparable D plasma, indicating a confinement scaling with average ion mass, A, of {tau}{sub E} {approximately} A{sup 0.6}. The core ion temperature increased from 30 keV to 37 keV due to a 35% improvement of ion thermal conductivity. Using the electron thermal conductivity from a comparable deuterium plasma, about 50% of the electron temperature increase from 9 keV to 10.6 keV can be attributed to electron heating by the alpha particles. The {approx} 5% loss of alpha particles was consistent with classical first orbit loss without anomalous effects. Initial measurements have been made of the confined energetic alphas and the resultant alpha ash density.

  5. Laser fusion program at LASL. Progress report, January 1--June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stark, E.

    1976-11-01

    Progress in the development of high-energy short-pulse CO/sub 2/ laser systems for fusion research is reported. The Single-Beam System continued to be used in target experiments at a peak intensity of 7 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/, and the system was improved. The status of the Two-Beam System, on which target experiments have begun with 300-J, 1-ns pulses in one beam, is described. Construction and checkout of the Eight-Beam System are continuing. Further design studies for the High-Energy Gas Laser Facility and the initiation of a prototype program are reported. The rare-gas oxides and dimeric mercury were emphasized in investigations into new lasers for fusion research. Experimental kinetics studies, a study of heat-pipe containment of metal vapors, theoretical support, and optical-damage investigations are described. Significant experimental and theoretical results are reported on the question of wavelength-scaling in laser-plasma interaction physics. Studies of vacuum insulation as a means of preventing target preheat by hot electrons are also summarized. Analyses of the ponderomotive force in laser-plasma interactions and of the relationship between x-ray spectrum and suprathermal electron distribution are described. Improvements to the MCRAD and LASNEX design codes are outlined, and a LASNEX analysis of a target heated by laser-generated fast ions is discussed. Improved methods of screening, characterizing, and fabricating microballoons and more complex targets are described, and progress in applying uniform layers of DT ice on the inside of a microballoon is reported. Improvements in diagnostics include x-ray streak photographs, the fabrication of x-ray microscope systems, and x-ray film imaging. New results in our feasibility and systems studies are presented, including the wetted-wall and magnetically protected reactor concepts, the effect of ionized debris on cavity walls, the fusion-fission breeder concept, and the production of synthetic fuels by fusion

  6. Conceptual design of Z-pinch driven fusion-fission hybrid power reactor%Z箍缩驱动聚变-裂变混合堆总体概念研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李正宏; 周林; 黄洪文; 王真; 陈晓军; 祁建敏; 郭海兵; 马纪敏; 肖成建; 褚衍运

    2014-01-01

    Z箍缩驱动聚变-裂变混合能源堆(Z-FFR)在核安全、经济、持久和环境友好等方面具有优良的品质,有望成为有效应对未来能源危机和环境、气候问题的新能源。从 Z箍缩驱动聚变方案与聚变靶设计、重复频率驱动器、次临界包层及产氚包层设计、燃料循环等关键问题方面,对Z-FFR工程概念总体研究情况进行了介绍。%The Z-pinch driven fusion-fission hybrid power reactor(Z-FFR)has remarkable advantages in nuclear security,e-conomy,permanence and environment-friendliness,it can promisingly be millennial energy source dealing effectively with future energy crisis and climate problem.This article introduces the status quo of the conceptual research on Z-FFR from aspects of fu-sion-target physics,low-repetitive Z-pinch driver development,sub-critical fission reactor design and fuel cycle analysis.

  7. 面向Z箍缩驱动聚变能源需求的超高功率重复频率驱动器技术%Super-power repetitive Z-pinch driver for fusion-fission reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓建军; 陈林; 夏明鹤; 计策; 袁建强; 宋盛义; 黄显宾; 彭先觉; 王勐; 谢卫平; 周良骥; 邹文康; 郭帆; 章乐; 李逢; 丰树平

    2014-01-01

    According to the demands of Z-pinch driven fusion-fission reactor(Z-FFR),several possible technical schemes are analyzed and evaluated.A novel technical scheme named mixed-mode LTD is proposed.A conceptual design of Z-FFR driver is presented based on mixed-mode LTD scheme.The main directions for key technologies development are pointed out.A road-map is proposed for the super-power Z-pinch driver development.%针对Z箍缩驱动聚变裂变混合能源系统对驱动器的总体要求,对可能的技术路线进行了分析评述,结合当前在单脉冲超高功率Z箍缩驱动器和重复频率脉冲功率技术方面的研究基础,提出了混合模式直线变压驱动器概念设计思想,分析了主要的技术难点,明确了相应的关键技术攻关方向,同时对 Z 箍缩驱动器的总体发展计划提出了建议。

  8. The propagation and deposition of fast muons in dense DT mixture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xue-Mei; Shen Bai-Fei; Zhang Xiao-Mei; Jin Zhang-Ying; Wang Feng-Chao

    2009-01-01

    The propagation of the fast muon population mainly due to collisional effect in a dense deuterium-tritium (DT for short) mixture is investigated and analysed within the framework of the relativistic Fokker-Planck equation. Without the approximation that the muons propagate straightly in the DT mixture, the muon penetration length, the straggling length, and the mean transverse dispersion radius are calculated for different initial energies, and especially for different densities of the densely compressed DT mixture in our suggested muon-driven fast ignition (FI). Unlike laser-driven FI requiring super-high temperature, muons can catalyze DT fusion at lower temperatures and may generate an ignition sparkle before the self-heating fusion follows. Our calculation is important for the feasibility and the experimental study of muon-driven FI.

  9. Report based on DT/7 questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette Balle; Kruse, Filip; Thøgersen, Jørn

    DT/7-D4 is concerned with which types of communication within academic communities are essential viewed in respect of preservation. The central product is a presentation and an analysis of a questionnaire deployed to researchers at Aarhus University....

  10. Preliminary Neutronics Design of Breed Blanket for Fusion-fission Hybrid Reactor%聚变-裂变增殖堆包层的初步中子学设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵奉超; 栗再新

    2012-01-01

    基于国际热核实验堆ITER的堆芯参数和套管结构,对聚变-裂变增殖堆包层进行了初步中子学设计.基于国际热核实验堆的堆芯参数提出了采用套管结构,以天然金属铀为燃料和硅酸锂为氚增殖剂的快裂变-增殖堆包层的初步中子学设计方案.使用FENDL 2.1核数据库及MCNP程序自带的核数据库,用MCNP程序对套管结构快裂变-增殖堆包层进行一维的方案筛选及三维中子学的计算分析.计算分析包层内的一维功率密度分布、产氚率、钚增殖率分布,通过优化设计分析给出合理的包层设计方案,并计算氚增殖率TBR、能量放大倍数M、有效增值系数(Keff)、裂变增殖比等参数.%A preliminary neutronics design of breed blanket for fusion-fission hybrid reactor has been carried out based on the plasma parameters of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and casing structure. In the design of fast-fission breed blanket, the natural Uranium pebble bed is used as fuel and neutron multiplication and the Lithium silicate pebble bed is used as tritium breed material. By using FENDL2.1 nuclear database cross section library with native cross section library of MCNP nuclear database, the calculation and analysis are carried out with MCNP program. Through one-dimension calculation and analysis on different design proposals, a proper design proposal has been screened and then the three-dimension calculation and analysis have been implemented with the parameters of ITER. The calculation shows that the TBR of fusion-fission hybrid reactor is 1.13, it indicates that the design of breed blanket is able to meet self-sustaining of tritium and the calculation also indicates that the energy enlargement of fusion-ission hybrid reactor is 6.5 and Polonium breeding rate is 1.35, it means that the reactor is able to also product large quantities energy and Polonium and they could be used by light water reactor. Meanwhile, fission

  11. 1D Burnup Calculation of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Energy Reactor%聚变-裂变混合能源堆一维计算模型燃耗分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茂生; 师学明; 伊炜伟

    2012-01-01

    Fusion-fission hybrid energy reactor is driven by Tokamak fusion source for energy production. Its subcritical zone uses the natural uranium as fuel and water as coolant. The neutron multiplication constant keff, energy multiplication factor M and tritium breeding ratio TBR of the ID hybrid energy reactor model were calculated by transport burnup code MCORGS. The neutron spectrum and nuclear density changing as a function of time show the characteristics of the hybrid energy reactors, which differs from the hybrid reactor for breed nuclear fuel and for spent fuel transmutation. The definition and results may be a reference to the other conceptual analysis.%聚变-裂变混合能源堆包括聚变中子源和以天然铀为燃料、水为冷却剂的次临界包层,主要目标是生产电力.利用输运燃耗耦合程序系统MCORGS计算了混合能源堆一维模型的燃耗,给出了中子有效增殖因数keff、能量放大倍数M、氚增殖比TBR等物理量随时间的变化.通过分析能谱和重要核素随燃耗时间的变化,说明混合能源堆与核燃料增殖、核废料嬗变混合堆的不同特点.本文给出的结果可作为混合堆中子输运、燃耗分析程序校验的参考数据,为混合堆概念研究提供了基础数据.

  12. DT-MRI segmentation using graph cuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeselassie, Yonas T.; Hamarneh, Ghassan

    2007-03-01

    An important problem in medical image analysis is the segmentation of anatomical regions of interest. Once regions of interest are segmented, one can extract shape, appearance, and structural features that can be analyzed for disease diagnosis or treatment evaluation. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is a relatively new medical imaging modality that captures unique water diffusion properties and fiber orientation information of the imaged tissues. In this paper, we extend the interactive multidimensional graph cuts segmentation technique to operate on DT-MRI data by utilizing latest advances in tensor calculus and diffusion tensor dissimilarity metrics. The user interactively selects certain tensors as object ("obj") or background ("bkg") to provide hard constraints for the segmentation. Additional soft constraints incorporate information about both regional tissue diffusion as well as boundaries between tissues of different diffusion properties. Graph cuts are used to find globally optimal segmentation of the underlying 3D DT-MR image among all segmentations satisfying the constraints. We develop a graph structure from the underlying DT-MR image with the tensor voxels corresponding to the graph vertices and with graph edge weights computed using either Log-Euclidean or the J-divergence tensor dissimilarity metric. The topology of our segmentation is unrestricted and both obj and bkg segments may consist of several isolated parts. We test our method on synthetic DT data and apply it to real 2D and 3D MRI, providing segmentations of the corpus callosum in the brain and the ventricles of the heart.

  13. 聚变-裂变混合能源堆球模型中子学对算研究%Comparative Study on Spherical Model of Fusion-Fission Hybrid Energy Reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵增; 程和平; 刘国明

    2012-01-01

    利用蒙特卡罗程序和自主开发的蒙特卡罗-燃耗耦合程序MOCouple-s,对北京应用物理与计算数学研究所提出的聚变-裂变混合能源堆球模型进行了对算研究.对初始时刻及各燃耗时刻下的有效增殖因数、能量倍增因子、氚增殖比、中子源强度等堆芯参数进行了比较,结果总体符合较好.对寿期末重要核素的成分进行了详细比较,除个别核素外,偏差很小,表明所采用的计算程序与核参数库一致性良好.对核参数库的选择、铀水体积比等对燃耗计算结果的影响进行敏感性分析,并对外中子源驱动的次临界堆芯的燃耗计算进行详细讨论,提出可行的燃耗计算基准.%The comparative study on fusion-fission hybrid spherical model proposed by the Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics was performed with Monte-Carlo code and MOCouple-s code. Comparisons of reactor parameters, such as neutron effective multiplication factor, energy multiplication factor, tritium breeding ratio and neutron source intensity, were made. The results agree well with the reference as a whole. The concentrations of important isotopes were also compared in detail. Most of the biases are very small except a tiny fraction of the iotopes. It proves that both codes and nuclear data library have very good consistency. In calculation of the model used, the burnup sensitivity of nuclear data and uranium-water ratio employed in the simulation model were analyzed. For such a fixed external source driven subcritical reactor core, detailed discussion was made about the burnup calculation method, and a feasible burnup calculation benchmark was proposed.

  14. Power Flattening and Rejuvenation of PWR Spent Fuel Blanket for Hybrid Fusion-Fission Reactor%功率展平的压水堆乏燃料发电包层中子学初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马续波; 陈义学; 王继亮; 王悦; 韩静茹; 陆道纲

    2011-01-01

    The hybrid fusion-fission reactor has advantages of breeding of the nuclear fuel and transmutation of the long-life nuclear waste and having inherent safety. Meanwhile, the engineering and technological demand of hybrid reactor is significantly reduced comparing with that of pure fusion reactor. A generating electricity blanket concept using the PWR spent fuel directly was proposed, which was based on ITER parameter level achieved. Different volume fractions of the fuel in blanket enabled to realize a power flattening in the fissile zone. The results show that the peak-to-average power factor becomes less than no power flattening, and the output power of the fuel zone raises more than 21. 7%. At the end of the operation, the maximum fuel enrichment is 5. 23%. The blanket is feasible from the neutronics viewpoint.%聚变裂变混合堆在增殖核燃料、嬗变长寿命核废料及固有安全性等方面具有较大优势,同时,它比纯聚变堆在工程及技术方面要求低,因此较聚变堆更易实现.本工作基于目前国际聚变实验堆(ITER)所能达到的技术水平,提出一种直接利用乏燃料进行发电的聚变裂变混合堆包层概念,利用在不同位置放置不同乏燃料体积分数的方法对燃料增殖区实现了功率展平.计算结果表明:功率展平后的包层功率不均匀系数更小,且包层中燃料区的能量输出要比不展平情况下的能量输出高约21.7%.燃料富集度到运行末期最大可达5.23%.从中子学角度初步论证了该包层的可行性.

  15. Mitochondrial fusion, fission, and mitochondrial toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Joel N; Leuthner, Tess C; Luz, Anthony L

    2017-08-05

    Mitochondrial dynamics are regulated by two sets of opposed processes: mitochondrial fusion and fission, and mitochondrial biogenesis and degradation (including mitophagy), as well as processes such as intracellular transport. These processes maintain mitochondrial homeostasis, regulate mitochondrial form, volume and function, and are increasingly understood to be critical components of the cellular stress response. Mitochondrial dynamics vary based on developmental stage and age, cell type, environmental factors, and genetic background. Indeed, many mitochondrial homeostasis genes are human disease genes. Emerging evidence indicates that deficiencies in these genes often sensitize to environmental exposures, yet can also be protective under certain circumstances. Inhibition of mitochondrial dynamics also affects elimination of irreparable mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage and transmission of mtDNA mutations. We briefly review the basic biology of mitodynamic processes with a focus on mitochondrial fusion and fission, discuss what is known and unknown regarding how these processes respond to chemical and other stressors, and review the literature on interactions between mitochondrial toxicity and genetic variation in mitochondrial fusion and fission genes. Finally, we suggest areas for future research, including elucidating the full range of mitodynamic responses from low to high-level exposures, and from acute to chronic exposures; detailed examination of the physiological consequences of mitodynamic alterations in different cell types; mechanism-based testing of mitotoxicant interactions with interindividual variability in mitodynamics processes; and incorporating other environmental variables that affect mitochondria, such as diet and exercise. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. SABR Fusion-Fission Hybrid Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Chris

    2012-03-01

    The Subcritical Advanced Burner Reactor (SABR) concept is a fast reactor comprised of a tokamak fusion neutron source based on ITER surrounded by an annular fission core adapted from Integral Fast Reactor designs. Previous work has examined SABR used to help close the nuclear fuel cycle by fissioning the transuranics from spent nuclear fuel. One focus of the present work is a SABR Breeder Reactor to achieve tritium self-sufficieny and a Pu breeding ratio significantly above 1 in order to provide fuel for SABR as well as for MOX-fueled LWR's and other fast reactors. Another focus of this research is the dynamic safety simulation of lloss-of-flow loss-of-heat-sink, loss-of-power, and positive reactivity accidents in the TRU fuel SABR burner reactor. The reactivity effect of thermal-induced bowing of fuel pins has been modeled, which is expected to provide passive safety.

  17. Testing relativity again, laser, laser, laser, laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Einstein, A.

    2015-01-01

    laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser, laser,

  18. Simulations of DT experiments in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budny, R.; Bell, M.G.; Biglari, H.; Bitter, M.; Bush, C.; Cheng, C.Z.; Fredrickson, E.; Grek, B.; Hill, K.W.; Hsuan, H.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D.L.; Johnson, D.; Johnson, L.C.; LeBlanc, B.; McCune, D.C.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Park, H.; Ramsey, A.T.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Scott, S.; Schivell, J.; Strachan, J.D.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.; Taylor, G.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Zweben, S.J.

    1991-12-01

    A transport code (TRANSP) is used to simulate future deuterium-tritium experiments (DT) in TFTR. The simulations are derived from 14 TFTR DD discharges, and the modeling of one supershot is discussed in detail to indicate the degree of accuracy of the TRANSP modeling. Fusion energy yields and {alpha}-particle parameters are calculated, including profiles of the {alpha} slowing down time, average energy, and of the Alfven speed and frequency. Two types of simulations are discussed. The main emphasis is on the DT equivalent, where an equal mix of D and T is substituted for the D in the initial target plasma, and for the D{sup O} in the neutral-beam injection, but the other measured beam and plasma parameters are unchanged. This simulation does not assume that {alpha} heating will enhance the plasma parameters, or that confinement will increase with T. The maximum relative fusion yield calculated for these simulations is Q{sub DT} {approx} 0.3, and the maximum {alpha} contribution to the central toroidal {beta} is {beta}{sub {alpha}}(0) {approx} 0.5%. The stability of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) and kinetic ballooning modes (KBM) is discussed. The TAE mode is predicted to become unstable for some of the equivalent simulations, particularly after the termination of neutral beam injection. In the second type of simulation, empirical supershot scaling relations are used to project the performance at the maximum expected beam power. The MHD stability of the simulations is discussed.

  19. Growth suppression of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104 by a non-DT104 strain in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngwai YB

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth suppression of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104 by a non-DT104 strain was investigated in vitro. Chromosomal mutants of eight antibiotic-resistant DT104 strains were generated by sub-culturing on desoxycholate hydrogen sulfide lactose agar containing 25 µg/ml of nalidixic acid. Low counts of each of these mutants (designated as “minority cultures” were inoculated into 24-h cultures of a non-DT104 S. typhimurium strain (designated as “majority culture” to test the ability of the majority culture to suppress the multiplication of the minority culture. Multiplication of small numbers of the antibiotic-resistant DT104 strains was significantly (P < 0.05 prevented when the DT104s were added to 24-h brain heart infusion cultures of the non-DT104 strain. This observation has practical implications for the control of the menacing antibiotic-resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104.

  20. Unified Treatise of Phenomena of Seismic Fusion-Fission Under Seismonomy in the Light of Monistic Weltanschauung: the Doctrine of Dynamics Monism With Implication to the Earthquake Source Physics}

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaurov, D.

    2006-12-01

    Established profoundly new conceptual framework by the five postulates of seismonomy, enables unified treatise of processes such as dynamic structural devastation, seismic blowing up of mount ridges, collision physics, meteorite impact cratering, and seismic global faulting with insight into the earthquake source physics. Hence, by establishing the parametric method of identification of natural modes and then Parametric Scan- Window Observation of Dynamic Responses (PSW-method), it becomes possible to obtain crucial field data. Thus, earth-dam dynamics data revealed an essential non-stationarity of dam's dynamic characteristics throughout earthquakes, the effect of stochastic alternation of the locally-stationary modal states with the discrete characteristics of their spectral distribution. At this point, in the course of other, separate line of far beyond lasting quest concerning metaphysical constituents of matter, and then constitutive relation between excited modal oscillation of structures and causal pattern of their fracture, the results of such analysis, resuming obscurity of the well known jaggedness of observing earthquake spectra, were illuminated and perceived. It was succeeded, on the one hand, to establish unitary conceptualized framework of seismic records analysis consisting both the PSW- and spectral- analysis, which reformulated to be a statistical representation complementary to PSW-method, and, on the other hand, to realize genesis of the doctrine of dynamics monism consisting concepts of both: fission-fusion dynamics and dynamics coherentism as an inspiration of the paradigm of seismic fusion-fission phenomena. Global faulting originating straight plane faults, which often stretch through large scale substantially inhomogeneous volumes, are, uncontestably, the result of dynamics fission, the first step of dynamics binary division of an emerged geoseismoid onto two secondary seismoids with a potential, occasionally stretched rupture plane. That

  1. Change in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions upon Using an Ab Initio Multiphase DT Equation of State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillabet, L.; Canaud, B.; Salin, G.; Mazevet, S.; Loubeyre, P.

    2011-09-01

    Improving the description of the equation of state (EOS) of deuterium-tritium (DT) has recently been shown to change significantly the gain of an inertial confinement fusion target [S. X. Hu , Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 235003 (2010)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.235003]. Here we use an advanced multiphase EOS, based on ab initio calculations, to perform a full optimization of the laser pulse shape with hydrodynamic simulations starting from 19 K in DT ice. The thermonuclear gain is shown to be a robust estimate over possible uncertainties of the EOS. Two different target designs are discussed, for shock ignition and self-ignition. In the first case, the areal density and thermonuclear energy can be recovered by slightly increasing the laser energy. In the second case, a lower in-flight adiabat is needed, leading to a significant delay (3 ns) in the shock timing of the implosion.

  2. MUON DETECTOR BARREL DRIFT TUBES (DT)

    CERN Multimedia

    Fabrizio Gasparini

    The DT system is made of 250 chambers, installed in the five wheels of the CMS Iron Yoke. Each wheel is subdivided in 10 sectors of four chambers each. Two sectors per wheel, the top and bottom ones, are equipped with 5 chambers, the large outer MB4s being split in two. The electronics for local, i.e. chamber, readout and generation of trigger primitives sits on Minicrates installed on each chamber (on-detector electronics). The data from each chamber are collected and synchronized by the off-detector electronics, sitting on the Wheel towers and organized per sector. HV and LV are organized per sector and per quarter (3 sectors) of each wheel respectively, DAQ and DCS have one branch per wheel. At the end of the February CMS Week the central wheel was fully operational and the two positive wheels, YB+1 and +2, fully commissioned. They were successfully moved over the vacuum tank and closed against YB0. The negative wheels were still open, with DT commissioning and final LV and DCS cabling being completed ...

  3. Investigating D-T Reaction Spectra with the Gas Cherenkov Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Michael A.; Kim, Yong Ho; McEvoy, Aaron; Young, Carlton S.; Mack, Joe M.; Herrmann, Hans W.; Horsfield, Colin J.

    2010-11-01

    In this study, a new analysis of the gamma ray spectra of the D-T fusion reaction using a Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) is presented. The D-T reaction is an essential process to understand for the future of fusion science. The reaction produces a He^5* nucleus that usually decays into a He^4 + n. It has been seen that this reaction produces a 16.75 MeV gamma ray .0025% of the time. The Gamma Ray History (GRH) group at Los Alamos proposes that there is an even less often occurrence where a gamma ray of around 12 MeV is produced. As the truth of this statement would affect the future potential yield of fusion reactors using D-T fuel, it is worth investigating. D-T spectra were obtained by detecting the produced gamma ray with the GCD at the University of Rochester OMEGA laser facility. A GCD response curve, calculated by the Monte Carlo modeling software ACCEPT, was used to forward convolve theoretical spectra into what the theoretical curves would have looked like in the GCD data. Results are presented.

  4. Monochromatic backlighting of direct-drive cryogenic DT implosions on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, C.; Epstein, R.; Betti, R.; Bittle, W.; Delettrez, J. A.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Goncharov, V. N.; Harding, D. R.; Igumenshchev, I. V.; Jacobs-Perkins, D. W.; Janezic, R. T.; Kelly, J. H.; Kosc, T. Z.; McCrory, R. L.; Michel, D. T.; Mileham, C.; McKenty, P. W.; Marshall, F. J.; Morse, S. F. B.; Regan, S. P.; Radha, P. B.; Rice, B.; Sangster, T. C.; Shoup, M. J.; Shmayda, W. T.; Sorce, C.; Theobald, W.; Ulreich, J.; Wittman, M. D.; Meyerhofer, D. D.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2017-05-01

    Backlighting is a powerful technique to observe the flow of cold and dense material in high-energy-density-plasma experiments. High-performance, direct-drive cryogenic deuterium-tritium (DT) implosions are a challenging backlighting configuration because of the low opacity of the DT shell, the high shell velocity, the small size of the stagnating shell, and the very bright self-emission of the hot core. A crystal imaging system with a Si Heα backlighter at 1.865 keV driven by ˜20-ps short pulses from OMEGA EP was developed to radiograph the OMEGA cryogenic implosions. The high throughput of the crystal imaging system makes it possible to record high-quality images with good photon statistics and a spatial resolution of ˜15 μm at 10% to 90% modulation. This imager has been used to study the evolution of preimposed mass-density perturbations in the ablator, to quantify the perturbations caused by the stalk that is used to mount the target, and to study the mix caused by laser imprint or small-scale debris on the target surface. Because of the very low opacity of DT relative to carbon, even 0.1% of mix of carbon into the DT ice can be reliably inferred from the images. With the current implosion designs, mix is only observed for an adiabat below α = 4.

  5. Preliminary three-dimensional neutronics design and analysis of helium-cooled blanket for a multi-functional experimental fusion-fission hybrid reactor%多功能聚变裂变混合实验堆FDS-MFX氦冷包层三维中子学初步设计与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金超; FDS团队; 金鸣; 王明煌; 蒋洁琼; 王国忠; 邱岳峰; 宋婧; 邹俊; 吴宜灿

    2011-01-01

    FDS-MFX(Multi-Functional eXperimental fusion-fission hybrid reactor)是一个基于现实可行技术的多功能聚变裂变混合实验堆概念,分3个阶段相继开展实验研究,分别采用纯氚增殖包层、铀燃料包层和乏燃料包层.本文重点对其中铀燃料包层后期阶段中高浓缩铀模块的摆放方式和尺寸进行优化,给出一个区平均最大功率密度约为100 MW/m3,235U装料量约为1 t,氚增殖率为1.05的三维初步中子学方案.%A multi-functional experimental fusion-fission hybrid reactor concept named FDS-MFX , which is based on viable fusion and fission technologies, has been proposed. Three-stage tests will be carried out successively, in which the tritium breeding blanket, uranium-fueled blanket and spent-fuel-fueled blanket will be utilized respectively. In this paper,the design optimization for the layout and the size of high enriched uranium modules inlater stage of uranium-fueled blanket has been performed.Finally,proposing a preliminarythree-dimension neutronies design with maximum average Power Density(Pdmax)100 MW/m3,loaded mass of the 235U 1 000 kg and TBR(Tritium Breeding Ratio)1.05.

  6. Measurements of escaping alphas in the TFTR DT experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.

    1995-03-01

    Alpha particle loss to the wall of TFTR has been measured during the initial TFTR DT run period. These measurements were made with the same lost alpha scintillator detector system used previously for DD fusion products, except for a switch of the scintillator material from zinc sulfide (P31) to yttrium aluminate (P46) to insure a linear response up to the maximum alpha flux expected in DT. The alpha loss signals in DT are {approx} 100 times larger than the DD fusion product loss signals, as expected from the neutron rates and the relative sensitivity to DT vs. DD fusion products.

  7. ND:GLASS LASER DESIGN FOR LASER ICF FISSION ENERGY (LIFE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caird, J A; Agrawal, V; Bayramian, A; Beach, R; Britten, J; Chen, D; Cross, R; Ebbers, C; Erlandson, A; Feit, M; Freitas, B; Ghosh, C; Haefner, C; Homoelle, D; Ladran, T; Latkowski, J; Molander, W; Murray, J; Rubenchik, S; Schaffers, K; Siders, C W; Stappaerts, E; Sutton, S; Telford, S; Trenholme, J; Barty, C J

    2008-10-28

    We have developed preliminary conceptual laser system designs for the Laser ICF (Inertial Confinement Fusion) Fission Energy (LIFE) application. Our approach leverages experience in high-energy Nd:glass laser technology developed for the National Ignition Facility (NIF), along with high-energy-class diode-pumped solid-state laser (HEC-DPSSL) technology developed for the DOE's High Average Power Laser (HAPL) Program and embodied in LLNL's Mercury laser system. We present laser system designs suitable for both indirect-drive, hot spot ignition and indirect-drive, fast ignition targets. Main amplifiers for both systems use laser-diode-pumped Nd:glass slabs oriented at Brewster's angle, as in NIF, but the slabs are much thinner to allow for cooling by high-velocity helium gas as in the Mercury laser system. We also describe a plan to mass-produce pump-diode lasers to bring diode costs down to the order of $0.01 per Watt of peak output power, as needed to make the LIFE application economically attractive.

  8. Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F; Abbott, R P; Aceves, S; Anklam, T; Badders, D; Cook, A W; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Farmer, J C; Flowers, D; Fratoni, M; ONeil, R G; Heltemes, T; Kane, J; Kramer, K J; Kramer, R; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G A; Morris, K R; Moses, G A; Olson, B; Pantano, C; Reyes, S; Rhodes, M; Roe, K; Sawicki, R; Scott, H; Spaeth, M; Tabak, M; Wilks, S

    2010-11-30

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. The present work focuses on the pure fusion option. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. It must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  9. HamleDT - HArmonized Multi-LanguagE Dependency Treebank

    OpenAIRE

    Ramasamy, Loganathan; Hajič, Jan; Žabokrtský, Zdeněk; Štěpánek, Jan; Popel, Martin; Zeman, Daniel; Mareček, David

    2011-01-01

    HamleDT is a set of software tools for conversion (hamonizing) of treebanks, which were created for different languages and based on various linguistic formalisms, into the same annotation framework. The main aim is to facilitate development of multilingual technology. HamleDT covers as many as 28 languages in its current version.

  10. Progress towards a one-dimensional layered DT implosion using HDC capsules at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divol, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Using a 0.8x scale HDC capsule (D=1.6 mm) in a full scale DU hohlraum (D=5.75 mm) filled with relatively low He gas (0.3mg/cc), we have been able to achieve a high (C=26) convergence layered DT implosion that is diagnosed within 10 percent of round at all measured times. An adiabat-2.5, 3-shock, 1MJ-7ns laser pulse was used to achieved velocities >350 km/s, neutron yield 3e15 with a down scattered ratio 0.03. This platform shows minimal laser plasma interaction (no measurable hot electrons, > 97 % coupling, no cross beam energy transfer required). A direct control of the laser cone fraction vs. time was used to obtain 3-shock-breakout symmetry (keyhole target), in flight symmetry (radiography at convergence 2-4) and symmetric hot spot/rebound shock at convergence 12 (gas-filled capsule) and 26 (layered DT). Further repointing of laser cones demonstrated control of higher modes (P4). 4 layered DT implosions allowed to compare the effect of W-dopant, symmetry and velocity on performance. We will show using experimental results and simulations that the W-doped HDC implosion behaves as expected and reaches 40% of Yield Over Clean (YOC), with the fill-tube perturbation being a possible cause of the reduced yield. The undoped HDC capsule has a YOC < 0.3, showing more sensitivity to X-ray preheat than expected. The path towards an equivalent scale 1 implosion capable of large alpha-heating will be discussed. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  11. Registration of 3D+t coronary CTA and monoplane 2D+t X-ray angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, Coert T; Schaap, Michiel; Klein, Stefan; Baka, Nora; Neefjes, Lisan A; Schultz, Carl J; Niessen, Wiro J; van Walsum, Theo

    2013-05-01

    A method for registering preoperative 3D+t coronary CTA with intraoperative monoplane 2D+t X-ray angiography images is proposed to improve image guidance during minimally invasive coronary interventions. The method uses a patient-specific dynamic coronary model, which is derived from the CTA scan by centerline extraction and motion estimation. The dynamic coronary model is registered with the 2D+t X-ray sequence, considering multiple X-ray time points concurrently, while taking breathing induced motion into account. Evaluation was performed on 26 datasets of 17 patients by comparing projected model centerlines with manually annotated centerlines in the X-ray images. The proposed 3D+t/2D+t registration method performed better than a 3D/2D registration method with respect to the accuracy and especially the robustness of the registration. Registration with a median error of 1.47 mm was achieved.

  12. Recent Measurements of DT Gamma to Neutron Branching Ratio at ICF Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yongho

    2011-10-01

    The total T(d,g)5He/T(d,n)4He branching ratio of (4.5 +/- 0.5)E-5 has been measured on Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions at the OMEGA laser facility. Recent measurements have shown that the DT branching ratio at ICF is 2 - 3 times less than that of previously measured at particle accelerator facilities. Measurements were done at ion temperatures of (5 +/- 2) keV, which is quite low compared to previous measurements. Implication of the recent founding is that nuclear properties such as DT branching ratio might be reconsidered at low temperature ICF and stellar conditions. In practical sense, precise measurements of the branching ratio T(d,g)5He relative to T(d,n)4He are important in order to diagnose target areal density and resultant fusion yield of cryogenically-layered implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In this work, we have used LANL's Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD), which provides a high bandwidth, energy thresholding capability for gamma-ray detection using gamma/electron/Cherenkov conversion. High-bandwidth aids the detection of D-T fusion gamma rays before the arrival of associated 14.1 MeV neutron-induced gammas; energy thresholding gives further protection against such undesirable backgrounds. In addition, to reduce systematic uncertainty, we have applied three independent calibration methods to characterize GCD response such as (1) D-3He gamma-rays generated at Omega laser where no absolute detector calibration was required because quite similar gamma spectrum from D3He and DT, (2) mono-energetic gamma rays generated at Duke University's High Intensity Gamma-ray Source (HIgS), and (3) 14-MeV neutron-induced inelastic gamma-rays generated at OMEGA using puck materials of known areal density placed near target center. In conjunction with an independent neutron yield measurements and ACCEPT and GEANT4 simulation codes, the resultant DT branching ratio was inferred. This work was performed by Los Alamos National Laboratory under the

  13. AUTOMRPPHISM GROUP OF LIE ALGEBRA C(t)d/dt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU HONG

    2003-01-01

    The Lie algebra of derivations of rational function field C(t) is C(t)d/dt. The automorphism group of C(t) is well known as to be isomorphic to the projective linear group PGL(2, C). In this short note we prove that every automorphism of C(t)d/dt can be induced in a natural way from an automorphism of C(t).

  14. On the change in Inertial Confinement Fusion Implosions upon using an ab initio multiphase DT equation of state

    CERN Document Server

    Caillabet, Laurent; Salin, Gwenaël; Mazevet, Stéphane; Loubeyre, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Improving the description of the equation of state (EoS) of deuterium-tritium (DT) has recently been shown to change significantly the gain of an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target (Hu et al., PRL 104, 235003 (2010)). We use here an advanced multi-phase equation of state (EoS), based on ab initio calculations, to perform a full optimization of the laser pulse shape with hydrodynamic simulations starting from 19 K in DT ice. The thermonuclear gain is shown to be a robust estimate over possible uncertainties of the EoS. Two different target designs are discussed, for shock ignition and self-ignition. In the first case, the areal density and thermonuclear energy can be recovered by slightly increasing the laser energy. In the second case, a lower in-flight adiabat is needed, leading to a significant delay (3ns) in the shock timing of the implosion.

  15. Integrated Chamber Design for the Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) Engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latkowski, J F; Kramer, K J; Abbott, R P; Morris, K R; DeMuth, J; Divol, L; El-Dasher, B; Lafuente, A; Loosmore, G; Reyes, S; Moses, G A; Fratoni, M; Flowers, D; Aceves, S; Rhodes, M; Kane, J; Scott, H; Kramer, R; Pantano, C; Scullard, C; Sawicki, R; Wilks, S; Mehl, M

    2010-12-07

    The Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE) concept is being designed to operate as either a pure fusion or hybrid fusion-fission system. A key component of a LIFE engine is the fusion chamber subsystem. The present work details the chamber design for the pure fusion option. The fusion chamber consists of the first wall and blanket. This integrated system must absorb the fusion energy, produce fusion fuel to replace that burned in previous targets, and enable both target and laser beam transport to the ignition point. The chamber system also must mitigate target emissions, including ions, x-rays and neutrons and reset itself to enable operation at 10-15 Hz. Finally, the chamber must offer a high level of availability, which implies both a reasonable lifetime and the ability to rapidly replace damaged components. An integrated LIFE design that meets all of these requirements is described herein.

  16. Recent results from the TFTR ICRF DT Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.H.; Darrow, D.; Majeski, R. [and others

    1995-03-01

    The first experiments to be performed with ICRF heating of DT plasmas are reported. ICRF heating of minority ions, tritium (second harmonic resonance), as well as direct electron heating are being performed during the DT phase of TFTR. RF power modulation and Fourier transform techniques are used to attempt to elucidate the competition between tritium second harmonic, direct electron, and {sup 3}He fundamental heating in DT plasmas. A significant fraction of the RF power has been found to couple to the tritium ions via second harmonic heating. Relevant RF coupling physics is investigated using {sup 3}He minority heating (43 MHz), H minority heating (64 MHz), and mode conversion (43 MHz, comparable densities of {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He) at a toroidal field of 4.5T.

  17. Coherent fluctuations in the initial TFTR D-T experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, E.; Chang, Z.Y.; Budny, R.V.

    1995-03-01

    The initial operation of TFTR with approximately equal power in the tritium and deuterium neutral beam injectors has resulted in the production of fusion power in excess of 9MW and central {beta}{sub {alpha}} > 0.25%. This {beta}{sub {alpha}} is within a factor of 2--3 of the {beta}{sub {alpha}} in projections of ITER performance. Effects of this {alpha} population on TAE modes, sawteeth and fishbone activity are being searched for. The D-T plasmas are also being studied for evidence of changes in MHD activity which might be attributed to the fast {alpha} population. This paper reports on the activity in the Alfven range of frequencies in the D-T plasmas and on detailed measurements of the MHD activity preceding major disruptions in D-D and D-T.

  18. Thermal oscillation smoothing of DT solid layers for HAPL and NIF scale targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheliak, John D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geller, Drew A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hoffer, James K [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) solid fuel layers must meet stringent roughness specifications for both the ICF and IFE laser fusion programs and native beta-layering alone is unable to provide sufficient solid layer smoothing to meet these specifications at 18.3 K or below. Consequently, several supplemental smoothing options have been proposed to resolve this issue, including a technique called 'Thermal Breathing'. This technique consists of oscillating the temperature of the solid D-T layer about its equilibration temperature for a period of one to several hours. Recently, thermal oscillations have been used to successfully smooth rough solid D{sub 2} in spherical targets. In order to study this particular smoothing technique, we examined the effects of thermal oscillations on equilibrated D-T solid layers, using both ICF and IFE scale layering cells and layer thicknesses. The D-T solid layers that were Subjected to thermal breathing in these studies were equilibrated at temperatures ranging from 16.0 K to 19.25 K, followed by 1.5 to 2 hours of temperature oscillations. During the HAPL scale experiments the amplitude and period of the oscillations were both varied to examine parametric effects of these variables on final layer roughness. In both sets of experiments, once the oscillations completed we allowed the layers to 'relax' at their initial equilibration temperature for another 1 to 2 hours, to observe any 'rebounding' or re-roughening that might occur. The rCF scale experiments were performed using a 2 mm beryllium torus, for which the layer was free from optical distortions that were observed in our IFE scale cell (a 4 mm dia. sapphire sphere-cylinder). Our results showed a temperature dependent smoothing effect ofthe DT solid layer ranging from 20% to 35% over the temperature range of 17.3 K to 19.0 K for the rCF-scale, 2-mm celL The final RMS roughness for layers grown in this 2-mm Be torus was on average less than 1 /lm for modes

  19. Challenges in the extrapolation from DD to DT plasmas: experimental analysis and theory based predictions for JET-DT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, J.; Challis, C.; Gallart, D.; Garzotti, L.; Görler, T.; King, D.; Mantsinen, M.; contributors, JET

    2017-01-01

    A strong modelling program has been started in support of the future JET-DT campaign with the aim of guiding experiments in deuterium (D) towards maximizing fusion energy production in Deuterium-Tritium (DT). Some of the key elements have been identified by using several of the most updated and sophisticated models for predicting heat and particle transport, pedestal pressure and heating sources in an integrated modelling framework. For the high beta and low gas operational regime, the density plays a critical role and a trend towards higher fusion power is obtained at lower densities. Additionally, turbulence stabilization by E  ×  B flow shear is shown to generate an isotope effect leading to higher confinement for DT than DD and therefore plasmas with high torque are suitable for maximizing fusion performance. Future JET campaigns will benefit from this modelling activity by defining clear priorities on their scientific program.

  20. Karakterisering van de zuurgevoeligheid van Salmonella typhimurium faagtype DT104

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge R; van Leusden FM; Dufrenne JB; Ritmeester WS; Delfgou-van Asch EHM; van Pelt W; LBG

    1999-01-01

    Het aantal gevallen van salmonellosis in Nederland veroorzaakt door Salmonella typhimurium faagtype DT104 is toegenomen van 10 in 1985 tot 163 in 1997 (10% van alle gevallen van salmonellosis). De stam lijkt zijn oorsprong te hebben in het Verenigd Koninkrijk. Daar wordt inmiddels 20% van alle gev

  1. MUON DETECTOR: BARREL DRIFT TUBES (DT) AND ALIGNMENT

    CERN Multimedia

    Marco Dallavalle

    After months of cosmics data taking the drift tube (DT) detector is in good shape, ready for LHC beams. Several hundreds of millions of cosmics events have been recorded; out of those, more than 90% were triggered by the DT system. Data integrity analyses have shown a very reliable read-out system, also during high rate tests. With a 98% of the detector operational, only awaiting the arrival of some low voltage modules and for the completion of the DT Track Finder system, data taking is starting to become routine job. These continuous running exercises have been very useful to study performance and reliability of the detector in a medium term period, allowing understanding and fixing failures that have occurred with low frequency. Drift tubes have become a very stable system, becoming a service of muon triggering for the tracker after its final installation. During the last months, major efforts have taken place in synchronization tasks, within the DT system (250 chambers) and also with the rest of the CMS su...

  2. Production of Medical isotope Technecium-99 from DT Fusion neutrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boguski, John; Gentile, Charles; Ascione, George

    2011-10-01

    High energy neutrons produced in DT fusion reactors have a secondary application for use in the synthesis of valuable man-made isotopes utilized in industry today. One such isotope is metastable Technecium-99 (Tc99m), a low energy gamma emitter used in ~ 85% of all medical imaging diagnostics. Tc99m is created through beta decay of Molybdenum-99 (Mo99), which itself has only a 66 hour half-life and must be created from a neutron capture by the widely available and stable isotope Molydenum-98. Current worldwide production of Tc99m occurs in just five locations and relies on obtaining the fission byproduct Mo99 from highly enriched Uranium reactors. A Tc99m generator using DT fusion neutrons, however, could potentially be operated at individual hospitals and medical facilities without the use of any fissile material. The neutron interaction of the DT neutrons with Molybdenum in a potential device geometry was modeled using Monte Carlo neutron transport code MCNP. Trial experiments were also performed to test the viability of using DT neutrons to create ample quantities of Tc99m. Modeling and test results will follow.

  3. Wetted Foam Liquid DT Layer ICF Experiments at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Peterson, R. R.; Yi, S. A.; Zylstra, A. B.; Kline, J. L.; Bradley, P. A.; Yin, L.; Wilson, D. C.; Haines, B. M.; Batha, S. H.

    2016-10-01

    A key physics issue in indirect-drive ICF relates to the understanding of the limitations on hot spot convergence ratio (CR), principally set by the hohlraum drive symmetry, the capsule mounting hardware (the ``tent''), and the capsule fill tube. An additional key physics issue relates to the complex process by which a hot spot must be dynamically formed from the inner ice surface in a DT ice-layer implosion. These physics issues have helped to motivate the development of a new liquid DT layer wetted foam platform at the NIF that provides an ability to form the hot spot from DT vapor and experimentally study and understand hot spot formation at a variety of CR's in the range of 12DT layered implosions will have understandable performance - providing a sound basis from which to determine the requirements for ICF ignition. This work was performed under the auspices of the U. S. DOE by LANL under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396.

  4. TAE modes and MHD activity in TFTR DT plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredrickson, E.; Batha, S.; Bell, M.

    1995-03-01

    The high power deuterium and tritium experiments on TFTR have produced fusion a parameters similar to those expected on ITER. The achieved {beta}{sub {alpha}}/{beta} and the R{triangledown}{beta}{sub {alpha}} in TFRR D-T shots are 1/2 to 1/3 those predicted in the ITER EDA. Studies of the initial TFTR D-T plasmas find no evidence that the presence of the fast fusion {alpha} population has affected the stability of MHD, with the possible exception of Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAE`s). The initial TFTR DT plasmas had MHD activity similar to that commonly seen in deuterium plasmas. Operation of TFTR at plasma currents of 2.0--2.5 MA has greatly reduced the deleterious effects of MHD commonly observed at lower currents. Even at these higher currents, the performance of TFTR is limited by {beta}-limit disruptions. The effects of MHD on D-T fusion {alpha}`s was similar to effects observed on other fusion products in D only plasmas.

  5. Backlighting Direct-Drive Cryogenic DT Implosions on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, C.

    2016-10-01

    X-ray backlighting has been frequently used to measure the in-flight characteristics of an imploding shell in both direct- and indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion implosions. These measurements provide unique insight into the early time and stagnation stages of an implosion and guide the modeling efforts to improve the target designs. Backlighting a layered DT implosion on OMEGA is a particular challenge because the opacity of the DT shell is low, the shell velocity is high, the size and wall thickness of the shell is small, and the self-emission from the hot core at the onset of burn is exceedingly bright. A framing-camera-based crystal imaging system with a Si Heα backlighter at 1.865keV driven by 10-ps short pulses from OMEGA EP was developed to meet these radiography challenges. A fast target inserter was developed to accurately place the Si backlighter foil at a distance of 5 mm to the implosion target following the removal of the cryogenic shroud and an ultra-stable triggering system was implemented to reliably trigger the framing camera coincident with the arrival of the OMEGA EP pulse. This talk will report on a series of implosions in which the DT shell is imaged for a range of convergence ratios and in-flight aspect ratios. The images acquired have been analyzed for low-mode shape variations, the DT shell thickness, the level of ablator mixing into the DT fuel (even 0.1% of carbon mix can be reliably inferred), the areal density of the DT shell, and the impact of the support stalk. The measured implosion performance will be compared with hydrodynamic simulations that include imprint (up to mode 200), cross-beam energy transfer, nonlocal thermal transport, and initial low-mode perturbations such as power imbalance and target misalignment. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  6. Measurement of DT fusion and neutron-induced gamma-rays using gas Cherenkov Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Herrmann, H. W.; Evans, S.; Sedillo, T.; Langenbrunner, J. R.; Young, C. S.; Mack, J. M.; McEvoy, A.; Horsfield, C. J.; Rubery, M.; Ali, Z.; Stoeffl, W.

    2010-08-01

    A secondary gamma experiment was carried out using a Gas Cherenkov Detector (GCD) at the OMEGA laser facility. The primary experimental objective was to simulate neutron-induced secondary gamma production (n-γ) from a NIF implosion capsule, hohlraum, and thermo-mechanical package. The high-band width of the GCD enabled us to detect time delayed and Doppler broadened n-γ signals from five different puck materials (Si, SiO2, Al, Al2O3, Cu) placed near target chamber center. These measurements were used for MCNP & ITS ACCEPT code validation purposes. By a simple change of the GCD CO2 gas pressure the system can effectively eliminate signals induced by n-γ reactions and thereby allow quality measurements of DT fusion γ-rays that are produced at NIF (National Ignition Facility).

  7. Uniform DT 3T burn: computations and sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vold, Erik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hryniw, Natalia [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hansen, Jon A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kesler, Leigh A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Li, Frank [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-01-27

    A numerical model was developed in C to integrate the nonlinear deutrium-tritium (DT) burn equations in a three temperature (3T) approximation for spatially uniform test problems relevant to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF). Base model results are in excellent agreement with standard 3T results. Data from NDI, SESAME, and TOPS databases is extracted to create fits for the reaction rate parameter, the Planck opacity, and the coupling frequencies of the plasma temperatures. The impact of different fits (e.g., TOPS versus SESAME opacity data, higher order polynomial fits ofNDI data for the reaction rate parameter) were explored, and sensitivity to several model inputs are presented including: opacity data base, Coulomb logarithm, and Bremsstrahlung. Sensitivity to numerical integration time step size, and the relative insensitivity to the discretized numerics and numerical integration method was demonstrated. Variations in the IC for densities and temperatures were explored, showing similar DT burn profiles in most cases once ignition occurs. A coefficient multiplying the Compton coupling term (default, A = 1) can be adjusted to approximate results from more sophisticated models. The coefficient was reset (A = 0.4) to match the maximum temperatures resulting from standard multi-group simulations of the base case test problem. Setting the coefficient to a larger value, (A = 0.6) matches maximum ion temperatures in a kinetic simulation of a high density ICF-like regime. Matching peak temperatures does not match entire temperature-time profiles, indicating the Compton coefficient is density and time dependent as the photon distribution evolves. In the early time burn during the ignition of the DT, the present model with modified Compton coupling provides a very simple method to obtain a much improved match to the more accurate solution from the multi-group radiation model for these DT burn regimes.

  8. Introduction of DT40 cells into chick embryos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mariko Toba; Fumio Ebara; Hiroki Furuta; Yuichi Matsushimal; Yasuo Kitagawa; Noboru Fujihara

    2001-01-01

    To examine the transfection of exogenous genes into chick embryos, applying the characteristics of avian leukosis virus (ALV)-induced chicken B cell line DT40 to the production of chimeric birds. Methods: The DT40cells incorporated with exogenous gene (lacZ constructs encoding Escherichia coli β-galactosidase: β-gal) were introduced into chick embryos by the injection of cells into stage X blastoderm. Manipulated eggs were incubated for 3 (trial 1 ) or 6 (trial 2) days, and the expression of lacZ DNA was detected by a histochemical staining method of β-galactosidase and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Results: The survival rates of the manipulated embryos incubated for 3 days (stage 18-20: trial 1) and 6 days (stage 28, 30: trial 2) were about 42% and 38%, respectively.The expression rates of the lacZ gene in the embryos in the trials 1 and 2 were about 60% and 23%, respectively, for the survived embryos. Conclusio: The rate of embryonic viability and expression rate of introduced genes were not so high, but it suggested the possibility of utilizing the DT40 cells as a vector for carrying exogenous genes into chick embryos.

  9. Concept of DT fuel cycle for a fusion neutron source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anan' ev, S.; Spitsyn, A.V.; Kuteev, B.V.; Cherkez, D.I. [NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shirnin, P.N.; Kazakovsky, N.T. [FSUE RFNC - VNIIEF, Sarov (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    A concept of DT-fusion neutron source (FNS) with the neutron yield higher than 10{sup 18} neutrons per second is under design in Russia. Such a FNS is of interest for many applications: 1) basic and applied research (neutron scattering, etc); 2) testing the structural materials for fusion reactors; 3) control of sub-critical nuclear systems and 4) nuclear waste processing (including transmutation of minor actinides). This paper describes the fuel cycle concept of a compact fusion neutron source based on a small spherical tokamak (FNS-ST) with a MW range of DT fusion power and considers the key physics issues of this device. The major and minor radii are ∼0.5 and ∼0.3 m, magnetic field ∼1.5 T, heating power less than 15 MW and plasma current 1-2 MA. The system provides the fuel mixture with equal fractions of D and T (D:T = 1:1) for all FNS technology systems. (authors)

  10. Burning high-level TRU waste in fusion fission reactors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shen, Yaosong

    2016-01-01

    .... A new method of burning high-level transuranic (TRU) waste combined with Thorium–Uranium (Th–U) fuel in the subcritical reactors driven by external fusion neutron sources is proposed in this paper...

  11. Reference mirror hybrid fusion-fission reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bender, D.J.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.S.

    1977-06-08

    The status of the reference mirror hybrid reactor design being performed by LLL and General Atomic is summarized. The reactor parameters have been chosen to minimize the cost of producing fissile fuel for consumption in fission power reactors. The design draws on the experience developed at LLL in previous hybrid reactor conceptual designs and on GA expertise in gas-cooling technology and fission reactor mechanical design. As in the past, we have emphasized the use of existing technology where possible and a minimum extrapolation of technology otherwise. We consider our projections for the plasma physics parameters to be conservative, in that they are well-founded on the experiments in 2XIIB and the interpretation of these experiments.

  12. Assembly of Drift Tubes (DT) Chambers at CIEMAT (Madrid)

    CERN Multimedia

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo

    2003-01-01

    The construction of muon drift tube chambers (DT) has been carried out in four different european institutes: Aachen (Germany), CIEMAT-Madrid (Spain), Legnaro and Turin (Italy), all of them following similar procedures and quality tests. Each chamber is composed by three or two independent units called superlayers, with four layers of staggered drift cells each. The assembly of a superlayer is a succesive glueing of aluminium plates and I-beams with electrodes previously attached, forming a rectangular and gas-tight volume. These pictures illustrate the various processes of material preparation, construction, equipment and assembly of full chambers at CIEMAT (Madrid).

  13. Improvements in the CHERS system for DT experiments on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, C.E.; Bell, R.; Synakowski, E.J.

    1995-03-01

    Improvements in the charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) system have resulted in accurate measurements of T{sub i} and V{sub {phi}} profiles during DT experiments. These include moving the spectrometer detector array and electronics farther away from the tokamak to a low neutron flux location. This relocation has also improved access to all components of the system. Also, a nonplasma-viewing calibration fiber system was added to monitor the change in fiber transmission due to the high flux DT neutrons. Narrowband filtered light transmitted through the calibration fiber is now used as a reference for the VO measurement. At the highest neutron flux of {approximately} 2.5 {times} 10{sup 18} neutrons/see (fusion power {approximately} 6.2 MW) a modest 5% decrease in fiber transmission was observed. Corrections for transmission loss are made and T{sub i} (r,t) and absolute V{sub phi} (r,t) profiles are automatically calculated within four minutes of every shot.

  14. [Lasers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, T

    2012-11-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passeron, T

    2012-12-01

    Lasers are a very effective approach for treating many hyperpigmented lesions. They are the gold standard treatment for actinic lentigos and dermal hypermelanocytosis, such as Ota nevus. Becker nevus, hyperpigmented mosaicisms, and lentigines can also be successfully treated with lasers, but they could be less effective and relapses can be observed. However, lasers cannot be proposed for all types of hyperpigmentation. Thus, freckles and café-au-lait macules should not be treated as the relapses are nearly constant. Due to its complex pathophysiology, melasma has a special place in hyperpigmented dermatoses. Q-switched lasers (using standard parameters or low fluency) should not be used because of consistent relapses and the high risk of post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation. Paradoxically, targeting the vascular component of the melasma lesion with lasers could have a beneficial effect. However, these results have yet to be confirmed. In all cases, a precise diagnosis of the type of hyperpigmentation is mandatory before any laser treatment, and the limits and the potential side effects of the treatment must be clearly explained to patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Hydrodynamic Mixing of Ablator Material into the Compressed Fuel and Hot Spot of Direct-Drive DT Cryogenic Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, S. P.; Goncharov, V. N.; Epstein, R.; Betti, R.; Bonino, M. J.; Cao, D.; Collins, T. J. B.; Campbell, E. M.; Forrest, C. J.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Harding, D. R.; Marozas, J. A.; Marshall, F. J.; McKenty, P. W.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.; Luo, R. W.; Schoff, M. E.; Farrell, M.

    2016-10-01

    Hydrodynamic mixing of ablator material into the compressed fuel and hot spot of direct-drive DT cryogenic implosions is diagnosed using time-integrated, spatially resolved xray spectroscopy. The laser drive ablates most of the 8- μm-thick CH ablator, which is doped with trace amounts of Ge ( 0.5 at.) and surrounds the cryogenic DT layer. A small fraction of the ablator material is mixed into the compressed shell and the hot spot by the ablation-front Rayleigh-Taylor hydrodynamic instability seeded by laser imprint, the target mounting stalk, and surface debris. The amount of mix mass inferred from spectroscopic analysis of the Ge K-shell emission will be presented. This material is based upon work supported by the Department Of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944. Part of this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  17. Optimization of coolant arrangement for fusion-fission hybrid reactor and analysis of ex-core nature circulation%聚变-裂变混合堆冷却剂布置优化及堆外自然循环分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻章程; 解衡

    2013-01-01

    The simulation and numerical computation with FLUENT code are conducted for the fuel zone of fusion-fission hybrid reactor.Two coolant flowing arrangement schemes,uniform flow,and proportional flow based on the gross heat of each fuel cell,are compared for optimization.The results of the numerical computation show that the heat conduction between adjacent fuel cells is weak and the heat is carried away by the coolant in the duct,and it is almost completely equal to the heat produced by corresponding fuel cell except the fuel cell 1.Then the value of heat structure of the coolant duct is the gross heat of each fuel cell that means there is no need to remodel the fuel zone with system analysis program.The fuel zone has lower maximum temperature and more even temperature distribution in the case of proportional flow compared with uniform flow,but the effect of flattening temperature is not obvious.The capacity of heat transfer of ex-core nature circulation in the imaginary LOCA is also evaluated.The results show that the reactor core will be melted within 520s after shut-down without the nature circulation and the maximum temperature in the fuel region will be only elevated to 584.4℃ within 1000s after shut-down if with the nature circulation.%根据聚变-裂变混合堆概念堆型的燃料区水冷设计,通过FLUENT建模和模拟计算,比较了均匀流量和按燃料单元发热量比例分配流量两种冷却剂布置方案.数值计算结果表明,这两种布置方案中燃料单元之间的导热很小,除燃料单元1中冷却管道外,其余的冷却管道带走的热量几乎等于相应燃料单元的发热量,在用系统分析程序等效建模时,不必重新确定冷却管道的热构件;对后一种布置方案燃料区的最高温度更低,温度分布更均匀,但温度展平效果并不明显.计算了堆外自然循环系统在假设的失水事故(LOCA)中的导热能力.结果表明,如果不采用自然循环系统,停堆后520s

  18. What's D&T For? Gathering and Comparing the Values of Design and Technology Academics and Trainee Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Some who read and research about Design & Technology (D&T) would say that the concept of value is key to understanding and defining D&T. Closer inspection reveals though that there are two ways in which values are defined in D&T: how values are taught and learnt about in D&T to use them to make judgments in D&T lessons, and…

  19. eDT and Model-based Configuration of 12GeV CEBAF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Dennison L. [Jefferson Lab, Newport News, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    This poster will discuss model-driven setup of CEBAF for the 12GeV era, focusing on the elegant Download Tool (eDT). eDT is a new operator tool that generates magnet design setpoints for various machine energies and pass configurations. eDT was developed in the effort towards a process for reducing machine configuration time and reproducibility by way of an accurate accelerator model.

  20. Demonstration of 55 +/- 7-Gbar Hot-Spot Pressure in Direct-Drive Layered DT Cryogenic Implosions on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, S. P.

    2015-11-01

    Direct-drive ignition target designs for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) require hot-spot pressures in excess of 100 Gbar. Only one-third of the required pressure was inferred in earlier experimental campaigns conducted on the 60-beam, 30-kJ, 351-nm OMEGA laser with direct-drive implosions of layered DT cryogenic targets. Laser and target improvements were implemented on OMEGA to increase the stagnation pressure, including a set of phase plates to increase the laser irradiation uniformity on target and a purified fuel with isotope composition reaching a 50:50 DT ratio. Diagnostic improvements were made for a neutron burnwidth measurement with a 40-ps impulse response and a 16-channel Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope to measure gated (30-ps) x-ray images of the core near peak compression with 6- μm resolution. The inferred volume-averaged, peak pressure in the current campaign almost doubled to 55 +/- 7 Gbar with a neutron yield approaching 5 ×1013 . Further target performance improvements to reach hydrodynamic equivalence to ignition on OMEGA require mitigation of cross-beam energy transfer (CBET), which reduces the laser coupling. A proposed technique to reduce CBET by driving the spherical target with overlapping laser beams having individual focal spots smaller than the outside diameter of the target was investigated. The diameter of the target was discretely varied from 800 to 1000 μm, while the laser focal spot size was kept constant at 820 μm. The larger targets driven with up to 30 kJ of laser energy used dynamic bandwidth reduction, where the smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD) is only applied to the pickets. The smaller targets driven with 26 kJ of laser energy had SSD on the entire pulse. This talk will summarize the results of this CBET mitigation campaign and describe a path forward to achieve ignition hydro-equivalence on OMEGA. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under

  1. Kinetic model for DT ignition and burn in ICF targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anisimov, S.I.; Oparin, A.M.; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)]|[L.D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, 117940 Moscow (Russia)

    1996-05-01

    Ignition and burn of DT targets is studied taking into account kinetic effects. Kinetic equations describing the interaction of the high-energy reaction products with target plasma are solved using the particle-in-cell (PIC) code for collisional plasma. Volume and spark ignition configurations are simulated for initial temperatures and {l_angle}{rho}{ital R}{r_angle} values of practical interest and target masses between 0.1 and 10 mg. Optically thick configurations igniting at temperatures below 5 keV are considered. Burn of the targets with reduced tritium content is simulated. It was shown that, for 25{percent} tritium concentration, the energy output is reduced only by 15{percent}. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. JET diagnostic enhancements in preparation for DT operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, J.; Murari, A.; Perez Von Thun, C.; Marocco, D.; Tardocchi, M.; Belli, F.; García Muñoz, M.; Silva, A.; Soare, S.; Craciunescu, T.; Santala, M.; Blanchard, P.; Balboa, I.; Hawkes, N.

    2016-11-01

    In order to complete the exploitation of the JET ITER-like Wall and to take full benefit from deuterium-tritium experiments on JET, a set of diagnostic system refurbishments or upgrades is in progress. These diagnostic enhancements focus mainly on neutron, gamma, fast ions, instabilities, and operations support. These efforts intend to provide better spatial, temporal, and energy resolution while increasing measurement coverage. Also previously non-existing capabilities, such as Doppler reflectometry is now available for scientific exploitation. Guaranteeing diagnostic reliability and consistency during the expected DT conditions is also a critical objective of the work and systems being implemented. An overview of status and scope of the ongoing projects is presented.

  3. 赏析拜亚动力的两副封闭式耳机--DT231/DT831

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙皓

    2001-01-01

    @@ 拜亚动力是一家成立于德国柏林的专业音响制造商,至今已有76年历史,和奥地利的AKG一样,起初以制作影院音响器材(喇叭)为业.拜亚动力这个名字得自于其创始人尤根-拜亚(Eugen Beyer).1937年,拜亚动力率先开发出了全世界第一副动圈式耳机DT48,从此进入高保真耳机领域.DT48这款耳机至今仍在生产销售,可算是全球生产历史最长的耳机了.1939年,拜亚动力又进入话筒领域,以M19话筒打入德国国家广播电台.30年代,这种话筒在欧洲的广播电台和电视台里广泛使用,奠定了拜亚动力在音响界的地位.现在,拜亚动力已发展成全球性的企业,在美国、英国、法国都设有分公司,和森海塞尔、AKG一样,在专业耳机、话筒领域内是公认的权威.

  4. Global Genomic Epidemiology of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leekitcharoenphon, Pimlapas; Hendriksen, Rene S.; Le Hello, Simon

    2016-01-01

    It has been 30 years since the initial emergence and subsequent rapid global spread of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 (MDR DT104). Nonetheless, its origin and transmission route have never been revealed. We used whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and temporally struc...

  5. Measurements of DT and DD neutron yields by neutron activation on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, C.W.; Larson, A.R. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); LeMunyan, G. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Loughlin, M.J. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    1995-03-01

    A variety of elemental foils have been activated by neutron fluence from TFTR under conditions with the DT neutron yield per shot ranging from 10{sup 12} to over 10{sup 18}, and with the DT/(DD+DT) neutron ratio varying from 0.5% (from triton burnup) to unity. Linear response over this large dynamic range is obtained by reducing the mass of the foils and increasing the cooling time, all while accepting greatly improved counting statistics. Effects on background gamma-ray lines from foil-capsule-material contaminants, and the resulting lower limits on activation foil mass, have been determined. DT neutron yields from dosimetry standard reactions on aluminum, chromium, iron, nickel, zirconium, and indium are in agreement within the {+-}9% (one-sigma) accuracy of the measurements; also agreeing are yields from silicon foils using the ACTL library cross-section, while the ENDF/B-V library has too low a cross-section. Preliminary results from a variety of other threshold reactions are presented. Use of the {sup 115}In(n.n{prime}) {sup 115m}In reaction (0.42 times as sensitive to DT neutrons as DD neutrons) in conjunction with pure-DT reactions allows a determination of the DT/(DD+DT) ratio in trace tritium or low-power tritium beam experiments.

  6. Ignition capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel for the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho D.D.-M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to β-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65 – 75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

  7. DT Serpentis: neither a symbiotic star nor a planetary nebula associate

    CERN Document Server

    Frew, David J; Bojicic, Ivan S; Parker, Quentin A

    2014-01-01

    We present an alternative interpretation for the putative symbiotic star DT Serpentis, and its proposed planetary nebula (PN), recently announced by Munari et al. Our analysis is based on their data combined with additional archival data trawled from Virtual Observatory databases. We show that the star known as DT Ser is not a symbiotic star, and is merely superposed on the newly discovered but unrelated background PN. There is no evidence for any periodic variability for DT Ser as expected for a symbiotic star. We further establish that there is no physical association between DT Ser and the PN, which has a considerably higher extinction, befitting the larger distance we estimate. The significantly different radial velocities of the star and nebula also likely preclude any association. Finally, we show that the mid-infrared source detected by the IRAS and WISE surveys is actually coincident with the PN so there is no evidence for DT Ser being a dusty post-AGB star.

  8. A novel fusion protein diphtheria toxin-stem cell factor (DT-SCF)-purification and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potala, Sirisha; Verma, Rama Shanker

    2010-11-01

    Fusion toxins are an emerging class of targeted therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. Diphtheria toxin-stem cell factor (DT-SCF) is one such novel fusion toxin designed to target malignancies expressing c-kit. Since, c-kit overexpression has been reported on many types of cancers, it appeared to be a reasonably good molecule to target. In the present study, we report construction, expression, purification, and characterization of DT-SCF. DT-SCF gene coding for 1-387 amino acids of diphtheria toxin, His-Ala linker, 2-141 amino acids of SCF was cloned into expression vector with C terminal His tag. The induced DT-SCF protein was exclusively expressed in insoluble fraction. Purification of DT-SCF was achieved by inclusion body isolation and metal affinity chromatography under denaturing and reducing conditions. Purified DT-SCF was renatured partially on-column by gradually reducing denaturant concentration followed by complete refolding through rapid dilution technique. Cell viability assay provided the evidence that DT-SCF is a potent cytotoxic agent selective to cells expressing c-kit. The novelty of this study lies in employing SCF as a ligand in construction of fusion toxin to target wide range of malignancies expressing c-kit. Efficacy of DT-SCF fusion toxin was demonstrated over a range of malignancies such as chronic myeloid leukemia (K562), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (MOLT4), pancreatic carcinoma (PANC-1), and cervical carcinoma (HeLa 229). This is the first study reporting specificity and efficacy of DT-SCF against tumor cells expressing c-kit. There was significant correlation (P = 0.007) between c-kit expression on cells and their sensitivity to DT-SCF fusion toxin.

  9. DYNA3D analysis of the DT-20 shipping container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logan, R.W.; Lovejoy, S.C.

    1991-08-22

    A DYNA3D model of the DT-20 shipping container was constructed. Impact onto a rigid steel surface at a velocity of 44 ft/sec (30 foot gravity drop) was studied. The orientation of most interest was a side-drop, but end and corner drops were also studied briefly. The assembly for the baseline side impact contained a 150 lb. payload. During this drop, the outer drum sustains plastic strains of up to 0.15, with most the deformation near the rim. The plywood/Celotex packing is crushed about 3 inches. The inner sealed can sees significant stresses, but barely reaches the onset of yielding in some local areas. Based on hand calculations, the bolts joining the can halves could see stresses near 50 ksi. It is felt that overall, the container should survive this drop. However, detailed modeling of the rim closure and the center bolted joint was not possible due to time constraints. Furthermore, better material models and properties are needed for the Celotex, plywood, and honeycomb in particular. 39 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Plasma-surface interactions in TFTR D-T experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, D.K.; Adler, H.; Alling, P. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.] [and others

    1995-03-01

    TFTR has begun its campaign to study deuterium-tritium fusion under reactor-like conditions. Variable amounts of deuterium and tritium neutral beam power have been used to maximize fusion power, study alpha heating, investigate alpha particle confinement, and search for alpha driven plasma instabilities. Additional areas of study include energy and particle transport and confinement, ICRF heating schemes for DT plasmas, tritium retention, and fusion in high {beta}{sub p} plasmas. The majority of this work is done in the TFTR supershot confinement regime. To obtain supershots, extensive limiter conditioning using helium fueled ohmic discharges and lithium pellet injection into ohmic and neutral beam heated plasmas is performed, resulting in a low recycling limiter. The relationship between recycling and core plasma confinement has been studied by using helium, deuterium and high-Z gas puffs to simulate high recycling limiter conditions. These studies show that confinement in TFTR supershots is very sensitive to the influx of neutral particles at the plasma edge.

  11. DT56a stimulates gender-specific human cultured bone cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somjen, Dalia; Katzburg, Sara; Lieberherr, M; Hendel, David; Yoles, Israel

    2006-01-01

    DT56a found to have SERM-like properties is used for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and osteoporosis. In vivo experiments demonstrated that DT56a displayed selective estrogenic activity; it stimulated creatine kinase (CK) specific activity in the skeletal tissues but not on the uterus of ovariectomized rats. DT56a, when applied together with estradiol-17beta (E(2)), completely inhibited the E(2)-stimulated CK, as demonstrated by other SERMs. DT56a stimulated bone formation in a rat model as measured by histological and histomorphometrical parameters. In a clinical study, administration of DT56a (Femarelle) resulted in a considerable elevation of bone mineral density and relief of menopausal symptoms. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of DT56a in vitro on human-derived bone cultured osteoblasts (Ob), by measuring its effects, at different concentrations, on DNA synthesis, CK and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) specific activities as well as changes in intracellular [Ca(2+)](i) concentrations. DT56a stimulated CK and DNA synthesis in both pre- and post-menopausal female Ob with maximal effect at 100 ng/ml for both age groups. In addition, DT56a stimulated ALP in Ob from both pre- and post-menopausal women with maximal effect at lower dose of 50 ng/ml, with higher response of pre-menopausal cells. Raloxifene (Ral) inhibited all DT56a-stimulated changes in Ob from both age groups. DT56a, when given together with E(2), completely antagonized E(2)-stimulated effects demonstrating its nature as a phyto-SERM. DT56a also, dose dependency, stimulated the intracellular levels of [Ca(2+)](i) with maximal effect at 10 ng/ml. Male-derived Ob did not respond to DT56a in any parameter. In summary, DT56a stimulated sex-specifically female-derived Ob, indicating its unique nature compared to the compounds currently used for postmenopausal osteoporosis by being bone-forming and not only an anti-resorptive agent.

  12. Mapping and validation of molecular markers of genes Dt1 and Dt2 to determine the type of stem growth in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorival Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The type of stem growth in soybean is a distinguishing feature of cultivars. The genes Dt1 and Dt2 affect the termination of the stem, and the types of growth are classified as determinate, semi-determinate and indeterminate. Phenotypic characterization of the type of growth is complex and is occasionally erroneously described. The objective of this study was to map and validate molecular markers to classify the type of soybean growth to facilitate the description of cultivars and genotypic selection. Two populations were used for mapping and validation of molecular markers F2:3: T 117 (semi-determinate growth type x Igra RA 518 RR (indeterminate growth type and CD 235RR (determinate growth type x Igra RA 518 RR. The study demonstrates that the association of the molecular marker with the gene GmTFL1b was efficient in the classification of soybean growth types. The marker sat_064 is connected to the Dt2 gene, which is located in the Liaison Group G of the consensus map of soybeans with a recombination frequency of 19.4%. Molecular markers for Dt1 and Dt2 genes efficiently described the genotypes of soybean stem growth and selection.

  13. Emergence of Salmonella typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT104) as an important cause of salmonellosis in horses in Ontario.

    OpenAIRE

    Weese, J. S.; Baird, J D; Poppe, C; Archambault, M.

    2001-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium definitive type 104 (DT104) has emerged as a common cause of salmonellosis in humans and cattle, yet previous reports involving horses are sparse. This study reports the emergence of DT104 as an important pathogen in horses in Ontario. The first clinical case of DT104 infection at the Ontario Veterinary College was identified in 1997. Seventeen cases of DT104-associated salmonellosis were identified between 1997 and 2000. In 2000, 12 of 13 cases of salmonellosis were du...

  14. Absolute monitoring of DD and DT neutron fluences using the associated-particle technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, N. E.; Wehring, B. W.

    1980-06-01

    An associated-particle system was constructed for use with a Texas Nuclear neutron generator. Associated-particle and neutron energy spectra were measured simultaneously using this system and an NE-213 proton recoil spectrometer, respectively. The associated-particle system proved to be not only an accurate monitor of DT neutron fluence, but also an accurate monitor of DD contamination in the DT spectrum. The DD and DT neutron fluences calculated from the measured associated-particle counting rates showed the best agreement with the measured neutron fluences when the laboratory distributions were assumed to be isotropic.

  15. The Genome of the Chicken DT40 Bursal Lymphoma Cell Line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molnar, Janos; Poti, Adam; Pipek, Orsolya

    2014-01-01

    The chicken DT40 cell line is a widely used model system in the study of multiple cellular processes due to the efficiency of homologous gene targeting. The cell line was derived from a bursal lymphoma induced by avian leukosis virus infection. In this study we characterized the genome of the cell...... chicken genomes and the Gallus gallus reference genome, we found no unique mutational processes shaping the DT40 genome except for a mild increase in insertion and deletion events, particularly deletions at tandem repeats. We mapped coding sequence mutations that are unique to the DT40 genome; mutations...

  16. Branched Lateral Tail Fiber Organization in T5-Like Bacteriophages DT57C and DT571/2 is Revealed by Genetic and Functional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomidova, Alla K; Kulikov, Eugene E; Prokhorov, Nikolai S; Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo С; Knirel, Yuriy A; Kostryukova, Elena S; Tarasyan, Karina K; Letarov, Andrey V

    2016-01-21

    The T5-like siphoviruses DT57C and DT571/2, isolated from horse feces, are very closely related to each other, and most of their structural proteins are also nearly identical to T5 phage. Their LTFs (L-shaped tail fibers), however, are composed of two proteins, LtfA and LtfB, instead of the single Ltf of bacteriophage T5. In silico and mutant analysis suggests a possible branched structure of DT57C and DT571/2 LTFs, where the LtfB protein is connected to the phage tail via the LtfA protein and with both proteins carrying receptor recognition domains. Such adhesin arrangement has not been previously recognized in siphoviruses. The LtfA proteins of our phages are found to recognize different host O-antigen types: E. coli O22-like for DT57C phage and E. coli O87 for DT571/2. LtfB proteins are identical in both phages and recognize another host receptor, most probably lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of E. coli O81 type. In these two bacteriophages, LTF function is essential to penetrate the shield of the host's O-antigens. We also demonstrate that LTF-mediated adsorption becomes superfluous when the non-specific cell protection by O-antigen is missing, allowing the phages to bind directly to their common secondary receptor, the outer membrane protein BtuB. The LTF independent adsorption was also demonstrated on an O22-like host mutant missing O-antigen O-acetylation, thus showing the biological value of this O-antigen modification for cell protection against phages.

  17. MR safety: simultaneous B0, dΦ/dt, and dB/dt measurements on MR-workers up to 7 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groebner, Jens; Umathum, Reiner; Bock, Michael; Krafft, Axel J; Semmler, Wolfhard; Rauschenberg, Jaane

    2011-12-01

    The EU directive on safety requirements (2004/40/EC) limits the exposure to time varying magnetic fields to dB /dt=200 mT/s. This action value is not clearly defined as it considers only the temporal change of the magnitude of B. Thus, only the translational motion in the magnet's fringe field is considered and rotations are neglected. A magnetic field probe was constructed to simultaneously record the magnetic flux density B(x, y, z) with a 3-axis Hall sensor and the induced voltage due to movements with a set of three orthogonal coils. Voltages were converted into time-varying magnetic flux d Φ(x, y, z)/dt serving as an exposition parameter for both translations and rotations. To separate the two types of motion, d B/dt was additionally calculated on the basis of the Hall sensor's data. The calibrated probe was attached to the forehead of 8 healthcare workers and 17 MR physicists, and B and dΦ/dt were recorded during standard operating procedures at three different MR systems up to 7 T. The maximum percentage of the translational motion referring the data including both translations and rotations amounts to 32%. During volunteer measurements, maximum exposure values of dΦ/dt=21 mWb/s, dB/dt=1.40 T/s and |B|=2.75 T were found. The findings in this work indicate that both translations and rotations in the vicinity of an MR system should be taken into account, and that a single regulatory action level might not be sufficient.

  18. An outbreak of multidrug-resistant, quinolone-resistant Salmonella enterica serotype typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molbak, K.; Baggesen, Dorte Lau; Aarestrup, Frank Møller

    1999-01-01

    , and tetracycline. An increasing proportion of DT104 isolates also have reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones. Methods The Danish salmonella surveillance program determines the phage types of all typhimurium strains from the food chain, and in the case of suspected outbreaks, five-drug-resistant strains...... findings here. Results Until 1997, DT104 infections made up less than 1 percent of all human salmonella infections. The strain isolated from patients in the first community outbreak of DT104 in Denmark, in 1998, was resistant to nalidixic acid and had reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones...... with fluoroquinolones. Conclusions Our investigation of an outbreak of DT104 documented the spread of quinolone-resistant bacteria from food animals to humans; this spread was associated with infections that were difficult to treat. Because of the increase in quinolone resistance in salmonella, the use...

  19. Muon cycling rate in D/T mixture including doubly muonic molecule formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Eskandari

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available   In the present work, the fundamental behavior of four body molecule formations of pt μμ , pd μμ , dt μμ , tt μμ , and pp μμ in a D/T fusion are considered. Their higher fusion rate, specially the available data for dt μμ , encouraged us to study the muon cycling rate in D/T fusion in the temperature range of (100-1400 K, density and deuterium-tritium concentration ratio. For this purpose, various values for the doubly muonic molecule formation are chosen and with the comparison to the experimental results, the doubly muonic formation rate of 109 s-1 is predicted theoretically. Our calculated cycling rate has shown that having not considered the doubly muonic formation in previous calculations had made no serious changes in the previously calculated values.

  20. Establishment of the DNA repair-defective mutants in DT40 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiai, Masamichi; Uchida, Emi; Takata, Minoru

    2012-01-01

    The chicken B cell line DT40 has been widely used as a model system for reverse genetics studies in higher eukaryotes, because of its advantages including efficient gene targeting and ease of chromosome manipulation. Although the genetic approach using the RNA interference technique has become the standard method particularly in human cells, DT40 still remains a powerful tool to investigate the regulation and function of genes and proteins in a vertebrate system, because of feasibility of easy, rapid, and clear genetic experiments. The use of DT40 cells for DNA repair research has several advantages. In addition to canonical assays for DNA repair, such as measurement of the sensitivities toward DNA damage reagents, it is possible to measure homologous recombination and translesion synthesis activities using activation-induced deaminase (AID)-induced diversification of the immunoglobulin locus. In this chapter, we would describe a detailed protocol for gene disruption experiments in DT40 cells.

  1. Comparison of DT neutron production codes MCUNED, ENEA-JSI source subroutine and DDT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čufar, Aljaž, E-mail: aljaz.cufar@ijs.si [Reactor Physics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Lengar, Igor; Kodeli, Ivan [Reactor Physics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Milocco, Alberto [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Sauvan, Patrick [Departamento de Ingeniería Energética, E.T.S. Ingenieros Industriales, UNED, C/Juan del Rosal 12, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Conroy, Sean [VR Association, Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, PO Box 516, SE-75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Snoj, Luka [Reactor Physics Department, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Results of three codes capable of simulating the accelerator based DT neutron generators were compared on a simple model where only a thin target made of mixture of titanium and tritium is present. Two typical deuteron beam energies, 100 keV and 250 keV, were used in the comparison. • Comparisons of the angular dependence of the total neutron flux and spectrum as well as the neutron spectrum of all the neutrons emitted from the target show general agreement of the results but also some noticeable differences. • A comparison of figures of merit of the calculations using different codes showed that the computational time necessary to achieve the same statistical uncertainty can vary for more than 30× when different codes for the simulation of the DT neutron generator are used. - Abstract: As the DT fusion reaction produces neutrons with energies significantly higher than in fission reactors, special fusion-relevant benchmark experiments are often performed using DT neutron generators. However, commonly used Monte Carlo particle transport codes such as MCNP or TRIPOLI cannot be directly used to analyze these experiments since they do not have the capabilities to model the production of DT neutrons. Three of the available approaches to model the DT neutron generator source are the MCUNED code, the ENEA-JSI DT source subroutine and the DDT code. The MCUNED code is an extension of the well-established and validated MCNPX Monte Carlo code. The ENEA-JSI source subroutine was originally prepared for the modelling of the FNG experiments using different versions of the MCNP code (−4, −5, −X) and was later extended to allow the modelling of both DT and DD neutron sources. The DDT code prepares the DT source definition file (SDEF card in MCNP) which can then be used in different versions of the MCNP code. In the paper the methods for the simulation of the DT neutron production used in the codes are briefly described and compared for the case of a

  2. Mass transport properties of Pu/DT mixtures from orbital free molecular dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kress, Joel David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ticknor, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Collins, Lee A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-16

    Mass transport properties (shear viscosity and diffusion coefficients) for Pu/DT mixtures were calculated with Orbital Free Molecular Dynamics (OFMD). The results were fitted to simple functions of mass density (for ρ=10.4 to 62.4 g/cm3) and temperature (for T=100 up to 3,000 eV) for Pu/DT mixtures consisting of 100/0, 25/75, 50/50, and 75/25 by number.

  3. 1983 Annual Report on Laser Dyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    absorption at the lasing wavelength due to the accumula- tion of reaction products from the photodegradation of a laser dye is analyzed thioretically...Laser Dyes O by A. N. Fletcher Research DopetMrnt APRIL 1984 NAVAL WEAPONS CENTER CHINA LAKE, CALIFORNIA 93555 Appoved for ftc qesege dt"" ba n ftsd...work presented in seven open literature publications on laser dyes . This work originated within the Chemistry Division and was performed and/or

  4. Complete genome sequences of T5-related Escherichia coli bacteriophages DT57C and DT571/2 isolated from horse feces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golomidova, Alla K; Kulikov, Eugene E; Prokhorov, Nikolai S; Guerrero-Ferreira, Ricardo C; Ksenzenko, Vladimir N; Tarasyan, Karina K; Letarov, Andrey V

    2015-12-01

    We report the complete genome sequencing of two Escherichia coli T5-related bacteriophages, DT57C and DT571/2, isolated from the same specimen of horse feces. These two isolates share 96% nucleotide sequence identity and can thus be considered representatives of the same novel species within the genus T5likevirus. The observed variation in the ltfA gene of these phages, resulting from a recent recombination event, may explain the observed host-range differences, suggesting that a modular mechanism makes a significant contribution to the short-term evolution (or adaptation) of T5-like phage genomes in the intestinal ecosystem. Comparison of our isolates to their closest relative, coliphage T5, revealed high overall synteny of the genomes and high conservation of the sequences of almost all structural proteins as well as of the other proteins with identified functions. At the same time, numerous alterations and non-orthologous replacements of non-structural protein genes (mostly of those with unknown functions) as well as substantial differences in tail fiber locus organization support the conclusion that DT57C and DT571/2 form a species-level group clearly distinct from bacteriophage T5.

  5. Expression of mammalian DT-diaphorase in Escherichia coli: purification and characterization of the expressed protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Q; Wang, R; Yang, C S; Lu, A Y

    1990-12-01

    A full-length cDNA clone, pKK-DTD4, complementary to rat liver cytosolic DT-diaphorase [NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.99.2)] mRNA was expressed in Escherichia coli. The pKK-DTD4 cDNA was obtained by extending the 5'-end sequence of a rat liver DT-diaphorase cDNA clone, pDTD55, to include an ATG initiation codon and the NH2-terminal codons using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Restriction sites for EcoRI and HindIII were incorporated at the 5'- and 3'-ends of the cDNA, respectively, by the PCR reaction. The resulting full-length cDNA was inserted into an expression vector, pKK2.7, at the EcoRI and HindIII restriction sites. E. coli strain AB1899 was transformed with the constructed expression plasmid, and DT-diaphorase was expressed under the control of the tac promotor. The expressed DT-diaphorase exhibited high activity of menadione reduction and was inhibited by dicumarol at a concentration of 10(-5)M. After purification by Cibacron Blue affinity chromatography, the expressed enzyme migrated as a single band on 12.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel with a molecular weight equivalent to that of the purified rat liver cytosolic DT-diaphorase. The purified expressed protein was recognized by polyclonal antibodies against rat liver DT-diaphorase on immunoblot analysis. It utilized either NADPH or NADH as electron donor at equal efficiency and displayed high activities in reduction of menadione, 1,4-benzoquinone, and 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol which are typical substrates for DT-diaphorase. The expressed DT-diaphorase exhibited a typical flavoprotein spectrum with absorption peaks at 380 and 452 nm. Flavin content determination showed that it contained 2 mol of FAD per mole of the enzyme. Edman protein sequencing of the first 20 amino acid residues at the NH2 terminus of the expressed protein indicated that the expressed DT-diaphorase is not blocked at the NH2 terminus and has an alanine as the first amino acid. The remaining 19 amino acid

  6. Effects of the injected trigger pulse focusing and timing on the ignition and gain of dense static, or imploding DT fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Angelo; Pais, Vicente A.

    1998-07-01

    We discuss two issues relevant for the feasibility of the scheme in which a heavy ion pulse is used to ignite a DT fuel spherically compressed, by laser induced ablation, along a low adiabat (no self-ignition). The discussed issues are (i) the degree of synchronism between the laser driven implosion and the trigger pulse; (ii) the requirements on focusing for the trigger beam. The numerical simulation have been made by using cylindrical heavy ion beams with gaussian radial distribution, truncated where the intensity is {1}/{e-4} of the maximum. The parameter ( dbeam), used to measure the focusing, is the diameter of the circle where the intensity is {1}/{e} of the maximum (energy content ≈ 64% of the total energy). Requirements on focusing have been first explored by simulating (2D) the irradiation of static DT cylinders at 200 g/cm 3 by coaxially impinging 15 GeV Bi ions. The ignition conditions have been studied for pulses having 10 ps or 50 ps duration. For both the cases, the ignition energy ( Emin) is constant for spot radii smaller than 50 μm. In the range 50-140 μm the ignition energy increases linearly (3 × Emin at 140 μm, with Emin = 40 kJ for 10 ps pulses, Emin = 100 kJ for 50 ps pulses). The study on synchronism has been performed by simulating (2D) the irradiation, by a heavy ion beam, of a laser imploded spherical DT shell (initial aspect ratio 10). The trigger beam was started at different times near the stagnation, and the initial fuel state (field of velocity, density, temperature, etc.) was that computed by a 1D simulation. It has been found that ignition, and almost constant thermonuclear energy release, can be obtained by triggering within a temporal window of the order of 1 ns, around the stagnation. The interplay between focusing and synchronization for the ignition of the spherical imploding fuel has also been studied. The heavy ion pulse duration was maintained constant at 50 ps (FWHM). Ignition conditions have been studied for trigger

  7. Fusion performances and alpha heating in future JET D-T plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balet, B.; Cordey, J.G.; Gibson, A.; Lomas, P.; Stubberfield, P.M.; Thomas, P. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    The new pump divertor installed at JET should allow high performance pulses of a few seconds duration by both preventing the impurity influx and controlling the density evolution. The TRANSP code has been used in a predictive mode to assess the possible fusion performance of such plasmas fuelled with a 50:50 mixture of D and T, and the effect of alpha particles heating on Te and Ti. Several cases are considered: 50:50 D-T mix; 50:50 D-T mix, no C bloom; 50:50 D-T mix, VH phase, density control; 50:50 D-T mix, VH phase, density control, 6 Ma. The predictions show that if the the bloom and MHD instabilities can be controlled at higher plasma currents using a higher toroidal field to keep a reasonable beta value, then a higher fusion performance steady state plasma with Q{sub DT} superior to 2.5 should be possible. The alpha heating power of 4.9 MW would lead to a 74% increase in Te. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. The genome of the chicken DT40 bursal lymphoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, János; Póti, Ádám; Pipek, Orsolya; Krzystanek, Marcin; Kanu, Nnennaya; Swanton, Charles; Tusnády, Gábor E; Szallasi, Zoltan; Csabai, István; Szüts, Dávid

    2014-09-15

    The chicken DT40 cell line is a widely used model system in the study of multiple cellular processes due to the efficiency of homologous gene targeting. The cell line was derived from a bursal lymphoma induced by avian leukosis virus infection. In this study we characterized the genome of the cell line using whole genome shotgun sequencing and single nucleotide polymorphism array hybridization. The results indicate that wild-type DT40 has a relatively normal karyotype, except for whole chromosome copy number gains, and no karyotype variability within stocks. In a comparison to two domestic chicken genomes and the Gallus gallus reference genome, we found no unique mutational processes shaping the DT40 genome except for a mild increase in insertion and deletion events, particularly deletions at tandem repeats. We mapped coding sequence mutations that are unique to the DT40 genome; mutations inactivating the PIK3R1 and ATRX genes likely contributed to the oncogenic transformation. In addition to a known avian leukosis virus integration in the MYC gene, we detected further integration sites that are likely to de-regulate gene expression. The new findings support the hypothesis that DT40 is a typical transformed cell line with a relatively intact genome; therefore, it is well-suited to the role of a model system for DNA repair and related processes. The sequence data generated by this study, including a searchable de novo genome assembly and annotated lists of mutated genes, will support future research using this cell line.

  9. Experimental Determination of DT Yield in High Current DD Dense Plasma Focii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowe, D. R. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Hagen, E. C. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Meehan, B. T. [National Security Technologies, LLC; Springs, R. K. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas; O' Brien, R. J. [University of Nevada, Las Vegas

    2013-06-18

    Dense Plasma Focii (DPF), which utilize deuterium gas to produce 2.45 MeV neutrons, may in fact also produce DT fusion neutrons at 14.1 MeV due to the triton production in the DD reaction. If beam-target fusion is the primary producer of fusion neutrons in DPFs, it is possible that ejected tritons from the first pinch will interact with the second pinch, and so forth. The 2 MJ DPF at National Security Technologies’ Losee Road Facility is able to, and has produced, over 1E12 DD neutrons per pulse, allowing an accurate measurement of the DT/DD ratio. The DT/DD ratio was experimentally verified by using the (n,2n) reaction in a large piece of praseodymium metal, which has a threshold reaction of 8 MeV, and is widely used as a DT yield measurement system1. The DT/DD ratio was experimentally determined for over 100 shots, and then compared to independent variables such as tube pressure, number of pinches per shot, total current, pinch current and charge voltage.

  10. DT Serpentis: neither a symbiotic star nor a planetary nebula associate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, David J.; Bento, Joao; Bojičić, Ivan S.; Parker, Quentin A.

    2014-12-01

    We present an alternative interpretation for the putative symbiotic star DT Serpentis, and its proposed planetary nebula (PN), recently announced by Munari et al. Our analysis is based on their data combined with additional archival data trawled from Virtual Observatory data bases. We show that the star known as DT Ser is not a symbiotic star, and is merely superposed on the newly discovered but unrelated background PN. There is no evidence for any periodic variability for DT Ser as expected for a symbiotic star. We further establish that there is no physical association between DT Ser and the PN, which has a considerably higher extinction, befitting the larger distance we estimate. The significantly different radial velocities of the star and nebula also likely preclude any association. Finally, we show that the mid-infrared source detected by the IRAS and WISE surveys is actually coincident with the PN so there is no evidence for DT Ser being a dusty post-asymptotic giant branch star.

  11. Impact of flows on ion temperatures inferred from neutron spectra produced in NIF DT implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Knauer, J. P.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Doeppner, T.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kritcher, A.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; Munro, D. H.; Patel, P.; Ralph, J. E.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Yeamans, C. B.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    Neutron spectrometers on the NIF provide accurate, directional information of the DT and DD neutron spectra from layered DT implosions. Traditionally, ion temperatures (Tion) , essential for assessing conditions in the hotspot of the implosions, are inferred from the broadening of primary neutron spectra. Directional motion (flow) of the fuel at burn also impacts broadening and may lead to artificially inflated ``Tion'' values. We examine NIF neutron spectra to assess the impact of flows on measured Tion. Measured DT Ti on is consistently higher than measured DD Tion, which suggests that significant energy is lost to radial or turbulent kinetic fuel motion at peak burn. However, explaining the full observed Tion difference with fuel motion, as calculated from a Ballabio and Murphy analysis, leads to a thermal Tion too low to explain observed yields. These results have improved our understanding of hotspot formation and the concept of ``stagnation'' in layered NIF implosions. This work was supported in part by DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  12. Performance of layered DT implosions with adiabat-shaped drives on NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalyuk, V. A.; Robey, H. F.; Milovich, J.; Bachmann, B.; Baker, K.; Berzak Hopkins, L. F.; Bond, E.; Callahan, D.; Casey, D. T.; Celliers, P. M.; Cerjan, C.; Clark, D. S.; Dixit, S. N.; Doeppner, T.; Edwards, M. J.; Haan, S. W.; Hamza, A. V.; Hurricane, O. A.; Jancaitis, K. S.; Jones, O. S.; Kroll, J. J.; Lafortune, K. N.; Landen, O. L.; MacGowan, B. J.; Macphee, A. G.

    2015-11-01

    Layered DT implosions with adiabat-shaped drives were performed to study the physics of performance degradation due to instability growth and convergence. Both 3-shock and 4-shock adiabat-shaped designs were developed and demonstrated significantly reduced ablation-front instability growth. These new drives with DT fuel adiabat ~ 2.1 and ~ 1.6 respectively, were used in layered DT implosions showing significant improvements in performance compared to implosions during the National Ignition Campaign. Comparison of measured and simulated data will be presented. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. The DtN nonreflecting boundary condition for multiple scattering problems in the half-plane

    CERN Document Server

    Acosta, Sebastian; Malone, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The multiple-Dirichlet-to-Neumann (multiple-DtN) non-reflecting boundary condition is adapted to acoustic scattering from obstacles embedded in the half-plane. The multiple-DtN map is coupled with the method of images as an alternative model for multiple acoustic scattering in the presence of acoustically soft and hard plane boundaries. As opposed to the current practice of enclosing all obstacles with a large semicircular artificial boundary that contains portion of the plane boundary, the proposed technique uses small artificial circular boundaries that only enclose the immediate vicinity of each obstacle in the half-plane. The adapted multiple-DtN condition is simultaneously imposed in each of the artificial circular boundaries. As a result the computational effort is significantly reduced. A computationally advantageous boundary value problem is numerically solved with a finite difference method supported on boundary-fitted grids. Approximate solutions to problems involving two scatterers of arbitrary geo...

  14. Design of a high DC voltage generator and D-T fuser based on particle accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Wagner L.; Campos, Tarcisio P.R., E-mail: wagnerleite@ufmg.b, E-mail: campos@nuclear.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (DEN/ UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear

    2011-07-01

    This paper approaches a design and simulation of a high voltage Cockcroft Walton multiplier and a compact size deuteron accelerator addressed in neutron generation by d-t fusion. We proposed a circuit arrangement, which was led to simulations. The particle accelerator was computer-generated providing particle transport and electric potential analysis. As results, the simulated voltage multiplier achieved 119 kV, and the accelerator presented a deuteron beam current up to 15 mA, achieving energies in order to 100 keV. In conclusion, the simulation motivates experimental essays in order to investigate the viability of a deuteron accelerator powered by a Cockcroft-Walton source. Such d-t fusor shall produce an interesting ion beam profile, reaching energy values near the d-t fusion cross section peak. (author)

  15. Measuring the absolute DT neutron yield using the Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer at OMEGA and the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Casey, D; Frenje, J A; Johnson, M G; Seguin, F H; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D; Glebov, V Y; Katz, J; Knauer, J; Meyerhofer, D; Sangster, T; Bionta, R; Bleuel, D; Hachett, S P; Hartouni, E; Lepape, S; Mckernan, M; Moran, M; Yeamans, C

    2012-05-03

    A Magnetic Recoil Spectrometer (MRS) has been installed and extensively used on OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility (NIF) for measurements of the absolute neutron spectrum from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. From the neutron spectrum measured with the MRS, many critical implosion parameters are determined including the primary DT neutron yield, the ion temperature, and the down-scattered neutron yield. As the MRS detection efficiency is determined from first principles, the absolute DT neutron yield is obtained without cross-calibration to other techniques. The MRS primary DT neutron measurements at OMEGA and the NIF are shown to be in excellent agreement with previously established yield diagnostics on OMEGA, and with the newly commissioned nuclear activation diagnostics on the NIF.

  16. Design of a Neutron Temporal Diagnostic for measuring DD or DT burn histories at the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmann, B.; Frenje, J. A.; Sio, H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Bradley, D. K.; Le Pape, S.; MacKinnon, A. J.; Isumi, N.; Macphee, A.; Zayas, C.; Spears, B. K.; Hermann, H.; Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    The DD or DT burn history in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) implosions provides essential information about implosion performance and helps to constrain numerical modeling. The capability of measuring this burn history is thus important for the NIF in its pursuit of ignition. Currently, the Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic is the only system capable of measuring the burn history for DT implosions with yields greater than ~ 1e14. To complement GRH, a new NIF Neutron Temporal Diagnostic (NTD) is being designed for measuring the DD or DT burn history with yields greater than ~ 1e10. A traditional scintillator-based design and a pulse-dilation-based design are being considered. Using MCNPX simulations, both designs have been optimized, validated and contrasted for various types of implosions at the NIF. This work was supported in part by the U.S. DOE, LLNL and LLE.

  17. Sensitivity of ICF ignition conditions to non-Maxwellian DT fusion reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garbett W.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The hotspot ignition conditions in ICF are determined by considering the power balance between fusion energy deposition and energy loss terms. Uncertainty in any of these terms has potential to modify the ignition conditions, changing the optimum ignition capsule design. This paper considers the impact of changes to the DT fusion reaction rate due to non-thermal ion energy distributions. The DT fusion reactivity has been evaluated for a class of non-Maxwellian distributions representing a perturbation to the tail of a thermal distribution. The resulting reactivity has been used to determine hotspot ignition conditions as a function of the characteristic parameter of the modified distribution.

  18. Measurements of DT alpha particle loss near the outer midplane of TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweben, S.J.; Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.; Redi, M.H.; Schivell, J.; White, R.B.

    1995-07-01

    Measurements of DT alpha particle loss to the outer midplane region of TFTR have been made using a radially movable scintillator detector. The conclusion from this data is that mechanisms determining the DT alpha loss to the outer midplane are not substantially different from those for DD fusion products. Some of these results are compared with a simplified theoretical model for TF ripple-induced alpha loss, which is expected to be the dominant classical alpha loss mechanism near the outer midplane. An example of plasma-driven MHD-induced alpha particle loss is shown, but no signs of any ``collective`` alpha instability-induced alpha loss have yet been observed.

  19. Modelling TF ripple loss of alpha particles in TFTR DT experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redi, M.H.; Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S. [and others

    1995-07-01

    Modelling of TF ripple loss of alphas in DT experiments on TFTR now includes neoclassical calculations of first orbit loss, stochastic ripple diffusion, ripple trapping and collisional effects. A rapid way to simulate experiment has been developed which uses a simple stochastic domain model for TF ripple loss within the TRANSP analysis code, with the ripple diffusion threshold evaluated by comparison with more accurate but computationally expensive Hamiltonian coordinate guiding center code simulations. Typical TF collisional ripple loss predictions are 6-10% loss of alphas for TFTR D-T experiments at I{sub p} = 1.0-2.0 MA and R = 2.52 m.

  20. Fuel enrichment and temperature distribution in nuclear fuel rod in (D-T) driven hybrid reactor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osman, Ypek [Suleyman Demirel Universitesi Muhendislik-Mimarlyk Fakultesi, Isparta (Turkey)

    2001-07-01

    In this study, melting point of the fuel rod and temperature distribution in nuclear fuel rod are investigated for different coolants under various first wall loads (P{sub w}, =5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 MWm{sup -2}) in Fusion-Fission reactor fueled with 50%LWR +50%CANDU. The fusion source of neutrons of 14.1 MeV is simulated by a movable target along the main axis of cylindrical geometry as a line source. In addition, the fusion chamber was thought as a cylindrical cavity with a diameter of 300 cm that is comparatively small value. The fissile fuel zone is considered to be cooled with four different coolants, gas, flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}), natural lithium (Li), and eutectic lithium (Li{sub 17}Pb{sub 83}). Investigations are observed during 4 years for discrete time intervals of{delta}t= 0.5 month and by a plant factor (PF) of 75%. Volumetric ratio of coolant-to fuel is 1:1, 45.515% coolant, 45.515% fuel, 8.971% clad, in fuel zone. (author)

  1. The. beta. -heating redistribution of DT (deuterium-tritium) solid fuel in glass shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Musinski, D.L.; Mruzek, M.T.; Felmlee, W.J.; Mehler, R.D.

    1988-01-01

    Recent laboratory observations have confirmed that the energy from ..beta..-heating is sufficient to redistribution DT fuel in Inertial Confinement Fusion, ICF, shells when the shell is held within an isothermal container. There are several steps that now must be taken in the development of this technology. We know that the presence of He/sup 3/ within the interior of the shell will impede the redistribution of the DT. Therefore, the rates at which a DT fuel layer becomes uniform must be experimentally established. To allow target designers to evaluate various options, we need to experimentally determine the limits on the fuel layers uniformity. In addition, to consider realistic hardware systems that can produce these targets, we need to establish the effects that a non-isothermal environment will have on the fuel layer uniformity. To address some of these questions, KMS Fusion has designed and constructed an experimental system that provides an isothermal environment from the shell, and allows the fuel layer uniformity to be documented. Preliminary experiments using this system demonstrate that there are several options for using ..beta..-decay heat to produce a uniform solid fuel layer. These experiments indicate that slowly cooling the shell through the triple points of the DT fuel mixture results in a significant increase in the uniformity of the initial solid layer. 8 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Installation of last DT+RPC packages for the muon barrel detector of CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo

    2007-01-01

    On friday 26 October 2007 the last BMu package (DT+RPC chambers) was installed in the cavern into the iron yoke of CMS. This operation marked the completion of the central muon detector of CMS. Some pictures of this last installation round (8 chambers in total in YB-2 and YB-1) are shown here.

  3. On the absolute calibration of a DT fusion neutron yield diagnostic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz C.L.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF experiments at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's National Ignition Facility (NIF have underscored the need for accurate total yield measurements of DT neutrons because yield measurements provide a measure of the predicted performance of the experiments. Future gas-puff DT experiments at Sandia National Laboratory's Z facility will also require similar measurements. For ICF DT experiments, the standard technique for measuring the neutron (14.1 MeV yield, counts the activity (counts/minute induced in irradiated copper samples. This activity occurs by the 63Cu(n,2n62Cu reaction where 62Cu decays by positrons (β+ with a half-life of 9.67 minutes. The calibrations discussed here employ the associated-particle method (APM, where the α (4He particles from the T(d,n4He reaction are measured to infer neutron fluxes on a copper sample. The flux induces 62Cu activity, measured in a coincidence counting system. The method leads to a relationship between a DT neutron yield and copper activity known as the F-factor. The goal in future experiments is to apply this calibration to measure the yield at NIF with a combined uncertainty approaching 5%.

  4. Absolute measurement of the DT primary neutron yield on the National Ignition Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leeper R.J.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The measurement of the absolute neutron yield produced in inertial confinement fusion target experiments conducted on the National Ignition Facility (NIF is essential in benchmarking progress towards the goal of achieving ignition on this facility. This paper describes three independent diagnostic techniques that have been developed to make accurate and precise DT neutron yield measurements on the NIF.

  5. Surface studies and implanted helium measurements following NOVA high-yield DT experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoyer, M.A.; Hudson, G.B.

    1997-02-18

    This paper presents the results of three March 6, 1996 direct-drive high-yield DT NOVA experiments and provides `proof-of-principal` results for the quantitative measurement of energetic He ions. Semiconductor quality Si wafers and an amorphous carbon wafer were exposed to NOVA high-yield implosions. Surface damage was sub-micron in general, although the surface ablation was slightly greater for the carbon wafer than for the Si wafers. Melting of a thin ({approx} 0.1{mu}) layer of Si was evident from microscopic investigation. Electron microscopy indicated melted blobs of many different metals (e.g. Al, Au, Ta, Fe alloys, Cu and even Cd) on the surfaces. The yield measured by determining the numbers of atoms of implanted {sup 4}He and {sup 3}He indicate the number of DT fusions to be 9.1({plus_minus}2.3) X 10{sup 12} and DD fusions to be 4.8({plus_minus}1.0) x 10{sup 10}, respectively. The helium DT fusion yield is slightly lower than that of the Cu activation measurement, which was 1.3({plus_minus}0.l) x 10{sup 13} DT fusions.

  6. Arrival at CERN of the first MB4 DT chambers from Turin

    CERN Multimedia

    Marcos Fernandez Garcia

    2005-01-01

    The largest DT chambers to be installed into the outermost station of the CMS barrel muon detector (MB4) are built by INFN-Turin. The first batch of four chambers, out of 40, arrived at the CERN ISR area on February 2005.

  7. Monte Carlo Simulation for Moderator of Compact D-T Neutron Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the neutron moderation of D-T neutron generator, moderators with diffident materials and structures are predicted by Monte Carlo simulations. Neutron generator is simplified as the diameter 20 cm, length 25 cm cylinder. The target is very

  8. Modelling transfer of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 during simulation of grinding of pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Cleide; Nauta, Maarten; Christensen, B. B.

    2012-01-01

    pork slices of about 200 g per slice were inoculated with 8–9 log‐units of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 and used for building up the contamination in the grinder. Subsequently, Salmonella‐free slices were ground and collected as samples of c. 200 g minced pork. Throughout the process, representative...

  9. Improved streamflow recession parameter estimation with attention to calculation of - dQ/dt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roques, Clément; Rupp, David E.; Selker, John S.

    2017-10-01

    The rate of streamflow recession can be used to assess storage-outflow properties of source aquifers. A common method of analyzing streamflow recession is to plot the time rate of change in streamflow Q as a function of Q in a log-log space. Theory predicts, for diagnostic recession regimes, a power law relationship - dQ/dt = aQb, where recession coefficients a and b are functions of the hydraulic and geometric properties of the aquifer and of boundary and initial conditions. Observational error reduces the accuracy of estimates of a and b with errors in estimating the time derivative of the late-time recession (-dQ/dt) being particularly sensitive to observational error. Here we propose a method to improve estimation of a and b with particular focus on the estimation of -dQ/dt. Compared to previously published methods we find greater robustness in estimates of -dQ/dt and recession parameters and less sensitivity to the methodological parameters employed. Previous methods result in up to 50 to 100% error when estimating the recession parameter b, while the proposed methodology produces errors below 5% in the cases analyzed.

  10. Evaluation of the neutron activation of JET in-vessel components following DT irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuolo, M.; Bonifetto, R.; Dulla, S. [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Heinola, K. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Association EURATOM-TEKES, University of Helsinki, PO Box 64, 00560 Helsinki (Finland); Lengar, I. [Association EURATOM-MESCS, Reactor Physics Division, Jožef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Ravetto, P., E-mail: piero.ravetto@polito.it [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Richard, L.Savoldi [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, I-10129 Torino (Italy); Villari, R. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); Widdowson, A. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Zanino, R. [Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino, I-10129 Torino (Italy)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: The temporal evolution of the radioactive species in the in-vessel components after the end of the JET-DT campaign is calculated; Different levels of neutron irradiation are assumed; The neutron flux in the selected components is calculated by the MCNP5 code; The neutron spectra are input to the FISPACT code that computes the evolution of the radioactive species; For each irradiation scenario, the time behavior of the contact dose rate is determined. Abstract: The forthcoming deuterium–tritium (DT) campaign at the Joint European Torus (JET) will induce a significant activation of the system components. In the present work we evaluate the temporal evolution of the radioactive species in the main in-vessel components after the end of the future DT campaign, assuming different levels of neutron irradiation. The neutron flux in the selected components is calculated by the MCNP5 code using the emission source by a typical DT plasma. The resulting neutron spectra are then input to the FISPACT code that computes the evolution of the radioactive species generated by the neutron activation process. For each irradiation scenario, the time behavior of the contact dose rate is determined.

  11. First test of a CMS DT chamber equipped with full electronics in a muon beam

    CERN Multimedia

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo

    2003-01-01

    A CMS DT chamber of MB3 type, equipped with the final version of a minicrate (containing all on-chamber trigger and readout electronics), was tested in a muon beam for the first time. The beam was bunched in 25 ns spills, allowing an LHC-like response of the chamber trigger. This test confirmed the excellent performance of the trigger design.

  12. First test in a muon beam with two muon DT chambers of CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Michael Bontenackels

    2004-01-01

    For the first time two muon DT chambers fully equipped with local electronics (minicrates) were operated together in a muon beam in multiple chamber orientations. Also the following multichamber trigger step, the Drift Tube Track Finder (DTTF), was tested. Such relative orientations between both chambers and with respect to the beam allowed simulating different muon momenta for the DTTF.

  13. Active gate driver for dv/dt control and active voltage clamping in an IGBT stack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg

    2005-01-01

    For high voltages converters stacks of IGBTs can be used if the static and dynamic voltage sharing among the IGBTs can be applied. dVCE/dt should also be controlled in order not to damage insulation material. This paper describes theory and measurements of an active gate driver for stacking IGBTs...

  14. DUACS DT2014: the new multi-mission altimeter data set reprocessed over 20 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Faugère, Yannice; Taburet, Guillaume; Dupuy, Stéphanie; Pelloquin, Camille; Ablain, Michael; Picot, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    The new DUACS DT2014 reprocessed products have been available since April 2014. Numerous innovative changes have been introduced at each step of an extensively revised data processing protocol. The use of a new 20-year altimeter reference period in place of the previous 7-year reference significantly changes the sea level anomaly (SLA) patterns and thus has a strong user impact. The use of up-to-date altimeter standards and geophysical corrections, reduced smoothing of the along-track data, and refined mapping parameters, including spatial and temporal correlation-scale refinement and measurement errors, all contribute to an improved high-quality DT2014 SLA data set. Although all of the DUACS products have been upgraded, this paper focuses on the enhancements to the gridded SLA products over the global ocean. As part of this exercise, 21 years of data have been homogenized, allowing us to retrieve accurate large-scale climate signals such as global and regional MSL trends, interannual signals, and better refined mesoscale features.An extensive assessment exercise has been carried out on this data set, which allows us to establish a consolidated error budget. The errors at mesoscale are about 1.4 cm2 in low-variability areas, increase to an average of 8.9 cm2 in coastal regions, and reach nearly 32.5 cm2 in high mesoscale activity areas. The DT2014 products, compared to the previous DT2010 version, retain signals for wavelengths lower than ˜ 250 km, inducing SLA variance and mean EKE increases of, respectively, +5.1 and +15 %. Comparisons with independent measurements highlight the improved mesoscale representation within this new data set. The error reduction at the mesoscale reaches nearly 10 % of the error observed with DT2010. DT2014 also presents an improved coastal signal with a nearly 2 to 4 % mean error reduction. High-latitude areas are also more accurately represented in DT2014, with an improved consistency between spatial coverage and sea ice edge

  15. Dt2 is a gain-of-function MADS-Domain factor gene that controls semi-determinacy in soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similar to Arabidopsis, the wild soybean (Glycine soja) and many soybean (Glycine max) cultivars exhibit indeterminate stem growth controlled by a gene Dt1 – the functional counterpart of the Arabidopsis TFL1. Mutations in TFL1 and Dt1 both result in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) switching from ve...

  16. Radionuclide left ventricular dV/dt for the assessment of cardiac function in patients with coronary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, J A; Makey, D G; Laskey, W K; Shafer, R B

    1979-01-01

    To investigate potential uses of left-ventricular (LV) systolic ejection rate (LV dV/dt) in the evaluation of LV function, we examined the effect of exercise, angiotensin, and leg raising on LV ejection fraction and LV dV/dt in patients with coronary-artery disease. The following observations were made: a) LV ejection fraction and dV/dt changed proportionately, but in opposite directions, during supine exercise; b) LV ejection fraction and dV/dt decreased to a similar extent during angiotensin infusions; and c) LV ejection fraction and dV/dt were unchanged by leg raising. The changes in peak and mean LV dV/dt were similar. Regardless of the physiologic state, peak LV dV/dt occurred during the first third of systole. These data imply that in this population there were no specific advantages of LV dV/dt over LV ejection fraction in the evaluation of LV performance.

  17. ON THE PROGENITOR SYSTEM OF THE TYPE Iax SUPERNOVA 2014dt IN M61

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, Ryan J. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Van Dyk, Schuyler D. [IPAC/Caltech, Mail Code 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jha, Saurabh W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Clubb, Kelsey I.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Mauerhan, Jon C. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Miller, Adam A. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Smith, Nathan [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2015-01-10

    We present pre-explosion and post-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images of the Type Iax supernova (SN Iax) 2014dt in M61. After astrometrically aligning these images, we do not detect any stellar sources at the position of the SN in the pre-explosion images to relatively deep limits (3σ limits of M {sub F438W} > –5.0 mag and M {sub F814W} > –5.9 mag). These limits are similar to the luminosity of SN 2012Z's progenitor system (M {sub F435W} = –5.43 ± 0.15 and M {sub F814W} = –5.24 ± 0.16 mag), the only probable detected progenitor system in pre-explosion images of a SN Iax, and indeed, of any white-dwarf supernova. SN 2014dt is consistent with having a C/O white-dwarf primary/helium-star companion progenitor system, as was suggested for SN 2012Z, although perhaps with a slightly smaller or hotter donor. The data are also consistent with SN 2014dt having a low-mass red giant or main-sequence star companion. The data rule out main-sequence stars with M {sub init} ≳ 16 M {sub ☉} and most evolved stars with M {sub init} ≳ 8 M {sub ☉} as being the progenitor of SN 2014dt. Hot Wolf-Rayet stars are also allowed, but the lack of nearby bright sources makes this scenario unlikely. Because of its proximity (D = 12 Mpc), SN 2014dt is ideal for long-term monitoring, where images in ∼2 yr may detect the companion star or the luminous bound remnant of the progenitor white dwarf.

  18. Soft X-Ray Laser Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    AND SUBTrI 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Soft X-ray Laser Development 61102F/2301/A8 L AUTHOR(S) ( Szymon Suckewer 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORESS...REPORT Report of Progress on Soft X-ray Laser Development submitted to Air Force Office of Scientific Research by Acession For DT!C T.IB Princeton...x-ray laser development by Jaegl6 and coworkers 6, however the present work on aluminium plasmas pumped with a low energy Nd laser was primarily

  19. Neutron Yield and Ion Temperature from DD and DT Fusion in National Ignition Facility High-Foot Implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauer, J. P.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Casey, D. T.; Cerjan, C. J.; Doeppner, T.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Hinkel, D. E.; Hurricane, O. A.; Kritcher, A.; Le Pape, S.; Ma, T.; Munro, D. H.; Patel, P. K.; Ralph, J. E.; Sayre, D. B.; Spears, B. K.; Yeamans, C. B.; Kilkenny, J. D.

    2015-11-01

    Simultaneous measures of neutrons emitted from DT fusion implosions are postulated to provide insight into the fuel conditions during neutron emission. Neutron spectral diagnostics of National Ignition Facility ``high-foot'' implosions measure both the DT and DD fusion neutron spectra. Equivalent ion temperature is measured from the width of the DT and DD neutron emission and the respective yields from the peak areas. This work has focused on reasons for differing inferred temperatures from the DT and DD spectra and the yield ratio. Spatial and temporal averages of the DT and DD reactivities as corrections to the homogeneous and static temperature distributions are shown. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  20. Assessing left ventricular systolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction: are ejection fraction and dP/dt(max) complementary or redundant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Kiyotake; Chemaly, Elie R; Tilemann, Lisa; Fish, Kenneth; Ladage, Dennis; Aguero, Jaime; Vahl, Torsten; Santos-Gallego, Carlos; Kawase, Yoshiaki; Hajjar, Roger J

    2012-04-01

    Among the various cardiac contractility parameters, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and maximum dP/dt (dP/dt(max)) are the simplest and most used. However, these parameters are often reported together, and it is not clear if they are complementary or redundant. We sought to compare the discriminative value of EF and dP/dt(max) in assessing systolic dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI) in swine. A total of 220 measurements were obtained. All measurements included LV volumes and EF analysis by left ventriculography, invasive ventricular pressure tracings, and echocardiography. Baseline measurements were performed in 132 pigs, and 88 measurements were obtained at different time points after MI creation. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves to distinguish the presence or absence of an MI revealed a good predictive value for EF [area under the curve (AUC): 0.998] but not by dP/dt(max) (AUC: 0.69, P EF). Dividing dP/dt(max) by LV end-diastolic pressure and heart rate (HR) significantly increased the AUC to 0.87 (P EF). In naïve pigs, the coefficient of variation of dP/dt(max) was twice than that of EF (22.5% vs. 9.5%, respectively). Furthermore, in n = 19 pigs, dP/dt(max) increased after MI. However, echocardiographic strain analysis of 23 pigs with EF ranging only from 36% to 40% after MI revealed significant correlations between dP/dt(max) and strain parameters in the noninfarcted area (circumferential strain: r = 0.42, P = 0.05; radial strain: r = 0.71, P EF is a more accurate measure of systolic dysfunction than dP/dt(max) in a swine model of MI. Despite the variability of dP/dt(max) both in naïve pigs and after MI, it may sensitively reflect the small changes of myocardial contractility.

  1. Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Osman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Computations are to be performed using the laser driven inertial fusion energy option based on volume ignition with the natural adiabatic self-similarity compression and expansion hydrodynamics [1]. The numerical work includes the establishing of a multi-branch reaction code to be used for simultaneous fusion reactions of D-D, D-T D-He3 and mutual nuclear reaction products. This will permit the studies of neutron lean reactions as well as tritium-rich cases. The D-T reactions will stress the recent new results on one step laser fusion [2] as an alternative to the two-step fast ignitor scheme whose difficulties with new physics phenomena at petawatt laser interaction are more and more evident [3].

  2. A novel explicit 2D+t cyclic shape model applied to echocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casero, Ramón; Noble, J Alison

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel explicit 2D+t cyclic shape model that extends the Point Distribution Model (PDM) to shapes like myocardial contours with cyclic dynamics. We also propose an extension to Procrustes alignment that removes pose and subject size variability while maintaining dynamic effects. Our model draws on ideas from Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) and Kernel PCA (KPCA) and solves 3 shortcomings of previous implicit models: (1) cardiac cycles in the data set do not each need to have the same number of frames, (2) the required number of subjects for statistically significant results is substantially reduced and (3) the displacement of contour points incorporates time as an explicit variable. We illustrate our method by computing models of the myocardium in the 4 principal planes of 2D+t echocardiography data.

  3. Acetylcholinesterase activity in the brain of dystonia musculorum (Dst(dt-J)) mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, C; Lalonde, R; Strazielle, C

    2012-01-01

    The dystonia musculorum (Dst(dt-J)) mutant mouse suffers from severe motor coordination deficits, characterized, among various symptoms, by a spastic ataxia and dystonic movements, indicating central defects in motor structures in addition to dystrophy of peripheral sensory tracts and partial degeneration of spinocerebellar tracts. Neurochemical alterations, notably in dopaminergic and noradrenergic systems, were previously observed in basal ganglia and cerebellum. A quantitative histochemical cartography of brain acetylcholinesterase activity in Dst(dt-J) mutants, in comparison with controls, revealed increases in the neostriatum, the habenula-interpeduncular pathway, the cholinergic pedunculopontine nucleus and its target structures, the thalamus, major regions of the basal ganglia, such as substantia nigra, ventral tegmental area, globus pallidum, and subthalamic nucleus, as well as in associated extrapyramidal regions, such as red nucleus, brainstem reticular formation, and superior colliculus. These acetylcholinesterase changes may play a role in motor deficits, particularly the dystonic symptomatology observed in the mutation.

  4. Design and performance analysis of a compact magnetic proton recoil spectrometer for DT neutrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Jian-Min; ZHOU Lin; JIANG Shi-Lun

    2011-01-01

    A magnetic proton recoil (MPR) spectrometer is a novel instrument with superior performance, including high energy resolution, high count rate and good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for measurements of neutron spectra from inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments and high power Tokomaks. In this work, the design of a compact MPR spectrometer (cMPR) was evaluated for deuteron-tritium (DT) neutron spectroscopy. The characteristics of the spectrometer were analyzed using 2-D beam transport simulations, 3-D particle transport calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations. Based on the theoretical results, an instrument design that satisfies special experimental requirements is proposed. The energy resolution and efficiency of the spectrometer are also evaluated. The results indicate that the proposed cMPR spectrometer would achieve a detection efficiency and energy resolution of approximately 10 and 4%, respectively, for DT neutrons.

  5. Monte Carlo simulations of a D-T neutron generator shielding for landmine detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reda, A.M., E-mail: amreda2005@yahoo.com [College of Science, Shaqra University, Al-Dawadme, P.O. Box 1040 (Saudi Arabia)

    2011-10-15

    Shielding for a D-T sealed neutron generator has been designed using the MCNP5 Monte Carlo radiation transport code. The neutron generator will be used in field for the detection of explosives, landmines, drugs and other 'threat' materials. The optimization of the detection of buried objects was started by studying the signal-to-noise ratio for different geometric conditions. - Highlights: > A landmine detection system based on neutron fast/slow analysis has been designed. > Shielding for a D-T sealed neutron generator tube has been designed using Monte Carlo radiation transport code. > Detection of buried objects was started by studying the signal-to-noise ratio for different geometric conditions. > The signal-to-background ratio optimized at one position for all depths.

  6. Radioactivity measurements of ITER materials using the TFTR D-T neutron field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, A.; Abdou, M.A. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). School of Engineering and Applied Science; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Kugel, H.W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Loughlin, M.J. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-08-01

    The availability of high D-T fusion neutron yields at TFTR has provided a useful opportunity to directly measure D-T neutron-induced radioactivity in a realistic tokamak fusion reactor environment for materials of vital interest to ITER. These measurements are valuable for characterizing radioactivity in various ITER candidate materials. for validating complex neutron transport calculations, and for meeting fusion reactor licensing requirements. The radioactivity measurements at TFTR involve potential ITER materials including stainless steel 316, vanadium, titanium, chromium, silicon, iron, cobalt, nickel, molybdenum, aluminum, copper, zinc. zirconium, niobium, and tungsten. Small samples of these materials were irradiated close to the plasma and just outside the vacuum vessel wall of TFTR, locations of different neutron energy spectra. Saturation activities for both threshold and capture reactions were measured. Data from dosimetric reactions have been used to obtain preliminary neutron energy spectra. Spectra from the first wall were compared to calculations from ITER and to measurements from accelerator-based tests.

  7. Measurement of diversification in the immunoglobulin light chain gene of DT40 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Julian E

    2012-01-01

    The immunoglobulin loci of the genetically tractable chicken B cell line DT40 provide a unique opportunity to study the cellular response to endogenously generated DNA damage in a chromosomal context. Abasic sites generated by the concerted action of Activation-Induced Deaminase (AID) and Uracil DNA Glycosylase result in both homologous recombination-dependent gene conversion and translesion synthesis-dependent point mutations. The system has provided important insights into both the early stages of AID-dependent immunoglobulin gene diversification and into the relationship between pathways of DNA damage bypass. Here we describe the assays that can be employed to monitor the rate and pattern of immunoglobulin gene diversification at the light chain locus of DT40.

  8. Fusion alpha-particle diagnostics for DT experiments on the joint European torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiptily, V. G.; Beaumont, P.; Syme, D. B. [Euratom / CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxon (United Kingdom); Belli, F. [Associazione Euratom -ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65, Frascati (Italy); Cecil, F. E.; Riva, M. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Conroy, S.; Ericsson, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, BOX 516, Uppsala (Sweden); Craciunescu, T. [Association Euratom -MEdC, National Institute for Laser, Plasma and Radiation Physics (Romania); Garcia-Munoz, M. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association IPP, Garching, D-85748 (Germany); Curuia, M.; Soare, S. [Association Euratom -MEdC, National Institute for Cryogenics and Isotopic Technology (Romania); Darrow, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab, Princeton, NJ (United States); Fernandes, A. M.; Pereira, R. C.; Sousa, J. [Euratom/IST Fusion Association, Centro de Fusão Nuclear, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Giacomelli, L.; Voitsekhovitch, I. [CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Milano-Bicocca, Milano (Italy); Gorini,; Nocente, M. [CNISM, Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita Milano-Bicocca, Milano, Italy and Associazione Euratom -ENEA sulla Fusione, IFP Milano (Italy); and others

    2014-08-21

    JET equipped with ITER-like wall (a beryllium wall and a tungsten divertor) can provide auxiliary heating with power up to 35MW, producing a significant population of α-particles in DT operation. The direct measurements of alphas are very difficult and α-particle studies require a significant development of dedicated diagnostics. JET now has an excellent set of confined and lost fast particle diagnostics for measuring the α-particle source and its evolution in space and time, α-particle energy distribution, and α-particle losses. This paper describes how the above mentioned JET diagnostic systems could be used for α-particle measurements, and what options exist for keeping the essential α-particle diagnostics functioning well in the presence of intense DT neutron flux. Also, α-particle diagnostics for ITER are discussed.

  9. The AGHS at JET and preparations for a future DT campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R. [EURATOM/CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-15

    The Active Gas Handling System (AGHS) at JET is a unique facility enabling JET to perform reactor like, DT operations. As a future DT experimental campaign (DTE2) is scheduled for 2017 this paper provides a brief overview of the AGHS and a summary of ongoing work supporting the currently JET experimental campaign. In order to improve tritium accountancy a solid state based detector for tritium is being developed. Another important upgrade concerns tritium injection, 4 existing GIMs (Tritium Gas Introduction Module) will inject a mix of D and T rather than T{sub 2} in the divertor region rather than in the torus mid plane enabling a far better control and variability of the introduction of tritium into the plasma. An overview of the scale of DTE2 is included as well as an example of some of the upgrades currently being undertaken to fully exploit the learning opportunities for ITER and DEMO DTE2 provides. (authors)

  10. Implementation of the {alpha}-CHERS diagnostic for D-T operation of TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKee, G.R.; Fonck, R.J. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Energy; Stratton, F.K. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.

    1995-03-01

    The {alpha}-CHERS diagnostic is a high throughput charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostic designed to measure the density profile and time evolution of 0-500 keV alpha particles during D-T operation of TFTR. Following successful tests with a prototype ({alpha}-CHERS system, an improved, multi-channel system has been installed for D-T Operation. Three spatial channels may be observed simultaneously, and the spectral resolution of 0.5 nm permits increased alpha energy resolution and improved impurity line identification. More efficient coupling optics between the spectrometer and CCD detectors have increased the light throughput, and radiation shielding has been installed around the detectors and spectrometers to eliminate the neutron/gamma ray noise observed in high power D-D plasmas.

  11. DT-13 inhibits cancer cell migration by regulating NMIIA indirectly in the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hongzhi; Huang, Yue; Hou, Xiaoyin; Yu, Xiaowen; Lin, Sensen; Wei, Xiaohui; Li, Ruiming; Khan, Ghulam Jilany; Yuan, Shengtao; Sun, Li

    2016-08-01

    Tumor metastasis is one of the main causes of mortality among patients with malignant tumors. Previous studies concerning tumor metastasis have merely focused on the cancer cells in the tumor. However, an increasing number of studies show that the tumor microenvironment plays a vital role in the progression of cancer, particularly in tumor metastasis. Since fibroblasts and adipocytes are two of the most representative mesenchymal cells in the tumor microenvironment, we established a hypoxia-induced cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF) model and a chemically induced adipocyte model to reveal the effect of the microenvironment on cancer development. In these models, the conditioned medium from the tumor microenvironment was found to significantly promote the migration of human lung cancer cell line 95D and regulate the expression of non-muscle myosin IIA (NMIIA), which is consistent with results in the published literature. Then, we confirmed the hypothesis that the tumor microenvironment can regulate NMIIA in cancer cells and facilitate migration by using the non-muscle myosin II inhibitor, blebbistatin. Thus, this is the first report that the tumor microenvironment can promote cancer cell migration by regulating the expression of NMIIA. Our present data also indicated that DT-13, the saponin monomer 13 of dwarf lilyturf tuber, inhibited cancer cell migration in the tumor microenvironment model. Further results showed that DT-13 exhibited anti-migratory effects by inhibiting the c-raf/ERK1/2 signaling pathway. Consequently, our research confirmed that DT-13 significantly inhibited 95D cell migration in vitro, indicating the potential anti-metastatic effect of DT-13 on lung cancer and the scientific basis for drug development.

  12. Measurement of reaction cross sections of fission products induced by DT neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Daisuke; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    With the view of future application of fusion reactor to incineration of fission products, we have measured the {sup 129}I(n,2n){sup 128}I reaction cross section by DT neutrons with the activation method. The measured cross section was compared with the evaluated nuclear data of JENDL-3.2. From the result, it was confirmed that the evaluation overestimated the cross section by about 20-40%. (author)

  13. First joint test beam of CMS Drift Tubes (DT) and Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC)

    CERN Multimedia

    Paolo Giacomelli

    2001-01-01

    The first full size muon drift tube chamber ever built for the CMS barrel with the final cell design (constructed at CIEMAT, Madrid) was succesfully tested with a muon beam in September 2001 at the Gamma Irradiation Facility (GIF) at CERN. For the first time also both muon detectors for the CMS barrel (DT + RPC) were coupled together. The results of this test were fully succesful and confirmed the excellent performance of both detectors together in a radiation environment.

  14. THEHYCO-3DT: Thermal hydrodynamic code for the 3 dimensional transient calculation of advanced LMFBR core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitruk, S.G.; Korsun, A.S. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Ushakov, P.A. [Institute of Physics and Power Engineering, Obninsk (R)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The multilevel mathematical model of neutron thermal hydrodynamic processes in a passive safety core without assemblies duct walls and appropriate computer code SKETCH, consisted of thermal hydrodynamic module THEHYCO-3DT and neutron one, are described. A new effective discretization technique for energy, momentum and mass conservation equations is applied in hexagonal - z geometry. The model adequacy and applicability are presented. The results of the calculations show that the model and the computer code could be used in conceptual design of advanced reactors.

  15. First DT+RPC chambers installation round in the UX5 cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo

    2007-01-01

    DT+RPC packages corresponding to sectors 1 and 7 of the barrel region cannot be installed on surface, since the lowering gantry from SX5 to UX5 uses their gaps to hold the wheels. Therefore this installation has to be carried out in the cavern. These pictures illustrate the first installation round on YB+2 right after the lowering. A total of 8 chambers were successfully installed in 2 days.

  16. Bcl6 Is Required for Somatic Hypermutation and Gene Conversion in Chicken DT40 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan M Williams

    Full Text Available The activation induced cytosine deaminase (AID mediates diversification of B cell immunoglobulin genes by the three distinct yet related processes of somatic hypermutation (SHM, class switch recombination (CSR, and gene conversion (GCV. SHM occurs in germinal center B cells, and the transcription factor Bcl6 is a key regulator of the germinal center B cell gene expression program, including expression of AID. To test the hypothesis that Bcl6 function is important for the process of SHM, we compared WT chicken DT40 B cells, which constitutively perform SHM/GCV, to their Bcl6-deficient counterparts. We found that Bcl6-deficient DT40 cells were unable to perform SHM and GCV despite enforced high level expression of AID and substantial levels of AID in the nucleus of the cells. To gain mechanistic insight into the GCV/SHM dependency on Bcl6, transcriptional features of a highly expressed SHM target gene were analyzed in Bcl6-sufficient and -deficient DT40 cells. No defect was observed in the accumulation of single stranded DNA in the target gene as a result of Bcl6 deficiency. In contrast, association of Spt5, an RNA polymerase II (Pol II and AID binding factor, was strongly reduced at the target gene body relative to the transcription start site in Bcl6-deficient cells as compared to WT cells. However, partial reconstitution of Bcl6 function substantially reconstituted Spt5 association with the target gene body but did not restore detectable SHM. Our observations suggest that in the absence of Bcl6, Spt5 fails to associate efficiently with Pol II at SHM targets, perhaps precluding robust AID action on the SHM target DNA. Our data also suggest, however, that Spt5 binding is not sufficient for SHM of a target gene even in DT40 cells with strong expression of AID.

  17. Temperature derivatives for fusion reactivity of D-D and D-T

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenbrunner, James R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Makaruk, Hanna Ewa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-29

    Deuterium-tritium (D-T) and deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion reaction rates are observable using leakage gamma flux. A direct measurement of γ-rays with equipment that exhibits fast temporal response could be used to infer temperature, if the detector signal is amenable for taking the logarithmic time-derivative, alpha. We consider the temperature dependence for fusion cross section reactivity.

  18. Bcl6 Is Required for Somatic Hypermutation and Gene Conversion in Chicken DT40 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alan M.; Maman, Yaakov; Alinikula, Jukka; Schatz, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The activation induced cytosine deaminase (AID) mediates diversification of B cell immunoglobulin genes by the three distinct yet related processes of somatic hypermutation (SHM), class switch recombination (CSR), and gene conversion (GCV). SHM occurs in germinal center B cells, and the transcription factor Bcl6 is a key regulator of the germinal center B cell gene expression program, including expression of AID. To test the hypothesis that Bcl6 function is important for the process of SHM, we compared WT chicken DT40 B cells, which constitutively perform SHM/GCV, to their Bcl6-deficient counterparts. We found that Bcl6-deficient DT40 cells were unable to perform SHM and GCV despite enforced high level expression of AID and substantial levels of AID in the nucleus of the cells. To gain mechanistic insight into the GCV/SHM dependency on Bcl6, transcriptional features of a highly expressed SHM target gene were analyzed in Bcl6-sufficient and -deficient DT40 cells. No defect was observed in the accumulation of single stranded DNA in the target gene as a result of Bcl6 deficiency. In contrast, association of Spt5, an RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and AID binding factor, was strongly reduced at the target gene body relative to the transcription start site in Bcl6-deficient cells as compared to WT cells. However, partial reconstitution of Bcl6 function substantially reconstituted Spt5 association with the target gene body but did not restore detectable SHM. Our observations suggest that in the absence of Bcl6, Spt5 fails to associate efficiently with Pol II at SHM targets, perhaps precluding robust AID action on the SHM target DNA. Our data also suggest, however, that Spt5 binding is not sufficient for SHM of a target gene even in DT40 cells with strong expression of AID. PMID:26900682

  19. Two new diketopiperazines from the tin mine tailings-derived fungus Schizophyllum commune YIM DT 10058.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunyu, Wei-Xun; Ding, Zhang-Gui; Zhao, Jiang-Yuan; Wang, Yong-Xia; Han, Xiu-Lin; Li, Ming-Gang; Wen, Meng-Liang

    2017-07-01

    Two new diketopiperazines, named diphenylalazine C (1) and epicoccin U (2), together with six known compounds (3-8) were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the fermentation broth of the tin mine tailings-derived fungus Schizophyllum commune YIM DT 10058. Their structures were elucidated by detailed analysis of spectroscopic data and comparison with related known compounds. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited weak antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.

  20. 高级动圈耳机Beyer Dynamic DT931

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佚名

    2002-01-01

    @@ Beyer Dynamic(拜耳动力)是德国最有名的电声元件生产商之一.它不仅擅长设计制造封闭式的专业动圈耳机,而且也同时推出了几款素质很高的开放式动圈耳机,DT931就是其系列中高档的型号.

  1. Impurity seeding in ITER DT plasmas in a carbon-free environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacher, H.D., E-mail: pacher@emt.inrs.ca [INRS-EMT, Varennes, Québec (Canada); Kukushkin, A.S., E-mail: andre.kukushkin@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Pacher, G.W. [1845 Gray, St. Bruno, QC J3V 4G4 (Canada); Kotov, V. [FZ Jülich, Jülich (Germany); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Reiter, D. [FZ Jülich, Jülich (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Impurity seeding has been studied for a carbon-free divertor configuration in ITER using edge/divertor SOLPS code simulations. For high power DT operation, simulations have been performed for varying throughput, power, pumping speed, impurity seeding concentration and species and the results have been parameterised. With these scalings as boundary conditions, core simulations have determined the operating window for carbon-free, impurity-seeded operation.

  2. On the Progenitor System of the Type Iax Supernova 2014dt in M61

    CERN Document Server

    Foley, Ryan J; Jha, Saurabh W; Clubb, Kelsey I; Filippenko, Alexei V; Mauerhan, Jon C; Miller, Adam A; Smith, Nathan

    2014-01-01

    We present pre-explosion and post-explosion Hubble Space Telescope images of the Type Iax supernova (SN Iax) 2014dt in M61. After astrometrically aligning these images, we do not detect any stellar sources at the position of the SN in the pre-explosion images to relatively deep limits (3 sigma limits of M_F438W > -5.0 mag and M_F814W > -5.9 mag). These limits are similar to the luminosity of SN 2012Z's progenitor system (M_F435W = -5.43 +/- 0.15 and M_F814W = -5.24 +/- 0.16 mag), the only probable detected progenitor system in pre-explosion images of a SN Iax, and indeed, of any white dwarf supernova. SN 2014dt is consistent with having a C/O white-dwarf primary/helium-star companion progenitor system, as was suggested for SN 2012Z, although perhaps with a slightly smaller or hotter donor. The data are also consistent with SN 2014dt having a low-mass red giant or main-sequence star companion. The data rule out main-sequence stars with M_init > 16 M_sun and most evolved stars with M_init > 8 M_sun as being the...

  3. `elyon as hypostasis of Ahura Mazda – a reading of Dt 32.8-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Luiz Ribeiro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper postulates the hypothesis of reading of Dt 32.8-9 as monolatrous and post-exilic narrative, written in context of political and cultural subordination to the Persian hegemony, whose Empire depends relentlessly on the restoration and preservation of Judah. Dt 32,1-43 would answer for the sui generis characterization of the theology of the text that, despite the monolatrous theology embodied in the passage and the expressed horror at the idea of the nation of Yahweh to worship other gods. The textual composition is compelled to assume the thesis that Yahweh's exclusive ownership of Judahis due to the determination of `elyôn, which is then interpreted, as the hypostasis of Ahura Mazda and that, in geopolitical terms, embodies the very Persian Empire. It is assumed therefore that Dt 32.8-9 is a political-theological passage of legitimation of Judahite political-theological system in the light of the Persian geopolitical system.

  4. Directed evolution of human scFvs in DT40 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Alfred W Y; Williams, Gareth T; Rada, Cristina; Sale, Julian E

    2016-02-01

    Cells that constitutively diversify their immunoglobulin genes can be used for selection of novel antibodies and for refining existing affinities and specificities. Here, we report an adaptation of the chicken DT40 system wherein its capacity for somatic hypermutation is harnessed to evolve human antibodies expressed as single-chain variable fragments (scFvs). Expression of membrane-anchored scFvs from within the rearranged Igλ locus created self-diversifying scFv libraries from which we could both select scFvs of a desired specificity and evolve both the specificity and affinity of existing scFvs by iterative expansion and selection. From these scFvs, we were able to create fully human IgG antibodies with nanomolar affinities. We further enhanced the functionality of the system by creating a pool of DT40 scFv lines with high levels of mutation driven by the overexpression of a hyperactive variant of activation-induced deaminase. From this library, we successfully isolated scFvs that bound the spliceosome factor CWC15 and the cytokine human IFNγ. Our results demonstrate the flexibility and utility of DT40 for rapid generation of scFv repertoires and efficient selection, evolution and affinity maturation of scFv specificities.

  5. Tensor dissimilarity based adaptive seeding algorithm for DT-MRI visualization with streamtubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weldeselassie, Yonas T.; Hamarneh, Ghassan; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we propose an adaptive seeding strategy for visualization of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) data using streamtubes. DT-MRI is a medical imaging modality that captures unique water diffusion properties and fiber orientation information of the imaged tissues. Visualizing DT-MRI data using streamtubes has the advantage that not only the anisotropic nature of the diffusion is visualized but also the underlying anatomy of biological structures is revealed. This makes streamtubes significant for the analysis of fibrous tissues in medical images. In order to avoid rendering multiple similar streamtubes, an adaptive seeding strategy is employed which takes into account similarity of tensors in a given region. The goal is to automate the process of generating seed points such that regions with dissimilar tensors are assigned more seed points compared to regions with similar tensors. The algorithm is based on tensor dissimilarity metrics that take into account both diffusion magnitudes and directions to optimize the seeding positions and density of streamtubes in order to reduce the visual clutter. Two recent advances in tensor calculus and tensor dissimilarity metrics are utilized: the Log-Euclidean and the J-divergence. Results show that adaptive seeding not only helps to cull unnecessary streamtubes that would obscure visualization but also do so without having to compute the culled streamtubes, which makes the visualization process faster.

  6. Comparison of dB/dt between EPI and spin-echo pulse sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Akio [Kyoto City Hospital (Japan); Hongoh, Takaharu; Inoue, Hiroshi; Yamazaki, Masaru; Higashida, Mitsuharu

    2001-04-01

    In MR imaging, the time-varying magnetic field associated with gradients induces electric fields in the human body and may stimulate nerves and even the heart. The time rate of change in gradient magnetic fields on echo planar imaging (EPI) needs to exceed 20 mT/ms. EPI has recently become more widely used in the clinical field, and the protection of patient safety during MR scans has become an issue. However dB/dt as an index of the time-varying magnetic field is not displayed on the operating monitor. Therefore dB/dt of various scan techniques was measured using a search coil and storage oscilloscope, according to the IEC standard method. The results demonstrated that dB/dt of EPI, spin-echo, and field-echo techniques are much the same. Thus, the possibility of a risk to health resulting from EPI scanning is the same as that for other scanning techniques that use a high-performance MRI system. Therefore, even with spin-echo scanning, it is necessary to consider biological change in patients. (author)

  7. Measurement of loss of DT fusion products using scintillator detectors in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, D.S.; Herrmann, H.W.; Johnson, D.W.; Marsala, R.J.; Palladino, R.W.; Zweben, S.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Tuszewski, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    A poloidal array of MeV ion loss probes previously used to measure DD fusion product loss has been upgraded to measure the loss of alpha particles from DT plasmas in TFTR. The following improvements to the system have been made in preparation for the use of tritium in TFTR: (1) relocation of detectors to a neutronshielded enclosure in the basement to reduce neutron-induced background signals; (2) replacement of ZnS:Cu (P31) scintillators in the probes with the Y{sub 3}Al{sub 5}0{sub 12}:Ce(P46) variety to minimize damage and assure linearity at the fluxes anticipated from DT plasmas; and (3) shielding of the fiber optic bundles which carry the fight from the probes to the detectors to reduce neutron- and gamma-induced light within them. In addition to the above preparations, the probes have been absolutely calibrated for alpha particles by using the Van de Graaf accelerator at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Alpha particle losses from DT plasmas have been observed, and losses at the detector 901 below the midplane are consistent with first orbit loss.

  8. Foil deposition alpha collector probe for TFTR`s D-T phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, H.W.; Darrow, D.S.; Timberlake, J.; Zweben, S.J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Chong, G.P.; Pitcher, C.S. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Inst. for Aerospace Studies; Macaulay-Newcombe, R.G. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering Physics

    1995-03-01

    A new foil deposition alpha collector sample probe has been developed for TFTR`s D-T phase. D-T fusion produced alpha particles escaping from the plasma are implanted in nickel foils located in a series of collimating ports on the detector. The nickel foils are removed from the tokamak after exposure to one or more plasma discharges and analyzed for helium content. This detector is intended to provide improved alpha particle energy resolution and pitch angle coverage over existing lost alpha detectors, and to provide an absolutely calibrated cross-check with these detectors. The ability to resolve between separate energy components of alpha particle loss is estimated to be {approx} 20%. A full 360{degree} of pitch angle coverage is provided for by 8 channels having an acceptance range of {approx} 53{degree} per channel. These detectors will be useful in characterizing classical and anomalous alpha losses and any collective alpha instabilities that may be excited during the D-T campaign of TFTR.

  9. Investigation of Characteristics of Large dB/dt for Geomagnetically Induced Currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz, D.; Ngwira, C.; Damas, M. C.

    2016-12-01

    When geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) flow through electrical networks, they become a potential threat for electrical power systems. Changes in the geomagnetic field (dB/dt) during severe geomagnetic disturbances are the main sources of GICs. These dB/dt phenomena were studied by selecting 24 strong geomagnetic storms with Dst ≤ - 150 nT. ACE spacecraft solar wind data: flow speed, proton density, By and Bz IMF components of the solar wind were correlated with measurements of the magnetic field detected on ground stations at different latitudes. This article reports characteristics of the solar wind during time intervals of large changes in the horizontal geomagnetic field with a threshold of dB/dt ≥ ± 20 nT/min for the 24 geomagnetic storms. The results of this investigation can help scientists to understand the mechanisms responsible for causing large magnetic field variations in order to predict and mitigate possible large events in the future, which is critical for our society that relies constantly on electricity for livelihood and security. In addition, this ongoing project will continue to investigate electron flux response before, during, and after large changes in geomagnetic field.

  10. Burning the DT-plasma with inert impurities and non-cryogenic ICF-target with solid fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Gus'kov S.Yu.; Il'in D.V.; Sherman V.E.

    2013-01-01

    The ignition criterion, ignition energy and gain of DT-plasma of ICF-target in the presence of impurities of light atoms such as beryllium, carbon and lithium at their arbitrary concentration are found. It is shown that the most promising type of non-cryogenic solid thermonuclear fuel is DT-hydride of beryllium (BeDT). It is suggested to apply the targets with such a fuel as: (1) Fast-ignited ICF-target at the ignition energy of 25–50 kJ and compression driver energy of 2–3 MJ; (2) ICF-target...

  11. Pulse power for lasers II; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 19, 20, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkes, Tom R.; McDuff, Glen

    Various papers on pulse power for lasers are presented. Individual topics addressed include: preionization techniques for discharge lasers, X-ray preionization technology for high-pressure gas-discharge lasers, weight and volume scaling of pulse power for laser systems, method for rapidly terminating the current pulses applied to recombination lasers, high dV/dt spiker pulse generation using magnetic pulse sharpening techniques, multigap thyratrons for future laser applications, high-power thyratron-type switch for laser applications, model for the optically triggered pseudospark thyratron using local field and beam-bulk methods, capacitors for repetitively pulsed laser, fast pulse transformers in laser pulse power circuits, pulsed power topologies for laser applications, pulse power for the CHIRP XeCl laser, line type pulser for gas laser pumping, engineering aspects of long-pulse CO2 lasers using plasma discharge electrodes, high-pressure pulsed radial glow discharge CO2 laser.

  12. Modeling and analysis of tritium dynamics in a DT fusion fuel cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, William

    1998-11-01

    A number of crucial design issues have a profound effect on the dynamics of the tritium fuel cycle in a DT fusion reactor, where the development of appropriate solutions to these issues is of particular importance to the introduction of fusion as a commercial system. Such tritium-related issues can be classified according to their operational, safety, and economic impact to the operation of the reactor during its lifetime. Given such key design issues inherent in next generation fusion devices using the DT fuel cycle development of appropriate models can then lead to optimized designs of the fusion fuel cycle for different types of DT fusion reactors. In this work, two different types of modeling approaches are developed and their application to solving key tritium issues presented. For the first approach, time-dependent inventories, concentrations, and flow rates characterizing the main subsystems of the fuel cycle are simulated with a new dynamic modular model of a fusion reactor's fuel cycle, named X-TRUFFLES (X-Windows TRitiUm Fusion Fuel cycLE dynamic Simulation). The complex dynamic behavior of the recycled fuel within each of the modeled subsystems is investigated using this new integrated model for different reactor scenarios and design approaches. Results for a proposed fuel cycle design taking into account current technologies are presented, including sensitivity studies. Ways to minimize the tritium inventory are also assessed by examining various design options that could be used to minimize local and global tritium inventories. The second modeling approach involves an analytical model to be used for the calculation of the required tritium breeding ratio, i.e., a primary design issue which relates directly to the feasibility and economics of DT fusion systems. A time-integrated global tritium balance scheme is developed and appropriate analytical expressions are derived for tritium self-sufficiency relevant parameters. The easy exploration of the large

  13. [Identification of aluminum toxicity of soybean in red soil region with FTIR, TG and DT technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui-na; Liu, Peng; Xu, Gen-di

    2008-12-01

    Aluminum (Al) toxicity is one of the major constraints to crop production in acid soils. In order to provide a correct and effective identification method of aluminum toxicity of soybean in red soil regions, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal (DT) analysis were adopted to study the soybean root under different Al treatments. The results showed that the aluminum contents of soybean roots treated with 60 and 90 mg x L(-1) Al concentration were higher than that with other aluminum treatment, and the Al content reached significant aluminum toxicity level. In the same wavenumber range, the character, wavenumber and absorption peak of infrared spectra were different from those under different Al treatments. In summary, the absorption peaks at 3300, 2 930, 1542 and 721 cm(-1) were the characteristic peaks for identification that can be used to evaluate the Al toxicity of soybean. Detailed description is as follows: with the high aluminum treatment (60 and 90 mg x L(-1)), the characteristic peaks at 3300 and 2930 cm(-1) were higher than those with other aluminum treatment. There are no infrared bands at 1542 cm(-1) under 90 mg x L(-1) aluminum treatment, as the characteristic peak of Amide II. However, the characteristic peak at 721 cm(-1) was clearly shown at 60 and 90 mg x L(-1), but no sign was shown in 0, 10 and 30 mg x L(-1) aluminum concentration. Curves of TG and DT revealed the greatest difference with different Al treatment in the range of temperature of 400-500 degrees C. Under the Al treatment above 30 mg x L(-1), TG curve had less weight than that at 0 mg x L(-1), which indicated that the root system may be more lignified, producing some material hard to be burned. DT curve had double peaks at 60 and 90 mg x L(-1) Al treatments, which may also be used as identification mark of Al toxicity. Because some features were expressed under Al treatment with FTIR, TG and DT, the technology of FTIR, TG and DT

  14. DT-CWT Robust Filtering Algorithm for The Extraction of Reference and Waviness from 3-D Nano Scalar Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren Zhi Ying.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dual tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT exhibits superiority of shift invariance, directional selectivity, perfect reconstruction (PR, and limited redundancy and can effectively separate various surface components. However, in nano scale the morphology contains pits and convexities and is more complex to characterize. This paper presents an improved approach which can simultaneously separate reference and waviness and allows an image to remain robust against abnormal signals. We included a bilateral filtering (BF stage in DT-CWT to solve imaging problems. In order to verify the feasibility of the new method and to test its performance we used a computer simulation based on three generations of Wavelet and Improved DT-CWT and we conducted two case studies. Our results show that the improved DT-CWT not only enhances the robustness filtering under the conditions of abnormal interference, but also possesses accuracy and reliability of the reference and waviness from the 3-D nano scalar surfaces.

  15. Genomic Analysis of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium DT160 Associated with a 14-Year Outbreak, New Zealand, 1998-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, Samuel J; Benschop, Jackie; Biggs, Patrick J; Marshall, Jonathan C; Hayman, David T S; Carter, Philip E; Midwinter, Anne C; Mather, Alison E; French, Nigel P

    2017-06-01

    During 1998-2012, an extended outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium definitive type 160 (DT160) affected >3,000 humans and killed wild birds in New Zealand. However, the relationship between DT160 within these 2 host groups and the origin of the outbreak are unknown. Whole-genome sequencing was used to compare 109 Salmonella Typhimurium DT160 isolates from sources throughout New Zealand. We provide evidence that DT160 was introduced into New Zealand around 1997 and rapidly propagated throughout the country, becoming more genetically diverse over time. The genetic heterogeneity was evenly distributed across multiple predicted functional protein groups, and we found no evidence of host group differentiation between isolates collected from human, poultry, bovid, and wild bird sources, indicating ongoing transmission between these host groups. Our findings demonstrate how a comparative genomic approach can be used to gain insight into outbreaks, disease transmission, and the evolution of a multihost pathogen after a probable point-source introduction.

  16. Anti-tumor properties of the cGMP/protein kinase G inhibitor DT3 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltek, Sabine; Karakhanova, Svetlana; Golovastova, Marina; D'Haese, Jan G; Serba, Susanne; Nachtigall, Ines; Philippov, Pavel P; Werner, Jens; Bazhin, Alexandr V

    2015-11-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the deadliest cancers in the world. Therefore, new therapeutic options are urgently needed to improve the survival of PDAC patients. Protein kinase G (PKG) conducts the interlude of cGMP signaling which is important for healthy as well as for cancer cells. DT3 is a specific inhibitor of PKG, and it has been shown to possess an anti-tumor cytotoxic activity in vitro. The main aim of this work was to investigate anti-tumor effects of DT3 upon PDAC in vivo.Expression of PKG was assessed with real-time PCR analysis in the normal and tumor pancreatic cells. In vitro cell viability, proliferation, apoptosis, necrosis, migration, and invasion of the murine PDAC cell line Panc02 were assessed after DT3 treatment. In vivo anti-tumor effects of DT3 were investigated in the murine Panc02 orthotopic model of PDAC. Western blot analysis was used to determine the phosphorylation state of the proteins of interest.Functional PKGI is preferentially expressed in PDAC cells. DT3 was capable to reduce viability, proliferation, and migration of murine PDAC cells in vitro. At the same time, DT3 treatment did not change the viability of normal epithelial cells of murine liver. In vivo, DT3 treatment reduced the tumor volume and metastases in PDAC-bearing mice, but it was ineffective to prolong the survival of the tumor-bearing animals. In addition, DT3 treatment decreased phosphorylation of GSK-3, P38, and CREB in murine PDAC.Inhibition of PKG could be a potential therapeutic strategy for PDAC treatment which should be carefully validated in future pre-clinical studies.

  17. Inference of total DT fusion neutron yield from prompt gamma-ray measurements at the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, J. A.; Herrmann, H. W.; Stoeffl, W.; Caggiano, J. A.; Cerjan, C.; Sayre, D.

    2014-10-01

    Prompt D-T fusion gamma-rays measured at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) with the Gamma-ray Reaction History detector (GRH) have been used recently to infer the total DT fusion neutron yield of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) implosions. DT fusion produces energetic gamma-rays (16.75 MeV) with a small branching ratio of approximately (4.2 +/- 2.0)e-5 γ/n. While the large error bar precludes use of the branching ratio for an accurate yield determination, the gamma-rays themselves provide the most unperturbed measure of fusion burn and can be used for such a purpose. A cross-calibration for the DT fusion gamma-ray to neutron signal is obtained via low areal density exploding pusher implosions which have mostly unperturbed neutron and gamma-ray signals. The calibration is then used to infer total DT neutron yield from gamma-ray measurements on high areal-density, cryogenically layered implosions in which neutrons are heavily down-scattered (up to 30%). Furthermore, the difference between the gamma-ray inferred total DT yield and the primary neutron yield (unscattered neutrons) can be used to estimate the total down-scatter fraction. Error analysis and comparison of yield values will be presented. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344, LLNL-ABS-657694.

  18. D sub 2 DT gas purification by cryosorption on 5 A molecular sieve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blet, V.; Labrune, D.; Guidon, H.; Hircq, B. (CEA, 91 - Bruyeres le Chatel (France)); Moll, G. (USSI INGENIERIE, 92 - Bagneux (France))

    1991-12-01

    Purification of deuterium and deuterium-tritium gas has been performed by cryosorption of impurities on 5 A molecular sieve as absorbent. This process is efficient for most of the impurities (nitrogen, methane, oxygen, carbon oxides, argon, water) except helium. In closed loop operations, their residual levels can be better than 10 vpm during at least 5 h if the trap temperature is sufficiently low (<93 K). At low temperature, cryosorption of D{sub 2} and DT gas is significant. Nevertheless, their recovery can be easily achieved by heating up the adsorbent. (orig.).

  19. D{sub 2} and DT gas purification by cryosorption on 5 Angstrom molecular sieve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blet, V.; Labrune, D.; Guidon, H.; Hircq, B. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France); Moll, G. [Societe de Construction d`une Usine de Separation Isotopique (USSI), 92 - Le Plessis-Robinson (France)

    1991-12-31

    Purification of deuterium and deuterium-tritium gas has been performed by cryosorption of impurities on 5 A molecular sieve as adsorbent. This process is efficient for most of the impurities (nitrogen, methane, oxygen, carbon oxides, argon, water) except helium. In closed loop operations, their residual levels can be better than 10 vpm during at least 5 hours if the trap temperature is sufficiently low (< 93 K). At low temperature, cryosorption of D{sub 2} and DT gas is significant. Nevertheless, their recovery can be easily achieved by heating up the adsorbent.

  20. Performance of the Mean-Timer algorithm for DT Local Reconstruction and muon time measurement.

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    The Mean-Timer algorithm has been recently implemented as default for the local reconstruction within the CMS Drift Tubes (DT), for muons that appear to be out-of-time (OOT) or lack measured hits on one of the two space projections. Besides improving the spatial resoluton for OOT muons, this method allows a precise time measurement that can be used to tag OOT muons, in order either to reject them (e.g. as a result of OOT Pile Up) or to select them for exotic physical analyses.

  1. Collision of plane thermonuclear detonation waves in a preliminarily compressed DT mixture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khishchenko, K. V.; Charakhch'yan, A. A.

    2015-03-01

    The paper deals with a one-dimensional problem on symmetric irradiation of a plane DT fuel layer with a thickness 2 H and density ρ0 ⩽ 100ρ s (where ρ s is the density of the DT fuel in the solid state at atmospheric pressure and a temperature of 4 K) by two identical monoenergetic proton beams with a kinetic energy of 1 MeV, an intensity of 1019 W/cm2, and a duration of 50 ps. The problem is solved in the framework of one-fluid two-temperature hydrodynamic model that takes into account the equation of state for hydrogen, electron and ion heat conductivities, kinetics of the DT reaction, plasma self-radiation, and plasma heating by α-particles. The irradiation of the fuel results in the appearance of two counterpropagating detonation waves to the fronts of which rarefaction waves are adjacent. The efficiency of the DT reaction after the collision (reflection from the plane of symmetry) of the detonation waves depends on the spatial homogeneity of thermodynamic functions between the fronts of the reflected detonation waves. At Hρ0 ≈ 1 g/cm2, the gain factor is G ≈ 200, whereas at Hρ0 ≈ 5 g/cm2, it is G > 2000. As applied to a cylindrical target that is ignited from ends and in which the cylinder with the fuel is surrounded by a heavy magnetized shell, the obtained values of the burn-up and gain factors are maximum possible. To estimate the ignition energy E ig of a cylindrical target by using solutions to the one-dimensional problem, a quasi-one-dimensional model is developed. The model assumes that the main mechanism of target ignition is fuel heating by α-particles. The trajectories of α-particles are limited by a cylindrical surface with a given radius, which is a parameter of the model and is identified with the fuel radius in the target and the radii of the irradiating proton beams. This model reproduces the well-known theoretical dependence E ig ˜ ρ{0/-2} and yields E ig = 160 kJ as a lower estimate of the ignition energy for ρ0 = 100ρ s

  2. Reducing disk storage of full-3D seismic waveform tomography (F3DT) through lossy online compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, Peter; Chen, Po; Lee, En-Jui

    2016-08-01

    Full-3D seismic waveform tomography (F3DT) is the latest seismic tomography technique that can assimilate broadband, multi-component seismic waveform observations into high-resolution 3D subsurface seismic structure models. The main drawback in the current F3DT implementation, in particular the scattering-integral implementation (F3DT-SI), is the high disk storage cost and the associated I/O overhead of archiving the 4D space-time wavefields of the receiver- or source-side strain tensors. The strain tensor fields are needed for computing the data sensitivity kernels, which are used for constructing the Jacobian matrix in the Gauss-Newton optimization algorithm. In this study, we have successfully integrated a lossy compression algorithm into our F3DT-SI workflow to significantly reduce the disk space for storing the strain tensor fields. The compressor supports a user-specified tolerance for bounding the error, and can be integrated into our finite-difference wave-propagation simulation code used for computing the strain fields. The decompressor can be integrated into the kernel calculation code that reads the strain fields from the disk and compute the data sensitivity kernels. During the wave-propagation simulations, we compress the strain fields before writing them to the disk. To compute the data sensitivity kernels, we read the compressed strain fields from the disk and decompress them before using them in kernel calculations. Experiments using a realistic dataset in our California statewide F3DT project have shown that we can reduce the strain-field disk storage by at least an order of magnitude with acceptable loss, and also improve the overall I/O performance of the entire F3DT-SI workflow significantly. The integration of the lossy online compressor may potentially open up the possibilities of the wide adoption of F3DT-SI in routine seismic tomography practices in the near future.

  3. Hydrodynamic instability measurements in DT-layered ICF capsules using the layered-HGR platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, C.; Döppner, T.; Casey, D.; Bunn, T.; Carlson, L.; Dylla-Spears, R.; Kozioziemski, B.; MacPhee, A. G.; Sater, J.; Nikroo, A.; Robey, H.; Smalyuk, V.

    2016-05-01

    The first measurements of hydrodynamic instability growth at the fuel-ablator interface in an ICF implosion are reported. Previous instability measurements on the National Ignition Facility have used plastic capsules to measure ablation front Rayleigh-Taylor growth with the Hydro.-Growth Radiography (HGR) platform. These capsules substituted an additional thickness of plastic ablator material in place of the cryogenic layer of Deuterium- Tritium (DT) fuel. The present experiments are the first to include a DT ice layer, which enables measurements of the instability growth occurring at the fuel-ablator interface. Instability growth at the fuel-ablator interface is seeded differently in two independent NIF experiments. In the first case, a perturbation on the outside of the capsule feeds through and grows on the interface. Comparisons to an implosion without a fuel layer produce a measure of the fuel's modulation. In the second case, a modulation was directly machined on the inner ablator before the fuel layer was added. The measurement of growth in these two scenarios are compared to 2D rad-hydro modeling.

  4. Evaluation of the US Army DT-236 battlefield personnel dosimetry system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaja, R.E.; Oyan, R.; Sims, C.S.; Dooley, M.A.

    1986-06-01

    Performance characteristics of the US Army DT-236 battlefield personnel dosimetry system were evaluated using the Health Physics Research Reactor at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The DT-236 dosimeter is designed to measure total (neutron plus gamma) radiation dose using a radiophotoluminescent (RPL) detector for gamma rays and a silicon diode for fast neutrons. Areas considered in this evaluation included preirradiation dose indication; accuracy and precision of total, gamma, and neutron dose measurements; fading; angular response; temperature dependence; and relative dosimeter response in air and on various body locations. Experimental results for a variety of radiation fields and dose levels indicate that the existing system overestimates total, neutron, and gamma radiation doses in air by about 20 to 60% relative to reference values. Associated measurement precisions were about +-5% of the means for doses above approximately 0.5 Gy. Fading characteristics, angular dependence, and temperature dependence of the RPL and diode systems were consistent with results expected based on detector characteristics and previous performance studies. Recommendations to improve existing reader performance and measurement accuracy are also presented.

  5. A 780-year record of explosive volcanism from DT263 ice core in east Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Liya; LI Yuansheng; Jihong Cole-da; TAN Dejun; SUN BO; REN Jiawen; WEI Lijia; WANG Henian

    2006-01-01

    Ice cores recovered from polar ice sheet Received and preserved sulfuric acid fallout from explosive volcanic eruptions. DT263 ice core was retrieved from an east Antarctic location. The ice core is dated using a combination of annual layer counting and volcanic time stratigraphic horizon as 780 years (1215-1996 A.D.). The ice core record demonstrates that during the period of approximately 1460-1800 A.D., the accumulation is sharply lower than the levels prior to and after this period. This period coincides with the most recent neoglacial climatic episode, the "Little Ice Age (LIA)", that has been found in numerous Northern Hemisphere proxy and historic records.The non-sea-salt SO2-4 concentrations indicate seventeen volcanic events in DT263 ice core. Compared with those from previous Antarctic ice cores, significant discrepancies are found between these records in relative volcanic flux of several well-known events. The discrepancies among these records may be explained by the differences in surface topography, accumulation rate, snow drift and distribution which highlight the potential impact of local glaciology on ice core volcanic records, analytical techniques used for sulfate measurement, etc. Volcanic eruptions in middle and high southern latitudes affect volcanic records in Antarctic snow more intensively than those in the Iow latitudes.

  6. Modelling of the JET DT experiments in carbon and ITER-like wall configurations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagoerski, R.; Stepniewski, W.; Ivanova-Stanik, I. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, Warsaw (Poland); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Brezinsek, S. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH Institut fuer Energie- und Klimaforschung - Plasmaphysik, Juelich (Germany); EUROfusion Consortium, JET, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Collaboration: JET contributors

    2016-08-15

    In this paper numerical simulations with the self-consistent COREDIV code of the planned JET DT experiments have been performed. First, record shot from the 1997 experiments was simulated and good agreement with experimental data has been found. Direct extrapolation of the carbon wall results to the new ILW configuration (discharge parameters as for the shot 42746) shows very good core plasma performance with even higher fusion power but with too large power to the divertor. However, with the neon seeding the heat load and plate temperatures can be efficiently reduced keeping good the plasma performance. Investigations have been done also for the planned DT operation scenario based on a conventional ELMy H-mode at high plasma current and magnetic field. Simulations for the reference ELMy H-mode shot 87412 show good agreement with the experimental data but the direct extrapolation of the DD results to deuterium-tritium operation shows relatively poor performance in terms of the achieved fusion power. The situation improves, if the highest heating power is assumed (41 MW) and fusion powers in the excess of 12 MW can be achieved. All the high performance shots require the heat load control by neon seeding which shows rather beneficial effect on the plasma performance allowing for relatively wide operational window in terms of the amount of the allowed neon influx. (copyright 2016 The Authors. Contributions to Plasma Physics published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA Weinheim. This)

  7. Biotransformation of tetracycline by a novel bacterial strain Stenotrophomonas maltophilia DT1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Yifei; Bao, Jianguo; Chang, Gaofeng; Zheng, Han; Li, Xingxing; Du, Jiangkun; Snow, Daniel; Li, Xu

    2016-11-15

    Although several abiotic processes have been reported that can transform antibiotics, little is known about whether and how microbiological processes may degrade antibiotics in the environment. This work isolated one tetracycline degrading bacterial strain, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain DT1, and characterized the biotransformation of tetracycline by DT1 under various environmental conditions. The biotransformation rate was the highest when the initial pH was 9 and the reaction temperature was at 30°C, and can be described using the Michaelis-Menten model under different initial tetracycline concentrations. When additional substrate was present, the substrate that caused increased biomass resulted in a decreased biotransformation rate of tetracycline. According to disk diffusion tests, the biotransformation products of tetracycline had lower antibiotic potency than the parent compound. Six possible biotransformation products were identified, and a potential biotransformation pathway was proposed that included sequential removal of N-methyl, carbonyl, and amine function groups. Results from this study can lead to better estimation of the fate and transport of antibiotics in the environment and has the potential to be utilized in designing engineering processes to remove tetracycline from water and soil.

  8. 一维贫铀/聚乙烯交替系统中D-T中子诱发的232Th(n,γ)反应率的测定与分析%Determination of 232Th(n, γ) reaction rate induced by D-T neutrons in one-dimensional alternate depleted uranium/p olyethylene shells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    羊奕伟; 刘荣; 蒋励; 鹿心鑫; 王玫; 严小松

    2014-01-01

    A series of neutron integral fundamental researches of thorium nuclear data in set-ups containing thorium samples is carried out. One-dimensional alternate depleted uranium/polyethylene shells containing thorium samples are constructed by referring to the conceptual design of fusion-fission hybrid reactor, where a D-T neutron source driven by accelerator is used to simulate the fusion core of the reactor. 232Th (n,γ) reaction rates in samples located at different positions in the shells are measured in 5% uncertainty by using activated thorium sample decay γ-ray off-line measurement technique. The results show that the moderation of polyethylene to 14.1 MeV neutron will efficiently increase the capture rate of thorium, and the depleted uranium is also conducible to this increase obviously. The comparison between our measured data and the results available from mainstream nuclear data bank shows that the calculation results from ENDF/B-VI.6 and JENDL-3.3 are around 6% higher than the experimental results, while the newer ENDF/B-VII.0 will achieve better results, around 4% higher than the experimental results. We recommend the ENDF/B-VII.0 to be used in one-dimensional alternate depleted uranium/polyethylene shells related conceptual design when calculating the 232Th (n,γ) reaction rate.%开展了钍样品装置内钍核参数的积分中子学基础研究.参考混合堆概念设计搭建了内部放置了钍样品的一维贫铀/聚乙烯交替系统装置,采用加速器D-T中子源模拟聚变堆芯,利用前期开发的离线伽马测量方法测定了不同位置、不同中子谱情况下的232Th (n,γ)反应率,不确定度约为5%.结果显示,聚乙烯对14.1 MeV中子的慢化作用可有效提升钍俘获率,且贫铀对钍俘获率也有显著提升作用.实验结果与主流核数据库计算结果的对比显示, ENDF/B-VI.6和JENDL-3.3数据库的计算值比实验值平均约大6%,而较新的ENDF/B-VII.0数据库的计

  9. Room temperature FePt nanoparticles formation kinetics by laser solution photolysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nkosi, S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Formation Kinetics by Laser solution photolysis S. Nkosi1, B.W. Mwakikunga2, E. Sideras-Haddad1 1University of the Witwatersrand 2 DST/NCNSM, Pretoria The 4th International Conference on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology 1 – 4 April 2012, University... emission during photolysis, � the produced either positive or negative metallic ions (liquid form). Theoretical consideration transabsreflLASER IIII ++= Energy conservation (Kirchoff’s law) lossestransferheat dt dNVH dt dTV V NCII ptransabs __+∆∆+∆== Slide...

  10. Prospects for measuring the fuel ion ratio in burning ITER plasmas using a DT neutron emission spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellesen, C.; Skiba, M.; Dzysiuk, N.; Weiszflog, M.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ericsson, G.; Conroy, S.; Andersson-Sundén, E.; Eriksson, J.; Binda, F.

    2014-11-01

    The fuel ion ratio nt/nd is an essential parameter for plasma control in fusion reactor relevant applications, since maximum fusion power is attained when equal amounts of tritium (T) and deuterium (D) are present in the plasma, i.e., nt/nd = 1.0. For neutral beam heated plasmas, this parameter can be measured using a single neutron spectrometer, as has been shown for tritium concentrations up to 90%, using data obtained with the MPR (Magnetic Proton Recoil) spectrometer during a DT experimental campaign at the Joint European Torus in 1997. In this paper, we evaluate the demands that a DT spectrometer has to fulfill to be able to determine nt/nd with a relative error below 20%, as is required for such measurements at ITER. The assessment shows that a back-scattering time-of-flight design is a promising concept for spectroscopy of 14 MeV DT emission neutrons.

  11. Laser-plasma interactions for fast ignition

    CERN Document Server

    Kemp, A J; Debayle, A; Johzaki, T; Mori, W B; Patel, P K; Sentoku, Y; Silva, L O

    2013-01-01

    In the electron-driven fast-ignition approach to inertial confinement fusion, petawatt laser pulses are required to generate MeV electrons that deposit several tens of kilojoules in the compressed core of an imploded DT shell. We review recent progress in the understanding of intense laser plasma interactions (LPI) relevant to fast ignition. Increases in computational and modeling capabilities, as well as algorithmic developments have led to enhancement in our ability to perform multi-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of LPI at relevant scales. We discuss the physics of the interaction in terms of laser absorption fraction, the laser-generated electron spectra, divergence, and their temporal evolution. Scaling with irradiation conditions such as laser intensity are considered, as well as the dependence on plasma parameters. Different numerical modeling approaches and configurations are addressed, providing an overview of the modeling capabilities and limitations. In addition, we discuss the compa...

  12. The DNA Repair Inhibitor DT01 as a Novel Therapeutic Strategy for Chemosensitization of Colorectal Liver Metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, Nirmitha I; Devun, Flavien; Lienafa, Marie-Christine; Herbette, Aurélie; Denys, Alban; Sun, Jian-Sheng; Dutreix, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic liver disease from colorectal cancer is a significant clinical problem. This is mainly attributed to nonresectable metastases that frequently display low sensitivities to available chemotherapies and develop drug resistance partly via hyperactivation of some DNA repair functions. Combined therapies have shown some disease control; however, there is still a need for more efficient chemotherapies to achieve eradication of colorectal cancer liver metastasis. We investigated the tolerance and efficacy of a novel class of DNA repair inhibitors, Dbait, in association with conventional chemotherapy. Dbait mimics double-strand breaks and activates damage signaling, consequently inhibiting single- and double-stranded DNA repair enzyme recruitment. In vitro, Dbait treatment increases sensitivity of HT29 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines. In vivo, the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and the efficacy of the cholesterol-conjugated clinical form of Dbait, DT01, were assessed. The chemosensitizing abilities of DT01 were evaluated in association with oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil in intrahepatic HT29 xenografted mice used as a model for colorectal cancer liver metastasis. The high uptake of DT01 indicates that the liver is a specific target. We demonstrate significant antitumor efficacy in a liver metastasis model with DT01 treatment in combination with oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil (mean: 501 vs. 872 mm(2), P = 0.02) compared to chemotherapy alone. The decrease in tumor volume is further associated with significant histologic changes in necrosis, proliferation, angiogenesis and apoptosis. Repeated cycles of DT01 do not increase chemotherapy toxicity. Combining DT01 with conventional chemotherapy may prove to be a safe and effective therapeutic strategy in the treatment of metastatic liver cancer.

  13. Alpha-muon sticking and chaos in muon-catalysed d-t fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, S; Kimura, Sachie; Bonasera, Aldo

    2006-01-01

    We discuss the alpha-muon sticking coefficient in the muon-catalysed d-t fusion in the framework of the Constrained Molecular Dynamics model. Especially the influence of muonic chaotic dynamics on the sticking coefficient is brought into focus. The chaotic motion of the muon affects not only the fusion cross section but also the $\\mu-\\alpha$ sticking coefficient. Chaotic systems lead to larger enhancements with respect to regular systems because of the reduction of the tunneling region. Moreover they give smaller sticking probabilities than those of regular events. By utilizing a characteristic of the chaotic dynamics one can avoid losing the muon in the $\\mu$CF cycle. We propose that the application of the so-called "microwave ionization of a Rydberg atom" to the present case could lead to the enhancement of the reactivation process by using X-rays.

  14. Completion of installation of DT and RPC chambers before Cosmic Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    Mimmo Dattola

    2006-01-01

    All the drift tube ("DT") and resistive plate chambers ("RPC") packages foreseen to be installed in the central barrel ring ("YB0") before the magnet test have been installed (some are missing in the photograph but have since been installed). These silver-coloured rectangular boxes in the gaps between the steel of the rings (red in the image) detect muons. Chambers for Sectors 4 and 5 (sector 1 is at the 9 o'clock position and the counting is clockwise) as well as a couple of chambers in the support "feet" (sectors 9 and 11) will be installed after the magnet test. Chambers for sectors 1 and 7 will be installed in the underground cavern ("UXC") - the latter will be in the places used for the lifting and lowering of the ring.

  15. Avoider robot design to dim the fire with dt basic mini system

    CERN Document Server

    Prasetyo, Eri; Prabowo, Bumi Prabu

    2008-01-01

    Avoider robot is mean robot who is designed to avoid the block in around. Except that, this robot is also added by an addition application to dim the fire. This robot is made with ultrasonic sensor PING. This sensor is set on the front, right and left from robot. This sensor is used robot to look for the right street, so that robot can walk on. After the robot can look for the right street, next accomplished the robot is looking for the fire in around. And the next, dim the fire with fan. This robot is made with basic stamp 2 micro-controller. And that micro-controller can be found in dt-basic mini system module. This robot is made with servo motor on the right and left side, which is used to movement.

  16. First installation of DT and RPC packages into the CMS iron yoke

    CERN Multimedia

    Jesus Puerta-Pelayo

    2004-01-01

    These pictures illustrate the installation process of muon barrel packages (DT + RPC) into the pockets of the CMS iron yoke at SX5. The chambers are first transported in groups of four from the ISR area (where they are certified and coupled together) to the construction hall in Cessy (neighbouring France), called Point 5 (or SX5). Once there, they pass through a fast high voltage and electronic certification test, before being slid into the insertion cradle. This cradle is attached to the yoke and aligned to the chamber rails, allowing an easy insertion. A rate of 3 chambers per day can be achieved. This set of pictures was taken during the first final insertion round at Point 5, where most chambers for the lower part of YB+2 were installed.

  17. A novel design of beam shaping assembly to use D-T neutron generator for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasesaz, Yaser; Karimi, Marjan

    2016-12-01

    In order to use 14.1MeV neutrons produced by d-T neutron generators, two special and novel Beam Shaping Assemblies (BSA), including multi-layer and hexagonal lattice have been suggested and the effect of them has been investigated by MCNP4C Monte Carlo code. The results show that the proposed BSA can provide the qualified epithermal neutron beam for BNCT. The final epithermal neutron flux is about 6e9 n/cm2.s. The final proposed BSA has some different advantages: 1) it consists of usual and well-known materials (Pb, Al, Fluental and Cd); 2) it has a simple geometry; 3) it does not need any additional gamma filter; 4) it can provide high flux of epithermal neutrons. As this type of neutron source is under development in the world, it seems that they can be used clinically in a hospital considering the proposed BSA.

  18. Outbreak of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium phage type DT41 in Danish poultry production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Löfström, Charlotta; Hintzmann, Ann-Sofie; Sørensen, Gitte;

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) is one of the most prevalent serovars in Europe - where both poultry and poultry related products are common sources of human salmonellosis. Due to efficient control programs, the prevalence of S. Typhimurium in Danish...... slaughter house (n = 3, environmental sample and meat) were typed with multi locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) to investigate the epidemiology of the outbreak. Based on PFGE results isolates were divided into four groups (Simpson's index...... of diversity (DI) = 0.24 ± 0.15). Due to the low DI, PFGE was not sufficient to provide information to unravel the outbreak. Based on MLVA typing the DT41 - (42/47 isolates) and the RDNC isolates (5/47) were split into nine groups (DI = 0.65 ± 0.14). When a maximum divergence at one locus was permitted...

  19. Analytical computation of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors in DT-MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, K M; Basser, P J; Parker, D L; Alexander, A L

    2001-09-01

    In this paper a noniterative algorithm to be used for the analytical determination of the sorted eigenvalues and corresponding orthonormalized eigenvectors obtained by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) is described. The algorithm uses the three invariants of the raw water spin self-diffusion tensor represented by a 3 x 3 positive definite matrix and certain math functions that do not require iteration. The implementation requires a positive definite mask to preserve the physical meaning of the eigenvalues. This algorithm can increase the speed of eigenvalue/eigenvector calculations by a factor of 5-40 over standard iterative Jacobi or singular-value decomposition techniques. This approach may accelerate the computation of eigenvalues, eigenvalue-dependent metrics, and eigenvectors especially when having high-resolution measurements with large numbers of slices and large fields of view.

  20. Study of sup 1 sup 1 sup 9 Te with the (d,t) reaction

    CERN Document Server

    Bucurescu, D; Wirth, H F; Marginean, N; Köster, U; Graw, G; Metz, A; Hertenberger, R; Eisermann, Y

    2000-01-01

    The structure of the nucleus sup 1 sup 1 sup 9 Te has been studied with the sup 1 sup 2 sup 0 Te( d,t) reaction at E sub d =24.0 MeV. Almost 90 excited states have been observed up to an excitation energy of 2.5 MeV, and spin and parity values have been assigned to many of them. The existing experimental data are compared with calculations made on the basis of the Interacting Boson-Fermion Model-1. The large number of low-spin states observed up to about 1.2 MeV is well accounted for, whereas at higher energies the correspondence of calculated states with experimental ones becomes unreliable. The possibility of the occurrence of 'intruder' states is also discussed.

  1. Outbreak of food poisoning due to Salmonella typhimurium DT4 in mayonnaise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Benito, J M; Langridge, P

    1992-05-01

    In July 1989 a large outbreak of food poisoning (68 cases) occurred at a private club in Teddington (London Borough of Richmond-upon-Thames). Initial enquiries indicated that the peak of the outbreak occurred between 20th and 26th July. An epidemiological investigation (using self-completed questionnaires) was set up to determine the probable source of infection. Two groups among those exposed were selected: club staff (129), and cricket teams playing in a club tournament (105). Response rates were 89% and 64% respectively. Overall 50% (89) had gastrointestinal symptoms, including two hospital admissions. A highly significant association was found between illness and eating sandwiches containing mayonnaise. Microbiological investigations found Salmonella typhimurium DT4 in 36 of 68 faecal samples taken. This organism is not usually associated with food poisoning outbreaks. The probable source was identified as a flock of one of the egg suppliers.

  2. Probing the Physics of Burning DT Capsules Using Gamma-ray Diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes-Sterbenz, Anna Catherine [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hale, Gerald M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jungman, Gerard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Paris, Mark W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Gamma Reaction History (GRH) diagnostic developed and lead by the Los Alamos National Laboratory GRH Team is used to determine the bang time and burn width of imploded inertial confinement fusion capsules at the National Ignition Facility. The GRH team is conceptualizing and designing a new Gamma-­to-Electron Magnetic Spectrometer (GEMS), that would be capable of an energy resolution ΔE/E~3-­5%. In this whitepaper we examine the physics that could be explored by the combination of these two gamma-ray diagnostics, with an emphasis on the sensitivity needed for measurements. The main areas that we consider are hydrodynamical mixing, ablator areal density and density profile, and temporal variations of the density of the cold fuel and the ablator during the DT burn of the capsule.

  3. Characterisation of integrons and antibiotic resistance genes in Danish multiresistant Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvang, Dorthe; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    1998-01-01

    The presence and genetic content of integrons was investigated in eight Salmonella enteritica Typhimurium DT104 isolates from different pig herds in Denmark. Two different integrons were identified using PCR and sequencing. Each of the integrons carried a single resistance cassette in addition...... to the sul1 and qacE Delta 1 genes characteristic of integrons. The first integron encoded the ant (3")-Ia gene that specified resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin. The second contained the pse-1 beta-lactamase gene. All the multiresistant strains contained both integrons. The presence of these two...... integrons did not account for the total phenotypic resistance of all the isolates and does not exclude the presence of other mobile DNA elements....

  4. Characterisation of integrons and antibiotic resistance genes in Danish multiresistant Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvang, Dorthe; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    1997-01-01

    The presence and genetic content of integrons was investigated in eight Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104 isolates from different pig herds in Denmark. Two different integrons were identified using PCR and sequencing. Each of the integrons carried a single resistance cassette in addition...... to the sul1 and qacE Delta 1 genes characteristic of integrons. The first integron encoded the ant (3 ")-Ia gene that specified resistance to spectinomycin and streptomycin. The second contained the pse-l beta-lactamase gene. All the multiresistant strains contained both integrons. The presence of these two...... integrons did not account for the total phenotypic resistance of all the isolates and does not exclude the presence of other mobile DNA elements....

  5. Simulations of alpha parameters in a TFTR DT supershot with high fusion power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budny, R.V.; Bell, M.G.; Janos, A.C. [and others

    1995-07-01

    A TFTR supershot with a plasma current of 2.5 MA, neutral beam heating power of 33.7 MW, and a peak DT fusion power of 7.5 MW is studied using the TRANSP plasma analysis code. Simulations of alpha parameters such as the alpha heating, pressure, and distributions in energy and v{sub parallel}/v are given. The effects of toroidal ripple and mixing of the fast alpha particles during the sawteeth observed after the neutral beam injection phase are modeled. The distributions of alpha particles on the outer midplane are peaked near forward and backward v{sub parallel}/v. Ripple losses deplete the distributions in the vicinity of v{sub parallel}/v {approximately}{minus}0.4. Sawtooth mixing of fast alpha particles is computed to reduce their central density and broaden their width in energy.

  6. Transmission routes of Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 between 14 cattle and pig herds in Denmark demonstrated by molecular fingerprinting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langvad, B.; Skov, M.N.; Rattenborg, E.;

    2006-01-01

    Aims: Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 is generally assumed to be spread by contact between live animals, e.g. by trading. The aim of the present study was to assess the importance of other routes of transmission in the dissemination of this bacterium. Methods and Results: An outbreak among 14 cattle...... electrophoresis (PFGE) and the plasmid profiles of isolates obtained by continuous sampling over a period of almost 3 years. Conclusions: The study indicated that other routes might play an important role, than the trading of live animals, in the spread of S. Typhimurium DT 104 among livestock. Significance...

  7. 2010西门子IA/DT/BT媒体行之华东区追踪报道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁秀璟

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2010年7月28~30日,2010西门子IA/DT/BT媒体行活动的脚步踏上了中国最具活力的经济增长带--华东区.一行人先后走访了西门子IA/DT/BT在华东区的两个重要客户--阿特拉斯·科普柯(无锡)压缩机有限公司和太平洋水处理工程有限公司.

  8. Acid environments affect biofilm formation and gene expression in isolates of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Denis; McCabe, Evonne M; McCusker, Matthew P; Martins, Marta; Fanning, Séamus; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the survival and potential virulence of biofilm-forming Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 under mild acid conditions. Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 employs an acid tolerance response (ATR) allowing it to adapt to acidic environments. The threat that these acid adapted cells pose to food safety could be enhanced if they also produce biofilms in acidic conditions. The cells were acid-adapted by culturing them in 1% glucose and their ability to form biofilms on stainless steel and on the surface of Luria Bertani (LB) broth at pH7 and pH5 was examined. Plate counts were performed to examine cell survival. RNA was isolated from cells to examine changes in the expression of genes associated with virulence, invasion, biofilm formation and global gene regulation in response to acid stress. Of the 4 isolates that were examined only one (1481) that produced a rigid biofilm in LB broth at pH7 also formed this same structure at pH5. This indicated that the lactic acid severely impeded the biofilm producing capabilities of the other isolates examined under these conditions. Isolate 1481 also had higher expression of genes associated with virulence (hilA) and invasion (invA) with a 24.34-fold and 13.68-fold increase in relative gene expression respectively at pH5 compared to pH7. Although genes associated with biofilm formation had increased expression in response to acid stress for all the isolates this only resulted in the formation of a biofilm by isolate 1481. This suggests that in addition to the range of genes associated with biofilm production at neutral pH, there are genes whose protein products specifically aid in biofilm production in acidic environments. Furthermore, it highlights the potential for the use of lactic acid for the inhibition of Salmonella biofilms.

  9. Anomalous loss of DT alpha particles in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, H.W.

    1997-09-01

    An escaping alpha collector probe has been developed for TFTR`s DT phase. Energy distributions of escaping alphas have been determined by measuring the range of {alpha}-particles implanted into nickel foils located within the alpha collector. Results at 1.0 MA of plasma current are in good agreement with predictions for first orbit alpha loss. Results at 1.8 MA, however, show a significant anomalous loss of partially thermalized alphas (in addition to the expected first orbit loss), which is not observed with the lost alpha scintillator detectors in DT plasmas, but does resemble the anomalous delayed loss seen in DD plasmas. None of the candidate explanations proposed thus far are fully consistent with the anomalous loss observations. An experiment designed to study the effect of plasma major radius shifts on {alpha}-particle loss has led to a better understanding of {alpha}-particle dynamics in tokamaks. Intuitively, one might suppose that confined marginally passing {alpha}-particles forced to move toward higher magnetic field during an inward major radius shift (i.e., compression) would mirror and become trapped particles, leading to increased alpha loss. Such an effect was looked for during the shift experiment, however, no significant changes in alpha loss to the 90{degree} lost alpha scintillator detector were observed during the shifts. It is calculated that the energy gained by an {alpha}-particle during the inward shift is sufficient to explain this result. However, an unexpected loss of partially thermalized {alpha}-particles near the passing/trapped boundary was observed to occur between inward and outward shifts at an intermediate value of plasma current (1.4 MA). This anomalous loss feature is not yet understood.

  10. Utilization of low voltage D-T neutron generators in neutron physics studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singkarat, S.

    1995-08-01

    In a small nuclear laboratory of a developing country a low voltage D-T neutron generator can be a very useful scientific apparatus. Such machines have been used successfully for more than 40 years in teaching and scientific research. The original continuous mode 150-kV D-T neutron generator has been modified to have also a capability of producing 2-ns pulsed neutrons. Together with a carefully designed 10 m long flight path collimator and shielding of a 25 cm diameter {center_dot} 10 cm thick BC-501 neutron detector, the pulsing system was successfully used for measuring the double differential cross-section (DDX) of natural iron for 14.1-MeV neutron from the angle of 30 deg to 150 deg in 10 deg steps. In order to extend the utility of the generator, two methods for converting the almost monoenergetic 14-MeV neutrons to monoenergetic neutrons of lower energy were proposed and tested. The first method uses a pulsed neutron generator and the second method uses an ordinary continuous mode generator. The latter method was successfully used to measure the scintillation light output of a 1.4 cm diameter spherical NE-213 scintillation detector. The neutron generator has also been used in the continuous search for improved neutron detection techniques. There is a proposal, based on Monte Carlo calculations, of using a scintillation fiber for a fast neutron spectrometer. Due to the slender shape of the fiber, the pattern of produced light gives a peak in the pulse height spectrum instead of the well-known rectangular-like distribution, when the fiber is bombarded end-on by a beam of 14-MeV neutrons. Experimental investigations were undertaken. Detailed investigations on the light transportation property of a short fiber were performed. The predicted peak has not yet been found but the fiber detector may be developed as a directional discrimination fast neutron detector. 18 refs.

  11. Anomalous loss of DT alpha particles in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrmann, Hans W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1997-09-01

    An escaping alpha collector probe has been developed for TFTR`s DT phase. Energy distributions of escaping alphas have been determined by measuring the range of α-particles implanted into nickel foils located within the alpha collector. Results at 1.0 MA of plasma current are in good agreement with predictions for first orbit alpha loss. Results at 1.8 MA, however, show a significant anomalous loss of partially thermalized alphas (in addition to the expected first orbit loss), which is not observed with the lost alpha scintillator detectors in DT plasmas, but does resemble the anomalous delayed loss seen in DD plasmas. None of the candidate explanations proposed thus far are fully consistent with the anomalous loss observations. An experiment designed to study the effect of plasma major radius shifts on α-particle loss has led to a better understanding of α-particle dynamics in tokamaks. Intuitively, one might suppose that confined marginally passing α-particles forced to move toward higher magnetic field during an inward major radius shift (i.e., compression) would mirror and become trapped particles, leading to increased alpha loss. Such an effect was looked for during the shift experiment, however, no significant changes in alpha loss to the 90° lost alpha scintillator detector were observed during the shifts. It is calculated that the energy gained by an α-particle during the inward shift is sufficient to explain this result. However, an unexpected loss of partially thermalized α-particles near the passing/trapped boundary was observed to occur between inward and outward shifts at an intermediate value of plasma current (1.4 MA). This anomalous loss feature is not yet understood.

  12. First-wall conditioning for enhanced confinement discharges and the DT experiments in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dylla, H.F.; Ulrickson, M.; Bell, M.G.; Owens, D.K.; Buchenauer, D.; Budny, R.V.; Hill, K.W.; Kilpatrick, S.J.; Manos, D.M.; LaMarche, P.H.

    1988-11-01

    The conditioning techniques applied to the TFTR first-wall configuration that will be in place for the DT experiments in 1990--1991 are reviewed. Of primary interest is the helium conditioning procedure that was developed to control hydrogenic recycling from the graphite, inner-wall bumper limiter. Operation of TFTR over the plasma density range for gas-fueled ohmic plasmas, /bar n//sub e/ = (2 /minus/ 5) /times/ 10/sup 19/ m/sup /minus/3/, typically results in hydrogenic recycling coefficients near unity. The use of the helium conditioning procedure produced recycling coefficients as low as 0.5, and decreased the minimum ohmic plasma density to /bar n//sub e/ = 0.5 /times/ 10/sup 19/ m/sup /minus/3/ at I/sub p/ = 0.8 MA. Low density ohmic target plasmas with low recycling conditions are prerequisite conditions for the enhanced confinement (e.g., ''supershot''), neutral-beam-heated discharges observed in TFTR during 1986-1987, which is the primary mode being considered for study in the DT experiments. The recycling changes induced by the helium conditioning procedure are believed to be the result of a plasma pumping effect in the graphite induced by He and C ion desorption of hydrogenic species from the near-surface (< 20 nm) layer of the limiter. The capacity of the conditioned limiter to pump gas-fueled, and neutral-beam-fueled discharges is compared. The helium conditioning technique is also beneficial for isotopic exchange and for minimizing the in-vessel tritium inventory. 31 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Robust determination of surface relaxivity from nuclear magnetic resonance DT2 measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Xiang; Paulsen, Jeffrey; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful tool to probe into geological materials such as hydrocarbon reservoir rocks and groundwater aquifers. It is unique in its ability to obtain in situ the fluid type and the pore size distributions (PSD). The T1 and T2 relaxation times are closely related to the pore geometry through the parameter called surface relaxivity. This parameter is critical for converting the relaxation time distribution into the PSD and so is key to accurately predicting permeability. The conventional way to determine the surface relaxivity ρ2 had required independent laboratory measurements of the pore size. Recently Zielinski et al. proposed a restricted diffusion model to extract the surface relaxivity from the NMR diffusion-T2 relaxation (DT2) measurement. Although this method significantly improved the ability to directly extract surface relaxivity from a pure NMR measurement, there are inconsistencies with their model and it relies on a number of preset parameters. Here we propose an improved signal model to incorporate a scalable LT and extend their method to extract the surface relaxivity based on analyzing multiple DT2 maps with varied diffusion observation time. With multiple diffusion observation times, the apparent diffusion coefficient correctly describes the restricted diffusion behavior in samples with wide PSDs, and the new method does not require predetermined parameters, such as the bulk diffusion coefficient and tortuosity. Laboratory experiments on glass beads packs with the beads diameter ranging from 50 μm to 500 μm are used to validate the new method. The extracted diffusion parameters are consistent with their known values and the determined surface relaxivity ρ2 agrees with the expected value within ±7%. This method is further successfully applied on a Berea sandstone core and yields surface relaxivity ρ2 consistent with the literature.

  14. Robust determination of surface relaxivity from nuclear magnetic resonance DT(2) measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zhi-Xiang; Paulsen, Jeffrey; Song, Yi-Qiao

    2015-10-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a powerful tool to probe into geological materials such as hydrocarbon reservoir rocks and groundwater aquifers. It is unique in its ability to obtain in situ the fluid type and the pore size distributions (PSD). The T1 and T2 relaxation times are closely related to the pore geometry through the parameter called surface relaxivity. This parameter is critical for converting the relaxation time distribution into the PSD and so is key to accurately predicting permeability. The conventional way to determine the surface relaxivity ρ2 had required independent laboratory measurements of the pore size. Recently Zielinski et al. proposed a restricted diffusion model to extract the surface relaxivity from the NMR diffusion-T2 relaxation (DT2) measurement. Although this method significantly improved the ability to directly extract surface relaxivity from a pure NMR measurement, there are inconsistencies with their model and it relies on a number of preset parameters. Here we propose an improved signal model to incorporate a scalable LT and extend their method to extract the surface relaxivity based on analyzing multiple DT2 maps with varied diffusion observation time. With multiple diffusion observation times, the apparent diffusion coefficient correctly describes the restricted diffusion behavior in samples with wide PSDs, and the new method does not require predetermined parameters, such as the bulk diffusion coefficient and tortuosity. Laboratory experiments on glass beads packs with the beads diameter ranging from 50 μm to 500 μm are used to validate the new method. The extracted diffusion parameters are consistent with their known values and the determined surface relaxivity ρ2 agrees with the expected value within ±7%. This method is further successfully applied on a Berea sandstone core and yields surface relaxivity ρ2 consistent with the literature.

  15. The Asian Correction Can Be Quantitatively Forecasted Using a Statistical Model of Fusion-Fission Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Boon Kin; Cheong, Siew Ann

    2016-01-01

    The Global Financial Crisis of 2007-2008 wiped out US$37 trillions across global financial markets, this value is equivalent to the combined GDPs of the United States and the European Union in 2014. The defining moment of this crisis was the failure of Lehman Brothers, which precipitated the October 2008 crash and the Asian Correction (March 2009). Had the Federal Reserve seen these crashes coming, they might have bailed out Lehman Brothers, and prevented the crashes altogether. In this paper, we show that some of these market crashes (like the Asian Correction) can be predicted, if we assume that a large number of adaptive traders employing competing trading strategies. As the number of adherents for some strategies grow, others decline in the constantly changing strategy space. When a strategy group grows into a giant component, trader actions become increasingly correlated and this is reflected in the stock price. The fragmentation of this giant component will leads to a market crash. In this paper, we also derived the mean-field market crash forecast equation based on a model of fusions and fissions in the trading strategy space. By fitting the continuous returns of 20 stocks traded in Singapore Exchange to the market crash forecast equation, we obtain crash predictions ranging from end October 2008 to mid-February 2009, with early warning four to six months prior to the crashes. PMID:27706198

  16. Competition between quasi-molecular resonances and fusion-fission in light dinuclear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Beck, C

    1999-01-01

    The results presented in this paper clearly suggest that a coherent framework may exist which connects the topics of heavy-ion molecular resonances, hyperdeformation effects, and fission shape isomerism. New data on particle-particle-$\\gamma$ triple coincidences of the $^{28}$Si+$^{28}$Si reaction at a beam energy corresponding to the population of a conjectured J$^{\\pi}$ = 38$^{+}$ resonance in $^{56}$Ni are presented. The absence of alignment of the spins of the outgoing fragments with respect to the orbital angular momentum is found to be in contrast with the alignment as measured for the $^{24}$Mg+$^{24}$Mg resonances. A molecular-model picture is presented to suggest a "butterfly" motion of two oblate $^{28}$Si nuclei interacting in a equator-to-equator molecular configuration.

  17. Study for fusion-fission and quasifission in reactions using {sup 238}U target nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Katsuhisa, E-mail: nishio.katsuhisa@jaea.go.jp [Advanced Science Reserch Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2011-02-01

    Fragment mass distributions for fission after full momentum transfer (FMT) were measured for the {sup 30}Si,{sup 31}P,{sup 34,36}S,{sup 40}Ar + {sup 238}U reactions at bombarding energies around the Coulomb barrier. The experiment was carried out at the JAEA tandem accelerator facility. We observed strong variation of the mass distribution on beam energy and projectile nucleus. In the reaction of {sup 36}S +{sup 238}U we observed a transition from symmetry to asymmetry mass distributions when the beam energies were decreased from the above-barrier to sub-barrier values. The mass asymmetry was A{sub L} /A{sub H} = 74/200, which corresponds to the fission valley leading to the nuclei close to the doubly closed-shell nuclei {sup 78}Ni /{sup 208}Pb. The fission channel is populated by quasifission, which is the disintegration without forming the compound nucleus. The incident-energy dependence is strongly correlated with the prolate deformation of {sup 238}U and the orientation at the initial impact. The results indicate that the reaction starting at the polar collisions on {sup 238}U has larger quasifission probability. The mass distributions are nicely reproduced by a model calculation using Langevin equation. The {sup 40}Ar + {sup 238}U reaction also has the similar mass asymmetry (A{sub L}/A{sub H} {approx} 78/200) in quasifission. In the reactions of {sup 31}P + {sup 238}U and {sup 30}Si + {sup 238}U, mass asymmetries are A{sub L}/A{sub H} 81/188 and 90/178, respectively. The results suggest that the system produced by the reaction using lighter projectile approaches closer to the shape of the compound nucleus even when quasifission occurs. In the reactions of {sup 30}Si +{sup 238}U and {sup 34}S+ {sup 238}U, we also measured the evaporation residue (ER) cross sections to obtain information on the fusion probability. From the ER cross sections for the {sup 34}S+{sup 238}U reaction it was suggested that the symmetric fission is also dominated by quasifission.

  18. UW MCNP source patch for the EPFL Haefely source. EPFL (Swiss) fusion-fission hybrid experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKinney, G; Woodruff, G L

    1986-06-01

    The development of a source patch which describes the Haefely neutron source for use in the MCNP Monte Carlo code has been described in progress reports of the EPFL (Swiss) Fusion Blanket Project at the University of Washington. The most recent of these reports dealing with the source patch was Progress Report No. 14. This report reviews some of the physical description included in the report, and also includes additional details of the patch as well as a listing of the patch itself.

  19. Nanofluid Applied Numerical Analysis of Subchannel in Square Rod Bundle for Fusion-Fission Hybrid System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Jubair Ahmed; Bhowmik, Palash Kumar; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Most of the traditional ways available in the literature to enhance heat transfer are mainly based on variation of structures like addition of heat surface area such as fins, vibration of heated surface, injection or suction of fluids, applying electrical or magnetic fields, and so forth. Application of these mechanical techniques to a fuel rod bundle will involve not only designing complex geometries but also using many additional mechanisms inside a nuclear reactor core which in turn will certainly increase the manufacturing cost as well as may hamper various safety features essential for sound and uninterrupted operation of a nuclear power reactor. On the other hand, traditional heat transfer fluids such as water, ethylene glycol and oils have inherently low thermal conductivity relative to metals and even metal oxides. In this study the coolant with suspended nano-sized particles in the base fluid is proposed as an alternative to increase heat transfer but minimize flow resistance inside a nuclear reactor core. Due to technical complexities most of the previous studies carried out on heat transfer of suspension of metal oxides in fluids were limited to suspensions with millimeter or micron-sized particles. Such outsized particles may lead to severe problems in heat transfer equipment including increased pressure drop and corrosion and erosion of components and pipe lines. Dramatic advancement in modern science has made it possible to produce ultrafine metallic or nonmetallic particles of nanometer dimension, which has brought a revolutionary change in the research of heat transfer enhancement methods. Due to very tiny particle size and their small volume fraction, problems such as clogging and increased pressure drop are insignificant for nanofluids. Moreover, the relatively large surface area of nanoparticles augments the stability of nanofluid solution and prevents the sedimentation of nanoparticles. Xuan and Roetzel considered two approaches to illustrate the heat transfer enhancement by nanofluids. One is that the suspended particles increase the thermal conductivity of the two-phase mixture. Another is that chaotic movement of ultrafine particles accelerates the energy exchange process in the fluid. The average Nusselt number Νu, convective heat transfer coefficient h and axial pressure drop Δp are assessed along the centerline of the subchannel for the Reynolds number Re ranging from 20000 to 80000. The hydrophilic rod-like Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (AF-alumina type with mean particle diameter ∼7 nm) are dispersed in the base fluid of pure water with particle volume concentrations of 1%, 2.5% and 5% for comparison. The standard k-ε. two-equation model is employed to simulate turbulence in ANSYS FLUENT 12.1.

  20. Actinide incineration in fusion-fission hybrid-A model nuclear synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taczanowski, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    The alliance of fusion with fission is a cause worthy of great efforts, as being able to ease (if not even to solve) serious problems that both these forms of nuclear energy are facing. Very high investment costs caused by tokamak enormous size, material consumption and difficult technology put in doubt whether alone the minute demand for fuel raw material (Li) and lack of danger of uncontrolled supercriticality prove sufficient for making it competitive. Preliminary evaluations demonstrated that a radical shift of energy production i.e. the energy gain from plasma to fission blanket is feasible [1]. A reduction in the fusion component to about 2% at given system power allows for a radical drop in plasma Q down to the values of ˜0.2-0.3 achievable in small systems [2] (e.g. mirrors) of sizes comparable to fission reactors. As a result in a Fusion-Driven Actinide Incinerator (FDI) both radiations from the plasma: corpuscular (i.e. neutrons and ions) and photons are drastically reduced. Thus are too, first of all - the neutron induced radiation damage: DPA and gas production, then plasma-wall interactions. The fundamental safety of the system has been proved by simulation of its collapse that has shown preservation its subcriticality. Summarizing, all the above problems may be solved with synergic union of fusion with fission embodied in the concept of FDI - small and less expensive.

  1. Implementación MEF-DtN para un material incompresible en un dominio no acotado Implementing FEM-DtN for an incompressible material on an unbounded domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duque Jairo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo presentamos la implementación de un método de elementos finitos combinado con la aplicación Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN, obtenida en términos de series de Fourier, para estudiar la existencia de soluciones de un problema exterior que proviene de la teoría de elasticidad lineal incompresible bidimensional. Finalmente, se presenta un método numérico que demuestra la precisión de nuestra aplicación DtN, puesto que sólo se necesitan unos cuantos términos de la serie de Fourier para obtener una buena aproximación de la solución. Para la discretización del problema se emplea el elemento estable Taylor-Hood.This paper presents the implementation of the finite element method combined with Dirichlet-to-Neumann (DtN mapping (derived in terms of an infinite Fourier series for studying the solvability of an exterior problem arising in linear incomepressible 2D-elasticity. A reliable numerical experiment is also presented showing the accuracy of DtN mapping; only a few Fourier series terms were needed to get a good approximation to the solution. The stable Taylor-Hood element was used for finite element discretisation.

  2. 食油假单胞菌DT4菌株对四氢呋喃(THF)的降解特性%Characteristics of Tetrahydrofuran Degradation by Pseudomonas oleovorans DT4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉央; 陈东之; 金小君; 陈建孟; 何杰

    2011-01-01

    对某医药厂废水池的活性污泥进行长期驯化,分离筛选到1株在好氧条件下能以四氢呋喃(tetrahydrofuran,THF)为唯一碳源和能源生长的食油假单胞菌DT4(Pseudomonas oleovorans DT4).研究发现在初始pH值7.2、温度30℃、初始菌体浓度3.2 mg/L的条件下,P.oleovorans DT4能够于14 h内将5 mmol/L THF完全降解,菌体浓度达到188.6 mg/L.另外,在THF完全降解后1 h,最终溶液中总有机碳及无机碳浓度分别达到0 mg/L和46 mg/L,且培养基的pH值降至6.54,呈弱酸性,说明P.oleovorans DT4降解THF是一个彻底矿化的过程.通过摇瓶实验考察了温度、pH、供氧方式、金属离子等因素对菌株DT4降解THF性能的影响,获得其较适宜的生长和降解条件为:温度37℃、pH值7.5,自然转动供氧状态适宜菌体生长及对THF的降解,最适Mg2+和Ca2+浓度分别为0.80 mmol/L和0.20 mmol/L.研究成果对高效处理环境中的THF污染具有重要的应用价值.%A tetrahydrofuran (THF)-degrading strain Pseudomonas oleovorans DT4 was isolated from the activated sludge of a pharmaceutical plant. P. oleovorans DT4 was able to utilize THF as the sole carbon and energy source under aerobic condition. 5 mmol/L of THF could be completely degraded by 3.2 mg/L inoculums of P. oleovorans DT4 in 14 h at pH 7.2 and 30℃ , with the cells concentration increasing to 188. 6 mg/L. After the complete consumption of THF, no TOC could be detected but IC reached the stable value of about 46 mg/L, with pH decreasing to 6. 54, which indicated that the substance was totally mineralized by P. oleovorans DT4. The optimum conditions for THF biodegradation in shaking flasks were pH 7.5 and temperature 37℃ , respectively. Results from the oxygen control experiments revealed that the oxygen supply by shaking was the satisfactory growth condition. Additionally, as the important elements for DT4, Mg2+ and Ca2+ at concentrations of 0. 80 mmol/L and 0. 20 mmol/L, respectively, were

  3. Locally homogenized and de-noised vector fields for cardiac fiber tracking in DT-MRI images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhbardeh, Alireza; Vadakkumpadan, Fijoy; Bayer, Jason; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2009-02-01

    In this study we develop a methodology to accurately extract and visualize cardiac microstructure from experimental Diffusion Tensor (DT) data. First, a test model was constructed using an image-based model generation technique on Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI) data. These images were derived from a dataset having 122x122x500 um3 voxel resolution. De-noising and image enhancement was applied to this high-resolution dataset to clearly define anatomical boundaries within the images. The myocardial tissue was segmented from structural images using edge detection, region growing, and level set thresholding. The primary eigenvector of the diffusion tensor for each voxel, which represents the longitudinal direction of the fiber, was calculated to generate a vector field. Then an advanced locally regularizing nonlinear anisotropic filter, termed Perona-Malik (PEM), was used to regularize this vector field to eliminate imaging artifacts inherent to DT-MRI from volume averaging of the tissue with the surrounding medium. Finally, the vector field was streamlined to visualize fibers within the segmented myocardial tissue to compare the results with unfiltered data. With this technique, we were able to recover locally regularized (homogenized) fibers with a high accuracy by applying the PEM regularization technique, particularly on anatomical surfaces where imaging artifacts were most apparent. This approach not only aides in the visualization of noisy complex 3D vector fields obtained from DT-MRI, but also eliminates volume averaging artifacts to provide a realistic cardiac microstructure for use in electrophysiological modeling studies.

  4. PREDICTIVE MODEL FOR SURVIVAL AND GROWTH OF SALMONELLA TYPHIMURIUM DT104 ON CHICKEN SKIN DURING TEMPERATURE ABUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    To better predict risk of Salmonella infection from chicken subjected to temperature abuse, a study was undertaken to develop a predictive model for survival and growth of Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 on chicken skin with native micro flora. For model development, chicken skin portions were inocula...

  5. Robust Hand Motion Tracking through Data Fusion of 5DT Data Glove and Nimble VR Kinect Camera Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkenbout, E.A.; De Winter, J.C.F.; Breedveld, P.

    2015-01-01

    Vision based interfaces for human computer interaction have gained increasing attention over the past decade. This study presents a data fusion approach of the Nimble VR vision based system, using the Kinect camera, with the contact based 5DT Data Glove. Data fusion was achieved through a Kalman fil

  6. Registration of DT99-16864 soybean germplasm line with moderate resistance to charcoal rot [Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charcoal rot, caused by Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goidanich, is a disease that is a world-wide problem in soybean production for which no highly resistant cultivars are currently available. Soybean germplasm line DT99-16864, a maturity group V line, was developed by the U.S. Department of Ag...

  7. Calculations to support JET neutron yield calibration: Modelling of neutron emission from a compact DT neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čufar, Aljaž; Batistoni, Paola; Conroy, Sean; Ghani, Zamir; Lengar, Igor; Milocco, Alberto; Packer, Lee; Pillon, Mario; Popovichev, Sergey; Snoj, Luka

    2017-03-01

    At the Joint European Torus (JET) the ex-vessel fission chambers and in-vessel activation detectors are used as the neutron production rate and neutron yield monitors respectively. In order to ensure that these detectors produce accurate measurements they need to be experimentally calibrated. A new calibration of neutron detectors to 14 MeV neutrons, resulting from deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas, is planned at JET using a compact accelerator based neutron generator (NG) in which a D/T beam impinges on a solid target containing T/D, producing neutrons by DT fusion reactions. This paper presents the analysis that was performed to model the neutron source characteristics in terms of energy spectrum, angle-energy distribution and the effect of the neutron generator geometry. Different codes capable of simulating the accelerator based DT neutron sources are compared and sensitivities to uncertainties in the generator's internal structure analysed. The analysis was performed to support preparation to the experimental measurements performed to characterize the NG as a calibration source. Further extensive neutronics analyses, performed with this model of the NG, will be needed to support the neutron calibration experiments and take into account various differences between the calibration experiment and experiments using the plasma as a source of neutrons.

  8. Robust Hand Motion Tracking through Data Fusion of 5DT Data Glove and Nimble VR Kinect Camera Measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arkenbout, E.A.; De Winter, J.C.F.; Breedveld, P.

    2015-01-01

    Vision based interfaces for human computer interaction have gained increasing attention over the past decade. This study presents a data fusion approach of the Nimble VR vision based system, using the Kinect camera, with the contact based 5DT Data Glove. Data fusion was achieved through a Kalman

  9. Effect of lidocaine and quinidine on steady-state characteristics and recovery kinetics of (dV/dt)max in guinea pig ventricular myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C M; Gettes, L S; Katzung, B G

    1975-07-01

    We studied the effects of quinidine and lidocaine on the steady-state relationship between membrane potential and the maximum rate of rise of the action potential, (dV/dt)max, and on the recovery kinetics of (dV/dt)max in guinea pig papillary muscles. The steady-state relationships were determined in fibers stimulated at 0.2/sec and depolarized with KCl. Recovery kinetics were determined at various resting membrane potentials by assessing (dV/dt)max in progressively earlier premature action potentials. Lidocaine caused a dose-dependent decrease in (dV/dt)max, shifted the curve defining the steady-state relationship along the voltage axis in the direction of more negative potentials, and slowed the recovery kinetics of (dV/dt)max. Quinidine caused a dose-dependent decrease in (dV/dt)max but did not alter the shape of the curves defining either the steady-state relationship or the recovery kinetics of (dV/dt)max. Both drugs depressed membrane responsiveness as determined in premature action potentials originating from incompletely repolarized fibers. Our study indicates that the mechanisms whereby quinidine and lidocaine influence (dV/dt)max are different. It is possible that this difference may underlie some of the differences in the clinical effects of these two drugs.

  10. Identification of novel Salmonella enterica Serovar Thyphimurium DT104-specific prophage and nonprophage chromosomal sequences among serovar Thyphimurium isolates by genomic subtractive hybridization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, A.P.H.M.; Abee, T.; Zwietering, M.H.; Aarts, H.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Genomic subtractive hybridization was performed between Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2 and DT104 to search for novel Salmonella serovar Typhimurium DT104-specific sequences. The subtraction resulted mainly in the isolation of DNA fragments with sequence similarity to phages. Two fragmen

  11. Study on the impact of pair production interaction on D-T controllable neutron density logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Huawei; Zhang, Li; Hou, Boran

    2016-05-01

    This paper considers the effect of pair production on the precision of D-T controllable neutron source density logging. Firstly, the principle of the traditional density logging and pulsed neutron density logging are analyzed and then gamma ray cross sections as a function of energy for various minerals are compared. In addition, the advantageous areas of Compton scattering and pair production interactions on high-energy gamma ray pulse height spectrum and the errors of a controllable source density measurement are studied using a Monte Carlo simulation method. The results indicate that density logging mainly utilizes the Compton scattering of gamma rays, while the attenuation of neutron induced gamma rays and the precision of neutron gamma density measurements are affected by pair production interactions, particularly in the gamma rays with energy higher than 2MeV. By selecting 0.2-2MeV energy range and performing proper lithology correction, the effect of pair production can be eliminated effectively and the density measurement error can be rendered close to the precision of chemical source density logging.

  12. An Excess of Mid-Infrared Emission from the Type Iax SN 2014dt

    CERN Document Server

    Fox, Ori D; Kasliwal, Mansi; Andrews, Jennifer; Bally, John; Bond, Howard E; Boyer, Martha L; Gehrz, R D; Helou, George; Hsiao, E Y; Masci, Frank J; Parthasarathy, M; Smith, Nathan; Tinyanont, Samaporn; Van Dyk, Schuyler D

    2015-01-01

    Supernovae Type Iax (SNe Iax) are less energetic and less luminous than typical thermonuclear explosions. A suggested explanation for the observed characteristics of this subclass is a binary progenitor system consisting of a CO white dwarf primary accreting from a helium star companion. A single-degenerate explosion channel might be expected to result in a dense circumstellar medium (CSM), although no evidence for such a CSM has yet been observed for this subclass. Here we present recent Spitzer observations of the SN Iax 2014dt obtained by the SPIRITS program nearly one year post-explosion that reveal a strong mid-IR excess over the expected fluxes of more normal SNe Ia. This excess is consistent with 1E-5 M_solar of newly formed dust, which would be the first time that newly formed dust has been observed to form in a normal Type Ia. The excess, however, is also consistent with a dusty CSM that was likely formed in pre-explosion mass-loss, thereby suggesting a single degenerate progenitor system. Compared t...

  13. Evaluation of the chicken transcriptome by SAGE of B cells and the DT40 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soeldenwagner Manuel

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The understanding of whole genome sequences in higher eukaryotes depends to a large degree on the reliable definition of transcription units including exon/intron structures, translated open reading frames (ORFs and flanking untranslated regions. The best currently available chicken transcript catalog is the Ensembl build based on the mappings of a relatively small number of full length cDNAs and ESTs to the genome as well as genome sequence derived in silico gene predictions. Results We use Long Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (LongSAGE in bursal lymphocytes and the DT40 cell line to verify the quality and completeness of the annotated transcripts. 53.6% of the more than 38,000 unique SAGE tags (unitags match to full length bursal cDNAs, the Ensembl transcript build or the genome sequence. The majority of all matching unitags show single matches to the genome, but no matches to the genome derived Ensembl transcript build. Nevertheless, most of these tags map close to the 3' boundaries of annotated Ensembl transcripts. Conclusions These results suggests that rather few genes are missing in the current Ensembl chicken transcript build, but that the 3' ends of many transcripts may not have been accurately predicted. The tags with no match in the transcript sequences can now be used to improve gene predictions, pinpoint the genomic location of entirely missed transcripts and optimize the accuracy of gene finder software.

  14. Impact of flows on ion temperatures inferred from neutron spectra in asymmetrically driven OMEGA DT implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatu Johnson, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Seguin, F. H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Aappelbe, B.; Chittenden, J.; Walsh, C.; Knauer, J. P.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Forrest, C.; Marshall, F.; Michel, T.; Stoeckl, C.; Sangster, T. C.; Zylstra, A.

    2016-10-01

    Ion temperatures (Tion) in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments have traditionally been inferred from the broadening of primary neutron spectra. Directional motion (flow) of the fuel at burn, expected to arise due to asymmetries imposed by engineering features (such as stalks, fill tubes, tents, or capsule imperfections) or drive non-uniformity, also impacts broadening and may lead to artificially inflated ``Tion'' values. Flow due to low-mode asymmetries is expected to give rise to line-of-sight variations in measured Tion, as observed in OMEGA cryogenic DT implosions but not in similar experiments at the NIF. In this presentation we report on an OMEGA experiment with intentionally asymmetric drive, designed to test the ability to accurately predict and measure line-of-sight differences in apparent Tion due to low-mode asymmetry-seeded flows. The results provide insight into the complexity of hot-spot dynamics, which is a problem that must be mastered to achieve ICF ignition. This work was supported in part by LLE, the U.S. DoE (NNSA, NLUF) and LLNL.

  15. D-T burning plasma characteristics in an A=2 tokamak reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石秉仁

    2005-01-01

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) burning plasma characteristic in an aspect ratio A=2 tokamak reactor is studied based on a simple equilibrium configuration, the Soloviev-type configuration. Operation limits for the Troyon beta value and for the Greenwald density value as well as for the ITER H-mode confinement scaling are used as the benchmark.It is found that in addition to suitable elongation, large triangularity has advantage for arriving at high beta value and obtaining high fusion power output. Compared to the present ITER design, the A=2 system can have very good merit for the avoidance of disruptions by setting rather high edge q value while keeping relatively large total toroidal current.The main disadvantage of decreasing the aspect ratio is due to the loss of more useful space in the inward region that leads to the decrease of toroidal magnetic field in the plasma region, then worsening the fusion merit. Our analysis and calculation also present a trade-off in this respect. Due to simple equilibrium configuration assumed, some other important issues such as the bootstrap current alignment cannot be optimized. However, the present analysis can offer an insight into the advantages of the medium aspect ratio reactor system that is a blank in present-day tokamak study.

  16. Aortic valve and ascending aortic root modeling from 3D and 3D+t CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grbic, Saša; Ionasec, Razvan I.; Zäuner, Dominik; Zheng, Yefeng; Georgescu, Bogdan; Comaniciu, Dorin

    2010-02-01

    Aortic valve disorders are the most frequent form of valvular heart disorders (VHD) affecting nearly 3% of the global population. A large fraction among them are aortic root diseases, such as aortic root aneurysm, often requiring surgical procedures (valve-sparing) as a treatment. Visual non-invasive assessment techniques could assist during pre-selection of adequate patients, planning procedures and afterward evaluation of the same. However state of the art approaches try to model a rather short part of the aortic root, insufficient to assist the physician during intervention planning. In this paper we propose a novel approach for morphological and functional quantification of both the aortic valve and the ascending aortic root. A novel physiological shape model is introduced, consisting of the aortic valve root, leaflets and the ascending aortic root. The model parameters are hierarchically estimated using robust and fast learning-based methods. Experiments performed on 63 CT sequences (630 Volumes) and 20 single phase CT volumes demonstrated an accuracy of 1.45mm and an performance of 30 seconds (3D+t) for this approach. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time a complete model of the aortic valve (including leaflets) and the ascending aortic root, estimated from CT, has been proposed.

  17. Games Puzzle Hijaiyah Elektronik Interaktif Berbasis Mikrokontroler DT-AVR Maxiduino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Mulyana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Puzzle hijaiyah Elektronik Interaktif adalah games edukasi kombinasi dari piranti lunak dan perangkat keras untuk membantu sarana pembelajaran anak-anak usia dini dalam pengenalan huruf-huruf hijaiyah Al-Quran. Pada saat penyusunan puzzle memiliki indikator berupa suara dan gambar animasi bergerak ketika penyusunan puzzle benar yang ditampilkan pada layar smartphone android. Pembuatan puzzle hijaiyah elektronik ini memanfaatkan alat-alat elektronik antara lain untuk membaca perubahan high atau low menggunakan sensor cahaya photodioda, untuk mengontrol menyala LED menggunakan IC demultiplexer, gerbang OR digunakan untuk menggabungkan keluaran dari setiap sensor dan memanfaatkan keluaran logika low, mikrokontroler DT-AVR Maxiduino sebagai pengontrol kerja komponen lain dan pengolah data yang diterima dari setiap sensor, Basic4Android sebagai editor pembuatan interface pada smartphone android yang digunakan untuk mengolah data yang dikirim dari mikrokontroler, bluetooth HC-06 sebagai alat komunikasi antara mikrokontroler dengan smartphone android. Pengujian alat ini berfungsi 100% dalam pengiriman dan penerimaan data melalui komunikasi bluetooth, alat ini berhasil dan dapat digunakan. Diharapkan dengan adanya alat ini dapat membuat anak-anak lebih tertarik lagi untuk belajar sehingga untuk belajar Al- quran dapat lebih menarik lagi dan dapat meningkatkan kemampuan berpikir dan membuat anak belajar berkonsentrasi. 

  18. Absolute calibration of TFTR neutron detectors for D-T plasma operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jassby, D.L.; Johnson, L.C.; Roquemore, A.L.; Strachan, J.D.; Johnson, D.W.; Medley, S.S.; Young, K.M. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-03-01

    The two most sensitive TFTR fission-chamber detectors were absolutely calibrated in situ by a D-T neutron generator ({approximately}5 {times} 10{sup 7} n/s) rotated once around the torus in each direction, with data taken at about 45 positions. The combined uncertainty for determining fusion neutron rates, including the uncertainty in the total neutron generator output ({plus_minus}9%), counting statistics, the effect of coil coolant, detector stability, cross-calibration to the current mode or log Campbell mode and to other fission chambers, and plasma position variation, is about {plus_minus}13%. The NE-451 (ZnS) scintillators and {sup 4}He proportional counters that view the plasma in up to 10 collimated sightlines were calibrated by scanning. the neutron generator radially and toroidally in the horizontal midplane across the flight tubes of 7 cm diameter. Spatial integration of the detector responses using the calibrated signal per unit chord-integrated neutron emission gives the global neutron source strength with an overall uncertainty of {plus_minus}14% for the scintillators and {plus_minus}15% for the {sup 4}He counters.

  19. Reactor for boron fusion with picosecond ultrahigh power laser pulses and ultrahigh magnetic field trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Miley, G H; Kirchhoff, G

    2015-01-01

    Compared with the deuterium tritium (DT) fusion, the environmentally clean fusion of protons with 11B is extremely difficult. When instead of nanosecond laser pulses for thermal-ablating driven ignition, picosecond pulses are used, a drastic change by nonlinearity results in ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks. This radically changes to economic boron fusion by a measured new avalanche ignition.

  20. MSLoc-DT: a new method for predicting the protein subcellular location of multispecies based on decision templates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shao-Wu; Liu, Yan-Fang; Yu, Yong; Zhang, Ting-He; Fan, Xiao-Nan

    2014-03-15

    Revealing the subcellular location of newly discovered protein sequences can bring insight to their function and guide research at the cellular level. The rapidly increasing number of sequences entering the genome databanks has called for the development of automated analysis methods. Currently, most existing methods used to predict protein subcellular locations cover only one, or a very limited number of species. Therefore, it is necessary to develop reliable and effective computational approaches to further improve the performance of protein subcellular prediction and, at the same time, cover more species. The current study reports the development of a novel predictor called MSLoc-DT to predict the protein subcellular locations of human, animal, plant, bacteria, virus, fungi, and archaea by introducing a novel feature extraction approach termed Amino Acid Index Distribution (AAID) and then fusing gene ontology information, sequential evolutionary information, and sequence statistical information through four different modes of pseudo amino acid composition (PseAAC) with a decision template rule. Using the jackknife test, MSLoc-DT can achieve 86.5, 98.3, 90.3, 98.5, 95.9, 98.1, and 99.3% overall accuracy for human, animal, plant, bacteria, virus, fungi, and archaea, respectively, on seven stringent benchmark datasets. Compared with other predictors (e.g., Gpos-PLoc, Gneg-PLoc, Virus-PLoc, Plant-PLoc, Plant-mPLoc, ProLoc-Go, Hum-PLoc, GOASVM) on the gram-positive, gram-negative, virus, plant, eukaryotic, and human datasets, the new MSLoc-DT predictor is much more effective and robust. Although the MSLoc-DT predictor is designed to predict the single location of proteins, our method can be extended to multiple locations of proteins by introducing multilabel machine learning approaches, such as the support vector machine and deep learning, as substitutes for the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) method. As a user-friendly web server, MSLoc-DT is freely accessible at http://bioinfo.ibp.ac.cn/MSLOC_DT/index.html.

  1. Preliminary identification of Streptomyces sp. DT-08 producing a novel lipopeptide antibiotic%新型脂肽类抗生素产生菌Streptomyces sp.DT-08的早期鉴别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爽; 杨烨; 石欣欣; 王泽根; 顾觉奋; 王旻

    2009-01-01

    从南京玄武湖边土壤中分离到一株次级代谢产物抗耐甲氧西林金黄色葡萄球菌(MRSA)的放线菌DT-08,该菌株与玫瑰孢链霉菌NRRL 11379十分相似,可合成达托霉素.从该菌株的培养特征、菌丝特征、生理生化特征、TLC行为、16SrDNA序列分析5个方面对该菌株进行早期鉴别,其16SrDNA序列与Streptomyces parvus 3151相似性为99%,命名为Streptomyces sp.DT-08.

  2. Detection of PIGO-deficient cells using proaerolysin: a valuable tool to investigate mechanisms of mutagenesis in the DT40 cell system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Nakamura

    Full Text Available While isogenic DT40 cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways are a great tool to understand the DNA damage response to genotoxic agents by a comparison of cell toxicity in mutants and parental DT40 cells, no convenient mutation assay for mutagens currently exists for this reverse-genetic system. Here we establish a proaerolysin (PA selection-based mutation assay in DT40 cells to identify glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI-anchor deficient cells. Using PA, we detected an increase in the number of PA-resistant DT40 cells exposed to MMS for 24 hours followed by a 5-day period of phenotype expression. GPI anchor synthesis is catalyzed by a series of phosphatidylinositol glycan complementation groups (PIGs. The PIG-O gene is on the sex chromosome (Chromosome Z in chicken cells and is critical for GPI anchor synthesis at the intermediate step. Among all the mutations detected in the sequence levels observed in DT40 cells exposed to MMS at 100 µM, we identified that ∼55% of the mutations are located at A:T sites with a high frequency of A to T transversion mutations. In contrast, we observed no transition mutations out of 18 mutations. This novel assay for DT40 cells provides a valuable tool to investigate the mode of action of mutations caused by reactive agents using a series of isogenic mutant DT40 cells.

  3. Synergistic Antibacterial Effect of Silver Nanoparticles Combined with Ineffective Antibiotics on Drug Resistant Salmonella typhimurium DT104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShan, Danielle; Zhang, Ying; Deng, Hua; Ray, Paresh C; Yu, Hongtao

    2015-01-01

    Synergistic antibacterial activity of combined silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with tetracycline (polykeptide), neomycin (aminoglycoside), and penicillin (β-lactam) was tested against the multidrug resistant bacterium Salmonella typhimurium DT104. Dose-dependent inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium DT104 growth is observed for tetracycline-AgNPs and neomycin-AgNPs combination with IC50 of 0.07 μg/mL and 0.43 μg/mL, respectively. There is no inhibition by the penicillin-AgNPs combination. These results suggest that the combination of the ineffective tetracycline or neomycin with AgNPs effectively inhibits the growth of this bacterium. The synergistic antibacterial effect is likely due to enhanced bacterial binding by AgNPs assisted by tetracycline or neomycin, but not by penicillin.

  4. Characterization of an unusual Salmonella phage type DT7a and report of a foodborne outbreak of salmonellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettini, A A; Saccardin, C; Ramon, E; Longo, A; Cortini, E; Dalla Pozza, M C; Barco, L; Guerra, B; Luzzi, I; Ricci, A

    2014-10-17

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 4,[5],12,i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium and its occurrence has markedly increased in several European countries in the last ten years. In June 2011, an outbreak of Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:- was reported among attendees of a wedding reception in the North-East of Italy. The source of this outbreak was identified as a cooked pork product served during the wedding reception. All Salmonella isolates from humans and the contaminated pork products were identified as Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:- and phage typed as DT7a. Afterwards, the farm where the pigs were raised was identified and sampled, and Salmonella Typhimurium was isolated from swine fecal samples. Despite the difference in serovar, these Salmonella Typhimurium isolates were also phage typed as DT7a. In the present study, Salmonella isolates from animals, humans and pork products during the outbreak investigation were subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), Multiple-Locus Variable number tandem repeats Analysis (MLVA), and resistance patterns, aiming to identify the most suitable subtyping methods to characterize isolates associated with this outbreak. In addition, a collection of epidemiologically unrelated strains of Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:- and Salmonella Typhimurium sharing the same phage type (DT7a) was similarly characterized in order to investigate their genetic relationship. This study provides a first snapshot of a rare Salmonella phage type, DT7a, associated with both Salmonella 4,[5],12,i:- and Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, the study demonstrated that in this specific context MLVA could be a reliable tool to support outbreak investigations as well as to assess the genetic relatedness among Salmonella isolates.

  5. Using HT and DT gamma rays to diagnose mix in Omega capsule implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, M. J.; Herrmann, H. W.; Kim, Y. H.; McEvoy, A. M.; Zylstra, A.; Hammel, B. A.; Sepke, S. M.; Leatherland, A.; Gales, S.

    2016-05-01

    Experimental evidence [1] indicates that shell material can be driven into the core of Omega capsule implosions on the same time scale as the initial convergent shock. It has been hypothesized that shock-generated temperatures at the fuel/shell interface in thin exploding pusher capsules diffusively drives shell material into the gas core between the time of shock passage and bang time. We propose a method to temporally resolve and observe the evolution of shell material into the capsule core as a function of fuel/shell interface temperature (which can be varied by varying the capsule shell thickness). Our proposed method uses a CD plastic capsule filled with 50/50 HT gas and diagnosed using gas Cherenkov detection (GCD) to temporally resolve both the HT “clean” and DT “mix” gamma ray burn histories. Simulations using Hydra [2] for an Omega CD-lined capsule with a sub-micron layer of the inside surface of the shell pre-mixed into a fraction of the gas region produce gamma reaction history profiles that are sensitive to the depth to which this material is mixed. An experiment to observe these differences as a function of capsule shell thickness is proposed to determine if interface mixing is consistent with thermal diffusion λii∼T2/Z2ρ at the gas/shell interface. Since hydrodynamic mixing from shell perturbations, such as the mounting stalk and glue, could complicate these types of capsule-averaged temporal measurements, simulations including their effects also have been performed showing minimal perturbation of the hot spot geometry.

  6. Measurement of reaction cross sections of {sup 129}I induced by DT neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, Daisuke; Murata, Isao; Takahashi, Akito [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    The cross sections were measured for the {sup 129}I(n,2n){sup 128}I and {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130}I reactions by DT neutrons, at OKTAVIAN facility of Osaka University, Japan. The foil activation method was used in the measurement. The sample was a sealed source of {sup 129}I, which was covered with a Cd foil. The irradiations were performed for 75 minutes to obtain the cross section of reaction producing {sup 128}I (T{sub 1/2}=24.99m) and 22 hours for the {sup 130}I (T{sub 1/2}=12.36h), respectively. The gamma-rays emitted from the irradiated sample were measured with a high purity Ge detector. The measured cross sections of {sup 129}I(n,2n){sup 128}I and {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130}I reactions were 0.92{+-}0.11 barn and 0.013{+-}0.002 barn, respectively. For the {sup 129}I(n,2n){sup 128}I reaction, the evaluation of JENDL-3.2 overestimates cross section about 60% to the experimental result. However, especially for the {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}) reaction, the measured cross section may include the contribution from the neutrons in MeV region as well as epithermal ones. Also, the obtained cross section of the {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130}I reaction was evaluated as an effective production cross section of {sup 130}I including {sup 129}I(n,{gamma}){sup 130m}I reaction. In order to remove the contribution from the epithermal and MeV region neutrons. A new method was proposed for the measurement of (n,{gamma}) reaction cross section. (author)

  7. Investigation and management of an outbreak of Salmonella Typhimurium DT8 associated with duck eggs, Ireland 2009 to 2011.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Garvey, P

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella Typhimurium DT8 was a very rare cause of human illness in Ireland between 2000 and 2008, with only four human isolates from three patients being identified. Over a 19-month period between August 2009 and February 2011, 34 confirmed cases and one probable case of Salmonella Typhimurium DT8 were detected, all of which had an MLVA pattern 2-10-NA-12-212 or a closely related pattern. The epidemiological investigations strongly supported a linkbetween illness and exposure to duck eggs. Moreover, S. Typhimurium with an MLVA pattern indistinguishable (or closely related) to the isolates from human cases, was identified in 22 commercial and backyard duck flocks, twelve of which were linked with known human cases. A range of control measures were taken at farm level, and advice was provided to consumers on the hygienic handling and cooking of duck eggs. Although no definitive link was established with a concurrent duck egg-related outbreak of S. Typhimurium DT8 in the United Kingdom, it seems likely that the two events were related. It may be appropriate for other countries with a tradition of consuming duck eggs to consider the need for measures to reduce the risk of similar outbreaks.

  8. Bead milling for lipid recovery from thraustochytrid cells and selective hydrolysis of Schizochytrium DT3 oil using lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byreddy, Avinesh R; Barrow, Colin J; Puri, Munish

    2016-01-01

    Marine microalgae present a renewable alternative source for sustainable production of omega-3 fatty acids, as compared to conventional sources such as krill oil and fish oil. In this study, we optimised a method for lipid extraction from marine thraustochytrids using a bead mill and enzymatic concentration of omega-3 fatty acids from the thraustochytrid oil. The optimised lipid extraction conditions were, bead size 0.4-0.6μm, 4500rpm, 4min of processing time at 5g biomass concentration. The maximum lipid yield (% dry weight basis) achieved at optimum conditions were 40.5% for Schizochytrium sp. S31 (ATCC) and 49.4% for Schizochytrium sp. DT3 (in-house isolate). DT3 oil contained 39.8% docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as a percentage of lipid, a higher DHA percentage than S31. Partial hydrolysis of DT3 oil using Candida rugosa lipase was performed to enrich omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the glyceride portion. Total omega-3 fatty acid content was increased to 88.7%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Response of the first wetted wall of an IFE reactor chamber to the energy release from a direct-drive DT capsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Stanislav A.; Basko, Mikhail M.; Orlov, Yurii N.; Suslin, Victor M.

    2012-07-01

    Radiation hydrodynamics 1D simulations were performed with two concurrent codes, DEIRA and RAMPHY. The DEIRA code was used for DT capsule implosion and burn, and the RAMPHY code was used for computation of X-ray and fast ions deposition in the first wall liquid film of the reactor chamber. The simulations were run for 740 MJ direct drive DT capsule and Pb thin liquid wall reactor chamber of 10 m diameter. Temporal profiles for DT capsule leaking power of X-rays, neutrons and fast 4He ions were obtained and spatial profiles of the liquid film flow parameter were computed and analyzed.

  10. Use of multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeats analysis (MLVA) typing to characterize Salmonella Typhimurium DT41 broiler breeder infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litrup, E.; Christensen, H.; Nordentoft, Steen

    2010-01-01

    of 102 isolates of Salm. Typhimurium phage type DT41 were MLVA typed. MLVA typing showed 4, 12, 25, 9 and 8 different alleles at the five MLVA loci 9, 5, 6, 10 and 3, respectively. A dendrogram based on MLVA types was constructed, and one large group, nine minor groups and 29 more unrelated MLVA types....... Major diversity was demonstrated for DT41 MLVA types. A persisting problem with infection of broiler breeder flocks with DT41 was not reflected in broiler flocks originating from these flocks....

  11. Theoretical Study of Pulsed-Laser-Induced Resonant Desorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-11-01

    laser the energy flow in the steady state is constant in time . Per unit of time it is given by,2 d- - & L Ire CW1 ( P () Pe ) " (4.4) dt r2 + 262 CW...1 - 2Pe(eq)] 2 + a cw (6.6) which is constant in time . The energy flow into the substrate is given by, dE2 cw A 2- 0 1 - 2Pe(-)1. (6.7) t F Jq, 14

  12. Molecular characterization of Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ and Salmonella Heidelberg from poultry and retail chicken meat in Colombia by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmonella Paratyphi B dT+ variant (also termed Salmonella Java) and Salmonella Heidelberg are human pathogens frequently isolated from poultry. As a step towards implementing the Colombian Integrated Program for Antimicrobial Resistant Surveillance (COIPARS), this study characterized molecular patt...

  13. Competing fatigue mechanisms in Nickel-base superalloy Rene 88DT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Paul N.

    Nickel base superalloys exhibit superior high temperature mechanical properties required for aircraft engine components. It has been known that the processing of these alloys by the powder metallurgy route introduces inclusions inside the material. The presence of such inclusions often leads to competing failure modes in fatigue that is described by a step-wise or two distinct S-N curves involving both the surface and internally-initiated cracks, resulting in large uncertainties of fatigue life. A clear understanding of such behavior is yet to be established. The principal objective of this research is to examine the effect of inclusions on the extent of fatigue failure competition from surface and internal initiators at two different specimen test volumes. Experimental fatigue testing has been performed to explore how the presence of inclusions affects the competing fatigue failure modes. In addition, how the competing failure modes will behave with changes in the specimen size was also studied. Two groups of material each with two different specimen sizes were used in this study. It has been shown that the two crack initiation mechanisms occurred in the small unseeded Rene 88DT specimens tested at 650ºC over the stress range tested. Additionally, the fatigue lives were reduced with increase in specimen volume. All fatigue failures in seeded material occurred due to crack initiations from the seeded inclusions. In the fatigue life of seeded material, two competing and separate S-N curves were found in small test volume, whereas, in the large test volume, the regions were separated by a "step" in S-N curve. It has been found that the largest inclusion size observed in metallographic surfaces was smaller than the size determined from the fatigue failure origin. An analysis method based on extreme value statistics developed by Murakami was used to predict the largest size of inclusion in the test volume. The results of this study clearly show that competition for

  14. Effect of quantum correction on nonlinear thermal wave of electrons driven by laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafari, F.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2016-08-01

    In thermal interaction of laser pulse with a deuterium-tritium (DT) plane, the thermal waves of electrons are generated instantly. Since the thermal conductivity of electron is a nonlinear function of temperature, a nonlinear heat conduction equation is used to investigate the propagation of waves in solid DT. This paper presents a self-similar analytic solution for the nonlinear heat conduction equation in a planar geometry. The thickness of the target material is finite in numerical computation, and it is assumed that the laser energy is deposited at a finite initial thickness at the initial time which results in a finite temperature for electrons at initial time. Since the required temperature range for solid DT ignition is higher than the critical temperature which equals 35.9 eV, the effects of quantum correction in thermal conductivity should be considered. This letter investigates the effects of quantum correction on characteristic features of nonlinear thermal wave, including temperature, penetration depth, velocity, heat flux, and heating and cooling domains. Although this effect increases electron temperature and thermal flux, penetration depth and propagation velocity are smaller. This effect is also applied to re-evaluate the side-on laser ignition of uncompressed DT.

  15. Review on Recent Developments in Laser Driven Inertial Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghoranneviss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of the laser in 1960 hopes were based on using its very high energy concentration within very short pulses of time and very small volumes for energy generation from nuclear fusion as “Inertial Fusion Energy” (IFE, parallel to the efforts to produce energy from “Magnetic Confinement Fusion” (MCF, by burning deuterium-tritium (DT in high temperature plasmas to helium. Over the years the fusion gain was increased by a number of magnitudes and has reached nearly break-even after numerous difficulties in physics and technology had been solved. After briefly summarizing laser driven IFE, we report how the recently developed lasers with pulses of petawatt power and picosecond duration may open new alternatives for IFE with the goal to possibly ignite solid or low compressed DT fuel thereby creating a simplified reactor scheme. Ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks after irradiation of picosecond (PS laser pulses of around terawatt (TW power in the range of 1020 cm/s2 was discovered by Sauerbrey (1996 as measured by Doppler effect where the laser intensity was up to about 1018 W/cm2. This is several orders of magnitude higher than acceleration by irradiation based on thermal interaction of lasers has produced.

  16. Review of Fusion Systems and Contributing Technologies for SIHS-TD (Examen des Systemes de Fusion et des Technologies d’Appui pour la DT SIHS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-31

    de la DT - SIHS. L’équipe des sous-systèmes de vision de la DT - SIHS planifie le développement à court terme d’un banc d’essai de fusion...references, the researcher systematically added additional keywords to refine the search. In general, this process produced many irrelevant references...development. State of the art fusion processing system architectures are described. The report analyses selected fusion systems based on their ability to

  17. Characterization of environmental chemicals with potential for DNA damage using isogenic DNA repair-deficient chicken DT40 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kimiyo N; Hirota, Kouji; Kono, Koichi; Takeda, Shunichi; Sakamuru, Srilatha; Xia, Menghang; Huang, Ruili; Austin, Christopher P; Witt, Kristine L; Tice, Raymond R

    2011-08-01

    Included among the quantitative high throughput screens (qHTS) conducted in support of the US Tox21 program are those being evaluated for the detection of genotoxic compounds. One such screen is based on the induction of increased cytotoxicity in seven isogenic chicken DT40 cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways compared to the parental DNA repair-proficient cell line. To characterize the utility of this approach for detecting genotoxic compounds and identifying the type(s) of DNA damage induced, we evaluated nine of 42 compounds identified as positive for differential cytotoxicity in qHTS (actinomycin D, adriamycin, alachlor, benzotrichloride, diglycidyl resorcinol ether, lovastatin, melphalan, trans-1,4-dichloro-2-butene, tris(2,3-epoxypropyl)isocyanurate) and one non-cytotoxic genotoxic compound (2-aminothiamine) for (1) clastogenicity in mutant and wild-type cells; (2) the comparative induction of γH2AX positive foci by melphalan; (3) the extent to which a 72-hr exposure duration increased assay sensitivity or specificity; (4) the use of 10 additional DT40 DNA repair-deficient cell lines to better analyze the type(s) of DNA damage induced; and (5) the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the induction of DNA damage. All compounds but lovastatin and 2-aminothiamine were more clastogenic in at least one DNA repair-deficient cell line than the wild-type cells. The differential responses across the various DNA repair-deficient cell lines provided information on the type(s) of DNA damage induced. The results demonstrate the utility of this DT40 screen for detecting genotoxic compounds, for characterizing the nature of the DNA damage, and potentially for analyzing mechanisms of mutagenesis.

  18. Optimization of the Expression of DT386-BR2 Fusion Protein in Escherichia coli using Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Fatemeh; Rabbani, Mohammad; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to determine the best condition for the production of DT386-BR2 fusion protein, an immunotoxin consisting of catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin fused to BR2, a cancer specific cell penetrating peptide, for targeted eradication of cancer cells, in terms of the host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. Materials and Methods: Recombinant pET28a vector containing the codons optimized for the expression of the DT386-BR2 gene was transformed to different strains of Escherichia coli (E. coli BL21 DE3, E. coli Rosetta DE3 and E. coli Rosetta-gami 2 DE3), followed by the induction of expression using 1 mM IPTG. Then, the strain with the highest ability to produce recombinant protein was selected and used to determine the best expression condition using response surface methodology (RSM). Finally, the best culture medium was selected. Results: Densitometry analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of the expressed fusion protein showed that E. coli Rosetta DE3 produced the highest amounts of the recombinant fusion protein when quantified by 1 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (178.07 μg/ml). Results of RSM also showed the best condition for the production of the recombinant fusion protein was induction with 1 mM IPTG for 2 h at 37°C. Finally, it was established that terrific broth could produce higher amounts of the fusion protein when compared to other culture media. Conclusion: In this study, we expressed the recombinant DT386-BR2 fusion protein in large amounts by optimizing the expression host, cultivation condition, and culture medium. This fusion protein will be subjected to purification and evaluation of its cytotoxic effects in future studies.

  19. Regional characterization of longitudinal DT-MRI to study white matter maturation of the early developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Neda; Prastawa, Marcel; Fletcher, P Thomas; Wolff, Jason; Gilmore, John H; Gerig, Guido

    2013-03-01

    The human brain undergoes rapid and dynamic development early in life. Assessment of brain growth patterns relevant to neurological disorders and disease requires a normative population model of growth and variability in order to evaluate deviation from typical development. In this paper, we focus on maturation of brain white matter as shown in diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI), measured by fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), as well as axial and radial diffusivities (AD, RD). We present a novel methodology to model temporal changes of white matter diffusion from longitudinal DT-MRI data taken at discrete time points. Our proposed framework combines nonlinear modeling of trajectories of individual subjects, population analysis, and testing for regional differences in growth pattern. We first perform deformable mapping of longitudinal DT-MRI of healthy infants imaged at birth, 1 year, and 2 years of age, into a common unbiased atlas. An existing template of labeled white matter regions is registered to this atlas to define anatomical regions of interest. Diffusivity properties of these regions, presented over time, serve as input to the longitudinal characterization of changes. We use non-linear mixed effect (NLME) modeling where temporal change is described by the Gompertz function. The Gompertz growth function uses intuitive parameters related to delay, rate of change, and expected asymptotic value; all descriptive measures which can answer clinical questions related to quantitative analysis of growth patterns. Results suggest that our proposed framework provides descriptive and quantitative information on growth trajectories that can be interpreted by clinicians using natural language terms that describe growth. Statistical analysis of regional differences between anatomical regions which are known to mature differently demonstrates the potential of the proposed method for quantitative assessment of brain growth and differences thereof. This will

  20. Continued advancement of laser damage resistant optically functional microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Douglas S.; MacLeod, Bruce D.; Sabatino, Ernest

    2012-11-01

    Micro- and nano-structured optically functional surface textures continue to exhibit higher performance and longer term survivability than thin-film coatings for an increasing number of materials used within high energy laser (HEL) systems. Anti-reflection (AR) microstructures (ARMs) produce a graded refractive index yielding high transmission over wide spectral ranges along with a chemical, mechanical and laser damage resistance inherited from the bulk optic material. In this study, ARMs were fabricated in the relevant HEL materials sapphire, neodymium-doped YAG, fused silica, BK7 glass, and the magnesium aluminate known as SPINEL. Standardized pulsed laser induced damage threshold (LiDT) measurements were made using commercial testing services to directly compare the damage resistance of ARMs-treated optics to uncoated and thin-film-AR-coated (TFARC) optics at wavelengths of 532nm, 694nm, 800nm, 1064nm, and 1538nm. As found with prior work, the LiDT of ARMs etched in fused silica was typically in the range of 35 J/cm2 at a wavelength of 1064nm and a pulse width of 10ns, a level that is comparable to uncoated samples and 3.5 times greater than the level specified by six prominent TFARC providers. The Army Research Laboratory measured the pulsed LiDT at 532nm (10ns) of ARMs in fused silica to be up to 5 times the level of the ion beam sputtered TFARC previously employed in their HEL system, and 2 times higher than a low performance single layer MgF2 TFARC. This result was repeated and expanded using a commercial LiDT testing service for ARMs in two types of fused silica and for Schott N-BK7 glass. An average damage threshold of 26.5 J/cm2 was recorded for the ARMs-treated glass materials, a level 4 times higher than the commercial IBS TFARCs tested.

  1. Validation of the Mean-Timer algorithm for DT Local Reconstruction and muon time measurement, using 2012 data.

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Mean-Timer algorithm is used for the local reconstruction within the CMS Drift Tubes (DT), for muons that appear to be out-of-time (OOT) or lack measured hits in one of the two space projections. Compared to standard linear fit, this method improves the spatial resoluton for OOT muons. It also allows a precise time measurement that can be used to tag OOT muons, in order either to reject them (e.g. as a result of OOT Pile Up) or to select them for exotic physical analyses. The algorithm was initially developed and tuned on simulation. We present here the first performance results obtained on 2012 data.

  2. Estimating the number of undetected multi-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 infected pig herds in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rugbjerg, Helene; Wingstrand, Anne; Hald, Tine;

    2004-01-01

    In Denmark, the detection of multi-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (MRDT104)-infected pig herds relies on the national Salmonella surveillance programme at the farm and slaughterhouse levels of production. With the surveillance sampling protocol and the diagnostic methods currently used...... with MRDT104 from 1 August 2001 till 31 July 2002 (90% CI [63, 228]). In comparison, 33 (32%) infected herds were detected in this period. The predicted proportion of undetected herds varied considerably with herd type. We infer that the proportion of detected MRDT104 infected herds depended...

  3. Svangerskapskomplikasjoner og risikoen for astma blant nordmenn født 1967-1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Nafstad

    2009-10-01

    ødselsår, pluralitet, atopisk sykdom hos mor, utdanningsnivå hos mor og hvor i landet fødselen fant sted.: Undersøkelsespopulasjonen består av levende fødte nordmenn født i perioden 1967-1993(n = 1 548 429. Opplysninger fra Medisinsk fødselsregister (MFR ble koblet med opplysninger fra Rikstrygdeverket om mottatt grunn- og hjelpestønad. Fødselsregisteret inneholder opplysninger om svangerskapskomplikasjoner og sykdommer hos den gravide/fødende mor og Rikstrygdeverkets register inneholder opplysninger og diagnoser over alle nordmenn som har motatt grunn- og hjelpestønad pga. astma i perioden 1967-1996 (n = 5938, 3,9/1000 personer.: Det er mulig at forhold og hendelser i svangerskapet kan påvirke utviklingen av immunog/eller respirasjonssystemet og dermed øke risikoen for å utvikle astma og allergiske lidelser. I denne artikkelen testes hypotesen om hvorvidt svangerskapskomplikasjoner påvirker risikoen for at barn utvikler astma.

  4. Selection and Application of DT-CA-09 Type Carburant and the Experimental Results Analysis%DT-CA-09型增碳剂的选用及实验分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐桂洪; 张行河

    2011-01-01

    使用中频电炉熔炼合成铸铁,必须采用增碳技术,以保证铁液中碳含量在工艺要求的范围内.在中频电炉熔炼新工艺中,根据增碳剂分类及增碳原理,结合电炉熔炼对增碳剂的要求,选用了国产DT-CA-09型增碳剂.实验证明,所选用增碳剂可满足目前中频电炉熔炼工艺需求.%Melting synthetic cast iron with the medium frequency furnace it is necessary to adopt carburet ion technology to ensure that carbon content of liquid iron is meet the limits of particular foundry technology. According to the classification of carburant and principle of carburetion, combined with the requirements of carburant in electric furnace melting, the domestic DT-CA-09 type carburant was chosen in the new technology of the medium frequency electric furnace melting, and experiments proved that the selected carburant can meet the demands of current electric furnace melting technology.

  5. Lasers technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The Lasers Technology Program of IPEN is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of optical materials and new technologies, as well to laser applications in several areas: Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. The Program is basically divided into two main areas: Material and Laser Development and Laser Applications.

  6. An evaluation on the design of beam shaping assembly based on the D-T reaction for BNCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnal, M.; Liamsuwan, T.; Onjun, T.

    2015-05-01

    Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) can be achieved by using a compact neutron generator such as a compact D-T neutron source, in which neutron energy must be in the epithermal energy range with sufficient flux. For these requirements, a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) is needed. In this paper, three BSA designs based on the D-T reaction for BNCT are discussed. It is found that the BSA configuration designed by Rasouli et al. satisfies all of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) criteria. It consists of 14 cm uranium as multiplier, 23 cm TiF3 and 36 cm Fluental as moderator, 4 cm Fe as fast neutron filter, 1 mm Li as thermal neutron filter, 2.6 cm Bi as gamma ray filter, and Pb as collimator and reflector. It is also found that use of specific filters is important for removing the fast and thermal neutrons and gamma contamination. Moreover, an appropriate neutron source plays a key role in providing a proper epithermal flux.

  7. Adjusting mobility scales of ion mobility spectrometers using 2,6-DtBP as a reference compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitanen, A-K; Mauriala, T; Mattila, T; Adamov, A; Pedersen, C S; Mäkelä, J M; Marjamäki, M; Sysoev, A; Keskinen, J; Kotiaho, T

    2008-09-15

    Performance of several time-of-flight (TOF) type ion mobility spectrometers (IMS) was compared in a joint measurement campaign and their mobility scales were adjusted based on the measurements. A standard reference compound 2,6-di-tert butylpyridine (2,6-DtBP) was used to create a single peak ion mobility distribution with a known mobility value. The effective length of the drift tube of each device, considered here as an instrument constant, was determined based on the measurements. Sequentially, two multi-peaked test compounds, DMMP and DIMP, were used to verify the performance of the adjustment procedure in a wider mobility scale. By determining the effective drift tube lengths using 2,6-DtBP, agreement between the devices was achieved. The determination of effective drift tube lengths according to standard reference compound was found to be a good method for instrument inter-comparison. The comparison procedure, its benefits and shortcomings as well as dependency on accuracy of literature value are discussed along with the results.

  8. Improvement of copper vapor laser characteristics by zinc additive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shpenik, Yurij; Kelman, Volodymyr; Zhmenyak, Yurij

    2008-10-01

    The influence of Zn atom additive on ``pure'' copper vapor laser output characteristics was studied. Two-section discharge tube (DT) with an external heated Zn reservoir placed at the center between ceramic sections with Cu pieces was elaborated. The pulsed periodical longitudinal discharge was excited in the DT with Cu-Zn-Ne admixture by a traditional circuit using thyratron generator with resonant overcharge of a storage capacitor. Experimental investigations established that the width, energy and power of laser pulses increased when Zn atoms at appropriate temperature ˜ 500 ^oC of zinc containing reservoir diffuse into discharge. The registered increasing of pulse energy was up to 50% comparatively with the energy without additive with peak energy at ˜ 600 ^oC. Additional absorption experiments and modeling the absorption of Zn atom resonant line in the DT (taking into account Doppler and dispersion line broadening) consistent with the conclusion that not only optical resonant pumping by 213.9 nm Zn atom line, but other processes also might be taken into account to explain the influence effects (second kind collisions between resonance state zinc and metastable copper state atoms).

  9. Stability and Repeatability of the Distress Thermometer (DT and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-Revised (ESAS-r with Parents of Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsiana Leclair

    Full Text Available Parents report psychological distress in association with their child's cancer. Reliable tools are needed to screen parental distress over the cancer trajectory. This study aimed to estimate the stability and repeatability of the Distress Thermometer (DT and the Depression and Anxiety items of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised (ESAS-r-D; -A in parents of children diagnosed with cancer.Fifty parents (28 mothers, median age = 44 of clinically stable survivors of childhood solid and brain tumours completed questionnaires about their own distress (DT, ESAS-r-D; -A, Brief Symptom Inventory-18: BSI-18, Patient Health Questionnaire-9: PHQ-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7: GAD-7 and their children's quality of life (QoL; Peds Quality of Life: PedsQL twice, with a month interval between the two assessments. At retest, parents also evaluated life events that occurred between the two time points. Hierarchical regressions explored moderators for the temporal stability of test measures.Stability estimates were ICC = .78 for the DT, .55 for the ESAS-r-D, and .47 for the ESAS-r-A. Caseness agreement between test and retest was substantial for the DT, fair for the ESAS-r-D, and slight for the ESAS-r-A. Repeatability analyses indicated that the error range for the DT was more than 2 pts below/above actual measurement, whereas it was more than 3 pts for the ESAS-r-A, and 2.5 for the ESAS-r-D. Instability of the DT could be explained by changes in children's physical QoL, but not by other components of QoL or life events. No moderators of stability could be identified for the ESAS-r items.The DT appears to be a fairly stable measure when the respondent's condition is stable yet with a relatively wide error range. Fluctuations in distress-related constructs may affect the temporal stability of the DT. The lower stability of ESAS-r items may result from shorter time-lapse instructions resulting in a greater sensitivity to change. Findings support

  10. Characterisation of recently emerged multiple antibiotic-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104 and other multiresistant phage types from Danish pig herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggesen, D L; Aarestrup, F M

    1998-07-25

    A total of 670 isolates of Salmonella enterica were isolated from Danish pig herds, phage typed and tested for susceptibility to amoxycillin + clavulanate, ampicillin, colistin, enrofloxacin, gentamicin, neomycin, spectinomycin, streptomycin, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim + sulphadiazine. S enterica serovar typhimurium (S typhimurium) isolates resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and three isolates of S typhimurium DT104, two from 1994 and one from 1995, were further tested for resistance against chloramphenicol and sulphonamide and analysed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme Xba I. Overall, 66 per cent of the 670 isolates were sensitive to all the antimicrobial agents tested. Eleven isolates of S typhimurium were resistant to ampicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline and also resistant to other antibiotics in different resistance patterns. Seven different multiresistant clones were identified. The most common clones were four isolates of DT104 and three isolates of DT193. Two of the three S typhimurium DT104 from 1994 and 1995 were sensitive to all the antimicrobials tested whereas the remaining isolate from 1994 was resistant to spectinomycin, streptomycin and sulphonamides. All three isolates showed PFGF profiles identical to the four multiresistant DT104 isolates. Compared with most other countries antimicrobial resistance among S enterica isolated from Danish pig herds is uncommon. However, several different multiresistant clones were found.

  11. Characterisation of a stably integrated expression system for exogenous protein expression in DT40 [version 1; referees: 2 approved, 1 approved with reservations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliti Skouteri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of constitutive promoters to drive exogenous protein expression is an important tool for the study of diverse biological processes. To create and characterise a stably integrated expression system for DT40 cells, we constructed integration cassettes for three commonly used promoter elements; CMV, CBA or CAG, and used these to stably integrate a TOPBP1 transgene at the OVA locus, a transcriptionally silent locus commonly used in DT40. We next performed a comparative analysis of protein expression levels and identified CAG as the most efficient of the promoter elements we have tested in DT40 cells. To assess whether the site of integration affected the levels of transgene expression, a second chromosomal locus, immediately adjacent to the endogenous TOPBP1 gene, was tested for CAG. No major differences in TopBP1 overexpression were observed. This confirms that use of the OVA locus for integrating transgenes is a rational choice for DT40. Finally, we demonstrate that our stably integrated overexpression system (SIOS constructs can be efficiently excised by the induction of tamoxifen-regulated Cre expression. Taken together, SIOS is an easy-to-use and versatile system for constitutive, reversible exogenous protein production that provides a range of potential expression levels. This will be a useful experimental tool for future DT40 experiments.

  12. On the energy gain enhancement of DT+D3He fuel configuration in nuclear fusion reactor driven by heavy ion beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Khoshbinfar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is expected that advanced fuels be employed in the second generation of nuclear fusion reactors. Theoretical calculations show that in such a fuel, a high plasma temperature about 100 keV is a requisite for reaction rate improvement of nuclear fusion. However, creating such a temporal condition requires a more powerful driver than we have today. Here, introducing an optimal fuel configuration consisting of DT and D-3He layers, suitable for inertial fusion reactors and driven by heavy ion beams, the optimal energy gain conditions have been simulated and derived for 1.3 MJ system. It was found that, in this new fuel configuration, the ideal energy gain, is 22 percent more comparing with energy gain in corresponding single DT fuel layer. Moreover, the inner DT fuel layer contributed as an ignition trigger, while the outer D3He fuel acts as particle and radiation shielding as well as fuel layer.

  13. A novel particle time of flight diagnostic for measurements of shock- and compression-bang times in D3He and DT implosions at the NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M Gatu; Zylstra, A B; Sinenian, N; Rosenberg, M J; Frenje, J A; Waugh, C J; Li, C K; Sèguin, F H; Petrasso, R D; Rygg, J R; Kimbrough, J R; MacPhee, A; Collins, G W; Hicks, D; Mackinnon, A; Bell, P; Bionta, R; Clancy, T; Zacharias, R; Döppner, T; Park, H S; LePape, S; Landen, O; Meezan, N; Moses, E I; Glebov, V U; Stoeckl, C; Sangster, T C; Olson, R; Kline, J; Kilkenny, J

    2012-10-01

    The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) diagnostic, fielded alongside a wedge range-filter (WRF) proton spectrometer, will provide an absolute timing for the shock-burn weighted ρR measurements that will validate the modeling of implosion dynamics at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In the first phase of the project, pTOF has recorded accurate bang times in cryogenic DT, DT exploding pusher, and D(3)He implosions using DD or DT neutrons with an accuracy better than ±70 ps. In the second phase of the project, a deflecting magnet will be incorporated into the pTOF design for simultaneous measurements of shock- and compression-bang times in D(3)He-filled surrogate implosions using D(3)He protons and DD-neutrons, respectively.

  14. Sensitivity of chemical vapor deposition diamonds to DD and DT neutrons at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadi, N. V.; Sio, H.; Glebov, V.; Gatu Johnson, M.; MacPhee, A.; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F.; Petrasso, R.; Forrest, C.; Knauer, J.; Rinderknecht, H. G.

    2016-11-01

    The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) detector at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is used routinely to measure nuclear bang-times in inertial confinement fusion implosions. The active detector medium in pTOF is a chemical vapor deposition diamond. Calibration of the detectors sensitivity to neutrons and protons would allow measurement of nuclear bang times and hot spot areal density (ρR) on a single diagnostic. This study utilizes data collected at both NIF and Omega in an attempt to determine pTOF's absolute sensitivity to neutrons. At Omega pTOF's sensitivity to DT-n is found to be stable to within 8% at different bias voltages. At the NIF pTOF's sensitivity to DD-n varies by up to 59%. This variability must be decreased substantially for pTOF to function as a neutron yield detector at the NIF. Some possible causes of this variability are ruled out.

  15. Resonant Formation of $d\\mu t$ Molecules in Deuterium An Atomic Beam Measurement of Muon Catalyzed dt Fusion

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, M C; Bailey, J M; Beer, G A; Beveridge, J L; Faifman, M P; Huber, T M; Kammel, P; Kim, S K; Knowles, P E; Kunselman, A R; Maier, M; Markushin, V E; Marshall, G M; Martoff, C J; Mason, G R; Mulhauser, F; Olin, A; Petitjean, C; Porcelli, T A; Wozniak, J; Zmeskal, J

    2000-01-01

    Resonant formation of $d\\mu t$ molecules in collisions of muonic tritium ($\\mu t$) on D$_2$ was investigated using a beam of $\\mu t$ atoms, demonstrating a new direct approach in muon catalyzed fusion studies. Strong epithermal resonances in $d\\mu t$ formation were directly revealed for the first time. From the time-of-flight analysis of $2036\\pm 116$ $dt$ fusion events, a formation rate consistent with $0.73\\pm (0.16)_{meas} \\pm (0.09)_{model}$ times the theoretical prediction was obtained. For the largest peak at a resonance energy of $0.423 \\pm 0.037$ eV, this corresponds to a rate of $(7.1 \\pm 1.8) \\times 10^9$ s$^{-1}$, more than an order of magnitude larger than those at low energies.

  16. Manifold learning for shape guided segmentation of cardiac boundaries: application to 3D+t cardiac MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Abouzar; Yigitsoy, Mehmet; Navab, Nassir

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a new method for shape guided segmentation of cardiac boundaries based on manifold learning of the shapes represented by the phase field approximation of the Mumford-Shah functional. A novel distance is defined to measure the similarity of shapes without requiring deformable registration. Cardiac motion is compensated and phases are mapped into one reference phase, that is the end of diastole, to avoid time warping and synchronization at all cardiac phases. Non-linear embedding of these 3D shapes extracts the manifold of the inter-subject variation of the heart shape to be used for guiding the segmentation for a new subject. For validation the method is applied to a comprehensive dataset of 3D+t cardiac Cine MRI from normal subjects and patients.

  17. Feasibility of sealed D-T neutron generator as neutron source for liver BNCT and its beam shaping assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Li, Gang; Liu, Linmao

    2014-04-01

    This paper involves the feasibility of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver tumor with four sealed neutron generators as neutron source. Two generators are placed on each side of the liver. The high energy of these emitted neutrons should be reduced by designing a beam shaping assembly (BSA) to make them useable for BNCT. However, the neutron flux decreases as neutrons pass through different materials of BSA. Therefore, it is essential to find ways to increase the neutron flux. In this paper, the feasibility of using low enrichment uranium as a neutron multiplier is investigated to increase the number of neutrons emitted from D-T neutron generators. The neutron spectrum related to our system has a proper epithermal flux, and the fast and thermal neutron fluxes comply with the IAEA recommended values.

  18. Microstructures and fatigue properties of electron beam welds with beam oscillation for heavy section TC4-DT alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Pengfei; Mao Zhiyong; Zuo Congjin; Wang Yajun; Wang Chunming

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the manufacturing technology, electron beam welding (EBW) is capable of producing titanium alloy large parts in aero fields. To increase the applications and improve the properties, EBW with beam oscillation was investigated on TC4-DT alloy with 50 mm thickness. We detected the welding samples by X-ray NDT, observed the microstructures of the welds, and tested the fatigue properties of the joints. The results showed that EBW with beam oscillation improved the weld morphology as well as welding quality, and the microstructure homo-geneity of the welds and HAZ along the weld penetration were also improved. The fatigue proper-ties of the joints with beam oscillation were more excellent than those of conventional EBW, even equal to those of the base metal under high stresses. The influences of the processing and the micro-structure on the properties with beam oscillation were discussed.

  19. Measurement of helium production cross sections of iron for d-T neutrons by helium accumulation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takao, Yoshiyuki; Kanda, Yukinori; Nagae, Koji; Fujimoto, Toshihiro [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan); Ikeda, Yujiro

    1997-03-01

    Helium production cross sections of Iron were measured by helium accumulation method for neutron energies from 13.5 to 14.9 MeV. Iron samples were irradiated with FNS, an intense d-T neutron source of JAERI. As the neutron energy varies according to the emission angle at the neutron source, the samples were set around the neutron source and were irradiated by neutrons of different energy depending on each sample position. The amount of helium produced in a sample was measured by Helium Atoms Measurement System at Kyushu University. The results of this work are in good agreement with other experimental data in the literature and also compared with the evaluated values in JENDL-3. (author)

  20. Investigation of the transition between hydrodynamic and kinetic regimes for DT exploding pushers at OMEGA and the NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, R.; Kabadi, N.; Frenje, J. A.; Gatu Johnson, M.; Li, C. K.; Seguin, F. H.; Sio, H.; Petrasso, R. D.; Rosenberg, M.; Betti, R.; Rinderknecht, H.; Nikroo, A.; Casey, D. T.; Kwan, T.; Simakov, A.; Atzeni, S.; Bellei, C.

    2016-10-01

    Previous experiments were conducted to study the transition from hydrodynamic-like to ion kinetic regimes for D3He exploding pushers, demonstrating the importance of an ion kinetic approach for formulating more robust predictions of implosion characteristics. This presentation details a series of planned experiments at the OMEGA Facility and the NIF using thin-glass exploding pushers with DT fuel. D and T ions have the same charge, unlike D and 3He, yet their masses are unaltered from the D and 3He case. This allows for the investigation of whether ion-thermal decoupling and species separation are largely a result of charge or mass. The initial gas fill pressure will be varied in order to scan the transition from strongly hydrodynamic to strongly kinetic implosions, while leveraging the expansive diagnostic suite developed at NIF and OMEGA. This work was supported in part by LLE, the U.S. DoE (NNSA, NLUF) and LLNL.

  1. 细腻的中音表现——拜亚动力DT660耳机

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦材棒

    2007-01-01

    1937年在德国柏林,Eugen Beyer先生发明了全球第一副动圈耳机,随后于1950年,在德国布莱梅的一次公开展示会上,Beyer先生演示了世上第一只立体声HiFi级耳机——DT48S.将美妙的音乐浓缩于耳机之中.从此让全球音乐爱好者为此而狂热。2006年底.拜亚动力在中国市场推出了DTX10、DTX20.DTX30.SX10耳塞产品。

  2. Development of thin foil Faraday collector as a lost alpha particle diagnostic for high yield D-T tokamak fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Belle, P.; Jarvis, O.N.; Sadler, G.J. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Cecil, F.E. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Alpha particle confinement is necessary for ignition of a D-T tokamak fusion plasma and for first wall protection. Due to high radiation backgrounds and temperatures, scintillators and semiconductor detectors may not be used to study alpha particles which are lost to the first wall during the D-T programs on JET and ITER. An alternative method of charged particle spectrometry capable of operation in these harsh environments, is proposed: it consists of thin foils of electrically isolated conductors with the flux of alpha particles determined by the positive current flowing from the foils. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Salmonella Genomic Island 1 (SGI1) and genetic characteristics of animal and food isolates of Salmonella typhimurium DT104 in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, Péter Zsolt; Nagy, Béla

    2008-03-01

    To study the genetic characteristics of DT104 strains of Salmonella Typhimurium and the prevalence of Salmonella Genomic Island (SGI1) in Hungary, 140 recent Salmonella strains of food and animal origin were examined. For the first time in Hungary, the SGI1 was found in 17 out of 59 S. Typhimurium isolates (all proven to be DT104 phage type). These 17 strains were then subtyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) into 6 pulsotypes which were less correlated with the geographic origin than with the animal species of origin.

  4. The davDT operon of Pseudomonas putida, involved in lysine catabolism, is induced in response to the pathway intermediate delta-aminovaleric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revelles, O.; Espinosa-Urgel, M.; Molin, Søren;

    2004-01-01

    -aminovaleric acid and then further degraded to glutaric acid via the action of the davDT gene products. We show that the davDT genes form an operon transcribed from a single sigma(70)-dependent promoter. The relatively high level of basal expression from the davD promoter increased about fourfold in response...... to the addition of exogenous lysine to the culture medium. However, the true inducer of this operon seems to be delta-aminovaleric acid because in a mutant unable to metabolize lysine to delta-aminovaleric acid, this compound, but not lysine, acted as an effector. Effective induction of the P. putida P...

  5. Tritium Removal by Laser Heating and Its Application to Tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.H. Skinner; C.A. Gentile; G. Guttadora; A. Carpe; S. Langish; K.M. Young; M. Nishi; W. Shu

    2001-11-16

    A novel laser heating technique has recently been applied to removing tritium from carbon tiles that had been exposed to deuterium-tritium (DT) plasmas in the Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR). A continuous wave neodymium laser, of power up to 300 watts, was used to heat the surface of the tiles. The beam was focused to an intensity, typically 8 kW/cm{sup 2}, and rapidly scanned over the tile surface by galvanometer-driven scanning mirrors. Under the laser irradiation, the surface temperature increased dramatically, and temperatures up to 2,300 degrees C were recorded by an optical pyrometer. Tritium was released and circulated in a closed-loop system to an ionization chamber that measured the tritium concentration. Most of the tritium (up to 84%) could be released by the laser scan. This technique appears promising for tritium removal in a next-step DT device as it avoids oxidation, the associated deconditioning of the plasma facing surfaces, and the expense of processing large quantities of tritium oxide. Some engineering aspects of the implementation of this method in a next-step fusion device will be discussed.

  6. Cell-specific modulation of drug resistance in acute myeloid leukemic blasts by diphtheria fusion toxin, DT388-GMCSF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, A E; Hall, P D; McLain, C; Safa, A R; Tagge, E P; Kreitman, R J

    1998-01-01

    Radiochemotherapy-resistant blasts commonly cause treatment failure in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and their resistance is due, in part, to overexpression of multidrug resistance (mdr) proteins. We reasoned that targeted delivery of protein synthesis inactivating toxins to leukemic blasts would reduce the cellular concentrations of relatively short half-life resistance proteins and sensitize the cells to cytotoxic drugs. To test this hypothesis, we employed human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor fused to truncated diphtheria toxin (DT388-GMCSF). The human AML cell line HL60 and its vincristine-resistant sublines, HL60Vinc and HL60VCR, were incubated in vitro for 24 h with varying concentrations of toxin. Doxorubicin was added for an additional 24 h, and cell cytotoxicity was assayed by thymidine incorporation and colony formation in semisolid medium. DT388-GMCSF sensitized HL60Vinc and HL60VCR but not HL60 to doxorubicin. Combination indices for three log cell kill varied from 0.2 to 0.3. In contrast, pretreatment with doxorubicin followed by toxins failed to show synergy. At least in the case of the vincristine-resistant cell lines, modulation of drug resistance correlated with reduction in membrane P-glycoprotein concentrations based on immunoblots with C219 antibody, flow cytometry with MRK16 antibody, and cell uptake of doxorubicin. These observations suggest clinical trials of combination therapy may be warranted in patients with refractory AML. Further, targeted toxins may represent a novel class of cell-specific modulators of drug resistance for a number of malignancies.

  7. MCNPX simulations of the silicon carbide semiconductor detector response to fast neutrons from D-T nuclear reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlačková, Katarína; Šagátová, Andrea; Zat'ko, Bohumír; Nečas, Vladimír; Solar, Michael; Granja, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) has been long recognized as a suitable semiconductor material for use in nuclear radiation detectors of high-energy charged particles, gamma rays, X-rays and neutrons. The nuclear interactions occurring in the semiconductor are complex and can be quantified using a Monte Carlo-based computer code. In this work, the MCNPX (Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended) code was employed to support detector design and analysis. MCNPX is widely used to simulate interaction of radiation with matter and supports the transport of 34 particle types including heavy ions in broad energy ranges. The code also supports complex 3D geometries and both nuclear data tables and physics models. In our model, monoenergetic neutrons from D-T nuclear reaction were assumed as a source of fast neutrons. Their energy varied between 16 and 18.2 MeV, according to the accelerating voltage of the deuterons participating in D-T reaction. First, the simulations were used to calculate the optimum thickness of the reactive film composed of High Density PolyEthylene (HDPE), which converts neutral particles to charged particles and thusly enhancing detection efficiency. The dependency of the optimal thickness of the HDPE layer on the energy of the incident neutrons has been shown for the inspected energy range. Further, from the energy deposited by secondary charged particles and recoiled ions, the detector response was modeled and the effect of the conversion layer on detector response was demonstrated. The results from the simulations were compared with experimental data obtained for a detector covered by a 600 and 1300 μm thick conversion layer. Some limitations of the simulations using MCNPX code are also discussed.

  8. Generation of Nonlinear Force Driven Blocks from Skin Layer Interaction of Petawatt-Picosecond Laser Pulses for ICF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heinrich Hora; K. Jungwirth; B. Kralikova; J. Kraska; L. Laska; Liu Hong; G.H. Miley; P. Parys; Peng Hansheng; M. Pfeifer; K. Rohlena; Cang Yu; J. Skala; Z. Skladanowski; L. Torrisi; J. Ullschmied; J. Wolowski; Zhang Weiyan; He Xiantu; Zhang Jie; F. Osman; J. Badziak; F.P. Boody; S. Gammino; R. H(o)pfl

    2004-01-01

    The discovery of the essential difference of maximum ion energy for TW-ps laser plasma interaction compared with the 100 ns laser pulses [1] led to the theory of a skin layer model [2] where the control of prepulses suppressed the usual relativistic self-focusing. The subsequent generation of two nonlinear force driven blocks has been demonstrated experimentally and in extensive numerical studies where one block moves against the laser light and the other block into the irradiated target. These blocks of nearly solid state density DT plasma correspond to ion beam current densities [3] exceeding 1010 A/cm2 where the ion velocity can be chosen up to highly relativistic values. Using the results of the expected ignition of DT fuel by light ion beams, a selfsustained fusion reaction front may be generated even into uncompressed solid DT fuel similar to the Nuckolls-Wood [4] scheme where 10 kJ laser pulses produce 100 MJ fusion energy. This new and simplified scheme of laser-ICF needs and optimisation of the involved parameters.

  9. Blue Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION 13 4. EXPERIENCE WITH THE BLUE LASER 18 4.1 Operational and Processing Experience 18 4.2 Performance Testing 20 5...34 -. - . •. SECTION 3 BLUE HOLLOW CATHODE LASER FABRICATION This section presents an overview of the steps taken in creating a HCL. There is...to the laser assembly. These steps can actually be considered as the final steps in laser fabrication because some of them involve adding various

  10. Characterization of LIL laser UV focal spot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangeant, M.; Dubois, J.L.; Behar, G.; Arroyo, P.; Durand, V.; Lahonde, C. [CEA - Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, CESTA/DLP, 33 - Le Barp (France)

    2006-06-15

    One way to get the fusion of hydrogen in laboratory consists in heating and compressing a DT fuel capsule by using a laser. To reach this aim requires a new generation of high power laser facility. Cea (French board for atomic energy) is developing for this purpose a new 240 laser line facility, the LMJ facility. The LIL which is the prototype of four LMJ laser lines is operational now. In order to confirm the technical choices, a systematic characterization of LIL was carried out. A particular effort has been provided to measure the 3{omega} high energy focal spot (1.5 kJ/700 ps and 5 ns for one beam) and the synchronization of laser beams onto the target, which are key issues for the plasma production. An experimental device, SAT-3{omega} (a 3{omega} laser focal spot analysis) has been designed to perform these measures. That diagnostic which is located at the end of the laser lines delivered its first results during the 2004 quadruplet qualification campaigns. The near field imaging showed no diaphony and vignetting. Low power spots allowed us to control we had no ghost. The energy measurement quality showed the photometric transfer function was perfectly known. Our caustic image are given with an average dynamic range of 800, a spatial resolution of 10 {mu}m and diameter accuracy about 1% for 50% and 3% for 90% of encircled energy. The high energy focal spot diameters are in agreement with low and very low energy diameters. The phase plate and 14 GHz effects are similar to what we had expected. For a laser shot completed with a continuous phase plate at 14 GHz, and for an energy level of 1.5 kJ per beam at 351 nm, the focal beam diameter at 3% of the peak level is (875 {+-} 45) {mu}m.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of plant compounds against Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork and the influence of heat and storage on the activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the influence of heat (70oC for 5 min) and cold-storage (4oC up to 7 days) on the effectiveness of oregano and cinnamon essential oils and powdered olive and apple extracts against Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in ground pork and to evaluate the activi...

  12. Multiple quark scattering and the changing slope of d sigma /dt in the small mod t mod region (for pp scattering)

    CERN Document Server

    Klenk, K F

    1973-01-01

    The changing slope of d sigma /dt at small mod t mod observed in the CERN-ISR p-p scattering data can be reproduced in the Glauber multiple quark scattering model by a quark-quark scattering amplitude that is an undamped rapidly oscillating function of momentum transferred to the quark. (9 refs).

  13. The prevalences of Salmonella Genomic Island 1 variants in human and animal Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 are distinguishable using a Bayesian approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison E Mather

    Full Text Available Throughout the 1990 s, there was an epidemic of multidrug resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 in both animals and humans in Scotland. The use of antimicrobials in agriculture is often cited as a major source of antimicrobial resistance in pathogenic bacteria of humans, suggesting that DT104 in animals and humans should demonstrate similar prevalences of resistance determinants. Until very recently, only the application of molecular methods would allow such a comparison and our understanding has been hindered by the fact that surveillance data are primarily phenotypic in nature. Here, using large scale surveillance datasets and a novel Bayesian approach, we infer and compare the prevalence of Salmonella Genomic Island 1 (SGI1, SGI1 variants, and resistance determinants independent of SGI1 in animal and human DT104 isolates from such phenotypic data. We demonstrate differences in the prevalences of SGI1, SGI1-B, SGI1-C, absence of SGI1, and tetracycline resistance determinants independent of SGI1 between these human and animal populations, a finding that challenges established tenets that DT104 in domestic animals and humans are from the same well-mixed microbial population.

  14. Translocation of integron-associated resistance in a natural system: Acquisition of resistance determinants by Inc P and Inc W Plasmids from Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvang, Dorthe; Diggle, M.; Platt, D.J.

    2002-01-01

    Salmonella enterica Typhimurium DT104, 961368, a veterinary field isolate that encodes a chromosomal cluster of resistance genes as well as two integrons, was used to study the mobility of resistance cassettes (aadA2 and pse-1) and nonintegron-associated resistance determinants (chloramphenicol...

  15. Preclinical Evaluation of a Potential GSH Ester Based PET/SPECT Imaging Probe DT(GSHMe₂ to Detect Gamma Glutamyl Transferase Over Expressing Tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harleen Khurana

    Full Text Available Gamma Glutamyl Transferase (GGT is an important biomarker in malignant cancers. The redox processes ensuing from GGT-mediated metabolism of extracellular GSH are implicated in critical aspects of tumor cell biology. Reportedly, Glutathione monoethyl ester (GSHMe is a substrate of GGT, which has been used for its rapid transport over glutathione. Exploring GGT to be an important target, a homobivalent peptide system, DT(GSHMe2 was designed to target GGT-over expressing tumors for diagnostic purposes. DT(GSHMe2 was synthesized, characterized and preclinically evaluated in vitro using toxicity, cell binding assays and time dependent experiments. Stable and defined radiochemistry with 99mTc and 68Ga was optimized for high radiochemical yield. In vivo biodistribution studies were conducted for different time points along with scintigraphic studies of radiolabeled DT(GSHMe2 on xenografted tumor models. For further validation, in silico docking studies were performed on GGT (hGGT1, P19440. Preclinical in vitro evaluations on cell lines suggested minimal toxicity of DT(GSHMe2 at 100 μM concentration. Kinetic analysis revealed transport of 99mTc-DT(GSHMe2 occurs via a saturable high-affinity carrier with Michaelis constant (Km of 2.25 μM and maximal transport rate velocity (Vmax of 0.478 μM/min. Quantitative estimation of GGT expression from western blot experiments showed substantial expression with 41.6 ± 7.07 % IDV for tumor. Small animal micro PET (Positron Emission Tomography/CT(Computed Tomography coregistered images depicted significantly high uptake of DT(GSHMe2 at the BMG-1 tumor site. ROI analysis showed high tumor to contra lateral muscle ratio of 9.33 in PET imaging studies. Avid accumulation of radiotracer was observed at tumor versus inflammation site at 2 h post i.v. injection in an Ehrlich Ascites tumor (EAT mice model, showing evident specificity for tumor. We propose DT(GSHMe2 to be an excellent candidate for prognostication and

  16. Reactivity of murine cytokine fusion toxin, diphtheria toxin390-murine interleukin-3 (DT390-mIL-3), with bone marrow progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, C H; Blazar, B R; Greenfield, L; Kreitman, R J; Vallera, D A

    1996-08-15

    Myeloid leukemias can express interleukin-3 receptors (IL-3R). Therefore, as an antileukemia drug, a fusion immunotoxin was synthesized consisting of the murine IL-3 (mIL-3) gene spliced to a truncated form of the diphtheria toxin (DT390) gene coding for a molecule that retained full enzymatic activity, but excluded the native binding domain. The DT390-mIL-3 hybrid gene was cloned into a vector under the control of an inducible promote. The fusion protein was expressed in Escherichia coli and then purified from inclusion bodies. The fusion toxin was potent because it inhibited FDC-P1, an IL-3R-expressing murine myelomonocytic tumor line (IC50 = 0.025 nmol/L or 1.5 ng/mL). Kinetics were rapid and cell-free studies showed that DT390-mIL-3 was as toxic as native DT. DT390-mIL-3 was selective because anti-mIL-3 monoclonal antibody, but not irrelevant antibody, inhibited its ability to kill. Cell lines not expressing IL-3R were not inhibited by the fusion protein. Because the use of DT390-mIL-3 as an antileukemia agent could be restricted by its reactivity with committed and/or primitive progenitor cells, bone marrow (BM) progenitor assays were performed. DT390-mIL-3 selectively inhibited committed BM progenitor cells as measured by in vitro colony-forming unit-granulocyte-macrophage and in vivo colony-forming unit-spleen colony assays. To determine if this fusion protein was reactive against BM progenitor cells required to rescue lethally irradiated recipients, adoptive transfer experiments were performed. Eight million DT390-mIL-3-treated C57BL/6 Ly5.2 BM cells, but not 4 million, were able to rescue lethally irradiated congenic C57BL/6 Ly5.1 recipients, suggesting that progenitor cells might be heterogenous in their expression of IL-3R. This idea was supported in competitive repopulation experiments in which DT390-mIL-3 treated C57BL/6 Ly5.2 BM cells were mixed with nontreated C57BL/6 Ly5.1 BM cells and used to reconstitute C57BL/6 Ly5.1 mice. A significant reduction

  17. Target optimization for the laser megajoule; Optimisation des cibles pour le laser megajoule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holstein, P.A.; Dufour, J.M.; Dumont, H.; Giorla, J.; Hallo, L.; Laffite, S.; Saillard, Y. [CEA/DAM-Ile de France, 91 - Bruyeres-Le-Chatel (France)

    1999-12-01

    For the Inertial Confinement Fusion, the different problems to be studied are: DT burning, shell implosion and hydrodynamic instabilities, spherical symmetry of the shell given by the X-rays produced in a hohlraum and laser-plasma interaction. One of the requirements is that the shell stay essentially spherical up to the end of the implosion. In these conditions, 2-D simulations show a gain of 10 in a realistic configuration. The Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities occurring during the shell implosion grow first in the linear regime for which we have some models and experimental results. But the saturation mechanism reduces the final amplitude significantly. By using a simple but global model, we determine an operating domain of the LMJ, taking into account a 25% margin for laser energy. (author)

  18. Characterization of the Newly Developed Soybean Cultivar DT2008 in Relation to the Model Variety W82 Reveals a New Genetic Resource for Comparative and Functional Genomics for Improved Drought Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien Van Ha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean (Glycine max productivity is adversely affected by drought stress worldwide, including Vietnam. In the last few years, we have made a great effort in the development of drought-tolerant soybean cultivars by breeding and/or radiation-induced mutagenesis. One of the newly developed cultivars, the DT2008, showed enhanced drought tolerance and stable yield in the field conditions. The purpose of this study was to compare the drought-tolerant phenotype of DT2008 and Williams 82 (W82 by assessing their water loss and growth rate under dehydration and/or drought stress conditions as a means to provide genetic resources for further comparative and functional genomics. We found that DT2008 had reduced water loss under both dehydration and drought stresses in comparison with W82. The examination of root and shoot growths of DT2008 and W82 under both normal and drought conditions indicated that DT2008 maintains a better shoot and root growth rates than W82 under both two growth conditions. These results together suggest that DT2008 has better drought tolerance degree than W82. Our results open the way for further comparison of DT2008 and W82 at molecular levels by advanced omic approaches to identify mutation(s involved in the enhancement of drought tolerance of DT2008, contributing to our understanding of drought tolerance mechanisms in soybean. Mutation(s identified are potential candidates for genetic engineering of elite soybean varieties to improve drought tolerance and biomass.

  19. Radionuclide left ventricular dV/dt for the assessment of cardiac function in patients with coronary disease. [/sup 99m/Ic-labelled red blood cells and contrast radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bianco, J.A.; Makey, D.G.; Laskey, W.K.; Shafer, R.B.

    1979-01-01

    To investigate potential uses of left-ventricular (LV) systolic ejection rate (LV dV/dt) in the evaluation of LV function, we examined the effect of exercise, angiotensin, and leg raising on LV ejection fraction and LV dV/dt in patients with coronary-artery disease. The following observations were made: (a) LV ejection fraction and dV/dt changed proportionately, but in opposite directions, during supine exercise; (b) LV ejection fraction and dV/dt decreased to a similar extent during angiotensin infusions; and (c) LV ejection fraction and dV/dt were unchanged by leg raising. The changes in peak and mean LV dV/dt were similar. Regardless of the physiologic state, peak LV dV/dt occurred during the first third of systole. These data imply that in this population there were no specific advantages of LV dV/dt over LV ejection fraction in the evaluation of LV performance.

  20. Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium DT104 ArtA-dependent modification of pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins in the presence of [32P]NAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Ikuo; Ishihara, Ryoko; Tanaka, Kiyoshi; Hata, Eiji; Makino, Sou-ichi; Kanno, Toru; Hatama, Shinichi; Kishima, Masato; Akiba, Masato; Watanabe, Atsushi; Kubota, Takayuki

    2009-11-01

    Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) definitive phage type (DT) 104 has become a widespread cause of human and other animal infections worldwide. The severity of clinical illness in S. Typhimurium DT104 outbreaks suggests that this strain possesses enhanced virulence. ArtA and ArtB - encoded by a prophage in S. Typhimurium DT104 - are homologues of components of pertussis toxin (PTX), including its ADP-ribosyltransferase subunit. Here, we show that exposing DT104 to mitomycin C, a DNA-damaging agent, induced production of prophage-encoded ArtA/ArtB. Pertussis-sensitive G proteins were labelled in the presence of [(32)P]NAD and ArtA, and the label was released by HgCl(2), which is known to cleave cysteine-ADP-ribose bonds. ADP-dependent modification of G proteins was markedly reduced in in vitro-synthesized ArtA(6Arg-Ala) and ArtA(115Glu-Ala), in which alanine was substituted for the conserved arginine at position 6 (necessary for NAD binding) and the predicted catalytic glutamate at position 115, respectively. A cellular ADP-ribosylation assay and two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that ArtA- and PTX-induced ADP-ribosylation in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells occur with the same type of G proteins. Furthermore, exposing CHO cells to the ArtA/ArtB-containing culture supernatant of DT104 resulted in a clustered growth pattern, as is observed in PTX-exposed CHO cells. Hydrogen peroxide, an oxidative stressor, also induced ArtA/ArtB production, suggesting that these agents induce in vivo synthesis of ArtA/ArtB. These results, taken together, suggest that ArtA/ArtB is an active toxin similar to PTX.

  1. Irradiation facility for boron neutron capture therapy application based on a rf-driven D-T neutron source and a new beam shaping assembly (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, N.; Esposito, J.; Leung, K. N.

    2002-02-01

    Selecting the best neutron source for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) requires optimizing neutron beam parameters. This involves solving many complex problems. Safety issues related to the use of nuclear reactor in hospital environments, as well as lower costs have led to interest in the development of accelerator-driven neutron sources. The BNCT research programs at the Nuclear Departments of Pisa and Genova Universities (DIMNP and DITEC) focus on studies of new concepts for accelerator-based DT neutron sources. Simple and compact accelerator designs using relatively low deuteron beam energy, ˜100 keV, have been developed which, in turn, can generate high neutron yields. New studies have been started for optimization of moderator materials for the 14.1 MeV DT neutrons. Our aim is to obtain an epithermal neutron beam for therapeutic application at the exit end, with minimal beam intensity losses, the specific goal is to achieve an epithermal neutron flux of at least of 1×109 n/cm2 s at the beam port, with low gamma and fast neutron dose contamination. According to the most recent neutron BNCT beam parameters some moderating and spectrum shifter materials and geometrical configurations have thus far been tested, and neutron and gamma beam data at beam port have been computed. A possible beam shaping assembly model has been designed. This research demonstrates that a DT neutron source could be successfully implemented for BNCT application, with performance surpassing the minimum requirements stated above, using DT neutron sources with yields in the range 1013-1014 n/s. The latest Monte Carlo simulation results of an accelerator based facility which relies on a rf-driven DT fusion neutron generator will be presented.

  2. Infrared spectroscopic and laser characterization of Tm in disordered double tungstates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cano-Torres, J.M.; Han, X.; Garcia-Cortes, A.; Serrano, M.D. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, c/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Zaldo, C. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, c/ Sor Juana Ines de la Cruz 3, E-28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: cezaldo@icmm.csic.es; Valle, F.J. [Instituto de Ceramica y Vidrio, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, c/Kelsen 5, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Mateos, X.; Rivier, S.; Griebner, U.; Petrov, V. [Max-Born-Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Ultrafast Spectroscopy, 2A Max-Born-Street, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    The relative energy and characteristics of the Tm{sup 3+} levels in tetragonal double tungstate (DT) and double molybdate (DMo) crystals are investigated by low temperature optical spectroscopy with special emphasis on NaLa(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}. In this host the transition bandwidths are intermediate between those found in ordered monoclinic DT and in other disordered tetragonal DT and DMo crystals. This allows for better band resolution of the S{sub 4} site symmetry features in the disordered scheelite-like structure. The potential of such Tm-doped crystals for building infrared tunable lasers is discussed on the basis of the calculated cross sections and their comparison with the experimental photoluminescence. Information on the crystal growth and Tm{sup 3+} spectroscopic details are provided. Tm:NaLa(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} laser operation with the available sample is more efficient for {sigma}-polarized configuration. Up to 200 mW of output power was obtained at {lambda} = 1888 nm and laser tunability extends from 1789 to 1950 nm.

  3. Group-size-mediated habitat selection and group fusion-fission dynamics of bison under predation risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortin, Daniel; Fortin, Marie-Eve; Beyer, Hawthorne L; Duchesne, Thierry; Courant, Sabrina; Dancose, Karine

    2009-09-01

    For gregarious animals the cost-benefit trade-offs that drive habitat selection may vary dynamically with group size, which plays an important role in foraging and predator avoidance strategies. We examined how habitat selection by bison (Bison bison) varied as a function of group size and interpreted these patterns by testing whether habitat selection was more strongly driven by the competing demands of forage intake vs. predator avoidance behavior. We developed an analytical framework that integrated group size into resource selection functions (RSFs). These group-size-dependent RSFs were based on a matched case-control design and were estimated using conditional logistic regression (mixed and population-averaged models). Fitting RSF models to bison revealed that bison groups responded to multiple aspects of landscape heterogeneity and that selection varied seasonally and as a function of group size. For example, roads were selected in summer, but not in winter. Bison groups avoided areas of high snow water equivalent in winter. They selected areas composed of a large proportion of meadow area within a 700-m radius, and within those areas, bison selected meadows. Importantly, the strength of selection for meadows varied as a function of group size, with stronger selection being observed in larger groups. Hence the bison-habitat relationship depended in part on the dynamics of group formation and division. Group formation was most likely in meadows. In contrast, risk of group fission increased when bison moved into the forest and was higher during the time of day when movements are generally longer and more variable among individuals. We also found that stronger selection for meadows by large rather than small bison groups was caused by longer residence time in individual meadows by larger groups and that departure from meadows appears unlikely to result from a depression in food intake rate. These group-size-dependent patterns were consistent with the hypothesis that avoidance of predation risk is the strongest driver of habitat selection.

  4. Hybrid fusion-fission reactor with a thorium blanket: Its potential in the fuel cycle of nuclear reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmelev, A. N.; Kulikov, G. G.; Kurnaev, V. A.; Salahutdinov, G. H.; Kulikov, E. G.; Apse, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    Discussions are currently going on as to whether it is suitable to employ thorium in the nuclear fuel cycle. This work demonstrates that the 231Pa-232U-233U-Th composition to be produced in the thorium blanket of a hybrid thermonuclear reactor (HTR) as a fuel for light-water reactors opens up the possibility of achieving high, up to 30% of heavy metals (HM), or even ultrahigh fuel burnup. This is because the above fuel composition is able to stabilize its neutron-multiplying properties in the process of high fuel burnup. In addition, it allows the nuclear fuel cycle (NFC) to be better protected against unauthorized proliferation of fissile materials owing to an unprecedentedly large fraction of 232U (several percent!) in the uranium bred from the Th blanket, which will substantially hamper the use of fissile materials in a closed NFC for purposes other than power production.

  5. Comparison of light-induced and laser-induced fluorescence methods for the detection and quantification of enamel demineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Masatoshi; Analoui, Mostafa; Schemehorn, Bruce R.; Stookey, George K.

    1999-05-01

    The Quantitative Laser-Induced Fluorescence (QLF) technique has been sued for diagnosis of early caries in permanent teeth (PT). The objective of this study was to determine the caries quantification ability of QLF in deciduous teeth (DT). Sixty sound teeth, thirty DT and thirty PT, were used. All teeth were cleaned to remove debris and equally divided into three groups. Lesions were created in small windows (0.8x2.0 mm2) on buccal or labial surface for 48, 72, and 96 hr. Lesion images were made with a 488 nm argon laser (QLF I) and then with a 370 +/- 80 nm violet-blue light (QLF II). Both images were analyzed to determine the mean percent change in fluorescence radiance (ΔF). A center section from the lesions was taken for analysis with microradiography. The lesion depth and loss of mineral content were determined. The correlations between ΔF and lesion depth as well as ΔZ in DT were 0.76 and 0.84 with QLF I, 0.81 and 0.88 with QLF II, respectively. It can be concluded the ability of QLF to quantify white-spots in DT is better than in PT.

  6. Lasers technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-07-01

    The Laser Technology Program of IPEN is developed by the Center for Lasers and Applications (CLA) and is committed to the development of new lasers based on the research of new optical materials and new resonator technologies. Laser applications and research occur within several areas such as Nuclear, Medicine, Dentistry, Industry, Environment and Advanced Research. Additional goals of the Program are human resource development and innovation, in association with Brazilian Universities and commercial partners.

  7. Lasers (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal

    1969-01-01

    A laser is an instrument that produces an enormously intense pencil-thin beam of light. In this booklet we shall learn what there is about the laser that gives it so much promise. We shall investigate what it is, how it works, and the different kinds of lasers there are.

  8. [Effect of aerobic fermentation on the survival of Salmonella typhimurium (DT 104) and Escherichia coli in swine liquid manure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, T; Kliche, R; Hensel, A

    1999-12-01

    In this study aerobic-thermophilic fermentation of untreated liquid pig manure was examined for the potential of inactivating pathogenic microorganisms. As microbial tracer organisms, Salmonella typhimurium DT 104 and Escherichia coli were used. An effective reduction of survival of these microorganisms could be demonstrated by aerobic fermentation at temperatures of 50 degrees C for at least 3 h. However, these optimal process conditions without the need of additional heating, can only be achieved by microbial substrate reduction. In contrast to the impact of temperature on hygienization processes, alteration of the pH value which occurs during fermentation had no or little influence on the tenacity of the tracer bacteria. Even under mesophilic reaction conditions the influence of the pH value was not measurable. A technical realisation of such an aerobic-thermophilic fermentation process for prophylactic disinfection is questionable since a large technical expenditure is necessary to control ammonia emission. Effective partial reduction of nitrogen, phosphate, and free carbon in liquid manure requires retention times of at least 48 h. However, thermophilic reaction conditions may ensure an effective hygienization of the final fermentation products.

  9. Tensor splines for interpolation and approximation of DT-MRI with applications to segmentation of isolated rat hippocampi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmpoutis, Angelos; Vemuri, Baba C; Shepherd, Timothy M; Forder, John R

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, we present novel algorithms for statistically robust interpolation and approximation of diffusion tensors-which are symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices-and use them in developing a significant extension to an existing probabilistic algorithm for scalar field segmentation, in order to segment diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) datasets. Using the Riemannian metric on the space of SPD matrices, we present a novel and robust higher order (cubic) continuous tensor product of B-splines algorithm to approximate the SPD diffusion tensor fields. The resulting approximations are appropriately dubbed tensor splines. Next, we segment the diffusion tensor field by jointly estimating the label (assigned to each voxel) field, which is modeled by a Gauss Markov measure field (GMMF) and the parameters of each smooth tensor spline model representing the labeled regions. Results of interpolation, approximation, and segmentation are presented for synthetic data and real diffusion tensor fields from an isolated rat hippocampus, along with validation. We also present comparisons of our algorithms with existing methods and show significantly improved results in the presence of noise as well as outliers.

  10. Method for measuring prompt gamma-rays generated by D-T neutrons bombarding a depleted uranium spherical shell

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Jianguo; Jiang, Li; Liu, Rong; Zhang, Xinwei; Ye, Bangjiao; Zhu, Tonghua

    2015-01-01

    The prompt gamma-ray spectrum from depleted uranium (DU) spherical shells induced by 14 MeV D-T neutrons is measured. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation gives the largest prompt gamma flux with the optimal thickness of the DU spherical shells 3-5 cm and the optimal frequency of neutron pulse 1 MHz. The method of time of flight and pulse shape coincidence with energy (DC-TOF) is proposed, and the subtraction of the background gamma-rays discussed in detail. The electron recoil spectrum and time spectrum of the prompt gamma-rays are obtained based on a 2"*2" BC501A liquid scintillator detector. The energy spectrum and time spectrum of prompt gamma-rays are obtained based on an iterative unfolding method that can remove the influence of {\\gamma}-rays response matrix and pulsed neutron shape. The measured time spectrum and the calculated results are roughly consistent with each other. Experimental prompt gamma-ray spectrum in the 0.4-3 MeV energy region agree well with MC simulation based on the ENDF/BVI.5 library, and ...

  11. Biodegradation Kinetics of Tetrahydrofuran, Benzene, Toluene, and Ethylbenzene as Multi-substrate by Pseudomonas oleovorans DT4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Zhi Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The biodegradation kinetics of tetrahydrofuran, benzene (B, toluene (T, and ethylbenzene (E were systematically investigated individually and as mixtures by a series of aerobic batch degradation experiments initiated by Pseudomonas oleovorans DT4. The Andrews model parameters, e.g., maximum specific growth rates (μmax, half saturation, and substrate inhibition constant, were obtained from single-substrate experiments. The interaction parameters in the sum kinetics model (SKIP were obtained from the dual substrates. The μmax value of 1.01 for tetrahydrofuran indicated that cell growth using tetrahydrofuran as carbon source was faster than the growth on B (μmax, B = 0.39 or T (μmax, T = 0.39. The interactions in the dual-substrate experiments, including genhancement, inhibition, and co-metabolism, in the mixtures of tetrahydrofuran with B or T or E were identified. The degradation of the four compounds existing simultaneously could be predicted by the combination of SKIP and co-metabolism models. This study is the first to quantify the interactions between tetrahydrofuran and BTE.

  12. Investigation of Workplace-like Calibration Fields via a Deuterium-Tritium (D-T) Neutron Generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozhayev, Andrey V; Piper, Roman K; Rathbone, Bruce A; McDonald, Joseph C

    2017-04-01

    Radiation survey meters and personal dosimeters are typically calibrated in reference neutron fields based on conventional radionuclide sources, such as americium-beryllium (Am-Be) or californium-252 (Cf), either unmodified or heavy-water moderated. However, these calibration neutron fields differ significantly from the workplace fields in which most of these survey meters and dosimeters are being used. Although some detectors are designed to yield an approximately dose-equivalent response over a particular neutron energy range, the response of other detectors is highly dependent upon neutron energy. This, in turn, can result in significant over- or underestimation of the intensity of neutron radiation and/or personal dose equivalent determined in the work environment. The use of simulated workplace neutron calibration fields that more closely match those present at the workplace could improve the accuracy of worker, and workplace, neutron dose assessment. This work provides an overview of the neutron fields found around nuclear power reactors and interim spent fuel storage installations based on available data. The feasibility of producing workplace-like calibration fields in an existing calibration facility has been investigated via Monte Carlo simulations. Several moderating assembly configurations, paired with a neutron generator using the deuterium tritium (D-T) fusion reaction, were explored.

  13. Robust Hand Motion Tracking through Data Fusion of 5DT Data Glove and Nimble VR Kinect Camera Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkenbout, Ewout A; de Winter, Joost C F; Breedveld, Paul

    2015-12-15

    Vision based interfaces for human computer interaction have gained increasing attention over the past decade. This study presents a data fusion approach of the Nimble VR vision based system, using the Kinect camera, with the contact based 5DT Data Glove. Data fusion was achieved through a Kalman filter. The Nimble VR and filter output were compared using measurements performed on (1) a wooden hand model placed in various static postures and orientations; and (2) three differently sized human hands during active finger flexions. Precision and accuracy of joint angle estimates as a function of hand posture and orientation were determined. Moreover, in light of possible self-occlusions of the fingers in the Kinect camera images, data completeness was assessed. Results showed that the integration of the Data Glove through the Kalman filter provided for the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of the fingers a substantial improvement of 79% in precision, from 2.2 deg to 0.9 deg. Moreover, a moderate improvement of 31% in accuracy (being the mean angular deviation from the true joint angle) was established, from 24 deg to 17 deg. The metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint was relatively unaffected by the Kalman filter. Moreover, the Data Glove increased data completeness, thus providing a substantial advantage over the sole use of the Nimble VR system.

  14. Evaluation of Mixed-Mode Data-Link Communications for NextGen 4DT and Equivalent Visual Surface Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Jones, Denise R.; Allamandola, Angela S.; Arthur, Jarvis, J., III; Bailey, Randall E.

    2010-01-01

    By 2025, U.S. air traffic is predicted to increase 3-fold and may strain the current air traffic management system, which may not be able to accommodate this growth. In response to this challenge, a revolutionary new concept has been proposed for U.S. aviation operations, termed the Next Generation Air Transportation System or NextGen. Many key capabilities are being identified to enable NextGen, including the use of data-link communications. Because NextGen represents a radically different approach to air traffic management and requires a dramatic shift in the tasks, roles, and responsibilities for the flight deck, there are numerous research issues and challenges that must be overcome to ensure a safe, sustainable air transportation system. Flight deck display and crew-vehicle interaction concepts are being developed that proactively investigate and overcome potential technology and safety barriers that might otherwise constrain the full realization of NextGen. The paper describes simulation research examining data-link communications during 4DT and equivalent visual surface operations.

  15. Isaiah 1:2−3 and Isaiah 6: Isaiah ‘a prophet like Moses’ (Dt 18:18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alphonso Groenewald

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The book of Isaiah is complex when one considers the reconstruction of the processes of its formation and transmission. If these complexities are examined more closely, it is apparent that there is a multiplicity of dimensions to the book. In order to discover the distinctive and unique characteristics of the book of Isaiah, we are forced to see the book within the wider context of other Hebrew literature. In this article, I examine one specific aspect of this book, namely some of the parallels that exist between the figure of Moses and its eponymous prophet. The deuteronomic depiction of Moses as the first prophet amidst the wilderness generation provided a major thematic force inspiring the redactors of the Book of Isaiah in their presentation of the prophet Isaiah. We get to know Isaiah as a prophet who, in his own historical context, continues the teachings of Moses, which enhances his authority. His words (Is 1:2−3 contain references to words spoken by Moses in Deuteronomy (Dt 32, and his call (Is 6 echoes that of Moses. The Torah of Moses is thus continued in the words and teaching of Isaiah.

  16. Detection of fast neutrons from D-T nuclear reaction using a 4H-SiC radiation detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatko, Bohumir; Sagatova, Andrea; Sedlackova, Katarina; Necas, Vladimir; Dubecky, Frantisek; Solar, Michael; Granja, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    The particle detector based on a high purity epitaxial layer of 4H-SiC exhibits promising properties in detection of various types of ionizing radiation. Due to the wide band gap of 4H-SiC semiconductor material, the detector can reliably operate at room and also elevated temperatures. In this work we focused on detection of fast neutrons generated the by D-T (deuterium-tritium) nuclear reaction. The epitaxial layer with a thickness of 105 μm was used as a detection part. A circular Schottky contact of a Au/Ni double layer was evaporated on both sides of the detector material. The detector structure was characterized by current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements, at first. The results show very low current density (SiC detector is caused by the elastic and inelastic scattering on the silicon or carbide component of the detector material. Another possibility that increases the detection efficiency is the use of a conversion layer. In our measurements, we glued a HDPE (high density polyethylene) conversion layer on the detector Schottky contact to transform fast neutrons to protons. Hydrogen atoms contained in the conversion layer have a high probability of interaction with neutrons through elastic scattering. Secondary generated protons flying to the detector can be easily detected. The detection properties of detectors with and without the HDPE conversion layer were compared.

  17. Reactor applications of the compact fusion advanced Rankine (CFAR) cycle for a D-T tokamak fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, H.A.; Logan, B.G.; Campbell, R.B.

    1988-03-01

    We have made a preliminary design of a D-T fusion reactor blanket and MHD power conversion system based on the CFAR concept, and found that the performance and costs for the reference cycle are very attractive. While much remains to be done, the potential advantage of liquid metal Rankine cycles for fusion applications are much clearer now. These include low pressures and mass flow rates, a nearly isothermal module shell which minimizes problems of thermal distortion and stresses, and an insensitivity to pressure losses in the blanket so that the two-phase MHD pressure drops in the boilling part of the blanket and the ordinary vapor pressure drops in the pebble-bed superheating zones are acceptable (the direct result of pumping a liquid rather than having to compress a gas). There are no moving parts in the high-temperature MHD power generators, no steam bottoming plant is required, only small vapor precoolers and condensers are needed because of the high heat rejection trmperatures, and only a relatively small natural-draft heat exhanger is required to reject the heat to the atmosphere. The net result is a very compact fusion reactor and power conversion system which fit entirely inside an 18 meter radius reactor vault. Although we have not yet performed a detailed cost analysis, preliminary cost estimates indicate low capital costs and a very attractive cost of electricity. 11 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Method for measuring prompt γ-rays generated by D-T neutrons bombarding a depleted uranium spherical shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Jian-Guo; Lai, Cai-Feng; Jiang, Li; Liu, Rong Zhang, Xin-Wei; Ye, Bang-Jiao; Zhu, Tong-Hua

    2016-01-01

    The prompt γ-ray spectrum from depleted uranium (DU) spherical shells induced by 14 MeV D-T neutrons is measured. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation gives the largest prompt γ flux with the optimal thickness of the DU spherical shells 3-5 cm and the optimal frequency of neutron pulse 1 MHz. The method of time of flight and pulse shape coincidence with energy (DC-TOF) is proposed, and the subtraction of the background γ-rays discussed in detail. The electron recoil spectrum and time spectrum of the prompt γ-rays are obtained based on a 2″×2″ BC501A liquid scintillator detector. The energy spectrum and time spectrum of prompt γ-rays are obtained based on an iterative unfolding method that can remove the influence of γ-rays response matrix and pulsed neutron shape. The measured time spectrum and the calculated results are roughly consistent with each other. Experimental prompt γ-ray spectrum in the 0.4-3 MeV energy region agrees well with MC simulation based on the ENDF/BVI.5 library, and the discrepancies for the integral quantities of γ-rays of energy 0.4-1 MeV and 1-3 MeV are 9.2% and 1.1%, respectively. Supported by National Special Magnetic Confinement Fusion Energy Research, China (2015GB108001) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (91226104)

  19. Robust Hand Motion Tracking through Data Fusion of 5DT Data Glove and Nimble VR Kinect Camera Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewout A. Arkenbout

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vision based interfaces for human computer interaction have gained increasing attention over the past decade. This study presents a data fusion approach of the Nimble VR vision based system, using the Kinect camera, with the contact based 5DT Data Glove. Data fusion was achieved through a Kalman filter. The Nimble VR and filter output were compared using measurements performed on (1 a wooden hand model placed in various static postures and orientations; and (2 three differently sized human hands during active finger flexions. Precision and accuracy of joint angle estimates as a function of hand posture and orientation were determined. Moreover, in light of possible self-occlusions of the fingers in the Kinect camera images, data completeness was assessed. Results showed that the integration of the Data Glove through the Kalman filter provided for the proximal interphalangeal (PIP joints of the fingers a substantial improvement of 79% in precision, from 2.2 deg to 0.9 deg. Moreover, a moderate improvement of 31% in accuracy (being the mean angular deviation from the true joint angle was established, from 24 deg to 17 deg. The metacarpophalangeal (MCP joint was relatively unaffected by the Kalman filter. Moreover, the Data Glove increased data completeness, thus providing a substantial advantage over the sole use of the Nimble VR system.

  20. Sensitivity of chemical vapor deposition diamonds to DD and DT neutrons at OMEGA and the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabadi, N. V. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Sio, H. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Glebov, V. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Gatu Johnson, M. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; MacPhee, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA; Frenje, J. A. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Li, C. K. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Seguin, F. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Petrasso, R. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA; Forrest, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Knauer, J. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623, USA; Rinderknecht, H. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA

    2016-08-09

    The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) detector at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is used routinely to measure nuclear bang-times in inertial confinement fusion implosions. The active detector medium in pTOF is a chemical vapor deposition diamond. Calibration of the detectors sensitivity to neutrons and protons would allow measurement of nuclear bang times and hot spot areal density (ρR) on a single diagnostic. This study utilizes data collected at both NIF and Omega in an attempt to determine pTOF’s absolute sensitivity to neutrons. At Omega pTOF’s sensitivity to DT-n is found to be stable to within 8% at different bias voltages. At the NIF pTOF’s sensitivity to DD-n varies by up to 59%. This variability must be decreased substantially for pTOF to function as a neutron yield detector at the NIF. Some possible causes of this variability are ruled out.

  1. No beneficial effects evident for Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 in weaned pigs infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuzer, Susanne; Janczyk, Pawel; Assmus, Jens; Schmidt, Michael F G; Brockmann, Gudrun A; Nöckler, Karsten

    2012-07-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT 104 is the major pathogen for salmonellosis outbreaks in Europe. We tested if the probiotic bacterium Enterococcus faecium NCIMB 10415 can prevent or alleviate salmonellosis. Therefore, piglets of the German Landrace breed that were treated with E. faecium (n = 16) as a feed additive and untreated controls (n = 16) were challenged with S. Typhimurium 10 days after weaning. The presence of salmonellae in feces and selected organs, as well as the immune response, were investigated. Piglets treated with E. faecium gained less weight than control piglets (P = 0.05). The feeding of E. faecium had no effect on the fecal shedding of salmonellae and resulted in a higher abundance of the pathogen in tonsils of all challenged animals. The specific (anti-Salmonella IgG) and nonspecific (haptoglobin) humoral immune responses as well as the cellular immune response (T helper cells, cytotoxic T cells, regulatory T cells, γδ T cells, and B cells) in the lymph nodes, Peyer's patches of different segments of the intestine (jejunal and ileocecal), the ileal papilla, and in the blood were affected in the course of time after infection (P < 0.05) but not by the E. faecium treatment. These results led to the conclusion that E. faecium may not have beneficial effects on the performance of weaned piglets in the case of S. Typhimurium infection. Therefore, we suggest a critical discussion and reconsideration of E. faecium NCIMB 10415 administration as a probiotic for pigs.

  2. Laser Program Annual Report - 1979 Unclassified Excerpts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindl, J D

    2004-03-03

    The objective of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) program is to demonstrate the scientific feasibility of ICF for military applications (to develop and utilize the capability to study nuclear weapons physics in support of the weapons program) and for energy-directed uses in the civilian sector. The demonstration of scientific feasibility for both military and civilian objectives will require achieving gains on the order of 10 to 100 in fusion microexplosions. Our major near-term milestones include the attainment of high compression, one-hundred to one-thousand times (100 to 1000X) liquid D-T density in the thermonuclear fuel and ignition of thermonuclear burn. In 1979, our laser fusion experiments and analysis programs focused on two important areas related to achieving this goal: conducting x-ray-driven implosions of a variety of D-T-filled fuel capsule's to unprecedented high densities ({approx}> 50X liquid D-T density) and the determination of the scaling of hot electrons and thermal radiation in hohlraums.

  3. Laser device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jill R.; Tremblay, Paul L.

    2007-07-10

    A laser device includes a target position, an optical component separated a distance J from the target position, and a laser energy source separated a distance H from the optical component, distance H being greater than distance J. A laser source manipulation mechanism exhibits a mechanical resolution of positioning the laser source. The mechanical resolution is less than a spatial resolution of laser energy at the target position as directed through the optical component. A vertical and a lateral index that intersect at an origin can be defined for the optical component. The manipulation mechanism can auto align laser aim through the origin during laser source motion. The laser source manipulation mechanism can include a mechanical index. The mechanical index can include a pivot point for laser source lateral motion and a reference point for laser source vertical motion. The target position can be located within an adverse environment including at least one of a high magnetic field, a vacuum system, a high pressure system, and a hazardous zone. The laser source and an electro-mechanical part of the manipulation mechanism can be located outside the adverse environment. The manipulation mechanism can include a Peaucellier linkage.

  4. Laser thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1989-01-01

    Laser propulsion can reduce fuel by 57 t to 105 t over chemical propulsion for a 144 t Lunar base, with no significant increase in trip time. Laser propulsion reduces trip time by a factor of 40 to 120 over nuclear electric propulsion and time in radiation belts by a factor of 100 to 1700. Either solar or nuclear driven laser diode arrays could produce multimegawatt beams, typically 3,700 t for a 235 MW laser system. Laser diode arrays have high payoff due to short wavelength (850 nm) and high diode efficiency (70 percent). A dry laser OTV of 8790 kg and 60 percent efficiency can transport a 144 t lunar base. Laser propulsion could carry both personnel and cargo safely to the lunar base.

  5. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser coagulation; Laser eye surgery; Photocoagulation; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic eye disease; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic retinopathy; Focal photocoagulation; Scatter (or pan retinal) photocoagulation; Proliferative ...

  6. Influence of laser induced hot electrons on the threshold for shock ignition of fusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colaïtis, A.; Ribeyre, X.; Le Bel, E.; Duchateau, G.; Nicolaï, Ph.; Tikhonchuk, V.

    2016-07-01

    The effects of Hot Electrons (HEs) generated by the nonlinear Laser-Plasma Interaction (LPI) on the dynamics of Shock Ignition Inertial Confinement Fusion targets are investigated. The coupling between the laser beam, plasma dynamics and hot electron generation and propagation is described with a radiative hydrodynamics code using an inline model based on Paraxial Complex Geometrical Optics [Colaïtis et al., Phys. Rev. E 92, 041101 (2015)]. Two targets are considered: the pure-DT HiPER target and a CH-DT design with baseline spike powers of the order of 200-300 TW. In both cases, accounting for the LPI-generated HEs leads to non-igniting targets when using the baseline spike powers. While HEs are found to increase the ignitor shock pressure, they also preheat the bulk of the imploding shell, notably causing its expansion and contamination of the hotspot with the dense shell material before the time of shock convergence. The associated increase in hotspot mass (i) increases the ignitor shock pressure required to ignite the fusion reactions and (ii) significantly increases the power losses through Bremsstrahlung X-ray radiation, thus rapidly cooling the hotspot. These effects are less prominent for the CH-DT target where the plastic ablator shields the lower energy LPI-HE spectrum. Simulations using higher laser spike powers of 500 TW suggest that the CH-DT capsule marginally ignites, with an ignition window width significantly smaller than without LPI-HEs, and with three quarters of the baseline target yield. The latter effect arises from the relation between the shock launching time and the shell areal density, which becomes relevant in presence of a LPI-HE preheating.

  7. Direct-Drive Inertial Fusion Research at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrory, R.L.; Meyerhofer, D.D.; Loucks, S.J.; Skupsky, S.; Bahr, R.E.; Betti, R.; Boehly, T.R.; Craxton, R.S.; Collins, T.J.B.; Delettrez, J.A.; Donaldson, W.R.; Epstein, R.; Fletcher, K.A.; Freeman, C.; Frenje, J.A.; Glebov, V.Yu.; Goncharov, V.N.; Harding, D.R.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Keck, R.L.; Kelly, J.H.; Kessler, T.J.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Knauer, J.P.; Li, C.K.; Lund, L.D.; Marozas, J.A.; McKenty, P.W.; Marshall, F.J.; Morse, S.F.B.; Padalino, S.; Petrasso, R.D.; Radha, P.B.; Regan, S.P.; Roberts, S.; Sangster, T.C.; Seguin, F.H.; Seka, W.; Smalyuk, V.A.; Soures, J.M.; Stoeckl, C.; Thorp, K.A.; Yaakobi, B.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2010-04-16

    This paper reviews the status of direct-drive inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). LLE's goal is to demonstrate direct-drive ignition on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) by 2014. Baseline "all-DT" NIF direct-drive ignition target designs have been developed that have a predicted gain of 45 (1-D) at a NIF drive energy of ~1.6 MJ. Significantly higher gains are calculated for targets that include a DT-wicked foam ablator. This paper also reviews the results of both warm fuel and initial cryogenic-fuel spherical target implosion experiments carried out on the OMEGA UV laser. The results of these experiments and design calculations increase confidence that the NIF direct-drive ICF ignition goal will be achieved.

  8. Measurement of the differential cross section d\\sigma/dt in elastic $p\\bar{p}$ scattering at sqrt(s)=1.96 TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abazov, V M; Acharya, B S; Adams, M; Adams, T; Alexeev, G D; Alkhazov, G; Alton, A; Alverson, G; Alves, G A; Aoki, M; Askew, A; Atkins, S; Augsten, K; Avila, C; Badaud, F; Bagby, L; Baldin, B; Bandurin, D V; Banerjee, S; Barberis, E; Baringer, P; Barreto, J; Bartlett, J F; Bassler, U; Bazterra, V; Bean, A; Begalli, M; Bellantoni, L; Beri, S B; Bernardi, G; Bernhard, R; Bertram, I; Besançon, M; Beuselinck, R; Bezzubov, V A; Bhat, P C; Bhatia, S; Bhatnagar, V; Blazey, G; Blessing, S; Bloom, K; Boehnlein, A; Boline, D; Boos, E E; Borissov, G; Bose, T; Brandt, A; Brandt, O; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Bross, A; Brown, D; Brown, J; Bu, X B; Buehler, M; Buescher, V; Bunichev, V; Burdin, S; Buszello, C P; Camacho-Pérez, E; Carvalho, W; Casey, B C K; Castilla-Valdez, H; Caughron, S; Chakrabarti, S; Chakraborty, D; Chan, K M; Chandra, A; Chapon, E; Chen, G; Chevalier-Théry, S; Cho, D K; Cho, S W; Choi, S; Choudhary, B; Cihangir, S; Claes, D; Clutter, J; Cooke, M; Cooper, W E; Corcoran, M; Couderc, F; Cousinou, M -C; Croc, A; Cutts, D; Das, A; Davies, G; de Jong, S J; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Martins, C De Oliveira; Déliot, F; Demina, R; Denisov, D; Denisov, S P; Desai, S; Deterre, C; DeVaughan, K; Diehl, H T; Diesburg, M; Ding, P F; Dominguez, A; Dubey, A; Dudko, L V; Duggan, D; Duperrin, A; Dutt, S; Dyshkant, A; Eads, M; Edmunds, D; Ellison, J; Elvira, V D; Enari, Y; Evans, H; Evdokimov, A; Evdokimov, V N; Facini, G; Feng, L; Ferbel, T; Fiedler, F; Filthaut, F; Fisher, W; Fisk, H E; Fortner, M; Fox, H; Fuess, S; Garcia-Bellido, A; García-González, J A; García-Guerra, G A; Gavrilov, V; Gay, P; Geng, W; Gerbaudo, D; Gerber, C E; Gershtein, Y; Ginther, G; Golovanov, G; Goussiou, A; Grannis, P D; Greder, S; Greenlee, H; Gregores, E M; Grenier, G; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J -F; Grohsjean, A; Grünendahl, S; Grünewald, M W; Guillemin, T; Gutierrez, G; Gutierrez, P; Haas, A; Hagopian, S; Haley, J; Han, L; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hauptman, J M; Hays, J; Head, T; Hebbeker, T; Hedin, D; Hegab, H; Heinson, A P; Heintz, U; Hensel, C; La Cruz, I Heredia-De; Herner, K; Hesketh, G; Hildreth, M D; Hirosky, R; Hoang, T; Hobbs, J D; Hoeneisen, B; Hohlfeld, M; Howley, I; Hubacek, Z; Hynek, V; Iashvili, I; Ilchenko, Y; Illingworth, R; Ito, A S; Jabeen, S; Jaffré, M; Jayasinghe, A; Jesik, R; Johns, K; Johnson, E; Johnson, M; Jonckheere, A; Jonsson, P; Joshi, J; Jung, A W; Juste, A; Kaadze, K; Kajfasz, E; Karmanov, D; Kasper, P A; Katsanos, I; Kehoe, R; Kermiche, S; Khalatyan, N; Khanov, A; Kharchilava, A; Kharzheev, Y N; Kiselevich, I; Kohli, J M; Kozelov, A V; Kraus, J; Kulikov, S; Kumar, A; Kupco, A; Kurča, T; Kuzmin, V A; Lammers, S; Landsberg, G; Lebrun, P; Lee, H S; Lee, S W; Lee, W M; Lellouch, J; Li, H; Li, L; Li, Q Z; Lim, J K; Lincoln, D; Linnemann, J; Lipaev, V V; Lipton, R; Liu, H; Liu, Y; Lobodenko, A; Lokajicek, M; de Sa, R Lopes; Lubatti, H J; Luna-Garcia, R; Lyon, A L; Maciel, A K A; Madar, R; Magaña-Villalba, R; Malik, S; Malyshev, V L; Maravin, Y; Martínez-Ortega, J; McCarthy, R; McGivern, C L; Meijer, M M; Melnitchouk, A; Mendoza, L; Menezes, D; Mercadante, P G; Merkin, M; Meyer, A; Meyer, J; Miconi, F; Molina, J; Mondal, N K; da Motta, H; Mulhearn, M; Mundim, L; Nagy, E; Naimuddin, M; Narain, M; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Negret, J P; Neustroev, P; Novaes, S F; Nunnemann, T; Obrant, G; Oguri, V; Orduna, J; Osman, N; Osta, J; Padilla, M; Pal, A; Parashar, N; Parihar, V; Park, S K; Partridge, R; Parua, N; Patwa, A; Penning, B; Perfilov, M; Peters, Y; Petridis, K; Petrillo, G; Pétroff, P; Pleier, M -A; Podesta-Lerma, P L M; Podstavkov, V M; Pol, M -E; Popov, A V; da Silva, W L Prado; Prewitt, M; Price, D; Prokopenko, N; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quinn, B; Rangel, M S; Ranjan, K; Ratoff, P N; Razumov, I; Renkel, P; Ripp-Baudot, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rominsky, M; Ross, A; Royon, C; Rubinov, P; Ruchti, R; Sajot, G; Salcido, P; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Sanders, M P; Sanghi, B; Santoro, A; Santos, A S; Savage, G; Sawyer, L; Scanlon, T; Schamberger, R D; Scheglov, Y; Schellman, H; Schlobohm, S; Schwanenberger, C; Schwienhorst, R; Sekaric, J; Severini, H; Shabalina, E; Shary, V; Shaw, S; Shchukin, A A; Shivpuri, R K; Simak, V; Skubic, P; Slattery, P; Smirnov, D; Smith, K J; Snow, G R; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Sonnenschein, L; Soustruznik, K; Stark, J; Stoyanova, D A; Strang, M A; Strauss, M; Stutte, L; Suter, L; Svoisky, P; Takahashi, M; Titov, M; Tokmenin, V V; Tsai, Y -T; Tschann-Grimm, K; Tsybychev, D; Tuchming, B; Tully, C; Uvarov, L; Uvarov, S; Uzunyan, S; Van Kooten, R; van Leeuwen, W M; Varelas, N; Varnes, E W; Vasilyev, I A; Verdier, P; Verkheev, A Y; Vertogradov, L S; Verzocchi, M; Vesterinen, M; Vilanova, D; Vokac, P; Wahl, H D; Wang, M H L S; Warchol, J; Watts, G; Wayne, M; Weichert, J; Welty-Rieger, L; White, A; Wicke, D; Williams, M R J; Wilson, G W; Wobisch, M; Wood, D R; Wyatt, T R; Xie, Y; Yamada, R; Yang, W -C; Yasuda, T; Yatsunenko, Y A; Ye, W; Ye, Z; Yin, H; Yip, K; Youn, S W; Zennamo, J; Zhao, T; Zhao, T G; Zhou, B; Zhu, J; Zielinski, M; Zieminska, D; Zivkovic, L

    2012-01-01

    We present a measurement of the elastic differential cross section $d\\sigma(p\\bar{p}\\rightarrow p\\bar{p})/dt$ as a function of the four-momentum-transfer squared t. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of $\\approx 31 nb^{-1}$ collected with the D0 detector using dedicated Tevatron $p\\bar{p} $ Collider operating conditions at sqrt(s) = 1.96 TeV and covers the range $0.26 <|t|< 1.2 GeV^2$. For $|t|<0.6 GeV^2$, d\\sigma/dt is described by an exponential function of the form $Ae^{-b|t|}$ with a slope parameter $ b = 16.86 \\pm 0.10(stat) \\pm 0.20(syst) GeV^{-2}$. A change in slope is observed at $|t| \\approx 0.6 GeV^2$, followed by a more gradual |t| dependence with increasing values of |t|.

  9. A preliminary study of a D-T tokamak fusion reactor with advanced blanket using compact fusion advanced Brayton (CFAB) cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, K.; Ohnishi, M.; Yamamoto, Y. [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Key issues on a D-T Tokamak fusion reactor with advanced blanket concept using CFAB (Compact Fusion Advanced Brayton) cycle are presented. Although the previously proposed and studied compact fusion advanced Rankine cycle using mercury liquid metal has shown, in general, excellent performance characteristics in extracting energy and electricity with high efficiency by the {open_quotes}in-situ{close_quotes} nonequilibrium MHD disk generator, and in enhancing safety potential, there was a fear about uses of hazardous mercury as primary coolant as well as its limited natural resources. To overcome these disadvantages while retaining the advantage features of a ultra-high temperature coolant inherent in the synchrotron energy-enhanced D-T tokamak reactor, a compact fusion advanced Brayton cycle using helium was reexamined which was once considered relatively not superior in the CFAR study, at the expense of high, but acceptable circulation power, lower heat transfer characteristics, and probably of a little bit reduced safety.

  10. First-principles studies on the equation of state, thermal conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium (DT) and polystyrene (CH) for inertial confinement fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S. X.; Collins, L. A.; Goncharov, V. N.; Kress, J. D.; Boehly, T. R.; Epstein, R.; McCrory, R. L.; Skupsky, S.

    2016-05-01

    Using first-principles (FP) methods, we have performed ab initio compute for the equation of state (EOS), thermal conductivity, and opacity of deuterium-tritium (DT) in a wide range of densities and temperatures for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. These systematic investigations have recently been expanded to accurately compute the plasma properties of CH ablators under extreme conditions. In particular, the first-principles EOS and thermal-conductivity tables of CH are self-consistently built from such FP calculations, which are benchmarked by experimental measurements. When compared with the traditional models used for these plasma properties in hydrocodes, significant differences have been identified in the warm dense plasma regime. When these FP-calculated properties of DT and CH were used in our hydrodynamic simulations of ICF implosions, we found that the target performance in terms of neutron yield and energy gain can vary by a factor of 2 to 3, relative to traditional model simulations.

  11. Analytic, empirical and delta method temperature derivatives of D-D and D-T fusion reactivity formulations, as a means of verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langenbrunner, James R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Booker, Jane M. [Booker Scientific, Fredericksburg, TX (United States)

    2017-07-21

    We examine the derivatives with respect to temperature, for various deuterium-tritium (DT) and deuterium-deuterium (D-D) fusion-reactivity formulations. Langenbrunner and Makaruk [1] had studied this as a means of understanding the time and temperature domain of reaction history measured in dynamic fusion experiments. Presently, we consider the temperature derivative dependence of fusion reactivity as a means of exercising and verifying the consistency of the various reactivity formulations.

  12. Expression and purification of truncated diphtheria toxin, DT386, in Escherichia coli: An attempt for production of a new vaccine against diphtheria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Fatemeh; Rabbani, Mohammad; Behdani, Mahdi; Jahanian-Najafabadi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce a recombinant protein consisting of the catalytic and translocation domains of diphtheria toxin for its later application as a vaccine candidate against Corynebacterium diphtheria. To achieve this goal, at first, the amino acid sequence of DT386 was used for prediction of T and B cell epitopes using on-line servers. The DT386 coding sequence was synthesized and subcloned into the NcoI and XhoI sites of pET28a plasmid and recombinant pET28a plasmid was used to transform Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) host cells. Afterwards, recombinant cells were selected and subjected to induction of expression by 1 mM isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside, (IPTG). Expression of the desired protein was evaluated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting, and finally, the recombinant protein was purified using nickel affinity chromatography. The results of epitope prediction using on-line servers established the ability of DT386 for stimulation of immune system against diphtheria toxin. Restriction digestion of the recombinant plasmids using NcoI and XhoI enzymes confirmed the fidelity of cloning by producing a band of about 1200 bp. SDS-PAGE analysis following induction of expression and also purification step confirmed the expression of the desired protein by showing a band of about 45 kDa. In addition, Western blot analysis using anti-6X-His antibody confirmed the identity of the expected protein. In conclusion, in the present study we amplified and cloned the coding sequence of DT386 fragment, followed by its expression by E. coli BL21 (DE3) cells. Then, the expressed protein was purified and will be used for later studies of evaluation of its immunogenic properties. PMID:27920826

  13. Spatial prediction of flood susceptible areas using rule based decision tree (DT) and a novel ensemble bivariate and multivariate statistical models in GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tehrany, Mahyat Shafapour; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Jebur, Mustafa Neamah

    2013-11-01

    Decision tree (DT) machine learning algorithm was used to map the flood susceptible areas in Kelantan, Malaysia.We used an ensemble frequency ratio (FR) and logistic regression (LR) model in order to overcome weak points of the LR.Combined method of FR and LR was used to map the susceptible areas in Kelantan, Malaysia.Results of both methods were compared and their efficiency was assessed.Most influencing conditioning factors on flooding were recognized.

  14. High-fidelity MCNP modeling of a D-T neutron generator for active interrogation of special nuclear material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katalenich, Jeff; Flaska, Marek; Pozzi, Sara A.; Hartman, Michael R.

    2011-10-01

    Fast and robust methods for interrogation of special nuclear material (SNM) are of interest to many agencies and institutions in the United States. It is well known that passive interrogation methods are typically sufficient for plutonium identification because of a relatively high neutron production rate from 240Pu [1]. On the other hand, identification of shielded uranium requires active methods using neutron or photon sources [2]. Deuterium-deuterium (2.45 MeV) and deuterium-tritium (14.1 MeV) neutron-generator sources have been previously tested and proven to be relatively reliable instruments for active interrogation of nuclear materials [3,4]. In addition, the newest generators of this type are small enough for applications requiring portable interrogation systems. Active interrogation techniques using high-energy neutrons are being investigated as a method to detect hidden SNM in shielded containers [4,5]. Due to the thickness of some containers, penetrating radiation such as high-energy neutrons can provide a potential means of probing shielded SNM. In an effort to develop the capability to assess the signal seen from various forms of shielded nuclear materials, the University of Michigan Neutron Science Laboratory's D-T neutron generator and its shielding were accurately modeled in MCNP. The generator, while operating at nominal power, produces approximately 1×10 10 neutrons/s, a source intensity which requires a large amount of shielding to minimize the dose rates around the generator. For this reason, the existing shielding completely encompasses the generator and does not include beam ports. Therefore, several MCNP simulations were performed to estimate the yield of uncollided 14.1-MeV neutrons from the generator for active interrogation experiments. Beam port diameters of 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm were modeled to assess the resulting neutron fluxes. The neutron flux outside the beam ports was estimated to be approximately 2×10 4 n/cm 2 s.

  15. Monte Carlo simulation of moderator and reflector in coal analyzer based on a D-T neutron generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Qing; Chu, Shengnan; Jia, Wenbao

    2015-11-01

    Coal is one of the most popular fuels in the world. The use of coal not only produces carbon dioxide, but also contributes to the environmental pollution by heavy metals. In prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA)-based coal analyzer, the characteristic gamma rays of C and O are mainly induced by fast neutrons, whereas thermal neutrons can be used to induce the characteristic gamma rays of H, Si, and heavy metals. Therefore, appropriate thermal and fast neutrons are beneficial in improving the measurement accuracy of heavy metals, and ensure that the measurement accuracy of main elements meets the requirements of the industry. Once the required yield of the deuterium-tritium (d-T) neutron generator is determined, appropriate thermal and fast neutrons can be obtained by optimizing the neutron source term. In this article, the Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) Transport Code and Evaluated Nuclear Data File (ENDF) database are used to optimize the neutron source term in PGNAA-based coal analyzer, including the material and shape of the moderator and neutron reflector. The optimized targets include two points: (1) the ratio of the thermal to fast neutron is 1:1 and (2) the total neutron flux from the optimized neutron source in the sample increases at least 100% when compared with the initial one. The simulation results show that, the total neutron flux in the sample increases 102%, 102%, 85%, 72%, and 62% with Pb, Bi, Nb, W, and Be reflectors, respectively. Maximum optimization of the targets is achieved when the moderator is a 3-cm-thick lead layer coupled with a 3-cm-thick high-density polyethylene (HDPE) layer, and the neutron reflector is a 27-cm-thick hemispherical lead layer.

  16. Comparison of the microtensile bond strength of different composite core materials and bonding systems to a fiber post (DT Light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lelya Sadighpour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Retention and stability of the post and core system is the key factor for success of final restoration . The aim of this study was to evaluate the microtensile bond strength of the different composite core materials and bonding systems to a fiber post.   Materials and Methods: To evaluate the bond strength of the composite resins to a fiber post ( DT light post 60 posts were divided into six groups : group A: Heliomolar Flow + Seal Bond, group B: Heliomolar Flow + SE Bond , group C: Valux Plus + Seal Bond , group D: Valux Plus + SE Bond , group E: Corecem + Seal Bond, group F: Corecem + SE Bond. All samples were thermocycled for 5000 cycles (5-55 0C and cut into four bars for the microtensile bond strength test. Failure modes were identified using a stereomicroscope. Data were analysed using One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc test (P<0.05.   Results: The interaction between composite resin materials and bonding systems were positive. The conventional hybrid composite (Valux Plus had significantly higher bond strength compared with the core specific flowable composite (Corecem when Seal Bond was applied as bonding agent (P<0.05. However, when SE Bond was utilized hybrid composite demonstrated significantly lower bond strength than that of other two groups (P<0.05.   Conclusion: The performance of a particular composite is affected by the bonding system that is applied. A single composite resin may have different bond strength when combined with different bonding system.

  17. Estimating the number of undetected multi-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 infected pig herds in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugbjerg, Helene; Wingstrand, Anne; Hald, Tine; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Lo Fo Wong, Danilo M A; Korsgaard, Helle

    2004-10-14

    In Denmark, the detection of multi-resistant Salmonella Typhimurium DT104 (MRDT104)-infected pig herds relies on the national Salmonella surveillance programme at the farm and slaughterhouse levels of production. With the surveillance sampling protocol and the diagnostic methods currently used, some herds might remain undetected. The number of undetected Danish pig herds infected with MRDT104 in the period 1 August 2001-31 July 2002 was estimated and compared with the number of culture-confirmed detected herds. A flow chart was constructed to illustrate where infected herds will go undetected in the surveillance system and Monte Carlo simulation was used to model the actual number of pig herds infected with MRDT1104. We estimated that 52 (90% CI [28, 178]) finisher herds were infected with MRDT104 compared to 23 (44%) detected. Among sow herds with production of weaners or growers, we estimated that 38 (90% CI [23, 74]) were infected with MRDT104 compared to 7 (18%) actually detected. Among breeder and multiplier herds, we estimated that five (90% CI [3, 8]) herds were infected with MRDT104 compared to three (60%) detected. In total, we estimated that 102 pig herds were infected with MRDT104 from 1 August 2001 till 31 July 2002 (90% CI [63, 228]). In comparison, 33 (32%) infected herds were detected in this period. The predicted proportion of undetected herds varied considerably with herd type. We infer that the proportion of detected MRDT104 infected herds depended on the intensity of the combined serological and bacteriological testing.

  18. Genotoxic potentials and related mechanisms of bisphenol A and other bisphenol compounds: a comparison study employing chicken DT40 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sangwoo; Liu, Xiaoshan; Takeda, Shunichi; Choi, Kyungho

    2013-09-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) has been found in plastic food containers, paper currencies and toys. BPA has been reported for various adverse health concerns including reproduction, development and carcinogenesis. These potential health implications have led to increasing use of alternative bisphenols such as bisphenol F and bisphenol S among many. However, little is known about the toxicity of alternative bisphenols and most of the toxicological information is limited to endocrine disrupting potentials. In this study, we evaluated cytotoxicity and the genotoxic potentials of several bisphenol compounds, and identified the mechanism of genotoxicity using a panel of mutant chicken DT40 cell lines deficient in DNA repair pathways. Several bisphenols including bisphenol AP, bisphenol M, or bisphenol P exerted genotoxic potentials that are greater than that of BPA. Generally RAD54(-/-) mutant cells were the most sensitive to all bisphenols except for bisphenol F, suggesting the induction of DNA double-strand breaks that could be rescued by homologous recombination. Genotoxic potential of bisphenols was confirmed by chromosomal aberration assay and γ-H2AX foci forming assay between wild-type and RAD54(-/-) mutant. Among the tested bisphenols, BPP at 12.5μM showed the greatest genotoxic potency, inducing chromosomal aberration and γ-H2AX foci in RAD54(-/-) mutant by 2.6 and 4.8 folds greater than those in wild-type, respectively. Our results clearly show several alternative bisphenols can cause genotoxicity that could be rescued by homologous recombination pathway, and some bisphenols induced even greater genotoxic potentials than that of BPA.

  19. A laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togo, N.; Syundzo, Yo.

    1984-06-19

    It is reported that an improved gas laser design using pumping of the active medium has been developed. A diagram of the laser system is given in graph form and its principle of operation is briefly described. A special sealing element is used in such lasers to seal the reservoir containing the oil in the pump which pumps the gas active medium. When the sealing element fails, there is the danger of oil penetration into the active laser medium. It is proposed that an additional pump which continually evacuates the oil reservoir during laser system operation be used. Thus, a low pressure is maintained in the reservoir. If the sealing element fails, the secondary pump generates a gas flow from the pumping system to the reservoir and eliminates gas penetration into the laser medium.

  20. Effects of radiation on direct-drive laser target interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombant, D. G.

    1999-11-01

    Radiation may be useful for reducing laser imprint and Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) growth in direct-drive target pellets. We will discuss the important role of radiation in a proposed direct-drive X-ray preheated target concept(S.Bodner et al., Phys. Plasmas 5,1901(1998)). In this design, a high-Z coating surrounds a thin plastic coat, over a DT-wicked foam and on top of the DT fuel. Radiation effects will be examined and discussed in the context of this design. The soft X-ray radiation emitted during the foot of the laser pulse - at a few 10^12W/cm^2- preheats the foam ablator which contributes to the reduction of the RT instability. The ablator also stops the radiation, allowing the fuel to stay on a low adiabat. Radiation in the blow-off corona of the target establishes a long scalelength plasma. This separates the ablation region from the laser absorption region where the remaining defects in laser uniformity/pellet surface finish constitute the seed for hydrodynamic instabilities. However, when the pulse intensity rises, the pressure generated by the laser in combination with the changing opacity of the plasma causes the plasma to be pushed back toward the ablator. This is called a Radiative Plasma Structure (RPS)(J.Dahlburg et al., J.Q.S.R.T. 54,113(1995)). These RPS's are a potential problem because they may carry with them the imprint which was present in the low-density corona. We will show and discuss these various effects, as well as some of the experimental work(C.Pawley et al., this conference) under way in connection with this program. These experiments are essential in order to validate both the design concepts and the numerical models, which include on-line state-of-the-art atomic physics modeling(M.Klapisch et al.,Phys. Plasmas 5,1919(1998)).

  1. A method for the formation of Pt metal nanoparticle arrays using nanosecond pulsed laser dewetting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owusu-Ansah, Ebenezer; Horwood, Corie A.; Birss, Viola I.; Shi, Yujun J., E-mail: shiy@ucalgary.ca [Department of Chemistry, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); El-Sayed, Hany A. [Institute for Technical Electrochemistry, Technische Universität München, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-05-18

    Nanosecond pulsed laser dewetting of Pt thin films, deposited on a dimpled Ta (DT) surface, has been studied here in order to form ordered Pt nanoparticle (NP) arrays. The DT substrate was fabricated via a simple electrochemical anodization process in a highly concentrated H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and HF solution. Pt thin films (3–5 nm) were sputter coated on DT and then dewetted under vacuum to generate NPs using a 355 nm laser radiation (6–9 ns, 10 Hz). The threshold laser fluence to fully dewet a 3.5 nm thick Pt film was determined to be 300 mJ/cm{sup 2}. Our experiments have shown that shorter irradiation times (≤60 s) produce smaller nanoparticles with more uniform sizes, while longer times (>60 s) give large nanoparticles with wider size distributions. The optimum laser irradiation time of 1 s (10 pulses) has led to the formation of highly ordered Pt nanoparticle arrays with an average nanoparticle size of 26 ± 3 nm with no substrate deformation. At the optimum condition of 1 s and 500 mJ/cm{sup 2}, as many as 85% of the dewetted NPs were found neatly in the well-defined dimples. This work has demonstrated that pulsed laser dewetting of Pt thin films on a pre-patterned dimpled substrate is an efficient and powerful technique to produce highly ordered Pt nanoparticle arrays. This method can thus be used to produce arrays of other high-melting-point metal nanoparticles for a range of applications, including electrocatalysis, functionalized nanomaterials, and analytical purposes.

  2. Introduction of American Laser Inertial Fusion Energy%美国激光惯性约束聚变能源研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成安; 师学明

    2013-01-01

    简要地介绍了美国激光惯性约束聚变能源(LIFE)的研究现状与发展前景.基于美国国家点火装置(NIF)的近期进展,美国利弗莫尔实验室提出了激光惯性约束聚变能源设想,并开始了分解研究.设想用新型二极管泵浦固体激光器产生1.4~2.0 MJ的激光能量,靶丸聚变增益25~30,打靶频率10~15Hz,实现350~500 MW聚变功率,相当于聚变中子源强1.3×1020~1.8×1020 n/s.以此驱动次临界裂变包层,使能量再倍增4~10倍,实现1 GW电功率的输出.采用创新设计的燃料元件,包层可达到90%以上的燃耗深度,形成一个安全、无碳、燃料资源丰富、核废料少、可持续发展的新型核能源系统.%In this paper the present study situation and prospect of the American laser-based Inertial Confinement Fusion Energy (LIFE) are briefly introduced. It is based on recent progress of National Inertial Facility (NIF) and related research have begun. On the assumption of using laser energy of 1.4 to 2.0 MJ, the target fusion gain G=25~30, the repetition rate 10 to 15 Hz, the fusion power of 350 to 500 MW or neutron source power of 1.3×1020 to 1.8×l020 n/s could be achieved. For a sub-critical fission blanket driven by this fusion neutrons power, energy multiplication M of 4~10 and several GW of thermal power could be obtained. By novel design on fuel pins, burnup more than 90% would be achieved for heavy metals in the blanket. Inertial Confinement Fusion-fission energy is a promising concept, which characterized by inherent safety, richness in nuclear fuel resources, minimization of nuclear waste, non-CO2 emitting , and it is a sustainable energy source.

  3. Biocavity Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    2000-10-05

    Laser technology has advanced dramatically and is an integral part of today's healthcare delivery system. Lasers are used in the laboratory analysis of human blood samples and serve as surgical tools that kill, burn or cut tissue. Recent semiconductor microtechnology has reduced the size o f a laser to the size of a biological cell or even a virus particle. By integrating these ultra small lasers with biological systems, it is possible to create micro-electrical mechanical systems that may revolutionize health care delivery.

  4. High power lasers & systems

    OpenAIRE

    Chatwin, Chris; Young, Rupert; Birch, Philip

    2015-01-01

    Some laser history;\\ud Airborne Laser Testbed & Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL);\\ud Laser modes and beam propagation;\\ud Fibre lasers and applications;\\ud US Navy Laser system – NRL 33kW fibre laser;\\ud Lockheed Martin 30kW fibre laser;\\ud Conclusions

  5. Coulomb explosion of nanodroplets drives the conversion of laser energy to nuclear energy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isidore; Last; Shlomo; Ron; Andreas; Heidenreich; Joshua; Jortner

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical–computational studies of table-top laser-driven nuclear fusion of high-energy(up to 15 MeV)deuterons with7Li,6Li,and D nuclei demonstrate the attainment of high fusion yields within a source–target reaction design.This constitutes a source of Coulomb-exploding deuterium nanodroplets driven by an ultraintense femtosecond near-infrared laser and a solid hollow cylindrical target containing the second element.The source–target reaction design attains the highest table-top fusion efficiencies(up to 4×109J 1per laser pulse)obtained to date.The highest conversion efficiency of laser energy to nuclear energy(10 2–10 3)for table-top DD fusion attained in the source–target design is comparable to that for DT fusion currently accomplished for‘big science’inertial fusion setups.

  6. C. Raudvere & J.P. Schjödt (eds., More Than Mythology – Narratives, Ritual Practices and Regional Distribution in Pre-Christian Scandinavian Religions (Lund: Nordic Academic Press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tero Mustonen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A book review of; Raudvere, Catharina & Schjödt, Jens Peter: More Than Mythology – Narratives, Ritual Practices and Regional Distribution in Pre-Christian Scandinavian Religions

  7. Messung des differentiellen Wirkungsquerschnitts $d\\delta/dt$ der elastischen Proton-Proton Streuung an den CERN-Protonen-Speicherringen bei $\\sqrt{s}$ = 23 GeV und $\\sqrt{s}$ = 62 GeV Schwerpunktsenergie

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, A; Schmidt-Parzefall, W; Schubert, Klaus R; Winter, Klaus; Dibon, Heinz; Flügge, G; Niebergall, F; Schumacher, P E; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Broll, C; Coignet, G; Favier, Jean; Massonet, L; Vivargent, M; Bartl, Walter; Eichinger, H; Gottfried, Christian; Neuhofer, Günther; Brandt, A; Nagy, E no 2; Schmidt-Parzefall, W no 2; Schubert, K R no 2; Winter, K no 2; Dibon, H no 2; Fluegge, G; Niebergall, F; Schumacher, P E; Aubert, J J no 3; Broll, C no 3; Coignet, G no 3; Favier, J no 3; Massonet, L no 3; Vivargent, M no 3; Bartl, W no 4; Eichinger, H no 4; Gottfried, C no 4; Neuhofer, G no 4

    1975-01-01

    Messung des differentiellen Wirkungsquerschnitts $d\\delta/dt$ der elastischen Proton-Proton Streuung an den CERN-Protonen-Speicherringen bei $\\sqrt{s}$ = 23 GeV und $\\sqrt{s}$ = 62 GeV Schwerpunktsenergie

  8. Laser yellowing

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M B Sai Prasad; Salvatore Siano

    2010-12-01

    Over the past few years there has been an increasing interest in researches related to the application of lasers in conservation, analysis and diagnostics of artwork surfaces. Among the many interesting problems to be tackled, one issue was drawing more interest because of the limitations it can impose on the use of lasers. Laser yellowing is a phenomenon wherein artwork surfaces assume a yellow hue when cleaned with Q-switched Nd:YAG (1064 nm) lasers in particular. Here the effect of yellowing has been studied and quantified for artwork surfaces (marble) using SFR Nd:YAG and LQS Nd:YAG lasers. Colorimetric measurements by employing a spectroradiometer helps to quantify the effect of yellowing by analysing three variables (chromaticity coordinates) of interest.

  9. Tritium breeding mock-up experiments containing lithium titanate ceramic pebbles and lead irradiated with DT neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakhar, Shrichand; Abhangi, M.; Tiwari, S. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Makwana, R. [Department of Physics, MS University, Vadodara (India); Chaudhari, V.; Swami, H.L.; Danani, C.; Rao, C.V.S.; Basu, T.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Mandal, D.; Bhade, Sonali; Kolekar, R.V.; Reddy, P.J. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Bhattacharyay, R.; Chaudhuri, P. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • Breeding benchmark experiment on LLCB TBM in ITER was performed. • Nuclear responses measured are TPR and reaction rate of {sup 115}In(n, n′){sup 115m}In reaction. • Measured responses are compared with calculations by MCNP and FENDL 2.1 library. • TPR measurements agree with calculations in the estimated error bar. • Measured {sup 115}In(n, n′){sup 115m}In reaction rates are underestimated by the calculations. - Abstract: Experiments were conducted with breeding blanket mock-up consisting of two layers of breeder material lithium titanate pebbles and three layers of pure lead as neutron multiplier. The radial dimensions of breeder, neutron multiplier and structural material layers are similar to the current design of the Indian Lead–Lithium cooled Ceramic Breeder (LLCB) blanket. The mock-up assembly was irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons from DT neutron generator. The local tritium production rates (TPR) from {sup 6}Li and {sup 7}Li in breeder layers were measured with the help of two different compositions of Li isotopes (60.69% {sup 6}Li and 7.54% {sup 6}Li) in Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Tritium production in the multiplication layers were also measured with above mentioned two types of pellets to compare the experimental tritium production with calculations. TPR from {sup 6}Li at one location in the breeder layer was also measured by direct online measurement of tritons from {sup 6}Li(n, t){sup 4}He reaction using silicon surface barrier detector and {sup 6}Li to triton converter. Additional verification of neutron spectra (E{sub n} > 0.35 MeV) in the mock-up zones were obtained by measuring {sup 115}In(n, n′){sup 115m}In reaction rate and comparing it with calculated values in all five layers of mock-up. All the measured nuclear responses were compared with transport calculations using code MCNP with FENDL2.1 and FENDL3.0 cross-section libraries. The average C/E ratio for tritium production in enriched Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pellets was 1

  10. Tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2 is indispensable for the interaction with VAV3 in chicken DT40 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chihara, Kazuyasu [Division of Genome Science and Microbiology, Department of Pathological Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Organization for Life Science Advancement Programs, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Kimura, Yukihiro [Division of Genome Science and Microbiology, Department of Pathological Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Division of Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Department of Sensory and Locomotor Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Honjoh, Chisato [Division of Genome Science and Microbiology, Department of Pathological Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Third Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Yamauchi, Shota; Takeuchi, Kenji [Division of Genome Science and Microbiology, Department of Pathological Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Organization for Life Science Advancement Programs, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Sada, Kiyonao, E-mail: ksada@u-fukui.ac.jp [Division of Genome Science and Microbiology, Department of Pathological Sciences, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan); Organization for Life Science Advancement Programs, University of Fukui, Fukui 910-1193 (Japan)

    2014-03-10

    Adaptor protein c-Abl SH3 domain-binding protein-2 (3BP2) is known to play regulatory roles in immunoreceptor-mediated signal transduction. We have previously demonstrated that Tyr{sup 174}, Tyr{sup 183} and Tyr{sup 446} in mouse 3BP2 are predominantly phosphorylated by Syk, and the phosphorylation of Tyr{sup 183} and the Src homology 2 (SH2) domain of mouse 3BP2 are critical for B cell receptor (BCR)-induced activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) in human B cells. In this report, we have shown that Syk, but not Abl family protein-tyrosine kinases, is critical for BCR-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2 in chicken DT40 cells. Mutational analysis showed that Tyr{sup 174}, Tyr{sup 183} and Tyr{sup 426} of chicken 3BP2 are the major phosphorylation sites by Syk and the SH2 domain of 3BP2 is critical for tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, phosphorylation of Tyr{sup 426} is required for the inducible interaction with the SH2 domain of Vav3. Moreover, the expression of the mutant form of 3BP2 in which Tyr{sup 426} was substituted to Phe resulted in the reduction in BCR-mediated Rac1 activation, when compared with the case of wild-type. Altogether, these data suggest that 3BP2 is involved in the activation of Rac1 through the regulation of Vav3 by Syk-dependent phosphorylation of Tyr{sup 426} following BCR stimulation. - Highlights: • 3BP2 is phosphorylated by Syk, but not Abl family kinases in BCR signaling. • Tyr183 and Tyr426 in chicken 3BP2 are the major phosphorylation sites by Syk. • The SH2 domain of 3BP2 is critical for tyrosine phosphorylation of 3BP2. • Phosphorylation of Tyr426 in 3BP2 is required for the inducible binding with Vav3. • 3BP2 is involved in the regulation of BCR-mediated Rac1 activation.

  11. Mitomycin C-DNA adducts generated by DT-diaphorase. Revised mechanism of the enzymatic reductive activation of mitomycin C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh Kumar, G; Lipman, R; Cummings, J; Tomasz, M

    1997-11-18

    Mitomycin C (MC) was reductively activated by DT-diaphorase [DTD; NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase] from rat liver carcinoma cells in the presence of Micrococcus lysodeicticus DNA at pH 5.8 and 7.4. The resulting alkylated MC-DNA complexes were digested to the nucleoside level and the covalent MC-nucleoside adducts were separated, identified, and quantitatively analyzed by HPLC. In analogous experiments, two other flavoreductases, NADH-cytochrome c reductase and NADPH-cytochrome c reductase, as well as two chemical reductive activating agents Na2S2O4 and H2/PtO2 were employed as activators for the alkylation of DNA by MC. DTD as well as all the other activators generated the four known major guanine-N2-MC adducts at both pHs. In addition, at the lower pH, the guanine-N7-linked adducts of 2,7-diaminomitosene were detectable in the adduct patterns. At a given pH all the enzymatic and chemical reducing agents generated very similar adduct patterns which, however, differed dramatically at the acidic as compared to the neutral pH. Overall yield of MC adducts was 3-4-fold greater at pH 7.4 than at 5. 8 except in the case of DTD when it was 4-fold lower. Without exception, however, cross-link adduct yields were greater at the acidic pH (2-10-fold within the series). The ratio of adducts of bifunctional activation to those of monofunctional activation was 6-20-fold higher at the acidic as compared to the neutral pH. A comprehensive mechanism of the alkylation of DNA by activated MC was derived from the DNA adduct analysis which complements earlier model studies of the activation of MC. The mechanism consists of three competing activation pathways yielding three different DNA-reactive electrophiles 11, 12, and 17 which generate three unique sets of DNA adducts as endproducts. The relative amounts of these adducts are diagnostic of the relative rates of the competing pathways in vitro, and most likely, in vivo. Factors that influence the relative rates of individual pathways

  12. SIRT Method for Diagnostics of Inhomogeneous Dense DT Plasmas with Fast Protons%高能质子束探测稠密不均匀氘氚等离子体密度的SIRT算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪梅; 沈百飞; 张晓梅; 王志文; 何燕和

    2011-01-01

    应用同时迭代重建算法(SIRT)重建不均匀稠密氘氚等离子体的密度分布.在二维等离子体密度重建的数值模拟中,探测稠密等离子体的高能质子束可以由强激光和等离子体相互作用产生,且质子束经过稠密等离子体后的能量损失是比较重要的.如果已知入射质子束和出射质子束的能量分布,可以在出射质子束能量测量的误差水平未知的情况下用SIRT算法重建等离子体的密度分布.结果显示,SIRT算法的精确度高于以L-曲线为准则的Tikhonov正则化方法,并可以在数据量不完全时重建密度分布.%Density reconstruction of inhomogeneous dense DT plasmas is studied with simultaneous iterative reconstruction technique (SIRT). In simulation of density diagnostics of a two-dimensional (2D) slice plasma, fast protons used for diagnostics can be generated with laser-plasma interaction and energy loss of fast protons going through plasmas is crucial. As original and final energies of protons are given, density reconstruction by SIRT method is done without noise level of final energies. Accuracy of the method is better than that of the Tikhonov regularization method based on deviation principle of L-curve. In addition,the SIRT method is available with incomplete data.

  13. Nuclear technologies in a sustainable energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, G.S.; Mc Donald, A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents papers on nuclear and thermonuclear reactors. Topics considered include energy strategies and nuclear power, self-sustaining systems of reactors, sustainable minireactors, small reactors, fast breeders and fusion-fission hybrids, the tokamak as a candidate for a D-T fusion reactor, the fusion breeder, hydrogen production through fusion, hydrogen production by means of electrolysis, the dense plasma focus, and radioactive waste management.

  14. High throughput laser processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, Gabriel; Pass, Thomas; Cousins, Peter John; Viatella, John

    2016-12-27

    A solar cell is formed using a solar cell ablation system. The ablation system includes a single laser source and several laser scanners. The laser scanners include a master laser scanner, with the rest of the laser scanners being slaved to the master laser scanner. A laser beam from the laser source is split into several laser beams, with the laser beams being scanned onto corresponding wafers using the laser scanners in accordance with one or more patterns. The laser beams may be scanned on the wafers using the same or different power levels of the laser source.

  15. [Lipolysis lasers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazer, J-M

    2009-10-01

    We use lipolysis lasers for around five years. The principle of those lasers is that, for some wavelengths, the fat, located in the adipocytes reacts as a chromophor. In order to allow the direct exposure of the adipocytes to the optical fiber (around 1mm diameter), this has to be inserted in the hypodermis, then move back and forth inside the treated areas. The theorical benefits, compared to the liposuction procedures are related to the fact that the thermal effect of the laser emission allows to avoid laxity, sometimes observed after a liposuction. If we consider the first publications related to this emerging procedure, the profile of tolerance seems good, and even possibly better than the liposuctions. Nevertheless, this procedure with lasers is still a surgical procedure, exposing theorically to the side effects related in and after each surgery: infections, ecchymosis... Recently, some cases of severe side effects (infection of the skin, and necrosis) have been reported. They seem to be related to a homogeneous distribution of the energy inducing an excessive thermal injury. Some new improvements, with the last generation lasers, could allow us to avoid, or at least to dramatically reduce those side effects. The efficacy of those lasers is visibly satisfying; the key question is to precise the optimal modalities of use : in a surgery room, after an optimal training, with the last generation lasers?

  16. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., frequency doubling in external cavities, reliable cw-parametric oscillators, tunable narrow-band UV sources, more sensitive detection techniques, tunable femtosecond and sub-femtosecond lasers (X-ray region and the attosecond range), control of atomic and molecular excitations, frequency combs able to synchronize independent femtosecond lasers, coherent matter waves, and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  17. Laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    Keeping abreast of the latest techniques and applications, this new edition of the standard reference and graduate text on laser spectroscopy has been completely revised and expanded. While the general concept is unchanged, the new edition features a broad array of new material, e.g., ultrafast lasers (atto- and femto-second lasers) and parametric oscillators, coherent matter waves, Doppler-free Fourier spectroscopy with optical frequency combs, interference spectroscopy, quantum optics, the interferometric detection of gravitational waves and still more applications in chemical analysis, medical diagnostics, and engineering.

  18. Semiconductor laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, K.; Shyuue, M.

    1982-09-25

    A distributed feedback semiconductor laser is proposed which generates several beams with equal wavelengths in different directions. For this purpose, 1 millimeter grooves are cut into the surface of an n-type conductance GaAs plate in three different directions; these grooves form a diffraction grating. The center of this plate has no grooves and is bombarded by an He/Ne laser beam. The diffraction gratings provide resonance properties and generate laser beams with wavelengths of 8850, 9000 and 9200 angstroms.

  19. Protection by uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid and DT-diaphorase against the cytotoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons isolated from a complex coal gasification condensate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, M S; Haugen, D A; Reilly, C A; Stamoudis, V C

    1986-06-30

    The cytotoxicities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) subclasses isolated from a complex organic mixture (coal gasification condensate) were studied in vitro in Chinese hamster ovary cells, in the presence of rat liver microsomes from animals pretreated with Aroclor. Toxicity was enhanced by microsomal metabolism and was inversely related to aromatic ring number. Rat liver cytosol, semipurified DT-diaphorase, and uridine diphosphoglucuronic acid decreased the cytotoxicity of a variety of PAH mixtures and representative PAH, as well as individual PAH metabolites. The results indicate that the in vitro toxicity of complex PAH mixtures is caused primarily by hydroxy-PAH and quinone metabolites of the predominant, nonmutagenic two- and three-ring PAHs.

  20. High-resolution measurements of the DT neutron spectrum using new CD foils in the Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatu Johnson, M., E-mail: gatu@psfc.mit.edu; Frenje, J. A.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.; Séguin, F. H. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Bionta, R. M.; Casey, D. T.; Eckart, M. J.; Grim, G. P.; Hartouni, E. P.; Hatarik, R.; Sayre, D. B.; Skulina, K.; Yeamans, C. B. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Farrell, M. P.; Hoppe, M.; Kilkenny, J. D.; Reynolds, H. G.; Schoff, M. E. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The Magnetic Recoil neutron Spectrometer (MRS) on the National Ignition Facility measures the DT neutron spectrum from cryogenically layered inertial confinement fusion implosions. Yield, areal density, apparent ion temperature, and directional fluid flow are inferred from the MRS data. This paper describes recent advances in MRS measurements of the primary peak using new, thinner, reduced-area deuterated plastic (CD) conversion foils. The new foils allow operation of MRS at yields 2 orders of magnitude higher than previously possible, at a resolution down to ∼200 keV FWHM.

  1. A new ICRF scenario for bulk ion heating in D-T plasmas: How to utilize intrinsic impurities in fusion devices in our favour

    CERN Document Server

    Kazakov, Y O; Van Eester, D; Bilato, R; Dumont, R; Lerche, E; Mantsinen, M; Messiaen, A

    2015-01-01

    A fusion reactor requires plasma pre-heating before the rate of deuterium-tritium fusion reactions becomes significant. In ITER, radiofrequency (RF) heating of 3He ions, additionally puffed into the plasma, is one of the main options considered for increasing bulk ion temperature during the ramp-up phase of the pulse. In this paper, we propose an alternative scenario for bulk ion heating with RF waves, which requires no extra 3He puff and profits from the presence of intrinsic Beryllium impurities in the plasma. The discussed method to heat Be impurities in D-T plasmas is shown to provide an even larger fraction of fuel ion heating.

  2. Laser Refractography

    CERN Document Server

    Rinkevichyus, B.S; Raskovskaya, I.L

    2010-01-01

    This book describes the basic principles of laser refractography, a flexible new diagnostic tool for measuring optically inhomogeneous media and flows. Laser refractography is based on digital imaging and computer processing of structured laser beam refraction (SLR) in inhomogeneous transparent media. Laser refractograms provide both qualitative and quantitative measurements and can be used for the study of fast and transient processes. In this book, the theoretical basis of refractography is explored in some detail, and experimental setups are described for measurement of transparent media using either 2D (passed radiation) or 3D (scattered radiation) refractograms. Specific examples and applications are discussed, including visualization of the boundary layer near a hot or cold metallic ball in water, and observation of edge effects and microlayers in liquids and gases. As the first book to describe this new and exciting technique, this monograph has broad cross-disciplinary appeal and will be of interest t...

  3. Laser Dentistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whitening procedures. What are the benefits of using dental lasers? There are several advantages. Dentists may not need to use a drill or administer anesthesia in some procedures, allowing the patient to enjoy ...

  4. Laser Optomechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Weijian; Ng, Kar Wei; Rao, Yi; Chase, Christopher; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2015-01-01

    Cavity optomechanics explores the coupling between the optical field and the mechanical oscillation to induce cooling and regenerative oscillation in a mechanical oscillator. So far, optomechanics relies on the detuning between the cavity and an external pump laser, where the laser acts only as a power supply. Here, we report a new scheme with mutual coupling between a mechanical oscillator that supports a mirror of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and the optical field, greatly enhancing the light-matter energy transfer. In this work, we used an ultra-light-weight (130 pg) high-contrast-grating (HCG) mirror in a VCSEL, whose reflectivity spectrum is designed to facilitate strong optomechanical coupling, to demonstrate optomechanically-induced regenerative oscillation of the laser optomechanical cavity with > 550 nm self-oscillation amplitude of the micro-mechanical oscillator, two to three orders of magnitude larger than typical. This new scheme not only offers an efficient approach for high-...

  5. Il laser

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William V

    1974-01-01

    Verso il 1960, il laser era ancora "una soluzione alla ricerca di un problema", ma fin dagli anni immediatamente successivi si è rivelato uno strumento insostituibile per le applicazioni più svariate.

  6. [Laser myringotomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassmann-Poznańska, Elzbieta; Skotnicka, Bozena

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of the qualities of laser-assisted myringotomy (LAM) as a treatment for acute and secretory otitis media. Laser-assisted myringotomy was performed on 65 children (113 ears) mean age 6.2 years diagnosed with secretory otitis media (80%), recurrent secretory otitis media (11%) and acute otitis media (9%). Myringotomy was performed under general anesthesia using the OtoLAM device (ESC/Sharplan, Israel). In 64 ears pressure equalisation tubes were inserted after fenestration of the tympanic membrane with laser. Adenoidectomy alone or with tonsillectomy was performed at the same time in 51 cases. Laser tympanostomies remained patent for 7-32 days. All tympanostomies healed with no noticeable scarring. LAM appears to be a safe, and easy to performed, alternative technique in the treatment of otitis media.

  7. A laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togo, N.

    1984-06-19

    It is reported that an improved laser design employing pumping of the active gas medium has been developed. A diagram of the laser system is given and its principle of operation is described in detail. Gas pumping is achieved using a pump whose oil reservoir is sealed by a sealing element. When the sealing element fails, the oil from the reservoir pollutes the laser substance. It is proposed that an additional oil reservoir pumping loop be used to maintain a lower pressure. The reservoir pressure is recorded by a sensor. When the sealing element fails, the pressure in the reservoir increases. The sensor records the change in pressure and generates a signal which shuts down the laser system. Thus, the possibility for oil penetration into the gas system is totally eliminated.

  8. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  9. Green lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin

    2010-01-01

    Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range......Well over a dozen papers at this year's Photonics West meeting in San Francisco boasted improvements in harmonic generation to produce visible laser beams, most of them in the green spectral range...

  10. Isolation of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Paratyphi B dT+, or Salmonella Java, from Indonesia and alteration of the d-tartrate fermentation phenotype by disrupting the ORF STM 3356.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Kyung Ho; Choi, Seon Young; Lee, Je Hee; Lee, Hyejon; Shin, Eun Hee; Agtini, Magdarina D; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Ochiai, R Leon; Clemens, John D; Wain, John; Hahn, Ji-Sook; Lee, Bok Kwon; Song, Manki; Chun, Jongsik; Kim, Dong Wook

    2006-12-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Paratyphi B [O1,4,(5),12 : Hb : 1,2] can cause either an enteric fever (paratyphoid fever) or self-limiting gastroenteritis in humans. The d-tartrate non-fermenting variant S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B dT- (S. Paratyphi B) is the causative agent of paratyphoid fever, and the d-tartrate fermenting variant S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Paratyphi B dT+ (S. Paratyphi B dT+; formerly called Salmonella Java) causes gastroenteritis. S. Java is currently recognized as an emerging problem worldwide. Twelve dT+ S. Java isolates were collected in Indonesia between 2000 and 2002. One-third of them contained Salmonella genomic island 1 (SGI1), which gives the multidrug-resistant phenotype to the bacteria. In this study, a PCR-based method to detect a single nucleotide difference responsible for the inability to ferment d-tartrate, reported elsewhere, was validated. The d-tartrate fermenting phenotype of S. Java was converted to the non-fermenting phenotype by the disruption of the ORF STM 3356, and the d-tartrate non-fermenting phenotype of the ORF STM 3356-disrupted strain and the dT- reference strain was changed to the dT+ phenotype by complementing ORF STM 3356 in trans. The results show that the dT+ phenotype requires a functional product encoded by STM 3356, and support the use of the PCR-based discrimination method for S. Paratyphi B and S. Java as the standard differentiation method.

  11. Laser Physics and Laser Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Other types of laser-assisted materials process- Planck Institute for Quantum Optics. Garching . West ing and machining, including laser cutting, welding...detectors with microstructured electrodes, 134[ G. N. Maracas. G. L. Harrs, C. A. Lee. and R. A. McFarlane. Opt. Le’tt., vol. 7, pp. 575-577, Dcc . 1982...A. E. Siegman Max-Planck Institut f’r Quantenoptik, D-8046 Garching , West Germany and E. L. Ginzton Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford

  12. Measurement of the differential cross section $d\\sigma/dt$ in elastic $p\\bar{p}$ scattering at $\\sqrt{s}=1.96$ TeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abazov, V.M.; Abazov, V.M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B.S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G.D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G.A.

    2012-06-01

    We present a measurement of the elastic differential cross section differential cross section d{sigma}(p{bar p}{yields}p{bar p})/dt as a function of the four-momentum-transfer squared t. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of {approx}31 nb{sup -1} collected with the D0 detector using dedicated Tevatron p{bar p} Collider operating conditions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV and covers the range 0.26 < |t| < 1.2 GeV{sup 2}. For |t| < 0.6 GeV{sup 2}, d{sigma}/dt is described by an exponential function of the form Ae{sup -b|t|} with a slope parameter b = 16.86 {+-} 0.10 (stat) {+-} 0.20 (syst) GeV{sup -2}. A change in slope is observed at |t| {approx} 0.6 GeV{sup 2}, followed by a more gradual |t| dependence with increasing values of |t|.

  13. Georgia Tech Studies of Sub-Critical Advanced Burner Reactors with a D-T Fusion Tokamak Neutron Source for the Transmutation of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, W. M.

    2009-09-01

    The possibility that a tokamak D-T fusion neutron source, based on ITER physics and technology, could be used to drive sub-critical, fast-spectrum nuclear reactors fueled with the transuranics (TRU) in spent nuclear fuel discharged from conventional nuclear reactors has been investigated at Georgia Tech in a series of studies which are summarized in this paper. It is found that sub-critical operation of such fast transmutation reactors is advantageous in allowing longer fuel residence time, hence greater TRU burnup between fuel reprocessing stages, and in allowing higher TRU loading without compromising safety, relative to what could be achieved in a similar critical transmutation reactor. The required plasma and fusion technology operating parameter range of the fusion neutron source is generally within the anticipated operational range of ITER. The implications of these results for fusion development policy, if they hold up under more extensive and detailed analysis, is that a D-T fusion tokamak neutron source for a sub-critical transmutation reactor, built on the basis of the ITER operating experience, could possibly be a logical next step after ITER on the path to fusion electrical power reactors. At the same time, such an application would allow fusion to contribute to meeting the nation's energy needs at an earlier stage by helping to close the fission reactor nuclear fuel cycle.

  14. Design and optimization of a beam shaping assembly for BNCT based on D-T neutron generator and dose evaluation using a simulated head phantom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Fatemeh S; Masoudi, S Farhad

    2012-12-01

    A feasibility study was conducted to design a beam shaping assembly for BNCT based on D-T neutron generator. The optimization of this configuration has been realized in different steps. This proposed system consists of metallic uranium as neutron multiplier, TiF(3) and Al(2)O(3) as moderators, Pb as reflector, Ni as shield and Li-Poly as collimator to guide neutrons toward the patient position. The in-air parameters recommended by IAEA were assessed for this proposed configuration without using any filters which enables us to have a high epithermal neutron flux at the beam port. Also a simulated Snyder head phantom was used to evaluate dose profiles due to the irradiation of designed beam. The dose evaluation results and depth-dose curves show that the neutron beam designed in this work is effective for deep-seated brain tumor treatments even with D-T neutron generator with a neutron yield of 2.4×10(12) n/s. The Monte Carlo Code MCNP-4C is used in order to perform these calculations.

  15. Nuclear energy without radioactivity: Laser driven block ignition of hydrogen-lithium7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, Heinrich; Miley, George

    2009-11-01

    Side-on block ignition of uncompressed solid fusion fuel by multi-petawatt-picosecond laser pulses following the Chu-Bobin scheme may be possible using a drastic anomaly of laser-plasma interaction. It is essential that the laser pulses are extremely clean (contrast ratio 10^8) to avoid relativistic self-focusing^1 as shown for DT with next available laser pulses after updating the Chu-Bobin scheme.^2 Using p^11B (HB11) turned out to be only about ten times more difficult for laser fusion by this side-on ignition in contrast to impossible ignition by the usual spherical laser compression. Results for p-7Li fusion are similar to HB11. Controlled laser fusion energy may be produced with less radioactivity per energy than burning coal. [4pt] ^1H. Hora, J. Badziak et al. Phys. Plasmas, 14, 072701 (2007);[0pt] ^2H. Hora, B. Malekynia et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 011101 (2008);[0pt] ^3H. Hora, G.H. Miley et al. Laser & Part. Beams 27, (2009) doi:10.1017/8S026303460999022X.

  16. Laser therapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000905.htm Laser therapy for cancer To use the sharing features ... Lasers are also used on the skin. How Laser Therapy is Used Laser therapy can be used ...

  17. Simulations of symcap and layered NIF experiments with top/bottom laser asymmetry to impose P1 drive on capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eder, D.; Spears, B.; Casey, D.; Pak, A.; Ma, T.; Izumi, N.; Pollock, B.; Weber, C.; Kritcher, A.; Jones, O.; Milovich, J.; Town, R.; Robey, H.; Hinkel, D.; Callahan, D.; Hatchett, S.; Knauer, J.; Yeamans, C.; Bleuel, D.; Nagel, S.; Hatarik, R.; Khan, S.; Sayre, D.; Caggiano, J.; Grim, G.; Eckart, M.; Fittinghoff, D.; Merrill, F.; Bradley, D.

    2016-05-01

    Integrated hohlraum/capsule post-shot simulation of the first full-scale cryogenic layered-DT experiment with top/bottom laser asymmetries of 8% is discussed. The imposed P1 Legendre mode drive on the capsule results in downward velocity of 85 ± 15 km/s as measured by neutron time of flight (NTOF) diagnostics and x-ray imagers, which is in excellent agreement with the calculated velocity of 87 km/s. The measured DT yield is approximately 30% less than the average of two comparable shots using the same 4 shock HiFoot pulse shape without drive asymmetry. The calculated DT yield of 5.0e15 is very close to the measured value of 4.86e15 for the shot with drive asymmetry, which implies that P1 effects dominate yield reduction. The neutron activation diagnostics (NADs) give clear indication of higher areal density in the direction of the north pole in excellent agreement with calculations. Integrated post-shot simulation of an earlier symcap (capsule with appropriate ablator thicknesses to act as a surrogate for an ignition capsule) experiment with laser asymmetries show that calculated neutron-wighted velocity is a strong function of capsule shape.

  18. Laser acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, T.; Nakajima, K.; Mourou, G.

    2017-02-01

    The fundamental idea of Laser Wakefield Acceleration (LWFA) is reviewed. An ultrafast intense laser pulse drives coherent wakefield with a relativistic amplitude robustly supported by the plasma. While the large amplitude of wakefields involves collective resonant oscillations of the eigenmode of the entire plasma electrons, the wake phase velocity ˜ c and ultrafastness of the laser pulse introduce the wake stability and rigidity. A large number of worldwide experiments show a rapid progress of this concept realization toward both the high-energy accelerator prospect and broad applications. The strong interest in this has been spurring and stimulating novel laser technologies, including the Chirped Pulse Amplification, the Thin Film Compression, the Coherent Amplification Network, and the Relativistic Mirror Compression. These in turn have created a conglomerate of novel science and technology with LWFA to form a new genre of high field science with many parameters of merit in this field increasing exponentially lately. This science has triggered a number of worldwide research centers and initiatives. Associated physics of ion acceleration, X-ray generation, and astrophysical processes of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays are reviewed. Applications such as X-ray free electron laser, cancer therapy, and radioisotope production etc. are considered. A new avenue of LWFA using nanomaterials is also emerging.

  19. Header For Laser Diode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jonathan A. R.; Spadin, Paul L.

    1990-01-01

    Header designed to contain laser diode. Output combined incoherently with outputs of other laser diodes in grating laser-beam combiner in optical communication system. Provides electrical connections to laser diode, cooling to thermally stabilize laser operation, and optomechanical adjustments that steer and focus laser beam. Range of adjustments provides for correction of worst-case decentering and defocusing of laser beam encountered with laser diodes. Mechanical configuration made simple to promote stability and keep cost low.

  20. The E-wave deceleration rate E/DT outperforms the tissue Doppler-derived index E/e' in characterizing lung remodeling in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Dung Nguyen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diastolic dysfunction in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF may result in pulmonary congestion and lung remodeling. We evaluated the usefulness of major diastolic echocardiographic parameters and of the deceleration rate of early transmitral diastolic velocity (E/DT in predicting lung remodeling in a rat model of HFpEF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats underwent aortic banding (AoB to induce pressure overload (PO. Left ventricular hypertrophy fully developed 2 weeks after AoB. At 4 and 6 weeks, the lung weight-to-body weight ratio (LW/BW, a sensitive marker for pulmonary congestion and remodeling, dramatically increased despite preserved fractional shortening, indicating the presence of HFpEF. The time course of LW/BW was well reflected by E/DT, by the ratio of early to late transmitral diastolic velocity (E/A and the deceleration time of E (DT, but not by the ratio of transmitral to mitral annular early diastolic velocity (E/e'. In agreement, the best correlation with LW/BW was found for E/DT (r = 0.76; p<0.0001, followed by E/A (r = 0.69; p<0.0001, DT (r = -0.62; p<0.0001 and finally E/e' (r = 0.51; p<0.001. Furthermore, analysis of receiver-operating characteristic curves for the prediction of increased LW/BW revealed excellent area under the curve values for E/DT (AUC = 0.98 and DT (AUC = 0.95, which are significantly higher than that of E/e' (AUC = 0.82. In a second approach, we also found that the new parameter E/DT correlated well with right ventricular weight index and echocardiographic measures of right ventricular systolic function. CONCLUSIONS: The novel parameter E/DT outperforms the tissue Doppler index E/e' in detecting and monitoring lung remodeling induced by pressure overload. The results may provide a handy tool to point towards secondary lung disease in HFpEF and warrant further clinical investigations.

  1. Dyestuff laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkmann, U.; Raue, R.; Schellhammer, C.; Telle, H.

    1981-06-16

    Laser light in the wavelength range of 400 - 480 nm is obtained with a dyestuff laser containing a dyestuff of the general formula wherein E denotes one of the radicals R1-R4 independently of one another denote hydrogen, alkyl, trifluoromethyl, alkoxy, aralkoxy, halogen, alkenyloxy, the carboxyl, cyano, alkylsulphone, arylsulphone, carboxamide or sulphonamide group or the carboxylic acid ester group, or R1 and R2, or R3 and R4, conjointly represent a fused benzene ring and M and N independently of one another denote 0, 1 or 2, with the proviso that the radical E contains at least one sulphonic acid group if M and N represent 0, and wherein the radical E can be further substituted, in a solvent which does not interfere with the emission, at a concentration, which emits laser beams, of, preferably, 10-2 to 10-5 mols/liter.

  2. A laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Togo, N.

    1984-06-19

    The development of an improved gas laser system employing pumping of the active gaseous medium is reported. The layout of the design is given and its principle of operation is described in detail. The oil reservoir in the vacuum pump which pumps the gas through the laser system is separated by a sealing element; when this element fails, the oil may pollute the active medium. It is proposed that an additional oil reservoir pumping loop be used with the pump that operates continuously and maintains a lower pressure in the reservoir. The pressure in the reservoir is monitored by a special sensor. When the sealing element fails, the pressure sensor records the pressure drop in the oil reservoir. A signal is then generated and the laser system ceases operation, and eliminates the possibility for the oil penetrating into the pumping system.

  3. Records for conversion of laser energy to nuclear energy in exploding nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jortner, Joshua; Last, Isidore

    2017-09-01

    Table-top nuclear fusion reactions in the chemical physics laboratory can be driven by high-energy dynamics of Coulomb exploding, multicharged, deuterium containing nanostructures generated by ultraintense, femtosecond, near-infrared laser pulses. Theoretical-computational studies of table-top laser-driven nuclear fusion of high-energy (up to 15 MeV) deuterons with 7Li, 6Li and D nuclei demonstrate the attainment of high fusion yields within a source-target reaction design, which constitutes the highest table-top fusion efficiencies obtained up to date. The conversion efficiency of laser energy to nuclear energy (0.1-1.0%) for table-top fusion is comparable to that for DT fusion currently accomplished for 'big science' inertial fusion setups.

  4. Laser barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abercrombie, Kevin R.; Shiels, David; Rash, Tim

    2001-02-06

    A pressure measuring instrument that utilizes the change of the refractive index of a gas as a function of pressure and the coherent nature of a laser light to determine the barometric pressure within an environment. As the gas pressure in a closed environment varies, the index of refraction of the gas changes. The amount of change is a function of the gas pressure. By illuminating the gas with a laser light source, causing the wavelength of the light to change, pressure can be quantified by measuring the shift in fringes (alternating light and dark bands produced when coherent light is mixed) in an interferometer.

  5. Laser Heterodyning

    CERN Document Server

    Protopopov, Vladimir V

    2009-01-01

    Laser heterodyning is now a widespread optical technique, based on interference of two waves with slightly different frequencies within the sensitive area of a photo-detector. Its unique feature – preserving phase information about optical wave in the electrical signal of the photo-detector – finds numerous applications in various domains of applied optics and optoelectronics: in spectroscopy, polarimetry, radiometry, laser radars and Lidars, microscopy and other areas. The reader may be surprised by a variety of disciplines that this book covers and satisfied by detailed explanation of the phenomena. Very well illustrated, this book will be helpful for researches, postgraduates and students, working in applied optics.

  6. Nuclear Photonics for the 21st Century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barty, Christopher P.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-03-10

    Lasers and laser-based sources are now routinely used to control and manipulate nuclear processes, e.g. fusion, fission and resonant nuclear excitation. Two such “nuclear photonics” activities with the potential for profound societal impact will be reviewed in this presentation: the pursuit of laser-driven inertial confinement fusion at the National Ignition Facility and the development of laser-based, mono-energetic gamma-rays for isotope-specific detection, assay and imaging of materials.

  7. DT-Web: a web-based application for drug-target interaction and drug combination prediction through domain-tuned network-based inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaimo, Salvatore; Bonnici, Vincenzo; Cancemi, Damiano; Ferro, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Pulvirenti, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    The identification of drug-target interactions (DTI) is a costly and time-consuming step in drug discovery and design. Computational methods capable of predicting reliable DTI play an important role in the field. Algorithms may aim to design new therapies based on a single approved drug or a combination of them. Recently, recommendation methods relying on network-based inference in connection with knowledge coming from the specific domain have been proposed. Here we propose a web-based interface to the DT-Hybrid algorithm, which applies a recommendation technique based on bipartite network projection implementing resources transfer within the network. This technique combined with domain-specific knowledge expressing drugs and targets similarity is used to compute recommendations for each drug. Our web interface allows the users: (i) to browse all the predictions inferred by the algorithm; (ii) to upload their custom data on which they wish to obtain a prediction through a DT-Hybrid based pipeline; (iii) to help in the early stages of drug combinations, repositioning, substitution, or resistance studies by finding drugs that can act simultaneously on multiple targets in a multi-pathway environment. Our system is periodically synchronized with DrugBank and updated accordingly. The website is free, open to all users, and available at http://alpha.dmi.unict.it/dtweb/. Our web interface allows users to search and visualize information on drugs and targets eventually providing their own data to compute a list of predictions. The user can visualize information about the characteristics of each drug, a list of predicted and validated targets, associated enzymes and transporters. A table containing key information and GO classification allows the users to perform their own analysis on our data. A special interface for data submission allows the execution of a pipeline, based on DT-Hybrid, predicting new targets with the corresponding p-values expressing the reliability of

  8. The slope, curvature, and higher parameters in $pp$ and $\\bar{p}p$ scattering, and the extrapolation of measurements of $d\\sigma(s,t)/dt$ to $t=0$

    CERN Document Server

    Block, Martin M; Ha, Phuoc; Halzen, Francis

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of curvature in the expansion of the logarithm of the differential elastic scattering cross section near $t=0$ as $d\\sigma(s,t)/dt=d\\sigma(s,0)/dt\\,\\times\\exp(Bt+Ct^2+Dt^3\\cdots)$ in an eikonal model for $pp$ and $\\bar{p}p$ scattering, and use the results to discuss the extrapolation of measured differential cross sections and the slope parameters $B$ to $t=-q^2=0$. We find that the curvature effects represented by the parameters $C$ and $D$, while small, lead to significant changes in the forward slope parameter relative to that determined in a purely exponential fit, and to smaller but still significant changes in the forward elastic scattering and total cross sections. Curvature effects should therefore be considered in future analyses or reanalyses of the elastic scattering data.

  9. A novel particle Time Of Flight (pTOF) diagnostic for measurements of shock- and compression-bang times in D3He and DT implosions at the NIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackinnon, A; Rinderknecht, H G; Johnson, M G; Zylstra, A B; Sinenian, N; Rosenbergh, M J; Frenje, J A; Waugh, C J; Li, C K; Seguin, F H; Petrasso, R; Rygg, J R; Kline, J; Doeppner, T; Park, H S; Landen, O; Lepape, S; Meezan, N; Kilkenny, J; Glebov, V Y; Sangster, T; Stoeckl, C; Olson, R

    2012-05-02

    The particle-time-of-flight (pTOF) diagnostic, fielded alongside a Wedge Range-Filter (WRF) proton spectrometer, will provide an absolute timing for the shock-burn weighted {rho}R measurements that will validate the modeling of implosion dynamics at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). In the first phase of the project, pTOF has recorded accurate bang times in cryogenic DT, DT-Exploding Pusher and D{sup 3}He implosions using DD or DT neutrons with an accuracy better than {+-}70 ps. In the second phase of the project, a deflecting magnet will be incorporated into the pTOF design for simultaneous measurements of shock- and compression-bang times in D{sup 3}He-filled surrogate implosions using D{sup 3}He protons and DD-neutrons, respectively.

  10. Laser device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides a light source for light circuits on a silicon platform. A vertical laser cavity is formed by a gain region arranged between a first mirror structure and a second mirror structure, both acting as mirrors, by forming a grating region including an active material...

  11. Immunogenicity and safety of combined adsorbed low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (REVAXIS (®)) versus combined diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DT Polio (®)) given as a booster dose at 6 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdos, Vincent; Soubeyrand, Benoit; Vidor, Emmanuel; Richard, Patrick; Boyer, Julie; Sadorge, Christine; Fiquet, Anne

    2011-05-01

    This randomized, comparative, phase-IIIb study conducted in France aimed to demonstrate whether seroprotection against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis 1 month after a single dose of REVAXIS (low-dose diphtheria) is non-inferior to seroprotection 1 month after a single dose of DT Polio (standard-dose diphtheria), both vaccines being given as a second booster to healthy children at 6 years of age. Children were randomly assigned to receive a single intramuscular dose of REVAXIS or DT Polio. Primary endpoints were the 1-month post-booster seroprotection rates for diphtheria, tetanus and poliovirus type-1, -2 and -3 antigens. Secondary endpoints were immunogenicity and safety observations. Of 788 children screened, 760 were randomized: REVAXIS group, 384 children; DT Polio group, 376 children. No relevant difference in demographic characteristics at baseline was observed between REVAXIS and DT Polio groups. Non-inferiority of REVAXIS compared with DT Polio for seroprotection was demonstrated against diphtheria (respectively 98.6% and 99.3%), tetanus (respectively 99.6% and 100%), and poliovirus antigens (100% for each types in both groups). No allergic reactions to REVAXIS were reported. A benefit/risk ratio in favor of REVAXIS was suggested by the trend towards a better tolerability of REVAXIS compared with DT Polio regarding the rate of severe solicited injection-site reactions. The results support the use of REVAXIS as a booster at 6 years of age in infants who previously received a three-dose primary series within the first 6 months of life and a first booster including diphtheria, tetanus and poliovirus vaccine(s) given before 2 years of age.

  12. Immunogenicity and safety of combined adsorbed low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (REVAXIS®) versus combined diphtheria, tetanus and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (DT Polio®) given as a booster dose at 6 years of age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajdos, Vincent; Soubeyrand, Benoit; Vidor, Emmanuel; Richard, Patrick; Boyer, Julie; Sadorge, Christine

    2011-01-01

    This randomized, comparative, phase-IIIb study conducted in France aimed to demonstrate whether seroprotection against diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis 1 month after a single dose of REVAXIS (low-dose diphtheria) is non-inferior to seroprotection 1 month after a single dose of DT Polio (standard-dose diphtheria), both vaccines being given as a second booster to healthy children at 6 years of age. Children were randomly assigned to receive a single intramuscular dose of REVAXIS or DT Polio. Primary endpoints were the 1-month post-booster seroprotection rates for diphtheria, tetanus and poliovirus type-1, -2 and -3 antigens. Secondary endpoints were immunogenicity and safety observations. Of 788 children screened, 760 were randomized: REVAXIS group, 384 children; DT Polio group, 376 children. No relevant difference in demographic characteristics at baseline was observed between REVAXIS and DT Polio groups. Noninferiority of REVAXIS compared with DT Polio for seroprotection was demonstrated against diphtheria (respectively 98.6% and 99.3%), tetanus (respectively 99.6% and 100%) and poliovirus antigens (100% for each types in both groups). No allergic reactions to REVAXIS were reported. A benefit/risk ratio in favor of REVAXIS was suggested by the trend towards a better tolerability of REVAXIS compared with DT Polio regarding the rate of severe solicited injection-site reactions. The results support the use of REVAXIS as a booster at 6 years of age in infants who previously received a three-dose primary series within the first 6 months of life and a first booster including diphtheria, tetanus and poliovirus vaccine(s) given before 2 years of age. PMID:21441781

  13. Nanowire Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couteau, C.; Larrue, A.; Wilhelm, C.; Soci, C.

    2015-05-01

    We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D) nature, flexibility in material choice and combination, and intrinsic optoelectronic properties. First, we provide an overview on using quasi-1D nanowire systems to realize subwavelength lasers with efficient, directional, and low-threshold emission. We then describe the state of the art for nanowire lasers in terms of materials, geometry, andwavelength tunability.Next,we present the basics of lasing in semiconductor nanowires, define the key parameters for stimulated emission, and introduce the properties of nanowires. We then review advanced nanowire laser designs from the literature. Finally, we present interesting perspectives for low-threshold nanoscale light sources and optical interconnects. We intend to illustrate the potential of nanolasers inmany applications, such as nanophotonic devices that integrate electronics and photonics for next-generation optoelectronic devices. For instance, these building blocks for nanoscale photonics can be used for data storage and biomedical applications when coupled to on-chip characterization tools. These nanoscale monochromatic laser light sources promise breakthroughs in nanophotonics, as they can operate at room temperature, can potentially be electrically driven, and can yield a better understanding of intrinsic nanomaterial properties and surface-state effects in lowdimensional semiconductor systems.

  14. Nanowire Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Couteau C.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs, solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D nature, flexibility in material choice and combination, and intrinsic optoelectronic properties. First, we provide an overview on using quasi-1D nanowire systems to realize subwavelength lasers with efficient, directional, and low-threshold emission. We then describe the state of the art for nanowire lasers in terms of materials, geometry, andwavelength tunability.Next,we present the basics of lasing in semiconductor nanowires, define the key parameters for stimulated emission, and introduce the properties of nanowires. We then review advanced nanowire laser designs from the literature. Finally, we present interesting perspectives for low-threshold nanoscale light sources and optical interconnects. We intend to illustrate the potential of nanolasers inmany applications, such as nanophotonic devices that integrate electronics and photonics for next-generation optoelectronic devices. For instance, these building blocks for nanoscale photonics can be used for data storage and biomedical applications when coupled to on-chip characterization tools. These nanoscale monochromatic laser light sources promise breakthroughs in nanophotonics, as they can operate at room temperature, can potentially be electrically driven, and can yield a better understanding of intrinsic nanomaterial properties and surface-state effects in lowdimensional semiconductor systems.

  15. Implementation of focal zooming on the Nike KrF laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Aglitsky, Y.; Smyth, Z.; Terrell, S.; Weaver, J. L.; Chan, Y.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Obenschain, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    In direct drive inertial confinement laser fusion, a pellet containing D-T fuel is imploded by ablation arising from absorption of laser energy at its outer surface. For optimal coupling, the focal spot of the laser would continuously decrease to match the reduction in the pellet's diameter, thereby minimizing wasted energy. A krypton-fluoride laser (λ = 248 nm) that incorporates beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence has the ability to produce a high quality focal profile whose diameter varies with time, a property known as focal zooming. A two-stage focal zoom has been demonstrated on the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory. In the experiment, a 4.4 ns laser pulse was created in which the on-target focal spot diameter was 1.3 mm (full width at half maximum) for the first 2.4 ns and 0.28 mm for the final 2 ns. These two diameters appear in time-integrated focal plane equivalent images taken at several locations in the amplification chain. Eight of the zoomed output beams were overlapped on a 60 μm thick planar polystyrene target. Time resolved images of self-emission from the rear of the target show the separate shocks launched by the two corresponding laser focal diameters.

  16. Implementation of focal zooming on the Nike KrF laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Weaver, J. L.; Chan, Y.; Obenschain, S. P. [Plasma Physics Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Aglitsky, Y. [Science Applications International, McLean, Virginia 22150 (United States); Smyth, Z.; Lehmberg, R. H. [Research Support Instruments, Inc., Lanham, Maryland 20706 (United States); Terrell, S. [Commonwealth Technologies, Inc., Alexandria, Virginia 22315 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    In direct drive inertial confinement laser fusion, a pellet containing D-T fuel is imploded by ablation arising from absorption of laser energy at its outer surface. For optimal coupling, the focal spot of the laser would continuously decrease to match the reduction in the pellet's diameter, thereby minimizing wasted energy. A krypton-fluoride laser ({lambda}= 248 nm) that incorporates beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence has the ability to produce a high quality focal profile whose diameter varies with time, a property known as focal zooming. A two-stage focal zoom has been demonstrated on the Nike laser at the Naval Research Laboratory. In the experiment, a 4.4 ns laser pulse was created in which the on-target focal spot diameter was 1.3 mm (full width at half maximum) for the first 2.4 ns and 0.28 mm for the final 2 ns. These two diameters appear in time-integrated focal plane equivalent images taken at several locations in the amplification chain. Eight of the zoomed output beams were overlapped on a 60 {mu}m thick planar polystyrene target. Time resolved images of self-emission from the rear of the target show the separate shocks launched by the two corresponding laser focal diameters.

  17. Excimer Laser Technology

    CERN Document Server

    Basting, Dirk

    2005-01-01

    This comprehensive survey on Excimer Lasers investigates the current range of the technology, applications and devices of this commonly used laser source, as well as the future of new technologies, such as F2 laser technology. Additional chapters on optics, devices and laser systems complete this compact handbook. A must read for laser technology students, process application researchers, engineers or anyone interested in excimer laser technology. An effective and understandable introduction to the current and future status of excimer laser technology.

  18. Estimating Suspended Sediment by Artificial Neural Network (ANN, Decision Trees (DT and Sediment Rating Curve (SRC Models (Case study: Lorestan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Barzegari

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate suspended sediment by the ANN model, DT with CART algorithm and different types of SRC, in ten stations from the Lorestan Province of Iran. The results showed that the accuracy of ANN with Levenberg-Marquardt back propagation algorithm is more than the two other models, especially in high discharges. Comparison of different intervals in models showed that running models with monthly data,resulted in smaller error and better estimated results. Moreover, results showed that using Minimum Variance Unbiased Estimator (MVUE bias correction factor modified the SRC results, especially in monthly time steps in almost all stations. Hence, it can be said that if because of advantages such as simplicity, SRC models are preferred, it is better that MSRC (modified sediment rating curve is used in monthly period.

  19. Satellite-based detection of 16.76 MeV γ-ray from H-bomb D-T fusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on the high energy γ-ray yield from the H-bomb D-T fusion reaction,it brings forward the idea applying the 16.76 MeV γ-ray to judge whether the H-bomb happens or not,and to deduce the explosion TNT equivalent accurately.The Monte Carlo N-Particle was applied to simulate the high energy γ-ray radiation characteristics reaching the geosynchronous orbit satellite,and the CVD diamond detector suit for the requirements was researched.A series of experiments were carried out to testify the capabilities of the diamond detector.It provides a brand-new approach to satellite-based nuclear explosion detection.

  20. Scattering chamber facility for double-differential cross-section measurement with 14 MeV DT neutron generator at IPR

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAJAPATI P M; PANDEY BHAWNA; GUPTA N C; KUMAR SURESH; NAYAK B K; SAXENA A; SURYANARAYANA S V; JAKHAR S; VALA SUDHIRSINH; RAO C V S; BASU T K

    2016-06-01

    Measurement of double-differential cross-sections of 14 MeV neutron-inducedcharged-particle productions is very important for estimating the nuclear heating and radiation damage of a fusion reactor. Only a few experimental data are available even though the nuclear reaction cross-section data of structural materials are important in fusion nuclear technology. In this context,general purpose scattering chamber facility has been developed for accelerator-based 14 MeV DT neutron generator to measure double-differential nuclear reaction cross-section at Fusion Neutronics Laboratory, IPR. It has been designed for experiments using silicon surface barrier detectors forthe online detection of charged particles. It offers flexibility in the arrangement of silicon surface barrier detectors.

  1. Monte Carlo simulation of prompt gamma-ray spectra from depleted uranium under D-T neutron irradiation and electron recoil spectra in a liquid scintillator detector

    CERN Document Server

    Qin, Jianguo; Liu, Rong; Zhu, Tonghua; Zhang, Xinwei; Ye, Bangjiao

    2015-01-01

    To overcome the problem of inefficient computing time and unreliable results in MCNP5 calculation, a two-step method is adopted to calculate the energy deposition of prompt gamma-rays in detectors for depleted uranium spherical shells under D-T neutrons irradiation. In the first step, the gamma-ray spectrum for energy below 7 MeV is calculated by MCNP5 code; secondly, the electron recoil spectrum in a BC501A liquid scintillator detector is simulated based on EGSnrc Monte Carlo Code with the gamma-ray spectrum from the first step as input. The comparison of calculated results with experimental ones shows that the simulations agree well with experiment in the energy region 0.4-3 MeV for the prompt gamma-ray spectrum and below 4 MeVee for the electron recoil spectrum. The reliability of the two-step method in this work is validated.

  2. Development of high-intensity D-D and D-T neutron sources and neutron filters for medical and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbeke, Jerome Maurice [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2000-05-10

    This thesis consists of three main parts. The first one relates to boron neutron capture therapy. It summarizes the guidelines obtained by numerical simulations for the treatment of shallow and deep-seated brain tumors, as well as the results on the design of beam-shaping assemblies to moderate D-D and D-T neutrons to epithermal energies. The second part is about boron neutron capture synovectomy for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis. Optimal neutron energy for treatment and beam-shaping assembly designs are summarized in this section. The last part is on the development of the sealed neutron generator, including experimental results on the prototype ion source and the prototype accelerator column.

  3. 推进中国工业自动化——西门子IA/DT/BT媒体行系列报道之华南区

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白文亭

    2010-01-01

    2010年7月12日,由西门子(中国)有限公司工业业务领域工业自动化与驱动技术及楼宇科技集团(IA/DT/BT)组织的"2010年西门子IA/DT/BT媒体行"活动正式启动。此次西门子媒体行活动按华南、华东、西南、

  4. THE RESULTS OF STUDY OF THE LEVELS OF SPECIFIC ANTIBODIES TO THE COMBINED INJECTION VACCINES AGAINST INFLUENZA, MEASLES, RUBELLA AND MUMPS AND DT IN CHILDREN WITH CHRONIC PHYSICAL ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Haritе

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The levels of antibodies to the separate and combined administration of the vaccine plus Grippol® Plus and vaccines against measles, mumps and/or rubella, diphtheria and tetanus (DT in children with chronic medical illnesses, including HIV and organic CNS. Revealed that at low reactogenicity and safety of the vaccine Grippol® Plus, concomitant vaccination does not affect the dynamics of the synthesis (seroprotection, seroconversion, diphtheria, mumps, and rubella antibodies, however, reduces the synthesis of measles antibodies. When combined administration of DT and mumps-measles vaccines + Grippol® Plus suppressed antibody response to a strain of influenza virus A/H3N2. 

  5. Laser Development for Laser Fusion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    SLL 80 676 copy 1 SAN D78-2306 Unlimited Release UC-21 aM* m ml 8 H Laser Development for Laser Fusion Applications Research Progress...Printed Copy $6.00; Microfiche $3.00 Accession Number: 3885 Publication Date: Dec 01,1978 Title: Laser Development for Laser Fusion Applications...Document: Archive, RRI, DEW Descriptors, Keywords: Laser Development Fusion Application Oscillator Amplifier Geometry Electron Beam Iodine Hydrogen

  6. RILIS laser room

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the RILIS laser room at ISOLDE. The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is a chemically selective ion source which relies on resonant excitation of atomic transitions using tunable laser radiation. This video shows you the laser table with the different lenses and optics as well as an overview of the RILIS laser setup. It also shows laser light with different colors and operation by the RILIS laser experts. The last part of the video shows you the laser path from the RILIS laser room into the ISOLDE GPS separator room where it enters the GPS separator magnet.

  7. RILIS laser room HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the RILIS laser room at ISOLDE. The Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Source (RILIS) is a chemically selective ion source which relies on resonant excitation of atomic transitions using tunable laser radiation. This video shows you the laser table with the different lenses and optics as well as an overview of the RILIS laser setup. It also shows laser light with different colors and operation by the RILIS laser experts. The last part of the video shows you the laser path from the RILIS laser room into the ISOLDE GPS separator room where it enters the GPS separator magnet.

  8. Laser Drilling Practical Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami

    2013-01-01

    This book introduces laser drilling processes including modelling, quality assessment of drilled holes, and laser drilling applications. It provides insights into the laser drilling process and the relation among the drilling parameters pertinent to improved end product quality. This book is written for engineers and scientists working on laser machining, particularly laser drilling.

  9. Mirrorless lasers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hema Ramachandran

    2002-02-01

    Experimental realization of mirrorless lasers in the last decade have resulted in hectic activity in this field, due to their novelty, simplicity and ruggedness and their great potential for application. In this article, I will review the various developments in this field in roughly chronological order, and discuss some possible applications of this exciting phenomenon, also termed as ‘random lasing’.

  10. Nanowire Lasers

    OpenAIRE

    Couteau C.; Larrue A.; Wilhelm C.; Soci C.

    2015-01-01

    We review principles and trends in the use of semiconductor nanowires as gain media for stimulated emission and lasing. Semiconductor nanowires have recently been widely studied for use in integrated optoelectronic devices, such as light-emitting diodes (LEDs), solar cells, and transistors. Intensive research has also been conducted in the use of nanowires for subwavelength laser systems that take advantage of their quasione- dimensional (1D) nature, fl...

  11. [The involvement of lidocaine and tetrodotoxin-sensitive current in the generation of action potentials with low DV/DT max in the cells of the mouse sinoauricular region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovko, V A; Lebedeva, E A

    2013-01-01

    The effects of the specific blockers of the inward Na-current --lidocaine and tetrodotoxin (TTX) were studied with microelectrode technique on the spontaneously beating strips of the mouse sinoauricular (SA) area. Lidocaine (25 microM) and TTX (25 pM) increased the duration of the peak of the action potentials (AP) of true pacemaker cells by extending the plateau phase (phase 2 or APD 20), slowing the dV/dt max from 2.6 +/- 0.8 V/s (n = 25) to 1.4 +/- 0.3 V/s (n = 5, p lidocaine concentration. The experimental data fully meted to Hill equation. The lidocaine threshold concentration was 20 microM. The lidocaine effective concentration which decreased dV/dt max by 50% (EC50) was 35 microM. The TTX (25 microM) exposure decreased the dV/dt max from 1.6 V/s to 0.8 V/s and DD velocity slowed by 49%. It should be noted that TTX also increased the duration of APD20. Our data show that dV/ dt max of the true pacemaker cells was reduced by 35-45% after exposure to TTX and lidocaine. This fact confirms the involvement of Na-current in the generation of the upstroke true pacemaker cells AP.

  12. Laser Research Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Research lab is thecenter for the development of new laser sources, nonlinear optical materials, frequency conversion processes and laser-based sensors for...

  13. Lasers in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viherkoski, E

    1990-01-01

    Since its discovery, the laser has been intensively investigated and used in medicine, first in ophthalmology then in ear, nose and throat surgery, gynaecology, neurosurgery etc. Development spans from the ruby and argon lasers in outpatient eye surgery to the carbon dioxide and Nd:YAG lasers in the operating theatres and further on to the PDT-dye lasers, excimer and solid state angioplasty lasers or flash lamp pumped "gallstone cracker" lasers. The CO2-Nd: YAG laser combination will be described as the state-of-art surgical laser. This simultaneous, coaxial and coherent combination laser offers a new possibility to cut and coagulate effectively at the same time. Operating times are shortened and bleeding volumes minimised. The CO2-Nd: YAG laser represents a new type of interaction between laser and tissue, laser enhanced tissue absorption, which will be described.

  14. Laser therapy (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A laser is used for many medical purposes. Because the laser beam is so small and precise, it enables ... without injuring surrounding tissue. Some uses of the laser are retinal surgery, excision of lesions, and cauterization ...

  15. Laser-Driven Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, A. F.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the present status and future prospects of laser-driven fusion. Current research (which is classified under three main headings: laser-matter interaction processes, compression, and laser development) is also presented. (HM)

  16. Gasdynamic lasers: an introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, J.D. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The following topics are covered: elementary physics, thermodynamics and vibrational kinetics of the CO/sub 2/--N/sub 2/--H/sub 2/O or He gasdynamic laser, calculation of gasdynamic laser performance, comparison between theory and experiment, inversions behind normal shock waves, CO/sub 2/--N/sub 2/ gasdynamic lasers: state-of-the-art, the carbon monoxide gasdynamic laser, downstream mixing gasdynamic lasers, optical cavity considerations for gasdynamic lasers, aerodynamic windows, and diffusers. (MHR)

  17. Laser accidents: Being Prepared

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2003-01-24

    The goal of the Laser Safety Officer and any laser safety program is to prevent a laser accident from occurring, in particular an injury to a person's eyes. Most laser safety courses talk about laser accidents, causes, and types of injury. The purpose of this presentation is to present a plan for safety offices and users to follow in case of accident or injury from laser radiation.

  18. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  19. Laser Protection TIL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Laser Protection TIL conducts research and analysis of laser protection materials along with integration schemes. The lab's objectives are to limit energy coming...

  20. Laser biophotonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashkatov, A. N.; Genina, E. A.; Priezzhev, A. V.; Tuchin, V. V.

    2016-06-01

    This issue of Quantum Electronics presents the papers that reflect the state-of-the-art of laser technologies used in biomedical studies and medical practice. Among the new technologies, one can note the methods of correlation and Doppler spectroscopy, as well as THz spectroscopy, in which biologically significant molecules are characterised by specific resonances. The latter topic is considered in the paper by Nazarov et al., where the dielectric function of aqueous solutions of glucose and albumin is studied using pulsed THz spectroscopy.

  1. Recent Progress Made in the SBS PCM Approach to Self-navigation of Lasers on Direct Drive IFE Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalal, Milan; Kong, Hong Jin; Slezak, Ondrej; Koresheva, Elena Rostislavovna; Park, Sangwoo; Startsev, Sergei Aleksandrovich

    2010-12-01

    Current status of SBS PCM based IFE approach proposed recently as an alternative to the IFE classical approach is presented. This technology is of a particular importance to the direct drive scheme taking care of automatic self- navigation of every individual laser beam on the injected pellets without any need for final optics adjustments. An upgraded scheme was developed with a low energy illumination laser beam (glint) entering the reactor chamber through the same entrance window as used subsequently by the corresponding high energy irradiation laser beam. Experimental verification of this improved design was performed using a complete setup including a pellet—at this stage realized by a static steel ball of 4 mm in diameter. The pellet survival conditions between its low energy illumination and high energy irradiation were studied and the upper limits on the allowed energies absorbed for both DD and DT fuels were determined.

  2. A pathway to laser fusion energy in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azechi, Hiroshi

    2016-10-01

    High-density compression of DT to one thousand times its liquid density is the critical path of inertial fusion and was demonstrated in Japan and US in late 1980's. The Osaka group has achieved high-density compression that meets one of the critical requirements for thermonuclear ignition and bum. Although the compression densities were well reproduced by computer simulations, the neutron yields were much lower than the simulation predictions by three orders of magnitudes, suggesting catastrophic collapse of a hot spark, from which thermonuclear reactions are triggered. In order to overcome this difficulty the international ICF community has adopted two approaches: one is to generate a larger hot spark than the mixed layer with MJ-Class lasers, such as NIF and LMJ. The other approach is to externally heat the compressed fuel. The second approach is the fast ignition. After the proof-of-concept experiment in 2002, we started the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FlREX) project to complete the world most powerful high-energy peta-watt laser "LFEX" as a heating laser.

  3. Effect of cGMP-dependent protein kinase G inhibitor (D)-DT-2 on the lipopolysaccharide-induced hyporesponsiveness of rat vascular ring%cGMP依赖性蛋白激酶G抑制剂对内毒素孵育大鼠胸主动脉血管环反应性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭君; 王学敏; 王海燕; 薛瑛; 周全红; 江伟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of specific cGMP-dependent protein kinase G (PKG) inhibitor (D)-DT-2 on the contractile function of rat vascular rings after being exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS).Methods The experiment was performed in 2 parts.Part Ⅰ:The Sprague-Dawley rat thoracic aortic rings were randomly divided into 3 groups (n =5 each):KH group,DT-2 group and (D)-DT-2 group.KH,DT-2 and (D)-DT-2 were added to the aortic ring after being dilated with 8-Br-cGMP 50 μmol/L for 25 min and the changes in tension of vascular rings were measured.Part Ⅱ:The rat thoracic aortic rings were randomly divided into 4 groups (n =5 each):control group,LPS group,LPS-DT2 group and LPS-(D)-DT2 group.After being incubated with LPS for 3 h in vitro.The Emax and EC50 were compared among the 4 groups.Results Part Ⅰ:Both DT-2 and (D)-DT-2 could contract the vascular rings dilated with 8-Br-cGMP and the Emax was significantly higher in (D)-DT-2 group than DT-2 group (P <0.05).Part Ⅱ]:Both DT-2 and (D)-DT-2 significantly improved the contractile function of vascular ring after being exposed to LPS.Emax was significantly higher,while EC50 was lower in groups DT-2 and (D)-DT-2 than in LPS group (P <0.01).Emax was significantly increased,while EC50 was decreased in LPS-(D)-DT-2 group as compared with LPS-DT-2 group (P < 0.05).Conclusion PKG inhibitor can improve the contractile function of the vascular rings incubated with LPS and the efficacy of (D)-DT-2 is better than DT-2 in recovering the vascular reactivity.%目的 评价特异性cGMP依赖性蛋白激酶G(PKG)抑制剂(D)-DT-2对内毒素(LPS)孵育大鼠胸主动脉血管环收缩功能的影响.方法 实验Ⅰ 取SD大鼠胸主动脉血管环,采用随机数字表法分为3组(n=5):KH液组、DT2组和DDT2组,用50 μmol/L 8-Br-cGMP孵育25 min后加入上述各药,比较各组血管环的张力变化.实验Ⅱ 将SD大鼠胸主动脉血管环,采用随机数字表法分为4组(n=5):对照组、LPS组、LPS-DT

  4. Laser damage resistant anti-reflection microstructures for mid-infrared metal-ion doped ZnSe gain media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobbs, Douglas S.; MacLeod, Bruce D.; Sabatino, Ernest; Mirov, Sergey B.; Martyshkin, Dmitri V.

    2012-11-01

    Power scaling of mid-infrared laser systems based on chromium and iron doped zinc selenide (ZnSe) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) crystals is being advanced through the integration of surface relief anti-reflection microstructures (ARMs) etched directly in the facets of the laser gain media. In this study, a new ARMs texture fabrication process is demonstrated for polycrystalline ZnSe and ZnS material that results in a significant increase in pulsed laser damage resistance combined with an average reflection loss of less than 0.5% over the wavelength range of 1.9-3.0μm. The process was utilized to fabricate ARMs in chromium-doped zinc selenide (Cr2+:ZnSe) materials supplied by IPG Photonics and standardized pulsed laser induced damage threshold (LiDT) measurements at a wavelength of 2.09μm were made using the commercial testing services of Spica Technologies. It was found that the pulsed LiDT of ARMs etched in ZnSe and Cr2+:ZnSe can match or even exceed the level of a well-polished surface, a survivability that is many times higher than an equivalent performance broad-band thin-film AR coating. The results also indicate that the ARMs plasma etch process may find use as a post-polish damage mitigation technique similar to the chemical immersion used to double the damage resistance of fused silica optics. ARMs etched in Cr2+:ZnSe were also evaluated by IPG Photonics for survivability under continuous wave (CW) laser operation at a pump laser wavelength of 1.94μm. Catastrophic damage occurred between power levels of 400-500 kilowatt per square centimeter for both as polished and ARMs textured samples indicating no reduction in CW damage resistance attributable to surface effects.

  5. Measurement of tritium production rate distribution in natural LiAlO{sub 2}/HDPE assembly irradiated by D-T neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakhar, Shrichand, E-mail: shrichand.s@gmail.com [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Abhangi, Mitul; Rao, C.V.S.; Basu, T.K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India); Bhade, Sonali P.D.; Reddy, Priyanka J. [Radiation Safety Systems Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai (India)

    2012-02-15

    A neutronics experiment was performed to measure the tritium production rate (TPR) profile in the breeder assembly with LiAlO{sub 2} as breeder and high density polyethylene (HDPE) as neutron reflector. The breeder assembly was irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons from DT neutron generator at IPR Neutronics Laboratory. The objective of the experiment was to validate the tritium production prediction capability of the Monte-Carlo code MCNP and FENDL 2.1 data library. The tritium production rate profile in the breeding assembly was measured by irradiating Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} pellets kept at various locations and then tritium counting liquid scintillation technique. Experiment was analyzed with 3D Monte-Carlo code MCNP with FENDL 2.1 cross-section data library. The calculation results were found to agree with the measured tritium production rates except one point near to the source. This experiment is a starting experiment in the series of benchmark experiments for the Indian Demo breeding blanket.

  6. 一种基于动态阈值的主动队列管理算法%A DT-Based Active Queue Management Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙艳

    2011-01-01

    One improved method of active queue management algorithm was presented in this paper.Aiming the shortcoming of parameter setting in BLUE, the paper improved BLUE through introducing into dynamic threshold algorithm.The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed approach can effectively stabilize the queue occupation at a level and mitigate the queue overflow and underflow, and it can improve link utilization.%针对BLUE算法缺少早期拥塞检测机制,导致队列溢出或空闲现象频繁发生的问题,通过引进基于动态阈值算法的控制机制,借鉴RED算法所采用的早期拥塞检测机制,提出了DT-BLUE算法.仿真实验表明本文算法能保持队列长度的稳定性,有效降低队列空闲或溢出现象的发生,提高链路的利用率.

  7. No protective effects of high-dosage dietary zinc oxide on weaned pigs infected with Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium DT104.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janczyk, Pawel; Kreuzer, Susanne; Assmus, Jens; Nöckler, Karsten; Brockmann, Gudrun A

    2013-05-01

    Twenty-eight-day-old weaned pigs were fed diets with a low (LZn), medium (MZn), or high (MZn) Zn concentration (50 to 80, 150, or 2,500 mg Zn/kg of diet, respectively) provided as zinc oxide (ZnO)(24 pigs per group). They were infected orally with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium DT104 on day 32. Salmonellae were cultivated from feces (up to 42 days postinfection [dpi]) and organs (2 and 42 dpi). Activation of the adaptive systemic and mucosal immune systems was investigated by recording anti-Salmonella IgG levels and levels of B and T lymphocyte subpopulations in blood and gut-associated lymphatic tissue. Growth performance was recorded as well. Salmonellae were shed at higher levels and for longer periods in the HZn group (P Salmonella Typhimurium, but for a short period only. After 2 weeks, all positive effects disappeared, and rather negative effects, such as higher shedding of salmonellae, lower T cell frequencies, and worse performance, occurred. Thus, supplementation with ZnO at high levels in the pig industry should be limited to 2 to 3 weeks.

  8. Classical Mus musculus Igκ enhancers support transcription but not high level somatic hypermutation from a V-lambda promoter in chicken DT40 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naga Rama Kothapalli

    Full Text Available Somatic hypermutation (SHM of immunoglobulin genes is initiated by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID in activated B cells. This process is strictly dependent on transcription. Hence, cis-acting transcriptional control elements have been proposed to target SHM to immunoglobulin loci. The Mus musculus Igκ locus is regulated by the intronic enhancer (iE/MAR and the 3' enhancer (3'E, and multiple studies using transgenic and knock-out approaches in mice and cell lines have reported somewhat contradictory results about the function of these enhancers in AID-mediated sequence diversification. Here we show that the M. musculus iE/MAR and 3'E elements are active solely as transcriptional enhancer when placed in the context of the IGL locus in Gallus gallus DT40 cells, but they are very inefficient in targeting AID-mediated mutation events to this locus. This suggests that either key components of the cis-regulatory targeting elements reside outside the murine Igκ transcriptional enhancer sequences, or that the targeting of AID activity to Ig loci occurs by largely species-specific mechanisms.

  9. Visible Solid State Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikmet, R.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Diode lasers can be found in various applications most notably in optical communication and optical storage. Visible lasers were until recently were all based on IR diode lasers. Using GaN, directly blue and violet emitting lasers have also been introduced to the market mainly in the area of optical

  10. Applications of Semiconductor Lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Te; SUN Yan-fang; NING Yong-qiang; WANG Li-jun

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the applications of semiconductor lasers is presented. Diode lasers are widely used today,and the most prevalent use of the laser is probably in CD and DVD drives for computers and audio/video media systems. Semiconductor lasers are also used in many other fields ranging from optical fiber communications to display,medicine and pumping sources.

  11. Visible Solid State Lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hikmet, R.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Diode lasers can be found in various applications most notably in optical communication and optical storage. Visible lasers were until recently were all based on IR diode lasers. Using GaN, directly blue and violet emitting lasers have also been introduced to the market mainly in the area of optical

  12. Diode Pumped Fiber Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-12-01

    FIBER LASERS I. Nd:YAG FIBER LASER FABRICATION .............. 5 A. FIBER GROWTH .......................... 5 B. FIBER PROCESSING 7...1.32 pm FIBER LASERS I. Nd:YAG FIBER LASER FABRICATION A. FIBER GROWTH The single crystal fibers used in this work were grown at Stanford University

  13. Obstacles to Laser Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, K

    2005-04-25

    The growth of laser development & technology has been remarkable. Unfortunately, a number of traps or obstacles to laser safety have also developed with that growth. The goal of this article is to highlight those traps, in the hope that an aware laser user will avoid them. These traps have been the cause or contributing factor of many a preventable laser accident.

  14. Lasers in cosmetic dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Lasers have become a necessary instrument in the esthetic restorative armamentarium. This article presents smile design guidelines for soft tissue lasers, as well as an overview of hard tissue procedures that may be performed using all-tissue lasers. The goal is to help dentists determine the appropriate laser for a given clinical situations.

  15. New laser materials for laser diode pumping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenssen, H. P.

    1990-01-01

    The potential advantages of laser diode pumped solid state lasers are many with high overall efficiency being the most important. In order to realize these advantages, the solid state laser material needs to be optimized for diode laser pumping and for the particular application. In the case of the Nd laser, materials with a longer upper level radiative lifetime are desirable. This is because the laser diode is fundamentally a cw source, and to obtain high energy storage, a long integration time is necessary. Fluoride crystals are investigated as host materials for the Nd laser and also for IR laser transitions in other rare earths, such as the 2 micron Ho laser and the 3 micron Er laser. The approach is to investigate both known crystals, such as BaY2F8, as well as new crystals such as NaYF8. Emphasis is on the growth and spectroscopy of BaY2F8. These two efforts are parallel efforts. The growth effort is aimed at establishing conditions for obtaining large, high quality boules for laser samples. This requires numerous experimental growth runs; however, from these runs, samples suitable for spectroscopy become available.

  16. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  17. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre-laser...... cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  18. High power fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Qi-hong; ZHOU Jun

    2007-01-01

    In this review article, the development of the double cladding optical fiber for high power fiber lasers is reviewed. The main technology for high power fiber lasers, including laser diode beam shaping, fiber laser pumping techniques, and amplification systems, are discussed in de-tail. 1050 W CW output and 133 W pulsed output are ob-tained in Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, China. Finally, the applications of fiber lasers in industry are also reviewed.

  19. Laser Hardening of Metals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Institute for Laser Physics; V.A.Serebryakov; K.V.Gratzianov; A.S.Eremenko; A.A.Timopheev; SPBSUITMO; M.V.Volkov

    2006-01-01

    Results of experiments on laser hardening of various materials with intensity 109~1010W/cm2 are represented. Nd:glass laser with energy up to 45J with a pulse duration ~30ns was used as a source of ra diation. Comparative researches of the laser peening for the various target areas are fulfilled. Results of laser hardening were determined by the microstructure analysis. The new approach to creation of the industrial laser for peening is discussed.

  20. The laser in urology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofstetter, Alfons G.

    2002-10-01

    Laser is an acronym for a physical principle and means: Light Amplification by stimulated Emission of Radiation. This principle offers a lot of tissue/light effects caused by the parameters: power density/time and the special qualities of the laser light. Nowadays for diagnosis and therapy following lasers are used in urology: Krypton- and Dye-lasers as well as the Neodymium-YAG- (nd:YAG-), Holmium-YAG (Ho:YAG-), Diode-, Argon- and the CO2-lasers.