WorldWideScience

Sample records for dryout

  1. Numerical simulation of dryout and post-dryout heat transfer in a straight-pipe once-through steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Jianxin; Sun, Baozhi; Han, Wenjing; Zhang, Guolei; Li, Yanjun; Yang, Longbin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-fluid three-flow-field model is developed to predict dryout in steam generator. • The empirical correlation is used to correct dryout criterion. • The interactions between three-flow-fields and the wall are considered. • Dryout and post-dryout heat transfer mechanisms are discussed through the results. - Abstract: Accurately predicting dryout and post-dryout heat transfer characteristics is critical for proper design of once-through steam generators. This paper provides a reasonable and simple method for this prediction by introducing a two-fluid, three-flow-field mathematical model and improving the dryout criterion-critical quality, and conducts a numerical simulation of dryout and post-dryout heat transfer in a once-through steam generator to prove the model’s performance. The results show that the critical quality in a once-through steam generator is about 0.82, with the heat transfer capacity significantly reducing and the wall temperature sharply increasing in a non-linear form by approximately 30 K when dryout occurs. Part of the steam is superheated in the post-dryout region, resulting in a deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium between the vapor and liquid phases. Dryout and post-dryout heat transfer in the once-through steam generator operate between complete deviation from thermodynamic equilibrium and complete thermodynamic equilibrium. Therefore, the presence of droplets has a significant influence on the mass, momentum and energy transfer between the film and vapor phases.

  2. Dryout analysis of the WSGHWR cluster loop post-dryout experiments of September 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowring, R.W.

    1980-12-01

    The results for the onset of dryout have been analysed and are described. With the exception of eight anomalous data points these correlated well with the Bowring mixed flow cluster correlation at system pressures of 2.0 and 5.9 MPa. (UK)

  3. A subchannel based annular flow dryout model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammouda, Najmeddine; Cheng, Zhong; Rao, Yanfei F.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A modified annular flow dryout model for subchannel thermalhydraulic analysis. • Implementation of the model in Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV. • Assessment of the model against tube CHF experiments. • Assessment of the model against CANDU-bundle CHF experiments. - Abstract: This paper assesses a popular tube-based mechanistic critical heat flux model (Hewitt and Govan’s annular flow model (based on the model of Whalley et al.), and modifies and implements the model for bundle geometries. It describes the results of the ASSERT subchannel code predictions using the modified model, as applied to a single tube and the 28-element, 37-element and 43-element (CANFLEX) CANDU bundles. A quantitative comparison between the model predictions and experimental data indicates good agreement for a wide range of flow conditions. The comparison has resulted in an overall average error of −0.15% and an overall root-mean-square error of 5.46% with tube data representing annular film dryout type critical heat flux, and in an overall average error of −0.9% and an overall RMS error of 9.9% with Stern Laboratories’ CANDU-bundle data.

  4. Critical heat flux, post dry-out and their augmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celata, G.P.; Mariani, A.

    1999-01-01

    The report shows the state of art review on the critical heat flux and the post-dryout heat transfer. The work, which is a merge of original researches carried out at the Institute of Thermal Fluid Dynamic of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and a thorough review of the recent literature, is divided in four chapters: critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling; critical heat flux in saturated flow boiling; post-dryout heat transfer; enhancement of critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer [it

  5. Flow-excursion-induced dryout at low-heat-flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Cazzoli, E.G.

    1983-01-01

    Flow-excursion-induced dryout at low-heat-flux natural-convection boiling, typical of liquid-metal fast-breeder reactors, is addressed. Steady-state calculations indicate that low-quality boiling is possible up to the point of Ledinegg instability leading to flow excursion and subsequent dryout in agreement with experimental data. A flow-regime-dependent dryout heat flux relationship based upon saturated boiling criterion is also presented. Transient analysis indicates that premature flow excursion can not be ruled out and sodium boiling is highly transient dependent. Analysis of a high-heat-flux forced convection, loss-of-flow transient shows a significantly faster flow excursion leading to dryout in excellent agreement with parallel calculations using the two-dimensional THORAX code. 17 figures

  6. The use of dielectric heating in particulate bed dryout experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, G.F.; Willshire, S.J.

    1984-09-01

    Decay-heated, liquid-saturated debris beds arise in hypothetical severe accidents with LMFBR and PWR, and a large international effort is currently engaged in experimental studies of the cooling limitations of such beds. Dryout is one of the important cooling limitations. Dielectric heating offers a means of closely simulating decay heating in beds of irregular particles, and is under development at AEE Winfrith for application to experimental studies of dryout. This report describes progress to date. (author)

  7. Effect of particle stratification on debris-bed dryout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.D.; Cassulo, J.C.; Pederson, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    Significant work has been performed on debris-bed dryout on beds of either uniformly sized particles or particles of a wide size range which are well mixed. This work has provided an understanding of the mechanisms of dryout and an empirical basis for containment analysis. However, the debris bed resulting from a HCDA would not consist of uniformly sized particles and for certain scenarios the bed could be stratified rather than well mixed. Tests have been conducted on the effect of particle size distribution on dryout and concluded that not only is the mean particle size an important parameter but also the standard deviation of the distribution and change in porosity. The D6 in-pile test at Sandia with a 114-mm deep stratified bed resulted in a reduced dryout heat flux compared to a uniformly mixed bed. Because of the many questions concerning the dryout behavior of stratified beds of wide size distribution out-of-pile experiments in which metal particles in water pools are inductively heated were initiated at Argonne

  8. Critical heat flux, post dry-out and their augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, G.P.; Mariani, A. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1999-07-01

    The report shows the state of art review on the critical heat flux and the post-dryout heat transfer. The work, which is a merge of original researches carried out at the Institute of Thermal Fluid Dynamic of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and a thorough review of the recent literature, is divided in four chapters: critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling; critical heat flux in saturated flow boiling; post-dryout heat transfer; enhancement of critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer. [Italian] Si passa in rassegna lo stato dell'arte sulla crisi termica e sullo scambio termico post-crisi, che compendia studi tradizionali condotti dall'ENEA. Il rapporto e' suddiviso in quattro parti: crisi termica in ebollizione sottoraffreddata; crisi termica in ebollizione satura; scambio termico dopo la crisi termica; incremento del flusso termico critico e dello scambio termico post-crisi.

  9. Critical heat flux, post dry-out and their augmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, G P; Mariani, A [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1999-07-01

    The report shows the state of art review on the critical heat flux and the post-dryout heat transfer. The work, which is a merge of original researches carried out at the Institute of Thermal Fluid Dynamic of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and a thorough review of the recent literature, is divided in four chapters: critical heat flux in subcooled flow boiling; critical heat flux in saturated flow boiling; post-dryout heat transfer; enhancement of critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer. [Italian] Si passa in rassegna lo stato dell'arte sulla crisi termica e sullo scambio termico post-crisi, che compendia studi tradizionali condotti dall'ENEA. Il rapporto e' suddiviso in quattro parti: crisi termica in ebollizione sottoraffreddata; crisi termica in ebollizione satura; scambio termico dopo la crisi termica; incremento del flusso termico critico e dello scambio termico post-crisi.

  10. Hydrodynamically induced dryout and post dryout important to heavy water reactors: A yearly progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Revankar, S.T.; Babelli, I.; Lele, S.

    1992-06-01

    Recently, the safety of low pressure liquid cooled nuclear reactors has become a very important issue with reference to the operation of the heavy water reactors at Savannah River Plant. Under accident conditions such as loss-of-flow or loss-of-coolant, these reactors typically encounter unstable two-phase flow which may lead to the occurrence of dryout and subsequent fuel failure. An analytical study using the one-dimensional drift flux model was carried out to investigate the two-phase flow instability for Westinghouse Savannah River Site reactor. The analysis indicates that the first and higher order instabilities exist in the possible transient operational conditions. The instabilities are encountered at higher heat fluxes or lower flow rates. The subcooling has a stabilizing effect except at very low subcooling. An experimental loop has been designed and constructed to study the CBF induced by various flow instabilities. Details of this test loop are presented. Initial test results have been presented. The two-phase flow regimes and hydrodynamic behaviors in the post dryout region have been studied under propagating rewetting conditions. The effect of subcooling and inlet velocity on flow transition as well as on the quench front propagation was investigated. The test liquid was Freon 113 which was introduced into the bottom of the quartz test section whose walls were maintained well above the film boiling temperature of the test liquid, via a transparent heat transfer fluid. The flow regimes observed down stream of the upward moving quench front were the rough wavy, the agitated, and the dispersed droplet/ligaments. A correlation for the flow regime transition between the inverted annular and the dispersed droplet/ligament flow patterns was developed. The correlation showed a marked dependence on the void fraction at the CBF location and hence on the flow regime encountered in the pre-CBF region

  11. SCADOP: Phenomenological modeling of dryout in nuclear fuel rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasgupta, Arnab, E-mail: arnie@barc.gov.in; Chandraker, D.K., E-mail: dineshkc@barc.gov.in; Vijayan, P.K., E-mail: vijayanp@barc.gov.in

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • Phenomenological model for annular flow dryout is presented. • The model evaluates initial entrained fraction using a new methodology. • The history effect in annular flow is predicted and validated. • Rod bundle dryout is predicted using subchannel methodology. • Model is validated against experimental dryout data in tubes and rod bundles. - Abstract: Analysis and prediction of dryout is of important consequence to safety of nuclear fuel clusters of boiling water type of reactors. Traditionally, experimental correlations are used for dryout predictions. Since these correlations are based on operating parameters and do not aim to model the underlying phenomena, there has been a proliferation of the correlations, each catering to some specific bundle geometry under a specific set of operating conditions. Moreover, such experiments are extremely costly. In general, changes in tested bundle geometry for improvement in thermal-hydraulic performance would require re-experimentation. Understanding and modeling the basic processes leading to dryout in flow boiling thus has great incentive. Such a model has the ability to predict dryout in any rod bundle geometry, unlike the operating parameter based correlation approach. Thus more informed experiments can be carried out. A good model can, reduce the number of experiments required during the iterations in bundle design. In this paper, a phenomenological model as indicated above is presented. The model incorporates a new methodology to estimate the Initial Entrained Fraction (IEF), i.e., entrained fraction at the onset of annular flow. The incorporation of this new methodology is important since IEF is often assumed ad-hoc and sometimes also used as a parameter to tune the model predictions to experimental data. It is highlighted that IEF may be low under certain conditions against the general perception of a high IEF due to influence of churn flow. It is shown that the same phenomenological model is

  12. The design of electrical heater pins to simulate transient dryout and post-dryout of water reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, M.H.; Butcher, A.A.; Sidoli, J.E.A.

    1978-11-01

    A theoretical assessment of indirect and direct filled heater simulations of nuclear reactor fuel pins is described. For reasons of fast temperature response, a direct unfilled heater, with thermocouples buried in the walls, is recommended for studies of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents leading to dryout, post-dryout and rewetting. A design of heater pins, for use in SGHWR or PWR experiments, and compatible with existing 9MW power supplies, is described. Experiments to confirm collapse pressure calculations at 1000 0 C and thermocouple response times are also reported. (author)

  13. Model for boiling and dryout in particle beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipinski, R.J.

    1982-06-01

    Over the last ten years experiments and modeling of dryout in particle beds have produced over fifty papers. Considering only volume-heated beds, over 250 dryout measurements have been made, and are listed in this work. In addition, fifteen models to predict dryout have been produced and are discussed. A model is developed in this report for one-dimensional boiling and dryout in a porous medium. It is based on conservation laws for mass, momentum, and energy. The initial coupled differential equations are reduced to a single first-order differential equation with an algebraic equation for the upper boundary condition. The model includes the effects of both laminar and turbulent flow, two-phase friction, and capillary force. The boundary condition at the bed bottom includes the possibility of inflowing liquid and either an adiabatic or a bottom-cooled support structure. The top of the bed may be either channeled or subcooled. In the first case the channel length and the saturation at the base of the channels are predicted. In the latter case, a criterion for penetration of the subcooled zone by channels is obtained

  14. Effect of transient flow on premature dryout in tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishigai, S.; Nakanishi, S.; Yamauchi, S.; Masuda, T.

    1974-01-01

    The influence of abrupt flow change on the critical heat flux in the high quality steam-water two-phase flow was studied mainly by experiments. The measured reduction in the critical heat flux is compared with the result of a simplified analysis based on the kinematic wave theory and the film vanishing hypothesis. It is concluded that the reduction is due to ''premature dryout'' caused by the deceleration of the liquid film. (U.S.)

  15. The calculation of dryout during flow and pressure transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, P.W.; Whalley, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    The method for predicting dryout in a round tube by means of an annular flow model (Whalley et al 1974) is extended to cover the case where both inlet mass flux and pressure are time-dependent. The qualitative effects of an inlet pressure transient are assessed by performing a 'numerical experiment' and it is found that the predictions of the model represent reasonable physical trends. The relative merits of wo numerical solution schemes are also discussed

  16. The Third Dryout Fuel Behaviour Test Series in IFA-613

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ianiri, Raffaella

    1998-02-01

    The objective of the dryout experiment with the instrumented fuel assembly IFA-613 is to provide information on the consequences induced on fuel by short terms dry outs having characteristics similar to those anticipated to occur from pump trips in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). For the third experiment it was planned to test one fresh and two pre-irradiated segments. Unfortunately one of the channels, Channel A developed a leakage and was not suitable for testing anymore. The rig was loaded with only two rods: one fresh PWR rod with a design similar to the fresh rod in IFA-613.1 and one pre-irradiated PWR segment (N1310 with a burn-up of 29 MWd/kgU). Both rods were equipped with a clad extensometer and two clad surface thermocouples (upper and lower position). The rig was loaded during the December 1997 shutdown and the dryout tests were performed on 16th January 1998. Both rods experienced temperature excursions with a target peak clad temperature (PCT) of 650 o C. According to the measured cladding temperatures, the time above the target temperature was about 4-5 s for both rods. The lower thermocouple did not indicate dryout at any occasion. The rig was unloaded immediately after the testing. (author)

  17. Dryout in sodium-heated helically-coiled steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y.; Kosugi, T.; Kubota, J.; Nakajima, K.; Tsuchiya, T.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental research on the dryout phenomenon in sodium heated, helically coiled steam generator tubes was carried out. The fluctuation of the tube wall temperature caused by dryout was measured with thermocouples installed in the center of the tube wall. Empirical correlations of dryout quality were developed as functions of critical heat flux, water mass velocity and saturation pressure. These correlations confirmed that the design criterion of the MONJU steam generator was reasonable. (author)

  18. Dryout heat flux experiments with deep heterogeneous particle bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, I.; Holmstroem, S.; Miettinen, J.; Lestinen, V.; Hyvaerinen, J.; Pankakoski, P.; Sjoevall, H.

    2006-01-01

    A test facility has been constructed at Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) to simulate as accurately as possible the ex-vessel core particle bed in the conditions of Olkiluoto nuclear power plant. The STYX particle bed reproduces the anticipated depth of the bed and the size range of particles having irregular shape. The bed is immersed in water, creating top flooding conditions, and internally heated by an array of electrical resistance heating elements. Dryout tests have been successfully conducted at 0.1-0.7 MPa pressure for both uniformly mixed and stratified bed geometries. In all tests, including the stratified ones, the dry zone first formed near the bottom of the bed. The measured dryout heat fluxes increased with increasing pressure, from 232 kW/m 2 at near atmospheric pressure to 451 kW/m 2 at 0.7 MPa pressure. The data show some scatter even for the uniform bed. The tests with the stratified bed indicate a clear reduction of critical power due to the presence of a layer of small particles on top of the uniform bed. Comparison of data with various critical power (dryout heat flux) correlations for porous media shows that the most important parameter in the models is the effective particle diameter. Adiabatic debris bed flow resistance measurements were conducted to determine the most representative particle diameter. This diameter is close, but not equal, to the particle number-weighted average diameter of the bed material. With it, uniform bed data can be calculated to within an accuracy of 3-28% using Lipinski's 0-D model. In the stratified bed experiments, it appears that the top layer was partially fluidized, hence the measured critical power was significantly higher than calculated. Future experiments are being planned with denser top layer material to eliminate non-prototypic fluidization

  19. Models for dryout in debris beds. Review and application to the analysis of PAHR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamakoshi, Yoshinori

    2000-03-01

    There are many models for dryout in debiris beds and various conditions under which these models are applicable. For a reliable analysis of post-accident heat removal (PAHR), it is important that characteristics and applicability of each model should be made clear. In this report, formulation of the models for dryout and applicability of them are studied through comparing with experimental data. A new model for dryout prediction is also discussed here. It is difficult to predict the dryout power especially for a relatively shallow bed using a conventional model for channeled beds. The new model, which is based on the one-dimensional model derived by Lipinski, has permeability of channels in the governing equation, and enables us to predict the dryout power for relatively shallow beds. The following conclusions are derived from comparing the predicted dryout power with experimental data. The model for series heat removal is applicable to a packed bed while the DEBRIS-MD underestimates the dryout power for it. Either the original model assuming channel formation on the top of the bed or the modified model is applicable to a relatively deep bed with channels. For a relatively shallow bed with channels, the dryout power predicted by the modified model agrees with the experimental data in comparison with other models. (author)

  20. The dryout phenomenon in the bend of a vertical U-tube evaporator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, N.A.

    1977-02-01

    Tests have been carried out on an electrically heated vertical U-tube evaporator test section to investigate the phenomenon of 'premature' bend dryout and its subsequent disappearance. The dryout results are compared satisfactorily with an analytically based model while the associated wall temperatures are investigated with the aid of a simple one-dimensional conduction model. (author)

  1. Validation of film dryout model in a three-fluid code FIDAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Satoru

    1989-11-01

    Analytical prediction model of critical heat flux (CHF) has been developed on the basis of film dryout criterion due to droplets deposition and entrainment in annular mist flow. CHF in round tubes were analyzed by the Film Dryout Analysis Code in Subchannels, FIDAS, which is based on the three-fluid, three-field and newly developed film dryout model. Predictions by FIDAS were compared with the world-wide experimental data on CHF obtained in water and Freon for uniformly and non-uniformly heated tubes under vertical upward flow condition. Furthermore, CHF prediction capability of FIDAS was compared with those of other film dryout models for annular flow and Katto's CHF correlation. The predictions of FIDAS are in sufficient agreement with the experimental CHF data, and indicate better agreement than the other film dryout models and empirical correlation of Katto. (author)

  2. Dryout modeling in support of the organic tank safety project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simmons, C.S.

    1998-08-01

    This work was performed for the Organic Tank Safety Project to evaluate the moisture condition of the waste surface organic-nitrate bearing tanks that are classified as being conditionally safe because sufficient water is present. This report describes the predictive modeling procedure used to predict the moisture content of waste in the future, after it has been subjected to dryout caused by water vapor loss through passive ventilation. This report describes a simplified procedure for modeling the drying out of tank waste. Dryout occurs as moisture evaporates from the waste into the headspace and then exits the tank through ventilation. The water vapor concentration within the waste of the headspace is determined by the vapor-liquid equilibrium, which depends on the waste's moisture content and temperature. This equilibrium has been measured experimentally for a variety of waste samples and is described by a curve called the water vapor partial pressure isotherm. This curve describes the lowering of the partial pressure of water vapor in equilibrium with the waste relative to pure water due to the waste's chemical composition and hygroscopic nature. Saltcake and sludge are described by two distinct calculations that emphasize the particular physical behavior or each. A simple, steady-state model is devised for each type to obtain the approximate drying behavior. The report shows the application of the model to Tanks AX-102, C-104, and U-105

  3. Development of the critical thickness correlation for an improvement of MARS code dryout model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, J. H.; Lee, W. J.; Lee, E. C.

    2002-01-01

    The mechanical film dryout analysis defines that the critical heat flux arises when liquid film calculation from evaporation, droplet entrainment and deposition gets dryout. The dryout of film is generally assumed when film thickness becomes zero. However, it was proven that the complete dryout assumption can estimate CHF well for uniform heating case but can not simulate accurately for non-uniform heating case. The critical thickness concept is an appropriate approach physically because there is a possibility of instantaneous disappearance of liquid film when it gets very thin. Therefore, the dryout phenomenon was modeled introducing critical thickness concept and development of proper critical thickness correlation. In this study, MARS code and some steady state dryout experimental data were used to develop a critical thickness correlation. The version including new critical thickness correlation was assessed using the several dryout CHF tests of various test conditions including non uniform heating case and flow reduction transient test and the results showed enhanced agreement with the experimental data

  4. Optimized numerical annular flow dryout model using the drift-flux model in tube geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, Ji Han; Lee, Un Chul

    2008-01-01

    Many experimental analyses for annular film dryouts, which is one of the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) mechanisms, have been performed because of their importance. Numerical approaches must also be developed in order to assess the results from experiments and to perform pre-tests before experiments. Various thermal-hydraulic codes, such as RELAP, COBRATF, MARS, etc., have been used in the assessment of the results of dryout experiments and in experimental pre-tests. These thermal-hydraulic codes are general tools intended for the analysis of various phenomena that could appear in nuclear power plants, and many models applying these codes are unnecessarily complex for the focused analysis of dryout phenomena alone. In this study, a numerical model was developed for annular film dryout using the drift-flux model from uniform heated tube geometry. Several candidates of models that strongly affect dryout, such as the entrainment model, deposition model, and the criterion for the dryout point model, were tested as candidates for inclusion in an optimized annular film dryout model. The optimized model was developed by adopting the best combination of these candidate models, as determined through comparison with experimental data. This optimized model showed reasonable results, which were better than those of MARS code

  5. On dryout heat flux and pressure drop of a submerged inductively heated bed flow from below

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, F.F.; Catton, I.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental investigation of dryout heat flux in a saturated porous medal with forced flow from below has been conducted using methanol as a coolant. The mass flux varied from 0 to 0.557 kg/m 2 sec. Particle sizes were 590-790 μm, 1.6 mm, 3.2 mm, and 4.8 mm. The dryout heat flux increases as the mass flux increases, and asymptotically goes to the total evaporation energy of the inlet flow. The pressure drop across the bed changed very rapidly near the dryout point due to the formation of dry zone

  6. Post-Dryout Heat Transfer to a Refrigerant Flowing in Horizontal Evaporator Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hideo; Yoshida, Suguru; Kakimoto, Yasushi; Ohishi, Katsumi; Fukuda, Kenichi

    Studies of the post-dryout heat transfer were made based on the experimental data for HFC-134a flowing in horizontal smooth and spiral1y grooved (micro-fin) tubes and the characteristics of the post-dryout heat transfer were c1arified. The heat transfer coefficient at medium and high mass flow rates in the smooth tube was lower than the single-phase heat transfer coefficient of the superheated vapor flow, of which mass flow rate was given on the assumption that the flow was in a thermodynamic equilibrium. A prediction method of post-dryout heat transfer coefficient was developed to reproduce the measurement satisfactorily for the smooth tube. The post dryout heat transfer in the micro-fin tube can be regarded approximately as a superheated vapor single-phase heat transfer.

  7. Dryout power of a CANFLEX bundle string with raised bearing pads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, L.K.H.; Dimmick, G.R.; Bullock, D.E.; Inch, W.W.R.; Jun, J.S.; Suk, H.C.

    2001-01-01

    Dryout power data have been obtained with CANFLEX bundle strings equipped with raised bearing pads (1.7 mm and 1.8 mm height as compared to 1.4 mm in the current Mk-IV design) at Stern Laboratories. The experiment covered a wide range of steam-water flow conditions in three flow tubes simulating uncrept, and 3.3% and 5.1% crept profiles. The dryout power follows consistent parametric trends: it increases with increasing mass-flow rate, and decreases with increasing pressure, inlet-fluid temperature and channel creep. Local and boiling-length-average (BLA) critical-heat-flux (CHF) values were evaluated from the dryout-power measurements. The dryout power and BLA CHF values of the high bearing-pad bundles are higher than those of the low bearing-pad bundles at the same channel inlet flow conditions. On average, the dryout powers for bundles with 1.7 mm and 1.8 mm bearing pads are about 8% and 10%, respectively, higher than those for the bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads. Compared to the 37-element bundle, an enhancement in dryout power is shown with CANFLEX bundles for all bearing-pad heights, at flow conditions of interest for reactor licensing. The average dryout power enhancement varies from 4% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.4 mm bearing pads in the uncrept channel to 27% for the CANFLEX bundle with 1.8 mm bearing pads in the 5.1% crept channel. (author)

  8. Post-dryout heat transfer analysis model with droplet Lagrangian simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keizo Matsuura; Isao Kataoka; Kaichiro Mishima

    2005-01-01

    Post-dryout heat transfer analysis was carried out considering droplet behavior by using the Lagrangian simulation method. Post-dryout heat transfer is an important heat transfer mechanism in many industrial appliances. Especially in recent Japanese BWR licensing, the standard for assessing the integrity of fuel that has experienced boiling transition is being examined. Although post-dryout heat transfer analysis is important when predicting wall temperature, it is difficult to accurately predict the heat transfer coefficient in the post-dryout regime because of the many heat transfer paths and non-equilibrium status between droplet and vapor. Recently, an analysis model that deals with many heat transfer paths including droplet direct contact heat transfer was developed and its results showed good agreement with experimental results. The model also showed that heat transfer by droplet could not be neglected in the low mass flux condition. However, the model deals with droplet deposition behavior by experimental droplet deposition correlation, so it cannot estimate the effect of droplet flow on turbulent flow field and heat transfer. Therefore, in this study we deal with many droplets separately by using the Lagrangian simulation method and hence estimate the effect of droplet flow on the turbulent flow field. We analyzed post-dryout experimental results and found that they correlated well with the analysis results. (authors)

  9. Post-dryout heat transfer and entrained droplet sizes at low pressure and low flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, H.Y.; No, H.C.

    1997-01-01

    The entrainment mechanisms and the entrained droplet sizes with relation to the flow regimes are investigated. Through the analysis of many experimental post-dryout data, it is shown that the most probable flow regime near dryout or quench front is not annular flow but churn-turbulent flow when the mass flux is low. A correlation describing the initial droplet size just after the CHF position at low mass flux is suggested through regression analysis. The history-dependent post-dryout model of Varone and Rohsenow replaced by the Webb-Chen model for wall-vapor heat transfer is used as a reference model in the analysis. In the post-dryout region at low pressure and low flow, it is found that the suggested one-dimensional mechanistic model is not applicable when the vapor superficial velocity is very low. This is explained by the change of main entrainment mechanism with the change of flow regime. In bubbly or slug flow a number of tiny droplets generated from bubble burst become important in the heat transfer after dryout. Therefore, the suggested correlation is valid only in the churn-turbulent flow regime (j g * = 0.5∼4.5). It is also suggested that the droplet size generated from the churn-turbulent surface is dependent not only on the pressure but also on the vapor velocity. It turns out that the present model can predict the measured cladding and vapor temperatures within 20% and 25%, respectively

  10. Boiling heat transfer and dryout in helically coiled tubes under different pressure conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Young-Jong; Bae, Kyoo-Hwan; Kim, Keung Koo; Lee, Won-Jae

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Heat transfer characteristics and dryout for helically coiled tube are performed. • A boiling heat transfer tends to increase with a pressure increase. • Dryout occurs at high quality test conditions investigated. • Steiner–Taborek’s correlation is predicted well based on the experimental results. - Abstract: A helically coiled once-through steam generator has been used widely during the past several decades for small nuclear power reactors. The heat transfer characteristics and dryout conditions are important to optimal design a helically coiled steam generator. Various experiments with the helically coiled tubes are performed to investigate the heat transfer characteristics and occurrence condition of a dryout. For the investigated experimental conditions, Steiner–Taborek’s correlation is predicted reasonably based on the experimental results. The pressure effect is important for the boiling heat transfer correlation. A boiling heat transfer tends to increase with a pressure increase. However, it is not affected by the pressure change at a low power and low mass flow rate. Dryout occurs at high quality test conditions investigated because a liquid film on the wall exists owing to a centrifugal force of the helical coil

  11. Applicability of one-dimensional mechanistic post-dryout prediction model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Yong; No Hee Cheon

    1996-01-01

    Through the analysis of many experimental post-dryout data, it is shown that the most probable flow regime near dryout or quench front is not annular flow but churn-turbulent flow when the mass flux is low. A correlation describing the initial droplet size just after the CHF position at low mass flux is low. A correlation describing the initial droplet size just after the CHF position at low mass flux is suggested through regression analysis. In the post-dryout region at low pressure and low flow, it is found that the suggested one-dimensional mechanistic model is not applicable when the vapor superficial velocity is very low, i. e., when the flow is bubbly or slug flow regime. This is explained by the change of main entrainment mechanism with the change of flow regime. Therefore, the suggested correlation is valid only in the churn-turbulent flow regime (j * g = 0.5 ∼ 4.5)

  12. Experimental study on the effect of heat flux tilt on rod bundle dryout limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, S.; Terunuma, K.; Kamoshida, H.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of heat flux tilt on rod bundle dryout limitation was studied experimentally using a full-scale mock-up test facility and simulated 36-rod fuel bundles in which heater pins have azimuthal nonuniform heat flux distribution (i.e., heat flux tilt). Experimental results for typical lateral power distribution in the bundle indicate that the bundle dryout power with azimuthal heat flux tilt is higher than that without azimuthal heat flux tilt in the entire experimental range. Consequently, it is concluded that the dryout experiment using the test bundle with heater pins which has circumferentially uniform heat flux distribution gives conservative results for the usual lateral power distribution in a bundle in which the relative power of outermost-circle fuel rods is higher than those of middle- and inner-circle ones. (author). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs

  13. Experimental study on the effect of heat flux tilt on rod bundle dryout limitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugawara, S; Terunuma, K; Kamoshida, H [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1996-12-31

    The effect of heat flux tilt on rod bundle dryout limitation was studied experimentally using a full-scale mock-up test facility and simulated 36-rod fuel bundles in which heater pins have azimuthal nonuniform heat flux distribution (i.e., heat flux tilt). Experimental results for typical lateral power distribution in the bundle indicate that the bundle dryout power with azimuthal heat flux tilt is higher than that without azimuthal heat flux tilt in the entire experimental range. Consequently, it is concluded that the dryout experiment using the test bundle with heater pins which has circumferentially uniform heat flux distribution gives conservative results for the usual lateral power distribution in a bundle in which the relative power of outermost-circle fuel rods is higher than those of middle- and inner-circle ones. (author). 15 refs., 2 tabs., 8 figs.

  14. Experimental study on dryout point of flow boiling in bilaterally heated narrow annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Geping; Wu Aimin; Tian Wenxi; Li Hao; Jia Dounan; Su Guanghui; Qiu Suizheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents and experimental study of the dryout point of flow boiling in bilaterally heated narrow annular channel with 1.5 mm and 2 mm annular gap, respectively. The range of pressure is 2.0-4.0 MPa and that of mass flux is 40-80 kg/m 2 ·s. Kutajilagi equation which is adaptable to tubes is used to deal with the experimental data and an empirical equation is obtained. Again this empirical equation is amended, then an empirical equation of the dryout point suitable for narrow annular channel is obtained

  15. Analytical prediction of CHF by FIDAS code based on three-fluid and film-dryout model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugawara, Satoru

    1990-01-01

    Analytical prediction model of critical heat flux (CHF) has been developed on the basis of film dryout criterion due to droplets deposition and entrainment in annular mist flow. Critical heat flux in round tubes were analyzed by the Film Dryout Analysis Code in Subchannels (FIDAS) which is based on the three-fluid, three-field and newly developed film dryout model. Predictions by FIDAS were compared with the world-wide experimental data on CHF obtained in water and Freon for uniformly and non-uniformly heated tubes under vertical upward flow condition. Furthermore, CHF prediction capability of FIDAS was compared with those of other film dryout models for annular flow and Katto's CHF correlation. The predictions of FIDAS are in sufficient agreement with the experimental CHF data, and indicate better agreement than the other film dryout models and empirical correlation of Katto. (author)

  16. Dryout heat flux in a debris bed with forced coolant flow from below

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Kwang-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Myung

    2004-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to experimentally investigate the enhancement of dryout heat flux in debris beds with coolant flow from below. The experimental facility consists mainly of an induction heater (40 kW, 35 kHz), a double-wall quartz-tube test section containing steel-particle bed and coolant injection and recovery condensing loop. A fairly uniform heating of particle bed was achieved by induction heating. This paper reports the experimental data for 5 mm particle bed and 300 mm bed height. The dryout heat rate data were obtained of both top-flooding case and forced coolant injection from below with the injection mass flux up to 1.5 kg/m 2 s. For the top-flooded case, the volumetric dryout heat rate was about 4 MW/m 3 and it increased as the rate of coolant injection from below was increased. At the coolant injection mass flux of 1.5 kg/m 2 s, the volumetric dryout heat rate was about 10 MW/m 3 , the enhancement factor was more than two. (author)

  17. Application of debris-bed dryout data to CONACS-1 modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabor, J.D.; Cassulo, J.C.; Pedersen, D.R.

    1982-01-01

    CONACS-1 (the first version of the DOE Containment Analysis Code System) which is currently under development requires extension of existing debris-bed dryout data to the wide range of conditions possible in an accident sequence. While there has been much effort on modeling of debris-bed dryout from first principles, there is no definitive model for beds of irregularly shaped particles of wide size distribution and for beds of varying heights. Existing debris-bed heat-transfer data with real materials are for the most part limited to dryout as a function of bed depth for adiabatic conditions of atmospheric pressure. These data must be extrapolated with the use of appropriate theoretical models based on experimentation with simulant materials to the ocnditions under consideration in the containment analysis. The data base selected for CONACS-1 is from measurements of dryout for beds of 100 to 1000 μm UO 2 with the sodium phase Joule heated. This particle size range which is typical for debris from fuel-coolant interactions is the most reasonable to use

  18. Dryout occurrence in a helically coiled steam generator for nuclear power application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santini L.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dryout phenomena have been experimentally investigated in a helically coiled steam generator tube. The experiences carried out in the present work are part of a wide experimental program devoted to the study of a GEN III+ innovative nuclear power plant [1].The experimental facility consists in an electrically heated AISI 316L stainless steel coiled tube. The tube is 32 meters long, 12.53 mm of inner diameter, with a coil diameter of 1m and a pitch of 0.79 m, resulting in a total height of the steam generator of 8 meters. The thermo-hydraulics conditions for dryout investigations covered a spectrum of mass fluxes between 199 and 810 kg/m2s, the pressures ranges from 10.7 to 60.7 bar, heat fluxes between 43.6 to 209.3 kW/m2.Very high first qualities dryout, between 0.72 and 0.92, were found in the range of explored conditions, comparison of our results with literature available correlations shows the difficulty in predicting high qualities dryout in helical coils., immediately following the heading. The text should be set to 1.15 line spacing. The abstract should be centred across the page, indented 15 mm from the left and right page margins and justified. It should not normally exceed 200 words.

  19. The Sensitivity Analysis of Axial Pressure Tube Creep Profile for Dryout Power in PHWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Euiseung; Kim, Youngae [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The Stern Laboratory performed the CHF tests with only one axial pressure tube creep profile per 3.3%, 5.1% peak crept channel and made CHF correlation including creep factor from the CHF test results. Wolsong nuclear power plants also have utilized the same CHF correlation derived by CNL. Pressure tube diameter creep rate is function of fast neutron, coolant temperature, and coolant pressure in a channel. It means that various axial pressure tube creep profiles exist in PHWR due to the history of operating conditions. Usually, CHF correlation is used during ROP(Regional Overpower Protection) Trip Setpoint Analysis or Safety Analysis in PHWR. The sensitivity analysis for CHF effects using various creep profiles is needed. This paper summarizes the comparison results of dryout power between CHF test creep profile and estimated creep profiles of Wolsong units. The effect of axial pressure tube creep profile for dryout power in fuel channel is evaluated by using Stern Lab. CHF test creep profile and 380 channel creep profiles of Wolsong. The dryout powers at 3.3% and 5.1% test conditions are slightly smaller when using 380 Wolsong channels creep profiles. These also show that the simulated dryout powers maintain consistency regardless of flow conditions.

  20. Forced convective boiling of water inside helically coiled tube. Characteristics of oscillation of dryout point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Niro; Sugiyama, Kenta; Takeuchi, Masanori; Yoshikawa, Shinji; Yamamoto, Fujio

    2006-01-01

    The helically coiled tube of heat exchanger is used for the evaporator of prototype fast breeder reactor 'Monju'. This paper aims at the grasp of two-phase flow phenomena of forced convective boiling of water inside helical coiled tube, especially focusing on oscillation phenomena of dryout point. A glass-made helically coiled tube was used to observe the inside water boiling behavior flowing upward, which was heated by high temperature oil outside the tube. This oil was also circulated through a glass made tank to provide the heat source for water evaporation. The criterion for oscillation of dryout point was found to be a function of inlet liquid velocity and hot oil temperature. The observation results suggest the mechanism of dryout point oscillation mainly consists of intensive nucleate boiling near the dryout point and evaporation of thin liquid film flowing along the helical tube. In addition, the oscillation characteristics were experimentally confirmed. As inlet liquid velocity increases, oscillation amplitude also increases but oscillation cycle does not change so much. As hot oil temperature increases, oscillation amplitude and cycle gradually decreases. (author)

  1. A review of dryout heat fluxes and coolability of particle beds. APRI 4, Stage 2 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindholm, Ilona

    2002-04-01

    Dryout heat flux experiments on particle beds have been reviewed. The observed dryout heat flux varies from some tens of kW/m 2 to well over 1 MW/m 2 . The variation can be qualitatively and to some extent also quantitatively explained. The effect of particle diameter has been clearly demonstrated. For particles having diameter less than about 1 mm, the dryout heat flux on the order of 100-200 kW/m 2 , and increases on square of the particle diameter. For larger than 1 mm particles the dryout heat flux increases on square root of the particle diameter. Typical values for ∼ 5 mm particles is 500 kW/m 2 to 1 MW/m 2 . An effect of bed thickness can be seen for small particles and medium range (50-500 mm) beds. For thick beds, > 500 mm, the dryout heat flux does not any more change as the bed height increases. The dryout heat flux increases with increasing coolant pressure. This can be explained by the increasing vapour density, which can remove more latent heat from the bed. Debris bed stratification, with small particles on top, clearly decreases the dryout heat flux. The dryout heat flux in a stratified bed can even be smaller than a heat flux of an equivalent debris bed consisting of the smaller particles alone. This is due to the capillary force, which draws liquid towards the smaller particles and causes the dryout to occur at the interface of the particle layers. A model has been developed by Lipinski to estimate dryout heat fluxes in a particle bed. The model has been derived based on solution of momentum, energy and mass conservation equations for two phases. The 1-D model can take into account variable particle sizes (stratification) along the bed and different coolant entry positions. It has been shown that the model can quite well predict the observed dryout characteristics in most experiments. The simpler 0-D model can give reasonable estimates for non-stratified beds. Results and observations of several tests on melt jet fragmentation in a water pool

  2. Localized dryout: An approach for managing the thermal hydrologi-cal effects of decay heat at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T. A.; Nitao, J.J.; Ramspott, L.D.

    1995-11-01

    For a nuclear waste repository in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, there are two thermal loading approaches to using decay heat constructively -- that is, to substantially reduce relative humidity and liquid flow near waste packages for a considerable time, and thereby limit waste package degradation and radionuclide dissolution and release. ''Extended dryout'' achieves these effects with a thermal load high enough to generate large-scale (coalesced) rock dryout. ''Localized dryout''(which uses wide drift spacing and a thermal load too low for coalesced dryout) achieves them by maintaining a large temperature difference between the waste package and drift wall; this is done with close waste package spacing (generating a high line-heat load) and/or low-thermal-conductivity backfill in the drift. Backfill can greatly reduce relative humidity on the waste package in both the localized and extended dryout approaches. Besides using decay heat constructively, localized dryout reduces the possibility that far-field temperature rise and condensate buildup above the drifts might adversely affect waste isolation

  3. Dryout-type critical heat flux in vertical upward annular flow: effects of entrainment rate, initial entrained fraction and diameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zan; Wadekar, Vishwas; Wang, Chenglong; Sunden, Bengt

    2018-01-01

    This study aims to reveal the effects of liquid entrainment, initial entrained fraction and tube diameter on liquid film dryout in vertical upward annular flow for flow boiling. Entrainment and deposition rates of droplets were included in mass conservation equations to estimate the local liquid film mass flux in annular flow, and the critical vapor quality at dryout conditions. Different entrainment rate correlations were evaluated using flow boiling data of water and organic liquids including n-pentane, iso-octane and R134a. Effect of the initial entrained fraction (IEF) at the churn-to-annular flow transition was also investigated. A transitional Boiling number was proposed to separate the IEF-sensitive region at high Boiling numbers and the IEF-insensitive region at low Boiling numbers. Besides, the diameter effect on dryout vapor quality was studied. The dryout vapor quality increases with decreasing tube diameter. It needs to be pointed out that the dryout characteristics of submillimeter channels might be different because of different mechanisms of dryout, i.e., drying of liquid film underneath long vapor slugs and flow boiling instabilities.

  4. Heat transfer in the post-dryout region of vertical and horizontal tubes uniformly heated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastner, W.; Koehler, W.; Kraetzer, W.

    1983-11-01

    Increased knowledge of the heat transfer in the post-dryout region is required for novel design of environmentally acceptable power plant technologies (e.g. fluidized bed combustion) and further development of proved steam generators. In particular, the influence of tube orientation and diameter are of consequence. Relating to the onset of critical boiling conditions and the heat transfer in the post-dryout region these aspects were investigated performing 357 tests which cover the operating conditions of fossil fired steam generators. In certain regions of parameters significant differences of the heat transfer behaviour of horizontal and vertical steam generator tubes occured. The experimental results were analysed and compared with theoretical models which were taken from the literature or developed within the frame of this project. (orig.) [de

  5. An analytical model for predicting dryout point in bilaterally heated vertical narrow annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye Myint; Tian Wenxi; Jia Dounan; Li Zhihui, Li Hao

    2005-02-01

    Based on the the droplet-diffusion model by Kirillov and Smogalev (1969, 1972), a new analytical model of dryout point prediction in the steam-water flow for bilaterally and uniformly heated narrow annular gap was developed. Comparison of the present model predictions with experimental results indicated that a good agreement in accuracy for the experimental parametric range (pressure from 0.8 to 3.5 MPa, mass flux of 60.39 to 135.6 kg· -2 ·s -1 and the heat flus of 50 kW·m -2 . Prediction of dryout point was experimentally investigated with deionized water upflowing through narrow annular channel with 1.0 mm and 1.5 mm gap heated by AC power supply. (author)

  6. Capillary-Driven Solute Transport and Precipitation in Porous Media during Dry-Out

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Holger; Andrew, Matthew; Blunt, Martin; Snippe, Jeroen

    2014-05-01

    The injection of dry or under-saturated gases or supercritical (SC) fluids into water bearing formations might lead to a formation dry-out in the vicinity of the injection well. The dry-out is caused by the evaporation/dissolution of formation water into the injected fluid and the subsequent transport of dissolved water in the injected fluid away from the injection well. Dry-out results in precipitation from solutes of the formation brine and consequently leads to a reduction of the rock's pore space (porosity) and eventually to a reduction of permeability near the injection well, or even to the loss of injectivity. Recently evidence has been found that the complexity of the pore space and the respective capillary driven solute transport plays a key role. While no effective-permeability (Keff) reduction was observed in a single-porosity sandstone, multi porosity carbonate rocks responded to precipitation with a strong reduction of Keff. The reason for the different response of Keff to salt precipitation is suspected to be in the exact location of the precipitate (solid salt) in the pore space. In this study, we investigate dry-out and salt precipitation due to supercritical CO2 injection in single and multi-porosity systems under near well-bore conditions. We image fluid saturation changes by means of μCT scanning during desaturation. We are able to observe capillary driven transport of the brine phase and the respective transport of solutes on the rock's pore scale. Finally we have access to the precipitated solid-salt phase and their distribution. The results can proof the thought models behind permeability porosity relationships K(φ) for injectivity modeling. The topic and the mechanisms we show are of general interest for drying processes in porous material such as soils and paper.

  7. First international workshop on fundamental aspects of post-dryout heat transfer: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.

    1984-12-01

    The purpose of the First International Workshop on Fundamental Aspects of Post-Dryout Heat Transfer was to review recent developments and the state of art in the field of post-dryout heat transfer. The workshop centered on interchanging ideas, reviewing current research results, and defining future research needs. The following five sessions dealing with the fundamental aspects of post-dryout heat transfer were held. A Computer Code Modeling and Flow Phenomena session was held dealing with flow rgimes, drop size, drop formation and behavior, interfacial area, interfacial drag, and computer modeling. A Quenching Phenomena session was held dealing with nature of rewetting, maximum wetting temperature, Leidenfrost phenomenon and heat transfer in the vicinity of quench front. A Low-Void Heat Transfer session was held dealing with inverted annular-flow heat transfer, inverted slug-flow heat transfer thermal non-equilibrium and computer modeling. A Dispersed-Flow Heat Transfer session was held dealing with drop interfacial heat transfer, vapor convection, thermal non-equilibrium and correlations and models

  8. Experimental and Theoretical Study of Dryout and Post-Dryout Heat Transfer of Steam-Water Two-Phase Flow in the Annular Channel with Narrow Gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aye Myint

    2004-10-01

    Two-phase annular flow with heat transfer is prevalent in many processes such as industrial and energy reformation processes. Recently, advances in high performance electronic chips and the miniaturisation of electronic circuits in which high heat flux will be created and other compact systems such as Integrated Nuclear Power Device (INPD), the refrigeration/air conditioning, automobile environment control systems have resulted in a great demand for developing efficient heat transfer techniques to accommodate these high heat fluxes. It has been studied by many researchers because of its successful application in many areas, but its influence factor and mechanism of heat transfer remain somewhat unknown yet. In order to understand the heat transfer and flow mechanism in the narrow annular channel, experimental and theoretical study of dryout and post-dryout heat transfer of steam-water two-phase flow in annular channel with narrow gap (1.0 mm and 1.5 mm) have been carried out. The working fluid is deionized water. The range of experimental pressure is 1.0 ∼ 6.OMPa. In correspondence with two different narrow gaps, two kinds of test sections were designed. The test sections were made of specially processed straight stainless steel tubes with linearity error less than 0.01% to form narrow concentric annuli. It also needs a good sealed performance at high pressure and high temperature. The experiments were carried out to investigate the characteristics and occurring conditions of the dryout point. The former Soviet researcher Kutateladse's correlation, based on round tube, was quoted and modified to apply barrow annuli under low flow conditions. At full conditions of the influencing factors, such as geometry of test section, pressure, mass flux, heat flux etc., an empirical correlation was developed to apply to bilaterally heated annuli and it had a good agreement with the experimental data A new analytical model for the dryout point of critical quality in

  9. Dry-out heat fluxes of falling film and low-mass flux upward-flow in heated tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yasuo; Ueda, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Teruyuki; Miyota, Yukio

    1998-01-01

    Dry-out heat fluxes were investigated experimentally for a film flow falling down on the inner surface of vertical heated-tubes and for a low mass flux forced-upward flow in the tubes using R 113. This work followed the study on those for a two-phase natural circulation system. For the falling film boiling, flow state observation tests were also performed, where dry-patches appearing and disappearing repeatedly were observed near the exit end of the heated section at the dry-out heat flux conditions. Relation between the dry-out heat flux and the liquid film flow rate is analyzed. The dry-out heat fluxes of the low mass flux upflow are expressed well by the correlation proposed in the previous work. The relation for the falling film boiling shows a similar trend to that for the upflow boiling, however, the dry-out heat fluxes of the falling film are much lower, approximately one third, than those of the upward flow. (author)

  10. Ferrocyanide safety program: An assessment of the possibility of ferrocyanide sludge dryout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, M.; Fauske, H.K.; Dickinson, D.R.; Crippen, M.D.; McCormack, J.D.; Cash, R.J.; Meacham, J.E.; Simmons, C.S.

    1994-09-01

    Much attention has been focused on the Hanford Site radioactive waste storage tanks as a results of problems that have been envisioned for them. One problem is the potential chemical reaction between ferrocyanide precipitate particles and nitrates in the absence of water. This report addresses the question of whether dryout of a portion of ferrocyanide sludge would render it potentially reactive. Various sludge dryout mechanisms were examined to determine if any of them could occur. The mechanisms are: (1) bulk heating of the entire sludge inventory to its boiling point; (2) loss of liquid to the atmosphere via sludge surface evaporation; (3) local drying by boiling in a hot spot region; (4) sludge drainage through a leak in the tank wall; and (5) local drying by evaporation from a warm segment of surface sludge. From the simple analyses presented in this report and more detailed published analyses, it is evident that global loss of water from bulk heating of the sludge to its boiling point or from surface evaporation and vapor transport to the outside air is not credible. Also, from the analyses presented in this report and experimental and analytical work presented elsewhere, it is evident that formation of a dry local or global region of sludge as a result of tank leakage (draining of interstitial liquid) is not possible. Finally, and most importantly, it is concluded that formation of dry local regions in the ferrocyanide sludge by local hot spots or warm surface regions is not possible. The conclusion that local or global dryout is incredible is consistent with four decades of waste storage history, during which sludge temperature have gradually decreased or remained constant and the sludge moisture content has been retained. 54 refs

  11. Study of dryout heat fluxes in beds of inductively heated particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhir, V.K.; Catton, I.

    1977-02-01

    Experimental observations of the dryout heat fluxes for inductively heated particulate beds have been made. The data were obtained when steel and lead particles in the size distribution 295-787 microns were placed in a 4.7 cm diameter pyrex glass jar and inductively heated by passing radio frequency current through a 13.3 cm diameter multi-turn work coil encircling the jar. Distilled water, methanol and acetone were used as coolants in the experiments, while the bed height was varied from 1.0 to 8.9 cm. Different mechanisms for the dryout in deep and shallow beds have been identified. Dryout in shallow beds is believed to occur when the vapor velocity in the gas jets exceeds a certain critical velocity at which choking of the vapor occurs, leading to obstruction in the flow of the liquid toward the bed. However, deep beds dry out when gravitational force can no longer maintain a downward coolant flow rate necessary to dissipate the heat generated in the bed. The heat flux data of the investigation and that from two previous investigations made at Argonne Laboratory and at UCLA have been correlated with semi-theoretical correlations based on the proposed hydrodynamic models. The deep and shallow bed correlations are used to predict the bed height at which transition from deep to shallow bed would occur. An application of the study has been made to determine the maximum coolable depths of the core debris as a function of the particle size, bed porosity and decay heat

  12. The flooding phenomenon and its connection with dry-out in boiling particle beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.; Anderson, A.R.

    1986-03-01

    Experimental studies of boiling in particle beds representing reactor core debris have been restricted to very small beds compared with those that may be found in a reactor. The use of air and water to simulate some of the many features of boiling in a particle bed has given results that were inconclusive. The work reported here is that carried out at Winfrith to extend the dryout data to larger particle diameters, and to provide new experimental data which removes earlier doubts, and makes the air-water analogue position much clearer. (U.K.)

  13. Development and application of surrogate model for assessment of ex-vessel debris bed dryout probability - 15157

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakush, S.E.; Lubchenko, N.T.; Kudinov, P.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we consider a water-cooled power reactor severe accident scenario with pressure vessel failure and subsequent release of molten corium. A surrogate model for prediction of dryout heat flux for ex-vessels debris beds of different shapes is developed. Functional form of dryout heat flux dependence on problem parameters is developed by the analysis of coolability problem in non-dimensional variables. It is shown that for a flat debris bed the dryout heat flux can be represented in terms of three 1-dimensional functions for which approximating formulas are found. For two-dimensional debris beds (cylindrical, conical, Gaussian heap, mound-shaped), an additional function taking into account the bed shape geometry is obtained from numerical simulations using DECOSIM code as a full model. With the surrogate model in hand, risk analysis of debris bed coolability is carried out by Monte Carlo sampling of the input parameters within selected ranges, with assumed distribution functions

  14. Investigations on post-dryout heat transfer in bilaterally heated annular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian, W.X.; Qiu, S.Z.; Jia, D.N.

    2006-01-01

    Post-dryout heat transfer in bilaterally heated vertical narrow annular channels with 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mm gap size has been experimentally investigated with deionized water under the condition of pressure ranging from 1.38 to 5.9 MPa and low mass flow rate from 42.9 to 150.2 kg/m 2 s. The experimental data was compared with well known empirical correlations including Groeneveld, Mattson, etc., and none of them gave an ideal prediction. Theoretical investigations were also carried out on post-dryout heat transfer in annular channels. Based on analysis of heat exchange processes arising among the droplets, the vapor and two tube walls of annular channel, a non-equilibrium mechanistic heat transfer model was developed. Comparison indicated that the present model prediction showed a good agreement with our experimental data. Theoretical calculation result showed that the forced convective heat transfer between the heated wall and vapor dominate the overall heat transfer. The heat transfer caused by the droplets direct contact to the wall and the interfacial convection/evaporation of droplets in superheated vapors also had an indispensable contribution. The radiation heat transfer would be neglected because of its small contribution (less than 0.11%) to the total heat transfer

  15. Preliminary analysis of tank 241-C-106 dryout due to large postulated leak and vaporization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepho, M.G.

    1995-03-01

    At the Hanford site in SE Washington, there are 149 single-shell tanks containing radionuclide wastes in the form of liquids, sludges and salt cakes. One of the tanks, tank 241-C-106, is heated to the boiling point due to radionuclide decay (primarily Sr-90). Water is added to the tank, which is ventilated, in order to cool the tank. This analysis assumes that there is a hypothetical large leak at the bottom of Tank 241-C-106 which initiates the dryout of the tank. The time required for a tank to dryout after a leak is of interest for safety reasons. As a tank dries outs, its temperature is expected to greatly increase, which could affect the structural integrity of the concrete tank dome. Hence, it is of interest to know how fast the temperature in a leaky tank increases, so that mitigation procedures can be planned and implemented in a timely manner. The objective of the study was to determine how long it would take for tank 241-C-106 to reach 350 degrees Fahrenheit (about 177 degrees Centigrade) after a postulated large leak develops at the bottom center of the tank.

  16. Flow regime transition and heat transfer model at low mass flux condition in a post-dryout region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Yong

    1996-02-01

    The post-dryout flow regime transition criterion from inverted annular flow (IAF) to agitated inverted annular flow (AIAF) is suggested based on the hyperbolicity breaking concept. The hyperbolicity breaking represents a bifurcation point where a sudden flow transition occurs. The hyperbolicity breaking concept is applied to describe the flow regime transition from IAF to AIAF by the growth of disturbance on liquid core surface. The resultant correlation has the similar form to Takenaka's empirical one. To validate the proposed model, it is applied to predict Takenake's experimental results using R-113 refrigerant with four different tube diameters of 3, 5, 7 and 10 mm. The proposed model gives accurate predictions for the tube diameters of 7 and 10 mm. As the tube diameter decreases, the differences between the predictions and the experimental results slightly increase. The flow regime transition from AIAF to dispersed flow (DF) is described by the drift flux model. It is shown that the transition criterion can be well predicted if the droplet sizes in dispersed flow are evaluated appropriately. Existing mechanistic post-dryout models result in fairly good predictions when the mass flux is high or when the film dryout occurs. However, the predictions by these models become poor at low mass flux at which the flow regime before dryout is believed to be churn-turbulent. This is because the constitutive relations and/or the imposed assumptions used in the models become erroneous at low mass flux. The droplet size predicted by the correlation used in the model becomes unrealistically large. In addition, the single phase vapor heat transfer correlation becomes invalid at low mass flux condition. To develop a mechanistic post-dryout model which is available at low mass flux condition, the entrainment mechanisms and the entrained droplet sizes with relation to the flow regimes are investigated. Through the analysis of many experimental post-dryout data, it is shown that

  17. Modelling of a DNB mechanism by dry-out of a nucleation site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bricard, P.

    1995-10-01

    This study deals with the modelling of a nucleation site dry-out DNB mechanism which unifies those of Kirby et al. (1967) and Fiori and Bergles (1970). A first model based on a simplified heat balance in the wall at the location of the dry spot is developed and a set of closure relations is proposed. The model is then quantitatively and qualitatively compared to CHF data. In order to support the likelihood of the mechanism, we develop a more elaborated model which couples the unsteady thermal behavior of the wall and the thermal-hydraulics of the fluid described by the different phases of the nucleation cycle. The conditions which enable the boiling crisis to be reached are given

  18. Investigations of post-dryout heat transfer in case of vertical and horizontal pipe flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnittger, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Experimental studies are presented of the heat transfer behaviour of a post dry-out flows in directly heated tubes of 6 m length. The wall temperatures of the tube are measured by thermocouples, which are distributed radially and axially on the outer tube surface. The vapor temperature is determined by a probe at the exit of the tube R 12 is used as a working fluid. Based on the experimental temperature distribution, the influence on pressure, massflow-density, and on specific thermal surface load had been studied. As a result, the heat transfer behaviour is dominated in a broad parameter range by thermal non-equilibrium conditions between the phases. Under these conditions the heat is transfered mainly from the tube wall to the vapor and from the vapor to the droplets. The strong wall temperature decrease observed at higher pressures and specific thermal surface loads after the dryout is not explained by a contact between the droplets and the tube wall, but by the decay of the droplets in the boundary layer of the wall. The non-uniform wall-temperature distribution of the horizontal tube and the lower evaporation rate compared with a vertical tube are explained by a non-uniform vapor temperature - and droplet distribution over the tube cross-section. A model is proposed for the calculation of the wall temperatures, which accounts for all these individual effects. This model can also be applied in the case of water as is demonstrated by a comparison with respective experimental results from the literature. (orig.) [de

  19. Dryout heat flux and flooding phenomena in debris beds consisting of homogeneous diameter particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Yu; Abe, Yutaka; Yamano, Norihiro; Soda, Kunihisa

    1988-08-01

    Since the TMI-2 accident, which occurred in 1979, necessity of understanding phenomena associated with a severe accident have been recognized and researches have been conducted in many countries. During a severe accident of a light water reactor, a debris bed consisting of the degraded core materials would be formed. Because the debris bed continues to release decay heat, the debris bed would remelt when the coolable geometry is not maintained. Thus the degraded core coolability experiments to investigate the influence of the debris particle diameter and coolant flow conditions on the coolability of the debris bed and the flooding experiments to investigate the dependence of flooding phenomena on the configuration of the debris bed have been conducted in JAERI. From the degraded core coolability experiments, the following conclusions were derived; the coolability of debris beds would be improved by coolant supply into the beds, Lipinski's 1-dimensional model shows good agreement with the measured dryout heat flux for the beds under stagnant and forced flow conditions from the bottom of the beds, and the analytical model used for the case that coolant is fed by natural circulation through the downcomer reproduces the experimental results. And the following conclusions were given from the flooding experiments ; no dependence between bed height and the flooding constant exists for the beds lower than the critical bed height, flooding phenomena of the stratified beds would be dominated by the layer consisting of smaller particles, and the predicted dryout heat flux by the analytical model based on the flooding theory gives underestimation under stagnant condition. (author)

  20. Modelling for post-dryout heat transfer and droplet sizes at low pressure and low flow conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, H.Y.; No, H.C.

    1996-01-01

    A correlation describing the initial droplet size just after the CHF position at low mass flux is suggested through regression analysis. The history-dependent post-dryout model of Varone and Rohsenow replaced by the Webb-Chen model for wall-vapor heat transfer is used as a reference model in the analysis. In the post-dryout region at low pressure and low flow, it is found that the suggested one-dimensional mechanistic model is valid only in the churn-turbulent flow regime (j* g = 0.5 ∼ 4.5). It is also suggested that the droplet size generated from the churn-turbulent surface is dependent not only on the pressure but also on the vapor velocity. It turns out that the present model can predict the measured cladding and vapor temperatures within 20% and 15%, respectively

  1. The effect of bed non-uniformities and porosity of particles on dryout in boiling particle beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macbeth, R.V.; Mogford, D.J.; Willshire, S.J.

    1988-03-01

    This report relates to an on-going experimental programme concerned with the coolability of beds of reactor core debris or rubble immersed in a liquid coolant, as might occur in an accident situation. The objectives are to develop experimental techniques, improve the understanding of bed cooling mechanisms, determine dry-out limitations of various bed configurations and particle shapes and sizes and devise ways of improving bed coolability. The report concentrates on a recently discovered effect on bed coolability of particle porosity, such as exists in fragmented UO 2 fuel pellets. It is shown that porosity can lower bed dry-out powers by a factor of 4 or 5. A mechanism which explains the effect is presented. The report also gives results of bed non-uniformities obtained by mixing glass particles with the dielectrically heated 'ferrite' particles used in the experiments. (author)

  2. Measurements of Sheath Temperature Profiles in Bruce LVRF Bundles Under Post-Dryout Heat Transfer Conditions in Freon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y.; Bullock, D.E.; Pioro, I.L.; Martin, J.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental program has been completed to study the behaviour of sheath wall temperatures in the Bruce Power Station Low Void Reactivity Fuel (shortened hereafter to Bruce LVRF) bundles under post-dryout (PDO) heat-transfer conditions. The experiment was conducted with an electrically heated simulator of a string of nine Bruce LVRF bundles, installed in the MR-3 Freon heat transfer loop at the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL), Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). The loop used Freon R-134a as a coolant to simulate typical flow conditions in CANDU R nuclear power stations. The simulator had an axially uniform heat flux profile. Two radial heat flux profiles were tested: a fresh Bruce LVRF profile and a fresh natural uranium (NU) profile. For a given set of flow conditions, the channel power was set above the critical power to achieve dryout, while heater-element wall temperatures were recorded at various overpower levels using sliding thermocouples. The maximum experimental overpower achieved was 64%. For the conditions tested, the results showed that initial dryout occurred at an inner-ring element at low flows and an outer-ring element facing internal subchannels at high flows. Dry-patches (regions of dryout) spread with increasing channel power; maximum wall temperatures were observed at the downstream end of the simulator, and immediately upstream of the mid-bundle spacer plane. In general, maximum wall temperatures were observed at the outer-ring elements facing the internal subchannels. The maximum water-equivalent temperature obtained in the test, at an overpower level of 64%, was significantly below the acceptable maximum temperature, indicating that the integrity of the Bruce LVRF will be maintained at PDO conditions. Therefore, the Bruce LVRF exhibits good PDO heat transfer performance. (authors)

  3. Determination of dryout localization using a five-equation model of annular flow for boiling in minichannels

    OpenAIRE

    Wajs Jan; Mikielewicz Dariusz

    2017-01-01

    Detailed studies have suggested that the critical heat flux in the form of dryout in minichannels occurs when the combined effects of entrainment, deposition, and evaporation of the film make the film flow rate go gradually and smoothly to zero. Most approaches so far used the mass balance equation for the liquid film with appropriate formulations for the rate of deposition and entrainment respectively. It must be acknowledged that any discrepancy in determination of deposition and entrainmen...

  4. The effects of transient conditions on the onset of intermittent dryout during blowdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Statham, B.A., E-mail: stathaba@mcmaster.ca; Novog, D.R., E-mail: novog@mcmaster.ca

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • This papers presents the results of an experimental investigation of transient critical heat flux in high quality and intermediate pressure water. • In existing literature conclusions vary from those showing no effect of transient conditions to results which show 30–40% improvement in CHF. • Along with new CHF data points in the liquid film dominated flow regime, the authors provide a methodology for producing bias free estimates of CHF based on existing correlations. • With these bias free CHF estimates, comparisons are made between transient and steady-state CHF at comparable local conditions. • The work concludes that based on consistently collected and analyzed data that quasi-steady CHF experiments adequately predict transient CHF using the same local thermalhydraulic conditions. - Abstract: For a given set of conditions in a boiling system the point of liquid film dryout or departure from nucleate boiling corresponds to the change from convective or nucleate boiling to transition or film boiling. This change is associated with a rapid deterioration of the heat transfer coefficient and the heat flux at this transition is denoted the critical heat flux (CHF). Computer models used to predict station transients and CHF rely heavily on empirical correlations to predict the CHF. Liquid film CHF data are usually obtained using a quasi-steady method wherein the heat flux is incremented in small steps with each step being allowed to reach a new equilibrium until an abnormal temperature increase is detected on the experimental surfaces. In applying a correlation derived from steady-state experiments to transient analyses these codes implicitly assume that dryout will occur for the same local conditions during transients as during steady state conditions. There is some disagreement in literature as to the validity of this hypothesis. This paper provides new steady-state and transient experimental data for CHF in water at intermediate pressures

  5. Numerical prediction of dryout heat flux in vertical uniformly heated round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okawa, Tomio; Kotani, Akio; Kataoka, Isao; Naito, Masanori

    2003-01-01

    Dryout heat fluxes in vertical uniformly heated round tubes were predicted using a film flow model. The correlations adopted in the present analysis were summarized as follows: (1) Entrainment rate and deposition rate were evaluated by the correlations whose validity was confirmed in wide range of thermal-hydraulic conditions. (2) In addition to the droplet entrainment due to interfacial shear force, the entrainment resulting from the boiling in liquid film was considered. (3) The vapor quality at the onset of annular flow was evaluated by the correlation based on the measurement of minimum droplet flowrate. (4) It was postulated that the droplet flowrate at the starting point of annular flow was to be approximated by that in equilibrium state. (5) The onset of critical heat flux condition was determined by the complete disappearance of liquid film. Though several assumptions were used in the present model, all the correlations adopted here were based on experimental data or considerations of the physical processes in annular flow. The resulting model required no parameters that should be adjusted from the measured data of critical heat flux. A number of experimental data of critical heat flux in forced flow of water in vertical uniformly heated round tubes were used to test the basic performance of the model. The comparisons between the calculated and measured critical heat fluxes showed that the predicted results by the present model agree with the experimental data fairly well if the flow pattern at burnout is considered annular flow. The predictive capability was not deteriorated even in the cases of small diameter tube, short length tube as well as low vapor quality at the onset of critical heat flux condition. (author)

  6. Assessment of ASSERT-PV for prediction of post-dryout heat transfer in CANDU bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Z.; Rao, Y.F.; Waddington, G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of the new Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV 3.2 for PDO sheath temperature prediction. • CANDU 28-, 37- and 43-element bundle PDO experiments. • Prediction improvement of ASSERT-PV 3.2 over previous code versions. • Sensitivity study of the effect of PDO model options. - Abstract: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the subchannel thermalhydraulics code ASSERT-PV for the Canadian nuclear industry. The recently released ASSERT-PV 3.2 provides enhanced models for improved predictions of subchannel flow distribution, critical heat flux (CHF), and post-dryout (PDO) heat transfer in horizontal CANDU fuel channels. This paper presents results of an assessment of the new code version against PDO tests performed during five full-size CANDU bundle experiments conducted between 1992 and 2009 by Stern Laboratories (SL), using 28-, 37- and 43-element bundles. A total of 10 PDO test series with varying pressure-tube creep and/or bearing-pad height were analyzed. The SL experiments encompassed the bundle geometries and range of flow conditions for the intended ASSERT-PV applications for existing CANDU reactors. Code predictions of maximum PDO fuel-sheath temperature were compared against measurements from the SL PDO tests to quantify the code's prediction accuracy. The prediction statistics using the recommended model set of ASSERT-PV 3.2 were compared to those from previous code versions. Furthermore, separate-effects sensitivity studies quantified the contribution of each PDO model change or enhancement to the improvement in PDO heat transfer prediction. Overall, the assessment demonstrated significant improvement in prediction of PDO sheath temperature in horizontal fuel channels containing CANDU bundles

  7. Heat transfer and voidage measurements in steady state post-dryout at low quality and high pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savage, R.A.; Archer, D.; Swinnerton, D.

    1992-01-01

    Steady state post-dryout heat transfer and voidage data have been obtained at pressures up to 70 bar and flows up to 1000 kg/m 2 s inside a vertical tube. The data were obtained with steam/water using a directly heated hot notch test section. Heat flux and voidage data are presented. The data are used to investigate aspects of the TRAC-PF1/MOD2 version 5.3 reflood model and are compared against heat transfer models used in it. (8 figures) (Author)

  8. A phenomenological prediction of dryout based on the churn-to-annular flow transition criterion in uniformly heated vertical tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Sung-Deok; Chun, Se-Young; Yang, Sun-Kyu; Chung, Moon-Ki; Lashgari, Farbod

    2000-01-01

    A phenomenological model is proposed to predict dryout in uniformly heated vertical tubes. The major point of the study was refining the initial conditions at the onset of annular flow location that starts the liquid film dryout process. The void fraction at the onset of the annular flow location has been derived from the vapor superficial velocity obtained by the churn-to-annular flow criterion with the help of the void-quality relationship. The thermodynamic equilibrium quality calculated through the iteration of flow quality using the profile-fit model to find the accurate starting point of the annular-flow in a tube. The present method was validated by worldwide data covering wide parametric ranges, a diameter of 5.1-37.5, exit quality over 10%, a flow rate of 183-5261 kg/m 2 -s and a system pressure of 0.5-17.7 MPa. The churn-to-annular flow transition criterion of Taitel et al.'s shows better prediction results than the other transition criteria. The present model improved the CHF prediction capability as a mean of 0.97 and root mean square error of 11% for the 3883 experimental data and extended the applicable range to the relatively low quality region. (author)

  9. In-pile critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer measurements – A historical perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groeneveld, D.C., E-mail: degroeneveld@gmail.com

    2017-06-15

    In the 1960s’ and 1970s’ Canada was a world leader in performing in-reactor heat transfer experiments on fuel bundles instrumented with miniature sheath thermocouples. Several Critical Heat Flux (CHF) and Post-CHF experiments were performed in Chalk River’s NRU and NRX reactors on water-cooled 3-, 18-, 19-, 21-, and 36-element fuel bundles. Most experiments were obtained at steady-state conditions, where the power was raised gradually from single-phase conditions up to the CHF and beyond. Occasionally, post-dryout temperatures up to 600 °C were maintained for several hours. In some tests, the fuel behaviour during loss-of-flow and blowdown transients was investigated – during these transients sheath temperatures could exceed 2000 °C. Because of the increasingly more stringent licensing requirements for in-pile heat transfer tests on instrumented fuel bundles, no in-pile CHF and post-dryout tests on fuel bundles have been performed anywhere in the world for the past 40 years. This paper provides details of these unique in-pile experiments and describes some of their heat transfer results.

  10. Experimental investigations on friction laws and dryout heat flux of particulate beds packed with multi-size spheres and irregular particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Liangxing; Ma, Weimin

    2011-01-01

    This paper is concerned with reducing uncertainty in quantification of debris bed coolability in a hypothetical severe accident of light water reactors (LWRs). A test facility named POMECO-FL is constructed to investigate the friction laws of adiabatic single and two-phase flow in a particulate bed packed with multi-size spheres or irregular particles. The same types of particles were then loaded in the test section of the POMECO-HT facility to obtain the dryout heat flux of the volumetrically heated particulate bed. The POMECO-HT facility features a high power capacity (up to 2.1 MW/m 2 ) which enables coolability study on particulate bed with broad variations in porosity and particle diameters under both top-flooding and bottom-injection conditions. The results show that given the effective particle diameter obtained from single-phase flow through the packed bed with multi-size spheres or irregular particles, both the pressure drop and the dryout heat flux of two-phase flow through the bed can be predicted by the Reed model. The bottom injection of coolant increases the dryout heat flux significantly. Meanwhile, the elevation of the dryout position is moving upwards with increasing bottom-injection flowrate. The experimental data provides insights for interpretation of debris bed coolability, as well as high-quality data for validation of the coolability analysis models and codes. (author)

  11. Validation of the model of Critical Heat Flux COBRA-TF compared experiments of Post-Dryout performed by the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH); Validacion del Modelo de Critical Heat Flux de COBRA-TF frente a los Experimentos de Post-Dryout realizados por el Royal Institute of Technology (KTH)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abarca, A.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this work is a validation of the results obtained with different existing correlations for predicting the value and location of the CTF code CHF, using them for experiments of Post-Dryout conducted by the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Stockholm, Sweden. (Author)

  12. Dryout characteristics and flow behavior of gas-water two-phase flow through U-shaped and inverted U-shaped bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemura, T.; Roko, K.; Shiraha, M.; Midoriyama, S.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental results are presented on the flow behavior, pressure drop characteristics, and dryout characteristics by joule heating for the gas-water flow through U-shaped and inverted U-shaped tubes invertical plane. The height of the vertical straight section of the test tube is 4100 mm, and two bend radii, 116 mm and 435 mm, are chosen for the experiments. The test tubes used are of transparent acrylic resin for the flow behavior test, and of stainless steel for the other tests, inside diameter being 18 mm for the former and 18.5 mm for the latter. Flow patterns in the vertical upflow and downflow sections are shown on the diagram of the superficial gas velocity versus liquid velocity. Further, the flow behavior in the bend section is made clear in relation to flow rates of gas and liquid. The pressure drop between inlet and outlet of the test tube for the made clear in relation to flow rates of gas and liquid. The pressure drop between inlet and outlet of the test tube for the two-phase flow is shown in comparison with that for the single-phase flow of water. The threshold conditions of dryout in the bend section by joule heatig are shown on the diagram of the superficial gas velocity versus liquid velocity. The location of the dryout in the bend section is also clarified. (orig.)

  13. Some preliminary results of post-dryout heat transfer measurements at low qualities and pressures up to 20 bar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swinnerton, D.; Pearson, K.G.; O'Mahoney, R.

    1987-01-01

    Steady state data have been obtained on post-dryout heat transfer for flow in a tube of inside diameter 10 mm and length 920 mm. The experiments covered mass velocities up to 200 kg/m 2 s at 10 and 20 bar and up to 1000 kg/m 2 s at 2 and 5 bar. Inlet qualities were close to zero and the equilibrium quality at exit ranged up to 60%. The tube was prevented from rewetting by massive copper hot patches, brazed to it at each end. Surface temperature measurements were made along the length of the tube. An in-stream thermocouple inserted into the flow at exit from the tube provided a measure of vapor temperature at this location. Typical sets of data are presented and the trends discussed. These new data extend the range of the available database against which the combined effects of the heat transfer and hydraulic models in reactor safety codes can be assessed. Comparisons are made with predictions obtained using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 computer code and the reflood code BERTHA

  14. An utilization of liquid sublayer dryout mechanism in predicting critical heat flux under low pressure and low velocity conditions in round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Won; Baik, Se-Jin; Ro, Tae-Sun

    2000-01-01

    From a theoretical assessment of extensive critical heat flux (CHF) data under low pressure and low velocity (LPLV) conditions, it was found out that lots of CHF data would not be well predicted by a normal annular film dryout (AFD) mechanism, although their flow patterns were identified as annular-mist flow. To predict these CHF data, a liquid sublayer dryout (LSD) mechanism has been newly utilized in developing the mechanistic CHF model based on each identified CHF mechanism. This mechanism postulates that the CHF occurrence is caused by dryout of the thin liquid sublayer resulting from the annular film separation or breaking down due to nucleate boiling in annular film or hydrodynamic fluctuation. In principle, this mechanism well supports the experimental evidence of residual film flow rate at the CHF location, which can not be explained by the AFD mechanism. For a comparative assessment of each mechanism, the CHF model based on the LSD mechanism is developed together with that based on the AFD mechanism. The validation of these models is performed on the 1406 CHF data points ranging over P=0.1-2 MPa, G=4-499 kg m -2 s -1 , L/D=4-402. This model validation shows that 1055 and 231 CHF data are predicted within ±30 error bound by the LSD mechanism and the AFD mechanism, respectively. However, some CHF data whose critical qualities are <0.4 or whose tube length-to-diameter ratios are <70 are considerably overestimated by the CHF model based on the LSD mechanism. These overestimations seem to be caused by an inadequate CHF mechanism classification and an insufficient consideration of the flow instability effect on CHF. Further studies for a new classification criterion screening the CHF data affected by flow instabilities as well as a new bubble detachment model for LPLV conditions, are needed to improve the model accuracy.

  15. WSC-2: a subchannel dryout correlation for water-cooled clusters over the pressure range 3.4-15.9 MPA (500-2300 PSIA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowring, R.W.

    1979-05-01

    WSC-2 is a subchannel dryout correlation for use with subchannel analysis computer codes such as HAMBO. It was optimised from 1074 experimental data points from 54 clusters simulating Pressure Tube Reactor, BWR and PWR geometries and covering the pressure range 3.4-15.9 MPa. The correlation errors were(a) PWR - type data: RMS 8.8%, Mean 0.2%,(b) all classes of data: RMS 7.2%, Mean - 0.3%. This represents a significant improvement over the other correlations used for reactor assessment with which it has been compared. (author)

  16. Analysis of dryout behaviour in laterally non-homogeneous debris beds using the MEWA-2D code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Saidur; Buerger, Manfred; Buck, Michael; Pohlner, Georg; Kulenovic, Rudi; Nayak, Arun Kumar; Sehgal, Bal Raj

    2009-01-01

    The present study analyses the impact of lateral non-homogeneities on the coolability of heated, initially water filled debris beds. Debris beds which may be formed in a postulated severe accident in light water reactors can not be expected to have a homogeneous structure. Lateral non-homogeneities are given e.g. already by a variation in height as in a heap of debris. Internally, less porous or more porous region may occur, the latter even as downcomer-like structures are considered to favour supply of water to the bed and thus coolability. In previous work it has been shown that such non-homogeneities are often strongly enhancing coolability, as compared to earlier investigations on laterally homogeneous beds. The present contribution aims at extending the view by analysing further cases of non-homogeneities with the MEWA-2D code. Especially, effects of capillary forces are considered in contrast to earlier analysis. Part of the paper deals with specific experiments performed in the POMECO facility at KTH in which a laterally stratified debris bed has been considered, whereby especially a strong jump of porosity, from 0.26 to 0.38, has been established. Astonishingly, under top as well as bottom flooding, dryout in these experiments occurred first in the lateral layer with higher porosity. Understanding is now provided by the effect of capillary forces: water is drawn from this layer to the less porous one. This effect improves the cooling in the less porous layer while it reduces coolability of the more porous layer. No real loop behaviour of inflow via the higher porosities with subsequent upflow in the less porous layer establishes here, in contrast to expectations. Other cases (different lateral heating in an otherwise homogeneous bed, closed downcomer in a homogeneous bed and heap-like debris) show, on the other hand, strongly improved coolability by such loops establishing due to the lateral differences in void and the corresponding pressure differences

  17. An application of liquid sublayer dryout mechanism to the prediction of critical heat flux under low pressure and low velocity conditions in round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwang-Won; Yang, Jae-Young; Baik, Se-Jin

    1997-01-01

    Based on several experimental evidences for nucleate boiling in annular film and the existence of residual liquid film flow rate at the critical heat flux (CHF) location, the liquid sublayer dryout (LSD) mechanism under annular film is firstly introduced to evaluate the CHF data at low pressure and low velocity (LPLV) conditions, which would not be predicted by a normal annular film dryout (AFD) model. In this study, the CHF occurrence due to annular film separation or breaking down is phenomenologically modelled by applying the LSD mechanism to this situation. In this LSD mechanism, the liquid sublayer thickness, the incoming liquid velocity to the liquid sublayer, and the axial distance from the onset of annular flow to the CHF location are used as the phenomena-controlling parameters. From the model validation on the 1406 CHF data points ranging over P = 0.1 - 2 MPa, G = 4 - 499 kg/m 2 s, L/D = 4 - 402, most of CHF data (more than 1000 points) are predicted within ±30% error bounds by the LSD mechanism. However, some calculation results that critical qualities are less than 0.4 are considerably overestimated by this mechanism. These overpredictions seem to be caused by inadequate CHF mechanism classification criteria and an insufficient consideration of the flow instability effect on CHF. Further studies for a new classification criterion screening the CHF data affected by flow instabilities and a new bubble detachment model for LPLV conditions are needed to improve the model accuracy. (author)

  18. Prediction of liquid film dryout in two-phase annular-mist flow in a uniformly heated narrow tube development of analytical method under BWR conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsuno, Hideaki; Kaminaga, Fumito

    1998-01-01

    A method was developed based on the conservation lows to predict critical heat flux (CHF) causing liquid film dryout in two-phase annular-mist flow in a uniformly heated narrow tube under BWR conditions. The applicable range of the method is within the pressure of 3-9 MPa, mass flux of 500-2,000 kg/m 2 ·s, heat flux of 0.33-2.0 MW/m 2 and boiling length-to-tube diameter ratio of 200-800. The two-phase annular-mist flow was modeled with the three-fluid streams with liquid film, entrained droplets and gas flow. Governing equations of the method are mass continuity and energy conservation on the three-fluid streams. Constitutive equations on the mass transfer which consist of the entrainment fraction at equilibrium and the mass transfer coefficient were newly proposed in this study. Confirmation of the present method were performed in comparison with the available film flow measurements and various CHF data from experiments in uniformly heated narrow tubes under high pressure steam-water conditions. In the heat flux range (q'' 2 ) practical for a BWR, agreement of the present method with CHF data was obtained as, (Averaged ratio) ± (Standard deviation) = 0.984 ± 0.077, which was shown to be the same or better agreement than the widely-used CHF correlations. (author)

  19. Assessment of capability of models for prediction of pressure drop and dryout heat flux in a heat generating particulate debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.P.; Nayak, A.K.; Rashid, M.; Kulenovic, R.

    2009-01-01

    During a severe accident in a light water reactor, the core can melt and be relocated to the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel. There it can form a particulate debris bed due to the possible presence of water. This bed, if not quenched in time, can lead to the failure of the pressure vessel because of the insufficient heat removal of decay heat in the debris bed. Therefore, addressing the issue of coolability behaviour of heat generating particulate debris bed is of prime importance in the framework of severe accident management strategies, particularly in case of above mentioned late phase scenario of an accident. In order to investigate the coolability behaviour of particulate debris bed, experiments were carried out at IKE test facility 'DEBRIS' on particle beds of irregularly shaped particles mixed with spheres under top- and bottom-flooding condition. The pressure drop and dryout heat flux (DHF) were measured for top- and bottom-flooding conditions. For top-flooding conditions, it was found that the pressure gradients are all smaller than the hydrostatic pressure gradient of water, indicating an important role of the counter-current interfacial shear stress of the two-phase flow. For bottom-flooding with a relatively high liquid inflow velocity, the pressure gradient increases consistently with the vapour velocity and the fluid-particle drags become important. Also, with additional forced liquid inflow from the bottom, the DHF increases dramatically. In all the cases, it was found that the DHF is significantly larger with bottom-flooding condition compared to top-flooding condition. Different models such as Lipinski, Reed, Tung and Dhir, Hu and Theophanous, and Schulenberg and Mueller have been used to predict the pressure drop characteristics and the DHF of heat generating particulate debris beds. Comparison is made among above mentioned models and experimental results for DHF and pressure drop characteristics. Considering the overall trend in

  20. A mathematical model for DRY-OUT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariy, A.; Khattab, M.; Olama, H.

    1989-01-01

    In this study a model has been developed for describing the thermal surface conditions at dry out in a vertical channel with uniform heat flux. The use of droplet generation rate and vapor-droplet-wall heat transfer relations together with the dry and wet side energy equations lead to evaluation of the wall surface temperature and heat transfer distributions before and after dry out. Comparison with the previous theoretical and experimental results are presented. The steady state approach developed showed to be in good agreement with the experimental results

  1. Characterization of flow regimes in the post-dryout region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obot, N.T.; Ishii, M.

    1988-01-01

    A visual study of film boiling using photographic and high speed motion-picture methods was carried out to determine the flow regime transition criteria in the post-CHF region. An idealized inverted annular flow was obtained by introducing a liquid jet of Freon 113 through a nozzle, precisely centered with respect to the internal diameter of the test section, with an annual gas flow. The respective ranges for liquid and gas exit velocities were 0.05-0.5 and 0.03-8.2 m/s. Nitrogen and helium were used in the study

  2. Nuclear-Coupled Flow Instabilities and Their Effects on Dryout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Ishii; X. Sunn; S. Kuran

    2004-09-27

    Nuclear-coupled flow/power oscillations in boiling water reactors (BWRs) are investigated experimentally and analytically. A detailed literature survey is performed to identify and classify instabilities in two-phase flow systems. The classification and the identification of the leading physical mechanisms of the two-phase flow instabilities are important to propose appropriate analytical models and scaling criteria for simulation. For the purpose of scaling and the analysis of the nonlinear aspects of the coupled flow/power oscillations, an extensive analytical modeling strategy is developed and used to derive both frequency and time domain analysis tools.

  3. TRAC-BDl/MOD1 post-dryout wall heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumway, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    A comparison of TRAC-BWR heat transfer package with 766 data points is presented. On the average, TRAC-BWR provides a better prediction of the data compared to any single correlation although there is still a large scatter in TRAC-BWR prediction. Regarding any potential changes in the TRAC-BD1/MOD1 wall heat transfer package, it is concluded that no significant improvement in the film boiling area can be made until data with better measurements are obtained and analyzed. Specifically, data is needed which has a wide range of accurately measured void fractions. Heated tube data is also needed which addresses the countercurrent flow transition conditions

  4. Flow visualization study of inverted annular flow of post dryout heat transfer region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; De Jarlais, G.

    1985-01-01

    The inverted annular flow is important in the area of LWR accident analysis in terms of the maximum cladding temperature and effectiveness of the emergency core cooling. However, the inverted annular flow thermal-hydraulics is not well understood due to its special heat transfer condition of film boiling. The review of existing data indicates further research is needed in the areas of basic hydrodynamics related to liquid core disintegration mechanisms, slug and droplet formation, entrainment, and droplet size distributions. In view of this, the inverted flow is studied in detail experimentally. A new experimental apparatus has been constructed in which film boiling heat transfer can be established in a transparent test section. The test section consists of two coaxial quartz tubes. The annular gap between these two tubes is filled with a hot, clear fluid (syltherm 800) so as to maintain film boiling temperatures and heat transfer rates at the inner quartz tube wall. Data on liquid core stability, core break-up mechanism, and dispersed-core liquid slug and droplet sizes are obtained using F 113 as a test fluid. Both high speed movies and flash photographs (3 μsec) are used

  5. Subcooled boiling heat transfer and dryout on a constant temperature microheater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Tailian; Klausner, James F.; Chung, Jacob N.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental study of single-bubble subcooled boiling heat transfer (ΔT sub =31.5 K) on a small heater with constant wall temperature has been performed to better understand the boiling heat transfer associated with this unique configuration. The heater of 0.27 mm x 0.27 mm is set at different superheats to generate vapor bubbles on the microheater surface. For each superheat, the heater temperature is maintained constant by an electronic feedback control circuit while its power dissipation is measured at a frequency of 4.5 kHz. The single-bubble boiling is characterized by a transient bubble nucleation-departure period and a slow growth period. For the superheat range of 34-114 K in this study, at wall superheats below 84 K, the heater remains partially wetted following bubble departure and subsequent nucleation, and this period is characterized by a heat flux spike. At wall superheats above 90 K, the heater is blanketed with vapor following bubble departure and the heat flux experiences a dip during this period. At all superheats, the slow growth period is characterized by an almost uniform heat flux, and it has been observed that the heater surface is mostly covered by vapor. The unique heat transfer processes associated with boiling on this microheater are considerably different than those typically observed during boiling on a large heater

  6. Dryout delay in loss-of-coolant incidents in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belda, W.

    1975-01-01

    The maximum credible accident (MCA) as a result of a fault in the system is assumed to be the rupture of a pipe in the primary circuit. During the outflow process following the rupture - called blowdown - it is possible that the internals of a reactor pressure vessel are exposed to extreme mechanical and thermal stresses. The fuel rods in the core, the Zircaloy cladding tubes of which can be heated up by lack of coolant to inadmissibly high temperatures, are particularly at risk. In case of the cladding tubes being damaged, radioactive substances are released. If they escape from the outer containment, this would lead to pressures on the immediate and more distant vicinity of the nuclear pover plant. In order to eliminate the factors of uncertainty when calculating the overall blowdown process in advance, it is necessary to have a relationship valid for the instationary circumstances to work out the burnout delay which is of decisive importance for the post-incident cooling phase of the reactor. The aim of this investigation, therefore, is to develop, with the aid of a suitable model, a method of calculating the burnout delay. (orig./TK) [de

  7. Flow visualization study of inverted annular flow of post dryout heat transfer region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; De Jarlais, G.

    1985-01-01

    The inverted annular flow is important in the area of LWR accident analysis in terms of the maximum cladding temperature and effectiveness of the emergency core cooling. However, the inverted annular flow thermal-hydraulics is not well understood due to its special heat transfer condition of film boiling. In view of this, the inverted flow is studied in detail experimentally. A new experimental apparatus has been constructed in which film boiling heat transfer can be established in a transparent test section. Data on liquid core stability, core break-up mechanism, and dispersed-core liquid slug and droplet sizes are obtained using F 113 as a test fluid. Both high speed movies and flash photographs are used

  8. Flow visualization study of inverted annular flow of post dryout heat transfer region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; De Jarlais, G.

    1987-01-01

    The inverted annular flow is important in the area of LWR accident analysis in terms of the maximum cladding temperature and effectiveness of the emergency core cooling. However, the inverted annular flow thermal-hydraulics is not well understood due to its special heat transfer condition of film boiling. In view of this, the inverted flow is studied in detail experimentally. A new experimental apparatus has been constructed in which film boiling heat transfer can be established in a transparent test section. Data on liquid core stability, core break-up mechanism, and dispersed-core liquid slug and droplet sizes are obtained using F 113 as a test fluid. Both high speed movies and flash photographs are used. The inlet section consists of specially designed coaxial nozzles for gas and liquid such that the ideal inverted annular flow can be generated. The roll wave formation, droplet entrainment from wave crests, agitated sections with large interfacial areas, classical sinuous jet instability, jet break-up into multiple liquid ligaments and drop formation from liquid ligaments have been observed in detail. (orig.)

  9. A model for predicting the dry-out position for annular flow in a uniformly heated vertical tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shanawany, M.; El-Shirbini, A.A.; Murgatroyd, W.

    1978-01-01

    A method is introduced by which the length of the annular flow regime in a straight vertical-tube steam generator can be evaluated. The heated length is divided into a large number of segments and the outlet conditions at one segment are used as the initial conditions for the following segment. A computer program has been designed for this step-by-step calculation. A comparison between the results of the present work and different available experimental data demonstrates the adequacy of the presented method. (author)

  10. Transient heat transfer analysis up to dryout in 3D fuel rods under unideal conditions through the development of a computer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Rodolfo I.; Affonso, Renato R.W.; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes; Sampaio, Paulo A. B. de, E-mail: rodolfoienny@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we analyze a conjugated transient heat transfer problem consisting of a nuclear reactor's fuel rod and its intrinsic coolant channel. Our analysis is made possible through a computer code being developed at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN). This code is meant to study the temperature behavior in fuel rods which exhibit deviation from their ideal conditions, that is, rods in which the cladding is deformed or the fuel is dislocated. It is also designed to avoid the use of the computationally expensive Navier-Stokes equations. For these reasons, its physical model has as basis a three-dimensional fuel rod coupled to a one-dimensional coolant channel, which are discretized using the finite element method. Intending to study accidental conditions in which the coolant (light water) transcends its saturation temperature, turning into vapor, a homogeneous mixture is used to represent the two-phase flow, and so the coolant channel's energy equation is described using enthalpy. Owing to the fact that temperature and enthalpy are used in the physical model, it became impractical to generate a fully coupled method for solving the pertinent equations. Thus, the conjugated heat transfer problem is solved in a segregated manner through the implementation of an iterative method. Finally, as study cases for this paper we present analyses concerning the behavior of the hottest fuel rod in a Pressurized Water Reactor during a shutdown wherein the residual heat removal system is lost (loss of the reactor's coolant pumps). These studies contemplate cases in which the fuel rod's geometry is ideal or curved. Analyses are also performed for two circumstances of positioning of the fuel inside the rod: concentric and eccentric. (author)

  11. Transient heat transfer analysis up to dryout in 3D fuel rods under unideal conditions through the development of a computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Rodolfo I.; Affonso, Renato R.W.; Moreira, Maria de Lourdes; Sampaio, Paulo A. B. de

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyze a conjugated transient heat transfer problem consisting of a nuclear reactor's fuel rod and its intrinsic coolant channel. Our analysis is made possible through a computer code being developed at the Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN). This code is meant to study the temperature behavior in fuel rods which exhibit deviation from their ideal conditions, that is, rods in which the cladding is deformed or the fuel is dislocated. It is also designed to avoid the use of the computationally expensive Navier-Stokes equations. For these reasons, its physical model has as basis a three-dimensional fuel rod coupled to a one-dimensional coolant channel, which are discretized using the finite element method. Intending to study accidental conditions in which the coolant (light water) transcends its saturation temperature, turning into vapor, a homogeneous mixture is used to represent the two-phase flow, and so the coolant channel's energy equation is described using enthalpy. Owing to the fact that temperature and enthalpy are used in the physical model, it became impractical to generate a fully coupled method for solving the pertinent equations. Thus, the conjugated heat transfer problem is solved in a segregated manner through the implementation of an iterative method. Finally, as study cases for this paper we present analyses concerning the behavior of the hottest fuel rod in a Pressurized Water Reactor during a shutdown wherein the residual heat removal system is lost (loss of the reactor's coolant pumps). These studies contemplate cases in which the fuel rod's geometry is ideal or curved. Analyses are also performed for two circumstances of positioning of the fuel inside the rod: concentric and eccentric. (author)

  12. Investigation of the liquid film flow rate in an annular two phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandraker, D.K.; Dasgupta, A.; Vijayan, P.K.; Aritomi, M.

    2011-01-01

    An accurate knowledge of the liquid film flow is essential in most thermal-hydraulic predictions, including the onset of dryout in boiling channels and post-dryout heat transfer during transient and accident scenarios. The determination of the film flow is an important aspect of the dryout analysis in the boiling channel. Dryout is caused due to the disappearance of the liquid film on the heated surface. Mechanistic prediction of dryout involves the modeling of the physical phenomenon of the processes like entrainment and deposition rate of droplets. In the nuclear reactor systems analytical prediction of the thermal hydraulic parameters is always desirable to avoid generation of exhaustive and expensive experimental data for optimizing the design parameters. Good constitutive models for entrainment and deposition are vital for an accurate prediction of the film flow rate and hence dryout in a fuel bundle. This paper attempts a comprehensive review of the dryout analysis involving application of the constitutive models for the film flow rate. Validation of these models against various experimental data has also been presented in this paper. (author)

  13. Boiling curve in high quality flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiralkar, B.S.; Hein, R.A.; Yadigaroglu, G.

    1980-01-01

    The post dry-out heat transfer regime of the flow boiling curve was investigated experimentally for high pressure water at high qualities. The test section was a short round tube located downstream of a hot patch created by a temperature controlled segment of tubing. Results from the experiment showed that the distance from the dryout point has a significant effect on the downstream temperatures and there was no unique boiling curve. The heat transfer coefficients measured sufficiently downstream of the dryout point could be correlated using the Heineman correlation for superheated steam, indicating that the droplet deposition effects could be neglected in this region

  14. Theoretical analysis and experimental research on dispersed-flow boiling heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhenwan; Jia Dounan; Li Linjiao; Mu Quanhou

    1989-01-01

    Experiment on dispersed-flow boiling heat transfer at low pressure has been done. The hot patch technique has been used to establish post-dryout conditions. The position of the hot patch can be varied along the test section. The superheated vapor temperatures at different elevations after dryout point are obtained. The experimental data are generally in agreement with the models of predictions of existing nonequilibrium film boiling. A heat transfer model for dispersed-flow boiling heat transfer has been developed. And the model can explain the phenomena of heat transfer near the dryout point. (orig./DG)

  15. Assessment of CHF characteristics at subcooled conditions for the CANFLEX bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onder, E.N.; Leung, L.K.H.

    2013-01-01

    Boiling-Length-Average (BLA) Critical Heat Flux (CHF) values for the CANFLEX bundle at cross-sectional average subcooled conditions have been evaluated using the ASSERT-PV subchannel code. The predicted BLA CHF values supplement experimental BLA CHF values obtained with full-scale bundle simulators at saturated conditions in developing a BLA CHF correlation applicable over the interested range of cross-sectional average thermodynamic quality in regional overpower protection (ROP) trip and safety analyses. The BLA CHF correlation exhibits similar characteristics to those observed in tubes at subcooled and saturated conditions. Applying this correlation has led to similar prediction accuracy in dryout power to that using the BLA CHF-data-based correlation at saturated conditions. However, it provides improved prediction accuracy in dryout power at dryout conditions near saturation compared to the BLA CHF-data-based correlation (which tends to underpredict the dryout power)

  16. Thinning and rupture of a thin liquid film on a heated surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankoff, S.G.; Davis, S.H.

    1992-08-05

    Results on the dynamics and stability of thin films are summarized on the following topics: forced dryout, film instabilities on a horizontal plane and on inclined planes, instrumentation, coating flows, and droplet spreading. (DLC)

  17. Thinning and rupture of a thin liquid film on a heated surface. Annual technical progress report, November 1, 1991--October 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankoff, S.G.; Davis, S.H.

    1992-08-05

    Results on the dynamics and stability of thin films are summarized on the following topics: forced dryout, film instabilities on a horizontal plane and on inclined planes, instrumentation, coating flows, and droplet spreading. (DLC)

  18. Modeling and validation of a mechanistic tool (MEFISTO) for the prediction of critical power in BWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamsson, Carl; Le Corre, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The MEFISTO code efficiently and accurately predicts the dryout event in a BWR fuel bundle, using a mechanistic model. → A hybrid approach between a fast and robust sub-channel analysis and a three-field two-phase analysis is adopted. → MEFISTO modeling approach, calibration, CPU usage, sensitivity, trend analysis and performance evaluation are presented. → The calibration parameters and process were carefully selected to preserve the mechanistic nature of the code. → The code dryout prediction performance is near the level of fuel-specific empirical dryout correlations. - Abstract: Westinghouse is currently developing the MEFISTO code with the main goal to achieve fast, robust, practical and reliable prediction of steady-state dryout Critical Power in Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel bundle based on a mechanistic approach. A computationally efficient simulation scheme was used to achieve this goal, where the code resolves all relevant field (drop, steam and multi-film) mass balance equations, within the annular flow region, at the sub-channel level while relying on a fast and robust two-phase (liquid/steam) sub-channel solution to provide the cross-flow information. The MEFISTO code can hence provide highly detailed solution of the multi-film flow in BWR fuel bundle while enhancing flexibility and reducing the computer time by an order of magnitude as compared to a standard three-field sub-channel analysis approach. Models for the numerical computation of the one-dimensional field flowrate distributions in an open channel (e.g. a sub-channel), including the numerical treatment of field cross-flows, part-length rods, spacers grids and post-dryout conditions are presented in this paper. The MEFISTO code is then applied to dryout prediction in BWR fuel bundle using VIPRE-W as a fast and robust two-phase sub-channel driver code. The dryout power is numerically predicted by iterating on the bundle power so that the minimum film flowrate in the

  19. Two-phase flow pattern and heat transfer during core uncovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osakabe, Masahiro; Koizumi, Yasuo; Tasaka, Kanji

    1987-01-01

    The low and high power core uncovery patterns were observed in the high-pressure quasi-steady core uncovery experiments in a 25-rod bundle. The boundary between the two patterns was obtained in the experiments. The difference of two patterns was considered to be due to the slug-annular transition below the dryout points. The Osakabe's slug-annular transition model was the good boundary between the two patterns. The small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) experiments were conducted by using the integral experimental facility with the 1,168-rod core. The transient core uncovery pattern was expected as the low power core uncovery pattern based on the quasisteady experiments mentioned above. The transient core uncovery patterns were classified into the boiloff and hydraulic core uncovery. In the boiloff core uncovery, the dryout points were controlled with the mixture level like the quasi-steady state. In the hydraulic core uncovery, the dryout points were not controlled with the mixture level alone, and the multi-dimensional dryout process in the core and the relatively high heat transfer above the dryout points were observed. It was considered that a part of water was remained above the dryout points due to the rapid depression of core liquid level. (author)

  20. Momentum distribution near k = 3kF in the Tomonaga-Luttinger model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solyom, J.; Penc, K.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper a survey is presented of recent experimental and analytical work carried out under a joint program at the Harwell Laboratory and Imperial College, placing the new work into the context of earlier developments. The basic balance equations for annular flow are introduced and the well-known triangular relationship reiterated. Then, interfacial waves and interfacial friction are reviewed, including some new results in both areas. A key feature in annular flow is the prediction of deposition and entrainment and recent developments are described. The various studies have led to a new framework for predictions of annular flow systems and the application of this framework to adiabatic flows, evaporating flows, steady-state dryout and transient dryout is described. Finally, new models covering the full range of dryout (CHF) ranging from subcooled conditions to high quality conditions are described; here dryout is limited by either film dryout (in annular flow) or by bubble wall crowding (at low quality ) and the new modelling structure allows a natural transition between the two

  1. Cooling of an internal-heated debris bed with fine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Z.L.; Sehgal, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, an analytical model on dryout heat flux of ex-vessel debris beds with fines particles under top flooding conditions has been developed. The parametric study is performed on the effect of the stratification of the debris beds on the dryout heat flux. The calculated results show that the stratification configuration of the debris beds with smaller particles and lower porosity layer resting on the top of another layer of the beds has profound effect on the dryout heat flux for the debris beds both with and without a downcomer. The enhancement of the dryout heat flux by the downcomer is significant. The efficiency of the single downcomer on the enhancement of the dryout heat flux is also analyzed. This, in general, agrees well with experimental data. The model is also employed to perform the assessment on the coolability of the ex-vessel debris bed under representative accidental conditions. One conservative case is chosen, and it is found that the downcomer could be efficient measure to cool the debris bed and hence terminate the severe accident. (authors)

  2. Heating limits of boiling downward two-phase flow in parallel channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, Kenji; Kondoh, Tetsuya; Hasegawa, Shu; Sakai, Takaaki.

    1989-01-01

    Flow characteristics and heating limits of downward two-phase flow in single or parallel multi-channels are investigated experimentally and analytically. The heating section used is made of glass tube, in which the heater tube is inserted, and the flow regime inside it is observed. In single channel experiments with low flow rate conditions, it is found that, initially, gas phase which flows upward against the downward liquid phase flow condenses and diminishes as it flows up being cooled by inflowing liquid. However, as the heating power is increased, some portion of the gas phase reaches the top and accumulates to form an liquid level, which eventually causes the dryout. On the other hand, for high flow rate condition, the flooding at the bottom of the heated section is the cause of the dryout. In parallel multi-channels experiments, reversed (upward) flow which leads to the dryout is observed in some of these channels for low flow rate conditions, while the situation is the same to the single channel case for high flow rate conditions. Analyses are carried out to predict the onset of dryout in single channel using the drift flux model as well as the Wallis' flooding correlation. Above-mentioned two types of the dryout and their boundary are predicted which agree well with the experimental results. (author)

  3. Study on thermal performance and margins of BWR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stosic, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    This paper contributes to developing a methodology of predicting and analyzing thermal performance and margins of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) fuel assemblies under conditions of reaching high quality Boiling Crisis and subsequent post-dryout thermal hydraulics causing temperature excursion of fuel cladding. Operational margins against dryout and potential for increasing fuel performance with appropriate benefits are discussed. The philosophy of modeling with its special topics are demonstrated on the HECHAN (HEated CHannel ANalyzer) model as the state-of-art for thermal-hydraulics analysis of BWR fuel assemblies in pre- and post-dryout two-phase flow regimes. The scope of further work either being or has to be performed concerning implementation of new physical aspects, including domain extension of HECHAN model applications to the Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), is discussed. Finally, a comprehensive overview of the literature dealing with development of the model is given. (author)

  4. An experimental study on coolability of a particulate bed with radial stratification or triangular shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakre, Sachin; Li, Liangxing; Ma, Weimin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Dryout heat flux of a particulate bed with radial stratification is obtained. • It was found to be dominated by hydrodynamics in the bigger size of particle layer. • Coolability of a particulate bed with triangular shape is investigated. • The coolability is improved in the triangular bed due to lateral ingression of coolant. • Coolability of both beds is enhanced by a downcomer. - Abstract: This paper deals with the results of an experimental study on the coolability of particulate beds with radial stratification and triangular shape, respectively. The study is intended to get an idea on how the coolability is affected by the different features of a debris bed formed in a severe accident of light water reactors. The experiments were performed on the POMECO-HT facility which was constructed to investigate two-phase flow and heat transfer in particulate beds under either top-flooding or bottom-fed condition. A downcomer is designed to enable investigation of the effectiveness of natural circulation driven coolability. Two homogenous beds were also employed in the present study to compare their dryout power densities with those of the radially stratified bed and the triangular bed. The results show that the dryout heat fluxes of the homogeneous beds at top-flooding condition can be predicted by the Reed model. For the radially stratified bed, the dryout heat flux is dominated by two-phase flow in the columns packed with larger particles, and the dryout occurred initially near the boundary between the middle column and a side column. Given the same volume of particles under top-flooding condition, the dryout power density of the triangular bed is about 69% higher than that of the homogenous bed. The coolability of all the beds is enhanced by bottom-fed coolant driven by either forced injection or downcomer-induced natural circulation

  5. An experimental study on coolability of a particulate bed with radial stratification or triangular shape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, Sachin; Li, Liangxing; Ma, Weimin, E-mail: ma@safety.sci.kth.se

    2014-09-15

    Highlights: • Dryout heat flux of a particulate bed with radial stratification is obtained. • It was found to be dominated by hydrodynamics in the bigger size of particle layer. • Coolability of a particulate bed with triangular shape is investigated. • The coolability is improved in the triangular bed due to lateral ingression of coolant. • Coolability of both beds is enhanced by a downcomer. - Abstract: This paper deals with the results of an experimental study on the coolability of particulate beds with radial stratification and triangular shape, respectively. The study is intended to get an idea on how the coolability is affected by the different features of a debris bed formed in a severe accident of light water reactors. The experiments were performed on the POMECO-HT facility which was constructed to investigate two-phase flow and heat transfer in particulate beds under either top-flooding or bottom-fed condition. A downcomer is designed to enable investigation of the effectiveness of natural circulation driven coolability. Two homogenous beds were also employed in the present study to compare their dryout power densities with those of the radially stratified bed and the triangular bed. The results show that the dryout heat fluxes of the homogeneous beds at top-flooding condition can be predicted by the Reed model. For the radially stratified bed, the dryout heat flux is dominated by two-phase flow in the columns packed with larger particles, and the dryout occurred initially near the boundary between the middle column and a side column. Given the same volume of particles under top-flooding condition, the dryout power density of the triangular bed is about 69% higher than that of the homogenous bed. The coolability of all the beds is enhanced by bottom-fed coolant driven by either forced injection or downcomer-induced natural circulation.

  6. The critical power that can be removed through a hemispherical narrow gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J. H.; Park, R. J.; Kang, K. H.; Kim, S. B.; Kim, H. D.

    1998-01-01

    KAERI launched a research program named SONATA-IV (Simulation Of Naturally Arrested Thermal Attack In Vessel) to investigate the possibility of in-vessel debris cooling through a narrow gap that can be formed between reactor pressure vessel and relocated corium. The CHFG (Critical Heat Flux in Gap) experiments, one of the major experiments of the program, are being carried out. The purpose of the CHFG experiments is to assess the heat removal capacity through a hemispherical narrow gap. The experiments were performed using distilled water and the measurements were made in the range of 1 to 5 atm. The dryout of the heater surface is detected using 66 K-type thermocouples embedded in a heated copper shell. Even if local dryout occurs, there exists a quasi-steady state and the temperature of the dryout region is limited within a certain value. When the heater power is large enough, however, there is no quasi-steady state. The dryout region expands by itself without an increase in heater power and the temperature of the heater surface monotonically increase. Temperature measurements over the heater surface show that the two-phase flow behaviour inside the gaps could be quite different from the other usual CHF experiments. The temperature of the local dryout region is much lower than the minimum film boiling temperature that is measured under the pool boiling condition. The cause seems to be the excellent heat conduction of the copper shell. In order to verify this, numerical heat transfer analysis was performed on the copper shell. The results of the analysis supports the postulate. The measured global dryout points are lower than the predictions by existing empirical CHF correlations based on the data measured with small-scale horizontal plates and verical annulus

  7. Hydrodynamics of post CHF region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; De Jarlais, G.

    1984-04-01

    Among various two-phase flow regimes, the inverted flow in the post-dryout region is relatively less well understood due to its special heat transfer conditions. The review of existing data indicates further research is needed in the areas of basic hydrodynamics related to liquid core disintegration mechanisms, slug and droplet formations, entrainment, and droplet size distributions. In view of this, the inverted flow is studied in detail both analytically and experimentally. Criteria for initial flow regimes in the post-dryout region are given. Preliminary models for subsequent flow regime transition criteria are derived together with correlations for a mean droplet diameter based on the adiabatic simulation data

  8. Natural convection in porous media with heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardee, H.C. Jr.; Nilson, R.H.

    1976-12-01

    Heat transfer characteristics of a fluid saturated porous media are investigated for the case of uniform internal heat generation with cooling from above. Analytical models of conduction and single phase cellular convection show good agreement with previous Rayleigh number correlations and with experimental data obtained by Joule heating of salt water in a sand bed. An approximate dryout criterion is also derived for two phase boiling heat transfer in a fixed bed which is neither channeled nor fluidized. Correlation of dryout data using this criterion is encouraging, especially considering the analytical rather than correlational basis of the criterion

  9. Boiling Heat Transfer to Halogenated Hydrocarbon Refrigerants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Suguru; Fujita, Yasunobu

    The current state of knowledge on heat transfer to boiling refrigerants (halogenated hydrocarbons) in a pool and flowing inside a horizontal tube is reviewed with an emphasis on information relevant to the design of refrigerant evaporators, and some recommendations are made for future research. The review covers two-phase flow pattern, heat transfer characteristics, correlation of heat transfer coefficient, influence of oil, heat transfer augmentation, boiling from tube-bundle, influence of return bend, burnout heat flux, film boiling, dryout and post-dryout heat transfer.

  10. ASSERT-PV 3.2: Advanced subchannel thermalhydraulics code for CANDU fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Y.F.; Cheng, Z.; Waddington, G.M.; Nava-Dominguez, A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Introduction to a new version of the Canadian subchannel code, ASSERT-PV 3.2. • Enhanced models for flow-distribution, CHF and post-dryout heat transfer prediction. • Model changes focused on unique features of horizontal CANDU bundles. • Detailed description of model changes for all major thermalhydraulics models. • Discussion on rationale and limitation of the model changes. - Abstract: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the subchannel thermalhydraulics code ASSERT-PV for the Canadian nuclear industry. The most recent release version, ASSERT-PV 3.2 has enhanced phenomenon models for improved predictions of flow distribution, dryout power and CHF location, and post-dryout (PDO) sheath temperature in horizontal CANDU fuel bundles. The focus of the improvements is mainly on modeling considerations for the unique features of CANDU bundles such as horizontal flows, small pitch to diameter ratios, high mass fluxes, and mixed and irregular subchannel geometries, compared to PWR/BWR fuel assemblies. This paper provides a general introduction to ASSERT-PV 3.2, and describes the model changes or additions in the new version to improve predictions of flow distribution, dryout power and CHF location, and PDO sheath temperatures in CANDU fuel bundles

  11. Predictions of Critical Heat Flux Using the ASSERT-PV Subchannel Code for a CANFLEX Variant Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onder, Ebru Nihan; Leung, Laurence; Kim, Hung; Rao, Yanfei

    2009-01-01

    The ASSERT-PV subchannel code developed by AECL has been applied as a design-assist tool to the advanced CANDU 1 reactor fuel bundle. Based primarily on the CANFLEX 2 fuel bundle, several geometry changes (such as element sizes and pitchcircle diameters of various element rings) were examined to optimize the dryout power and pressure-drop performances of the new fuel bundle. An experiment was performed to obtain dryout power measurements for verification of the ASSERT-PV code predictions. It was carried out using an electrically heated, Refrigerant-134a cooled, fuel bundle string simulator. The axial power profile of the simulator was uniform, while the radial power profile of the element rings was varied simulating profiles in bundles with various fuel compositions and burn-ups. Dryout power measurements are predicted closely using the ASSERT-PV code, particularly at low flows and low pressures, but are overpredicted at high flows and high pressures. The majority of data shows that dryout powers are underpredicted at low inlet-fluid temperatures but overpredicted at high inlet-fluid temperatures

  12. Black box reactor core; Blackbox Reaktorkern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, Angela; Simon, Armin

    2017-07-15

    In the NPPs Brokdorf and Grohnde the fuel rods corrode partially significantly more than allowed. The origin of the formation of thick oxide layers on several fuel rod claddings is still not clear. In the Swiss NPP Leibstadt similar findings occurred in 2016. The nuclear authority ENSI suspects that local dry-outs could cause the strong oxidation.

  13. Modes of heat removal from a heat-generating debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Squarer, D.; Hochreiter, L.E.; Piecznski, A.T.

    1984-01-01

    In the worst hypothetical accident in a light water reactor, when all protection systems fail, the core could be converted into a deep particulate bed either in-vessel or ex-vessel. The containment of such an accident depends on the coolability of a heat-generating debris bed. Some recent experimental and analytical studies that are concerned with heat removal from such a particulate bed are reviewed. Studies have indicated that bed dryout flux and, therefore, the heat removal rate from the particulate bed increases with the particle diameter (i.e., the permeability) for pool boiling conditions and can exceed the critical heat flux of a flat plate. Bed dryout in a large particle bed (i.e., a few millimetres) was found to be closely related to the ''flooding'' limit of the bed. Dryout under forced flow conditions was found to be affected by both forced and natural convection for mass flow rate smaller than m /SUB cr/ , whereas above this mass flow rate, bed dryout is proportional to the mass flow rate. Recent analyses were found to be in agreement with experimental data; however, additional research is needed to assess factors not accounted for in previous studies (e.g., effect of pressure, multidimensionality, stratification, etc.). Based on the expected pressure and particle sizes in a postulated severe accident sequence, a debris bed should be coolable, given a sufficient water supply

  14. ASSERT-PV 3.2: Advanced subchannel thermalhydraulics code for CANDU fuel bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Y.F., E-mail: raoy@aecl.ca; Cheng, Z., E-mail: chengz@aecl.ca; Waddington, G.M., E-mail: waddingg@aecl.ca; Nava-Dominguez, A., E-mail: navadoma@aecl.ca

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Introduction to a new version of the Canadian subchannel code, ASSERT-PV 3.2. • Enhanced models for flow-distribution, CHF and post-dryout heat transfer prediction. • Model changes focused on unique features of horizontal CANDU bundles. • Detailed description of model changes for all major thermalhydraulics models. • Discussion on rationale and limitation of the model changes. - Abstract: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the subchannel thermalhydraulics code ASSERT-PV for the Canadian nuclear industry. The most recent release version, ASSERT-PV 3.2 has enhanced phenomenon models for improved predictions of flow distribution, dryout power and CHF location, and post-dryout (PDO) sheath temperature in horizontal CANDU fuel bundles. The focus of the improvements is mainly on modeling considerations for the unique features of CANDU bundles such as horizontal flows, small pitch to diameter ratios, high mass fluxes, and mixed and irregular subchannel geometries, compared to PWR/BWR fuel assemblies. This paper provides a general introduction to ASSERT-PV 3.2, and describes the model changes or additions in the new version to improve predictions of flow distribution, dryout power and CHF location, and PDO sheath temperatures in CANDU fuel bundles.

  15. Study on effective particle diameters and coolability of particulate beds packed with irregular multi-size particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakre, S.; Ma, W.; Kudinov, P.; Bechta, S. [Royal Institute of Technology, KTH. Div. of Nuclear Power Safety, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-08-15

    One of the key questions in severe accident research is the coolability of the debris bed, i.e., whether decay heat can be completely removed by the coolant flow into the debris bed. Extensive experimental and analytical work has been done to substantiate the coolability research. Most of the available experimental data is related to the beds packed with single size (mostly spherical) particles, and less data is available for multi-size/irregular-shape particles. There are several analytical models available, which rely on the mean particle diameter and porosity of the bed in their predictions. Two different types of particles were used to investigate coolability of particulate beds at VTT, Finland. The first type is irregular-shape Aluminum Oxide gravel particles whose sizes vary from 0.25 mm to 10 mm, which were employed in the STYX experiment programme (2001-2008). The second type is spherical beads of Zirconium silicate whose sizes vary between 0.8 mm to 1 mm, which were used in the COOLOCE tests (Takasuo et al., 2012) to study the effect of multi-dimensional flooding on coolability. In the present work, the two types of particles are used in the POMECO-FL and POMECO-HT test facility to obtain their effective particle diameters and dryout heat flux of the beds, respectively. The main idea is to check how the heaters' orientations (vertical in COOLOCE vs. horizontal in POMECO-HT) and diameters (6 mm in COOLOCE vs. 3 mm in POMECO-HT) affect the coolability (dryout heat flux) of the test beds. The tests carried out on the POMECO-FL facility using a bed packed with aluminum oxide gravel particles show the effective particle diameter of the gravel particles is 0.65 mm, by which the frictional pressure gradient can be predicted by the Ergun equation. After the water superficial velocity is higher than 0.0025 m/s, the pressure gradient is underestimated. The effective particle diameter of the zirconium particles is found as 0.8 mm. The dryout heat flux is measured on

  16. Study on effective particle diameters and coolability of particulate beds packed with irregular multi-size particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakre, S.; Ma, W.; Kudinov, P.; Bechta, S.

    2013-08-01

    One of the key questions in severe accident research is the coolability of the debris bed, i.e., whether decay heat can be completely removed by the coolant flow into the debris bed. Extensive experimental and analytical work has been done to substantiate the coolability research. Most of the available experimental data is related to the beds packed with single size (mostly spherical) particles, and less data is available for multi-size/irregular-shape particles. There are several analytical models available, which rely on the mean particle diameter and porosity of the bed in their predictions. Two different types of particles were used to investigate coolability of particulate beds at VTT, Finland. The first type is irregular-shape Aluminum Oxide gravel particles whose sizes vary from 0.25 mm to 10 mm, which were employed in the STYX experiment programme (2001-2008). The second type is spherical beads of Zirconium silicate whose sizes vary between 0.8 mm to 1 mm, which were used in the COOLOCE tests (Takasuo et al., 2012) to study the effect of multi-dimensional flooding on coolability. In the present work, the two types of particles are used in the POMECO-FL and POMECO-HT test facility to obtain their effective particle diameters and dryout heat flux of the beds, respectively. The main idea is to check how the heaters' orientations (vertical in COOLOCE vs. horizontal in POMECO-HT) and diameters (6 mm in COOLOCE vs. 3 mm in POMECO-HT) affect the coolability (dryout heat flux) of the test beds. The tests carried out on the POMECO-FL facility using a bed packed with aluminum oxide gravel particles show the effective particle diameter of the gravel particles is 0.65 mm, by which the frictional pressure gradient can be predicted by the Ergun equation. After the water superficial velocity is higher than 0.0025 m/s, the pressure gradient is underestimated. The effective particle diameter of the zirconium particles is found as 0.8 mm. The dryout heat flux is measured on

  17. Experimental results on the coolability of a debris bed with multidimensional cooling effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, M.; Kulenovic, R.; Laurien, E.; Nayak, A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: ► Performing of dryout experiments with a polydispersed bed for top- and bottom-flooding. ► Study of influence of different down comer configurations on the coolability of debris bed. ► Measurement of temperature profiles, pressure drops and determination of dryout heat flux. ► Observation of noticeable increase in coolability of debris bed with the use of down comer is observed. - Abstract: Within the reactor safety research, the removal of decay heat from a debris bed (formed from corium and residual water) is of great importance. In order to investigate experimentally the long term coolability of debris beds, the scaled test facility “DEBRIS” (Fig. 1) has been built at IKE. A large number of experiments had been carried out to investigate the coolability limits for different bed configurations (). Analyses based on one-dimensional configurations underestimate the coolability in realistic multidimensional configurations, where lateral water access and water inflow via bottom regions are favoured. Following the experiments with top- and bottom-flooding flow conditions this paper presents experimental results of boiling and dryout tests at different system pressures based on top- and bottom-flooding via a down comer configuration. A down comer with an internal diameter of 10 mm has been installed at the centre of the debris bed. The debris bed is built up in a cylindrical crucible with an inner diameter of 125 mm. The bed of height 640 mm is composed of polydispersed particles with particle diameters 2, 3 and 6 mm. Since the long term coolability of such particle bed is limited by the availability of coolant inside the bed and not by heat transfer limitations from the particles to the coolant, the bottom inflow of water improves the coolability of the debris bed and an increase of the dryout heat flux can be observed. With increasing system pressure, the coolability limits are enhanced (increased dryout heat flux).

  18. Coolability of volumetrically heated particle beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, Muhammad

    2017-03-22

    In case of a severe nuclear reactor accident, with loss of coolant, a particle bed may be formed from the fragmentation of the molten core in the residual water at different stages of the accident. To avoid further propagation of the accident and maintain the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel, the decay heat of the particle bed must be removed. To better understand the various thermo-hydraulic processes within such heat-generating particle beds, the existing DEBRIS test facility at IKE has been modified to be able to perform novel boiling, dryout and quenching experiments. The essential experimental data includes the pressure gradients measured by 8 differential pressure transducers along the bed height as a function of liquid and vapour superficial velocities, the determination of local dryout heat fluxes for different system pressures as well as the local temperature distribution measured by a set of 51 thermocouples installed inside the particle bed. The experiments were carried out for two different particle beds: a polydispersed particle bed which consisted of stainless steel balls (2 mm, 3 mm and 6 mm diameters) and an irregular particle bed which consisted of a mixture of steel balls (3 mm and 6 mm) and irregularly shaped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles. Additionally, all experiments were carried out for different flow conditions, such as the reference case of passive 1D top-flooding, 1D bottom flooding (driven by external pumps and different downcomer configurations) and 2D top-/bottom-/lateral flooding with a perforated downcomer. In this work, it has been observed that for both particle beds with downcomer configurations an open downcomer leads to the best coolability (dryout heat flux = 1560 kW/m{sup 2}, polydispersed particle bed, psys = 1 bar) of the particle bed, mainly due to bottom-flow with enhanced natural convection. It has also been shown that a potential lateral flow via a perforation of the downcomer does not bring any further improvements

  19. Coolability of volumetrically heated particle beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    In case of a severe nuclear reactor accident, with loss of coolant, a particle bed may be formed from the fragmentation of the molten core in the residual water at different stages of the accident. To avoid further propagation of the accident and maintain the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel, the decay heat of the particle bed must be removed. To better understand the various thermo-hydraulic processes within such heat-generating particle beds, the existing DEBRIS test facility at IKE has been modified to be able to perform novel boiling, dryout and quenching experiments. The essential experimental data includes the pressure gradients measured by 8 differential pressure transducers along the bed height as a function of liquid and vapour superficial velocities, the determination of local dryout heat fluxes for different system pressures as well as the local temperature distribution measured by a set of 51 thermocouples installed inside the particle bed. The experiments were carried out for two different particle beds: a polydispersed particle bed which consisted of stainless steel balls (2 mm, 3 mm and 6 mm diameters) and an irregular particle bed which consisted of a mixture of steel balls (3 mm and 6 mm) and irregularly shaped Al 2 O 3 particles. Additionally, all experiments were carried out for different flow conditions, such as the reference case of passive 1D top-flooding, 1D bottom flooding (driven by external pumps and different downcomer configurations) and 2D top-/bottom-/lateral flooding with a perforated downcomer. In this work, it has been observed that for both particle beds with downcomer configurations an open downcomer leads to the best coolability (dryout heat flux = 1560 kW/m 2 , polydispersed particle bed, psys = 1 bar) of the particle bed, mainly due to bottom-flow with enhanced natural convection. It has also been shown that a potential lateral flow via a perforation of the downcomer does not bring any further improvements in

  20. Cobra-TF simulation of BWR bundle dry out experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frepoli, C.; Ireland, A.; Hochreiter, L.; Ivanov, K. [Penn State Univ., Dept. of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, University Park, PA (United States); Velten, R. [Siemens Nuclear Power GmbH, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The COBRA-TF computer code uses a two-fluid, three-field and three-dimensional formulation to model a two-phase flow field in a specific geometry. The liquid phase is divided in a continuous liquid field and a separate dispersed field, which is used to describe the entrained liquid drops. For each space dimension, the code solves three momentum equations, three mass conservation equations and two energy conservation equations. Entrainment and depositions models are implemented into the code to model the mass transfer between the two liquid fields. This study presents the results obtained with COBRA-TF for the simulation of the Siemens 9-9Q BWR Bundle Dryout experiments. The model includes 20 channels and 34 axial nodes in the heated section. The predicted critical power and dryout location is compared with the measured values. An assessment of the code entrainment and de-entrainment models is presented. (authors)

  1. Water tests for determining post voiding behavior in the LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkle, W.D.

    1976-06-01

    The most serious of the postulated accidents considered in the design of the Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) is the Loss of Pipe Integrity (LOPI) accident. Analysis models used to calculate the consequences of this accident assume that once boiling is initiated film dryout occurs in the hot assembly as a result of rapid vapor bubble growth and consequent flow stoppage or reversal. However, this assumption has not been put to any real test. Once boiling is initiated in the hot assembly during an LMFBR LOPI accident, a substantial gravity pressure difference would exist between this assembly and other colder assemblies in the core. This condition would give rise to natural circulation flow boiling accompanied by pressure and flow oscillations. It is possible that such oscillations could prevent or delay dryout and provide substantial post-voiding heat removal. The tests described were conceived with the objective of obtaining basic information and data relating to this possibility

  2. A study on quench phenomena during reflood phase, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Yoshio; Sudoh, Takashi

    1977-03-01

    Based on the observation with an outside-heated quartz tube experiment of the reflood phase, three quench modes for bottom flooding are proposed : 1) liquid column type, 2) dryout type, 3) droplet-rewetting type. Using Blair's correlation for quench velocity, the approximate correlation for maximum liquid superheat, the assumption that the heat transfer upstream of the quench front is a function of the local liquid subcooling and the data of PWR-FLECHT experiments, the correlation for quench velocity of the liquid column type and of the dryout type are obtained. The quench temperature for the droplet-rewetting type is also derived. These relations are compared with the results of PWR-FLECHT Group 1 experiments and of Piggott and Porthouse's experiments. The agreements among them are fairly good. (auth.)

  3. Applications and control of air conditioning systems using rapid cycling to modulate capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poort, M.J.; Bullard, C.W. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Center, University of Illinois, 1206 W. Green St., Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Rapid cycling the compressor of an air conditioning or refrigeration system can be used to modulate capacity, thus offering an alternative to a variable speed compressor. This paper explores design tradeoffs to optimize rapid cycling performance based on experimental results using two different evaporators and changing other components of an air conditioning system. Rapid cycling has inherent compressor lift penalties associated with larger mass flow rates, which need to be minimized. Preventing dryout (superheating) in the evaporator during the off cycle, a major penalty as cycles are lengthened, is also important. Evaporator dryout is minimized by increasing the refrigerant side area and reducing off cycle drainage. Combining a flash gas bypass with a suction line heat exchanger was found to maximize performance during the off cycle while allowing increased cycle lengths without incurring major penalties. (author)

  4. A formal approach for the prediction of the critical heat flux in subcooled water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardi, C. [Polytechnic of Milan (Italy)

    1995-09-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) in subcooled water at high mass fluxes are not yet satisfactory correlated. For this scope a formal approach is here followed, which is based on an extension of the parameters and the correlation used for the dryout prediction for medium high quality mixtures. The obtained correlation, in spite of its simplicity and its explicit form, yields satisfactory predictions, also when applied to more conventional CHF data at low-medium mass fluxes and high pressures. Further improvements are possible, if a more complete data bank will be available. The main and general open item is the definition of a criterion, depending only on independent parameters, such as mass flux, pressure, inlet subcooling and geometry, to predict whether the heat transfer crisis will result as a DNB or a dryout phenomenon.

  5. An internal core catcher for a pool L.M.F.B.R. and connected studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Rigoleur, C.; Kayser, G.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes an internal core catcher for a pool LMFBR. Problems related to retention of debris are studied: downward progression of debris from the core to the core catcher, debris bed formation, heat transfer below the core catcher plate and to the main vessel, mechanical resistance. These results are used to estimate the performances of the internal core catcher for a given core melt-down-accident. It is seen that for a uniform thickness layer on the core catcher the retention capabilities are satisfactory. Then the problem of a heap of debris is approached. Dryout is studied. Uncertainties related to the bed characteristics and problems of extended dryout beds are put forward

  6. Relation between the occurrence of burnout and differential-pressure fluctuation characteristics caused by the disturbance waves passing by a flow obstacle in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shoji; Fukano, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    If a flow obstacle such as a spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow within an annular channel, where the inner tube is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heater tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. In some case the spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other case it causes the dryout of the cooling liquid film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the tube. The burnout mechanism near the spacer, however, is not still clear. In the present paper we focus our attention on the occurrence of the burnout near a spacer, and discuss the occurrence location of dryout and burnout and the relation between the occurrence of burnout and differential-pressure fluctuation characteristics caused by the disturbance waves passing by a spacer. (author)

  7. Siemens experience on linear and nonlinear analyses of out-of-phase BWR instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kreuter, D.; Wehle, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Siemens design code STAIF has been applied extensively for linear analysis of BWR instabilities. The comparison between measurements and STAIF calculations for different plants under various conditions has shown good agreement for core-wide and regional instabilities. Based on the high quality of STAIF, the North German TUeV has decided to replace the licensing requirement of extensive stability measurements by predictive analyses with the code STAIF. Nonlinear stability analysis for beyond design boundary conditions with RAMONA has shown dryout during temporarily reversed flow at core inlet in case of core-wide oscillations. For large out-of-phase oscillations, dryout occurs already for small, still positive channel inlet flow. (orig.)

  8. Analytical Simulation of Flow and Heat Transfer of Two-Phase Nanofluid (Stratified Flow Regime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbasi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofluids have evoked immense interest from researchers all around the globe due to their numerous potential benefits and applications in important fields such as cooling electronic parts, cooling car engines and nuclear reactors. An analytical study of fluid flow of in-tube stratified regime of two-phase nanofluid has been carried out for CuO, Al2O2, TiO3, and Au as applied nanoparticles in water as the base liquid. Liquid film thickness, convective heat transfer coefficient, and dryout length have been calculated. Among the considered nano particles, Al2O3 and TiO2 because of providing more amounts of heat transfer along with longer lengths of dryout found as the most appropriate nanoparticles to achieve cooling objectives.

  9. Dry out of a fluidized particle bed with internal heat generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keowen, R.S.; Catton, I.

    1975-03-01

    An apparatus was designed to adequately simulate the characteristics of a particle bed formed by nuclear reactor fuel after the reactor has been operable for some length of time at high power. This was accomplished by using a 10 KW, 453 Kc induction heater, coupled through a multi-turn work coil to particle beds of cast steel shot and lead shot in water. The temperature response and dryout condition was determined for various bed levels, particle diameters, and heat fluxes. Analysis of the data retrieved from the bed was used to generate a family of curves to predict the necessary conditions for dryout to occur within a fluidized particle bed with internal heat generation. The results presented here, with internal heat generation, show that previous results with bottom heating and volume heating are conservative. (U.S.)

  10. The impact of thermal loading on repository performance at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that in the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, liquid flow along preferential fracture pathways is the only credible mechanism capable of bringing water to waste packages and transporting radionuclides to the water table. Three categories of features or mechanisms will mitigate the impact of flow along preferential fracture pathways: discontinuity in fracture pathways, liquid-phase dispersion in fracture networks, and fracture-matrix interaction. For repository areal power densities (APDs) that are too low to result in significant boiling or rock dry-out effects, the primary mode of fracture-matrix interaction is matrix imbibition. For high APDs, boiling and enhanced matrix imbibition due to rock dry-out significantly add to the capacity of the unsaturated zone to retard fracture-dominated flow

  11. Critical heat-flux experiments under low-flow conditions in a vertical annulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Ishii, M.

    1982-03-01

    An experimental study was performed on critical heat flux (CHF) at low flow conditions for low pressure steam-water upward flow in an annulus. The test section was transparent, therefore, visual observations of dryout as well as various instrumentations were made. The data indicated that a premature CHF occurred due to flow regime transition from churn-turbulent to annular flow. It is shown that the critical heat flux observed in the experiment is essentially similar to a flooding-limited burnout and the critical heat flux can be well reproduced by a nondimensional correlation derived from the previously obtained criterion for flow regime transition. The observed CHF values are much smaller than the standard high quality CHF criteria at low flow, corresponding to the annular flow film dryout. This result is very significant, because the coolability of a heater surface at low flow rates can be drastically reduced by the occurrence of this mode of CHF

  12. A formal approach for the prediction of the critical heat flux in subcooled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardi, C.

    1995-01-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) in subcooled water at high mass fluxes are not yet satisfactory correlated. For this scope a formal approach is here followed, which is based on an extension of the parameters and the correlation used for the dryout prediction for medium high quality mixtures. The obtained correlation, in spite of its simplicity and its explicit form, yields satisfactory predictions, also when applied to more conventional CHF data at low-medium mass fluxes and high pressures. Further improvements are possible, if a more complete data bank will be available. The main and general open item is the definition of a criterion, depending only on independent parameters, such as mass flux, pressure, inlet subcooling and geometry, to predict whether the heat transfer crisis will result as a DNB or a dryout phenomenon

  13. Dependence of calculated void reactivity on film-boiling representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitlock, J.; Garland, W.

    1992-01-01

    Partial voiding of a fuel channel can lead to complicated neutronic analysis, because of highly nonuniform spatial distributions. An investigation of the distribution dependence of void reactivity in a Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) lattice, specifically in the regime of film boiling, was done. Although the core is not expected to be critical at the time of sheath dryout, this study augments current knowledge of void reactivity in this type of lattice

  14. Improvement of the skeleton tables for calculation of the critical heat load

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotovskij, M.A.; Kvetnyj, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Paper presents analysis of drawbacks of the skeleton tables of the critical heat flows applied in calculated heat and hydraulic codes. Paper demonstrates the necessity to take account of specific nature of mechanisms of dryout crisis, of boiling crisis at slow mass rates and the range of small underheatings up to temperature of saturation. Attention is drawn to necessity of detailed account of the natural limitations of the application field of the skeleton tables [ru

  15. Thermalhydraulic phenomena governing the quenching of hot rods, and existing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestion, D.

    2001-01-01

    After a core dry-out and a period of rod clad overheating, which might occur in some postulated accidental sequences in a PWR, the actuation of safety injections allows to quench the hot rods. Both thermal and mechanical processes control the phenomenon of quenching. Quenching first requires that liquid water is present to release the heat stored in the rod. When water is present, a pre-cooling of the clad is also required before quenching. (author)

  16. A model for correlating burnout in round tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirby, G.J.

    1966-09-01

    A model is presented which represents the film flow rate in the climbing film regime of boiling two phase flow. By calculating the dryout point burnout heat fluxes for round tubes both uniformly and non-uniformly heated axially have been predicted with accuracies as good as the best empirical correlations. The model is used to investigate the effect of varying flux profile as well as the other system describing parameters. (author)

  17. Analysis of a postulated accident scenario involving loss of forced flow in a LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    A model to analyse a postulated accident scenario involving loss of forced flow in the reactor vessel of a LMFBR is used. Five phases of the accident are analysed: Natural Circulation, Subcooled Boiling, Nucleate Boiling, Core Dryout and Cladding melt. The heat conduction in the fuel cladding, coolant and lower and upper plenum are calculated by a lump-parameter model. Physical data of a prototype LMFBR reactor were used for the calculation. (author)

  18. Thermalhydraulic phenomena governing the quenching of hot rods, and existing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bestion, D. [CEA-Grenoble, DEN/DTP/SMTH (France)

    2001-07-01

    After a core dry-out and a period of rod clad overheating, which might occur in some postulated accidental sequences in a PWR, the actuation of safety injections allows to quench the hot rods. Both thermal and mechanical processes control the phenomenon of quenching. Quenching first requires that liquid water is present to release the heat stored in the rod. When water is present, a pre-cooling of the clad is also required before quenching. (author)

  19. Biofiltration of high loads of ethyl acetate in the presence of toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshusses, M; Johnson, C T; Leson, G

    1999-08-01

    To date, biofilters have been used primarily to control dilute, usually odorous, off-gases with relatively low volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations (elimination capacities for ethyl acetate were typically in the range of 200 g m-3 hr-1. Despite the presence of toluene degraders, the removal of toluene was inhibited by high loads of ethyl acetate. Several byproducts, particularly ethanol, were formed. Short-term dry-out and temperature excursions resulted in reduced performance.

  20. Heat transfer. V. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains the 4 key-note lectures and 83 of the 148 papers presented at the 3rd UK National Conference on Heat Transfer. The papers are grouped under the following broad headings: boiling and condensation; heat exchangers; refrigeration and air-conditioning; natural convection; process safety and nuclear reactors; two-phase flow; post dry-out; combustion, radiation and chemical reaction. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 13 papers of relevance to nuclear reactors. (UK)

  1. The current status of theoretically based approaches to the prediction of the critical heat flux in flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weisman, J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the phenomena governing the critical heat flux in flow boiling. Inducts which vary with the flow pattern. Separate models are needed for dryout in annular flow, wall overheating in plug or slug flow and formation of a vapor blanket in dispersed flow. The major theories and their current status are described for the annular and dispersed regions. The need for development of the theoretical approach in the plug and slug flow region is indicated

  2. Compatibility analysis of DUPIC fuel(4) - thermal hydraulic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jee Won; Chae, Kyung Myung; Choi, Hang Bok

    2000-07-01

    Thermal-hydraulic compatibility of the DUPIC fuel bundle in the CANDU reactor has been studied. The critical channel power, the critical power ratio, the channel exit quality and the channel flow are calculated for the DUPIC and the standard fuels by using the NUCIRC code. The physical models and associated parametric values for the NUCIRC analysis of the fuels are also presented. Based upon the slave channel analysis, the critical channel power and the critical power ratios have been found to be very similar for the two fuel types. The same dryout model is used in this study for the standard and the DUPIC fuel bundles. To assess the dryout characteristics of the DUPIC fuel bundle, the ASSERT-PV code has been used for the subchannel analysis. Based upon the results of the subchannel analysis, it is found that the dryout location and the power for the two fuel types are indeed very similar. This study shows that thermal performance of the DUPIC fuel is not significantly different from that of the standard fuel.

  3. The button effect of CANFLEX bundle on the critical heat flux and critical channel power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Jisu; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G. R.; Bullock, D. E.; Inch, W. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    A CANFLEX (CANdu FLEXible fuelling) 43-element bundle has developed for a CANDU-6 reactor as an alternative of 37-element fuel bundle. The design has two diameter elements (11.5 and 13.5 mm) to reduce maximum element power rating and buttons to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF), compared with the standard 37-element bundle. The freon CHF experiments have performed for two series of CANFLEX bundles with and without buttons with a modelling fluid as refrigerant R-134a and axial uniform heat flux condition. Evaluating the effects of buttons of CANFLEX bundle on CHF and Critical Channel Power (CCP) with the experimental results, it is shown that the buttons enhance CCP as well as CHF. All the CHF`s for both the CANFLEX bundles are occurred at the end of fuel channel with the high dryout quality conditions. The CHF enhancement ratio are increased with increase of dryout quality for all flow conditions and also with increase of mass flux only for high pressure conditions. It indicates that the button is a useful design for CANDU operating condition because most CHF flow conditions for CANDU fuel bundle are ranged to high dryout quality conditions. 5 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

  4. Investigation of flow blockage in a fuel channel with the ASSERT subchannel code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvel, G.D.; Dam, R.; Soulard, M.

    1996-01-01

    On behalf of New Brunswick Power, a study was undertaken to determine if safe operation of a CANDU-6 reactor can be maintained at low reactor powers with the presence of debris in the fuel channels. In particular, the concern was to address if a small blockage due to the presence of debris would cause a significant reduction in dryout powers, and hence, to determine the safe operation power level to maintain dryout margins. In this work the NUCIRC(1,2), ASSERT-IV(3), and ASSERT-PV(3) computer codes are used in conjunction with a pool boiling model to determine the safe operation power level which maintains dryout safety margins. NUCIRC is used to provide channel boundary conditions for the ASSERTcodes and to select a representative channel for analysis. This pool boiling model is provided as a limiting lower bound analysis. As expected, the ASSERT results predict higher CHF ratios than the pool boiling model. In general, the ASSERT results show that as the model comes closer to modelling a complete blockage it reduces toward, but does not reach the pool boiling model. (author)

  5. The button effect of CANFLEX bundle on the critical heat flux and critical channel power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jun, Jisu; Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Dimmick, G R; Bullock, D E; Inch, W [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    A CANFLEX (CANdu FLEXible fuelling) 43-element bundle has developed for a CANDU-6 reactor as an alternative of 37-element fuel bundle. The design has two diameter elements (11.5 and 13.5 mm) to reduce maximum element power rating and buttons to enhance the critical heat flux (CHF), compared with the standard 37-element bundle. The freon CHF experiments have performed for two series of CANFLEX bundles with and without buttons with a modelling fluid as refrigerant R-134a and axial uniform heat flux condition. Evaluating the effects of buttons of CANFLEX bundle on CHF and Critical Channel Power (CCP) with the experimental results, it is shown that the buttons enhance CCP as well as CHF. All the CHF`s for both the CANFLEX bundles are occurred at the end of fuel channel with the high dryout quality conditions. The CHF enhancement ratio are increased with increase of dryout quality for all flow conditions and also with increase of mass flux only for high pressure conditions. It indicates that the button is a useful design for CANDU operating condition because most CHF flow conditions for CANDU fuel bundle are ranged to high dryout quality conditions. 5 refs., 11 figs. (Author)

  6. A study on emergency response guideline during the loss of steam generator secondary heat sink in pressurizer water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, D. J.; Lee, J. Y.; Song, D. S.

    1999-01-01

    A loss of secondary heat sink can occur as a result of several different initiating events, which are a loss of main feedwater during power operation, a loss of off-site power, or any other scenario for which main feedwater is isolated or lost. At this point the opening and closing of the PORV or safety valves will result in a loss of RCS inventory similar in nature to a small break loss of coolant accident. If operator action is not taken, the pressurizer PORV or safety valves will continue to cycle open and closed at the valve setpoint pressure removing RCS inventory and a limited amount of core decay heat until eventually enough inventory will be lost to result in core uncovery. We conclude that a requirement to successfully initiate bleed and feed on steam generator dryout, without any significant core uncovery expected to occur, is that the PORV flow to power ratio must exceed 140 (lbm/hr)/Mwt. For all plants whose PORV capacity is less than 140 (lbm/hr)/Mwt, since symptoms of SG dryout cannot be used to initiate bleed and feed, increasing RCS pressure and temperature or pressure greater than 2335 psig cannot be used. The only alternative symptom available is SG narrow range level. Since Kori 1,2,3 and 4' PORV capacity is more than the criteria, the bleed and feed operation can be initiated at steam generator dryout

  7. Relation between the occurrence of Burnout and differential pressure fluctuation characteristics caused by the disturbance waves passing by a flow obstacle in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Shoji [Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: morisho@ynu.ac.jp; Fukano, Tohru [Kurume Institute of University, Fukuoka 830-0052 (Japan)]. E-mail: fukanot@cc.kurume-it.ac.jp

    2006-05-15

    If a flow obstacle such as a spacer is placed in a boiling two-phase flow within a channel, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. Under certain conditions the spacer has a cooling effect, and under other conditions the spacer causes dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface, resulting in burnout of the tube. The burnout mechanism near the spacer, however, remains unclear. In a previous paper (Fukano, T., Mori, S., Akamatsu, S., Baba, A., 2002. Relation between temperature fluctuation of a heating surface and generation of drypatch caused by a cylindrical spacer in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel. Nucl. Eng. Des. 217, 81-90), we reported that the disturbance wave has a significant effect on dryout occurrence. Therefore, in the present paper, the relation between dryout, burnout occurrence, and interval between two successive disturbance waves obtained from the differential pressure fluctuation caused by the disturbance waves passing by a spacer, is further discussed in detail.

  8. Influence of a flow obstacle on the occurrence of burnout in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, S.; Fukano, T. E-mail: fukanot@mech.kyushu-u.ac.jp

    2003-10-01

    When a flow obstruction such as a cylindrical spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow within an annular channel, the inner tube of which is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by its existence. In some cases, the cylindrical spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other cases it causes the dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the heating tube. In the present paper, we have focused our attention on the influence of a flow obstacle on the occurrence of burnout of the heating tube in boiling two-phase flow. The results are summarized as follows: - When the heat flux approaches the burnout condition, the wall temperature on the heating tube fluctuates with a large amplitude. And once the wall temperature exceeds the Leidenfrost temperature, the burnout occurs without exception. - The trigger of dryout of the water film which causes the burnout is not the nucleate boiling but the evaporation of the base film between disturbance waves. - The burnout never occurs at the downstream side of the spacer. This is because the dryout area downstream of the spacer is rewetted easily by the disturbance waves.

  9. Relation between the occurrence of Burnout and differential pressure fluctuation characteristics caused by the disturbance waves passing by a flow obstacle in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shoji; Fukano, Tohru

    2006-01-01

    If a flow obstacle such as a spacer is placed in a boiling two-phase flow within a channel, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. Under certain conditions the spacer has a cooling effect, and under other conditions the spacer causes dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface, resulting in burnout of the tube. The burnout mechanism near the spacer, however, remains unclear. In a previous paper (Fukano, T., Mori, S., Akamatsu, S., Baba, A., 2002. Relation between temperature fluctuation of a heating surface and generation of drypatch caused by a cylindrical spacer in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel. Nucl. Eng. Des. 217, 81-90), we reported that the disturbance wave has a significant effect on dryout occurrence. Therefore, in the present paper, the relation between dryout, burnout occurrence, and interval between two successive disturbance waves obtained from the differential pressure fluctuation caused by the disturbance waves passing by a spacer, is further discussed in detail

  10. Influence of a flow obstacle on the occurrence of burnout in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, S.; Fukano, T.

    2003-01-01

    When a flow obstruction such as a cylindrical spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow within an annular channel, the inner tube of which is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by its existence. In some cases, the cylindrical spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other cases it causes the dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the heating tube. In the present paper, we have focused our attention on the influence of a flow obstacle on the occurrence of burnout of the heating tube in boiling two-phase flow. The results are summarized as follows: - When the heat flux approaches the burnout condition, the wall temperature on the heating tube fluctuates with a large amplitude. And once the wall temperature exceeds the Leidenfrost temperature, the burnout occurs without exception. - The trigger of dryout of the water film which causes the burnout is not the nucleate boiling but the evaporation of the base film between disturbance waves. - The burnout never occurs at the downstream side of the spacer. This is because the dryout area downstream of the spacer is rewetted easily by the disturbance waves

  11. Review of the Safety Concern Related to CANDU Moderator Temperature Distribution and Status of KAERI Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Bo W.; Kim, Hyoung T. [Severe Accident and PHWR Safety Research Division, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Tongbeum [University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa); Im, Sunghyuk [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Following a large break LOCA and before Emergency Coolant Injection (ECI) initiation, pressure tubes (PT) significantly heat up as a result of the initial power pulse and degraded coolant flow. Consequently, some pressure tubes balloon and come into contact with the calandria tubes (CT). Following the PT/CT contact, the pressure tubes cool as they transfer some of the absorbed heat to the moderator via conduction at contact locations. As long as sustained calandria tube dryout does not occur, the calandria tube surface temperature remains below the creep threshold temperature and no further deformation is expected. Consequently, a sufficient condition to ensure fuel channel integrity following a large LOCA, is the avoidance of sustained calandria tubes dryout. If the moderator available subcooling at the onset of a large LOCA is greater than the subcooling requirements, a sustained calandria tube dryout is avoided. The subcooling requirements are determined from a set of experiments known as fuel channel contact experiments. The difference between available subcooling and required subcooling is called subcooling margins. The moderator flow circulation patterns are complicated slow flows that significantly vary from buoyancy dominated to inertia dominated patterns. Accurate predictions of flow patterns are essential for accurate calculation of moderator temperature distributions and the related moderator subcooling. Following a large break LOCA and before Emergency Coolant Injection (ECI) initiation, pressure tubes (PT) significantly heat up as a result of the initial power pulse and degraded coolant flow. Consequently, some pressure tubes balloon and come into contact with the calandria tubes (CT). Following the PT/CT contact, the pressure tubes cool as they transfer some of the absorbed heat to the moderator via conduction at contact locations. As long as sustained calandria tube dryout does not occur, the calandria tube surface temperature remains below the creep

  12. Numerical simulation of falling film flow boiling along a vertical wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiaki Kino; Tomoaki Kunugi; Akimi Serizawa

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: When a dryout occurs in film flows with heating from the wall, the wall surface being cooled is no longer in intimate contact with the liquid film. Consequently, the heat transfer will dramatically reduce and the corresponding wall temperature will rise rapidly up to the melting temperature of the heat transfer plate or pipe. It is very important to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of liquid films flowing along a heating wall and the dryout phenomena of the liquid films associated with increasing heat flux in the high heat flux component devices for chemical and mechanical devices and nuclear reactor systems. Many studies have been conducted on the dryout phenomena and it has been shown that the dryout conditions are influenced by several different flow conditions, for instance, subcooled and saturated liquid films and so on. The dryout process of boiling liquid films is different between them: in the case of subcooled liquid films, the process is caused by the local surface-tension variation along the film. On the contrary, in the case of saturated liquid films the surface temperature of boiling films is maintained at a saturation temperature and there can be no variation of surface tension along the film. The process in the case of saturated liquid films is caused by the reduction of film flow rate due to the flow imbalance. This reduction of film flow rate is promoted by the evaporation and the liquid droplets arising from the film surface due to the burst of vapor bubbles. Therefore, it is very important to predict the sputtering rate of liquid droplets and to understand the behavior of vapor bubbles in film flow boiling. In the present study, numerical simulations based on the MARS (Multi-interface Advection and Reconstruction Solver) developed by one of the authors have been performed in order to understand the dryout of film flow boiling. The film flows along a vertical wall are focused in the present study

  13. On the occurrence of burnout downstream of a flow obstacle in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shoji; Tominaga, Akira; Fukano, Tohru

    2007-01-01

    If a flow obstacle, such as a spacer is placed in a boiling two-phase flow within a channel, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. Under certain conditions, a spacer has a cooling effect, and under other conditions, the spacer causes dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface. The burnout mechanism, which always occurs upstream of a spacer, however, remains unclear. In a previous paper [Fukano, T., Mori, S., Akamatsu, S., Baba, A., 2002. Relation between temperature fluctuation of a heating surface and generation of drypatch caused by a cylindrical spacer in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel. Nucl. Eng. Des. 217, 81-90], we reported that the disturbance wave has a significant effect on dryout and burnout occurrence and that a spacer greatly affects the behavior of the liquid film downstream of the spacer. In the present study, we examined in detail the influences of a spacer on the heat transfer and film thickness characteristics downstream of the spacer by considering the result in steam-water and air-water systems. The main results are summarized as follows: (1)The spacer averages the liquid film in the disturbance wave flow. As a result, dryout tends not to occur downstream of the spacer. This means that large temperature increases do not occur there. However, traces of disturbance waves remain, even if the disturbance waves are averaged by the spacer. (2)There is a high probability that the location at which burnout occurs is upstream of the downstream spacer, irrespective of the spacer spacing. (3)The newly proposed burnout occurrence model can explain the phenomena that burnout does occur upstream of the downstream spacer, even if the liquid film thickness t Fm is approximately the same before and behind the spacer

  14. Prediction of moderator temperature under 35% RIH break LOCA with LOECC in CANDU calandria vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Seon Oh; Kim, Man Woong; Kim, Hho Jung; Lee, Jae Yung

    2004-01-01

    A CANDU reactor has the unique safety features with the intrinsic safety related characteristics that distinguish it from other water-cooled thermal reactors such as a PWR. One of the safety features is that the heavy water moderator is continuously cooled, providing with a heat sink for the decay heat produced in the fuel when there is the LOCA with the coincident failure of the emergency coolant injection (ECI) system. Under such a dual failure condition, the hot pressure tube (PT) would deform into contacting with the calandria tube (CT), providing with an effective heat transfer path from the fuel to the moderator. Following PT/CT contact, there is the spike of the heat flux in the moderator surrounding the CT, which could lead to sustained CT dryout. The prevention of the CT dryout depends on available local moderator subcooling. Higher moderator temperature (or lower subcooling) would decrease the margin of the CTs to dryout. As for LOCAs with coincident loss of the ECI, fuel channel integrity depends on the capability of the moderator as an ultimate heat sink. In this regard, the Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission (CNSC) had categorized the temperature prediction for the moderator cooling integrity as a general action item (GAI) and had recommended that a series of experimental works should be performed to verify the evaluation codes comparing with the results of three-dimensional experimental data. However, although a couple of computer codes were used to predict moderator temperature prediction for those problems, they could not be adequately validated due to the uncertainty of temperature prediction. In this work, the temperature prediction under the transient condition of LOCA with loss of emergency core cooling (LOECC) in a CANDU reactor is conducted using the optimized calculation scheme from the previous work

  15. CFD model of diabatic annular two-phase flow using the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haipeng; Anglart, Henryk

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A CFD model of annular two-phase flow with evaporating liquid film has been developed. • A two-dimensional liquid film model is developed assuming that the liquid film is sufficiently thin. • The liquid film model is coupled to the gas core flow, which is represented using the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach. - Abstract: A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of annular two-phase flow with evaporating liquid film has been developed based on the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach, with the objective to predict the dryout occurrence. Due to the fact that the liquid film is sufficiently thin in the diabatic annular flow and at the pre-dryout conditions, it is assumed that the flow in the wall normal direction can be neglected, and the spatial gradients of the dependent variables tangential to the wall are negligible compared to those in the wall normal direction. Subsequently the transport equations of mass, momentum and energy for liquid film are integrated in the wall normal direction to obtain two-dimensional equations, with all the liquid film properties depth-averaged. The liquid film model is coupled to the gas core flow, which currently is represented using the Eulerian–Lagrangian technique. The mass, momentum and energy transfers between the liquid film, gas, and entrained droplets have been taken into account. The resultant unified model for annular flow has been applied to the steam–water flow with conditions typical for a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). The simulation results for the liquid film flow rate show favorable agreement with the experimental data, with the potential to predict the dryout occurrence based on criteria of critical film thickness or critical film flow rate

  16. 2D modeling of moderator flow and temperature distribution around a single channel after pressure tube/calandria tube contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behdadi, A.; Luxat, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    A 2D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model has been developed to calculate the moderator velocity field and temperature distribution around a single channel inside the moderator of a CANDU reactor after a postulated ballooning deformation of the pressure tube (PT) into contact with the calandria tube (CT). Following contact between the hot PT and the relatively cold CT, there is a spike in heat flux to the moderator surrounding the CT which may lead to sustained CT dryout. This can detrimentally affect channel integrity if the CT post-dryout temperature becomes sufficiently high to result in thermal creep strain deformation. The present research is focused on establishing the limits for dryout occurrence on the CTs for the situation in which pressure tube-calandria tube contact occurs. In order to consider different location of the channels inside the calandria, both upward and downward flow directions have been analyzed. The standard κ - ε turbulence model associated with logarithmic wall function is applied to predict the effects of turbulence. The governing equations are solved by the finite element software package COMSOL. The buoyancy driven natural convection on the outer surface of a CT has been analyzed to predict the flow and temperature distribution around the single CT considering the local moderator subcooling, wall temperature and heat flux. The model also shows the effect of high CT temperature on the flow and subcooling around the CTs at higher/lower elevation depending on the flow direction in the domain. According to the flow pattern and temperature distribution, it is predicted that stable film boiling generates in the stagnation region on the cylinder. (author)

  17. Assessment of ASSERT-PV for prediction of critical heat flux in CANDU bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Y.F.; Cheng, Z.; Waddington, G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Assessment of the new Canadian subchannel code ASSERT-PV 3.2 for CHF prediction. • CANDU 28-, 37- and 43-element bundle CHF experiments. • Prediction improvement of ASSERT-PV 3.2 over previous code versions. • Sensitivity study of the effect of CHF model options. - Abstract: Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has developed the subchannel thermalhydraulics code ASSERT-PV for the Canadian nuclear industry. The recently released ASSERT-PV 3.2 provides enhanced models for improved predictions of flow distribution, critical heat flux (CHF), and post-dryout (PDO) heat transfer in horizontal CANDU fuel channels. This paper presents results of an assessment of the new code version against five full-scale CANDU bundle experiments conducted in 1990s and in 2009 by Stern Laboratories (SL), using 28-, 37- and 43-element (CANFLEX) bundles. A total of 15 CHF test series with varying pressure-tube creep and/or bearing-pad height were analyzed. The SL experiments encompassed the bundle geometries and range of flow conditions for the intended ASSERT-PV applications for CANDU reactors. Code predictions of channel dryout power and axial and radial CHF locations were compared against measurements from the SL CHF tests to quantify the code prediction accuracy. The prediction statistics using the recommended model set of ASSERT-PV 3.2 were compared to those from previous code versions. Furthermore, the sensitivity studies evaluated the contribution of each CHF model change or enhancement to the improvement in CHF prediction. Overall, the assessment demonstrated significant improvement in prediction of channel dryout power and axial and radial CHF locations in horizontal fuel channels containing CANDU bundles

  18. Two-phase flow characteristic of inverted bubbly, slug and annular flow in post-critical heat flux region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Denten, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    Inverted annular flow can be visualized as a liquid jet-like core surrounded by a vapor annulus. While many analytical and experimental studies of heat transfer in this regime have been performed, there is very little understanding of the basic hydrodynamics of the post-CHF flow field. However, a recent experimental study was done that was able to successfully investigate the effects of various steady-state inlet flow parameters on the post-CHF hydrodynamics of the film boiling of a single phase liquid jet. This study was carried out by means of a visual photographic analysis of an idealized single phase core inverted annular flow initial geometry (single phase liquid jet core surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas). In order to extend this study, a subsequent flow visualization of an idealized two-phase core inverted annular flow geometry (two-phase central jet core, surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas) was carried out. The objective of this second experimental study was to investigate the effect of steady-state inlet, pre-CHF two-phase jet core parameters on the hydrodynamics of the post-CHF flow field. In actual film boiling situations, two-phase flows with net positive qualities at the CHF point are encountered. Thus, the focus of the present experimental study was on the inverted bubbly, slug, and annular flow fields in the post dryout film boiling region. Observed post dryout hydrodynamic behavior is reported. A correlation for the axial extent of the transition flow pattern between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow (the agitated regime) is developed. It is shown to depend strongly on inlet jet core parameters and jet void fraction at the dryout point. 45 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs

  19. Two-phase flow characteristic of inverted bubbly, slug, and annular flow in post-critical heat flux region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, M.; Denten, J.P.

    1989-01-01

    Inverted annular flow can be visualized as a liquid jet-like core surrounded by a vapor annulus. While many analytical and experimental studies of heat transfer in this regime have been performed, there is very little understanding of the basic hydrodynamics of the post-critical heat flux (CHF) flow field. However, a recent experimental study was done that was able to successfully investigate the effects of various steady-state inlet flow parameters on the post-CHF hydrodynamics of the film boiling of a single phase liquid jet. This study was carried out by means of a visual photographic analysis of an idealized single phase core inverted annular flow initial geometry (single phase liquid jet core surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas). In order to extend this study, a subsequent flow visualization of an idealized two-phase core inverted annular flow geometry (two-phase central jet core, surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas) was carried out. The objective of this second experimental study was to investigate the effect of steady-state inlet, pre-CHF two-phase jet core parameters on the hydrodynamics of the post-CHF flow field. In actual film boiling situations, two-phase flows with net positive qualities at the CHF point are encountered. Thus, the focus of the present experimental study was on the inverted bubbly, slug, and annular flow fields in the post dryout film boiling region. Observed post dryout hydrodynamic behavior is reported. A correlation for the axial extent of the transition flow pattern between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow (the agitated regime) is developed. It is shown to depend strongly on inlet jet core parameters and jet void fraction at the dryout point

  20. On the occurrence of burnout downstream of a flow obstacle in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Shoji [Yokohama National University, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)], E-mail: morisho@ynu.ac.jp; Tominaga, Akira [Ube National College of Technology, Ube 755-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: tominaga@ube-k.ac.jp; Fukano, Tohru [Kurume Institute of University, Fukuoka 830-0052 (Japan)], E-mail: fukanot@cc.kurume-it.ac.jp

    2007-12-15

    If a flow obstacle, such as a spacer is placed in a boiling two-phase flow within a channel, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. Under certain conditions, a spacer has a cooling effect, and under other conditions, the spacer causes dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface. The burnout mechanism, which always occurs upstream of a spacer, however, remains unclear. In a previous paper [Fukano, T., Mori, S., Akamatsu, S., Baba, A., 2002. Relation between temperature fluctuation of a heating surface and generation of drypatch caused by a cylindrical spacer in a vertical boiling two-phase upward flow in a narrow annular channel. Nucl. Eng. Des. 217, 81-90], we reported that the disturbance wave has a significant effect on dryout and burnout occurrence and that a spacer greatly affects the behavior of the liquid film downstream of the spacer. In the present study, we examined in detail the influences of a spacer on the heat transfer and film thickness characteristics downstream of the spacer by considering the result in steam-water and air-water systems. The main results are summarized as follows: (1)The spacer averages the liquid film in the disturbance wave flow. As a result, dryout tends not to occur downstream of the spacer. This means that large temperature increases do not occur there. However, traces of disturbance waves remain, even if the disturbance waves are averaged by the spacer. (2)There is a high probability that the location at which burnout occurs is upstream of the downstream spacer, irrespective of the spacer spacing. (3)The newly proposed burnout occurrence model can explain the phenomena that burnout does occur upstream of the downstream spacer, even if the liquid film thickness t{sub Fm} is approximately the same before and behind the spacer.

  1. Critical heat flux for downward-facing pool boiling on CANDU calandria tube surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behdadi, Azin, E-mail: behdada@mcmaster.ca; Talebi, Farshad; Luxat, John

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Pressure tube-calandria tube contact may challenge fuel channel integrity in CANDU. • Critical heat flux variation is predicted on the outer surface of CANDU calandria tube. • A two-phase boundary layer flow driven by buoyancy is modeled on the surface. • Different slip ratios and flow regimes are considered inside the boundary layer. • Subcooling effects are added to the model using wall heat flux partitioning. - Abstract: One accident scenario in CANDU reactors that can challenge the integrity of the primary pressure boundary is a loss of coolant accident, referred to as critical break LOCA, in which the pressure tube (PT) can undergo thermal creep strain deformation and contact its calandria tube (CT). In such case, rapid redistribution of stored heat from PT to CT, leads to a large spike in heat flux to the moderator which can cause bubble accumulation and dryout on the CT surface. A challenge to fuel channel integrity is posed if critical heat flux occurs on the surface of the CT and results in sustained film boiling. If the post-dryout temperature becomes sufficiently high then continued creep strain of the PT and CT may lead to fuel channel failure. In this study, a mechanistic model is developed to predict the critical heat flux variations along the downward facing outer surface of CT. The hydrodynamic model considers a liquid macrolayer beneath an elongated vapor slug on the surface. Local dryout is postulated to occur whenever the fresh liquid supply to the macrolayer is not sufficient to compensate for the liquid depletion. A boundary layer analysis is performed, treating the two phase motion as an external buoyancy driven flow. The model shows good agreement with the available experimental data and has been modified to take into account the effect of subcooling.

  2. Experimental study of gas–liquid two-phase flow through packed bed under natural circulation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shao-Wen; Miwa, Shuichiro; Griffiths, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Dry-out phenomena in packed beds or porous media may cause a significant digression of cooling/reaction performance in heat transfer/chemical reactor systems. One of the phenomena responsible for the dry-out in packed beds is known as the counter-current flow limitation (CCFL). In order to investigate the CCFL phenomena induced by gas–liquid two-phase flow in packed beds inside a pool, a natural circulation packed bed test facility was designed and constructed. A total of 27 experimental conditions covering various packing media sizes (sphere diameters: 3.0, 6.4 and 9.5 mm), packed bed heights (15, 35 and 50 cm) and water level heights (1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 m) were tested to examine the CCFL criteria with adiabatic air–water two-phase flow under natural circulation conditions. Both CCFL and flow reversal phenomena were observed, and the experimental data including instantaneous and time-averaged void fraction, differential pressure and superficial gas–liquid velocities were collected. The CCFL criteria were determined when periodical oscillations of void fraction and differential pressure appear. In addition, the Wallis correlation for CCFL was utilized for data analysis, and the Wallis coefficient, C, was determined experimentally from the packed bed CCFL tests. Compared to the existing data-sets in literature, the higher C values obtained in the present experiment suggest a possibly higher dry-out heat flux for natural circulation debris systems, which may be due to the water supply from both top and bottom surfaces of the packed beds. Considering the effects of bed height and hydraulic diameter of the packing media, a newly developed model for the Wallis coefficient, C, under natural circulation CCFL is presented. The present model can predict the experimental data with an averaged absolute error of ±7.9%. (author)

  3. Thermal hydraulic tests of a liquid hydrogen cold neutron source. NISTIR 5026

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegwarth, J.D.; Olson, D.A.; Lewis, M.A.; Rowe, J.M.; Williams, R.E.; Kopetka, P.

    1995-01-01

    Liquid hydrogen cold neutron source designed at NBSR contains neutron moderator chamber. The NIST-B electrically heated glass moderator chamber used to test the NBSR chamber testing showed the following results: Stable operation possible up to at least 2200 watts with two-phase flow; LH 2 mass quickly reaches new, stable value after heat load change; Void fraction well below 20 at anticipated power and pressure; Restart of H 2 flow verified after extending supply line; Visual inspection showed no dryout or unexpected voids

  4. Nanowire-integrated microporous silicon membrane for continuous fluid transport in micro cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So, Hongyun; Pisano, Albert P.; Cheng, Jim C.

    2013-01-01

    We report an efficient passive micro pump system combining the physical properties of nanowires and micropores. This nanowire-integrated microporous silicon membrane was created to feed coolant continuously onto the surface of the wick in a micro cooling device to ensure it remains hydrated and in case of dryout, allow for regeneration of the system. The membrane was fabricated by photoelectrochemical etching to form micropores followed by hydrothermal growth of nanowires. This study shows a promising approach to address thermal management challenges for next generation electronic devices with absence of external power

  5. Forced-convection boiling tests performed in parallel simulated LMR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, S.D.; Carbajo, J.J.; Levin, A.E.; Lloyd, D.B.; Montgomery, B.H.; Wantland, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    Forced-convection tests have been carried out using parallel simulated Liquid Metal Reactor fuel assemblies in an engineering-scale sodium loop, the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety facility. The tests, performed under single- and two-phase conditions, have shown that for low forced-convection flow there is significant flow augmentation by thermal convection, an important phenomenon under degraded shutdown heat removal conditions in an LMR. The power and flows required for boiling and dryout to occur are much higher than decay heat levels. The experimental evidence supports analytical results that heat removal from an LMR is possible with a degraded shutdown heat removal system

  6. SAS3A analysis of natural convection boiling behavior in the Sodium Boiling Test Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, G.A.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of natural convection boiling behavior in the Sodium Boiling Test (SBT) Facility has been performed using the SAS3A computer code. The predictions from this analysis indicate that stable boiling can be achieved for extensive periods of time for channel powers less than 1.4 kW and indicate intermittent dryout at higher powers up to at least 1.7 kW. The results of this anaysis are in reasonable agreement with the SBT Facility test results

  7. Sodium boiling and mixed oxide fuel thermal behavior in FBR undercooling transients; W-1 SLSF experiment results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, J.M.; Wood, S.A.; Knight, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) Experiment was conducted to study fuel pin heat release characteristics during a series of LMFBR Loss-of-Piping Integrity (LOPI) transients and to investigate a regime of coolant boiling during a second series of transients at low, medium and high bundle power levels. The LOPI transients produced no coolant boiling and showed only small changes in coolant temperatures as the test fuel microstructure changed from a fresh, unrestructured to a low burnup, restructured condition. During the last of seven boiling transients, intense coolant boiling produced inlet flow reversal, cladding dryout and moderate cladding melting

  8. Hydrodynamics of vapor-liquid annular dispersed flows in channels with heated rod clusters under unsteady conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroshilin, A.E.; Kroshilin, V.E.; Nigmatulin, B.I.

    1984-01-01

    A one-dimensional unsteady hydrodynamic model of vapour-liquid disperse-annular flows in channels with heated fuel rod clusters has been constructed. Regularities in the appearance of critical heat transfer due to the dryout of a near-wall liquid film on rod surfaces in such channels are investigated. The model developed takes into account the main flow regularities in the channels with heated rod clusters. The calculations made have shown that the time before crisis appearance agrees satisfactorily with the experimental data

  9. Temperature oscillations at critical temperature in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brevi, R.; Cumo, M.; Palmieri, A.; Pitimada, D.

    Some experiments on the temperature oscillations, or thermal cycling, which occur with steam-water flow in once-through cooling systems at the critical temperature zone, i.e., when dryout occurs, are described. A theoretical analysis is done on the characteristic frequency of the oscillations, and the parameters upon which the operating characteristics and the physical properties of the fluid depend. Finally, the temperature distribution in the critical zone is analyzed, examining the thermal transitions that occur due to the rapid variations in the coefficient of heat transfer

  10. Some aspects of model improvements in RELAP-UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittain, I.; Fayers, F.J.

    1974-03-01

    This report gives details of changes in model which have been, or are about to be, implemented in the UK version of RELAP III. The changes embrace features representing steam slip ratio, momentum flux terms including change of area, frictional pressure drop interaction with discharge conditions, options for discharge models, the Smith slip ratio and two-phase multiplier, modifications to dryout and rewetting criteria, bubble rise in a horizontal steam drum, pipework heat and radiation cooling, spray cooling under stagnant conditions, determination of steady state conditions, and inclusion of a slave pin calculation. Most of these features are already programmed, those on which work is continuing being indicated in the test. (author)

  11. Entrainment of droplets during the reflood phase of a LOCA and the influence of the channel geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Molen, S.B.; Galjee, F.W.B.M.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes the different reflood phenomena and the most relevant appearing two phase flow patterns such as the inverted annular, the annular and dispersed flow regimes and the transition between the different regimes. From high speed films it is clear that the onset of entrainment in case of the liquid column type quench mode occurs simultaneously with the transition of churn flow to a dispersed flow whereas in case of the dryout type quench mode with an annular flow at the quench front, the onset of entrainment is caused by the interaction of the vapor flow on the liquid film flow. 14 refs

  12. Impact of bundle deformation on CHF: ASSERT-PV assessment of extended burnup Bruce B bundle G85159W

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Y.F.; Manzer, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a subchannel thermalhydraulic analysis of the effect on critical heat flux (CHF) of bundle deformation such as element bow and diametral creep. The bundle geometry is based on the post-irradiation examination (PIE) data of a single bundle from the Bruce B Nuclear Generating Station, Bruce B bundle G85159W, which was irradiated for more than two years in the core during reactor commissioning. The subchannel code ASSERT-PV IST is used to assess changes in CHF and dryout power due to bundle deformation, compared to the reference, undeformed bundle. (author)

  13. Recent developments in ASSERT-PV code for subchannel thermalhydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, Y.F.; Hammouda, N.

    2003-01-01

    This paper summarises recent development of ASSERT-PV, and provides examples of applications to CANDU fuel bundles in predicting flow, heat transfer and sheath temperatures. The development work is intended to improve computational and phenomenological modelling capabilities of ASSERT-PV in simulating various flow scenarios in CANDU fuel bundles. The latest version of ASSERT-PV can be used for simulations of steady state or transient, subchannel thermalhydraulics in CANDU bundles under conditions up to and including post-dryout heat transfer. (author)

  14. VRLA Refined™ lead — A must for VRLA batteries. Specification and Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, M. W.; Lakshmi, C. S.; Manders, J. E.; Lam, L. T.

    VRLA Refined™ lead produced and marketed by Pasminco since 1997 is a very high purity lead with guaranteed low levels of the gassing elements but with optimum bismuth content that produces oxide of finer particle size, higher acid absorption and imparts outstanding electrical performance and endurance especially under conditions of deep cycling. VRLA batteries suffer dry-out, self-discharge, negative plate capacity loss and poor cycle life unless special lead is used for the grids and active material. This paper addresses the lead used for active material.

  15. A technical basis for the flux corrected local conditions critical heat flux correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxat, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    The so-called 'flux-corrected' local conditions CHF correlation was developed at Ontario Hydro in the 1980's and was demonstrated to successfully correlate the Onset of Intermittent Dryout (OID) CHF data for 37-element fuel with a downstream-skewed axial heat flux distribution. However, because the heat flux correction factor appeared to be an ad-hoc, albeit a successful modifying factor in the correlation, there was reluctance to accept the correlation more generally. This paper presents a thermalhydraulic basis, derived from two-phase flow considerations, that supports the appropriateness of the heat flux correction as a local effects modifying factor. (author)

  16. Relationships between boiling regimes and chemical concentration processes in tube support plate crevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, A.

    2002-01-01

    The results of a test inter-relating crevice boiling regimes and chemical concentration in tube support plate crevices are presented. Testing of highly soluble, non-volatile autoclave chemistries produced characteristic crevice pH and impedance distributions during nucleate boiling, initiation of dryout, steady-state operation, and following shutdown. However, the patterns changed as a function of the solubility and volatility of the autoclave chemistry, the solute concentration, and the presence of residual solutes from previous testing. The changes were related to variations in the rates of concentrated solution formation, transport, volatilization, and precipitation. (authors)

  17. Two-fluid modeling of thermal-hydraulic phenomena for best-estimate LWR safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yadigaroglu, G.; Andreani, M.

    1989-01-01

    Two-fluid formulation of the conservation equations has allowed modelling of the two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena and situations involving strong departures in thermal and velocity equilibrium between the phases. The paper reviews the state of the art in modelling critical flows, and certain phase separation phenomena, as well as post-dryout heat transfer situations. Although the two-fluid models and the codes have the potential for correctly modelling such situations, this potential has not always been fully used in practice. (orig.)

  18. Containment shells of reactor compartments at foreign NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demidov, A.P.; Savchenko, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    The modern designes of containment shells (CS) of NPP reactor compartments is described. Much attention is paid to the PCS-3 project envisaging CS inclusion in the complex of NPP passive safety system. The PCS-3 system is developed in the USA for NPP with the improved PWR type reactor. The above system permits to cool the core quickly, to reduce steam pressure in CS down to a safe level and to prevent the discharge of radioactive products in the atmosphere in the case of accidents, even very serious, caused by loss of coolant and core dryout

  19. RELAP5/MOD2 code assessment for the Semiscale Mod-2C Test S-LH-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fineman, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    RELAP5/MOD2, Cycle 36.02, was assessed using data from Semiscale Mod-2C experiment S-LH-1. The major phenomena that occurred during the experiment were calculated by RELAP5/MOD2, although the duration and the magnitude of their effect on the transient were not always well calculated. Areas defined where further work was needed to improve the RELAP5 calculation include: (1) the system energy balance, (2) core interfacial drag, and 3) the heat transfer logic rod dryout criterion

  20. Prediction of burnout. Chapter 14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.

    1977-01-01

    A broad survey is made of the effect on burnout heat flux of various system parameters to give the reader a better initial idea of the significance of changes in individual parameters. A detailed survey is then made of various correlation equations for predicting burnout for steam -water in uniformly heated tubes, annuli, rectangular channels and rod clusters, giving details of recommended equations. Finally comments are made on the influence of heat-flux profile and swirl flow on burnout, and on the definition of dryout margin. (author)

  1. Coolability of a 3D homogeneous debris bed, experimental and numerical investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkhen, K.; Berthoud, G.

    2001-01-01

    Within the framework of nuclear safety analysis, we present here experimental and numerical results in the field of debris bed coolability. Experimental data are provided by the SILFIDE 3D experimental facility in which the debris bed is heated by induction, at Electricite de France (EDF). Numerical computations are obtained with MC3D-REPO which is a 3-phase and 3D code developed by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA). The uniform debris bed consists of 2 and 3,17 mm diameter steel beads contained in a 50 cm x 60 cm x 10 cm vessel. Water is used as a coolant and can be introduced either by the top or the bottom of the bed at a determined temperature. Due to heterogeneous power distribution within the bed, two definitions for the critical heat flux are proposed: the classical mean value and the local flux (much higher). Even in the first case, the measured dryout heat flux is higher than the Lipinsky 1-D flux. Temperature curve analyses show that the dryout phenomenon is very local, therefore one should be careful about the right flux definition to use. As the injected power is being increased stepwise, steady temperature stages above saturation temperature before dryout can be observed. A discussion is proposed. For some very high values of the induction power, some spheres melted together, leading to a bigger non-porous region. Even if the local temperature went over 1300 C, the bed was still coolable and the critical heat flux value was not impacted. Some parametric studies led to the following conclusions: bottom coolant injection leads to a twice time higher critical flux than by top injection, the influence of the height of the water pool above debris bed is negligible, a sub-cooled liquid injection has no influence on the coolability. Fluidization of surface particles is also discussed. The MC3D-REPO model assumes a thermal equilibrium between the three phases, which gives results in agreement with experiments until dryout occurs. (author)

  2. Experimental investigation of coolability behaviour of irregularly shaped particulate debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulkarni, P.P.; Rashid, M.; Kulenovic, R.; Nayak, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    In case of a severe nuclear reactor accident, the core can melt and form a particulate debris bed in the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Due to the decay heat, the particle bed, if not cooled properly, can cause failure of the RPV. In order to avoid further propagation of the accident, complete coolability of the debris bed is necessary. For that, understanding of various phenomena taking place during the quenching is important. In the frame of the reactor safety research, fundamental experiments on the coolability of debris beds are carried out at IKE with the test facility 'DEBRIS'. In the present paper, the boiling and dry-out experimental results on a particle bed with irregularly shaped particles mixed with stainless steel balls have been reported. The pressure drops and dry-out heat fluxes of the irregular-particle bed are very similar to those for the single-sized 3 mm spheres bed, despite the fact that the irregular-particle bed is composed of particles with equivalent diameters ranging from 2 to 10 mm. Under top-flooding conditions, the pressure gradients are all smaller than the hydrostatic pressure gradient of water, indicating an important role of the counter-current interfacial drag force. For bottom-flooding with a liquid inflow velocity higher than about 2.7 mm/s, the pressure gradient generally increases consistently with the vapour velocity and the fluid-particle drag becomes important. The system pressures (1 and 3 bar) have negligible effects on qualitative behaviour of the pressure gradients. The coolability of debris beds is mainly limited by the counter-current flooding limit (CCFL) even under bottom-flooding conditions with low flow rates. The system pressure and the flow rate are found to have a distinct effect on the dry-out heat flux. Different classical models have been used to predict the pressure drop characteristics and the dry-out heat flux (DHF). Comparisons are made among the models and experimental results for

  3. A study on critical heat flux in gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae Joon; Jeong, Ji Whan; Cho, Young Ro; Chang, Young Cho; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jong Whan; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong

    1999-04-01

    The scope and content of this study is to perform the test on critical heat flux in hemispherical narrow gaps using distilled water and Freon R-113 as experimental parameters, such as system pressure from 1 to 10 atm and gap thickness of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mm. The CHFG test results have shown that the measured values of critical power are much lower than the predictions made by empirical CHF correlations applicable to flat plate gaps and annuli. The pressure effect on the critical power was found to be much milder than predictions by those CHF correlations. The values and the pressure trend of the critical powers measured in the present experiments are close to the values converted from the CCFL data. This confirms the claim that a CCFL brings about local dryout and finally, global dryout in hemispherical narrow gaps. Increases in the gap thickness lead to increase in critical power. The measured critical power using R-113 in hemispherical narrow gaps are 60 % lower than that using water due to the lower boiling point, which is different from the pool boiling condition. The CCFL (counter counter flow limit) test facility was constructed and the test is being performed to estimate the CCFL phenomena and to evaluate the CHFG test results on critical power in hemispherical narrow gaps. (Author). 35 refs., 2 tabs., 19 figs

  4. Transient Moderator Simulation Using CFX10-CAMO, a CANDU Moderator Analysis Model Based on a Coupled Solver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Churl; Park, Joo Hwan

    2007-01-01

    When a PHT(Primary Heat Transfer) system fails to remove excess heat from fuel channels for some loss of coolant accidents(LOCA's) in CANDU NPP's, the fuel channel temperature could increase until the pressure tube strains (i.e., balloon or sag) to contact its surrounding Calandria tube.(PT/CT contact) Following a PT/CT contact, there is a spike in the heat flux to the moderator surrounding the Calandria tube, which may lead to a sustained CT dryout and also a failure of a fuel channel. The prevention of a CT dryout following a PT/CT contact depends on the local moderator subcooling. That is, fuel channel integrity depends on the capability of the moderator to act as the ultimate heat sink for some LOCA's in a CANDU reactor. In KAERI, Yoon et al. developed a CFD model for predicting a CANDU-6 moderator temperature on the basis of a commercial CFD code CFX-4(ANSYS Inc.). This analytic model has the strength of modelling the hydraulic resistances in the core region and accounting for a heat source term in the energy equations. But convergence difficulties and a slow computing speed are the limitations of this model, because the CFX-4 code adapts a segregated solver to resolve a moderator circulation including a strong coupled-effect. Compared to a segregated solver, a coupled-solver is highly efficient and robust especially for a flow with a strong interference between the variables such as combustion

  5. A thermal-hydraulic code for transient analysis in a channel with a rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khodjaev, I.D.

    1995-01-01

    The paper contains the model of transient vapor-liquid flow in a channel with a rod bundle of core of a nuclear power plant. The computer code has been developed to predict dryout and post-dryout heat transfer in rod bundles of nuclear reactor core under loss-of-coolant accidents. Economizer, bubble, dispersed-annular and dispersed regimes are taken into account. The computer code provides a three-field representation of two-phase flow in the dispersed-annular regime. Continuous vapor, continuous liquid film and entrained liquid drops are three fields. For the description of dispersed flow regime two-temperatures and single-velocity model is used. Relative droplet motion is taken into account for the droplet-to-vapor heat transfer. The conservation equations for each of regimes are solved using an effective numerical technique. This technique makes it possible to determine distribution of the parameters of flows along the perimeter of fuel elements. Comparison of the calculated results with the experimental data shows that the computer code adequately describes complex processes in a channel with a rod bundle during accident

  6. POST CRITICAL HEAT TRANSFER AND FUEL CLADDING OXIDATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vojtěch Caha

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of heat transfer coefficient in the post critical heat flux region in nuclear reactor safety is very important. Although the nuclear reactors normally operate at conditions where critical heat flux (CHF is not reached, accidents where dryout occur are possible. Most serious postulated accidents are a loss of coolant accident or reactivity initiated accident which can lead to CHF or post CHF conditions and possible disruption of core integrity. Moreover, this is also influenced by an oxide layer on the cladding surface. The paper deals with the study of mathematical models and correlations used for heat transfer calculation, especially in post dryout region, and fuel cladding oxidation kinetics of currently operated nuclear reactors. The study is focused on increasing of accuracy and reliability of safety limit calculations (e.g. DNBR or fuel cladding temperature. The paper presents coupled code which was developed for the solution of forced convection flow in heated channel and oxidation of fuel cladding. The code is capable of calculating temperature distribution in the coolant, cladding and fuel and also the thickness of an oxide layer.

  7. A study on critical heat flux in gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Rae Joon; Jeong, Ji Whan; Cho, Young Ro; Chang, Young Cho; Kang, Kyung Ho; Kim, Jong Whan; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Hee Dong

    1999-04-01

    The scope and content of this study is to perform the test on critical heat flux in hemispherical narrow gaps using distilled water and Freon R-113 as experimental parameters, such as system pressure from 1 to 10 atm and gap thickness of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 5.0 mm. The CHFG test results have shown that the measured values of critical power are much lower than the predictions made by empirical CHF correlations applicable to flat plate gaps and annuli. The pressure effect on the critical power was found to be much milder than predictions by those CHF correlations. The values and the pressure trend of the critical powers measured in the present experiments are close to the values converted from the CCFL data. This confirms the claim that a CCFL brings about local dryout and finally, global dryout in hemispherical narrow gaps. Increases in the gap thickness lead to increase in critical power. The measured critical power using R-113 in hemispherical narrow gaps are 60 % lower than that using water due to the lower boiling point, which is different from the pool boiling condition. The CCFL (counter counter flow limit) test facility was constructed and the test is being performed to estimate the CCFL phenomena and to evaluate the CHFG test results on critical power in hemispherical narrow gaps. (Author). 35 refs., 2 tabs., 19 figs.

  8. Entrainment in vertical annular two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawant, Pravin; Ishii, Mamoru; Mori, Michitsugu

    2009-01-01

    Prediction of amount of entrained droplets or entrainment fraction in annular two-phase flow is essential for the estimation of dryout condition and analysis of post dryout heat transfer in light water nuclear reactors and steam boilers. In this study, air-water and organic fluid (Freon-113) annular flow entrainment experiments have been carried out in 9.4 and 10.2 mm diameter test sections, respectively. Both the experiments covered three distinct pressure conditions and wide range of liquid and gas flow conditions. The organic fluid experiments simulated high pressure steam-water annular flow conditions. In each of the experiments, measurements of entrainment fraction, droplet entrainment rate and droplet deposition rate have been performed by using a liquid film extraction method. A simple, explicit and non-dimensional correlation developed by Sawant et al. (2008a) for the prediction of entrainment fraction is further improved in this study in order to account for the existence of critical gas and liquid flow rates below which no entrainment is possible. Additionally, a new correlation is proposed for the estimation of minimum liquid film flow rate at the maximum entrainment fraction condition. The improved correlation successfully predicted the newly collected air-water and Freon-113 entrainment fraction data. Furthermore, the correlations satisfactorily compared with the air-water, helium-water and air-genklene experimental data measured by Willetts (1987). (author)

  9. FIX-II/2032, BWR Pump Trip Experiment 2032, Simulation Mass Flow and Power Transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: In the FIX-II pump trip experiments, mass flow and power transients were simulated subsequent to a total loss of power to the recirculation pumps in an internal pump boiling water reactor. The aim was to determine the initial power limit to give dryout in the fuel bundle for the specified transient. In addition, the peak cladding temperature was measured and the rewetting was studied. 2 - Description of test: Pump trip experiment 2032 was a part of test group 2, i.e. the mass flow transient was to simulate the pump coast down with a pump inertia of 11.3 kg.m -2 . The initial power in the 36-rod bundle was 4.44 MW which gave dryout after 1.4 s from the start of the flow transient. A maximum rod cladding temperature of 457 degrees C was measured. Rewetting was obtained after 7.6 s. 3 - Experimental limitations or shortcomings: No ECCS injection systems

  10. Ferrocyanide safety program: Credibility of drying out ferrocyanide tank waste by hot spots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickinson, D.R.; McLaren, J.M.; Borsheim, G.L.; Crippen, M.D.

    1993-04-01

    The single-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site that contain significant quantities of ferrocyanide have been considered a possible hazard, since under certain conditions the ferrocyanide in the waste tanks could undergo an exothermic chemical reaction with the nitrates and nitrites that are also present in the tanks. The purpose of this report is to assess the credibility of local dryout of ferrocyanide due to a hotspot. This report considers the following: What amount of decay heat generation within what volume would be necessary to raise the temperature of the liquid in the sludge to its boiling point? What mechanisms could produce a significant local concentration of heat sources? Is it credible that a waste tank heat concentration could be as large as that required to reach the dryout temperatures? This report also provides a recommendation as to whether infrared scanning of the ferrocyanide tanks is needed. From the analyses presented in this report it is evident that formation of dry, and thus chemically reactive, regions in the ferrocyanide sludge by local hotspots is not credible. This conclusion is subject to reevaluation if future analyses of tank core samples show much higher 137 Cs or 90 Sr concentrations than expected. Since hotspots of concern are not credible, infrared scanning to detect such hotspots is not required for safe storage of tank waste

  11. Experimental Study on Critical Power in a Hemispherical Narrow Gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae-Joon; Ha, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Sang-Baik; Kim, Hee-Dong; Jeong, Ji-Hwan

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study of critical heat flux in gap (CHFG) has been performed to investigate the inherent cooling mechanism in a hemispherical narrow gap. The objectives of the CHFG test are to measure critical power from a critical heat removal rate through the hemispherical narrow gap using distilled water with experimental parameters of system pressure and gap width. The CHFG test results have shown that a countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) brings about local dryout at the small edge region of the upper part and finally global dryout in a hemispherical narrow gap. Increases in the gap width and pressure lead to an increase in critical power. The measured values of critical power are lower than the predictions made by other empirical CHF correlations applicable to flat plate, annuli, and small spherical gaps. The measured data on critical power in the hemispherical narrow gaps have been correlated using nondimensional parameters with a range of approximately ±20%. The developed correlation has been expanded to apply the spherical geometry using the Siemens/KWU correlation

  12. Assessment of CHF characteristics at subcooled conditions for the CANDU CANFLEX bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onder, E.N.; Leung, L.K.H.

    2011-01-01

    An analysis has been performed to assess the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) characteristics for the CANFLEX bundle at subcooled conditions. CHF characteristics for CANDU bundles have been established from experiments using full-scale bundle simulators. These experiments covered flow conditions of interest to normal operation and postulated loss-of-flow and small break loss-of-coolant accidents. Experimental CHF values obtained from these experiments were applied to develop correlations for analyses of regional overpower protection and safety trips. These correlations are applicable to the saturated region in the reference uncrept channel and the slightly subcooled region in postulated high-creep channels. Expanding the CHF data to subcooled conditions facilitates the evaluation of the margin to dryout at upstream bundle locations, even though dryout occurrences are not anticipated there. In view of the lack of experimental data, the ASSERT-PV subchannel code has been applied to establish CHF values at low qualities and high subcoolings (thermodynamic qualities corresponding to -25%). These CHF values have been applied to extend the CHF correlation to the highly subcooled conditions. (author)

  13. CANDU fuel behaviour under transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segel, A.W.L.

    1979-04-01

    The Canadian R and D program to understand CANDU fuel behaviour under transient conditions is described. Fuel sheath behaviour studies have led to the development of a model of transient plastic strain in inert gas, which integrates the deformation due to several mechanisms. Verification tests demonstrated that on average the model overpredicts strain by 20%. From oxidation kinetics studies a sheath failure embrittlement criterion based on oxygen distribution has been developed. We have also established a rate equation for high-temperature stress-dependent crack formation due to embrittlement of the sheath by beryllium. An electric, simulated fuel element is being used in laboratory tests to characterize the behaviour of fuel in the horizontal. In-reactor, post-dryout tests have been done for several years. There is an axially-segmented, axisymmetric fuel element model in place and a fully two-dimensional code is under development. Laboratory testing of bundles, in its early stages, deals with the effects of geometric distortion and sheath-to-sheath interaction. In-reactor, post-dryout tests of CANDU fuel bundles with extensive central UO 2 melting did not result in fuel fragmentation nor damage to the pressure tube. (author)

  14. Technical basis and programmatic requirements for Engineered Barrier System Field Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Wunan.

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study plant is to describe tests known as Engineered Barrier System Field Tests (EBSFT), which are to be conducted in the Exploratory Study Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The EBSFT is designed to provide information on the interaction between waste packages (simulated by heated containers), the surrounding rock mass, and its vadose water. The Yucca Mountain site is being characterized to determine its suitability as a potential deep geological repository for high-level nuclear waste. Water is the main medium by which radioactive nuclides travel to the accessible environment. Therefore, the movement of water over the approximate 10,000--year lifetime required for radioactive nuclide decay must be understood. Development of a repository and emplacement of nuclear wastes impose stress loadings on the repository rock mass. The stress loadings include (1) thermal energy and irradiation from the waste packages, and (2) mechanical stress due to the mining of openings, and the transporting of waste canisters. The influence f the thermal stress may extend to all lithological units, including the saturated zone under the ground water table, in Yucca Mountain. In general, the purpose of this study is to investigate the movement of water in the rock mass under the influence of the thermal loading of the waste packages. Specifically, the study will investigate heat flow mechanism, relationship between boiling and dry-out, and the rewetting of the dry-out region when the repository is cooled down

  15. A thermal-hydraulic code for transient analysis in a channel with a rod bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khodjaev, I.D. [Research & Engineering Centre of Nuclear Plants Safety, Electrogorsk (Russian Federation)

    1995-09-01

    The paper contains the model of transient vapor-liquid flow in a channel with a rod bundle of core of a nuclear power plant. The computer code has been developed to predict dryout and post-dryout heat transfer in rod bundles of nuclear reactor core under loss-of-coolant accidents. Economizer, bubble, dispersed-annular and dispersed regimes are taken into account. The computer code provides a three-field representation of two-phase flow in the dispersed-annular regime. Continuous vapor, continuous liquid film and entrained liquid drops are three fields. For the description of dispersed flow regime two-temperatures and single-velocity model is used. Relative droplet motion is taken into account for the droplet-to-vapor heat transfer. The conservation equations for each of regimes are solved using an effective numerical technique. This technique makes it possible to determine distribution of the parameters of flows along the perimeter of fuel elements. Comparison of the calculated results with the experimental data shows that the computer code adequately describes complex processes in a channel with a rod bundle during accident.

  16. Dynamic simulation of steam generator failures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meister, G [Institut fuer Nukleare Sicherheitsforschung, Kernforschungsanlage Juelich GmbH, Juelich (Germany)

    1988-07-01

    A computer program will be described which is capable to simulate severe transients in a gas heated steam generator. Such transients may arise in the safety analysis of accidents resulting from failures in the heat removal system of an HTGR power plant. Important failure modes which have to be considered are ruptures of one or more steam generator tubes leading to water or steam ejection into the primary system or anomalous operating conditions which my cause damage due to excessive thermal stress. Examples are the complete dryout as a consequence of feedwater interrupt in connection with continuing gas heating and the reflooding of the secondary channel with cold feedwater after dryout. The steam generator program which is capable to simulate accidents of this type is written as a module which can be implemented into a program system fur the simulation of the total heat rejection system. It based on an advanced mathematical model for the two phase flow taking deviations from thermal equilibrium into account. Mass, energy and momentum balances for the primary and secondary fluid and the heat diffusion equations for the heat exchanging wall form a system of coupled differential equations which is solved numerically by an algorithm which is stiffly stable and suppresses effectively oscillations of numerical origin. Results of the simulation of transients of the type mentioned above will be presented and discussed. (author)

  17. Methodologies for optimizing ROP detector layout for CANDU (registered) reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastanya, Doddy, E-mail: kastanyd@aecl.c [Reactor Core Physics Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, ON, L5K 1B2 (Canada); Caxaj, Victor [Reactor Core Physics Branch, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, 2251 Speakman Drive, Mississauga, ON, L5K 1B2 (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    The regional overpower protection (ROP) systems protect CANDU (registered) reactors against overpower in the fuel that would reduce the safety margin-to-dryout. Both a localized power peaking within the core (for example, as a result of certain reactivity device configuration) or a general increase in the core power level during a slow-loss-of-regulation (SLOR) event could cause overpower in the fuel. This overpower could lead to fuel sheath dryout. In the CANDU (registered) 600 MW (CANDU 6) design, there are two ROP systems in the core, one for each fast-acting shutdown systems. Each ROP system includes a number of fast-responding, self-powered flux detectors suitably distributed throughout the core within vertical and horizontal assemblies. Traditionally, the placement of these detectors was done using a method called the detector layout optimization (DLO). A new methodology for designing the detector layout for the ROP system has been developed recently. The new method, called the DETPLASA algorithm, utilizes the simulated annealing (SA) technique to optimize the placement of the detectors in the core. Both methodologies will be discussed in detail in this paper. Numerical examples are employed to better illustrate how each method works. Results from some sensitivity studies on three SA parameters are also presented.

  18. BWR stability: analysis of cladding temperature for high amplitude oscillations - 146

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, P.; Wehle, F.

    2010-01-01

    Power oscillations associated with density waves in boiling water reactors (BWRs) have been studied widely. Industrial research in this area is active since the invention of the first BWR. Stability measurements have been performed in various plants during commissioning phase but especially the magnitude and divergent nature of the oscillations during the LaSalle Unit 2 nuclear power plant event on March 9, 1988, renewed concern about the state of knowledge on BWR instabilities and possible consequences to fuel rod integrity. The objective of this paper is to present a simplified stability tool, applicable for stability analysis in the non-linear regime, which extends to high amplitude oscillations where inlet reverse flow occurs. In case of high amplitude oscillations a cyclical dryout and rewetting process at the fuel rod may take place, which leads in turn to rapid changes of the heat transfer from the fuel rod to the coolant. The application of this stability tool allows for a conservative determination of the fuel rod cladding temperature in case of high amplitude oscillations during the dryout / re-wet phase. Moreover, it reveals in good agreement to experimental findings the stabilizing effect of the reverse bundle inlet flow, which might be obtained for large oscillation amplitudes. (authors)

  19. Dynamic simulation of steam generator failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, G.

    1988-01-01

    A computer program will be described which is capable to simulate severe transients in a gas heated steam generator. Such transients may arise in the safety analysis of accidents resulting from failures in the heat removal system of an HTGR power plant. Important failure modes which have to be considered are ruptures of one or more steam generator tubes leading to water or steam ejection into the primary system or anomalous operating conditions which my cause damage due to excessive thermal stress. Examples are the complete dryout as a consequence of feedwater interrupt in connection with continuing gas heating and the reflooding of the secondary channel with cold feedwater after dryout. The steam generator program which is capable to simulate accidents of this type is written as a module which can be implemented into a program system fur the simulation of the total heat rejection system. It based on an advanced mathematical model for the two phase flow taking deviations from thermal equilibrium into account. Mass, energy and momentum balances for the primary and secondary fluid and the heat diffusion equations for the heat exchanging wall form a system of coupled differential equations which is solved numerically by an algorithm which is stiffly stable and suppresses effectively oscillations of numerical origin. Results of the simulation of transients of the type mentioned above will be presented and discussed. (author)

  20. Advanced boron soaking procedure for steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, T.; Tsuge, A.; Kawanishi, K.; Ochi, T.; Kadokami, E.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental study on boric acid penetration into tube to tube-support-plate crevices and Inter-Granular-Attack (hereinafter called 'IGA') cracks in crevices has been performed to obtain the optimum boric acid soaking procedure in operating steam generators with IGA. The penetration rate into the crevice is closely related to various parameters such as heat flux, crevice gap, and porosity of the sludge deposited in crevices. Two experimental crevice models were set up. One was of the packed crevice type; crevice gap is completely packed by sludge, and the other was of the open crevice type; crevice gap is not packed, but reduced by sludge. The porosity of the crevice varied from 100% open porosity to the highly sludge packed porosity of 10∼20%. The relation between heat flux and boric acid penetration rate of the packed crevice type was investigated. For the open crevice type, from the viewpoint that boric acid penetration into the dryout region produces no effects, tube wall superheat in the crevice was measured in order to obtain the dryout heat flux. And it was investigated the boron in IGA cracks using Ion Micro Analysis in order to confirm existence of an anticorrosive film in IGA propagation. The optimum reactor power for effective boric acid penetration onto the tube surface and into the IGA cracks within the tube to tube-support-plate crevice was found to be about a 5% and 30% power level, which are applicable to both the packed and open crevice type. (author)

  1. Flow characteristics of counter-current flow in debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Yutaka; Adachi, Hiromichi

    2004-01-01

    In the course of a severe accident, a damaged core would form a debris bed consisting of once-molten and fragmented fuel elements. It is necessary to evaluate the dryout heat flux for the judgment of the coolability of the debris bed during the severe accident. The dryout phenomena in the debris bed is dominated by the counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) in the debris bed. In this study, air-water counter-current flow behavior in the debris bed is experimentally investigated with glass particles simulating the debris beds. In this experiment, falling water flow rate and axial pressure distributions were experimentally measured. As the results, it is clarified that falling water flow rate becomes larger with the debris bed height and the pressure gradient in the upper region of the debris bed is different from that in the lower region of the debris bed. These results indicate that the dominant region for CCFL in the debris bed is identified near the top of the debris bed. Analytical results with annular flow model indicates that interfacial shear stress in the upper region of the debris bed is larger than that in the lower region of the debris bed. (author)

  2. The impact of thermal loading on repository performance at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Nitao, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, liquid flow along preferential fracture pathways is the only credible mechanism capable of bringing water to waste packages and transporting radionuclide to the water table. Three categories of features or mechanisms will mitigate the impact of flow along preferential fracture pathways: (1) discontinuity in fracture pathways, (2) liquid-phase dispersion in fracture networks, and (3) fracture-matrix interaction. For repository areal power densities (APDs) that are too low to result in significant boiling or rock dry-out effects, the primary mode of fracture-matrix interaction is matrix imbibition. For high APDs, boiling and enhanced matrix imbibition due to rock dry-out significantly add to the capacity of the unsaturated zone to retard fracture-dominated flow. With the use of V-TOUGH code, hydrothermal flow calculations are made for a range of APDs and spent fuel ages. For APD > 20 kW/acre, repository-heat-generated flow of vapor and liquid in fractures is found to dominate the ambient hydrological system. For high APDs, boiling conditions can persist for 10,000 yr or longer and rock-dry benefits for at least 100,000 yr

  3. Phenomenological studies on melt-structure-water interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Yang, Z.L.; Haraldsson, H.O.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Konovalikhin, M.; Paladino, D.; Gubaidullin, A.A.; Kolb, G.; Theerthan, A. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Nuclear Power Safety

    2000-05-01

    This is the annual report for the work performed in 1999 in the research project Melt-Structure-Water Interactions During Severe Accidents in LWRs, under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The emphasis of the work is placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: The coolant temperature has significant influence on the characteristics of debris fragments produced from the breakup of an oxidic melt jet. At low subcooling the fragments are relatively large and irregular compared to the smaller particles produced at high subcooling. The melt jet density has considerable effect on the fragment size produced. As the melt density increases the fragment size becomes smaller. The mass mean size of the debris changes proportionally to the square root of the coolant to melt density ratio. The melt superheat has little effect on the debris particle size distribution produced during the melt jet fragmentation. The impingement velocity of the jet has significant impact on the fragmentation process. At lower jet velocity the melt fragments agglomerate and form a cake of large size debris. When the jet velocity is increased more complete fragmentation is obtained. The scaling methodology for melt spreading, developed during 1998, has been further validated against almost all of the spreading experimental data available so far. Experimental results for the dryout heat flux of homogeneous particulate debris beds with top flooding compare well with the Lipinski correlation. For the stratified particle beds, the fine particle layer resting on the top of another particle layer dominates the dryout processes

  4. Phenomenological studies on melt-structure-water interactions (MSWI) during severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Yang, Z.L.; Haraldsson, H.O.; Nourgaliev, R.R.; Konovalikhin, M.; Paladino, D.; Gubaidullin, A.A.; Kolb, G.; Theerthan, A.

    2000-05-01

    This is the annual report for the work performed in 1999 in the research project Melt-Structure-Water Interactions During Severe Accidents in LWRs, under the auspices of the APRI Project, jointly funded by SKI, HSK, USNRC and the Swedish and Finnish power companies. The emphasis of the work is placed on phenomena and properties which govern the fragmentation and breakup of melt jets and droplets, melt spreading and coolability, and thermal and mechanical loadings of a pressure vessel during melt-vessel interaction. We believe that significant technical advances have been achieved during the course of these studies. It was found that: The coolant temperature has significant influence on the characteristics of debris fragments produced from the breakup of an oxidic melt jet. At low subcooling the fragments are relatively large and irregular compared to the smaller particles produced at high subcooling. The melt jet density has considerable effect on the fragment size produced. As the melt density increases the fragment size becomes smaller. The mass mean size of the debris changes proportionally to the square root of the coolant to melt density ratio. The melt superheat has little effect on the debris particle size distribution produced during the melt jet fragmentation. The impingement velocity of the jet has significant impact on the fragmentation process. At lower jet velocity the melt fragments agglomerate and form a cake of large size debris. When the jet velocity is increased more complete fragmentation is obtained. The scaling methodology for melt spreading, developed during 1998, has been further validated against almost all of the spreading experimental data available so far. Experimental results for the dryout heat flux of homogeneous particulate debris beds with top flooding compare well with the Lipinski correlation. For the stratified particle beds, the fine particle layer resting on the top of another particle layer dominates the dryout processes

  5. Little low-power boiling never hurt anybody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, F.E.

    1985-01-01

    Failures in the shutdown heat removal system of an LMFBR might lead to flow stagnation and coolant boiling in the reactor core. At normal operating power, the onset of sodium boiling will lead to film dryout and melting of the cladding and fuel within a few seconds. On the other hand, both calculations and currently available experimental data indicate that at heat fluxes corresponding to decay heat power levels, boiling leads to improved heat removal; and it limits the temperature rise in the fuel pins. Therefore, when setting safety criteria for decay heat removal systems, there is no reason to preclude sodium boiling per se because of heat removal considerations. As an example that illustrates the beneficial impact of coolant boiling, a case involving temporary loss of feedwater and staggered pump failures in a hypothetical, 1000-MWe loop-type reactor was run in the SASSYS-1 code

  6. Experimental study of nonequilibrium post-chf heat transfer in rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unal, C.; Tuzla, K.; Badr, O.; Neti, S.; Chen, J.

    1986-01-01

    Verifications and improvements of nonequilibrium heat transfer models, for post-critical-heat-flux convective boiling, has been greatly affected by the lack of experimental data regarding the degree of thermodynamic nonequilibrium. Recent studies had been successful in measuring vapor superheats in a vertical single tube. This paper extends the nonequilibrium convective boiling data to a rod bundle geometry. Vapor superheat measurements were obtained in a rod bundle with nine heated rods and a heated shroud. Tests were carried out with water at low mass fluxes with a wide range of dryout conditions. Significant nonequilibrium was observed, with vapor superheats of up to 600 0 C. Parametric effects of mass flux, heat flux and inlet conditions on vapor superheat are presented

  7. Chemical and hydrothermal studies on once through boilers using a full scale replica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penfold, D.; Gill, G.M.; Greene, J.C.; Harrison, G.S.; Walker, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    The paper describes the scope of research work carried out on once through boilers on the test rig at Wythenshawe, United Kingdom. The latter rig was designed and built to replicate the chemical, metallurgical and hydrothermal conditions on single tube test sections of Heysham 1 (AGR) and Wylfa (Magnox) boilers. A description is given of the rig, along with the facilities for obtaining the research data. Research studies on the once through boilers include: Heysham 1 boiler inlet, oxygen stress corrosion risk in post trip operation, Wylfa two phase erosion-corrosion risk in post trip operation, Wylfa two phase erosion-corrosion, dryout phenomena in a helical coil, and heat transfer co-efficients. (UK)

  8. Advance of core design method for ATR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Seiichirou; Ihara, Toshiteru; Iijima, Takashi; Seino, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Tetsurou; Takeuchi, Michio; Sugawara, Satoru; Matsumoto, Mitsuo.

    1995-01-01

    Core characteristics of ATR demonstration plant has been revised such as increasing the fuel burnup and the channel power, which is achieved by changing the number of fuel rod per fuel assembly from 28 to 36. The research and development concerning the core design method for ATR have been continued. The calculational errors of core analysis code have been evaluated using the operational data of FUGEN and the full scale simulated test results in DCA (Deuterium Critical Assembly) and HTL (Heat Transfer Loop) at O-arai engineering center. It is confirmed that the calculational error of power distribution is smaller than the design value of ATR demonstration plant. Critical heat flux correlation curve for 36 fuel rod cluster has been developed and the probability evaluation method based on its curve, which is more rational to evaluate the fuel dryout, has been adopted. (author)

  9. HEDL W-1 SLSF experiment LOPI transient and boiling test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, J.M.; Wood, S.A.; Rothrock, R.B.

    1980-01-01

    The W-1 Sodium Loop Safety Facility (SLSF) experiment was designed to study the heat release characteristics of fast reactor fuel pins under Loss-of-Piping-Integrity (LOPI) accident conditions and determine stable sodium boiling initiation and recovery limits in a prototypic fuel pin bundle array. The results of the experiment address major second level of assurance (LOA-2) safety issues and provide increased insight and understanding of phenomena that would inherently terminate hypothesized accidents with only limited core damage. The irradiation phase of the experiment, consisting of thirteen individual transients, was performed between May 27 and July 20, 1979. The final transient produced approximately two seconds of coolant boiling, cladding dryout, and incipient fuel pin failure. The facility and test hardware performed as designed, allowing completion of all planned tests and achievement of all test objectives

  10. Critical heat flux and flow pattern for water flow in annular geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae Wook; Baek, Won Pil; Chang, Soon Heung

    1996-01-01

    An experimental study on critical heat flux (CHF) and two-phase flow visualization has been performed for water flow in internally-heated, vertical, concentric annuli under near atmospheric pressure. Tests have been done under stable forced-circulation, upward and downward flow conditions with three test sections of relatively large gap widths (heated length = 0.6 m, inner diameter = 19 mm, outer diameter = 29, 35 and 51 mm). The outer wall of the test section was made up of the transparent Pyrex tube to allow the observation of flow patterns near the CHF occurrence. The CHF mechanism was changed in the order of flooding, churn-to-annular flow transition, and local dryout under a large bubble in churn flow as the flow rate was increased from zero to higher values. Observed parametric trends are consistent with the previous understanding except that the CHF for downward flow is considerably lower than that for upward flow

  11. CHF correlations related to the core cooling of a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, K.; Nishihara, H.; Shibata, T.

    1984-01-01

    Critical heat flux (CHF) at low flow condition can become important in a research reactor under a number of accident conditions. Regardless of the initial stages of these accidents, a similar condition, which is basically the decay heat removal by natural convection boiling, can develop. Under such conditions, burnout may occur even at a very low heat flux. In view of this, the low-flow CHF has been studied to provide a better understanding of the dryout behavior. The experimental results under atmospheric pressure indicate that a CHF can occur at much lower heat flux than pool-boiling CHF or than predicted by the conventional correlations. This fact indicates that a special care should be taken in analyzing the boiling phenomenon which occurs when the coolant flow is very low in a low pressure system. (author)

  12. Relation between burnout and differential pressure fluctuation characteristics by the disturbance waves near the flow obstacle in a vertical annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shoji; Fukano, Tohru

    2002-01-01

    If a flow obstruction such as a spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow within an annular channel, the inner tube of which is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heater tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. In some cases the spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other case it causes the dryout of the cooling liquid film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the tube. But the thermo-fluid dynamic mechanism to cause burnout near the spacer is not still clear. In the present paper we discuss temperature fluctuation characteristics in relation to the change of the differential pressure across the spacer caused by the passing of the disturbance waves in case that the burnout generates. (author)

  13. Single-hole in situ thermal probe for hydrothermal characterization at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danko, G.

    1993-01-01

    The REKA thermal probe method, which uses a single borehole to measure in situ rock thermophysical properties and provides for efficient and low-cost site characterization, is analyzed for its application to hydrothermal system characterization. It is demonstrated throughout the evaluation of several temperature fields obtained for different thermal zones that the REKA method can be applied to simultaneously determine (1) two independent thermophysical properties, i.e., heat conductivity and thermal diffusivity and (2) a set of heat transport parameters, which can be used to characterize the behavior of a hydrothermal system. Based on the direct physical meaning of these transport parameters, the components of the heat transport mechanism in a given time and location of the hydrothermal system can be described. This evaluation can be applied to characterizing and quantifying in situ rock dry-out and condensate shedding at the proposed repository site

  14. Large Eddy and Interface Simulation (LEIS) of liquid entrainment in turbulent stratified flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulati, S.; Buongiorno, J.; Lakehal, D.

    2011-01-01

    Dryout of the liquid film on the fuel rods in BWR fuel assemblies leads to an abrupt decrease in heat transfer coefficient and can result in fuel failure. The process of mechanical mass transfer from the continuous liquid field into the continuous vapor field along the liquid-vapor interface is called entrainment and is the dominant depletion mechanism for the liquid film in annular flow. Using interface tracking methods combined with a Large Eddy Simulation approach, implemented in the Computational Multi-Fluid Dynamics (CMFD) code TransAT®, we are studying entrainment phenomena in BWR fuel assemblies. In this paper we report on the CMFD simulation approaches and the current validation effort for the code. (author)

  15. A strategy of implementation of the improved constitutive equations for the advanced subchannel code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirai, Hiroshi; Hotta, Akitoshi; Ninokata, Hisashi

    2004-01-01

    To develop the advanced subchannel analysis code, the dominant factors that influence the boiling transitional process must be taken into account in the mechanistic constitutive equations based on the flow geometries and the fluid properties. The dominant factors that influence the boiling transitional processes are (1) the gas-liquid re-distribution by cross flow, (2) the liquid film dryout, (3) the two-phase flow regime transition, (4) the droplet deposition, and (5) the spacer-droplet interaction. At first, we indicated the strategy for the development of the constitutive equations for the five dominant factors based on the experimental database by the latest measurement technique and the latest computational fluid dynamics method. Then, the problems of the present constitutive equations and the improvement plan of the constitutive equations were indicated. Finally, the layered structure for the two-phase/three-field subchannel code including the new constitutive equations was designed. (author)

  16. Study of a Loop Heat Pipe Using Neutron Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Thomas Conroy; A. A. El-Ganayni; David R. Riley; John M. Cimbala; Jack S. Brenizer, Jr.; Abel Po-Ya Chuang; Shane Hanna

    2001-01-01

    An explanation is given of what a loop heat pipe (LHP) is, and how it works. It is then shown that neutron imaging (both real time neutron radioscopy and single exposure neutron radiography) is an effective experimental tool for the study of LHPs. Specifically, neutron imaging has helped to identify and correct a cooling water distribution problem in the condenser, and has enabled visualization of two-phase flow (liquid and vapor) in various components of the LHP. In addition, partial wick dry-out, a phenomenon of great importance in the effective operation of LHPs, has been identified with neutron imaging. It is anticipated that neutron radioscopy and radiography will greatly contribute to our understanding of LHP operation, and will lead to improvement of LHP modeling and design

  17. Effect of orientation on critical heat flux in a 3-rod bundle cooled by Freon-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimmick, G.R.

    1979-06-01

    Critical heat flux measurements have been made in a segmented 3-rod test section cooled by Freon-12. Three test section orientations were used: vertical, inclined at 11 deg to the vertical, and horizontal. It was found that at flows of less than 2.5 Mg.m -2 .s -1 the transverse gravity force on the inclined and horizontal orientations reduced the magnitude of the critical heat flux and also changed the location of initial dryout when compared to the vertical data. To account for the effect of orientation during correlation of the data, the Reynolds number was modified to include a transverse gravity term. The minimum standard deviation for the data from the three orientations combined was 3.4 percent and less than 3.7 percent for the three orientations separately. (author)

  18. Impact of the 37M fuel design on reactor physics characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, R.; Ta, P.

    2013-01-01

    For CANDU nuclear reactors, aging of the Heat Transport System (HTS) leads to, among other effects, a reduction on the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) and dryout margin. In an effort to mitigate the impact of aging of the HTS on safety margins, Bruce Power is introducing a design change to the standard 37-element fuel bundle known as the modified 37-element fuel bundle, or 37M for short. As part of the overall design change process it was necessary to assess the impact of the modified fuel bundle design on key reactor physics parameters. Quantification of this impact on lattice cell properties, core reactivity properties, etc., was reached through a series of calculations using state-of-the-art lattice and core physics models, and comparisons against results for the standard fuel bundle. (author)

  19. Mechanistic modeling of pool film-boiling and quench on a Candu calandria tube following a critical break LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, J.T.; Luxat, J.C. [McMaster University, A315 JHE Building, 1280 Main St.W. Hamilton, ON, L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Following a postulated critical LBLOCA a pressure tube (PT) can experience creep deformation and balloon uniformly into contact with the calandria tube (CT). The resultant heat flux to CT is high as stored heat is transferred out of the hot PT. This heat flux can cause dryout on the outer surface of the CT and establish film boiling. This paper presents a model of buoyancy-driven natural convection film boiling on the outside of a horizontal tube with diameter relevant to a Candu CT (approximately 13 cm). A second order, non-linear and non-homogeneous ODE for vapour film thickness has been derived. The variation of steady state vapour film thickness prior to quench as a function of subcooling temperature, wall superheat, and incident heat flux is examined. The CT outer surface heatup rate and effective film boiling heat transfer coefficient from the model are in good agreement with available experimental data. (authors)

  20. Modeling the quenching of a calandria tube following a critical break LOCA in a CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J.T.; Luxat, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Following a postulated critical large break LOCA a pressure tube (PT) can experience creep deformation and balloon uniformly into contact with the calandria tube (CT). The resultant heat flux to CT is high as stored heat is transferred out of the hot PT. This heat flux can cause dryout on the outer surface of the CT and establish film boiling. This paper presents a model of buoyancy-driven natural convection film boiling on the outside of a horizontal tube with diameter relevant to a CANDU CT (approximately 130mm). The model has been developed to analyze the variation of steady state vapor film thickness as a function of sub-cooling temperature, wall superheat and incident heat flux. The CT outer surface heat flux and effective film boiling heat transfer coefficient from the model are in good agreement with available experimental data. (author)

  1. Modeling the quenching of a calandria tube following a critical break LOCA in a CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, J.T.; Luxat, J.C. [McMaster Univ., Dept. of Engineering Physics, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Following a postulated critical large break LOCA a pressure tube (PT) can experience creep deformation and balloon uniformly into contact with the calandria tube (CT). The resultant heat flux to CT is high as stored heat is transferred out of the hot PT. This heat flux can cause dryout on the outer surface of the CT and establish film boiling. This paper presents a model of buoyancy-driven natural convection film boiling on the outside of a horizontal tube with diameter relevant to a CANDU CT (approximately 130mm). The model has been developed to analyze the variation of steady state vapor film thickness as a function of sub-cooling temperature, wall superheat and incident heat flux. The CT outer surface heat flux and effective film boiling heat transfer coefficient from the model are in good agreement with available experimental data. (author)

  2. Study on the effect of the CANFLEX-NU fuel element bowing on the critical heat flux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suk, Ho Chun; Cho, Moon Sung; Jeon, Ji Su

    2001-01-01

    The effect of the CANFLEX-NU fuel element bowing on the critical heat flux is reviewed and analyzed, which is requested by KINS as the Government design licensing condition for the use of the fuel bundles in CANDU power reactors. The effect of the gap between two adjacent fuel elements on the critical heat flux and onset-of-dryout power is studied. The reduction of the width of a single inter-rod gap from its nominal size to the minimum manufacture allowance of 1 mm has a negligible effects on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the bundle for the given set of boundary conditions applied to the CANFLEX-43 element bundle in an uncrept channel. As expected, the in-reactor irradiation test results show that there are no evidence of the element bow problems on the bundle performance.

  3. Pretest thermal analysis of the Tuff Water Migration/In-Situ Heater Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulmer, B.M.

    1980-02-01

    This report describes the pretest thermal analysis for the Tuff Water Migration/In-Situ Heater Experiment to be conducted in welded tuff in G-tunnel, Nevada Test Site. The parametric thermal modeling considers variable boiling temperature, tuff thermal conductivity, tuff emissivity, and heater operating power. For nominal tuff properties, some near field boiling is predicted for realistic operating power. However, the extent of boiling will be strongly determined by the ambient (100% water saturated) rock thermal conductivity. In addition, the thermal response of the heater and of the tuff within the dry-out zone (i.e., bounded by boiling isotherm) is dependent on the temperature variation of rock conductivity as well as the extent of induced boiling

  4. Refined model for the coolability of core debris with flow entry from the bottom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulenberg, T.; Mueller, U.

    1986-01-01

    Within the context of a hypothetical severe accident in light water reactors also heat generating debris beds of a coarse particle size are discussed. A refined model for two-phase flow in particle beds is presented. Compared to previous models this model takes into account the effect of interfacial drag forces between liquid and vapor. These effects are important in coarse debris beds. The model is based on the momentum equations for separated flow, which are closed by empirical relations for the wall shear stress and the interfacial drag. When the refined model is applied to LWR severe accident scenarios an increased dryout heat flux is predicted for debris beds with flow entry from the bottom driven by a moderate downcomer head

  5. Assessment of Degree of Applicability of Benchmarks for Gadolinium Using KENO V.a and the 238-Group SCALE Cross-Section Library

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goluoglu, S.

    2003-12-01

    A review of the degree of applicability of benchmarks containing gadolinium using the computer code KENO V.a and the gadolinium cross sections from the 238-group SCALE cross-section library has been performed for a system that contains {sup 239}Pu, H{sub 2}O, and Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The system (practical problem) is a water-reflected spherical mixture that represents a dry-out condition on the bottom of a sludge receipt and adjustment tank around steam coils. Due to variability of the mixture volume and the H/{sup 239}Pu ratio, approximations to the practical problem, referred to as applications, have been made to envelop possible ranges of mixture volumes and H/{sup 239}Pu ratios. A newly developed methodology has been applied to determine the degree of applicability of benchmarks as well as the penalty that should be added to the safety margin due to insufficient benchmarks.

  6. Thermal-hydraulic tests of steam-generator tube-support-plate crevices. Volume 2. Appendixes I through S. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassell, D.S.; Vroom, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    A test program was conducted to determine for selected steam generator tube supports the thermal/hydraulic conditions at the inception of dryout as indicated by a tube wall temperature excursion, to determine the pressure drop across the supports, and to obtain photographic documentation of the flow upstream and downstream of the supports. A multi-tube steam generator model was used and testing performed over the range of typcal PWR steam generator operating conditions. These appendices contain information on instrumentation calibration, test model and loop calibration, error analysis, test model thermal-hydraulic analyses, index of lab materials and log sheets, index of two-phase flow still photographs, index of high speed movies and video, test data printouts, test model and loop fabrication drawings, procedure for silver brazing tubewall thermocouples, and procedure for esablishing tube-tube support line contact

  7. An update to the multitasking thermalhydraulics evaluation package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Leung, L.K.H.; Vasic, A. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    An update of the multitasking Thermalhydraulics Evaluation Package (TEP) was implemented to improve the prediction accuracy of critical heat flux (CHF) and post-dryout (PDO) heat transfer for 37-element fuel bundles. The improvement of prediction accuracy was achieved using the latest correlations for CHF and PDO heat transfer derived from fullscale bundle tests. The predictions of TEP were assessed against experimental data and good agreement has been observed. In addition to the improvement, the prediction capability of the package has been expanded to capture the effect of radial power profile on CHF for 37-element bundles. A correlation for the radial power profile effect on CHF has been implemented. It accounts for the deviation in CHF between the bundle of radial power profile of interest and the equivalent bundle of the natural uranium profile. (author)

  8. Project description: ORNL PWR blowdown heat transfer separate-effects program, Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-02-01

    The ORNL Pressurized-Water Reactor Blowdown Heat Transfer (PWR-BDHT) Program is an experimental separate-effects study of the relations among the principal variables that can alter the rate of blowdown, the presence of flow reversal and rereversal, time delay to critical heat flux, the rate at which dryout progresses, and similar time-related functions that are important to LOCA analysis. Primary test results will be obtained from the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF), a large nonnuclear pressurized-water loop that incorporates a 49-rod electrically heated bundle. Supporting experiments will be carried out in two additional test loops - the Forced Convection Test Facility (FCTF), a small high-pressure facility in which single heater rods can be tested in annular geometry; and an air-water loop which is used to evaluate two-phase flow-measuring instrumentation

  9. On a peculiarity of the second-type burnout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, Yu.D.

    1982-01-01

    The burnout of the second type caused by evaporation of the liquid film near the wall during disperse-ring flow is investigated. Various methods of determining the moment and place of burnout begin are analyzed. It is shown that the burnout of the second type arises over a certain steam generating channel length. It begins with heat transfer decrease connected with transient region arising (the region of wall local dryout by perimeter) and finishes with burnout itself involving the local burnout spread over the whole perimeter. The transient region has the greatest size in coil pipes and horizontal channels. It is concluded that the proposed approach to the burnout investigation permits to combine the hypotheses of film break (or its instability) and the hypothesis of drop diffusion. The first one should be related to the transient region formation begin, the second one to its formation end

  10. Development of the experimental evaluation method for crevice chemistry in steam generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, In Hyoung [Soonchunghyang Univ., Cheonan (Korea); Hwang, Il Soon; Lee, Na Young; Kim, Ji Hyun; Lim, Jung Yeon; Bahn, Chi Bum; Oh, Young Jin; Han, Byung Chan; Oh, Si Hyoung [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    Steam generator tube degradation problems is very sensitive to water chemistry. But even if the secondary water chemistry is well controlled, it is needed. Tubesheet crevice has three boiling regimes with depth: liquid penetration and discharge(or wet) region, liquid drop scattering(or dry and wet) region, and dryout region. This results showed a good agreement with earlier works. High temperature, high pressure tubesheet crevice simulation system was constructed. As {delta}T increased, the temperature gradient in crevice and time constant for concentration increased. When the experimental results were compared with MULTEQ calculation results, a similar behavior was shown, packed crevice have longer time constant for Na concentration and showed heavier concentration that open crevice. The verification experiment for Molar Ratio Control and advanced Molar Ration Control test were conducted. To check the applicability of boric acid as pH neutralizer another experiment was conducted. 40 refs., 102 figs., 3 tabs. (Author)

  11. Subchannel analysis of a critical power test, using simulated BWR 8x8 fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsutake, T.; Terasaka, H.; Yoshimura, K.; Oishi, M.; Inoue, A.; Akiyama, M.

    1990-01-01

    Critical power predictions have been compared with the critical power test data obtained in simulated BWR 8x8 fuel rod assemblies. Two analytical methods for the critical power prediction in rod assemblies are used in the prediction, which are the subchannel analysis using the COBRA/BWR subchannel computer code with empirical critical heat flux (CHF) correlations and the liquid film dryout estimation using the CRIPP-3F 'multi-fluid' computer code. Improvements in both the analytical methods were made for spacer effect modeling, though they were specific for application to the current BWR rod assembly type. In general a reasonable agreement was obtained, though comparisons, between the prediction and the obtained test data. (orig.)

  12. Critical heat flux of subcooled flow boiling in narrow rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kureta, Masatoshi; Akimoto, Hajime

    1999-01-01

    In relation to the high-heat-load devices such as a solid-target cooling channel of a high-intensity neutron source, burnout experiments were performed to obtain critical heat flux (CHF) data systematically for vertical upward flow in one-side heated rectangular channels. One of the objectives of this study was to study an extensibility of existing CHF correlations and models, which were proposed for a round tube, to rectangular channels for design calculation. Existing correlations and models were reviewed and compared with obtained data. Sudo's thin liquid layer dryout model, Griffel correlation and Bernath correlation were in good agreement with the experimental data for short-heated-length and low inlet water temperature conditions. (author)

  13. Critical heat flux and transition boiling characteristics for a sodium-heated steam generator tube for LMFBR applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, S.; Holmes, D.H.

    1977-04-01

    An experimental program was conducted to characterize critical heat flux (CHF) in a sodium-heated steam generator tube model at a proposed PLBR steam generator design pressure of 7.2 MPa. Water was circulated vertically upward in the tube and the heating sodium was flowing counter-current downward. The experimental ranges were: mass flux, 110 to 1490 kg/s.m/sup 2/ (0.08 to 1.10 10/sup 6/ lbm/h.ft/sup 2/); critical heat flux, 0.16 to 1.86 MW/m/sup 2/ (0.05 to 0.59 10/sup 6/ Btu/h.ft/sup 2/); and critical quality, 0.48 to 1.0. The CHF phenomenon for the experimental conditions is determined to be dryout as opposed to departure from nucleate boiling (DNB). The data are divided into high- and low-mass flux regions.

  14. F2 phenomenological test on fuel motion (Interim report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palm, R.G.; Fink, C.L.; Stewart, R.R.; Gehl, S.M.; Rothman, A.B.

    1976-09-01

    TREAT F-series tests are being conducted to provide data on fuel motion at accident power levels from one to about ten times design for use in development of fuel motion models. Test F2 was conducted to evaluate motion of high power fuel in a hypothetical LMFBR unprotected TUC (transient undercooling) accident. Fuel and fuel-boundary conditions following coolant boiling and dryout under TUC conditions are achieved in each F-series test with a single fuel element surrounded by a nuclear heated wall in a dry test capsule. Test F2 was conducted with a low burnup but restructured fuel element to investigate the effect of fuel vapor pressure on fuel motion. Results are presented and discussed

  15. Thermo hydraulics of a steam boiler forced circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucakovic, Dragan; Zivanovic, Titoslav; Stevanovic, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    In order to minimize the dryout at the steam boiler furnace in the Thermal Power Plant Kolubara B, designed are inner rifled wall tubes. This type of tubes, with many spiral grooves cut into the bore, prevents film boiling and enables the nucleate boiling be still maintained under the condition of vapour quality being app. 1. To verify the choice of the rifled tubes instead of the cheaper, smooth tubes type being justified, analyzed is the change of the actual and critical vapour quality with the furnace height, under uniform and non-uniform heat flu through evaporator walls. Furthermore, made are hydraulic calculations for various steam boiler loads, in case of both rifled and smooth tubes types, with the purpose to check the rifles influence to pressure drop increase in comparison with the smooth tubes. Also, checked is the selection of the circulation pump. Key words: evaporator, forced circulation, rifled tubes, critical vapour quality, pressure drop

  16. Numerical Analysis on Heat Flux Distribution through the Steel Liner of the Ex-vessel Core Catcher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Se Hong; Choi, Choeng Ryul [ELSOLTEC, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Jo; Lee, Kyu Bok [KEPCO, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Do Hyun [KHNP-CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In order to prevent material failure of steel container of the core catcher system due to high temperatures, heat flux through the steel liner wall must be kept below the critical heat flux (CHF), and vapor dry-out of the cooling channel must be avoided. In this study, CFD methodology has been developed to simulate the heat flux distribution in the core catcher system, involving following physical phenomena: natural convection in the corium pool, boiling heat transfer and solidification/melting of the corium. A CFD methodology has been developed to simulate the thermal/hydraulic phenomena in the core catcher system, and a numerical analysis has been carried out to estimate the heat flux through the steel liner of the core catcher. High heat flux values are formed at the free surface of the corium pool. However, the heat flux through the steel liner is maintained below the critical heat flux.

  17. Post-test analysis of semiscale tests S-UT-6 and S-UT-7 using TRAC PF1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    A posttest study of Semiscale Tests S-UT-6 and S-UT-7 has been completed to assess TRAC-PFl predictions of pressurized water-reactor (PWR) small-break transients. The comparisons of the TRAC calculations and experimental results show that the correct qualitative influence of upper-head injection (UHI) was predicted. The major phenomenological difference predicted was the mode of core voiding. The data show a slow boiloff from the top of the core resulting in a dryout near the top of the core only. TRAC predicted a more extensive voiding with fluid forced from the bottom of the core by a pressure increase in the upper vessel plenum. The pressure increase was the primary consequence of a failure to predict a complete clearance of the seal in the intact-loop pump-suction upflow leg. Further review of the interphasic drag correlations, entrainment correlations, and critical-flow model is recommended. 20 figures

  18. Analysis of Peach Bottom station blackout with MELCOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dingman, S.E.; Cole, R.K.; Haskin, F.E.; Summers, R.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    A demonstration analysis of station blackout at Peach Bottom has been performed using MELCOR and the results have been compared with those from MARCON 2.1B and the Source Term Code Package (STCP). MELCOR predicts greater in-vessel hydrogen production, earlier melting and core collapse, but later debris discharge than MARCON 2.1B. The drywell fails at vessel breach in MELCOR, but failure is delayed about an hour in MARCON 2.1B. These differences are mainly due to the MELCOR models for candling during melting, in-core axial conduction, and continued oxidation and heat transfer from core debris following lower head dryout. Three sensitivity calculations have been performed with MELCOR to address uncertainties regarding modeling of the core-concrete interactions. The timing of events and the gas and radionuclide release rates are somewhat different in the base case and the three sensitivity cases, but the final conditions and total releases are similar

  19. Heat transfer characteristics of the two-phase closed thermosyphon (wickless heat pipe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andros, F.E.; Florschuetz, L.W.

    1982-01-01

    Steady-state heat transfer characteristics and heat transfer limits (dry-out) for a vertical stainless steel tubular two-phase closed thermosyphon with Freon-113 working fluid are reported as a function of certain geometric parameters and liquid fill quantity. Condenser section heat transfer characteristics agreed reasonably well with existing laminar film condensation correlations and were found to be independent of the evaporator section, except for larger liquid fills. Evaporator characteristics were quite complex and appeared, under some conditions, to be coupled to condenser characteristics through effects of system pressure and/or surface wave as present on the descending condensate film. A laminar thin film evaporation model was found to give reasonable agreement with local evaporator temperature measurements in those regions of the evaporator where a continuous film apparently persisted. The measured heat transfer characteristics are interpreted relative to an earlier investigation by the authors in which flow characteristics in a similar device were visually and photographically observed. 10 references

  20. Mathematical modeling and analysis of heat pipe start-up from the frozen state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, J.H.; Faghri, A.; Chang, W.S.; Mahefkey, E.T.

    1989-08-01

    The start-up process of a frozen heat pipe is described and a complete mathematical model for the start-up of the frozen heat pipe is developed based on the existing experimental data, which is simplified and solved numerically. The two-dimensional transient model for the wall and wick is coupled with the one-dimensional transient model for the vapor flow when vaporization and condensation occur at the interface. A parametric study is performed to examine the effect of the boundary specification at the surface of the outer wall on the successful start-up from the frozen state. For successful start-up, the boundary specification at the outer wall surface must melt the working substance in the condenser before dry-out takes place in the evaporator

  1. K Basin safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porten, D.R.; Crowe, R.D.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this accident safety analysis is to document in detail, analyses whose results were reported in summary form in the K Basins Safety Analysis Report WHC-SD-SNF-SAR-001. The safety analysis addressed the potential for release of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous material located in the K Basins and their supporting facilities. The safety analysis covers the hazards associated with normal K Basin fuel storage and handling operations, fuel encapsulation, sludge encapsulation, and canister clean-up and disposal. After a review of the Criticality Safety Evaluation of the K Basin activities, the following postulated events were evaluated: Crane failure and casks dropped into loadout pit; Design basis earthquake; Hypothetical loss of basin water accident analysis; Combustion of uranium fuel following dryout; Crane failure and cask dropped onto floor of transfer area; Spent ion exchange shipment for burial; Hydrogen deflagration in ion exchange modules and filters; Release of Chlorine; Power availability and reliability; and Ashfall

  2. Post-test analysis with RELAP5/MOD2 of ROSA-IV/LSTF natural circulation test ST-NC-02

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauliac, C.; Kukita, Yutaka; Kawaji, Masahiro; Nakamura, Hideo; Tasaka, Kanji.

    1988-10-01

    Results of post-test analysis for the ROSA-IV/LSTF natural circulation experiment ST-NC-02 are presented. The experiment consisted of many steady-state stages registered for different primary inventories. The calculation was done with RELAP5/MOD2 CYCLE 36.00. Discrepancies between the calculation and the experiment are observed: the core flow rate is overestimated at inventories between 80 % and 95 %; the inventory at which dryout occurs in the core is also much overestimated. The causes of these discrepancies are studies through sensitivity calculations and the following key parameters are pointed out: the interfacial friction and the form loss coefficients in the vessel riser, the SG U-tube multidimensional behaviour, the interfacial friction in the SG inlet plenum and in the pipe located underneath. (author)

  3. PWR-blowdown heat transfer separate effects program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.G.

    1976-01-01

    The ORNL Pressurized-Water Reactor Blowdown Heat Transfer (PWR-BDHT) Program is an experimental separate-effects study of the relations among the principal variables that can alter the rate of blowdown, the presence of flow reversal and rereversal, time delay to critical heat flux, the rate at which dryout progresses, and similar time-related functions that are important to LOCA analysis. Primary test results are obtained from the Thermal-Hydraulic Test Facility (THTF). Supporting experiments are carried out in several additional test loops - the Forced Convection Test Facility (FCTF), an air-water loop, a transient steam-water loop, and a low-temperature water mockup of the THTF heater rod bundle. The studies to date are described

  4. Development of clean chemical mechanical polishing systems; Clean CMP system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, M.; Hosokawa, M. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Described herein are clean chemical mechanical polishing (CMP) systems developed by Ebara. A CMP system needs advanced peripheral techniques, in addition to those for grinding adopted by the conventional system, in order to fully exhibit its inherent functions. An integrated design concept is essential for the CMP steps, including slurry supplying, polishing, washing, process controlling and waste fluid treatment. The Ebara has adopted a standard concept `Clean CMP, dry-in and dry-out of wafers,` and provided world`s highest grades of techniques for inter-layer insulating film, shallow trench isolation, plug and wiring. The head for the polishing module is specially designed by FEM, to improve homogeneity of wafers from the center to edges. The dresser is also specially designed, to improve pad surface topolody after dressing. A slurry dipsersing method is developed to reduce slurry consumption. Various washing modules, designed to have the same external shape, can be allocated to various functions. 10 figs.

  5. LMFBR fuel analysis. Task B. Post-accident heat removal. Final report, July 1, 1975--September 30, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castle, J.; Catton, I.; Somerton, C.; Wu, R.

    1976-11-01

    The report deals with the behavior of molten core debris following a hypothetical core disruptive accident in the proposed Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant. Heat dissipating characteristics of an ex-vessel sacrificial bed have been analyzed. A novel form of heat transfer, analogous to film boiling, has been proposed to describe heat transfer from a heat generating pool to surrounding steel walls. Bounding type heat transfer calculations are also made to quantify such hypothetical accident characteristics as debris bed remelting, debris bed dryout in sodium, and failure of the reactor cavity steel liner. Several documents that have been submitted to the NRC for its review of the CRBRP are discussed with attention being drawn to heat transfer related issues

  6. A simplified radionuclide source term for total-system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.

    1991-11-01

    A parametric model for releases of radionuclides from spent-nuclear-fuel containers in a waste repository is presented. The model is appropriate for use in preliminary total-system performance assessments of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; for this reason it is simpler than the models used for detailed studies of waste-package performance. Terms are included for releases from the spent fuel pellets, from the pellet/cladding gap and the grain boundaries within the fuel pellets, from the cladding of the fuel rods, and from the radioactive fuel-assembly parts. Multiple barriers are considered, including the waste container, the fuel-rod cladding, the thermal ''dry-out'', and the waste form itself. The basic formulas for release from a single fuel rod or container are extended to formulas for expected releases for the whole repository by using analytic expressions for probability distributions of some important parameters. 39 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  7. Influence of a flow obstacle on the occurrence of burnout in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, S.; Fukano, T. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    When a flow obstruction such as a cylindrical spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow with-in an annular channel, the inner tube of which is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heating tube is severely affected by its existence. In some cases the cylindrical spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other cases it causes the dryout of the cooling water film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the heating tube. In the present paper we have focused our attention on the influence of a flow obstacle on the occurrence of burnout of the heating tube in boiling two-phase flow.

  8. Relation between burnout and differential pressure fluctuation characteristics by the disturbance waves near the flow obstacle in a vertical annular channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Shoji; Fukano, Tohru [Kyushu Univ., Graduate School of Engineering, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    If a flow obstruction such as a spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow within an annular channel, the inner tube of which is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heater tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. In some cases the spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other case it causes the dryout of the cooling liquid film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the tube. But the thermo-fluid dynamic mechanism to cause burnout near the spacer is not still clear. In the present paper we discuss temperature fluctuation characteristics in relation to the change of the differential pressure across the spacer caused by the passing of the disturbance waves in case that the burnout generates. (author)

  9. Influence of vapor-mass flux on simultaneous heat and moisture transfer in unsaturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, J.G.; Boo, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    This paper evaluates the validity of neglecting vapor transport by moisture content gradients (VMG) and liquid transport by temperature gradients (LTG) in coupled heat and moisture transfer in moist porous media. A review of previous work reveals discrepancies between model predictions and experimental data. The results presented here show that these discrepancies result from neglecting VMG. The governing equations which describe the coupled heat and moisture transfer are solved numerically for an infinite slab of an unsaturated porous medium, and existing experimental and empirical data for a moist sandy silt soil are used. Predicted moisture content distributions during dry-out and drying rates are found to be significantly affected by VMG. Accurate results can be obtained when VMG is neglected in the energy equation provided that it is retained in the mass conservation equation

  10. Assessing environmental performance of humidification technology used in supply of fresh fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabbri, Serena; Owsianiak, Mikolaj

    -harvest losses of fruit and vegetables. Humidifiers release a fine mist thereby reducing the difference in water vapour pressure at the surface of the fruit or vegetable and in the air, preventing dry-out of fruits and deterioration. In addition, humidification provides cooling as a result of the evaporation...... scenarios considered strawberries, flat peaches, asparagus, and table grapes. The results show that the technology has the potential to reduce life cycle environmental impacts, provided that it allows reducing food loss in the post-harvest. When compared to the conventional supply chain of lettuce without...... humidification, the impact scores are reduced on average by 2.6, 6.0 and 7.4% when the total losses of the supply chain are decreased by 2, 5 and 6%, respectively (corresponding to low, medium and high efficiency of the technology). This is true for all impact categories, except resource depletion which...

  11. Evaluation of LOCA in a swimming-pool type reactor using the 3D-AIRLOCA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagler, A.; Gilat, J.; Hirshfeld, H.

    1991-01-01

    The 3D-AIRLOCA code was used to calculate core temperature evolution curves in the wake of a full LOCA in a swimming pool type reactor, resulting in complete core exposure and dryout within about 1000 sec of the initiating event. The results show that fuel integrity loss thresholds (450 C for softening and 650 C for melting) are reached and exceeded over large fractions of the core at powr levels as low as 2 MW. At 4.5 MW, the softening threshold is reached even when the accident occurs up to 12 hours after reactor shutdown for continuous operation, and up to 2 hrs after shutdown for intermittent (6 hrs/day, 4 days a week) operation. The situation is even more severe in blockage cases, when the air flow through the core is blocked by residual water at the grid plate level. It is concluded that substantial fission product releases are quite likely in this class of accidents. (orig.)

  12. On the occurrence of burnout downstream of a flow obstacle in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shoji; Tominaga, Akira; Fukano, Tohru

    2004-01-01

    If a flow obstruction such as a spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow within an annular channel, the inner tube of which is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heater tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. In some case the spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other case it causes the dryout of the cooling liquid film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the tube. But the burnout mechanism near the spacer is not still clear. In the present paper we discus the influence of the flow obstacle on the occurrence of burnout downstream of the flow obstacle in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel. (author)

  13. On the occurrence of burnout downstream of the flow obstacle in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shoji; Fukano, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    If a flow obstruction such as a spacer is set in a boiling two-phase flow within an annular channel, the inner tube of which is used as a heater, the temperature on the surface of the heater tube is severely affected by the existence of the spacer. In some cases the spacer has a cooling effect, and in the other case it causes the dryout of the cooling liquid film on the heating surface resulting in the burnout of the tube. But the thermo-fluid dynamic mechanism to cause burnout near the spacer is not still clear. In the present paper we discuss the influence of the flow obstacle on the occurrence of burnout downstream of the flow obstacle in boiling two-phase upward flow within a vertical annular channel. (author)

  14. DNB Mechanistic model assessment based on experimental data in narrow rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Lei; Yan Xiao; Huang Yanping; Xiao Zejun; Huang Shanfang

    2011-01-01

    The departure from nuclear boiling (DNB) is important concerning about the safety of a PWR. Lacking assessment by experimental data points, it's doubtful whether the existing models can be used in narrow rectangular channels or not. Based on experimental data points in narrow rectangular channels, two kinds of classical DNB models, which include liquid sublayer dryout model (LSDM) and bubble crowding model (BCM), were assessed. The results show that the BCM has much wider application range than the LSDM. Several thermal parameters show systematical influences on the calculated results by the models. The performances of all the models deteriorate as the void fraction increases. The reason may be attributed to the geometrical differences between a circular tube and narrow rectangular channel. (authors)

  15. Mechanistic modeling of pool film-boiling and quench on a Candu calandria tube following a critical break LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, J.T.; Luxat, J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Following a postulated critical LBLOCA a pressure tube (PT) can experience creep deformation and balloon uniformly into contact with the calandria tube (CT). The resultant heat flux to CT is high as stored heat is transferred out of the hot PT. This heat flux can cause dryout on the outer surface of the CT and establish film boiling. This paper presents a model of buoyancy-driven natural convection film boiling on the outside of a horizontal tube with diameter relevant to a Candu CT (approximately 13 cm). A second order, non-linear and non-homogeneous ODE for vapour film thickness has been derived. The variation of steady state vapour film thickness prior to quench as a function of subcooling temperature, wall superheat, and incident heat flux is examined. The CT outer surface heatup rate and effective film boiling heat transfer coefficient from the model are in good agreement with available experimental data. (authors)

  16. Cement conditioning of waste materials and polluted soil using the GEODUR process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brocdersen, K.; Hjelmar, O.; Mortonsen, S.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper two areas of application of the GEODUR additive in cement stabilization of waste materials have been investigated: stabilization of radioactive contaminated soil and stabilization of municipal solid waste incinerator ash. Preliminary experimental work on a clayey soil contaminated with radioactive cesium and strontium has indicated that the GEODUR process is a technically feasible method for soil solidification. The retarding effects of humic materials in the soil are eliminated by the additive even at low cement contents. The solidified soil is not particularly strong, but that satisfactory water permeability. Retention of cesium is reasonably good, but not as good as for the untreated soil. Retention of strontium is not good but is considerably improved by carbonation. The volume stability during permanent immersion of the solidified products in water is satisfactory, but crack formation during dryout cannot be excluded

  17. Forced convective post CHF heat transfer and quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    This paper discusses mechanisms in the post-CHF region which provide understanding and qualitative prediction capability for several current forced convective heat transfer problems. In the area of nuclear reactor safety, the mechanisms are important in the prediction of fuel rod quenches for the reflood phase, blowdown phase, and possibly some operational transients with dryout. Results using the mechanisms to investigate forced convective quenching are presented. Data reduction of quenching experiments is discussed, and the way in which the quenching transient may affect the results of different types of quenching experiments is investigated. This investigation provides an explanation of how minimum wall superheats greater than the homogeneous nucleation temperature result, as well as how these may appear to be either hydrodynamically or thermodynamically controlled. Finally, the results of a parametric study of the effects of the mechanisms upon the LOFT L2-3 hotpin calculation are presented

  18. A study of entrainment at a break and in the core during small break loss-of-coolant accidents in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonomoto, Taisuke

    1996-05-01

    Objectives of the present study are to obtain a better understanding of entrainment at a break and in the core during small break loss-of-coolant-accidents (SBLOCAs) in PWRs, and to develop a means for the best evaluation of the phenomena. For the study of entrainment at a break, a theoretical model was developed, which was assessed by comparisons with several experimental data bases. By modifying a LOCA analysis code using the present model, experimental results obtained from SBLOCA experiments at a PWR large-scale simulator were reproduced very well. For the study of entrainment in the core, reflooding experiments were conducted at high pressure, from which the onset conditions were obtained. It was confirmed that the cooling behavior for a dry-out core is very simple under typical high pressure reflooding conditions for PWRs, because liquid entrainment does not occur in the core. (author)

  19. Current status of the post boiling transition research in Japan. Integrity evaluation of nuclear fuel assemblies after boiling transition and development of rewetting correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Takashi; Mizokami, Shinya; Kudo, Yoshiro; Komura, Seiichi; Nagata, Yoshifumi; Morooka, Shinichi

    2003-01-01

    Development of rewetting correlation formula was the key to predict fuel-cladding temperature after Boiling Transition (BT). Japanese BWR utilities and vendors performed some tests of rewetting and made two rewetting correlation formulas. The effect on fuel integrity after BT depends on temperature of fuel rod and time of dryout. Main cause of losing fuel integrity during BWR's Anticipated Operational Occurrences (AOO) after BT is embrittlement of the claddings due to oxidation. Ballooning of fuel rod is excepted because its pressure boundary isn't broken. In Japan, the Standards Committee of Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) is making post BT standard. This standard provides guidelines based on the latest knowledge to judge fuel integrity in case of BT and the validity of reusing the fuel assembly that experienced BT in BWRs. (author)

  20. Recirculation pump suction line 2.8% break integral test at ROSA-III with HPCS failure, RUN 984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Anoda, Yoshinari; Tasaka, Kanji; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Murata, Hideo; Shiba, Masayoshi

    1984-06-01

    This report presents the experimental data of 2.8% suction line break test RUN 984 at ROSA-III, which was conducted as one of counterpart tests to FIST program sponsored by GE, EPRI and USNRC. The similarity study between the ROSA-III and FIST tests is on the way. The report also presents the information on the ROSA-III test facility, experiment results and the effects of the ADS flow rate and the MSIV trip level comparing with the previously conducted ROSA-III small break tests, RUNs 920 and 922. Major conclusions obtained are as follows. (1) Change of the MSIV trip level from L2 to L1 gives delay of MSIV closure and longer actuation of pressure control system in a small break LOCA. (2) Larger ADS flow gives faster depressurization rate and earlier ECCS actuation, which results in shorter fuel rod dryout period and lower PCT. (author)

  1. Frictional pressure drop of high pressure steam-water two-phase flow in internally helical ribbed tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tingkuan, C.; Xuanzheng, C.

    1987-01-01

    It is well known that the internally helical ribbed tubes are effective in suppressing the dry-out in boiling tubes at high pressures, so they are widely used as furnace water wall tubes in modern large steam power boilers. Design of the boilers requires the data on frictional pressure drop characteristics of the ribbed tubes, but they are not sufficient now. This paper describes the experimental results on the adiabatic frictional pressure drop in both horizontal ribbed tubes with measured mean inside diameter of 11.69 mm and 35.42 mm at high pressure from 10 to 21 MPa, mass flow rate from 350 to 3800 kg/m/sup 2/s and steam quality from 0 to 1 in our high pressure electrically heated water loop. Simultaneously, both smooth tubes under the same conditions for comparison. Based on the tests the correlation for determining the frictional pressure drop of internally ribbed tubes are proposed

  2. Theoretical study on a multivariate feedback control of a sodium-heated steam generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, R.; Maruyama, Y.; Oikawa, T.

    1984-01-01

    This paper applies the connection of a multivariate feedback controller with a state estimator to a 1-MW sodium-heated steam generator for LMFBR theoretically, to obtain a control strategy which emphasizes, from the view point of safety and availability of the FBR plant, that a superheat of 30 0 C should be required for the evaporator steam. This involves a trial to study the feasibility for the estimation of such an inaccessible variable as the dry-out location of tubes and utilize the state estimate to design a feedback controller of steam generators. The Kalman filter tested was found to generate reasonable estimates of the transient process variables of the steam generator and can provide a major advantage of regulating steam condition of the system even in the presence of contamination by a rather high level of measurement noise in the view point of economic uses of micro- and/or minicomputers. (orig.)

  3. Flow regimes and heat transfer in vertical narrow annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulke, A.; Goldberg, I.

    1993-01-01

    In shell side boiling heat exchangers narrow crevices that are formed between the tubes and the tube support structure provide areas for local thermal-hydraulic conditions which differ significantly from bulk fluid conditions. Understanding of the processes of boiling and dryout in flow restricted crevices can help in designing of tube support geometries to minimize the likelihood of tube support plate and tube corrosion observed in commercial power plant steam generators. This paper describes a one dimensional thermal-hydraulic model of a vertical crevice between a tube and a support plate with cylindrical holes. The annulus formed by the support plate hole and an eccentrically located tube has been represented by vertical strips. The formation, growth and collapse of a steam bubble in each strip has been determined. Based on the bubble history, and flow regimes characterized by ''isolated'' bubbles, ''coalesced'' bubbles and liquid deficient regions have been defined

  4. Investigation of break location effects on thermal-hydraulics during intermediate break loss-of-coolant accident experiments at ROSA-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yasuo; Tasaka, Kanji

    1986-01-01

    The rig of safety assessment (ROSA)-III facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) boiling water reactor (BWR/6) system with an electrically heated core designed for integral loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and emergency core cooling system (ECCS) tests. Break location effects on thermal-hydraulics during intermediate LOCAs were investigated by using four experiments at the ROSA-III, the 15 and 25 % main recirculation pump suction line break (MRPS-B) experiments, the 21 % single-ended jet pump drive line break (JPD-B) experiment and the 15 % main steam line break (MSL-B) experiment. Water injection from the high pressure core spray (HPCS) was not used in any of the experiments. Failure of ECCS actuation by the high containment pressure was also assumed in the tests. In the MRPS-B experiments, the discharge flow turned from low quality fluid to high quality fluid when the downcomer water level dropped to the main recirculation line outlet elevation, which suppressed coolant loss from the vessel and the core. In the JPD-B experiment, the jet pump drive nozzle was covered with low quality fluid and low quality fluid discharge continued even after the downcomer water level reached the jet pump suction elevation. Low quality fluid discharge ceased after the ADS actuation. It suggestes that the JPD-B LOCA has the possibility of causing larger and more severe core dryout and cladding temperature excursion than the MRPS-B LOCA. The MSL-B LOCA was characterized by mixture level swell in the downcomer and the core. The core mixture level swell resulted in the much later core dryout initiation than that in the MRPS-B LOCA, however, ECCS actuation was also delayed because of slow downcomer water level drop. (author)

  5. An assessment of heat transfer models of water flow in helically coiled tubes based on selected experimental datasets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gou, Junli; Ma, Haifu; Yang, Zijiang; Shan, Jianqiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •A review of heat transfer characteristics for water flow in helically coiled tubes are conducted. •An assessment of heat transfer models under different heat transfer modes in helically coiled tubes are performed. •This work could provide references for the use of the correlations and for further studies. -- Abstract: This paper presents an assessment of the heat transfer models under different heat transfer modes for water flow in helically coiled tubes based on the compiled datasets from the reviewed literatures. For single phase flow, most of the correlations of the heat transfer coefficient can fit well to the experiments. The correlations of Xin-Ebadian, Dravid and Kalb-Seader for laminar flow and those of Seban-McLaughlim, Mori-Nakayama, Xin-Ebadian, Hardik, Rogers-Mayhew, Mikaila-Poskas and El-Genk-Schriener for turbulent flow are recommended. For flow boiling heat transfer, Steiner-Taborek correlation could be utilized to predict the boiling heat transfer coefficients in helically coiled tubes for a relatively wide range of parameters. For dryout quality, the correlations of Hwang et al. and Santini et al. give relatively better predictions than others. However, more accurate correlations for flow boiling heat transfer coefficient and dryout quality need to be developed based on further investigations with wider parameter ranges in the future. The present work could provide references for the investigators for future uses of those correlations and for performing further investigations on the heat transfer characteristics of water flow in helically coiled tubes.

  6. Prediction of the critical heat flux for saturated upward flow boiling water in vertical narrow rectangular channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Gil Sik; Chang, Soon Heung; Jeong, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    A study, on the theoretical method to predict the critical heat flux (CHF) of saturated upward flow boiling water in vertical narrow rectangular channels, has been conducted. For the assessment of this CHF prediction method, 608 experimental data were selected from the previous researches, in which the heated sections were uniformly heated from both wide surfaces under the high pressure condition over 41 bar. For this purpose, representative previous liquid film dryout (LFD) models for circular channels were reviewed by using 6058 points from the KAIST CHF data bank. This shows that it is reasonable to define the initial condition of quality and entrainment fraction at onset of annular flow (OAF) as the transition to annular flow regime and the equilibrium value, respectively, and the prediction error of the LFD model is dependent on the accuracy of the constitutive equations of droplet deposition and entrainment. In the modified Levy model, the CHF data are predicted with standard deviation (SD) of 14.0% and root mean square error (RMSE) of 14.1%. Meanwhile, in the present LFD model, which is based on the constitutive equations developed by Okawa et al., the entire data are calculated with SD of 17.1% and RMSE of 17.3%. Because of its qualitative prediction trend and universal calculation convergence, the present model was finally selected as the best LFD model to predict the CHF for narrow rectangular channels. For the assessment of the present LFD model for narrow rectangular channels, effective 284 data were selected. By using the present LFD model, these data are predicted with RMSE of 22.9% with the dryout criterion of zero-liquid film flow, but RMSE of 18.7% with rivulet formation model. This shows that the prediction error of the present LFD model for narrow rectangular channels is similar with that for circular channels.

  7. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Narumanchi, Sreekant V [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, Gregory [DuPont; Wong, Arnold [DuPont; Meth, Jeffery [DuPont

    2018-02-12

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees C to 125 degrees C. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  8. Investigation of the physical and numerical foundations of two-fluid representation of sodium boiling with applications to LMFBR experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No, H.C.; Kazimi, M.S.

    1983-03-01

    This work involves the development of physical models for the constitutive relations of a two-fluid, three-dimensional sodium boiling code, THERMIT-6S. The code is equipped with a fluid conduction model, a fuel pin model, and a subassembly wall model suitable for stimulating LMFBR transient events. Mathematically rigorous derivations of time-volume averaged conservation equations are used to establish the differential equations of THERMIT-6S. These equations are then discretized in a manner identical to the original THERMIT code. A virtual mass term is incorporated in THERMIT-6S to solve the ill-posed problem. Based on a simplified flow regime, namely cocurrent annular flow, constitutive relations for two-phase flow of sodium are derived. The wall heat transfer coefficient is based on momentum-heat transfer analogy and a logarithmic law for liquid film velocity distribution. A broad literature review is given for two-phase friction factors. It is concluded that entrainment can account for some of the discrepancies in the literature. Mass and energy exchanges are modelled by generalization of the turbulent flux concept. Interfacial drag coefficients are derived for annular flows with entrainment. Code assessment is performed by simulating three experiments for low flow-high power accidents and one experiment for low flow/low power accidents in the LMFBR. While the numerical results for pre-dryout are in good agreement with the data, those for post-dryout reveal the need for improvement of the physical models. The benefits of two-dimensional non-equilibrium representation of sodium boiling are studied

  9. Degradation Characterization of Thermal Interface Greases: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVoto, Douglas J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Major, Joshua [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Paret, Paul P [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Blackman, G. S. [DuPont Experimental Station; Wong, A. [DuPont Experimental Station; Meth, J. S. [DuPont Experimental Station

    2017-08-03

    Thermal interface materials (TIMs) are used in power electronics packaging to minimize thermal resistance between the heat generating component and the heat sink. Thermal greases are one such class. The conformability and thin bond line thickness (BLT) of these TIMs can potentially provide low thermal resistance throughout the operation lifetime of a component. However, their performance degrades over time due to pump-out and dry-out during thermal and power cycling. The reliability performance of greases through operational cycling needs to be quantified to develop new materials with superior properties. NREL, in collaboration with DuPont, has performed thermal and reliability characterization of several commercially available thermal greases. Initial bulk and contact thermal resistance of grease samples were measured, and then the thermal degradation that occurred due to pump-out and dry-out during temperature cycling was monitored. The thermal resistances of five different grease materials were evaluated using NREL's steady-state thermal resistance tester based on the ASTM test method D5470. Greases were then applied, utilizing a 2.5 cm x 2.5 cm stencil, between invar and aluminum plates to compare the thermomechanical performance of the materials in a representative test fixture. Scanning Acoustic microscopy, thermal, and compositional analyses were performed periodically during thermal cycling from -40 degrees Celcius to 125 degrees Celcius. Completion of this characterization has allowed for a comprehensive evaluation of thermal greases both for their initial bulk and contact thermal performance, as well as their degradation mechanisms under accelerated thermal cycling conditions.

  10. An example of R and D on safety assessment: study of a prolonged loss of cooling of halw (beyond design accident)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercier, J.P.; Bonneval, F.; Martineau, D.; Gue, J.P.; Philippe, M.

    1991-01-01

    The consequences of a loss of cooling of storage tanks of fission products concentrated solutions were studied, for a variable period, in the context, of the safety analysis of the COGEMA spent fuel reprocessing plants of La Hague. As a result of fission products-induced heat emission, a prolonger loss of cooling could involve the progressive evaporation of solutions up to dryout and lead to the formation of radioactive aerosols and then of volatile species of ruthenium likely to be released in off gas circuits of the tanks. With the aim of determining the radioactivity fraction likely to be transferred throughout the loss of cooling out of the storage tanks, an extensive R and D programme was performed, including the main following stages: - experimental determination of the factor of radioactivity transfer through aerosols out of the tanks; - modelling, by means of a calculation code, of the aerosols transfer into the off gas circuits; - experimental study of the ruthenium behaviour with tests carried out in laboratory, by evaporation of samples representative of nitric solutions of fission products. The main conclusions can be summarized as follows (by assuming a heat power density of 10 watts per litre of solution and a storage system completely adiabatic): - the evaporation of solutions starts more than 5 hours after the total loss of cooling, the 10 -4 value being an over-estimated value of the factor of radioactivity transfer by aerosols out of the tanks; - transfer factor through the off gas circuits varies, according to the physical characteristics of aerosols, from 0 to 8.10 -2 ; - ruthenium volatilized only during the final stage of evaporation, shortly before dryout; the minimum time to reach dryness is about 90 hours

  11. Numerical models for the analysis of thermal behavior and coolability of a particulate debris bed in reactor lower head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Kwang Il; Kim, Sang Baik; Kim, Byung Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    This report provides three distinctive, but closely related numerical models developed for the analysis of thermal behavior and coolability of a particulate debris bed that is may be formed inside the reactor lower head during severe accident late phases. The first numerical module presented in the report, MELTPRO-DRY, is used to analyze numerically heat-up and melting process of the dry particle bed, downward- and sideward-relocation of the liquid melt under gravity force and capillary force acting among porous particles, and solidification of the liquid melt relocated into colder region. The second module, MELTPROG-WET, is used to simulate numerically the cooling process of the particulate debris bed under the existence of water, which is subjected to two types of numerical models. The first type of WET module utilizes distinctive models that parametrically simulate the water cooling process, that is, quenching region, dryout region, and transition region. The choice of each parametric model depends on temperature gradient between the cooling water and the debris particles. The second type of WET module utilizes two-phase flow model that mechanically simulates the cooling process of the debris bed. For a consistent simulation from the water cooling to the dryout debris bed, on the other hand, the aforementioned two modules, MELTPROG-DRY and MELTPROG-WET, were integrated into a single computer program DBCOOL. Each of computational models was verified through limited applications to a heat-generating particulate bed contained in the rectangular cavity. 22 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  12. Comparison of Severe Accident Results Among SCDAP/RELAP5, MAAP, and MELCOR Codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, T.-C.; Wang, S.-J.; Teng, J.-T.

    2005-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) sequence of the Kuosheng nuclear power plant (NPP) and station blackout sequence of the Maanshan NPP with the SCDAP/RELAP5 (SR5), Modular Accident Analysis Program (MAAP), and MELCOR codes. The large-break sequence initiated with double-ended rupture of a recirculation loop. The main steam isolation valves (MSIVs) closed, the feedwater pump tripped, the reactor scrammed, and the assumed high-pressure and low-pressure spray systems of the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) were not functional. Therefore, all coolant systems to quench the core were lost. MAAP predicts a longer vessel failure time, and MELCOR predicts a shorter vessel failure time for the large-break LOCA sequence. The station blackout sequence initiated with a loss of all alternating-current (ac) power. The MSIVs closed, the feedwater pump tripped, and the reactor scrammed. The motor-driven auxiliary feedwater system and the high-pressure and low-pressure injection systems of the ECCS were lost because of the loss of all ac power. It was also assumed that the turbine-driven auxiliary feedwater pump was not functional. Therefore, the coolant system to quench the core was also lost. MAAP predicts a longer time of steam generator dryout, time interval between top of active fuel and bottom of active fuel, and vessel failure time than those of the SR5 and MELCOR predictions for the station blackout sequence. The three codes give similar results for important phenomena during the accidents, including SG dryout, core uncovery, cladding oxidation, cladding failure, molten pool formulation, debris relocation to the lower plenum, and vessel head failure. This paper successfully demonstrates the large-break LOCA sequence of the Kuosheng NPP and the station blackout sequence of the Maanshan NPP

  13. Second progress report on pre-test calculations for the large block test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is investigating the suitability of the Topopah Spring tuff in the thick vadose zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a host rock for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. As part of the YMP, a group of field tests, called the Large Block Test (LBT), will be conducted on a large electrically heated block of Topopah Spring tuff. The block will be heated by electrical heaters. The goals of the LBT are to gain information on the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes that will be active in the near-field environment of a repository; to provide field data for testing and calibrating models; and to help in the development of measurement systems and techniques. In this second progress report, we present results of the final set of numerical modeling calculations performed in support of the LBT design. The results include block temperatures and heat fluxes across the surfaces. The results are applied primarily to the design of guard heaters to enforce adiabatic conditions along the block walls. Conduction-only runs are adequate to estimate the thermal behavior of the system, because earlier calculations showed that heat transfer in the block is expected to be dominated by conduction. In addition, conduction-only runs can be made at substantially shorter execution times than full hydrothermal runs. We also run a two-dimensional, hydrothermal, discrete fracture model, with 200-μm vertical fractures parallel to the heaters and occurring at a uniform spacing of 30 cm. The results show the development of distinct dryout and recondensation zones. The dryout zones are thickest at the fractures and thinnest in the matrix midway between the fractures

  14. Experimental investigation of multidimensional cooling effects on the coolability of a debris bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashidi, M.; Kulenovici, R.; Laurieni, E.

    2011-01-01

    During a severe accident in a light water reactor, the core can melt and be relocated to the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel. There it can form a particulate debris bed due to the possible presence of water. Within the reactor safety research, the removal of decay heat from a debris bed (formed from corium and residual water) is of great importance. In order to investigate experimentally the long-term coolability of debris beds, the down-scaled non nuclear test facility DEBRIS has been established at IKE. The major objectives of the experimental investigations at this test facility are the determination of local pressure drops for steady state boiling to check friction laws, the determination of dryout heat fluxes under various conditions for validation of numerical models, and the analysis of quenching processes of dry hot debris beds. A large number of 1D-experiments were carried out to investigate the coolability limits for different bed configurations at various thermohydraulic conditions, and to validate numerical models which can be used in reactor safety studies. Analyses based on one-dimensional configurations underestimate the coolability in realistic multidimensional configurations, where lateral water access and water inflow via bottom regions are favored. This paper presents 2D experimental results, based on various kinds of water inflow conditions into the bed, boiling and dryout tests with different bed configurations and different system pressures. Preliminary results show that the system pressure has no significant effect on the fundamental shape of the pressure gradient inside the bed, whereas with increasing system pressure the coolability limits are increased

  15. Experimental study on in-vessel debris coolability; experiments on heat transfer in downward-facing hemicircular gap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Kune Yull; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kim, Seong Joong; Lee, Seung Dong [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    Experiments were performed to measure the CHF and the critical power and to investigate the heat transfer mechanism in the narrow gap with 2D slice test sections. Test parameters in this study included the gap size of 1, 2, 5, and 10mm and the system pressure from 0.1 to 1.0 MPa. The CHF was measured for the distilled water. Results of this study may be summarized as follows. 1) In the narrow gap size of 1 and 2mm, the CHF occurs at the bottom and propagates upwards as the inclination angle relative to gravitational force increases. 2) Dryout is the limiting heat transfer mechanism in the 2D sliced experiments, and the CHF reaches 80-90% of the 3D CHFG value. 3) In the narrow gap size of 1 and 2mm the CHF values lie on the order of 104 kW/m2, while in the gap sizes of 5 and 10mm the CHF values have an order of 105 kW/m2. 4) The flow visualization study revealed that the shape of bubble is elliptic and the hydrodynamic bubble diameter exceeds the size of 20mm. 5) In analyzing the CHF with the inclination angle of the heated surface in the narrow gap size of 1 and 2mm, there exists a transition angle in the vicinity of 20-30 .deg.. From the region of the inclination angle of 0 .deg. C to 20 .deg. C or 30 .deg. C, the dryout mechanism may be directly applicable. On the contrary the transition angle is not conspicuously seen in the gap sizes of 5 and 10mm in which dominant mechanism is closer to pool boiling. 27 refs., 29 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  16. Thermal Analysis of Hybrid Thermal Control System and Experimental Investigation of Flow Boiling in Micro-channel Heat Exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyun

    refrigerant. Both heat exchangers feature parallel micro-channels with identical 1x1-mm2 cross-sections. The evaporators are connected in series, with the smaller 152.4-mm long heat exchanger situated upstream of the larger 609.6-mm long heat exchanger. In the steady-state characteristics part, it is shown low qualities are associated with slug flow and dominated by nucleate boiling, and high qualities with annular flow and convective boiling. Important transition points between the different heat transfer regimes are identified as (1) intermittent dryout, resulting from vapor blanket formation in liquid slugs and/or partial dryout in the liquid film surrounding elongated bubbles, (2) incipient dryout, resulting from dry patch formation in the annular film, and (3) complete dryout, following which the wall has to rely entirely on the mild cooling provided by droplets deposited from the vapor core. In the transient characteristics part, heat transfer measurement and high speed video are used to investigate variations of heat transfer coefficient with quality for different mass velocities and heat fluxes, as well as transient fluid flow and heat transfer behavior. An important transient phenomenon that influences both fluid flow and heat transfer is a liquid wave composed of remnants of liquid slugs from the slug flow regime. The liquid wave serves to replenish dry wall patches in the slug flow regime and to a lesser extent the annular regime. Unlike small heat sinks employed in the electronics industry, TCS heat sinks are characterized by large length-to-diameter ratio, for which limited information is presently available. The large length-to-diameter ratio of 609.6 is especially instrumental to capturing detailed axial variations of flow pattern and corresponding variations in local heat transfer coefficient. High-speed video analysis of the inlet plenum shows appreciable vapor backflow under certain operating conditions, which is also reflected in periodic oscillations in

  17. Theoretical and experimental investigations of CHF in round tubes and rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dae Hyun

    1994-02-01

    A knowledge of the condition leading to critical heat flux (CHF) is of great importance in the design of nuclear reactors. Although many efforts have been devoted to the subject of CHF during the last few decades, information on the burnout phenomenon at low velocity condition is very limited. Furthermore, in most cases, the applicable range of a bundle CHF correlation is restricted to a narrow region mainly due to the limitation of the CHF data base used in the correlation development. In view of these points, theoretical and experimental investigations are performed in this study for round tubes and rod bundles. A CHF prediction model for low velocity conditions is proposed throughout the assessment of CHF data from various sources with mass velocities less than 500 kg/m 2 s. The CHF data base is classified into seven groups with respect to the flow pattern characteristics at CHF conditions. CHF data for each group is analyzed by several CHF prediction models including; the flooding correlations, the flow regime transition criteria, the complete evaporation model, and the empirical correlations. At zero inlet flow or extremely low mass velocity conditions, the flooding correlation can be used for predicting CHF employing appropriate constant. In the slug or churn-turbulent flow regime, CHF seems to occur at the annular flow transition conditions. When CHF occurs at the annular flow region, the empirical correlation such as AECL CHF lookup table gives accurate predictions except for the ranges where density-wave instability is expected. A phenomenological model for the prediction of dryout locations under flooding-limited CHF condition is developed based on the liquid film dryout model and the two-phase mixture level theory. The mass and energy conservation equations are applicable to the liquid film considering no entrainment of liquid droplets from the film region. The variation of the two-phase mixture level after the onset of flooding is calculated based on

  18. Fuel performance in aging CANDU reactors - a quick overview of the CNSC regulatory oversight activities of the past 15 years and of the lessons learned

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Couture, M.

    2013-01-01

    'Full text:' The operating conditions (coolant flows, temperatures, pressures) of the Heat Transport System (HTS) of a CANDU reactor are affected by the aging of it's components. For a given fuel bundle design, those changing conditions result in the lower dryout powers, and in the absence of any corrective actions addressing the root cause of those changes, the decrease will continue as the aging of the HTS components progresses. As a result of this situation, safety margins for several relatively high frequency Design Based Accidents (DBAs) in Deterministic Safety Analysis will also be decreasing as a function of time. Eventually, defence-in-depth will be compromised if no corrective actions are taken, and ultimately reactor deratings (reactor operating less than 100% full power) will be required in order to ensure, for those postulated DBAs, that shutdown system effectiveness at protecting the integrity of physical barriers to the release of radioactive materials is maintained at all times. Depending on its size and duration, the economic impact of deratings on licensees could be significant. The situation described above, as well as means to address it, has been the heart of numerous discussions and licensing activities between the CNSC and the industry for more than 15 years now. During that period, licensees developed HTS aging management strategies aimed at delaying as long as possible the need to derate strategies which led to many developments including new fuel designs with better heat transfer properties, new methodologies to calculate safety margins in deterministic safety analysis including the use of less conservative CHF correlations, and to the proposal by an expert panel, after a review of the experimental data on CANDU behaviour in post dryout conditions, of a new set of less conservative derived, acceptance criteria that could be in principle be used to assess, for certain DBAs, safety margins in aging CANDU reactors. All this

  19. Fuel performance in aging CANDU reactors - a quick overview of the CNSC regulatory oversight activities of the past 15 years and of the lessons learned

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Couture, M. [Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    2013-07-01

    'Full text:' The operating conditions (coolant flows, temperatures, pressures) of the Heat Transport System (HTS) of a CANDU reactor are affected by the aging of it's components. For a given fuel bundle design, those changing conditions result in the lower dryout powers, and in the absence of any corrective actions addressing the root cause of those changes, the decrease will continue as the aging of the HTS components progresses. As a result of this situation, safety margins for several relatively high frequency Design Based Accidents (DBAs) in Deterministic Safety Analysis will also be decreasing as a function of time. Eventually, defence-in-depth will be compromised if no corrective actions are taken, and ultimately reactor deratings (reactor operating less than 100% full power) will be required in order to ensure, for those postulated DBAs, that shutdown system effectiveness at protecting the integrity of physical barriers to the release of radioactive materials is maintained at all times. Depending on its size and duration, the economic impact of deratings on licensees could be significant. The situation described above, as well as means to address it, has been the heart of numerous discussions and licensing activities between the CNSC and the industry for more than 15 years now. During that period, licensees developed HTS aging management strategies aimed at delaying as long as possible the need to derate strategies which led to many developments including new fuel designs with better heat transfer properties, new methodologies to calculate safety margins in deterministic safety analysis including the use of less conservative CHF correlations, and to the proposal by an expert panel, after a review of the experimental data on CANDU behaviour in post dryout conditions, of a new set of less conservative derived, acceptance criteria that could be in principle be used to assess, for certain DBAs, safety margins in aging CANDU reactors. All this

  20. Implementation of a phenomenological DNB prediction model based on macroscale boiling flow processes in PWR fuel bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohitpour, Maryam; Jahanfarnia, Gholamreza; Shams, Mehrzad

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A numerical framework was developed to mechanistically predict DNB in PWR bundles. • The DNB evaluation module was incorporated into the two-phase flow solver module. • Three-dimensional two-fluid model was the basis of two-phase flow solver module. • Liquid sublayer dryout model was adapted as CHF-triggering mechanism in DNB module. • Ability of DNB modeling approach was studied based on PSBT DNB tests in rod bundle. - Abstract: In this study, a numerical framework, comprising of a two-phase flow subchannel solver module and a Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) evaluation module, was developed to mechanistically predict DNB in rod bundles of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). In this regard, the liquid sublayer dryout model was adapted as the Critical Heat Flux (CHF) triggering mechanism to reduce the dependency of the model on empirical correlations in the DNB evaluation module. To predict local flow boiling processes, a three-dimensional two-fluid formalism coupled with heat conduction was selected as the basic tool for the development of the two-phase flow subchannel analysis solver. Evaluation of the DNB modeling approach was performed against OECD/NRC NUPEC PWR Bundle tests (PSBT Benchmark) which supplied an extensive database for the development of truly mechanistic and consistent models for boiling transition and CHF. The results of the analyses demonstrated the need for additional assessment of the subcooled boiling model and the bulk condensation model implemented in the two-phase flow solver module. The proposed model slightly under-predicts the DNB power in comparison with the ones obtained from steady-state benchmark measurements. However, this prediction is acceptable compared with other codes. Another point about the DNB prediction model is that it has a conservative behavior. Examination of the axial and radial position of the first detected DNB using code-to-code comparisons on the basis of PSBT data indicated that the our

  1. Assessment of fuel damage of pool type research reactor in the case of fuel plates blockage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalil, Jafari; Samad, Khakshournia [AEOI, Karegar Ave. School of R and D of Nuclear Reactors and Accelerators, Teheran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); D' Auria, F. [Pisa Univ., DIMNP (Italy)

    2007-07-01

    Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) is a pool type 5 MW research reactor. It is assumed that external objects or debris that may fall down to reactor core cause obstruction of coolant flow through one of the fuel assemblies. Thermal hydraulic analysis of this event, using the RELAP5 system code has been studied. The reported transient is related to the partial and total obstruction of a single Fuel Element (FE) cooling channel of 27 FE equilibrium core of TRR. Such event constitutes a severe accident for this type of reactor since it may lead to local dryout and eventually to loss of the FE integrity. Two scenarios are analysed to emphasize the severity of the accident. The first one is a partial blockage of an average FE considering four different obstruction levels: 25%, 50%, 75% and 97% of nominal flow area. The second one is an extreme scenario consisting of total blockage of the same FE. This study constitutes the first step of a larger work which consists of performing a 3-dimensional simulation using the Best Estimate coupled code technique. However, as a first approach the instantaneous reactor power is derived through the point kinetic calculation included in the RELAP5 code. Main results obtained from the RELAP5 calculations are as following. First, in the case of flow blockage under 97% of the nominal flow area of an average FE, only an increase of the coolant and clad temperatures is observed without any consequences for the integrity of the FE. The mass flow rate remains sufficient to cool the clad safely. Secondly, in the case of total obstruction of the nominal flow area, it is seen that transient turns out to be a severe accident due to the dryout conditions are reached shortly and melting of the cladding occurs. Thirdly, the use of the point kinetic approach leads to conservative results. A best estimate simulation of such kind of transients requires the use of 3-dimensional kinetic calculations, which could be done using the current Coupled Codes

  2. Ex-Vessel corium coolability and steam explosion energetics in nordic light water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dinh, T.N.; Ma, W.M.; Karbojian, A.; Kudinov, P.; Tran, C.T.; Hansson, C.R. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), (Sweden)

    2008-03-15

    This report presents advances and insights from the KTH's study on corium pool heat transfer in the BWR lower head; debris bed formation; steam explosion energetics; thermal hydraulics and coolability in bottom-fed and heterogeneous debris beds. Specifically, for analysis of heat transfer in a BWR lower plenum an advanced threedimensional simulation tool was developed and validated, using a so-called effective convectivity approach and Fluent code platform. An assessment of corium retention and coolability in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower plenum by means of water supplied through the Control Rod Guide Tube (CRGT) cooling system was performed. Simulant material melt experiments were performed in an intermediate temperature range (1300-1600K) on DEFOR test facility to study formation of debris beds in high and low subcooled water pools characteristic of in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. Results of the DEFOR-E scoping experiments and related analyses strongly suggest that porous beds formed in ex-vessel from a fragmented high-temperature debris is far from homogeneous. Calculation results of bed thermal hydraulics and dryout heat flux with a two-dimensional thermal-hydraulic code give the first basis to evaluate the extent by which macro and micro inhomogeneity can enhance the bed coolability. The development and validation of a model for two-phase natural circulation through a heated porous medium and its application to the coolability analysis of bottom-fed beds enables quantification of the significant effect of dryout heat flux enhancement (by a factor of 80-160%) due to bottom coolant injection. For a qualitative and quantitative understanding of steam explosion, the SHARP system and its image processing methodology were used to characterize the dynamics of a hot liquid (melt) drop fragmentation and the volatile liquid (coolant) vaporization. The experimental results provide a basis to suggest that the melt drop preconditioning is instrumental to

  3. Coupled 3D-neutronics / thermal-hydraulics analysis of an unprotected loss-of-flow accident for a 3600 MWth SFR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, K.; Chenu, A.; Mikityuk, K.; Krepel, J.; Chawla, R.

    2012-01-01

    The core behaviour of a large (3600 MWth) sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is investigated in this paper with the use of a coupled TRACE/PARCS model. The SFR neutron spectrum is characterized by several performance advantages, but also leads to one dominating neutronics drawback - a positive sodium void reactivity. This implies a positive reactivity effect when sodium coolant is removed from the core. In order to evaluate such feedback in terms of the dynamics, a representative unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) transient, i.e. flow run-down without SCRAM in which sodium boiling occurs, is analyzed. Although analysis of a single transient cannot allow general conclusions to be drawn, it does allow better understanding of the underlying physics and can lead to proposals for improving the core response during such an accident. The starting point of this study is the reference core design considered in the framework of the Collaborative Project on the European Sodium Fast Reactor (CP-ESFR). To reduce the void effect, the core has been modified by introducing an upper sodium plenum (along with a boron layer) and by reducing the core height-to-diameter ratio. For the ULOF considered, a sharp increase in core power results in melting of the fuel in the case of the reference core. In the modified core, a large dryout leads to melting of the clad. It seems that, for the hypothetical event considered, fuel failure cannot be avoided with just improvement of the neutronics design; therefore, thermal-hydraulics optimization has been considered. An innovative assembly design is proposed to prevent sodium vapour blocking the fuel channel. This results in preventing a downward propagation of the sodium boiling to the core center, thus limiting it to the upper region. Such a void map introduces a negative coolant density reactivity feedback, which dominates the total reactivity change. As a result, the power level and the fuel temperature are effectively reduced, and a large dryout

  4. Coupled 3D-neutronics / thermal-hydraulics analysis of an unprotected loss-of-flow accident for a 3600 MWth SFR core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, K. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Chenu, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Mikityuk, K.; Krepel, J. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Chawla, R. [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne EPFL, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2012-07-01

    The core behaviour of a large (3600 MWth) sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) is investigated in this paper with the use of a coupled TRACE/PARCS model. The SFR neutron spectrum is characterized by several performance advantages, but also leads to one dominating neutronics drawback - a positive sodium void reactivity. This implies a positive reactivity effect when sodium coolant is removed from the core. In order to evaluate such feedback in terms of the dynamics, a representative unprotected loss-of-flow (ULOF) transient, i.e. flow run-down without SCRAM in which sodium boiling occurs, is analyzed. Although analysis of a single transient cannot allow general conclusions to be drawn, it does allow better understanding of the underlying physics and can lead to proposals for improving the core response during such an accident. The starting point of this study is the reference core design considered in the framework of the Collaborative Project on the European Sodium Fast Reactor (CP-ESFR). To reduce the void effect, the core has been modified by introducing an upper sodium plenum (along with a boron layer) and by reducing the core height-to-diameter ratio. For the ULOF considered, a sharp increase in core power results in melting of the fuel in the case of the reference core. In the modified core, a large dryout leads to melting of the clad. It seems that, for the hypothetical event considered, fuel failure cannot be avoided with just improvement of the neutronics design; therefore, thermal-hydraulics optimization has been considered. An innovative assembly design is proposed to prevent sodium vapour blocking the fuel channel. This results in preventing a downward propagation of the sodium boiling to the core center, thus limiting it to the upper region. Such a void map introduces a negative coolant density reactivity feedback, which dominates the total reactivity change. As a result, the power level and the fuel temperature are effectively reduced, and a large dryout

  5. Code development for debris bed coolability problem. Final report for the period 1997-05-01 - 1999-08-14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loboiko, A.I.

    2000-03-01

    The study was devoted to the problem of debris bed coolability arising from severe accident at nuclear power reactor. After reactor core melting occurs and subsequent debris bed is formed in the lower plenum of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) it is important to confine this debris bed inside RPV boundary. One of the possible accident scenarios assumes the interaction between coolant and molten core materials resulting from rapid melt quenching, freezing and fragmentation. Particulated fuel and steel may subsequently settle on available surfaces within the reactor vessel, forming debris porous beds which produce radioactive decay heating. In case of severe core degradation, such heat transfer mechanisms as radiation, conduction and natural single-phase convection may appear to be insufficient and coolant boiling may happen on the surface or inside the bed. Depending on rate of heat generation there may be sufficient debris cool down or its 'dryout' which pose a danger for RPV integrity. The study considers development of 2D numerical code capable to predict coolant saturation as a function of different parameters. Analysis of previous activities on one-dimensional and multi-dimensional models was done. On the basis of the analysis it was concluded that the correct prediction of the debris saturation on dryant power requires two-dimensional numerical simulation considering the processes like two-phase convection, capillary effects, different models of permeability, different models of heat transfer between solid debris and coolant, non-homogeneity of parameters porous medium, heat and mass transfer between debris bed and a highly porous gap along the inner RPV surface. Particular attention was given to consideration of boundary conditions for debris bed. Introduction of the analytical model for dependence of gap properties on heat flux from debris bed allowed to create an algorithm for use in numerical calculations and finally to develop a code which allowed for stable

  6. Ex-Vessel corium coolability and steam explosion energetics in nordic light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinh, T.N.; Ma, W.M.; Karbojian, A.; Kudinov, P.; Tran, C.T.; Hansson, C.R.

    2008-03-01

    This report presents advances and insights from the KTH's study on corium pool heat transfer in the BWR lower head; debris bed formation; steam explosion energetics; thermal hydraulics and coolability in bottom-fed and heterogeneous debris beds. Specifically, for analysis of heat transfer in a BWR lower plenum an advanced threedimensional simulation tool was developed and validated, using a so-called effective convectivity approach and Fluent code platform. An assessment of corium retention and coolability in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) lower plenum by means of water supplied through the Control Rod Guide Tube (CRGT) cooling system was performed. Simulant material melt experiments were performed in an intermediate temperature range (1300-1600K) on DEFOR test facility to study formation of debris beds in high and low subcooled water pools characteristic of in-vessel and ex-vessel conditions. Results of the DEFOR-E scoping experiments and related analyses strongly suggest that porous beds formed in ex-vessel from a fragmented high-temperature debris is far from homogeneous. Calculation results of bed thermal hydraulics and dryout heat flux with a two-dimensional thermal-hydraulic code give the first basis to evaluate the extent by which macro and micro inhomogeneity can enhance the bed coolability. The development and validation of a model for two-phase natural circulation through a heated porous medium and its application to the coolability analysis of bottom-fed beds enables quantification of the significant effect of dryout heat flux enhancement (by a factor of 80-160%) due to bottom coolant injection. For a qualitative and quantitative understanding of steam explosion, the SHARP system and its image processing methodology were used to characterize the dynamics of a hot liquid (melt) drop fragmentation and the volatile liquid (coolant) vaporization. The experimental results provide a basis to suggest that the melt drop preconditioning is instrumental to the

  7. Debris bed coolability using a 3-D two phase model in a porous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechaud, C.; Duval, F.; Fichot, F. [CEA Cadarache, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Quintard, M. [Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, 31 (France); Parent, M. [CEA Grenoble, Dept. de Thermohydraulique et de Physique, 38 (France)

    2001-07-01

    During a severe nuclear accident, a part of the molten corium resulting from the core degradation may relocate in the lower plenum of the reactor vessel. In order to predict the safety margin of the reactor under such conditions, the coolability of this porous heat-generating medium is evaluated in this study and compared with other investigations. In this work, conservation equations derived for debris beds are implemented in the three dimensional thermal-hydraulic module of the CATHARE code. The coolant flow is a two phase flow with phase change. The momentum balance equation for each fluid phase is an extension of Darcy's law. This extension takes into account the capillary effects between the two phases, the relative permeabilities and passabilities of each phase, the interfacial drag force between liquid and gas, and the porous bed configuration (porosity, particle diameter,... ). The model developed is three-dimensional which is important to better predict the flow in configuration such as counter-current flow or to emphasize preferential ways induced by porous geometry. The energy balance equations of the three phases (liquid, gas and solid phase) are obtained by a volume averaging process of the local conservation equations. In this method, the local thermal non-equilibrium between the three phases is considered and the heat exchanges, the phase change rate as well as the thermal dispersion coefficients are calculated as a function of the local geometry of the porous medium. Such a method allows the numerical estimation of these thermal properties which are very difficult to determine experimentally. This feature is a great advantage of this approach. After a brief description of the thermal-hydraulic model, one-dimensional predictions of critical dryout fluxes are presented and compared with results from the literature. Reasonable agreement is obtained. Then a two-dimensional calculation is presented and shows the influence of the porous medium

  8. The effect of self-leveling on debris bed coolability under severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, S.; Konovalenko, A. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Roslagstullsbacken 21, D5, Stockholm 106 91 (Sweden); Yakush, S.E. [Institute for Problems in Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Ave. Vernadskogo 101 Bldg 1, Moscow 119526 (Russian Federation); Kudinov, P. [Division of Nuclear Power Safety, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Roslagstullsbacken 21, D5, Stockholm 106 91 (Sweden)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A model for coolability of a self-leveling, variable-shape debris bed is proposed. • Sensitivity analysis is performed to screen out the less influential input parameters. • A small fraction of scenarios has initially a non-coolable debris bed configuration. • The fraction of non-coolable scenarios decreases with time due to self-leveling. - Abstract: Nordic-type boiling water reactors employ melt fragmentation, quenching, and long term cooling of the debris bed in a deep pool of water under the reactor vessel as a severe accident (SA) mitigation strategy. The height and shape of the bed are among the most important factors that determine if decay heat can be removed from the porous debris bed by natural circulation of water. The debris bed geometry depends on its formation process (melt release, fragmentation, sedimentation and settlement on the containment basemat), but it also changes with time afterwards, due to particle redistribution promoted by coolant flow (self-leveling). The ultimate goal of this work is to develop an approach to the assessment of the probability that debris in such a variable-shape bed can reach re-melting (which means failure of SA mitigation strategy), i.e. the time necessary for the slumping debris bed to reach a coolable configuration is larger than the time necessary for the debris to reach the re-melting temperature. For this purpose, previously developed models for particulate debris spreading by self-leveling and debris bed dryout are combined to assess the time necessary to reach a coolable state and evaluate its uncertainty. Sensitivity analysis was performed to screen out less important input parameters, after which Monte Carlo simulation was carried out in order to collect statistical characteristics of the coolability time. The obtained results suggest that, given the parameters ranges typical of Nordic BWRs, only a small fraction of debris beds configurations exhibits the occurrence of dryout. Of the

  9. Visualization of the boiling phenomena and counter-current flow limit of annular heat pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Guk; Kim, Kyung Mo; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The thermal resistance of conventional heat pipes increases over the capillary limit because of the insufficient supplement of the working fluid. Due to the shortage of the liquid supplement, thermosyphon is widely used for vertically oriented heat transport and high heat load conditions. Thermosyphons are two-phase heat transfer devices that have the highly efficient heat transport from evaporation to condensation section that makes an upward driving force for vapor. In the condenser section, the vapor condenses and releases the latent heat. Due to the gravitation force acting on the liquid in the tube, working fluid back to the evaporator section, normally this process operate at the vertical and inclination position. The use of two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) for the cooling devices has the limitation due to the phase change of the working fluid assisted by gravity force. Due to the complex phenomenon of two-phase flow, it is required to understand what happened in TPCT. The visualization of the thermosyphon and heat pipe is investigated for the decrease of thermal resistance and enhancement of operation limit. Weibel et al. investigated capillary-fed boiling of water with porous sintered powder wick structure using high speed camera. At the high heat flux condition, dry-out phenomenon and a thin liquid film are observed at the porous wick structure. Wong and Kao investigated the evaporation and boiling process of mesh wicked heat pipe using optical camera. At the high heat flux condition, the water filing became thin and partial dry-out was observed in the evaporator section. Our group suggested the concept of a hybrid heat pipe with control rod as Passive IN-core Cooling System (PINCs) for decay heat removal for advanced nuclear power plant. The hybrid heat pipe is the combination of the heat pipe and control rod. It is necessary for PINCs to contain a neutron absorber (B{sub 4}C) to have the ability of reactivity control. It has annular vapor space and

  10. Visualisation of flow patterns in straight and C-shape thermosyphons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, K. S.; Tshai, K. H.; Firwana, A.

    2017-04-01

    A heat pipe is a passive heat transfer device capable of transferring a large quantity of heat effectively and efficiently over a long distance and with a small temperature difference between the heat source and heat sink. A heat pipe consists of a metal pipe initially vacuumed and then filled with a small quantity of fluid inside. The pipe is separated into a heating (evaporator) section and a cooling (condenser) section by an adiabatic section. In a run-around-coil heating, ventilation and air conditioning system, a wrap-around heat pipe heat exchanger could be employed to increase dehumidification and to reduce cooling costs. The thermal performance of a thermosyphon is dependent upon type of fill liquid, fill ratio, power input, pipe inclination and pipe dimensions. The boiling and condensation processes that occur inside a thermosyphon are quite complex. During operation, dry-out, burn-out or boiling limit, entrainment or flooding limit and geysering occur. These phenomena would lead to non-uniform axial wall temperature distribution in the pipe, or worse still, ineffective operation. In order to have a better understanding of the internal heat transfer phenomena, a visual study using transparent glass tubes and high speed camera recording of the internal flow patterns would be most helpful. This paper reports on an experimental investigation conducted to visualise the flow patterns in straight and C-shape thermosyphons. The pictures recorded enabled the internal flow boiling and condensation pattern occurring inside a straight and a C-shape thermosyphon to be observed. The thermosyphons were fabricated from 10 mm O/D × 8 mm I/D × 300 mm long glass tubes and filled with water with fill ratios from 0.5 - 1.5. The evaporator sections of the thermosyphons were immersed into a hot water tank that was electrically heated from cold at ambient temperature till boiling. Cooling of the condenser section was achieved using a fan. Preliminary results showed that dry-out

  11. Visualization of the boiling phenomena and counter-current flow limit of annular heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Guk; Kim, Kyung Mo; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol

    2015-01-01

    The thermal resistance of conventional heat pipes increases over the capillary limit because of the insufficient supplement of the working fluid. Due to the shortage of the liquid supplement, thermosyphon is widely used for vertically oriented heat transport and high heat load conditions. Thermosyphons are two-phase heat transfer devices that have the highly efficient heat transport from evaporation to condensation section that makes an upward driving force for vapor. In the condenser section, the vapor condenses and releases the latent heat. Due to the gravitation force acting on the liquid in the tube, working fluid back to the evaporator section, normally this process operate at the vertical and inclination position. The use of two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) for the cooling devices has the limitation due to the phase change of the working fluid assisted by gravity force. Due to the complex phenomenon of two-phase flow, it is required to understand what happened in TPCT. The visualization of the thermosyphon and heat pipe is investigated for the decrease of thermal resistance and enhancement of operation limit. Weibel et al. investigated capillary-fed boiling of water with porous sintered powder wick structure using high speed camera. At the high heat flux condition, dry-out phenomenon and a thin liquid film are observed at the porous wick structure. Wong and Kao investigated the evaporation and boiling process of mesh wicked heat pipe using optical camera. At the high heat flux condition, the water filing became thin and partial dry-out was observed in the evaporator section. Our group suggested the concept of a hybrid heat pipe with control rod as Passive IN-core Cooling System (PINCs) for decay heat removal for advanced nuclear power plant. The hybrid heat pipe is the combination of the heat pipe and control rod. It is necessary for PINCs to contain a neutron absorber (B 4 C) to have the ability of reactivity control. It has annular vapor space and it

  12. Measurements of convective heat transfer to vertical upward flows of CO{sub 2} in circular tubes at near-critical and supercritical pressures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahlan, H., E-mail: hussamzahlan@gmail.com [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Groeneveld, D. [Canadian Nuclear Laboratories, Chalk River, K0J 1J0 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada); Tavoularis, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON K1N 6N5 (Canada)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We present and discuss results of thermal–hydraulic measurements in CO{sub 2} for the near critical and supercritical pressure region. • We report the full heat transfer and pressure drop database. - Abstract: An extensive experimental program of heat transfer measurements has been completed recently at the University of Ottawa's supercritical pressure test facility (SCUOL). Thermal–hydraulics tests were performed for vertical upflow of carbon dioxide in directly heated tubes with inner diameters of 8 and 22 mm, at high subcritical, near-critical and supercritical pressures. The test conditions, when converted to water-equivalent values, correspond to conditions of interest to current Super-Critical Water-Cooled Reactor designs, and include many measurements under conditions for which few data are available in the literature. These data significantly complement the existing experimental database and are being used for the derivation and validation of a new heat transfer prediction method in progress at the University of Ottawa. The same data are also suitable for the assessment of the accuracy of other heat transfer prediction methods and fluid-to-fluid scaling laws for near-critical and supercritical pressures. In addition, they permit further examination of previously suggested relationships describing the critical heat flux and post-dryout heat transfer coefficient at high subcritical pressures and the boundaries of the deteriorated/enhanced heat transfer regions for near-critical and supercritical pressures. The measurements reported in this paper cover several subcritical heat transfer modes, including single phase liquid heat transfer, nucleate boiling, critical heat flux, post-dryout heat transfer and superheated vapor heat transfer; they also cover several supercritical heat transfer modes, including heat transfer to liquid-like supercritical fluid and heat transfer to vapor-like supercritical fluid, which occurred in the

  13. A study on the development of advanced models to predict the critical heat flux for water and liquid metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Bum

    1994-02-01

    The critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon in the two-phase convective flows has been an important issue in the fields of design and safety analysis of light water reactor (LWR) as well as sodium cooled liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). Especially in the LWR application many physical aspects of the CHF phenomenon are understood and reliable correlations and mechanistic models to predict the CHF condition have been proposed. However, there are few correlations and models which are applicable to liquid metals. Compared with water, liquid metals show a divergent picture for boiling pattern. Therefore, the CHF conditions obtained from investigations with water cannot be applied to liquid metals. In this work a mechanistic model to predict the CHF of water and a correlation for liquid metals are developed. First, a mechanistic model to predict the CHF in flow boiling at low quality was developed based on the liquid sublayer dryout mechanism. In this approach the CHF is assumed to occur when a vapor blanket isolates the liquid sublayer from bulk liquid and then the liquid entering the sublayer falls short of balancing the rate of sublayer dryout by vaporization. Therefore, the vapor blanket velocity is the key parameter. In this work the vapor blanket velocity is theoretically determined based on mass, energy, and momentum balance and finally the mechanistic model to predict the CHF in flow boiling at low quality is developed. The accuracy of the present model is evaluated by comparing model predictions with the experimental data and tabular data of look-up tables. The predictions of the present model agree well with extensive CHF data. In the latter part a correlation to predict the CHF for liquid metals is developed based on the flow excursion mechanism. By using Baroczy two-phase frictional pressure drop correlation and Ledinegg instability criterion, the relationship between the CHF of liquid metals and the principal parameters is derived and finally the

  14. Enrichment of water solube substances at heat transfer surfaces in steam boilers and steam generators - a literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelen, T.

    1975-03-01

    A literature survey has been made to determine the possible need for investigations into enrichment at heat transport surfaces. The survey shows that enrichment in furnace tubes of carbon steel has led both to hydrogen embrittlement as a result of a reduction of pH and to local tube wall thinning and alkaline stress corrosion following an increase of pH. Damage caused by enrichment has occurred also in the steam generators of PWR's. Information concerning measured enrichment, observed hide-out, occurrence of normally easily soluble deposits as well as of corrosion damage requiring high concentrations lead to the conclusion that enrichment factors of the order of 10 000 are to be expected in some instances. The relationship between operational conditions and enrichment in specific cases is, however, poorly documented. The tendency to hide out varies for different substances. This is however not evidently equivalent to variation of the corresponding enrichment factor in the solution. Enrichment at heat transfer surfaces can arise as the result of one or several of the following effects: - formation of porous deposits - poor circulation - high densities of heat flow rate - departure from nucleate boiling leading to dry-out - steam blanketing. The conclusion reached from the literature survey is that knowledge of the degree of enrichment produced under specific operational conditions is extremely inadequate. (author)

  15. CONSOLIDATION OF K BASIN SLUDGE DATA AND EXPERIENCES ON AGGLOMERATE FORMATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, S.R.

    2010-01-01

    The formation of high sludge strength agglomerates is a key concern to the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) to ensure the sludge can be retrieved after planned storage for up to 10 years in Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) at T Plant. This report addresses observations of agglomerate formation, conditions that the data shows lead to agglomeration, the frequency of agglomerate formation and postulated physiochemical mechanisms that may lead to agglomeration. Although the exact underlying chemistry of K Basin sludge agglomerate formation is not known, the factors that lead to agglomeration formation, based on observations, are as follows: (1) High Total Uranium Content (i.e., sample homogeneity and influence from other constituents); (2) Distribution of Uranium Phases (i.e., extent of conversion from uraninite to uranium oxide hydroxide compounds); (3) Sample Dry-out (loss of cover water); (4) Elevated temperature; (5) Solubility ofU(IV) phases vs. U(VI) phases; and (6) Long storage times. Agglomerated sludge has occurred infrequently and has only been observed in four laboratory samples, five samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (performed for 7 to 10 hours at ∼185 C and 225 psig), and indirectly during six sampling events in the KE Basin. In the four laboratory samples where agglomerates were observed, the agglomerates exhibited high shear strength and the sample container typically had to be broken to remove the solids. The total uranium content (dry basis) for the four samples (KE Pit, KC-2/3 SS, KC-2/3 M250 and 96-13) were ∼8 wt%, ∼59.0 wt%, 68.3 wt% and 82 wt%. The agglomerates that were present during the six sampling events were undoubtedly disturbed and easily broken apart during sample collection, thus no agglomerates were observed in subsequent laboratory analyses. The highest shear strengths measured for K Basin sludge samples were obtained after hydrothermal treatment (7 to 10 hr at 185 C) of high-uranium-content KE canister sludge

  16. Assessment of boiling transition analysis code against data from NUPEC BWR full-size fine-mesh bundle tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utsuno, Hideaki; Ishida, Naoyuki; Masuhara, Yasuhiro; Kasahara, Fumio

    2004-01-01

    Transient BT analysis code TCAPE based on mechanistic methods coupled with subchannel analysis has been developed for the evaluation on fuel integrity under abnormal operations in BWR. TCAPE consisted mainly of the drift-flux model, the cross-flow model, the film model and the heat transfer model. Assessment of TCAPE has been performed against data from BWR full-size fine-mesh bundle tests (BFBT), which consisted of two major parts: the void distribution measurement and the critical power measurement. Code and data comparison was made for void distributions with varying number of unheated rods in simulated actual fuel assembly. Prediction of steady-state critical power was compared with the measurement on full-scale bundle under a range of BWR operational conditions. Although the cross-sectional averaged void fraction was underestimated when it became lower, the accuracy was obtained that the averaged ratio 0.910 and its standard deviation 0.076. The prediction of steady-state critical power agreed well with the data in the range of BWR operations, where the prediction accuracy was obtained that the averaged ratio 0.997 and its standard deviation 0.043. These results demonstrated that TCAPE is well capable to predict two-phase flow distribution and liquid film dryout phenomena occurring in BWR rod bundles. Part of NUPEC BFBT database will be made available for an international benchmark exercise. The code assessment shall be continued against the OECD/NRC benchmark based on BFBT database. (author)

  17. R245fa Flow Boiling inside a 4.2 mm ID Microfin Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, G. A.; Mancin, S.; Righetti, G.; Zilio, C.

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents the R245fa flow boiling heat transfer and pressure drop measurements inside a mini microfin tube with internal diameter at the fin tip of 4.2 mm, having 40 fins, 0.15 mm high with a helix angle of 18°. The tube was brazed inside a copper plate and electrically heated from the bottom. Sixteen T-type thermocouples are located in the copper plate to monitor the wall temperature. The experimental measurements were carried out at constant mean saturation temperature of 30 °C, by varying the refrigerant mass velocity between 100 kg m-2 s-1 and 300 kg m-2 s-1, the vapour quality from 0.15 to 0.95, at two different heat fluxes: 30 and 60 kW m-2. The experimental results are presented in terms of two-phase heat transfer coefficient, onset dryout vapour quality, and frictional pressure drop. Moreover, the experimental measurements are compared against the most updated models for boiling heat transfer coefficient and frictional pressure drop estimations available in the open literature for microfin tubes.

  18. Flow boiling heat transfer of carbon dioxide inside a small-sized microfin tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang, Chaobin; Haraguchi, Nobori; Hihara, Eiji [Department of Human and Engineered Environmental Studies, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa-shi, Chiba 277-8563 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    This study investigated the flow boiling heat transfer of carbon dioxide inside a small-sized microfin tube (mean inner diameter: 2.0 mm; helix angle: 6.3 ) at a saturation temperature of 15 C, and heat and mass flux ranges of 4.5-18 kW m{sup -2} and 360-720 kg m{sup -2} s{sup -1}, respectively. Although, experimental results indicated that heat flux has a significant effect on the heat transfer coefficient, the coefficient does not always increase with mass flux, as in the case of conventional refrigerants such as HFCs or HCFCs. Under certain conditions, the heat transfer coefficient at a high mass flux was lower than that at a lower mass flux, indicating that convective heat transfer had a suppression effect on nucleate boiling. The heat transfer coefficients in the microfin tubes were 1.9{proportional_to}2.3 times the values in smooth tubes of the same diameter under the same experimental conditions, and the dryout quality was much higher, ranging from 0.9 to 0.95. The experimental results indicated that using microfin tubes may considerably increase the overall heat transfer performance. (author)

  19. Thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical responses in the single heater test at the ESF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.; Blair, S.; Buettner, M

    1997-01-01

    The Single Heater Test (SHT) is conducted in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) to study the thermal-mechanical responses of the rock mass. A set of boreholes were drilled in the test region for conducting a scoping test of the coupled thermal-mechanical- hydrological-chemical (TMHC) processes. The holes for the TMHC tests include electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), neutron logging/temperature, hydrological, and optical multiple point borehole extensometers. A 4-kW heater was installed in the heater hole, and was energized on August 26, 1996. Some observed movements of the water around the heater are associated with a possible dry-out region near the heater. The water that has been moved is more dilute than the in situ ground water, except for the concentration of Ca. This indicates that fractures are the major water pathways, and the displaced water may have reached an equilibrium with carbonate minerals on the fracture surfaces. No mechanical-hydrological coupling has been observed. The tests are on-going, and more data will be collected and analyzed

  20. Progress report, Physics Division: 1982 July 1 - September 30

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-12-01

    Nuclear physics work at CRNL included determination of the half lives of sup(26)Alsup(m), sup(34)Cl and sup(38)Ksup(m), development of the second of three ports of the isotope separator, extensive test runs for the parity violation experiment on the electron test accelerator, and completion of the analysis of circular polarization data for gamma decay in 21 Ne. Solid state physics research included studies of the crystal structures of K 2 ReBr 6 , analysis of small-angle scattering data from superoxide dismutase, and analysis of the temperature dependence of the positron annihilation peak rate in alpha and beta thorium in terms of the trapping model. Applied mathematics and computation research included mathematical modelling of transient thermal behaviour of Slowpoke-III fuel and development of a probability distribution for unobserved occurrences of dryout in a fuel bundle test. Testing began on the pre-processor program PRESTAR that aids in preparing input for the stress analysis program STARDYNE

  1. Pool boiling with high heat flux enabled by a porous artery structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Lizhan; Zhang, Lianpei; Lin, Guiping; Peterson, G. P.

    2016-06-01

    A porous artery structure utilizing the concept of "phase separation and modulation" is proposed to enhance the critical heat flux of pool boiling. A series of experiments were conducted on a range of test articles in which multiple rectangular arteries were machined directly into the top surface of a 10.0 mm diameter copper rod. The arteries were then covered by a 2.0 mm thickness microporous copper plate through silver brazing. The pool wall was fabricated from transparent Pyrex glass to allow a visualization study, and water was used as the working fluid. Experimental results confirmed that the porous artery structure provided individual flow paths for the liquid supply and vapor venting, and avoided the detrimental effects of the liquid/vapor counter flow. As a result, a maximum heat flux of 610 W/cm2 over a heating area of 0.78 cm2 was achieved with no indication of dryout, prior to reaching the heater design temperature limit. Following the experimental tests, the mechanisms responsible for the boiling critical heat flux and performance enhancement of the porous artery structure were analyzed.

  2. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plakman, J.C.

    1981-06-01

    The accuracy requirements and the status of the evaluated fission-product cross sections for fast reactors are reviewed; the work on calculating the sensitivity of the sodium void effect to fission-product cross sections is described; some results of the intercomparison of adjusted data sets for capture cross sections of fission-products (RCN-2A and CARNAVAL-IV) are discussed; the applicability of the maximum-likelihood method for the analysis of resolved resonance parameters for a large class of fission-product nuclides is demonstrated; the neutron cross sections for corrosion product 64 Ni are evaluated. Some results of post-irradiation examination of a loss-of-cooling experiment are given; the progress in testing the equipment and instrumentation for transient-overpower experiments is reported. The proceedings in the thermochemical investigations on uranium compounds with some fission-products are described. The creep behaviour of a heat of DIN 1.4948 parent metal is investigated with respect to the changes in strain with different test temperatures. Sodium smoke aerosols have been produced and analysed with respect to their aerodynamic behaviour and morphology. The two-phase local boiling experiments have been analysed to find criteria for the occurrence of different boiling regimes with the objection to deduce general dryout correlations

  3. Critical heat flux and flow pattern for water flow in annular geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J.-W.; Baek, W.-P.; Chang, S.H.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental study on critical heat flux (CHF) and two-phase flow visualization has been performed for water flow in internally-heated, vertical, concentric annuli under near atmospheric pressure. Tests have been done under stable forced-circulation, upward and downward flow conditions with three test sections of relatively large gap widths (heated length = 0.6 m, inner diameter 19 mm, outer diameter = 29, 35 and 51 mm). The outer wall of the test section was made up of the transparent Pyrex tube to allow the observation of flow patterns near the CHF occurrence. The CHF mechanism was changed in the order of flooding, churn-to-annular flow transition and local dryout under a large bubble in churn flow as the flow rate was increased from zero to higher values. Observed parametric trends are consistent with the previous understanding except that the CHF for downward flow is considerably lower than that for the upward flow. In addition to the experiment, selected CHF correlations for annuli are assessed based on 1156 experimental data from various sources. The Doerffer et al. (1994); Barnett (1966); Jannsen and Kervinen (1963); Levitan and Lantsman (1977) correlations show reasonable predictions for wide parameter ranges, among which the Doerffer et al. (1994) correlation shows the widest parameter ranges and a possibility of further improvement. However, there is no correlation predicting the low-pressure, low-flow CHF satisfactorily. (orig.)

  4. SAFETY ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY FOR AGED CANDU® 6 NUCLEAR REACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WOLFGANG HARTMANN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the Safety Analysis for CANDU® 6 nuclear reactors as affected by main Heat Transport System (HTS aging. Operational and aging related changes of the HTS throughout its lifetime may lead to restrictions in certain safety system settings and hence some restriction in performance under certain conditions. A step in confirming safe reactor operation is the tracking of relevant data and their corresponding interpretation by the use of appropriate thermalhydraulic analytic models. Safety analyses ranging from the assessment of safety limits associated with the prevention of intermittent fuel sheath dryout for a slow Loss of Regulation (LOR analysis and fission gas release after a fuel failure are summarized. Specifically for fission gas release, the thermalhydraulic analysis for a fresh core and an 11 Effective Full Power Years (EFPY aged core was summarized, leading to the most severe stagnation break sizes for the inlet feeder break and the channel failure time. Associated coolant conditions provide the input data for fuel analyses. Based on the thermalhydraulic data, the fission product inventory under normal operating conditions may be calculated for both fresh and aged cores, and the fission gas release may be evaluated during the transient. This analysis plays a major role in determining possible radiation doses to the public after postulated accidents have occurred.

  5. Large-scale in situ heater tests for hydrothermal characterization at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Wilder, D.G.; Nitao, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    To safely and permanently store high-level nuclear waste, the potential Yucca Mountain repository site must mitigate the release and transport of radionuclides for tens of thousands of years. In the failure scenario of greatest concern, water would contact a waste package, accelerate its failure rate, and eventually transport radionuclides to the water table. Our analyses indicate that the ambient hydrological system will be dominated by repository-heat-driven hydrothermal flow for tens of thousands of years. In situ heater tests are required to provide an understanding of coupled geomechanical-hydrothermal-geochemical behavior in the engineered and natural barriers under repository thermal loading conditions. In situ heater tests have been included in the Site Characterization Plan in response to regulatory requirements for site characterization and to support the validation of process models required to assess the total systems performance at the site. Because of limited time, some of the in situ tests will have to be accelerated relative to actual thermal loading conditions. We examine the trade-offs between the limited test duration and generating hydrothermal conditions applicable to repository performance during the entire thermal loading cycle, including heating (boiling and dry-out) and cooldown (re-wetting). For in situ heater tests to be applicable to actual repository conditions, a minimum heater test duration of 6-7 yr (including 4 yr of full-power heating) is required

  6. Transient analysis of ABWR reactor using a best estimate code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizokami, S.; Kitamura, H.; Mototani, A.; Ono, H.

    2004-01-01

    Since the recirculation pumps are mounted internally within the ABWR, core flow will decrease rapidly in the event of a loss of their driving force. A rapid reduction in core flow may cause the onset of boiling transition (BT). Therefore, in order to prevent the onset of BT, a motor-generator (MG) set is added to the power supply system of the reactor internal pump (RIP). Recent studies, however, have shown that dryout within a fuel assembly over a short time period will result in only a small rise in fuel cladding temperature and thus does not pose a threat to fuel integrity. In response to this finding, the standards committee of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) has proposed a post-BT standard which incorporates a cladding temperature criterion. If it is assumed that the MG-set is not added to the RIP power supply system, the result of the safety analysis shows the onset of BT with a subsequent rise in fuel cladding temperature. Although BT occurs under the conservative assumptions of this safety analysis, a possibility exists that BT will not occur under actual operating conditions. The best estimate code TRACG was used to show that BT does not occur and that fuel integrity can be sufficiently maintained under actual conditions. (author)

  7. PIUS principle and the SECURE reactor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannerz, K.

    1987-01-01

    The author introduces the SECURE reactor concept, a reactor intended for producing heat for district heating grids, desalination, and certain process industries. A detailed design of a 400 MWth plant has been completed and is being offered commercially. The authors present first, a summary of the current situation and then the design philosophy of the SECURE reactor concepts. The authors propose a design based on a light water reactor, as opposed to high temperature gas cooled reactor, but introduce new features which are designed to eliminate the element of human error in preparing for and handling emergencies. The authors propose two rules to avoid overheating, i.e.., the PIUS design principle, which are: to keep the core submerged in water; and to ensure that the rate of heat generation in the submerged core is low enough to avoid overheating of the fuel (dryout). The acronym PIUS stands for Process Inherent Ultimate Safety. A detailed system modeling is given of the PIUS primary system. The design of the plant is divided into two parts: the nuclear island, which is comprised of the concrete vessel and its contents; and the balance of the plant, which is comprised of all other components, including the turbine plant

  8. Transient burnout under rapid flow reduction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi

    1987-01-01

    Burnout characteristics were experimentally studied using uniformly heated tube and annular test sections under rapid flow reduction conditions. Observations indicated that the onset of burnout under a flow reduction transient is caused by the dryout of a liquid film on the heated surface. The decrease in burnout mass velocity at the channel inlet with increasing flow reduction rate is attributed to the fact that the vapor flow rate continues to increase and sustain the liquid film flow after the inlet flow rate reaches the steady-state burnout flow rate. This is because the movement of the boiling boundary cannot keep up with the rapid reduction of inlet flow rate. A burnout model for the local condition could be applied to the burnout phenomena with the flow reduction under pressures of 0.5 ∼ 3.9 MPa and flow reduction rates of 0.6 ∼ 35 %/s. Based on this model, a method to predict the burnout time under a flow reduction condition was presented. The calculated burnout times agreed well with experimental results obtained by some investigators. (author)

  9. Simulations and measurements of adiabatic annular flows in triangular, tight lattice nuclear fuel bundle model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, Abhishek, E-mail: asaxena@lke.mavt.ethz.ch [ETH Zurich, Laboratory for Nuclear Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Zboray, Robert [Laboratory for Thermal-hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Prasser, Horst-Michael [ETH Zurich, Laboratory for Nuclear Energy Systems, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zürich (Switzerland); Laboratory for Thermal-hydraulics, Nuclear Energy and Safety Department, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-04-01

    High conversion light water reactors (HCLWR) having triangular, tight-lattice fuels bundles could enable improved fuel utilization compared to present day LWRs. However, the efficient cooling of a tight lattice bundle has to be still proven. Major concern is the avoidance of high-quality boiling crisis (film dry-out) by the use of efficient functional spacers. For this reason, we have carried out experiments on adiabatic, air-water annular two-phase flows in a tight-lattice, triangular fuel bundle model using generic spacers. A high-spatial-resolution, non-intrusive measurement technology, cold neutron tomography, has been utilized to resolve the distribution of the liquid film thickness on the virtual fuel pin surfaces. Unsteady CFD simulations have also been performed to replicate and compare with the experiments using the commercial code STAR-CCM+. Large eddies have been resolved on the grid level to capture the dominant unsteady flow features expected to drive the liquid film thickness distribution downstream of a spacer while the subgrid scales have been modeled using the Wall Adapting Local Eddy (WALE) subgrid model. A Volume of Fluid (VOF) method, which directly tracks the interface and does away with closure relationship models for interfacial exchange terms, has also been employed. The present paper shows first comparison of the measurement with the simulation results.

  10. Behaviour of Type 316 steel in acidic sulphate solutions at 300-3500C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, J.F.

    1987-11-01

    Most cation resin beds in service in CEGB power stations, and particularly those in AGR stations, are regenerated with sulphuric acid. Slippage results in trace levels of sulphate passing into the boilers. Previous work has shown that in once-through boilers, feedwater containing 2 μg kg -1 of sulphate could concentrate at localized dry-out sites to form solutions having from 0.1 to 7 wt% of solute. It has been shown also that if the sulphate was present in an acidic solution and it were to be in contact with Type 316 austentitic superheater steel, then intergranular corrosion and intergranular cracking could occur. Previous data, including some unreported results, are tabulated and discussed. The current work had two main objectives. The first was to extend the previous investigations to examine a wider range of acidic sulphate concentrations (as indicated by calculations on the concentration of solute in feedwater), the influence of environment pH, and the effect of sensitization of specimens. The second objective was primarily concerned with elucidating the causes of scatter in the results. This involved examining the influence of electrode potential, the ageing characteristics of the environment, and the method of applying stress to the specimens. (author)

  11. SPLOSH III. A code for calculating reactivity and flow transients in CSGHWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halsall, M.J.; Course, A.F.; Sidell, J.

    1979-09-01

    SPLOSH is a time dependent, one dimensional, finite difference (in time and space) coupled neutron kinetics and thermal hydraulics code for studying pressurised faults and control transients in water reactor systems. An axial single channel model with equally spaced mesh intervals is used to represent the neutronics of the reactor core. A radial finite difference model is used for heat conduction through the fuel pin, gas gap and can. Appropriate convective, boiling or post-dryout heat transfer correlations are used at the can-coolant interface. The hydraulics model includes the important features of the SGHWR primary loop including 'slave' channels in parallel with the 'mean' channel. Standard mass, energy and momentum equations are solved explicitly. Circuit features modelled include pumps, spray cooling and the SGHWR steam drum. Perturbations to almost any feature of the circuit model may be specified by the user although blowdown calculations resulting in critical or reversed flows are not permitted. Automatic reactor trips may be defined and the ensuing actions of moderator dumping and rod firing can be specified. (UK)

  12. Parametric study of boiling heat transfer in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, B.; Jones, B.G.; Pan, C.

    1996-01-01

    Detailed numerical modeling and parametric variation studies were conducted on boiling heat transfer processes in porous deposits with emphasis on applications associated with light water nuclear power reactor systems. The processes of boiling heat transfer in the porous corrosion deposits typically involve phase changes in finite volumetric regions in the porous media. The study examined such processes in two porous media configurations, without chimneys (homogeneous porous structures) and with chimneys (heterogeneous porous structures). A 1-D model and a 2-D model were developed to simulate two-phase flows with phase changes, without dry-out, inside the porous media for both structural configurations. For closure of the governing equations, an empirical correlation of the evaporation rate for phase changes inside the porous media was introduced. In addition, numerical algorithms were developed to solve the coupled nonlinear equations of mass, momentum, energy, capillary pressure, and evaporation rate. The distributions of temperature, thermodynamic saturation, liquid pressure, vapor pressure, liquid velocity, and vapor velocity were predicted. Furthermore, the effects of heat flux, system pressure, porosity, particle diameter, chimney population density, chimney radius, and crud thickness on the all superheat, critical heat flux, and minimum saturation were examined. The predictions were found to be in good agreement with the available experimental results

  13. Requirements for future developments from utility point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordloef, S.; Besch, O.A.

    1995-01-01

    On the BWR side the development of fuel has continued and during the recent years many new designs have entered the market such as ABB Atom SVEA-96, Siemens Atrium, GE-12 etc. These new designs provide new possibilities to optimize the core design and also give better utilization of the uranium. The future development work should emphasize on less susceptibility to severe secondary damage and also higher resistance to debris failure. Another utility demand is to increase the thermal margins such as dryout and PCI performance in order to avoid any restrictions during load, follow up and start up conditions. For three decades the PWR fuel design and the selection of material led to a satisfying results in the overall operational behaviour, which resulted in higher utilization of the fuel and materials. At the beginning of the seventieth, the utilities started with burnups of 30 MWd/kg u . Nowadays, burnups of 42 MWd/kg u are reached and burnups of 50 MWd/kg u as transition burnups are designed. The increase of enrichment from 3.0 w/o U-235 to 4.0 w/o U-235, the change of guide thimble and spacer material from stainless steel or inconel to zircalloy alloys and the different fuel core loading strategy from out-in-in to in-in-out improved the use of fuel and reduced the number of fresh fuel assemblies for reloads. (orig./HP)

  14. Modeling of annular two-phase flow using a unified CFD approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Haipeng, E-mail: haipengl@kth.se; Anglart, Henryk, E-mail: henryk@kth.se

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Annular two-phase flow has been modeled using a unified CFD approach. • Liquid film was modeled based on a two-dimensional thin film assumption. • Both Eulerian and Lagrangian methods were employed for the gas core flow modeling. - Abstract: A mechanistic model of annular flow with evaporating liquid film has been developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The model is employing a separate solver with two-dimensional conservation equations to predict propagation of a thin boiling liquid film on solid walls. The liquid film model is coupled to a solver of three-dimensional conservation equations describing the gas core, which is assumed to contain a saturated mixture of vapor and liquid droplets. Both the Eulerian–Eulerian and the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach are used to describe the droplet and vapor motion in the gas core. All the major interaction phenomena between the liquid film and the gas core flow have been accounted for, including the liquid film evaporation as well as the droplet deposition and entrainment. The resultant unified framework for annular flow has been applied to the steam-water flow with conditions typical for a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). The simulation results for the liquid film flow rate show good agreement with the experimental data, with the potential to predict the dryout occurrence based on criteria of critical film thickness or critical film flow rate.

  15. Modeling of annular two-phase flow using a unified CFD approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haipeng; Anglart, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Annular two-phase flow has been modeled using a unified CFD approach. • Liquid film was modeled based on a two-dimensional thin film assumption. • Both Eulerian and Lagrangian methods were employed for the gas core flow modeling. - Abstract: A mechanistic model of annular flow with evaporating liquid film has been developed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The model is employing a separate solver with two-dimensional conservation equations to predict propagation of a thin boiling liquid film on solid walls. The liquid film model is coupled to a solver of three-dimensional conservation equations describing the gas core, which is assumed to contain a saturated mixture of vapor and liquid droplets. Both the Eulerian–Eulerian and the Eulerian–Lagrangian approach are used to describe the droplet and vapor motion in the gas core. All the major interaction phenomena between the liquid film and the gas core flow have been accounted for, including the liquid film evaporation as well as the droplet deposition and entrainment. The resultant unified framework for annular flow has been applied to the steam-water flow with conditions typical for a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR). The simulation results for the liquid film flow rate show good agreement with the experimental data, with the potential to predict the dryout occurrence based on criteria of critical film thickness or critical film flow rate.

  16. The development of evaporative liquid film model for analysis of passive containment cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hong June; Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Hee Cheol; Kim, Young In; Chang, Moon Hee

    2000-07-01

    An analytical model was developed to simulate behavior of the liquid film formed on the outside surface of the steel containment vessel of PCCS including the ellipsoidal dome and the vertical wall. The model was coupled with CFX code using the user subroutines provided by the code, and a series of numerical calculations were performed to evaluate the evaporative heat transfer coefficient at the interface. Numerical results for Sherwood number and evaporative heat transfer coefficient were compared with the experimental data. The results were in good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated liquid film thickness showed good agreement with that of Sun except an upper portion of the channel. The model was applied to the full scale of PCCS to investigate the effects of dome and chimney on the evaporation rate. The results showed that the heat transfer coefficient in the dome region, where the flow cross-sectional area decreases and the swirling occurs, was lower than that of the vertical annulus region. The calculated evaporative heat transfer coefficient was about 20 times larger than that of the dry cooling. Sensitivity studies on the gap size and the wall temperature were also performed to figure out their effects on the heat transfer coefficient and inlet air average velocity. Through the analysis of the dryout point, the minimum liquid film flow rate to cover the entire surface of the vessel was estimated

  17. Identification and assessment of BWR in-vessel severe accident mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.A.; Cleveland, J.C.; Kress, T.S.; Petek, M.

    1992-10-01

    This report provides the results of work carried out in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Accident Management Research Program to develop a technical basis for evaluating the effectiveness and feasibility of current and proposed strategies for boiling water reactor (BWR) severe accident management. First, the findings of an assessment of the current status of accident management strategies for the mitigation of in-vessel events for BWR severe accident sequences are described. This includes a review of the BWR Owners' Group Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGSs) to determine the extent to which they currently address the characteristic events of an unmitigated severe accident and to provide the basis for recommendations for enhancement of accident management procedures. Second, where considered necessary, new candidate accident management strategies are proposed for mitigation of the late-phase (after core damage has occurred) events. Finally, recommendations are made for consideration of additional strategies where warranted, and two of the four candidate strategies identified by this effort are assessed in detail: (1) preparation of a boron solution for reactor vessel refill should control blade damage occur during a period of temporary core dryout and (2) containment flooding to maintain the core debris within the reactor vessel if the injection systems cannot be restored

  18. Reference Computational Meshing Strategy for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Departure from Nucleate BoilingReference Computational Meshing Strategy for Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Departure from Nucleate Boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointer, William David [ORNL

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this effort is to establish a strategy and process for generation of suitable computational mesh for computational fluid dynamics simulations of departure from nucleate boiling in a 5 by 5 fuel rod assembly held in place by PWR mixing vane spacer grids. This mesh generation process will support ongoing efforts to develop, demonstrate and validate advanced multi-phase computational fluid dynamics methods that enable more robust identification of dryout conditions and DNB occurrence.Building upon prior efforts and experience, multiple computational meshes were developed using the native mesh generation capabilities of the commercial CFD code STAR-CCM+. These meshes were used to simulate two test cases from the Westinghouse 5 by 5 rod bundle facility. The sensitivity of predicted quantities of interest to the mesh resolution was then established using two evaluation methods, the Grid Convergence Index method and the Least Squares method. This evaluation suggests that the Least Squares method can reliably establish the uncertainty associated with local parameters such as vector velocity components at a point in the domain or surface averaged quantities such as outlet velocity magnitude. However, neither method is suitable for characterization of uncertainty in global extrema such as peak fuel surface temperature, primarily because such parameters are not necessarily associated with a fixed point in space. This shortcoming is significant because the current generation algorithm for identification of DNB event conditions relies on identification of such global extrema. Ongoing efforts to identify DNB based on local surface conditions will address this challenge

  19. Analysis of power variation in a CANDU-6 with a loss of moderator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Y.

    2008-01-01

    A loss of heavy water in a postulated small failure in the horizontal unpressurized calandria vessel of a CANDU-6 reactor will lead to a drop in the moderator level in the reactor core. The STEPBACK and SETBACK functions at the initial moment of the drop in moderator level ensure a reactor shutdown and a reduction in total reactor power during this 900 seconds postulated transient. If the STEPBACK and SETBACK functions are unavailable, the reactor's regulating system will try to compensate for the negative reactivity resulting from the loss of the moderator. This kind of compensation will lead to power distortions from top to bottom in the reactor core. .Comparisons of different moderator leakage rates were used in the analysis to determine the relationships between the power and the moderator leakage rates. Maximum bundle and channel powers obtained were insensitive to the moderator leakage rate. .In a complete analysis for a moderator leakage rate of 40 1/s, it was found that, without the STEPBACK and SETBACK functions, serious power distortions would occur during the 900 seconds transient. The maximization of bundle and channel power during this transient happened in the bottom part of the reactor , and the regulating system worsened this power distortion. .From the above analysis, it was concluded that the maximum bundle power attained during the loss of the moderator was 1.18% of its initial value. The risk of bundle dryout was, therefore, quite small. (author)

  20. New models of droplet deposition and entrainment for prediction of CHF in cylindrical rod bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Haibin, E-mail: hb-zhang@xjtu.edu.cn [School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom); Hewitt, G.F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2BY (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • New models of droplet deposition and entrainment in rod bundles is developed. • A new phenomenological model to predict the CHF in rod bundles is described. • The present model is well able to predict CHF in rod bundles. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a new set of model of droplet deposition and entrainment in cylindrical rod bundles based on the previously proposed model for annuli (effectively a “one-rod” bundle) (2016a). These models make it possible to evaluate the differences of the rates of droplet deposition and entrainment for the respective rods and for the outer tube by taking into account the geometrical characteristics of the rod bundles. Using these models, a phenomenological model to predict the CHF (critical heat flux) for upward annular flow in vertical rod bundles is described. The performance of the model is tested against the experimental data of Becker et al. (1964) for CHF in 3-rod and 7-rod bundles. These data include tests in which only the rods were heated and data for simultaneous uniform and non-uniform heating of the rods and the outer tube. It was shown that the predicted CHFs by the present model agree well with the experimental data and with the experimental observation that dryout occurred first on the outer rods in 7-rod bundles. It is expected that the methodology used will be generally applicable in the prediction of CHF in rod bundles.

  1. A study of the dispersed flow interfacial heat transfer model of RELAP5/MOD2.5 and RELAP5/MOD3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreani, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich (Switzerland); Analytis, G.T.; Aksan, S.N. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    The model of interfacial heat transfer for the dispersed flow regime used in the RELAP5 computer codes is investigated in the present paper. Short-transient calculations of two low flooding rate tube reflooding experiments have been performed, where the hydraulic conditions and the heat input to the vapour in the post-dryout region were controlled for the predetermined position of the quench front. Both RELAP5/MOD2.5 and RELAP5/MOD3 substantially underpredicted the exit vapour temperature. The mass flow rate and quality, however, were correct and the heat input to the vapour was larger than the actual one. As the vapour superheat at the tube exit depends on the balance between the heat input from the wall and the heat exchange with the droplets, the discrepancy between the calculated and the measured exit vapour temperature suggested that the inability of both codes to predict the vapour superheat in the dispersed flow region is due to the overprediction of the interfacial heat transfer rate.

  2. Core heatup prediction during SB LOCA with RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 Gamma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzer, I.; Mavko, B.; Petelin, S.

    2001-01-01

    The paper focuses on the phenomena leading to core uncovering and heatup during the SB LOCA and the ability of RELAP5/MOD3.2.2 Gamma to predict core overheating. The code prediction has been compared to the three experiments, one conducted on the separate effect test facility NEPTUN in Switzerland and the other two conducted on two integral test facilities, PMK-2 in Hungary and PACTEL facility in Finland. In the case of a series of boiloff experiments performed on the NEPTUN test facility the influence of the two correlations available in MOD3.2.2 Gamma for determining interphase drag has been studied. In the case of IAEA-SPE-4 experiment simulation on PMK-2 facility the main goal of the analysis was to study the adequate modeling of the hexagonal core channel with 19-rod bundle and the phenomena during the core uncovering. The third analyzed experiment, OECD-ISP-33, was performed on PACTEL facility to study different natural circulation modes during SB LOCA. The analysis also focused on the final stage of this SB LOCA experiment, when core dryout and heatup was observed due to gradual emptying of the primary system. Following the experience the appropriate modeling options have been used to achieve better representation of the important phenomena during the SB LOCA.(author)

  3. The testing of thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes using a large block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.; Wilder, D.G.; Blink, J.A.; Blair, S.C.; Buscheck, T.A.; Chesnut, D.A.; Glassley, W.E.; Lee, K.; Roberts, J.J.

    1994-01-01

    The radioactive decay heat from nuclear waste packages may, depending on the thermal load, create coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) processes in the near-field environment of a repository. A group of tests on a large block (LBT) are planned to provide a timely opportunity to test and calibrate some of the TMHC model concepts. The LBT is advantageous for testing and verifying model concepts because the boundary conditions are controlled, and the block can be characterized before and after the experiment. A block of Topopah Spring tuff of about 3 x 3 x 4.5 m will be sawed and isolated at Fran Ridge, Nevada Test Site. Small blocks of the rock adjacent to the large block will be collected for laboratory testing of some individual thermal-mechanical, hydrological, and chemical processes. A constant load of about 4 MPa will be applied to the top and sides of the large block. The sides will be sealed with moisture and thermal barriers. The large block will be heated with one heater in each borehole and guard heaters on the sides so that a dry-out zone and a condensate zone will exist simultaneously. Temperature, moisture content, pore pressure, chemical composition, stress and displacement will be measured throughout the block during the heating and cool-down phases. The results from the experiments on small blocks and the tests on the large block will provide a better understanding of some concepts of the coupled TMHC processes

  4. Transient critical heat flux under flow coast-down in vertical annulus with non-uniform heat flux distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, S.K.; Chun, S.Y.; Choi, K.Y.; Yang, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    An experimental study on transient critical heat flux (CHF) under flow coast-down has been performed for water flow in a non-uniformly heated vertical annulus under low flow and a wide range of pressure conditions. The objectives of this study are to systematically investigate the effect of the flow transient on the CHF and to compare the transient CHF with steady state CHF. The transient CHF experiments have been performed for three kinds of flow transient modes based on the coast-down data of the Kori 3/4 nuclear power plant reactor coolant pump. Most of the CHFs occurred in the annular-mist flow regime. Thus, it means that the possible CHF mechanism might be the liquid film dryout in the annular-mist flow regime. For flow transient mode with the smallest flow reduction rate, the time-to-CHF is the largest. At the same inlet subcooling, system pressure and heat flux, the effect of the initial mass flux on the critical mass flux can be negligible. However, the effect of the initial mass flux on the time-to-CHF becomes large as the heat flux decreases. Usually, the critical mass flux is large for slow flow reduction. There is a pressure effect on the ratio of the transient CHF data to steady state CHF data. Some conventional correlations show relatively better CHF prediction results for high system pressure, high quality and slow transient modes than for low system pressure, low quality and fast transient modes. (author)

  5. Bubble induced flow field modulation for pool boiling enhancement over a tubular surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghupathi, P. A.; Joshi, I. M.; Jaikumar, A.; Emery, T. S.; Kandlikar, S. G.

    2017-06-01

    We demonstrate the efficacy of using a strategically placed enhancement feature to modify the trajectory of bubbles nucleating on a horizontal tubular surface to increase both the critical heat flux (CHF) and the heat transfer coefficient (HTC). The CHF on a plain tube is shown to be triggered by a local dryout at the bottom of the tube due to vapor agglomeration. To mitigate this effect and delay CHF, the nucleating bubble trajectory is modified by incorporating a bubble diverter placed axially at the bottom of the tube. The nucleating bubble at the base of the diverter experiences a tangential evaporation momentum force (EMF) which causes the bubble to grow sideways away from the tube and avoid localized bubble patches that are responsible for CHF initiation. High speed imaging confirmed the lateral displacement of the bubbles away from the diverter closely matched with the theoretical predictions using EMF and buoyancy forces. Since the EMF is stronger at higher heat fluxes, bubble displacement increases with heat flux and results in the formation of separate liquid-vapor pathways wherein the liquid enters almost unobstructed at the bottom and the vapor bubble leaves sideways. Experimental results yielded CHF and HTC enhancements of ˜60% and ˜75%, respectively, with the diverter configuration when compared to a plain tube. This work can be used for guidance in developing enhancement strategies to effectively modulate the liquid-vapor flow around the heater surface at various locations to enhance HTC and CHF.

  6. Experimental comparison and visualization of in-tube continuous and pulsating flow boiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Meyer, Knud Erik

    2018-01-01

    This experimental study investigated the application of fluid flow pulsations for in-tube flow boiling heat transfer enhancement in an 8 mm smooth round tube made of copper. The fluid flow pulsations were introduced by a flow modulating expansion device and were compared with continuous flow...... cycle time (7 s) reduced the time-averaged heat transfer coefficients by 1.8% and 2.3% for the low and high subcooling, respectively, due to significant dry-out when the flow-modulating expansion valve was closed. Furthermore, the flow pulsations were visualized by high-speed camera to assist...... generated by a stepper-motor expansion valve in terms of the time-averaged heat transfer coefficient. The cycle time ranged from 1 s to 7 s for the pulsations, the time-averaged refrigerant mass flux ranged from 50 kg m−2 s−1 to 194 kg m−2 s−1 and the time-averaged heat flux ranged from 1.1 kW m−2 to 30.6 k...

  7. Entrainment and deposition rates of droplets in annular two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kataoka, I.; Ishii, M.

    1986-01-01

    The droplet entrainment from a liquid film is important to the mass, momentum, and energy transfer process in annular two-phase flow. For example, the amount of entrainment as well as the rate of entrainment significantly affect the occurrences of the dryout, whereas the post-CHF heat transfer depends strongly on the entrainment and droplet sizes. Despite the importance of the entrainment rate, there have been no satisfactory correlations available in the literature. In view of these, correlations for entrainment rate covering both entrance region and equilibrium region were developed from a simple model in collaboration with data. Results show that the entrainment rate varies considerably in the entrainment-development region. However, at a certain distance from an inlet it attains an equilibrium value. A simple approximate correlation was obtained for the equilibrium state where entrainment rate and deposition rate becomes equal. The result indicates that the equilibrium entrainment rate is proportional to Weber number based on the hydraulic diameter of a tube. 34 references, 14 figures

  8. Modeling and evaluating proliferation resistance of nuclear energy systems for strategy switching proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yue, M.; Cheng, L.-Y.; Bari, R.A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Sensitivity analysis is carried out for the model and physical input parameters. ► Interphase drag has minor effect on the dryout heat flux (DHF) in 1D configuration. ► Model calibration on pressure drop experiments fails to improve prediction of DHF. ► Calibrated classical model provides the best agreement with DHF data from 1D tests. ► Further validation of drag models requires data from 2D and 3D experiments on DHF. - Abstract: This paper reports a Markov model based approach to systematically evaluating the proliferation resistance (PR) of nuclear energy systems (NESs). The focus of the study is on the development of the Markov models for a class of complex PR scenarios, i.e., mixed covert/overt strategy switching proliferation, for NESs with two modes of material flow, batch and continuous. In particular, a set of diversion and/or breakout scenarios and covert/overt misuse scenarios are studied in detail for an Example Sodium Fast Reactor (ESFR) system. Both probabilistic and deterministic PR measures are calculated using a software tool that implements the proposed approach and can be used to quantitatively compare proliferation resistant characteristics of different scenarios for a given NES, according to the computed PR measures

  9. ADORE-GA: Genetic algorithm variant of the ADORE algorithm for ROP detector layout optimization in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kastanya, Doddy

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► ADORE is an algorithm for CANDU ROP Detector Layout Optimization. ► ADORE-GA is a Genetic Algorithm variant of the ADORE algorithm. ► Robustness test of ADORE-GA algorithm is presented in this paper. - Abstract: The regional overpower protection (ROP) systems protect CANDU® reactors against overpower in the fuel that could reduce the safety margin-to-dryout. The overpower could originate from a localized power peaking within the core or a general increase in the global core power level. The design of the detector layout for ROP systems is a challenging discrete optimization problem. In recent years, two algorithms have been developed to find a quasi optimal solution to this detector layout optimization problem. Both of these algorithms utilize the simulated annealing (SA) algorithm as their optimization engine. In the present paper, an alternative optimization algorithm, namely the genetic algorithm (GA), has been implemented as the optimization engine. The implementation is done within the ADORE algorithm. Results from evaluating the effects of using various mutation rates and crossover parameters are presented in this paper. It has been demonstrated that the algorithm is sufficiently robust in producing similar quality solutions.

  10. Conical evaporator and liquid-return wick model for vapor anode, multi-tube AMTEC cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2000-01-01

    A detailed, 2-D thermal-hydraulic model for conical and flat evaporators and the liquid sodium return artery in PX-type AMTEC cells was developed, which predicts incipient dryout at the evaporator wick surface. Results obtained at fixed hot and cold side temperatures showed that the flat evaporator provided a slightly lower vapor pressure, but reached the capillary limit at higher temperature. The loss of performance due to partial recondensation over up to 20% of the wick surface of the deep conical evaporators was offset by the larger surface area available for evaporation, providing a slightly higher vapor pressure. Model results matched the PX-3A cell's experimental data of electrical power output, but the predicted temperature of the cell's conical evaporator was consistently ~50 K above measurements. A preliminary analysis indicated that sodium vapor leakage in the cell (through microcracks in the BASE tubes' walls or brazes) may explain the difference between predicted and measured evaporator temperatures in PX-3A. .

  11. Simulation of a postulated 2% cold leg break in Angra 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmieiri, Elcio Tadeu; Azevedo, Carlos Vicente Goulart de; Aronne, Ivan Dionysio

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the simulation of a 2% break in the cold leg pipe of Angra 2 nuclear power plant, with the computer code RELAP5/Mod3.3. The main boundary conditions specified for this simulation were: no injection from high pressure injection system; enhanced depressurization of the primary system by opening the pressure operated relief valve (PORV) and the safety relief valve (SRV) when core temperature reaches circa 100 K above saturation; and accumulator injection starting at 2.7 MPa. The specific objectives to be addressed with this simulation are: the core boil-off and dryout at relatively high pressure in the primary system; the phenomena during enhanced primary depressurization; the effectiveness of hot leg accumulator injection into the partially uncovered rod bundle; and the core rewetting. The results obtained were compared with the Lobi A1-93 test, which was performed under the same boundary conditions. This activity was executed in the scope of IAEA research project Evaluation of Uncertainties in the Simulation of Accidents in Angra 2 using RELAP5/MOD3 Code Applying CIAU Methodology (author)

  12. CONSOLIDATION OF K BASIN SLUDGE DATA AND EXPERIENCES ON AGGLOMERATE FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HILL SR

    2010-06-10

    The formation of high sludge strength agglomerates is a key concern to the Sludge Treatment Project (STP) to ensure the sludge can be retrieved after planned storage for up to 10 years in Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSC) at T Plant. This report addresses observations of agglomerate formation, conditions that the data shows lead to agglomeration, the frequency of agglomerate formation and postulated physiochemical mechanisms that may lead to agglomeration. Although the exact underlying chemistry of K Basin sludge agglomerate formation is not known, the factors that lead to agglomeration formation, based on observations, are as follows: (1) High Total Uranium Content (i.e., sample homogeneity and influence from other constituents); (2) Distribution of Uranium Phases (i.e., extent of conversion from uraninite to uranium oxide hydroxide compounds); (3) Sample Dry-out (loss of cover water); (4) Elevated temperature; (5) Solubility ofU(IV) phases vs. U(VI) phases; and (6) Long storage times. Agglomerated sludge has occurred infrequently and has only been observed in four laboratory samples, five samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (performed for 7 to 10 hours at {approx}185 C and 225 psig), and indirectly during six sampling events in the KE Basin. In the four laboratory samples where agglomerates were observed, the agglomerates exhibited high shear strength and the sample container typically had to be broken to remove the solids. The total uranium content (dry basis) for the four samples (KE Pit, KC-2/3 SS, KC-2/3 M250 and 96-13) were {approx}8 wt%, {approx}59.0 wt%, 68.3 wt% and 82 wt%. The agglomerates that were present during the six sampling events were undoubtedly disturbed and easily broken apart during sample collection, thus no agglomerates were observed in subsequent laboratory analyses. The highest shear strengths measured for K Basin sludge samples were obtained after hydrothermal treatment (7 to 10 hr at 185 C) of high-uranium-content KE

  13. An analytical study of thermo-hydrodynamic behaviour of the reflood-phase during a LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murao, Y.

    1977-12-01

    The objectives of this study are - the check of the quench model proposed by the author and T. Sudoh, - the establishment of the thermo-hydrodynamics downstream from the quench front, and - the stabilization of the numerical calculations. In order to study these therms, the new version of the reflood analysis code 'REFLA-1D' was developed. The quench modes were classified into the following three types: 1) Liquid column type (rewetting by subcooled water), 2) Dryout type (annular flow type, rewetting by saturated water), and 3) Rewetting type (entire surface temperature higher than rewetting temperature). For the thermo-hydrodynamic model downstream from the quench front, the flow pattern was divided into the five regimes: 1) Subcooled film boiling regime, 2) Transition flow regime, 3) Dispersed flow regime, 4) Superheated steam flow regime, and 5) Rewetted regime. To stabilze the numerical calculation and shorten the computing time, the Lagrangian form of the energy equation of gase phase and dispersed flow region was used instead of the Eulerian form. Considerably close agreement between three PWR-FLECHT tests and the calculated results for the critical Weber number Wec=1.0 was obtained for fuel clad surface temperature and quench time except in earlier stage before turnaround, but poor agreement for the heat transfer characteristics in the transition flow region defined between the quench front and the dispersed flow region. The calculation was relatively stable and the computing time is about the same as a real time for a IBM 370-158 computer. (orig.) [de

  14. Post-accident heat removal research: A state of the art review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, U.; Schulenberg, T.

    1983-11-01

    For a realistic assessment of the consequence of extremely unlikely reactor accidents resulting in core degradation or core meltdown key questions are how to remove the decay heat from the reactor system and how to retain the radioactive core debris within the containment. Usually, this complex of questions is referred to as Post-Accident Heat Removal (PAHR). In this article the research work on PAHR performed by various institutions during the last decade has been reviewed. The main results have been summarized under the chapter headings ''Accident Scenarios,'' - ''Core Debris Accommodation Concepts,'' and ''PAHR Topics.'' Particular emphasis has been placed on the presentation of the following problems: characteristics and coolability of solid core debris in the vector vessel, heat removal from molten pools of core material, and core-melt interaction with structural materials. Some unresolved or insufficiently answered questions relating to special ''PAHR Topics'' have been mentioned or discussed at the end of the particular Chapter. Problem areas of major uncertainty have been identified and listed at the end of the review article. They include the following subjects: formation of debris beds and bed characteristics, post dryout behaviour of particle beds, long-term availability and proper location of heat sinks, creep rupture of structures under high thermal loads. (orig.) [de

  15. Liquid films and droplet deposition in a BWR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damsohn, M.

    2011-01-01

    In the upper part of boiling water reactors (BWR) the flow regime is dominated by a steam-water droplet flow with liquid films on the nuclear fuel rod, the so called (wispy) annular flow regime. The film thickness and liquid flow rate distribution around the fuel rod play an important role especially in regard to so called dryout, which is the main phenomenon limiting the thermal power of a fuel assembly. The deposition of droplets in the liquid film is important, because this process sustains the liquid film and delays dryout. Functional spacers with different vane shapes have been used in recent decades to enhance droplet deposition and thus create more favorable conditions for heat removal. In this thesis the behavior of liquid films and droplet deposition in the annular flow regime in BWR bundles is addressed by experiments in an adiabatic flow at nearly ambient pressure. The experimental setup consists of a vertical channel with the cross-section resembling a pair of neighboring subchannels of a fuel rod bundle. Within this double subchannel an annular flow is established with a gas-water mixture. The impact of functional spacers on the annular flow behavior is studied closely. Parameter variations comprise gas and liquid flow rates, gas density and spacer shape. The setup is instrumented with a newly developed liquid film sensor that measures the electrical conductance between electrodes flush to the wall with high temporal and spatial resolution. Advanced post-processing methods are used to investigate the dynamic behavior of liquid films and droplet deposition. The topic is also assessed numerically by means of single-phase Reynolds-Averaged-Navier-Stokes CFD simulations of the flow in the gas core. For this the commercial code STAR-CCM+ is used coupled with additional models for the liquid film distribution and droplet motion. The results of the experiments show that the liquid film is quite evenly distributed around the circumference of the fuel rods. The

  16. Comparison of Two Phase Pressure Drop Models in 1-D Top Flooded Debris Bed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Moon Eon; Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Eun ho; Park, Hyun Sun

    2016-01-01

    The dry out of coolant inside debris bed can be considered as the limitation of cooling in the conservative point of view and the heat flux through whole bed at the situation is named as Dryout Heat Flux (DHF). The modeling of DHF for debris bed started from early 1980s by several researchers. It is known that DHF mainly occurs by hydrodynamic limitation inside porous media. Therefore, there have been following attempts to capture flow resistance in porous media, precisely. Up to date, although there are about seven pressure drop models available in literatures, it is hard to find comparison of those models with a wide range of DHF experimental data. The one attempt[9] was conducted in 2013, but due to lack of consideration of the capillary pressure in his work, the DHF values that he calculated seem to be underestimated, especially in the range of the small particle diameter cases. In this research, the importance of capillary pressure in the comparison of pressure drop model with experimental data was checked and model selection among pressure drop models for the DHF calculation was also conducted. The model comparison with 108 experimental data from various conditions has been conducted and the Schmidt model shows the best agreement to the experimental data although Reed, Rahman model also show similar results.

  17. Comparison of Two Phase Pressure Drop Models in 1-D Top Flooded Debris Bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Moon Eon; Park, Jin Ho; Kim, Eun ho; Park, Hyun Sun [POSTECH, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The dry out of coolant inside debris bed can be considered as the limitation of cooling in the conservative point of view and the heat flux through whole bed at the situation is named as Dryout Heat Flux (DHF). The modeling of DHF for debris bed started from early 1980s by several researchers. It is known that DHF mainly occurs by hydrodynamic limitation inside porous media. Therefore, there have been following attempts to capture flow resistance in porous media, precisely. Up to date, although there are about seven pressure drop models available in literatures, it is hard to find comparison of those models with a wide range of DHF experimental data. The one attempt[9] was conducted in 2013, but due to lack of consideration of the capillary pressure in his work, the DHF values that he calculated seem to be underestimated, especially in the range of the small particle diameter cases. In this research, the importance of capillary pressure in the comparison of pressure drop model with experimental data was checked and model selection among pressure drop models for the DHF calculation was also conducted. The model comparison with 108 experimental data from various conditions has been conducted and the Schmidt model shows the best agreement to the experimental data although Reed, Rahman model also show similar results.

  18. An investigation of core liquid level depression in small break loss-of-coolant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.R.; Watkins, J.C.; Motley, F.E.; Stumpf, H.; Chen, Y.S.

    1991-08-01

    Core liquid level depression can result in partial core dryout and heatup early in a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) transient. Such behavior occurs when steam, trapped in the upper regions of the reactor primary system (between the loop seal and the core inventory), moves coolant out of the core region and uncovers the rod upper elevations. The net result is core liquid level depression. Core liquid level depression and subsequent core heatups are investigated using subscale data from the ROSA-IV Program's 1/48-scale Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and the 1/1705-scale Semiscale facility. Both facilities are Westinghouse-type, four-loop, pressurized water reactor simulators. The depression phenomena and factors which influence the minimum core level are described and illustrated using examples from the data. Analyses of the subject experiments, conducted using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 (Version 12.7) thermal-hydraulic code, are also described and summarized. Finally, the response of a typical Westinghouse four-loop plant (RESAR-3S) was calculated to qualitatively study coal liquid level depression in a full-scale system. 31 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs

  19. CANDU fuel bundle deformation modelling with COMSOL multiphysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.S.; Lewis, B.J.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The deformation behaviour of a CANDU fuel bundle was modelled. ► The model has been developed on a commercial finite-element platform. ► Pellet/sheath interaction and end-plate restraint effects were considered. ► The model was benchmarked against the BOW code and a variable-load experiment. - Abstract: A model to describe deformation behaviour of a CANDU 37-element bundle has been developed under the COMSOL Multiphysics finite-element platform. Beam elements were applied to the fuel elements (composed of fuel sheaths and pellets) and endplates in order to calculate the bowing behaviour of the fuel elements. This model is important to help assess bundle-deformation phenomena, which may lead to more restrictive coolant flow through the sub-channels of the horizontally oriented bundle. The bundle model was compared to the BOW code for the occurrence of a dry-out patch, and benchmarked against an out-reactor experiment with a variable load on an outer fuel element.

  20. Program for accident and incident management support, AIMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Putra, M.A.

    1993-12-01

    A prototype of an advisory computer program is presented which could be used in monitoring and analyzing an ongoing incident in a nuclear power plant. The advisory computer program, called the Accident and Incident Management Support (AIMS), focuses on processing a set of data that is to be transmitted from a nuclear power plant to a national or regional emergency center during an incident. The AIMS program will assess the reactor conditions by processing the measured plant parameters. The applied model of the power plant contains a level of complexity that is comparable with the simplified plant model that the power plant operator uses. A standardized decay heat function and a steam water property library is used in the integral balance equations for mass and energy. A simulation of the station blackout accident of the Borssele plant is used to test the program. The program predicts successively: (1) the time of dryout of the steam generators, (2) the time of saturation of the primary system, and (3) the onset of core uncovery. The coolant system with the actual water levels will be displayed on the screen. (orig./HP)

  1. Industrial aspects of gas-liquid two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hewitt, G.F.

    1977-01-01

    The lecture begins by reviewing the various types of plant in which two phase flow occurs. Specifically, boiling plant, condensing plant and pipelines are reviewed, and the various two phase flow problems occurring in them are described. Of course, many other kinds of chemical engineering plant involve two phase flow, but are somewhat outside the scope of this lecture. This would include distillation columns, vapor-liquid separators, absorption towers etc. Other areas of industrial two phase flow which have been omitted for space reasons from this lecture are those concerned with gas/solids, liquid/solid and liquid/liquid flows. There then follows a description of some of the two phase flow processes which are relevant in industrial equipment and where special problems occur. The topics chosen are as follows: (1) pressure drop; (2) horizontal tubes - separation effects non-uniformites in heat transfer coefficient, effect of bends on dryout; (3) multicomponent mixtures - effects in pool boiling, mass transfer effects in condensation and Marangoni effects; (4) flow distribution - manifold problems in single phase flow, separation effects at a single T-junction in two phase flow and distribution in manifolds in two phase flow; (5) instability - oscillatory instability, special forms of instability in cryogenic systems; (6) nucleate boiling - effect of variability of surface, unresolved problems in forced convective nucleate boiling; and (7) shell side flows - flow patterns, cross flow boiling, condensation in cross flow

  2. Subchannel analysis in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninokata, H.; Aritomi, M.

    1992-01-01

    This book contains 10 informative papers, presented at the International Seminar on Subchannel Analysis 1992 (ISSCA '92), organized by the Institute of Applied Energy, in collaboration with Atomic Energy Society of Japan, Tokyo Electric Power Company, Kansai Electric Power Company, Nuclear Power Engineering Corporation and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, and held at the TIS-Green Forum, Tokyo, Japan, 30 October 1992. The seminar ISSCA '92 was intended to review the current state-of-the-arts of the method being applied to advanced nuclear reactors including Advanced BWRs, Advanced PWRs and LMRs, and to identify the problems to be solved, improvements to be made, and the needs of R and Ds that were required from the new fuel bundles design. The critical review was to focus on the performances of currently available subchannel analysis codes with regard to heat transfer and fluid flows in various types of nuclear reactor bundles under both steady-state and transient operating conditions, CHF, boiling transition (BT) or dryout behaviors and post BT. The behaviors of physical modeling and numerical methods in these extreme conditions were discussed and the methods critically evaluated in comparison with experiments. (author) (J.P.N.)

  3. A heated large block test for high level nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.; Wilder, D.G.; Blink, J.A.; Blair, S.C.; Buscheck, T.A.; Glassley, W.E.; Lee, K.; Owens, M.W.; Roberts, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    The radioactive decay heat from high-level nuclear waste may, depending on the thermal load, create coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) processes in the host rock of a repository. A heated large block test (LBT) is designed to understand some of the TNMC processes. A block of Topopah Spring tuff of about 3 x 3 x 4.5 m was isolated at Fran Ridge, Nevada Test Site. Small blocks of the rock adjacent to the large block were collected for laboratory testing of some individual thermal-mechanical, thermal-hydrological, and thermal-chemical processes. The large block will be heated by heaters within so that a dryout zone and a condensate zone will exist simultaneously. Guard heaters on the block sides will be used to minimize horizontal heat losses. A constant load of about 4 MPa will be applied to the top and sides of the large block. The sides will be sealed with moisture and thermal barriers. Temperature, moisture content, pore pressure, chemical composition, stress, displacement, electrical resistivity, acoustic emissions, and acoustic velocities will be measured throughout the block during the heating and cool-down phases. The results from the experiments on small blocks and the tests on the large block will provide a better understanding of some concepts of the coupled TMHC processes. The progress of the project is presented in this paper

  4. ROSA-III 50 % break integral test RUN 916

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonomoto, Taisuke; Tasaka, Kanji; Koizumi, Yasuo; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Murata, Hideo

    1985-08-01

    This report presents the experimental data of RUN 916 conducted at the ROSA-III test facility. The facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) simulator for a BWR/6 with the electrically heated core, the break simulator and the scaled ECCS(emergency core cooling system). RUN 916 was a 50 % split break test at the recirculation pump suction line with an assumption of HPCS diegel generator failure and conducted as one of the break area parameter tests. A peak cladding temperature (PCT) of 917 K was reached at 190 s after the break during the reflooding phase. Whole core was completely quenched by ECCS, and the effectiveness of ECCS was confermed. The primary test results of RUN 916 are compared in this report with those of RUN 926, which was a 200 % double-ended break test. The initiation of core dryout in RUN 916 was later than that in RUN 926 because of the smaller discharge flow rate. Duration of core dryourt was, however, longer in RUN 916 because of later actuation of ECCSs. PCT in RUN 916 was 133 K higher than that in RUN 926. (author)

  5. Proceedings of the fourth international topical meeting on nuclear thermal hydraulics, operations and safety. Vol. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    More than 100 papers were presented. The meeting was divided in 56 sessions and covered the following topics: Plant Operation, Retrofitting and Maintenance Experience; Steam Generator Operation and Maintenance; Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems; Seismic Technologies for Plant Design and Operations; Aging Management and Life Extension; Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Applications; Severe Accidents and Degraded Core Thermal Hydraulics; Plant Simulators, Analyzers, and Workstations; Advanced Nuclear Fuel Challenges; Recent Nuclear Power Station Decommissioning Experiences in the USA; Application of Probabilistic risk assessment/Probabilistic safety assessment (PRA/PSA) in Design and Modification; Numerical Modeling in Thermal Hydraulics; General Thermal Hydraulics; Severe Accident Management; Licensing and Regulatory Requirements; Advanced Light Water Reactor Designs to Support Reduced Emergency Planning; Best Estimate loss-of-coolant (LOCA) Methodologies; Plant Instrumentation and Control; LWR Fuel Designs for Improved Thermal Hydraulic Performance; Performance Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal; Thermal Hydraulics in Passive Reactor Systems; Advances in Man-Machine Interface Design and the Related Human Factors Engineering; Advances in Measurements and Instrumentation; Computer Aided Technology for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and Plant Maintenance Plant Uprating; Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plants; Advances in Radiological Measurement and Analysis Risk Management and Assessment; Stability in Thermal Hydraulic Systems; Critical heat flux (CHF) and Post Dryout Heat Transfer; Plant Transient and Accident Modeling.

  6. Proceedings of the fourth international topical meeting on nuclear thermal hydraulics, operations and safety. Vol. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    More than 100 papers were presented. The meeting was divided in 56 sessions and covered the following topics: Plant Operation, Retrofitting and Maintenance Experience; Steam Generator Operation and Maintenance; Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems; Seismic Technologies for Plant Design and Operations; Aging Management and Life Extension; Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Applications; Severe Accidents and Degraded Core Thermal Hydraulics; Plant Simulators, Analyzers, and Workstations; Advanced Nuclear Fuel Challenges; Recent Nuclear Power Station Decommissioning Experiences in the USA; Application of Probabilistic risk assessment/Probabilistic safety assessment (PRA/PSA) in Design and Modification; Numerical Modeling in Thermal Hydraulics; General Thermal Hydraulics; Severe Accident Management; Licensing and Regulatory Requirements; Advanced Light Water Reactor Designs to Support Reduced Emergency Planning; Best Estimate loss-of-coolant (LOCA) Methodologies; Plant Instrumentation and Control; LWR Fuel Designs for Improved Thermal Hydraulic Performance; Performance Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal; Thermal Hydraulics in Passive Reactor Systems; Advances in Man-Machine Interface Design and the Related Human Factors Engineering; Advances in Measurements and Instrumentation; Computer Aided Technology for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and Plant Maintenance Plant Uprating; Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plants; Advances in Radiological Measurement and Analysis Risk Management and Assessment; Stability in Thermal Hydraulic Systems; Critical heat flux (CHF) and Post Dryout Heat Transfer; Plant Transient and Accident Modeling

  7. Thermal-hydraulic Experiments for Advanced Physical Model Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chul Hwa; Baek, W. P.; Yoon, B. J.

    2010-04-01

    The improvement of prediction models is needed to enhance the safety analysis capability through the fine measurements of local phenomena. To improve the two-phase interfacial area transport model, the various experiments were carried out used SUBO and DOBO. 2x2 and 6x6 rod bundle test facilities were used for the experiment on the droplet behavior. The experiments on the droplet behavior inside a heated rod bundle were focused on the break-up of droplets induced by a spacer grid in a rod bundle geometry. The experiments used GIRLS and JICO and CFD analysis were carried out to comprehend the local condensation of steam jet, turbulent jet induced by condensation and the thermal mixing in a pool. An experimental database of the CHF (Critical Heat Flux) and PDO (Post-dryout) had been constructed. The mechanism of the heat transfer enhancement by surface modifications in nano-fluid was investigated in boiling mode and rapid quenching mode. The special measurement techniques were developed. They are Double -sensor optical void probe, Optic Rod, PIV technique and UBIM system

  8. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a spiral flow in an asymmetrical heated tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscary, J.; Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance

    1997-03-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author)

  9. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a spiral flow in an asymmetrical heated tube; Transfert thermique et flux critique dans un ecoulement helicoidal en tube chauffe asymetriquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J [CEA Centre d` Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere; [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d` Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1997-03-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author) 197 refs.

  10. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a asymmetrically heated tube helicoidal flow; Transfert thermique et flux critique dans un ecoulement helicoidal en tube chauffe asymetriquement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscary, J

    1995-10-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author). 198 refs., 126 figs., 21 tabs.

  11. Thermal-hydraulic Experiments for Advanced Physical Model Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Chulhwa

    2012-04-01

    The improvement of prediction models is needed to enhance the safety analysis capability through experimental database of local phenomena. To improve the two-phase interfacial area transport model, the various experiments were carried out with local two-phase interfacial structure test facilities. 2 Χ 2 and 6 Χ 6 rod bundle test facilities were used for the experiment on the droplet behavior. The experiments on the droplet behavior inside a heated rod bundle geometry. The experiments used GIRLS and JICO and CFD analysis were carried out to comprehend the local condensation of steam jet, turbulent jet induced by condensation and the thermal mixing in a pool. In order to develop a model for key phenomena of newly adapted safety system, experiments for boiling inside a pool and condensation in horizontal channel have been performed. An experimental database of the CHF (Critical Heat Flux) and PDO (Post-dryout) was constructed. The mechanism of the heat transfer enhancement by surface modifications in nano-fluid was investigated in boiling mode and rapid quenching mode. The special measurement techniques were developed. They are Double-sensor optical void probe, Optic Rod, PIV technique and UBIM system

  12. Heat transfer and critical heat flux in a asymmetrically heated tube helicoidal flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boscary, J.

    1995-10-01

    The design of plasma facing components is crucial for plasma performance in next fusion reactors. These elements will be submitted to very high heat flux. They will be actively water-cooled by swirl tubes in the subcooled boiling regime. High heat flux experiments were conducted in order to analyse the heat transfer and to evaluate the critical heat flux. Water-cooled mock-ups were one-side heated by an electron beam gun for different thermal-hydraulic conditions. The critical heat flux was detected by an original method based on the isotherm modification on the heated surface. The wall heat transfer law including forced convection and subcooled boiling regimes was established. Numerical calculations of the material heat transfer conduction allowed the non-homogeneous distribution of the wall temperature and of the wall heat flux to be evaluated. The critical heat flux value was defined as the wall maximum heat flux. A critical heat flux model based on the liquid sublayer dryout under a vapor blanket was established. A good agreement with test results was found. (author). 198 refs., 126 figs., 21 tabs

  13. A study on hydrogen burn due to the operation of containment spray system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, S.Y.; Kim, D.H.; Jin, Y.; Park, C.K.

    1995-01-01

    The bounding calculation for inflammable gas combustion due to the steam condensation by the operation of the containment spray system was performed. Sensitivity study was performed for two initiating events, station blackout and loss of coolant accident. The parameters for sensitivity study are the condition of cavity, wet or dry, and the timing of operation of the containment spray system. It is shown, based on MAAP4 analyses, that: for dry cavity, auto-ignition burn and hydrogen laden jet burn due to the high temperature in the reactor cavity consumes large amount of burnable gas in the containment and reduces the peak pressure at the global burn by flammability criteria; for wet cavity, large amount of hydrogen and carbon monoxide are generated after dryout of the reactor cavity, but burn is prohibited due to the low gas temperature in the high concentration of the steam. The late operation of the containment spray system condenses the steam rapidly, which results in the global burn at high concentration of burnable gas in the containment. The containment peak pressure from this burn is determined to be high enough to threaten the containment integrity significantly. (author). 3 refs., 3 tabs

  14. Proceedings of the fourth international topical meeting on nuclear thermal hydraulics, operations and safety. Vol. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    More than 100 papers presented at the meeting were divided in 56 sessions and covered the following topics: Plant Operation, Retrofitting and Maintenance Experience; Steam Generator Operation and Maintenance; Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems; Seismic Technologies for Plant Design and Operations; Aging Management and Life Extension; Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Applications; Severe Accidents and Degraded Core Thermal Hydraulics; Plant Simulators, Analyzers, and Workstations; Advanced Nuclear Fuel Challenges; Recent Nuclear Power Station Decommissioning Experiences in the USA; Application of Probabilistic risk assessment/Probabilistic safety assessment (PRA/PSA) in Design and Modification; Numerical Modeling in Thermal Hydraulics; General Thermal Hydraulics; Severe Accident Management; Licensing and Regulatory Requirements; Advanced Light Water Reactor Designs to Support Reduced Emergency Planning; Best Estimate loss-of-coolant (LOCA) Methodologies; Plant Instrumentation and Control; LWR Fuel Designs for Improved Thermal Hydraulic Performance; Performance Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal; Thermal Hydraulics in Passive Reactor Systems; Advances in Man-Machine Interface Design and the Related Human Factors Engineering; Advances in Measurements and Instrumentation; Computer Aided Technology for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and Plant Maintenance Plant Uprating; Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plants; Advances in Radiological Measurement and Analysis Risk Management and Assessment; Stability in Thermal Hydraulic Systems; Critical heat flux (CHF) and Post Dryout Heat Transfer; Plant Transient and Accident Modeling.

  15. Proceedings of the fourth international topical meeting on nuclear thermal hydraulics, operations and safety. Vol. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    More than 100 papers presented at the meeting were divided in 56 sessions and covered the following topics: Plant Operation, Retrofitting and Maintenance Experience; Steam Generator Operation and Maintenance; Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems; Seismic Technologies for Plant Design and Operations; Aging Management and Life Extension; Two-Phase Flow Modeling and Applications; Severe Accidents and Degraded Core Thermal Hydraulics; Plant Simulators, Analyzers, and Workstations; Advanced Nuclear Fuel Challenges; Recent Nuclear Power Station Decommissioning Experiences in the USA; Application of Probabilistic risk assessment/Probabilistic safety assessment (PRA/PSA) in Design and Modification; Numerical Modeling in Thermal Hydraulics; General Thermal Hydraulics; Severe Accident Management; Licensing and Regulatory Requirements; Advanced Light Water Reactor Designs to Support Reduced Emergency Planning; Best Estimate loss-of-coolant (LOCA) Methodologies; Plant Instrumentation and Control; LWR Fuel Designs for Improved Thermal Hydraulic Performance; Performance Assessment of Radioactive Waste Disposal; Thermal Hydraulics in Passive Reactor Systems; Advances in Man-Machine Interface Design and the Related Human Factors Engineering; Advances in Measurements and Instrumentation; Computer Aided Technology for non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and Plant Maintenance Plant Uprating; Flow-Accelerated Corrosion in Nuclear Power Plants; Advances in Radiological Measurement and Analysis Risk Management and Assessment; Stability in Thermal Hydraulic Systems; Critical heat flux (CHF) and Post Dryout Heat Transfer; Plant Transient and Accident Modeling

  16. Review of two-phase instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Han Ok; Seo, Han Ok; Kang, Hyung Suk; Cho, Bong Hyun; Lee, Doo Jeong

    1997-06-01

    KAERI is carrying out a development of the design for a new type of integral reactors. The once-through helical steam generator is important design features. The study on designs and operating conditions which prevent flow instability should precede the introduction of one-through steam generator. Experiments are currently scheduled to understand two-phase instability, evaluate the effect of each design parameter on the critical point, and determine proper inlet throttling for the prevention of instability. This report covers general two-phase instability with review of existing studies on this topics. The general classification of two phase flow instability and the characteristics of each type of instability are first described. Special attention is paid to BWR core flow instability and once-through steam generator instability. The reactivity feedback and the effect of system parameters are treated mainly for BWR. With relation to once-through steam generators, the characteristics of convective heating and dryout point oscillation are first investigated and then the existing experimental studies are summarized. Finally chapter summarized the proposed correlations for instability boundary conditions. (author). 231 refs., 5 tabs., 47 figs

  17. Localized corrosion of Alloy C22 nuclear waste canister material under limiting conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.G.; Solomon, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    Localized corrosion behavior of Alloy C22 in simulated Yucca Mountain (YM) repository environments was studied at the highest achievable but realistic temperatures under boiling and dripping scenarios. Temperatures measured in concentrated boiling solutions of KCl and NaNO 3 were found to be stable at 140 deg. C, although transient boiling before dryout was observed at temperatures as high as 160 deg. C, as the electrolyte became progressively more concentrated. Experiments that simulated a dripping scenario with simulated J13 well water confirmed the existence of concentrated solutions stable at 142 ± 3 deg. C under controlled drip conditions leading to pit initiation in Alloy C22 after only a few hours. The polarization experiments conducted at 140 deg. C in a solution with 0.5 mol L -1 chloride concentration showed that the critical potential for localized corrosion was 250 mV (versus Ag/AgCl). Potentiostatic tests confirmed that active metal dissolution occurred only in the crevice region at this potential. The crevice corrosion of Alloy C22 required an incubation time to develop a critical crevice solution, and it was triggered by severe local chemistry (enrichment of Cl - and H + ) aided by the high temperature

  18. Transient dry out in Forsmark 2 during a fast pump runback - course of events, fuel investigations and measures taken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramenblad, Eric; Schrire, David [Vattenfall Nuclear Fuel, Jaemtlandsgatan 99, 162 87 Stockholm (Sweden); Schroeder, Bjoern [Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB, 172 03 Oesthammar (Sweden)

    2009-06-15

    Swedish BWRs operate under the condition that dry out is not accepted for anticipated transients. To guarantee this, extensive work has been done regarding plant models, methodology development and full scope SAR analyses. In addition to this, every cycle is analyzed in detail to determine an operating limit for the minimum critical power ratio (OLMCPR). A course of events on June 13 led about 84 fuel assemblies of Forsmark 2 to exceed the safety limit minimum CPR and 18 of these experienced dry out. This had not been anticipated beforehand, hence, the OLMCPR was too low and did not protect the fuel against the transient dryout. The calculations are made up out of two separate cases. First the plant response was analyzed with the Westinghouse code BISON. Global variables like total core flow, the neutron flux (APRM) and steam dome pressure were determined. After this, boundary conditions regarding inlet temperature, core pressure drop, core power and axial power profile are used on a specific hot channel. The calculations were also compared to those that were available from the plant log, showing good agreement. Vattenfall and the fuel vendors did independent best estimate hot channel analyses to calculate what impact the transient might have had on the fuel. The agreement between different codes (GE: TRACG, Areva: HECHAN and Vattenfall: BISON/SLAVE) was very good showing that the maximum outside cladding temperature was around 450 deg. C. Since the transient leads to a decrease in power and the dry out was of such short duration, it was only the cladding and the outer part of the pellet that experienced a higher temperature than during normal full power operation. The impact on the cladding temperature when rewetting is not credited was also studied, and assuming uncertainties regarding rod power, channel flow and gap size. Rewetting had only a slight impact on the maximum temperature but, of course, a major impact on the duration. The other uncertainties added up

  19. Thermalhydraulic behavior of electrically heated rods during critical heat flux transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Rita de Cassia Fernandes de

    1997-01-01

    In nuclear reactors, the occurrence of critical heat flux leads to fuel rod overheating with clad fusion and radioactive products leakage. To predict the effects of such phenomenon, experiments are performed utilizing heated rods to simulate operational and accidental conditions of nuclear fuel rods, with special attention to the phenomenon of boiling crisis. The use of mechanisms which detect the abrupt temperature rise allows the electric power switch off. These facts prevent the test section from damage. During the critical heat flux phenomenon the axial heat conduction becomes very important. The study of the dryout and rewetting fronts yields the analysis, planning and following of critical heat flux experiments. These facts are important during the reflooding of nuclear cores at severe accidents. In the present work it is performed a theoretical analysis of the drying and rewetting front propagation during a critical heat flux experiment, starting with the application of an electrical power step or power slope from steady state condition. After the occurrence of critical heat flux, it is predicted the drying front propagation. After a few seconds, a power cut is considered and the rewetting front behavior is analytically observed. In all these transients the coolant pressure is 13,5 MPa. For one of them, comparisons are done with a pressure of 8,00 MPa. Mass flow and enthalpy influences on the fronts velocities are also analysed. These results show that mass flow has more importance on the drying front velocities whereas the pressure alters strongly the rewetting ones. (author)

  20. Numerical simulation of double-pipe condensers and evaporators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Valladares, O. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelos (Mexico). Centro de Investigacion en Energia; Perez-Segarra, C.D.; Rigola, J. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Terrassa (Spain). Centre Tecnologic de Transferencia de Calor, Lab. de Termotecnia i Energetica

    2004-09-01

    A detailed one-dimensional steady and transient numerical simulation of the thermal and fluid-dynamic behaviour of double-pipe heat exchangers (evaporators and condensers) has been carried out. The governing equations (continuity, momentum and energy) inside the internal tube and the annulus, together with the energy equation in the internal tube wall, external tube wall and insulation, are solved iteratively in a segregated manner. The discretized governing equations in the zones with fluid flow are efficiently coupled using an implicit step by step method. This formulation requires the use of empirical correlations for the evaluation of convective heat transfer, shear stress and void fraction. An implicit central difference numerical scheme and a line-by-line solver was used in the internal and external tube walls and insulation. A special treatment has been implemented in order to consider transitions (single-phase/two-phase, dry-out,...). All the flow variables (enthalpies, temperatures, pressures, mass fractions, velocities, heat fluxes,...) together with the thermophysical properties are evaluated at each point of the grid in which the domain is discretized. Different numerical aspects and comparisons with analytical and experimental results are presented in order to verify and validate the model. (author)

  1. Enhancing the moderator effectiveness as a heat sink during loss-of-coolant accidents in CANDU-PHW reactors using glass-peened surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitheanandan, T.; Tiede, R.W.; Sanderson, D.B.; Fong, R.W.L.; Coleman, C.E.

    1998-08-01

    The horizontal fuel channel concept is a distinguishing feature of the CANDU-PHW reactor. Each fuel channel consists of a Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube and a Zircaloy-2 calandria tube, separated by a gas filled annulus. The calandria tube is surrounded by heavy-water moderator that also provides a backup heat sink for the reactor core. This heat sink (about 10 mm away from the hot pressure tube) ensures adequate cooling of fuel in the unlikely event of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). One of the ways of enhancing the use of the moderator as a heat sink is to improve the heat-transfer characteristics between the calandria tube and the moderator. This enhancement can be achieved through surface modifications to the calandria tube which have been shown to increase the tube's critical heat flux (CHF) value. An increase in CHIF could be used to reduce moderator subcooling requirements for CANDU fuel channels or increase the margin to dryout. A series of experiments was conducted to assess the benefits provided by glass-peening the outside surface of calandria tubes for postulated LOCA conditions. In particular, the ability to increase the tube's CHF, and thereby reduce moderator subcooling requirements was assessed. Results from the experiments confirm that glass-peening the outer surface of a tube increases its CHF value in pool boiling. This increase in CHF could be used to reduce moderator subcooling requirements for CANDU fuel channels by at least 5 degrees C. (author)

  2. Post-accident core retention for LMFBR's. 2. Technical report, 1 July 1973--30 June 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-09-01

    This report describes work performed at UCLA on Post Accident Heat Removal for the period July 1973 to July 1974. The work includes a preliminary identification of sequences of events that could lead to a completely disassembled core and analysis of several in-vessel processes relevant to establishing whether or not containment can be achieved. Preliminary observations on the dry-out of debris beds are reported. The effects of both stabilizing temperature gradients and thermal radiation on increases in the downward heat transfer from a molten layer of UO 2 are found to be significant. Boiling of the molten layer is considered and the existing experimental data is found to be inadequate. Predictions of heat transfer from a downward facing surface to a low Prandtl number fluid are not available. Recommendations for future work are made. The effects of disturbances on a quiescent molten layer are presented. A simple fast method of estimating recriticality is given and an estimate of possible ramp rates is made. Areas of uncertainty requiring further work are identified. (U.S.)

  3. An investigation of transition boiling mechanisms of subcooled water under forced convective conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwang-Won, Lee; Sang-Yong, Lee

    1995-09-01

    A mechanistic model for forced convective transition boiling has been developed to investigate transition boiling mechanisms and to predict transition boiling heat flux realistically. This model is based on a postulated multi-stage boiling process occurring during the passage time of the elongated vapor blanket specified at a critical heat flux (CHF) condition. Between the departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) and the departure from film boiling (DFB) points, the boiling heat transfer is established through three boiling stages, namely, the macrolayer evaporation and dryout governed by nucleate boiling in a thin liquid film and the unstable film boiling characterized by the frequent touches of the interface and the heated wall. The total heat transfer rates after the DNB is weighted by the time fractions of each stage, which are defined as the ratio of each stage duration to the vapor blanket passage time. The model predictions are compared with some available experimental transition boiling data. The parametric effects of pressure, mass flux, inlet subcooling on the transition boiling heat transfer are also investigated. From these comparisons, it can be seen that this model can identify the crucial mechanisms of forced convective transition boiling, and that the transition boiling heat fluxes including the maximum heat flux and the minimum film boiling heat flux are well predicted at low qualities/high pressures near 10 bar. In future, this model will be improved in the unstable film boiling stage and generalized for high quality and low pressure situations.

  4. General correlation for prediction of critical heat flux ratio in water cooled channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pernica, R.; Cizek, J.

    1995-09-01

    The paper present the general empirical Critical Heat Flux Ration (CHFR) correlation which is valid for vertical water upflow through tubes, internally heated concentric annuli and rod bundles geometries with both wide and very tight square and triangular rods lattices. The proposed general PG correlation directly predicts the CHFR, it comprises axial and radial non-uniform heating, and is valid in a wider range of thermal hydraulic conditions than previously published critical heat flux correlations. The PG correlation has been developed using the critical heat flux Czech data bank which includes more than 9500 experimental data on tubes, 7600 data on rod bundles and 713 data on internally heated concentric annuli. Accuracy of the CHFR prediction, statistically assessed by the constant dryout conditions approach, is characterized by the mean value nearing 1.00 and the standard deviation less than 0.06. Moverover, a subchannel form of the PG correlations is statistically verified on Westinghouse and Combustion Engineering rod bundle data bases, i.e. more than 7000 experimental CHF points of Columbia University data bank were used.

  5. Reverse primary-side flow in steam generators during natural circulation cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stumpf, H.; Motley, F.; Schultz, R.; Chapman, J.; Kukita, Y.

    1987-01-01

    A TRAC model of the Large Scale Test Facility with a 3-tube steam-generator model was used to analyze natural-circulation test ST-NC-02. For the steady state at 100% primary mass inventory, TRAC was in excellent agreement with the natural-circulation flow rate, the temperature distribution in the steam-generator tubes, and the temperature drop from the hot leg to the steam-generator inlet plenum. TRAC also predicted reverse flow in the long tubes. At reduced primary mass inventories, TRAC predicted the three natural-circulation flow regimes: single phase, two phase, and reflux condensation. TRAC did not predict the cyclic fill-and-dump phenomenon seen briefly in the test. TRAC overpredicted the two-phase natural-circulation flow rate. Since the core is well cooled at this time, the result is conservative. An important result of the analysis is that TRAC was able to predict the core dryout and heatup at approximately the same primary mass inventory as in the test. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Identification and assessment of BWR in-vessel severe accident mitigation strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.A.; Kress, T.S.; Cleveland, J.C.; Petek, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper briefly describes the results of work carried out in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Accident Management Research Program to evaluate the effectiveness and feasibility of current and proposed strategies for BWR severe accident management. These results are described in detail in the just-released report Identification and Assessment of BWR In-Vessel Severe Accident Mitigation Strategies, NUREG/CR-5869, which comprises three categories of findings. First, an assessment of the current status of accident management strategies for the mitigation of in-vessel events for BWR severe accident sequences is combined with a review of the BWR Owners' Group Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGs) to determine the extent to which they currently address the characteristic events of an unmitigated severe accident. Second, where considered necessary, new candidate accident management strategies are proposed for mitigation of the late-phase (after core damage has occurred) events. Finally, two of the four candidate strategies identified by this effort are assessed in detail. These are (1) preparation of a boron solution for reactor vessel refill should control blade damage occur during a period of temporary core dryout and (2) containment flooding to maintain the core debris within the reactor vessel if the injection systems cannot be restored

  7. An analysis of the temperature distribution in the pipe bending using high frequency induction heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukue, Hisayoshi; Mochizuki, Yoji; Nakamura, Harushige; Kobo, Hiroshi; Nitta, Tetsuo; Kawakami, Kiyoshi

    1986-01-01

    A pipe bending apparatus has recently been developed by applying high frequency induction heating. However, the smaller the radius of pipe bending, the greater becomes the reduction in wall thickness and the ovality of the pipe form. This makes it impossible to manufacture pipe bending which will meet the nuclear pipe design code. In order to solve this problem it is crucial to obtain a temperature distributions in a pipe which is moving. It is calculated by giving the following boundary conditions : distribution of the heat generation rate, and that of heat transfer of cooling water. In the process of analyzing these distributions, the following results were obtained. (1) The distribution of the heat generation rate is determined by the sink of energy flux of Poynting vectors. The coil efficiency thus calculated was sixty percent. This figure accords with the test data. (2) The distribution of heat transfer coefficient of cooling water is mainly determined by the rate of liquid film heat transfer, but departure from nucleate boiling and dryout has to be taken into consideration. (3) TRUMP CODE is modified so that the temperature distribution in moving pipes can be calculated by taking the boundary conditions into account. The calculated results were in accordance with the test data. (author)

  8. Simulation of the IAEA's fourth Standard Problem Exercise small-break loss-of-coolant accident using RELAP5/MOD.3.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebull, P.P.; Hassan, Y.A.

    1995-01-01

    A small-break loss-of-coolant accident experiment conducted at the PMK-2 integral test facility in Hungary is analyzed using the RELAP5/MOD3.1 thermal-hydraulic code. The experiment simulated a 7.4% break in the cold leg of a VVER-440/213-type nuclear power plant as part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Fourth Standard Problem Exercise (SPE-4). Blind calculations of the exercise are presented, and the timing of various events throughout the transient is discussed. A posttest analysis is performed in which the sensitivity of the calculated results is investigated. The code RELAP5 predicts most of the transient events well, although a few problems are noted, particularly the failure of RELAP5 to predict dryout in the core even through the collapsed liquid level fell below the top of the heated portion. A discrepancy between the predicted primary mass inventory distribution and the experimental data is identified. Finally, the primary and secondary pressures calculated by RELAP5 fell too rapidly during the latter part of the transient, resulting in rather large errors in the predicted timing of some pressure-actuated events

  9. Vibration characteristics of a vertical round tube according to heat transfer regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yong Ho; Kim, Dae Hun; Chang, Soon Heung; Baek, Won Pil

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental work on the effects of boiling heat transfer regimes on the vibration. the experiment has been performed using an electrically heated veritcal round tube through which water flows at atmospheric pressure. Vibration characteristics of the heated tube are changed significantly by heat transfer regimes and flow patterns. For single-phase liquid convection, the rod vibrations are negligible. However, On the beginning of subcooled nucleate boiling at tube exit, vibration level becomes very large. As bubble departure is occurred at the nucleation site of heated surface, the vibration decrease to saturated boiling region where thermal equilibrium quality becomes 0.0 at tube exit. In saturated boiling region, vibration amplitude increase with exit quality up to certain maximum value then decreases. At liquid film dryout condition, vibration could be regarded as negligible, however, these results cannot be extended to DNB-type CHF mechanism. Frequency analysis results of vibration signals suggested that excitation sources be different with heat transfer regimes. This study would contribute to improve the understanding of the relationship between boiling heat transfer and FIV

  10. Heat pipes. Design and industrial applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semeria, R.

    1974-01-01

    Heat pipes are thermosiphons with vaporization where we can distinguish a boiler, a condenser, and eventually an adiabatic zone. To insure the returning liquid flow from the condenser to the boiler, surface tension forces, associated with the gravity forces, if need be, are used. For this, the condensing liquid is sucked by a capillary structure, generally situated against the inner wall. The review of the design methods, and particularly the prediction of the maximal performances shows the advantages and limitations of such devices. The main difficulties are technological for the heat pipes with high temperature liquid metals. The thermohydrodynamical limitations are: the maximum power which can be calculated by a balance between the friction forces and the active ones, the maximum heat flux leading to the dry-out of the evaporator, the critical conditions for the start up associated with the sonic conditions in the vapour phase. The description of heat pipes designed for some industrial applications (mainly for space) is given [fr

  11. Depressurization as an accident management strategy to minimize the consequences of direct containment heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.J.; Golden, D.W.; Chambers, R.; Miller, J.D.; Hallbert, B.P.; Dobbe, C.A.

    1990-10-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) have identified severe accidents for nuclear power plants that have the potential to cause failure of the containment through direct containment heating (DCH). Prevention of DCH or mitigation of its effects may be possible using accident management strategies that intentionally depressurize the reactor coolant system (RCS). The effectiveness of intentional depressurization during a station blackout TMLB' sequence was evaluated considering the phenomenological behavior, hardware performance, and operational performance. Phenomenological behavior was calculated using the SCDAP/RELAP5 severe accident analysis code. Two strategies to mitigate DCH by depressurization of the RCS were considered. One strategy, called early depressurization, assumed that the reactor head vent and pressurizer power-operated relief valves (PORVs) were latched open at steam generator dryout. The second strategy, called late depression, assumed that the head vent and PORVs were latched open at a core exit temperature of ∼922 K (1200 degree F). Depressurization of the RCS to a low value that may mitigate DCH was predicted prior to reactor pressure vessel breach for both early and late depressurization. The strategy of late depressurization is preferred over early depressurization because there are greater opportunities to recover plant functions prior to core damage and because failure uncertainties are lessened. 22 refs., 38 figs., 6 tabs

  12. Marangoni-buoyancy convection in binary fluids under varying noncondensable concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaofa; Yoda, Minami

    2014-11-01

    Marangoni-buoyancy convection in binary fluids in the presence of phase change is a complex and poorly understood problem. Nevertheless, this flow is of interest in evaporative cooling because solutocapillary stresses could reduce film dryout. Convection was therefore studied in methanol-water (MeOH-H2O) layers of depth h ~ 1 - 3 mm confined in a sealed rectangular cell driven by horizontal temperature differences of ~6° C applied over ~ 5 cm. Particle-image velocimetry (PIV) was used to study how varying the fraction of noncondensables (i.e., air) ca from ~ 7 mol% to ambient conditions in the vapor space affects soluto- and thermocapillary stresses in this flow. Although solutocapillary stresses can be used to drive the flow towards hot regions, solutocapillarity appears to have the greatest effect on the flow at small ca, because noncondensables suppress phase change and hence the gradient in the liquid-phase composition at the interface. Surprisingly, convection at ca ~ 50 % leads to a very weak flow and significant condensation in the central portion of the layer i.e., away from the heated and cooled walls). Supported by ONR.

  13. Oscillation phenomena and operating limits of the closed two-phase thermosyphon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukano, T.; Kadoguchi, K.; Tien, C.L.

    1986-01-01

    In a vertical thermosyphon an up-going vapor flow prevents a liquid film from flowing downward and causes flooding if the heat input exceeds a certain value. Then the evaporator wall partially dries out. The wall temperature in the evaporator and the system pressure are measured and their post-dryout behavior is classified into three types: (1) the periodic oscillation, and transient variations going asymptotically to (2) the higher and (3) the lower than the initial system pressure setting. The occurrence of the first type, periodic oscillation, is limited to when the amount of working fluid, methanol, is about one-third of the evaporator volume. To explain these changes in the system pressure and wall temperature a physical model, based on the alternating flooding and deflooding concept is proposed. In this work the effect of the tube diameter, amount of working fluid, and system pressure on these oscillations and the flow and heat transfer characteristics during the oscillations are also experimentally investigated

  14. Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, L.Y.; Tichler, P.R.

    1997-01-01

    The High Flux Beam Reactor (HFBR) is a pressurized heavy water moderated and cooled research reactor that began operation at 40 MW. The reactor was subsequently upgraded to 60 MW and operated at that level for several years. The reactor undergoes a buoyancy-driven reversal of flow in the reactor core following certain postulated accidents. Questions which were raised about the afterheat removal capability during the flow reversal transition led to a reactor shutdown and subsequent resumption of operation at a reduced power of 30 MW. An experimental and analytical program to address these questions is described in this report. The experiments were single channel flow reversal tests under a range of conditions. The analytical phase involved simulations of the tests to benchmark the physical models and development of a criterion for dryout. The criterion is then used in simulations of reactor accidents to determine a safe operating power level. It is concluded that the limit on the HFBR operating power with respect to the issue of flow reversal is in excess of 60 MW. Direct use of the experimental results and an understanding of the governing phenomenology supports this conclusion

  15. The development of evaporative liquid film model for analysis of passive containment cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hong June; Hwang, Young Dong; Kim, Hee Cheol; Kim, Young In; Chang, Moon Hee

    2000-07-01

    An analytical model was developed to simulate behavior of the liquid film formed on the outside surface of the steel containment vessel of PCCS including the ellipsoidal dome and the vertical wall. The model was coupled with CFX code using the user subroutines provided by the code, and a series of numerical calculations were performed to evaluate the evaporative heat transfer coefficient at the interface. Numerical results for Sherwood number and evaporative heat transfer coefficient were compared with the experimental data. The results were in good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated liquid film thickness showed good agreement with that of Sun except an upper portion of the channel. The model was applied to the full scale of PCCS to investigate the effects of dome and chimney on the evaporation rate. The results showed that the heat transfer coefficient in the dome region, where the flow cross-sectional area decreases and the swirling occurs, was lower than that of the vertical annulus region. The calculated evaporative heat transfer coefficient was about 20 times larger than that of the dry cooling. Sensitivity studies on the gap size and the wall temperature were also performed to figure out their effects on the heat transfer coefficient and inlet air average velocity. Through the analysis of the dryout point, the minimum liquid film flow rate to cover the entire surface of the vessel was estimated.

  16. Identification and assessment of BWR in-vessel severe accident mitigation strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, S.A.; Cleveland, J.C.; Kress, T.S.; Petek, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-10-01

    This report provides the results of work carried out in support of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Accident Management Research Program to develop a technical basis for evaluating the effectiveness and feasibility of current and proposed strategies for boiling water reactor (BWR) severe accident management. First, the findings of an assessment of the current status of accident management strategies for the mitigation of in-vessel events for BWR severe accident sequences are described. This includes a review of the BWR Owners` Group Emergency Procedure Guidelines (EPGSs) to determine the extent to which they currently address the characteristic events of an unmitigated severe accident and to provide the basis for recommendations for enhancement of accident management procedures. Second, where considered necessary, new candidate accident management strategies are proposed for mitigation of the late-phase (after core damage has occurred) events. Finally, recommendations are made for consideration of additional strategies where warranted, and two of the four candidate strategies identified by this effort are assessed in detail: (1) preparation of a boron solution for reactor vessel refill should control blade damage occur during a period of temporary core dryout and (2) containment flooding to maintain the core debris within the reactor vessel if the injection systems cannot be restored.

  17. Experimental investigation on the thermal performance of a closed oscillating heat pipe in thermal management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Zhonghao; Wang, Qingchao; Zhao, Jiateng; Huang, Congliang

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the thermal performance of the closed oscillating heat pipe (OHP) as a passive heat transfer device in thermal management system, the gravitation force, surface tension, cooling section position and inclination angle were discussed with applied heating power ranging from 5 to 65 W. The deionized water was chosen as the working fluid and liquid-filling ratio was 50 ± 5%. The operation of the OHP mainly depends on the phase change of the working fluid. The working fluid within the OHP was constantly evaporated and cooled. The results show that the movement of the working fluid was similar to the forced damped mechanical vibration, it has to overcome the capillary resistance force and the stable oscillation should be that the OHP could successful startup. The oscillation frequency slowed and oscillation amplitude decreased when the inclination angle of the OHP increased. However, the thermal resistance increased. With the increment of the heating power, the average temperature of the evaporation and condensation section would be close. If the heating power was further increased, dry-out phenomenon within the OHP would appeared. With the decrement of the L, the start-up heating power also decreased and stable oscillation would be formed.

  18. HPTAM, a two-dimensional Heat Pipe Transient Analysis Model, including the startup from a frozen state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    1995-01-01

    A two-dimensional Heat Pipe Transient Analysis Model, 'HPTAM,' was developed to simulate the transient operation of fully-thawed heat pipes and the startup of heat pipes from a frozen state. The model incorporates: (a) sublimation and resolidification of working fluid; (b) melting and freezing of the working fluid in the porous wick; (c) evaporation of thawed working fluid and condensation as a thin liquid film on a frozen substrate; (d) free-molecule, transition, and continuum vapor flow regimes, using the Dusty Gas Model; (e) liquid flow and heat transfer in the porous wick; and (f) thermal and hydrodynamic couplings of phases at their respective interfaces. HPTAM predicts the radius of curvature of the liquid meniscus at the liquid-vapor interface and the radial location of the working fluid level (liquid or solid) in the wick. It also includes the transverse momentum jump condition (capillary relationship of Pascal) at the liquid-vapor interface and geometrically relates the radius of curvature of the liquid meniscus to the volume fraction of vapor in the wick. The present model predicts the capillary limit and partial liquid recess (dryout) in the evaporator wick, and incorporates a liquid pooling submodel, which simulates accumulation of the excess liquid in the vapor core at the condenser end.

  19. Regulatory analysis for resolution of USI [Unresolved Safety Issue] A-47

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szukiewicz, A.J.

    1989-07-01

    This report presents a summary of the regulatory analysis conducted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff to evaluate the value/impact of alternatives for the resolution of Unresolved Safety Issue A-47, ''Safety Implications of Control Systems.'' The NRC staff's resolution presented herein is based on these analyses and on the technical findings and conclusions presented in NUREG-1217, the companion document to this report. The staff has concluded that certain actions should be taken to improve safety in light-water reactor plants. The staff recommended that certain plants improve their control systems to preclude reactor vessel/steam generator overfill events and to prevent steam generator dryout, modify their technical specifications to verify operability of such systems, and modify selected emergency procedures to ensure safe shutdown of the plant following a small-break loss-of-coolant accident. This report was issued as a draft for public comment on May 27, 1988. As a result of the public comments received, this report was revised. The NRC staff's responses to and resolution of the public comments are included as Appendix C to the final report, NUREG-1217

  20. Chemical mechanical polisher technology for 300mm/0.18-0.13{mu}m semiconductor devices; 300mm/0.18-0.-0.13{mu}m sedai no CMP gijutsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimura, M.; Kobayashi, F. [Ebara Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-10-20

    Described herein are problems involved in, and development points and measures for chemical mechanical polisher (CMP) technology for the generation of 300mm/0.18 to 0.13{mu}m semiconductor devices. Ebara has developed a CMP system for 300mm devices for I300I and Selete (semiconductor high-technologies). The polishing process conditions are set for the time being based on those for the 200mm devices, and the driver and machine structures are set at 2.25 times larger than those for the 200mm devices. Its space requirement is compacter at 1.3 times increase. The company has adopted a concept of `dry-in and dry-out,` which is not common for a CMP. This needs integration of the washer with the polisher, and aerodynamic designs for dust-free conditions. These are already developed for the 200mm devices, and applicable to the 300mm devices without causing any problem. The special chamber for the conventional CMP can be dispensed with, reducing cost. Expendables, such as slurry pad, are being developed to double their service lives and halve their consumption. 8 figs.

  1. Friction pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient of two-phase flow in helically coiled tube once-through steam generator for integrated type marine water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nariai, Hideki; Kobayashi, Michiyuki; Matsuoka, Takeshi.

    1982-01-01

    Two-phase friction pressure drop and heat transfer coefficients in a once-through steam generator with helically coiled tubes were investigated with the model test rig of an integrated type marine water reactor. As the dimensions of the heat transfer tubes and the thermal-fluid conditions are almost the same as those of real reactors, the data applicable directly to the real reactor design were obtained. As to the friction pressure drop, modified Kozeki's prediction which is based on the experimental data by Kozeki for coiled tubes, agreed the best with the experimental data. Modified Martinelli-Nelson's prediction which is based on Martinelli-Nelson's multiplier using Ito's equation for single-phase flow in coiled tube, agreed within 30%. The effect of coiled tube on the average heat transfer coefficients at boiling region were small, and the predictions for straight tube could also be applied to coiled tube. Schrock-Grossman's correlation agreed well with the experimental data at the pressures of lower than 3.5 MPa. It was suggested that dryout should be occurred at the quality of greater than 90% within the conditions of this report. (author)

  2. Method of stopping operation of PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Takashi; Tsuge, Ayao; Kawanishi, Yasuhira; Onimura, Kichiro; Kadokami, Akira.

    1989-01-01

    In PWR type reactors after long period of l00 % power operation, since boiling is caused in heat conduction pipes and water is depleted within the intergranular corrosion fracture face in the crevis portion to result in a dry-out state, impregnation and concentration of corrosion inhibitors into the intergranular corrosion fracture face are insufficient. In view of the above, the corrosion inhibitor at a high concentration is impregnated into the intergranular corrosion fracture face by keeping to inject the corrosion inhibitor from l00 % thermal power load by way of the thermal power reduction to the zero power state upon operatioin shutdown. That is, if the thermal power is reduced to or near the 0 power upon reactor shutdown, feedwater in the crevis portion is put to subcooled state, by which the steam present in the intergranular corrosion fracture face are condensated and the corrosion inhibitor at high concentration impregnated into the crevis portion are penetrated into the intergranular corrosion fracture face. (K.M.)

  3. Hydration and dehydration cycles in polymer electrolyte fuel cells operated with wet anode and dry cathode feed: A neutron imaging and modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Salaberri, P. A.; Sánchez, D. G.; Boillat, P.; Vera, M.; Friedrich, K. A.

    2017-08-01

    Proper water management plays an essential role in the performance and durability of Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells (PEFCs), but it is challenged by the variety of water transport phenomena that take place in these devices. Previous experimental work has shown the existence of fluctuations between low and high current density levels in PEFCs operated with wet hydrogen and dry air feed. The alternation between both performance states is accompanied by strong changes in the high frequency resistance, suggesting a cyclic hydration and dehydration of the membrane. This peculiar scenario is examined here considering liquid water distributions from neutron imaging and predictions from a 3D two-phase non-isothermal model. The results show that the hydration-dehydration cycles are triggered by the periodic condensation and shedding of liquid water at the anode inlet. The input of liquid water humidifies the anode channel and offsets the membrane dry-out induced by the dry air stream, thus leading to the high-performance state. When liquid water is flushed out of the anode channel, the dehydration process takes over, and the cell comes back to the low-performance state. The predicted amplitude of the current oscillations grows with decreasing hydrogen and increasing air flow rates, in agreement with previous experimental data.

  4. Experimental analysis of a Flat Plate Pulsating Heat Pipe with Self-ReWetting Fluids during a parabolic flight campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecere, Anselmo; De Cristofaro, Davide; Savino, Raffaele; Ayel, Vincent; Sole-Agostinelli, Thibaud; Marengo, Marco; Romestant, Cyril; Bertin, Yves

    2018-06-01

    A Flat Plate Pulsating Heat Pipe (FPPHP) filled with an ordinary liquid (water) and a self-rewetting mixture (dilutes aqueous solutions of long-chain alcohols with unusual surface tension behavior) is investigated under variable gravity conditions on board a 'Zero-g' plane during the 65th Parabolic Flight Campaign of the European Space Agency. The FPPHP thermal performance in terms of evaporator and condenser temperatures, start-up levels and flow regimes is characterized for the two working fluids and a power input ranging from 0 to 200 W (up to 17 W/cm2 at the heater/evaporator wall interface). The experimental set-up also includes a transparent plate enabling the visualization of the oscillating flow patterns during the experiments. For a low power input (4 W/cm2), the pulsating heat pipe filled with pure water is not able to work under low-g conditions, because the evaporator immediately exhibits dry-out conditions and the fluid oscillations stops, preventing heat transfer between the hot and cold side and resulting in a global increase of the temperatures. On the other hand, the FPPHP filled with the self-rewetting fluid runs also during the microgravity phase. The liquid rewets several times the evaporator zone triggering the oscillatory regime. The self-rewetting fluid helps both the start-up and the thermal performance of the FPPHP in microgravity conditions.

  5. Development of generalized boiling transition model applicable for wide variety of fuel bundle geometries. Basic strategy and numerical approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ninokata, Hisashi; Sadatomi, Michio; Okawa, Tomio

    2003-01-01

    In order to establish a key technology to realize advanced BWR fuel designs, a three-year project of the advanced subchannel analysis code development had been started since 2002. The five dominant factors involved in the boiling transitional process in the fuel bundles were focused. They are, (1) inter-subchannel exchanges, (2) influences of obstacles (3) dryout of liquid film, (4) transition of two-phase flow regimes and (5) deposition of droplets. It has been recognized that present physical models or constitutive equations in subchannel formulations need to be improved so that they include geometrical effects in the fuel bundle design more mechanistically and universally. Through reviewing literatures and existent experimental results, underlying elementary processes and geometrical factors that are indispensable for improving subchannel codes were identified. The basic strategy that combines numerical and experimental approaches was proposed aiming at establishment of mechanistic models for the five dominant factors. In this paper, the present status of methodologies for detailed two-phase flow studies has been summarized. According to spatial scales of focused elementary processes, proper numerical approaches were selected. For some promising numerical approaches, preliminary calcitonins were performed for assessing their applicability to investigation of elementary processes involved in the boiling transition. (author)

  6. Thermal Hydraulic Tests for Reactor Core Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, S. K.; Baek, W. P.; Chun, S. Y. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The main objectives of the present project are to resolve the current issues of reactor core thermal hydraulics, to develop an advanced measurement and analytical techniques, and to perform reactor core safety verification tests. 6x6 reflood experiments, various heat transfer experiments using Freon, and experiments on the spacer grids effects on the post-dryout are carried out using spacer grids developed in Korea in order to resolve the current issues of the reactor core thermal hydraulics. In order to develop a reflood heat transfer model, the detailed reflood phenomena are visualized and measured using round tube and 2x2 rod bundle. A detailed turbulent mixing phenomenon for subchannels is measured using advanced measurement techniques such as LDV and PIV. MARS and MATRA codes developed in Korea are assessed, verified and improved using the obtained experimental data. Finally, a systematic quality assurance program and experimental data generation system has been constructed in order to increase the reliability of the experimental data.

  7. Depressurization as an accident management strategy to minimize the consequences of direct containment heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, D.J.; Golden, D.W.; Chambers, R.; Miller, J.D.; Hallbert, B.P.; Dobbe, C.A. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Probabilistic Risk Assessments (PRAs) have identified severe accidents for nuclear power plants that have the potential to cause failure of the containment through direct containment heating (DCH). Prevention of DCH or mitigation of its effects may be possible using accident management strategies that intentionally depressurize the reactor coolant system (RCS). The effectiveness of intentional depressurization during a station blackout TMLB' sequence was evaluated considering the phenomenological behavior, hardware performance, and operational performance. Phenomenological behavior was calculated using the SCDAP/RELAP5 severe accident analysis code. Two strategies to mitigate DCH by depressurization of the RCS were considered. One strategy, called early depressurization, assumed that the reactor head vent and pressurizer power-operated relief valves (PORVs) were latched open at steam generator dryout. The second strategy, called late depression, assumed that the head vent and PORVs were latched open at a core exit temperature of {approximately}922 K (1200{degree}F). Depressurization of the RCS to a low value that may mitigate DCH was predicted prior to reactor pressure vessel breach for both early and late depressurization. The strategy of late depressurization is preferred over early depressurization because there are greater opportunities to recover plant functions prior to core damage and because failure uncertainties are lessened. 22 refs., 38 figs., 6 tabs.

  8. Full-length high-temperature severe fuel damage test No. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanning, D.D.; Lombardo, N.J.; Hensley, W.K.; Fitzsimmons, D.E.; Panisko, F.E.; Hartwell, J.K.

    1993-09-01

    This report describes and presents data from a severe fuel damage test that was conducted in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor at Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL), Ontario, Canada. The test, designated FLHT-5, was the fourth in a series of full-length high-temperature (FLHT) tests on light-water reactor fuel. The tests were designed and performed by staff from the US Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), operated by Battelle Memorial Institute. The test operation and test results are described in this report. The fuel bundle in the FLHT-5 experiment included 10 unirradiated full-length pressurized-water reactor (PWR) rods, 1 irradiated PWR rod and 1 dummy gamma thermometer. The fuel rods were subjected to a very low coolant flow while operating at low fission power. This caused coolant boilaway, rod dryout and overheating to temperatures above 2600 K, severe fuel rod damage, hydrogen generation, and fission product release. The test assembly and its effluent path were extensively instrumented to record temperatures, pressures, flow rates, hydrogen evolution, and fission product release during the boilaway/heatup transient. Post-test gamma scanning of the upper plenum indicated significant iodine and cesium release and deposition. Both stack gas activity and on-line gamma spectrometer data indicated significant (∼50%) release of noble fission gases. Post-test visual examination of one side of the fuel bundle revealed no massive relocation and flow blockage; however, rundown of molten cladding was evident

  9. Water Balance and Level Change of Lake Babati, Tanzania: Sensitivity to Hydroclimatic Forcings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René P. Mbanguka

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We develop and present a novel integrated water balance model that accounts for lake water—groundwater interactions, and apply it to the semi-closed freshwater Lake Babati system, Northern Tanzania, East Africa. The model was calibrated and used to evaluate the lake level sensitivity to changes in key hydro-climatic variables such as temperature, precipitation, humidity and cloudiness. The lake response to the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5 output on possible future climate outcomes was evaluated, an essential basis in understanding future water security and flooding risk in the region. Results show high lake level sensitivity to cloudiness. Increased focus on cloud fraction measurement and interpretation could likely improve projections of lake levels and surface water availability. Modelled divergent results on the future (21st century development of Lake Babati can be explained by the precipitation output variability of CMIP5 models being comparable to the precipitation change needed to drive the water balance model from lake dry-out to overflow; this condition is likely shared with many other East African lake systems. The developed methodology could be useful in investigations on change-driving processes in complex climate—drainage basin—lake systems, which are needed to support sustainable water resource planning in data scarce tropical Africa.

  10. Survival strategies of sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus in desiccating pans in the northern Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C.W. Van der Waal

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available Observations in drying out pans showed that small (26-37 cm sharptooth catfish (Clarias gariepinus can hide at the bottom of small pools filled with sticky mud whereas larger fish stay afloat at the surface in larger pools with sloppy mud, where they easily become prey or succumb to heat stress. The inability of larger fish to keep down in the sloppy mud of up to 40 cm depth is the result of their large bulk and high density of the mud. This may indicate a survival advantage for smaller fish in the final dry-out phase of pools and is supported by the presence of only small fish remains in the last drying up pools of dry pans. Another adaptation of smaller fish includes the temporary congregation outside the water enabling concealment under dense vegetation as a means to escape adverse environmental conditions, including high water temperatures and avian predation. The advantage small fish have over larger catfish under these extreme conditions may explain why catfish are known to show a wide variation in growth rate under natural and aquaculture conditions.

  11. Loss of spent fuel pool cooling PRA: Model and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siu, N.; Khericha, S.; Conroy, S.; Beck, S.; Blackman, H.

    1996-09-01

    This letter report documents models for quantifying the likelihood of loss of spent fuel pool cooling; models for identifying post-boiling scenarios that lead to core damage; qualitative and quantitative results generated for a selected plant that account for plant design and operational practices; a comparison of these results and those generated from earlier studies; and a review of available data on spent fuel pool accidents. The results of this study show that for a representative two-unit boiling water reactor, the annual probability of spent fuel pool boiling is 5 x 10 -5 and the annual probability of flooding associated with loss of spent fuel pool cooling scenarios is 1 x 10 -3 . Qualitative arguments are provided to show that the likelihood of core damage due to spent fuel pool boiling accidents is low for most US commercial nuclear power plants. It is also shown that, depending on the design characteristics of a given plant, the likelihood of either: (a) core damage due to spent fuel pool-associated flooding, or (b) spent fuel damage due to pool dryout, may not be negligible

  12. The effect of the gas-liquid density ratio on the liquid film thickness in vertical upward annular flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Shoji; Okuyama, Kunito

    2010-01-01

    Annular two phase flow is encountered in many industrial equipments, including flow near nuclear fuel rods in boiling water reactor (BWR). Especially, disturbance waves play important roles in the pressure drop, the generation of entrainments, and the dryout of the liquid film. Therefore, it is important to clarify the behavior of disturbance waves and base film. However, most of the previous studies have been performed under atmospheric pressure conditions that provide the properties of liquid and gas which are significantly different from those of a BWR. Therefore, the effect of properties in gas and liquid on liquid film characteristics should be clarified. In this paper we focus on the effect of gas-liquid density ratio on liquid film thickness characteristics. The experiments have been conducted at four density ratio conditions (ρ L /ρ G =763, 451, 231, and 31). As a result, it was found that liquid film thickness characteristics including the effect of liquid/gas density ratios were well correlated with a gas Weber number and the liquid Reynolds number in the wide range of experimental conditions (ρ L /ρ G : 31-763, We: 10-1800, Re L : 500-2200). (author)

  13. Establishment and validation of the model of molten pool in fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shufeng; Luo Rui; Wang Zhou; Shi Xiaobo; Yang Xianyong

    2007-01-01

    Running under the beyond design base accidental condition, sodium boiling and dry-out will soon be brought about in LMFBR. If not stopped timely, the fuel pins of the subassembly will be melt and broken to form a molten pool at the bottom of the subassembly. to present a reasonable analysis about the molten pool accident, a method of establishing model according to the mechanism is selected, by which an integral model of the molten pool is established. Validated on the three power groups of BF1 experiments which belong to the France SCARABEE series experimenters, the model shows good results. After compared with the models of GEYSER and BF2 experiments which had been validated before, some conclusions about mechanism of molten pool are derived. Moreover, through comparing the relative parameters such as the discharged heat and the increment of temperature etc., a reasonable analysis about the type of heat transfer is present, on the basis of which some conclusions are derived as well. (authors)

  14. Halden fuel and material experiments beyond operational and safety limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, Boris; Wiesenack, Wolfgang; McGrath, M.; Tverberg, T.

    2014-01-01

    One of the main tasks of any research reactor is to investigate the behavior of nuclear fuel and materials prior to their introduction into the market. For commercial NPPs, it is important both to test nuclear fuels at a fuel burn-up exceeding current limits and to investigate reactor materials for higher irradiation dose. For fuel vendors such tests enable verification of fuel reliability or for the safety limits to be found under different operational conditions and accident situations. For the latter, in-pile experiments have to be performed beyond some normal limits. The program of fuel tests performed in the Halden reactor is aimed mainly at determining: The thermal FGR threshold, which may limit fuel operational power with burn-up increase, the “lift-off effect” when rod internal pressure exceeds coolant pressure, the effects of high burn-up on fuel behavior under power ramps, fuel relocation under LOCA simulation at higher burn-up, the effect of dry-out on high burn-up fuel rod integrity. This paper reviews some of the experiments performed in the Halden reactor for understanding some of the limits for standard fuel utilization with the aim of contributing to the development of innovative fuels and cladding materials that could be used beyond these limits. (author)

  15. Significant questions in thin liquid film heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankoff, S.G.

    1994-01-01

    Thin liquid films appear in many contexts, such as the cooling of gas turbine blade tips, rocket engines, microelectronics arrays, and hot fuel element surfaces in hypothetical nuclear reactor accidents. Apart from these direct cooling applications of thin liquid layers, thin films form a crucial element in determining the allowable heat flux limits in boiling. This is because the last stages of dryout almost invariably involve the rupture of a residual liquid film, either as a microlayer underneath the bubbles, or a thin annular layer in a high-quality burnout scenario. The destabilization of these thin films under the combined actions of shear stress, evaporation, and thermocapillary effects is quite complex. The later stages of actual rupture to form dry regions, which then expand, resulting in possible overheating, are even more complex and less well understood. However, significant progress has been made in understanding the behavior of these thin films, which are subject to competing instabilities prior to actual rupture. This will be reviewed briefly. Recent work on the advance, or recession, of contact lines will also be described briefly, and significant questions that still remain to be answered will be discussed. 68 refs., 7 figs

  16. ROSA-III 100 % break integral test Run 914

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonomoto, Taisuke; Tasaka, Kanji; Koizumi, Yasuo; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Murata, Hideo

    1987-05-01

    This report presents the experimental data of RUN 914 conducted at the ROSA-III test facility. The facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) simulator for a BWR/6 with the electrically heated core, the break simulator and the scaled ECCS (emergency core cooling system). RUN 914 was a 100% split break test at the recirculation pump suction line with an assumption of HPCS diesel generator failure and conducted as one of the break area parameter tests. A peak cladding temperature (PCT) of 851 K was reached at 130 s after the break during the reflooding phase. Whole core was completely quenched by ECCS, and the effectiveness of ECCS was confirmed. The primary test results of RUN 914 are compared in this report with those of RUN 926, which was a 200 % double-ended break test. The initiation of core dryout in RUN 914 was almost the same as that in RUN 926. Duration of core dryourt was, however, longer in RUN 914 because of later actuation of ECCSs. PCT in RUN 914 was 67 K higher than that in RUN 926. (author)

  17. Prediction of thermoplastic failure of a reactor pressure vessel under a postulated core melt accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duijvestijn, G.; Birchley, J.; Reichlin, K.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the lower head failure calculations performed for a postulated accident scenario in a commercial nuclear power plant. A postulated one inch break in the primary coolant circuit leads to dryout and subsequent meltdown of the core. The reference plant is a pressurized water reactor without penetrations in the reactor vessel lower head. The molten core material accumulates in the lower head, eventually causing failure of the vessel. The analysis investigates flow conditions in the melt pool, temperature evolution in the reactor vessel wall, and structure mechanical evaluation of the vessel under strong thermal loads and a range of internal pressures. The calculations were performed using the ADINA finite element codes. The analysis focusses on the failure processes, time and mode of failure. The most likely mode of failure at low pressure is global rupture due to gradual accumulation of creep strain over a large part of the heated area. In contrast, thermoplasticity becomes important at high pressure or following a pressure spike and can lead to earlier local failure. In situations in which part of the heat load is concentrated over a small area, resulting in a hot spot, local failure occurs, but not until the temperatures are close to the melting point. At low pressure, in particular, the hot spot area remains intact until the structure is molten across more than half of the thickness. (author) 14 figs., 16 refs

  18. Development, implementation and assessment of specific, two-fluid closure laws for inverted-annular film-boiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cachard, F. de [Laboratory for Thermal Hydraulics, Villigen (Switzerland)

    1995-09-01

    Inverted-Annular Film-Boiling (IAFB) is one of the post-burnout heat transfer modes taking place during the reflooding phase of the loss-of-coolant accident, when the liquid at the quench front is subcooled. Under IAFB conditions, a continuous, liquid core is separated from the wall by a superheated vapour film. the heat transfer rate in IAFB is influenced by the flooding rate, liquid subcooling, pressure, and the wall geometry and temperature. These influences can be accounted by a two-fluid model with physically sound closure laws for mass, momentum and heat transfers between the wall, the vapour film, the vapour-liquid interface, and the liquid core. Such closure laws have been developed and adjusted using IAFB-relevant experimental results, including heat flux, wall temperature and void fraction data. The model is extensively assessed against data from three independent sources. A total of 46 experiments have been analyzed. The overall predictions are good. The IAFB-specific closure laws proposed have also intrinsic value, and may be used in other two-fluid models. They should allow to improve the description of post-dryout, low quality heat transfer by the safety codes.

  19. Relationship between high quality CHF and boiling length in annulus geometry with uniformly heated rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chun, S. Y.; Mun, S. K.; Park, J. K.; Yang, S. K.; Jung, M. K.

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between the boiling length and the CHF in annulus geometry with uniformly heated rod has been studied. In this study the CHF data under pressure of 0.57∼15.01 MPa, flow rate of 200∼650 kg/m 2 s, inlet subcooling of 85∼353 kJ/kg and exit quality of 0.106∼0.536 have been applied. As a result of examining the flow pattern over the heated section, all of the CHF data were the dryout type CHF in annular flow and the locations of the churn to annular flow transition moved down stream of the heated section with increasing the pressure. The effect of pressure on the boiling length under the CHF conditions showed the trends similar to the effect of pressure on the CHF. The relationship between the non-dimensional CHF, q CHF and mass flux taking into account of the boiling length, G ( L h / L B ) indicated the linear relationship without scatter and regardless of pressure and inlet subcooling. The CHF calculated by using the relationship between the non-dimensionless CHF, q CHF and mass flux, G ( L h / L B ) predicted very well the experimental CHF data with the pressure dependence

  20. SOCON: a computer model for analyzing the behavior of sodium-concrete reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, D.G.; Muhlestein, L.D.

    1985-03-01

    Guided by experimental evidence available to date, ranging from basic laboratory studies to large scale tests, a mechanistic computer model (the SOCON model) has been developed to analyze the behavior of SOdium-CONcrete reactions. The model accounts for the thermal, chemical and mechanical phenomena which interact to determine the consequences of the reactions. Reaction limiting mechanisms could be any process which reduces water release and sodium transport to fresh concrete; the buildup of the inert reaction product layer would increase the resistance to sodium transport; water dry-out would decrease the bubble agitation transport mechanism. However, stress-induced failure of concrete, such as spalling, crushing and cracking, and a massive release of gaseous products (hydrogen, water vapor and CO 2 ) would increase the transport of sodium to the reaction zone. The results of SOCON calculations are in excellent agreement with measurements obtained from large-scale sodium-limestone concrete reaction tests of duration up to 100 hours conducted at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. 8 refs., 7 figs

  1. Review of Available Data for Validation of Nuresim Two-Phase CFD Software Applied to CHF Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bestion

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The NURESIM Project of the 6th European Framework Program initiated the development of a new-generation common European Standard Software Platform for nuclear reactor simulation. The thermal-hydraulic subproject aims at improving the understanding and the predictive capabilities of the simulation tools for key two-phase flow thermal-hydraulic processes such as the critical heat flux (CHF. As part of a multi-scale analysis of reactor thermal-hydraulics, a two-phase CFD tool is developed to allow zooming on local processes. Current industrial methods for CHF mainly use the sub-channel analysis and empirical CHF correlations based on large scale experiments having the real geometry of a reactor assembly. Two-phase CFD is used here for understanding some boiling flow processes, for helping new fuel assembly design, and for developing better CHF predictions in both PWR and BWR. This paper presents a review of experimental data which can be used for validation of the two-phase CFD application to CHF investigations. The phenomenology of DNB and Dry-Out are detailed identifying all basic flow processes which require a specific modeling in CFD tool. The resulting modeling program of work is given and the current state-of-the-art of the modeling within the NURESIM project is presented.

  2. Standard for assessment of fuel integrity under anticipated operational occurrences in BWR power plant:2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishima, Kaichiro; Suzuki, Riichiro; Komura, Seiichi; Kudo, Yoshiro; Yamanaka, Akihiro; Oomizu, Satoru; Kitamura, Hideya; Nagata, Yoshifumi

    2003-01-01

    To secure fuel integrity, a Light Water Reactor (LWR) core is designed so that no boiling transition (BT) should take place in fuel assemblies and excessive rise in fuel cladding temperature due to deteriorated that transfer should be avoided in Anticipated Operational Occurrences (AOO). In some AOO in a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR), however, the rise in reactor power could be limited by SCRAM or void reactivity effect. Recent studies have provided accumulated knowledge that even if BT takes place in fuel assemblies, the rise in fuel cladding temperature could be so small that it will not threat to fuel integrity, as long as the BT condition terminates within a short period of time. In addition, appropriate methods have been developed to evaluate the cladding temperature during dryout. This standard provides requirements in the assessment of fuel integrity under AOO in which limited-BT condition is temporarily reached and the propriety of reusing a fuel assembly that has experienced limited-BT condition. The standard has been approved by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan following deliberation by impartial members for two and half years. It is now expected that this standard will provide an effective measure for the rational expansion of fuel design and operational margin. (author)

  3. Establishment and assessment of CHF data base for square-lattice rod bundles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Dae Hyun; Seo, K. W.; Kim, K. K.; Zee, S. Q.

    2002-02-01

    A CHF data base is constructed for square-lattice rod bundles, and assessed with various existing CHF prediction models. The CHF data base consists of 10725 data points obtained from 147 test bundles with uniform axial power distributions and 29 test bundles with non-uniform axial power distributions. The local thermal-hydraulic conditions in the subchannels are calculated by employing a subchannel analysis code MATRA. The influence of turbulent mixing parameter on CHF is evaluated quantitatively for selected test bundles with representative cross sectional configurations. The performance of various CHF prediction models including empirical correlations for round tubes or rod bundles, theoretical DNB models such as sublayer dryout model and bubble crowding model, and CHF lookup table for round tubes, are assessed for the localized rod bundle CHF data base. In view of the analysis result, it reveals that the 1995 AECL-IPPE CHF lookup table method is one of promising models in the aspect of the prediction accuracy and the applicable range. As the result of analysis employing the CHF lookup table for 9113 data points with uniform axial heat profile, the mean and the standard deviation of P/M are calculated as 1.003 and 0.115 by HBM, 1.022 and 0.319 by DSM respectively

  4. Experimental studies on the coolability of packed beds. Flooding of hot dry packed beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leininger, S.; Kulenovic, R.; Laurien, E.

    2013-01-01

    In case of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant meltdown of the reactor core can occur and form a packed bed in the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) after solidification due to contact with water. The removal of after-heat and the long-term coolability is of essential interest. The efficient injection of cooling water into the packed bed has to be assured without endangering the structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The experiments performed aimed to study the dry-out and the quenching (flooding) of hot dry packed beds. Two different inflow variants, bottom- and top-flooding including the variation of the starting temperature of the packed bed and the injection rate were studied. In case of bottom flooding the quenching time increases with increasing packed bed temperature and decreasing injection rate. In case of top flooding the flow pattern is more complex, in a first phase the water flows preferentially toward the RPV wall, the flow paths conduct the water downwards. The flow resistance of the packed bed increases with increasing bed temperatures. The quenching temperatures increase significantly above average.

  5. Evaluation of the safety margins during shutdown for NPP Krsko

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bencik, V.; Sadek, S.; Bajs, T.

    2004-01-01

    In the paper the results of RELAP5/mod3.3 calculations of critical parameters during shutdown for NPP Krsko are presented. Conservative evaluations have been performed at NPP Krsko to determine the minimum configuration of systems required for the safe shutdown operation. Critical parameters in these evaluations are defined as the time to start of the boiling and the time of the core dry-out. In order to have better insight into the available margins, the best estimate code RELAP5/mod3.3 has been used to calculate the same parameters. The analyzed transient is the loss of the Residual Heat Removal (RHR) system, which is used to remove decay heat during shutdown conditions. Several configurations that include open and closed Reactor Coolant System (RCS) were considered in the evaluation. The RELAP5/mod3.3 analysis of the loss of the RHR system has been performed for the following cases: 1) RCS closed and water solid, 2) RCS closed and partially drained, 3) Pressurizer manway open, Steam Generator (SG) U tubes partially drained, 4) Pressurizer and SG manways open, SG U tubes completely drained, 5) Pressurizer manway open, SGs drained, SG nozzle dams installed and 6) SG nozzle dams installed, pressurizer manway open, 1 inch break at RHR pump discharge in the loop with pressurizer. Both RHR trains were assumed in operation prior to start of the transient. The maximum average steady state temperature for all analyzed cases was limited to 333 K. (author)

  6. Method of critical power prediction based on film flow model coupled with subchannel analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomiyama, Akio; Yokomizo, Osamu; Yoshimoto, Yuichiro; Sugawara, Satoshi.

    1988-01-01

    A new method was developed to predict critical powers for a wide variety of BWR fuel bundle designs. This method couples subchannel analysis with a liquid film flow model, instead of taking the conventional way which couples subchannel analysis with critical heat flux correlations. Flow and quality distributions in a bundle are estimated by the subchannel analysis. Using these distributions, film flow rates along fuel rods are then calculated with the film flow model. Dryout is assumed to occur where one of the film flows disappears. This method is expected to give much better adaptability to variations in geometry, heat flux, flow rate and quality distributions than the conventional methods. In order to verify the method, critical power data under BWR conditions were analyzed. Measured and calculated critical powers agreed to within ±7%. Furthermore critical power data for a tight-latticed bundle obtained by LeTourneau et al. were compared with critical powers calculated by the present method and two conventional methods, CISE correlation and subchannel analysis coupled with the CISE correlation. It was confirmed that the present method can predict critical powers more accurately than the conventional methods. (author)

  7. Critical heat flux and exit film flow rate in a flow boiling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Tatsuhiro; Isayama, Yasushi

    1981-01-01

    The critical heat flux in a flowing boiling system is an important problem in the evaporating tubes with high thermal load such as nuclear reactors and boilers, and gives the practical design limit. When the heat flux in uniformly heated evaporating tubes is gradually raised, the tube exit quality increases, and soon, the critical heat flux condition arises, and the wall temperature near tube exit rises rapidly. In the region of low exit quality, the critical heat flux condition is caused by the transition from nucleating boiling, and in the region of high exit quality, it is caused by dry-out. But the demarcation of both regions is not clear. In this study, for the purpose of obtaining the knowledge concerning the critical heat flux condition in a flowing boiling system, the relation between the critical heat flux and exit liquid film flow rate was examined. For the experiment, a uniformly heated vertical tube supplying R 113 liquid was used, and the measurement in the range of higher heating flux and mass velocity than the experiment by Ueda and Kin was carried out. The experimental setup and experimental method, the critical heat flux and exit quality, the liquid film flow rate at heating zone exit, and the relation between the critical heat flux and the liquid film flow rate at exit are described. (Kako, I.)

  8. Thermal-hydraulic and characteristic models for packed debris beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, G.E.; Sozer, A.

    1986-12-01

    APRIL is a mechanistic core-wide meltdown and debris relocation computer code for Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) severe accident analyses. The capabilities of the code continue to be increased by the improvement of existing models. This report contains information on theory and models for degraded core packed debris beds. The models, when incorporated into APRIL, will provide new and improved capabilities in predicting BWR debris bed coolability characteristics. These models will allow for a more mechanistic treatment in calculating temperatures in the fluid and solid phases in the debris bed, in determining debris bed dryout, debris bed quenching from either top-flooding or bottom-flooding, single and two-phase pressure drops across the debris bed, debris bed porosity, and in finding the minimum fluidization mass velocity. The inclusion of these models in a debris bed computer module will permit a more accurate prediction of the coolability characteristics of the debris bed and therefore reduce some of the uncertainties in assessing the severe accident characteristics for BWR application. Some of the debris bed theoretical models have been used to develop a FORTRAN 77 subroutine module called DEBRIS. DEBRIS is a driver program that calls other subroutines to analyze the thermal characteristics of a packed debris bed. Fortran 77 listings of each subroutine are provided in the appendix

  9. The integrity of 9Cr-1Mo to stainless steel transition joints in AGR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, D.W.; Neumann, P.; Soo, J.

    1982-01-01

    The metallurgical aspects of the transition joint between 9Cr-1Mo and 316 stainless steel boiler tube sections are reviewed. A large minimum superheat margin (106 0 C) between the dryout zone and the 9Cr-1Mo to stainless steel transition joint was specified in the original design to eliminate the risk of wetting the stainless steel which is susceptible to stress corrosion cracking. However, small defects were discovered in the welds between the 9Cr-1Mo and Sanicro (72%Ni-16%Cr-10%Fe) transition piece, resulting from dilution of the weld pool by nickel from the transition piece. This led to the possibility of weld failure as a result of creep crack growth in service, and any significant reduction in operating temperature would mean that the large superheat margin could not be sustained. The creep properties of the joints, together with the transition joint temperature distribution, enabled tube failure rates to be determined as a function of operating temperature. A probabilistic model was developed so that the transition joint could be operated within a temperature 'window', the lower temperature limit being determined by stress corrosion considerations and the upper limit being set by creep rate limitations. This allows full load performance from the boilers throughout the anticipated life of the plant. (author)

  10. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Hydrological Modeling of the Yucca Mountain Project Drift Scale Test. Task 2A Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, Robin N.

    2005-02-01

    lead to the conclusion that diffusion of vapor play an important role in flow and transport in the dry-out zone, since vapor mass fraction reaches its maximum in that region. Vapor flows by advection and by vapor diffusion/dispersion. Advection is very efficient in the high permeability fractured rock; however, diffusion is also a very efficient transport mechanism due to the high diffusivity of vapor in air. The NRC research team examined two grid block sizes of 04 m and 5.0 m as well as two infiltration rates and the dual permeability model (DKM) with and without the active fracture model (AFM). An increase in model block size allowed relatively large infiltration rates (3.0 mdyr) while maintaining a moderate ambient matrix saturation of 0.90. There was significant difference in the predicted matrix saturations between the small block model and the large block model as indicated by the larger dry-out zone in the small block model especially at four years after the start of heating. The sensors in borehole 160, located between two wing heaters, display a wide variety of responses depending on their location with respect to the heaters. The ones located directly above the wing heaters exhibit strong thermal perturbation. Both measured and simulated temperature results have relatively short heat-pipe signals, suggesting that pore water is boiled off in a relatively short time period because of close proximity to the heaters

  11. Flow Vaporization of CO{sub 2} in Microchannel Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Jostein

    2002-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is receiving renewed interest as an efficient and environmentally safe refrigerant in a number of applications, including mobile air conditioning and heat pump systems, and hot water heat pumps. Compact heat exchangers for CO{sub 2} systems are designed with small-diameter tubing. The purpose of this study is therefore to provide a better basis for understanding and predicting heat transfer and pressure drop during flow vaporization of CO{sub 2} in microchannels. The ''unusual'' properties of carbon dioxide give heat transfer and two-phase flow characteristics that are very different from those of conventional refrigerants. Examples of these differences are the much higher pressure, the resulting high vapour density, a very low surface tension, and a low liquid viscosity. High pressure and low surface tension has a major effect on nucleate boiling characteristics, and earlier test data have shown a clear dominance of nucleate boiling even at very high mass flux. Heat transfer tests were conducted in a rig using a flat, extruded aluminium microchannel tube of 540 mm length with 25 channels of 0.81 mm diameter. The horizontal test tube was heated by a water jacket in order to get representative boundary conditions for air-to-refrigerant heat transfer (''fluid heating''). Constant heat flux conditions do not simulate these boundary conditions well, and may give unrealistic behaviour especially in relation to dryout and post-dryout heat transfer. Systematic tests at constant heat flux with single-phase CO{sub 2} flow on the inside generated data that were used in the derivation of a model for water-side beat transfer coefficient. A regression based on these data gave a calibrated equation for water-side heat transfer on the form NuNu(Re,Pr). This equation was then used in later experiments to subtract water-side thermal resistance from the measured overall resistance (1/UA), thereby finding the internal heat

  12. Correlations for developing film boiling effect in tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Y.; Leung, L.K.H.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Reducing uncertainties in predicting film-boiling heat transfer can provide improved margins in reactor safety analysis, hence improved operating margins in nuclear power plants. Most reactor safety codes employed the tube-based prediction method for the fully developed film-boiling heat transfer coefficient. This approach tends to underpredict the heat-transfer coefficient and over-predict the sheath temperature at post-dryout conditions close to the CHF point. The under-prediction is due mainly to the droplet impingement on the heated surface and vapour superheating. This heat-transfer regime is referred to as the developing film boiling, which is associated with an enhancement in heat transfer compared to the fully developed film boiling. An improvement in the prediction accuracy is achievable by accounting for the effect of vapour-film development on film boiling heat transfer. In addition to system safety analyses, the prediction of developing film boiling heat transfer is required in subchannel analyses for fuel bundles. A tube-data-based prediction method is particularly relevant for subchannel applications. The objective of this study is to derive a correlation for the developing film boiling effect in tubes. The current CANDU R . system safety and subchannel analyses codes apply the look-up table approach to predict the film boiling heat transfer. The post-dryout look-up table provides the fully developed film boiling heat transfer in an 8-mm vertical tube, and has been extended to other tube sizes using a diameter modification factor. In this study, a modification factor has been developed to account for the developing film-boiling effect, and is expressed in the following non-dimensional form: K = (h FB - h FD )/(h NB - h FD ) = f ((T W - T sat )/T CHF - T sat )) where h FB is the film boiling heat transfer coefficient, h FD is the fully developed film-boiling heat transfer coefficient, which is evaluated using the film

  13. DECOVALEX III PROJECT. Thermal-Hydrological Modeling of the Yucca Mountain Project Drift Scale Test. Task 2A Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Robin N. [Bechtel SAlC Company, Las Vegas (US)] (comp.)

    2005-02-15

    cases lead to the conclusion that diffusion of vapor play an important role in flow and transport in the dry-out zone, since vapor mass fraction reaches its maximum in that region. Vapor flows by advection and by vapor diffusion/dispersion. Advection is very efficient in the high permeability fractured rock; however, diffusion is also a very efficient transport mechanism due to the high diffusivity of vapor in air. The NRC research team examined two grid block sizes of 04 m and 5.0 m as well as two infiltration rates and the dual permeability model (DKM) with and without the active fracture model (AFM). An increase in model block size allowed relatively large infiltration rates (3.0 mdyr) while maintaining a moderate ambient matrix saturation of 0.90. There was significant difference in the predicted matrix saturations between the small block model and the large block model as indicated by the larger dry-out zone in the small block model especially at four years after the start of heating. The sensors in borehole 160, located between two wing heaters, display a wide variety of responses depending on their location with respect to the heaters. The ones located directly above the wing heaters exhibit strong thermal perturbation. Both measured and simulated temperature results have relatively short heat-pipe signals, suggesting that pore water is boiled off in a relatively short time period because of close proximity to the heaters.

  14. Study of transient burnout under flow reduction condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi

    1986-09-01

    Transient burnout characteristics of a fuel rod under a rapid flow reduction condition of a light water reactor were experimentally and analytically studied. The test sections were uniformly heated vertical tube and annulus with the heated length of 800 mm. Test pressures ranged 0.5 ∼ 3.9 MPa, heat fluxes 2,160 ∼ 3,860 KW/m 2 , and flow reduction rates 0.44 ∼ 770 %/s. The local flow condition during flow reduction transients were calculated with a separate flow model. The two-fluid/three-field thermal-hydraulic code, COBRA/TRAC, was also used to investigate the liquid film behavior on the heated surface. The major results obtained in the present study are as follows: The onset of burnout under a rapid flow reduction condition was caused by a liquid film dryout on the heated surface. With increasing flow reduction rate beyond a threshold, the burnout mass velocity at the inlet became lower than the steady-state burnout mass velocity. This is explained by the fact that the vapor flow rate continues to increase due to the delay of boiling boundary movement and the resultant high vapor velocity sustains the liquid film flow after the inlet flow rate reaches the steady-state burnout flow rate. The ratio of inlet burnout mass velocities between flow reduction transient and steady-state became smaller with increasing system pressure because of the lower vapor velocity due to the lower vapor specific volume. Flow reduction burnout occurred when the outlet quality agreed with the steady-state burnout quality within 10 %, suggesting that the local condition burnout model can be used for flow reduction transients. Based on this model, a method to predict the time to burnout under a flow reduction condition in a uniformly heated tube was developed. The calculated times to burnout agreed well with some experimental results obtained by the Author, Cumo et al., and Moxon et al. (author)

  15. Measurement of Capillary Radius and Contact Angle within Porous Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, Saitej; Dharmarajan, Ramanathan; Moghaddam, Saeed

    2015-12-01

    The pore radius (i.e., capillary radius) and contact angle determine the capillary pressure generated in a porous medium. The most common method to determine these two parameters is through measurement of the capillary pressure generated by a reference liquid (i.e., a liquid with near-zero contact angle) and a test liquid. The rate of rise technique, commonly used to determine the capillary pressure, results in significant uncertainties. In this study, we utilize a recently developed technique for independently measuring the capillary pressure and permeability to determine the equivalent minimum capillary radii and contact angle of water within micropillar wick structures. In this method, the experimentally measured dryout threshold of a wick structure at different wicking lengths is fit to Darcy's law to extract the maximum capillary pressure generated by the test liquid. The equivalent minimum capillary radii of different wick geometries are determined by measuring the maximum capillary pressures generated using n-hexane as the working fluid. It is found that the equivalent minimum capillary radius is dependent on the diameter of pillars and the spacing between pillars. The equivalent capillary radii of micropillar wicks determined using the new method are found to be up to 7 times greater than the current geometry-based first-order estimates. The contact angle subtended by water at the walls of the micropillars is determined by measuring the capillary pressure generated by water within the arrays and the measured capillary radii for the different geometries. This mean contact angle of water is determined to be 54.7°.

  16. Boiling on a tube bundle: heat transfer, pressure drop and flow patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, F.

    2008-07-01

    The complexity of the two-phase flow in a tube bundle presents important problems in the design and understanding of the physical phenomena taking place. The working conditions of an evaporator depend largely on the dynamics of the two-phase flow that in turn influence the heat exchange and the pressure drop of the system. A characterization of the flow dynamics, and possibly the identification of the flow pattern in the tube bundle, is thus expected to lead to a better understanding of the phenomena and to reveal on the mechanisms governing the tube bundle. Therefore, the present study aims at providing further insights into two-phase bundle flow through a new visualization system able to provide for the first time a view of the flow in the core of a tube bundle. In addition, the measurement of the light attenuation of a laser beam through the two-phase flow and measurement of the high frequency pressure fluctuations with a piezo-electric pressure transducer are used to characterize the flow. The design and the validation of this new instrumentation also provided a method for the detection of dry-out in tube bundles. This was achieved by a laser attenuation technique, flow visualization, and estimation of the power spectrum of the pressure fluctuation. The current investigation includes results for two different refrigerants, R134a and R236fa, three saturations temperatures T sat = 5, 10 and 15 °C, mass velocities ranging from 4 to 40 kg/sm² in adiabatic and diabatic conditions (several heat fluxes). Measurement of the local heat transfer coefficient and two-phase frictional pressure drop were obtained and utilized to improve the current prediction methods. The heat transfer and pressure drop data were supported by extensive characterization of the two-phase flow, which was to improve the understanding of the two-phase flow occurring in tube bundles. (author)

  17. User`s manual for the FEHM application -- A finite-element heat- and mass-transfer code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zyvoloski, G.A.; Robinson, B.A.; Dash, Z.V.; Trease, L.L.

    1997-07-01

    The use of this code is applicable to natural-state studies of geothermal systems and groundwater flow. A primary use of the FEHM application will be to assist in the understanding of flow fields and mass transport in the saturated and unsaturated zones below the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada. The equations of heat and mass transfer for multiphase flow in porous and permeable media are solved in the FEHM application by using the finite-element method. The permeability and porosity of the medium are allowed to depend on pressure and temperature. The code also has provisions for movable air and water phases and noncoupled tracers; that is, tracer solutions that do not affect the heat- and mass-transfer solutions. The tracers can be passive or reactive. The code can simulate two-dimensional, two-dimensional radial, or three-dimensional geometries. In fact, FEHM is capable of describing flow that is dominated in many areas by fracture and fault flow, including the inherently three-dimensional flow that results from permeation to and from faults and fractures. The code can handle coupled heat and mass-transfer effects, such as boiling, dryout, and condensation that can occur in the near-field region surrounding the potential repository and the natural convection that occurs through Yucca Mountain due to seasonal temperature changes. This report outlines the uses and capabilities of the FEHM application, initialization of code variables, restart procedures, and error processing. The report describes all the data files, the input data, including individual input records or parameters, and the various output files. The system interface is described, including the software environment and installation instructions.

  18. Improvement and validation of the wall heat transfer package of RELAP5/MOD3.3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Pan; Xiong, Xiaofei; Shan, Jianqiang; Gou, Junli; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new heat transfer package has been developed. • It has been incorporated into RELAP5/MOD3.3 to verify its advantages. • The results of modified code were compared with available experimental data. • The results showed that higher prediction accuracy was achieved. - Abstract: The process of energy transfer from heat structure to control volume is determined by the wall-to-fluid heat transfer package, which is crucial for nuclear reactor safety analysis codes. The current logic for selection of heat transfer modes of RELAP5/MOD3.3 code is too complex and may result in incorrect heat transfer mode judgment. Also, the narrow application scope of film boiling heat transfer correlations may result in large errors in film boiling region which is of paramount importance for the predicted peak clad temperatures during hypothetical LB-LOCAs in PWRs. In this study, a new heat transfer package has been developed and incorporated into the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. Differing from the original package, the modified one consists of twelve heat transfer modes and proposes a new logic for selection of heat transfer modes. For each mode, the models in the existing safety analysis codes and the leading models in literature have been reviewed in order to determine the best model which can easily be applicable to the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. Particularly (1) a new package of heat transfer correlations are produced; (2) a new logic for selection of film boiling and transition boiling heat transfer modes is proposed which use minimum film boiling temperature and critical heat flux temperature as distinguished points. The modified code has been validated by comparing the analysis results with available experimental data from tube post dryout experiments and loss-of-fluid test (LOFT) facility. The calculation results showed that the improved package could better predict the experimental phenomena with higher prediction accuracy.

  19. Development of TRACG02MODT1 for whole bundle simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, H.; Mototani, A.; Kawamura, S.; Abe, N.; Takeuchi, Y.

    2004-01-01

    In order to secure fuel integrity, BWR cores are designed to avoid the onset of boiling transition (BT) inside the fuel assembly that leads to excessive rise in fuel cladding temperatures due to deteriorated heat transfer even in the case of such events as may be encountered more than once in the lifetime of a plant, that is, 'Anticipated Operational Occurrences (AOOs)'. The post-BT standard is a new fuel integrity standard that allows temporary BT condition in the evaluation for BWR AOOs in Japan. This post-BT standard enables not only reasonable assessment of the fuel integrity in which post- BT condition is reached but also the reuse of a fuel assembly which has temporarily experienced post-BT condition, if it actually occurred. As a consequence, the post-BT standard is expected to provide an effective measure for rational enhancement of fuel design and expansion of operational margin. It is important to identify which fuel assemblies and which axial, radial positions of fuel rods have temporarily experienced post-BT condition and to evaluate how high the fuel cladding temperature rose and how long the dryout period continued. A new evaluation method for a detailed BWR core thermal-hydraulic analysis based on Japanese post-BT standard has been developed and applied to the evaluation of post-BT standard during the actual BWR plant AOOs. The whole bundle simulation methods by TRACG02modT1 coupled with post-BT evaluation model can identify fuel assembly, fuel rod inside fuel assembly, and axial location of fuel rod where BT has been experienced, and also judge whether or not Japanese post-BT standard for the integrity of fuel assembly and the capability of reusing a fuel assembly is satisfied

  20. Cold-neutron tomography of annular flow and functional spacer performance in a model of a boiling water reactor fuel rod bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zboray, Robert; Kickhofel, John; Damsohn, Manuel; Prasser, Horst-Michael

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Annular flows w/wo functional spacers are investigated by cold neutron imaging. → Liquid film thickness distribution on fuel pins and on spacer vanes is measured. → The influence of the spacers on the liquid film distributions has been quantified. → The cross-sectional averaged liquid hold-up significantly affected by the spacers. → The sapers affect the fraction of the entrained liquid hold up in the gas core. - Abstract: Dryout of the coolant liquid film at the upper part of the fuel pins of a boiling water reactor (BWR) core constitutes the type of heat transfer crisis relevant for the conditions of high void fractions. It is both a safety concern and a limiting factor in the thermal power and thus for the economy of BWRs. We have investigated adiabatic, air-water annular flows in a scaled-up model of two neighboring subchannels as found in BWR fuel assemblies using cold-neutron tomography. The imaging of the double suchannel has been performed at the ICON beamline at the neutron spallation source SINQ at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Switzerland. Cold-neutron tomography is shown here to be an excellent tool for investigating air-water annular flows and the influence of functional spacers of different geometries on such flows. The high-resolution, high-contrast measurements provide the spatial distributions of the coolant liquid film thickness on the fuel pin surfaces as well as on the surfaces of the spacer vanes. The axial variations of the cross-section averaged liquid hold-up and its fraction in the gas core shows the effect of the spacers on the redistribution of the two phases.

  1. Improvement and validation of the wall heat transfer package of RELAP5/MOD3.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Pan; Xiong, Xiaofei; Shan, Jianqiang, E-mail: jqshan@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Gou, Junli; Zhang, Bin; Zhang, Bo

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • A new heat transfer package has been developed. • It has been incorporated into RELAP5/MOD3.3 to verify its advantages. • The results of modified code were compared with available experimental data. • The results showed that higher prediction accuracy was achieved. - Abstract: The process of energy transfer from heat structure to control volume is determined by the wall-to-fluid heat transfer package, which is crucial for nuclear reactor safety analysis codes. The current logic for selection of heat transfer modes of RELAP5/MOD3.3 code is too complex and may result in incorrect heat transfer mode judgment. Also, the narrow application scope of film boiling heat transfer correlations may result in large errors in film boiling region which is of paramount importance for the predicted peak clad temperatures during hypothetical LB-LOCAs in PWRs. In this study, a new heat transfer package has been developed and incorporated into the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. Differing from the original package, the modified one consists of twelve heat transfer modes and proposes a new logic for selection of heat transfer modes. For each mode, the models in the existing safety analysis codes and the leading models in literature have been reviewed in order to determine the best model which can easily be applicable to the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code. Particularly (1) a new package of heat transfer correlations are produced; (2) a new logic for selection of film boiling and transition boiling heat transfer modes is proposed which use minimum film boiling temperature and critical heat flux temperature as distinguished points. The modified code has been validated by comparing the analysis results with available experimental data from tube post dryout experiments and loss-of-fluid test (LOFT) facility. The calculation results showed that the improved package could better predict the experimental phenomena with higher prediction accuracy.

  2. Flow visualization study of post critical heat flux region for inverted bubbly, slug and annular flow regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denten, J.G.; Ishii, M.

    1988-11-01

    A visual study of film boiling using still photographic and high- speed motion picture methods was carried out in order to analyze the post-CHF hydrodynamics for steady-state inlet pre-CHF two-phase flow regimes. Pre-CHF two-phase flow regimes were established by introducing Freon 113 liquid and nitrogen gas into a jet core injection nozzle. An idealized, post-CHF two-phase core initial flow geometry (cylindrical multiphase jet core surrounded by a coaxial annulus of gas) was established at the nozzle exit by introducing nitrogen gas into the annular gap between the jet nozzle two-phase effluent and the heated test section inlet. For the present study three basic post-CHF flow regimes have been observed: the rough wavy regime (inverted annular flow preliminary break down), the agitated regime (transition between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow), and the dispersed ligament/droplet regime. For pre-CHF bubbly flow in the jet nozzle, the post-CHF flow (beginning from jet nozzle exit/heated test section inlet) consists of the rough wavy regime, followed by the agitated and then the dispersed ligament/droplet regime. In the same way, for pre-CHF slug flow in the jet core, the post-CHF flow is comprised of the agitated regime at the nozzle exit, followed by the dispersed regime. Pre-CHF annular jet core flow results in a small, depleted post-CHF agitated flow regime at the nozzle exit, immediately followed by the dispersed ligament/droplet regime. Observed post dryout hydrodynamic behavior is reported, with particular attention given to the transition flow pattern between inverted annular and dispersed droplet flow. 43 refs., 20 figs., 5 tabs

  3. Effect of the Aligned Flow Obstacles on Downward-Facing CHF in an Inclined Rectangular Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ui ju; Son, Hong Hyun; Seo, Gwang Hyeok; Jeun, Gyoo Dong; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The cooling channel consists of the inclined (10 .deg. ) portion of the downward facing heating channel and vertical portion of the heating channel. Features unique to flow boiling with the downward-facing heater surface in the inclined cooling channel where the studs are installed have drawn a considerable attention. That's because prior studies on boiling crisis indicate the orientation of the heated wall can exert substantial influence on CHF. Especially, the concentration of the vapor near the downward facing heater surface makes this region susceptible to premature boiling crisis when compared to vertical or upward-facing heated wall. Also, the installed studs could cause a partial flow blockage, and distort the flow streamline. Due to the distortion, stagnation points may occur in the cooling channel, promoting the concentration of the vapor near the heated wall. Then, the locally degraded heat transfer around the points may result in the formation of vapor pocket. The primary objective of this study is to make available experimental data on the CHF values varying the shape of studs and to improve understanding of the mechanism of flow boiling crisis associated with the aligned flow obstructions by means of visual experimental study. This study presents experimental data for subcooled flow boiling of water at atmospheric pressure and low mass flux conditions. The major outcomes from this investigation can be summarized as follows: (1) The CHF value from bare test section is -320kW/m{sup 2} , significantly lower than the values from the existing correlations even considering the uncertainty in the experiments. (2) The CHF value is remarkably decreased as columnar structures are installed in the channel. It is confirmed that formation and extinction of local dryout occurs repeatedly just behind the first stud at heat flux of -160 kW/m{sup 2}.

  4. Development of a detailed BWR core thermal-hydraulic analysis method based on the Japanese post-BT standard using a best-estimate code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, H.; Mototani, A.; Kawamura, S.; Abe, N.; Takeuchi, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The post-BT standard is a new fuel integrity standard or the Atomic Energy Society of Japan that allows temporary boiling transition condition in the evaluation for BWR anticipated operational occurrences. For application of the post-BT standard to BWR anticipated operational occurrences evaluation, it is important to identify which fuel assemblies and which axial, radial positions of fuel rods have temporarily experienced the post-BT condition and to evaluates how high the fuel cladding temperature rise was and how long the dryout duration continued. Therefore, whole bundle simulation, in which each fuel assembly is simulated independently by one thermal-hydraulic component, is considered to be an effective analytical method. In the present study, a best-estimate thermal-hydraulic code, TRACG02, has been modified to extend it predictive capability by implementing the post-BT evaluation model such as the post-BT heat transfer correlation and rewetting correlation and enlarging the number of components used for BWR plant simulation. Based on new evaluation methods, BWR core thermal-hydraulic behavior has been analyzed for typical anticipated operational occurrence conditions. The location where boiling transition occurs and the severity of fuel assembly in the case of boiling transition conditions such as fuel cladding temperature, which are important factors in determining whether the reuse of the fuel assembly can be permitted, were well predicted by the proposed evaluation method. In summary, a new evaluation method for a detailed BWR core thermal-hydraulic analysis based on the post-BT standard of the Atomic Energy Society of Japan has been developed and applied to the evaluation of the post-BT standard during the actual BWR plant anticipated operational occurrences. (author)

  5. PIV Measurement of Isothermal Flow in the Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Sung, Hyung Jin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Tae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    One of the important design features of a CANDU reactor (a pressurize heavy water reactor) is the use of moderator as a heat sink during some postulated accidents such as a large break Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA). If the moderator available subcooling at the onset of a large LOCA is greater than the subcooling requirements, a sustained calandria tube dryout is avoided. The subcooling requirements are determined from a set of experiments known as the fuel channel contact boiling experiments. The difference between available subcooling and required subcooling is called subcooling margins. The local temperature of the moderator is a key parameter in determining the available subcooling. To predict the local temperature in the calandria, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started the experimental research on moderator circulation as one of a national R and D research programs from 2012. In the present work the test vessel is equipment with 380 acrylic pipes instead of the heater rods and a preliminary measurement of velocity field using PIV is performed under the iso-thermal test conditions. The 2D velocity is measured on the cross-sectional plane normal to the axial direction of the tank. The PIV measurement results could capture the same flow pattern as that expected in the CANDU6 calandria tank under momentum dominant flow condition, where the inlet jets penetrate to the top of the tank and produce a downward flow through the center of the tube columns towards the outlet nozzle and the flow fields are in symmetric distributions. The measurements of downward velocities are performed at different locations. The velocity is shown to be axially uniform. The velocity is rapidly decreased as the measurement location is far from the center of tank, since the downward flow is dominant along the center of the tube columns. More experimental works for the iso-thermal conditions as well as the heating conditions will be performed using PIV measurement in the

  6. Fiscal 2000 project of inviting proposals for international joint research - invitation for international proposal (Energy conservation No.3). Achievement report on development of micro-scale boiling aided high efficiency heat removing device; 2000 nendo kokusai kyodo kenkyu teian kobo jigyo - kokusai teian kobo (shoe No.3). Micro scale boiling ni yoru kokoritsu honetsu device no kaihatsu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Studies are conducted about basic matters of heat transfer with boiling, such as critical heat flux intensification, prevention of dry-out, and the development of refrigerants suitable for use for heat transfer with boiling, for the purpose of developing boiling heat conduction type high-efficiency heat removing devices for use in electronics, and then heat removing devices usable as power devices in the future are experimentally designed. Activities are conducted in the three fields of (1) the study of basic micro-boiling technology, (2) development of micro-scale boiling element technology, and (3) international joint studies. Efforts are made to develop the technology of removing heat from ultrahigh heat fluxes using a micro-valve in field (1), to develop the technology of heat transfer by boiling in a micro-channel in field (2); and to develop the technology of critical heat flux intensification in a boiling heat exchanger in an electromagnetic field (3). In an effort to develop the technology of heat removal, a heat transfer plate is installed at the bottom of a path which is narrow, horizontal, and rectangular, and distilled water is allowed to flow and boil. Micro-bubble emission boiling occurs by a subcooling degree of 40K at an average flow rate of 0.5 m/s, and an ultrahigh heat flux of 2-7 times 10{sup 6} W/m{sup 2} is obtained. The value is 2-4 times as high as the current IC chip critical heat flux. (NEDO)

  7. A large block heater test for high level nuclear waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.; Wilder, D.G.; Blink, J.A.

    1994-07-01

    The radioactive decay heat from nuclear waste packages may, depending on the thermal load, create coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) processes in the near-field environment of a repository. A group of tests on a large block (LBT) are planned to provide a timely opportunity to test and calibrate some of the TMHC model concepts. The LBT is advantageous for testing and verifying model concepts because the boundary conditions are controlled, and the block can be characterized before and after the experiment. A block of Topopah Spring tuff of about 3 x 3 x 4.5 m will be sawed and isolated at Fran Ridge, Nevada Test Site. Small blocks of the rock adjacent to the large block will be collected for laboratory testing of some individual thermal-mechanical hydrological and chemical processes. A constant load of about 4 MPa will be applied to the top and sides of the large block. The sides will be sealed with moisture and thermal barriers. The large block will be heated by heaters within and guard heaters on the sides so that a dry-out zone and a condensate zone will exist simultaneously. Temperature, moisture content, pore pressure, chemical composition, stress, and displacement will be throughout the block during the heating and cool-down phases. The results from the experiments on small blocks and the tests on the large block will provide a better understanding of some concepts of the coupled TMHC processes. The progress of the project is presented in this paper

  8. Comments on the Operation of Capillary Pumped Loop Devices in Low Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, K. P.; Allen, J. S.

    1999-01-01

    The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.

  9. Study of PTFE wick structure applied to loop heat pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Shen-Chun; Gu, Tzu-Wei; Wang, Dawn; Chen, Yau-Ming

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the use of sintered PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) particles as the wick material of loop heat pipe (LHP), taking advantage of PTFE's low thermal conductivity to reduce the heat leakage problem during LHP's operation. Different PTFE particle sizes were tried to find the one that resulted in the best wick; LHP performance tests were then conducted, and PTFE's potential for application to LHP was examined. Using PTFE particles ranging from 300–500 μm in size, the best wick properties were effective pore radius of 1.7 μm, porosity of 50%, and permeability of 6.2 × 10 −12  m 2 . LHP performance tests showed that, under typical electronic devices' operating temperature of 85 °C, the heat load reached 450 W, the thermal resistance was 0.145 °C/W, and the critical heat load (dryout heat load) reached 600 W. Compared to LHP with a nickel wick, LHP with a PTFE wick had a significantly lower operating temperature, indicating reduced heat leakage during operation, while having comparable performance; also, during the manufacturing process, a PTFE wick required lower sintering temperature, needed shorter sintering time, and had no need for hydrogen gas during sintering. The results of this study showed that, for high heat transfer capacity cooling devices, PTFE wicks possess great potential for applications to LHPs. - Highlights: • The performances of PTFE and nickel wicks in LHP are comparable for the first time. • PTFE wick allows for lower operating temperature and thus pressure in LHP system. • A wick requiring lower temperature and manufacturing cost and less time was made. • PTFE wick has potential to replace metal wick and enhance performance of LHP

  10. Pool boiling characteristics and critical heat flux mechanisms of microporous surfaces and enhancement through structural modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Minseok; Graham, Samuel

    2017-08-01

    Experimental studies have shown that microporous surfaces induce one of the highest enhancements in critical heat flux (CHF) during pool boiling. However, microporous surfaces may also induce a very large surface superheat (>100 °C) which is not desirable for applications such as microelectronics cooling. While the understanding of the CHF mechanism is the key to enhancing boiling heat transfer, a comprehensive understanding is not yet available. So far, three different theories for the CHF of microporous surfaces have been suggested: viscous-capillary model, hydrodynamic instability model, and dryout of the porous coatings. In general, all three theories account for some aspects of boiling phenomena. In this study, the theories are examined through their correlations with experimental data on microporous surfaces during pool boiling using deionized (DI) water. It was found that the modulation of the vapor-jet through the pore network enables a higher CHF than that of a flat surface based on the hydrodynamic instability theory. In addition, it was found that as the heat flux increases, a vapor layer grows in the porous coatings described by a simple thermal resistance model which is responsible for the large surface superheat. Once the vapor layer grows to fill the microporous structure, transition to film boiling occurs and CHF is reached. By disrupting the formation of this vapor layer through the fabrication of channels to allow vapor escape, an enhancement in the CHF and heat transfer coefficient was observed, allowing CHF greater than 3500 kW/m2 at a superheat less than 50 °C.

  11. User's manual for the FEHM application - A finite-element heat- and mass-transfer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zyvoloski, G.A.; Robinson, B.A.; Dash, Z.V.; Trease, L.L.

    1997-07-01

    The use of this code is applicable to natural-state studies of geothermal systems and groundwater flow. A primary use of the FEHM application will be to assist in the understanding of flow fields and mass transport in the saturated and unsaturated zones below the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada. The equations of heat and mass transfer for multiphase flow in porous and permeable media are solved in the FEHM application by using the finite-element method. The permeability and porosity of the medium are allowed to depend on pressure and temperature. The code also has provisions for movable air and water phases and noncoupled tracers; that is, tracer solutions that do not affect the heat- and mass-transfer solutions. The tracers can be passive or reactive. The code can simulate two-dimensional, two-dimensional radial, or three-dimensional geometries. In fact, FEHM is capable of describing flow that is dominated in many areas by fracture and fault flow, including the inherently three-dimensional flow that results from permeation to and from faults and fractures. The code can handle coupled heat and mass-transfer effects, such as boiling, dryout, and condensation that can occur in the near-field region surrounding the potential repository and the natural convection that occurs through Yucca Mountain due to seasonal temperature changes. This report outlines the uses and capabilities of the FEHM application, initialization of code variables, restart procedures, and error processing. The report describes all the data files, the input data, including individual input records or parameters, and the various output files. The system interface is described, including the software environment and installation instructions

  12. On the extension of multi-phase models to sub-residual saturations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingineni, S.; Chen, Y.T.; Boehm, R.F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper focuses on the limitations of applying multi-phase flow and transport models to simulate the hydrothermal processes occurring when the liquid saturation falls below residual levels. A typical scenario of a heat-generating high-level waste package emplaced in a backfilled drift of a waste repository is presented. The hydrothermal conditions in the vicinity of the waste package as well as in the far-field are determined using multi-phase, non-isothermal codes such as TOUGH2 and FEHM. As the waste package temperature increases, heat-pipe effects are created and water is driven away from the package into colder regions where it condenses. The variations in the liquid saturations close to the waste package are determined using these models with extended capillary pressure-saturations relationships to sub-residual regime. The predictions indicate even at elevated temperatures, waste package surroundings are not completely dry. However, if transport based modeling is used to represent liquid saturation variations in the sub-residual regime, then complete dry conditions are predicted within the backfill for extended periods of time. The relative humidity conditions near the waste package are also found to be sensitive to the representation of capillary pressure-saturation relationship used for sub-residual regime. An experimental investigation is carried out to study the variations in liquid saturations and relative humidity conditions in sub-residual regimes. Experimental results indicated that extended multi-phase models without interphase transport can not predict dry-out conditions and the simulations underpredict the humidity conditions near the waste package

  13. CHF Enhancement by Surface Patterning based on Hydrodynamic Instability Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    If the power density of a device exceeds the CHF point, bubbles and vapor films will be covered on the whole heater surface. Because vapor films have much lower heat transfer capabilities compared to the liquid layer, the temperature of the heater surface will increase rapidly, and the device could be damaged due to the heater burnout. Therefore, the prediction and the enhancement of the CHF are essential to maximizing the efficient heat removal region. Numerous studies have been conducted to describe the CHF phenomenon, such as hydrodynamic instability theory, macrolayer dryout theory, hot/dry spot theory, and bubble interaction theory. The hydrodynamic instability model, proposed by Zuber, is the predominant CHF model that Helmholtz instability attributed to the CHF. Zuber assumed that the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability wavelength is related to the Helmholtz wavelength. Lienhard and Dhir proposed a CHF model that Helmholtz instability wavelength is equal to the most dangerous RT wavelength. In addition, they showed the heater size effect using various heater surfaces. Lu et al. proposed a modified hydrodynamic theory that the Helmholtz instability was assumed to be the heater size and the area of the vapor column was used as a fitting factor. The modified hydrodynamic theories were based on the change of Helmholtz wavelength related to the RT instability wavelength. In the present study, the change of the RT instability wavelength, based on the heater surface modification, was conducted to show the CHF enhancement based on the heater surface patterning in a plate pool boiling. Sapphire glass was used as a base heater substrate, and the Pt film was used as a heating source. The patterning surface was based on the change of RT instability wavelength. In the present work the study of the CHF was conducted using bare Pt and patterned heating surfaces.

  14. ADAM: An Accident Diagnostic,Analysis and Management System - Applications to Severe Accident Simulation and Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavisca, M.J.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.; Esmaili, H.; Schulz, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Accident Diagnostic, Analysis and Management (ADAM) computer code has been developed as a tool for on-line applications to accident diagnostics, simulation, management and training. ADAM's severe accident simulation capabilities incorporate a balance of mechanistic, phenomenologically based models with simple parametric approaches for elements including (but not limited to) thermal hydraulics; heat transfer; fuel heatup, meltdown, and relocation; fission product release and transport; combustible gas generation and combustion; and core-concrete interaction. The overall model is defined by a relatively coarse spatial nodalization of the reactor coolant and containment systems and is advanced explicitly in time. The result is to enable much faster than real time (i.e., 100 to 1000 times faster than real time on a personal computer) applications to on-line investigations and/or accident management training. Other features of the simulation module include provision for activation of water injection, including the Engineered Safety Features, as well as other mechanisms for the assessment of accident management and recovery strategies and the evaluation of PSA success criteria. The accident diagnostics module of ADAM uses on-line access to selected plant parameters (as measured by plant sensors) to compute the thermodynamic state of the plant, and to predict various margins to safety (e.g., times to pressure vessel saturation and steam generator dryout). Rule-based logic is employed to classify the measured data as belonging to one of a number of likely scenarios based on symptoms, and a number of 'alarms' are generated to signal the state of the reactor and containment. This paper will address the features and limitations of ADAM with particular focus on accident simulation and management. (authors)

  15. The effect of the advanced drift-flux model of ASSERT-PV on critical heat flux, flow and void distributions in CANDU bundle subchannels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammouda, N.; Rao, Y.F.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Presentation of the “advanced” drift-flux model of the subchannel code ASSERT-PV. • Study the effect of the drift-flux model of ASSERT on CHF and flow distribution. • Quantify model component effects with flow, quality and dryout power measurements. - Abstract: This paper studies the effect of the drift flux model of the subchannel code ASSERT-PV on critical heat flux (CHF), void fraction and flow distribution across fuel bundles. Numerical experiments and comparison against measurements were performed to examine the trends and relative behaviour of the different components of the model under various flow conditions. The drift flux model of ASSERT-PV is composed of three components: (a) the lateral component or diversion cross-flow, caused by pressure difference between connected subchannels, (b) the turbulent diffusion component or the turbulent mixing through gaps of subchannels, caused by instantaneous turbulent fluctuations or flow oscillations, and (c) the void drift component that occurs due to the two-phase tendency toward a preferred distribution. This study shows that the drift flux model has a significant impact on CHF, void fraction and flow distribution predictions. The lateral component of the drift flux model has a stronger effect on CHF predictions than the axial component, especially for horizontal flow. Predictions of CHF, void fraction and flow distributions are most sensitive to the turbulent diffusion component of the model, followed by the void drift component. Buoyancy drift can be significant, but it does not have as much influence on CHF and flow distribution as the turbulent diffusion and void drift.

  16. Demonstration irradiation of CANFLEX in Pt. Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inch, W.; Thompson, P.; Suk, Ho Chun

    1999-01-01

    The demonstration irradiation of CANFLEX in the Point Lepreau Generating Station (PLGS) in New Brunswick, Canada, will mark a major milestone towards delivering this new fuel to CANDU utilities. One high-powered and one instrumented fuel channel are being fuelled with CANFLEX bundles to establish irradiation experience in a power reactor. As CANFLEX is discharged into the reactor bays, it win be examined by fuel experts from PLGS and AECL. Several irradiated CANFLEX bundles will be shipped to Chalk River for extensive post-irradiation examination. CANFLEX is the latest fuel carrier in the evolution of CANDU fuel. Its design has been driven to provide higher dryout powers and lower peak element ratings, while being fully compatible with existing CANDU stations and addressing the development requirements for future advanced CANDU stations. The design has been tuned through analysis and testing at AECL and KAERI. The final CANFLEX design has undergone extensive analysis, performance testing and critical industry review. Safety performance has been analyzed and documented in a licensing submission to the Canadian regulator, the Atomic Energy Control Board, for approval to proceed with the demonstration irradiation. Because CANFLEX is fully compatible with existing plants, CANDU 6 stations can simply substitute CANFLEX-NU for 37-element fuel and achieve improved reactor operating and safety margins, and higher critical channel powers. For CANDU designers, CANFLEX provides the opportunity to benefit from the use of slightly enriched uranium (SEU) or recycled uranium (RU) from reprocessed spent PWR fuel. Enrichment can be used in one of several ways: to increase the power from a given reactor core size through flattening the radial channel power profile; to increase the fuel burnup and reduce the quantity of spent fuel; to improve fuel cycle economics, both front- and back-end; and, in general, to provide greater flexibility in reactor design. (author)

  17. Multiphysics modeling of two-phase film boiling within porous corrosion deposits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Miaomiao, E-mail: mmjin@mit.edu; Short, Michael, E-mail: hereiam@mit.edu

    2016-07-01

    Porous corrosion deposits on nuclear fuel cladding, known as CRUD, can cause multiple operational problems in light water reactors (LWRs). CRUD can cause accelerated corrosion of the fuel cladding, increase radiation fields and hence greater exposure risk to plant workers once activated, and induce a downward axial power shift causing an imbalance in core power distribution. In order to facilitate a better understanding of CRUD's effects, such as localized high cladding surface temperatures related to accelerated corrosion rates, we describe an improved, fully-coupled, multiphysics model to simulate heat transfer, chemical reactions and transport, and two-phase fluid flow within these deposits. Our new model features a reformed assumption of 2D, two-phase film boiling within the CRUD, correcting earlier models' assumptions of single-phase coolant flow with wick boiling under high heat fluxes. This model helps to better explain observed experimental values of the effective CRUD thermal conductivity. Finally, we propose a more complete set of boiling regimes, or a more detailed mechanism, to explain recent CRUD deposition experiments by suggesting the new concept of double dryout specifically in thick porous media with boiling chimneys. - Highlights: • A two-phase model of CRUD's effects on fuel cladding is developed and improved. • This model eliminates the formerly erroneous assumption of wick boiling. • Higher fuel cladding temperatures are predicted when accounting for two-phase flow. • Double-peaks in thermal conductivity vs. heat flux in experiments are explained. • A “double dryout” mechanism in CRUD is proposed based on the model and experiments.

  18. Assessment of two BWR accident management strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodge, S.A.; Petek, M.

    1991-01-01

    A recently completed Oak Ridge effort proposes two management strategies for mitigation of the events that might occur in-vessel after the onset of significant core damage in a BWR severe accident. While the probability of such an accident is low, there may be effective yet inexpensive mitigation measures that could be implemented employing the existing plant equipment and requiring only additions to the plant emergency procedures. In this spirit, accident management strategies have been proposed for use of a borated solution for reactor vessel refill should control blade damage occur during a period of temporary core dryout and for containment flooding to maintain the core debris within the reactor vessel if injection systems cannot be restored. The proposed strategy for poisoning of the water used for vessel reflood should injection systems be restored after control blade damage has occurred has great promise, using only the existing plant equipment but employing a different chemical form for the boron poison. The dominant BWR severe accident sequence is Station Blackout and without means for mechanical stirring or heating of the storage tank, the question of being able to form the poisoned solution under accident conditions becomes of supreme importance. On the other hand, the proposed strategy for drywell flooding to cool the reactor vessel bottom head and prevent the core and structure debris from escaping to the drywell holds less promise. This strategy does, however, have potential for future plant designs in which passive methods might be employed to completely submerge the reactor vessel under severe accident conditions without the need for containment venting

  19. Evaporation at microscopic scale and at high heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janecek, V.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis theoretically investigates the transport processes in the vicinity of the triple gas-liquid-solid contact line and its impact on macroscopic evaporation. In the first part of the thesis, the hydrodynamics close to the contact line at partial wetting is studied. Specifically, evaporation into the atmosphere of pure vapor driven by heating of the substrate is considered. The question of singularity relaxation is addressed. The main finding of the thesis is that the Kelvin effect (dependence of saturation temperature on pressure) is sufficient by itself to relax the hydrodynamic contact line singularity. The proposed microregion (the contact line vicinity) model for small interface slopes is solved numerically. Asymptotic solutions are found for some specific cases. The governing length scales of the problem are identified and the multi-scale nature of the phenomenon is addressed. Parametric studies revealing the role of the thermal resistance of vapor-liquid interface, slip length, thermo-capillary term, the vapor recoil and surface forces are also performed. An extension of the lubrication approximation for high slopes of the gas-liquid interface at evaporation is discussed. In the second part of the thesis, the previously established microregion model is coupled to a simplified single vapor bubble growth numerical simulation. The bubble departure from the heater at boiling is also studied. It was proposed in the thesis, that under high heat loads, the increase of the apparent contact angle causes the vapor bubble to spread over the heated substrate. Such a behavior may cause the heater dry-out that occurs during the boiling crisis. (author) [fr

  20. Assessment of cooling tower (ultimate heat sink) performance in the Byron individual plant examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, H.D.; Hawley, J.T.; Klopp, G.T.; Thelen, W.A.

    2004-01-01

    A time-dependent model of the Byron Nuclear Generation Station safety-related cooling towers has been developed for use with the Byron PRA (IPE). The model can either be run in a stand-alone program with externally supplied heat loads, or can be directly coupled into MAAP (Modular Accident Analysis Program). The primary feature of the model is a careful tracking of the basin temperature through the progression of different severe accidents. Heat removal rates from containment, both from containment fan-coolers and the residual heat removal system, are determined by the feed-back of this time-varying return temperature. Also, the inventory of the basin is tracked in time, and this is controlled by make-up, evaporative losses due to the heat load supplied to the towers, and the possibility of unsecured blowdown. The model has been used to determine the overall capabilities and vulnerabilities of the Byron Ultimate Heat Sink (UHS). It was determined that the UHS is very reliable with respect to maintaining acceptably low basin temperatures, requiring only at most two of eight operating cooling tower fans. Further, when the two units have their Essential Service Water (ESW) systems cross-tied, one of four ESW operating pumps is sufficient to handle the loads from the accident unit with the other unit proceeding to an orderly shutdown. The major vulnerability of the Byron UHS is shown to be the ability to maintain inventory, although the time-scales for basin dry-out are relatively long, being eight to twenty-one hours, depending upon when blowdown is secured. (author)

  1. Heat transfer in vapour-liquid flow of carbon dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagov, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade a number of studies of boiling heat transfer in carbon dioxide notably increase. As a field of CO 2 practical using corresponds to high reduced pressures, and a majority of available experimental data on CO 2 flow boiling even in submillimetric channels relate to turbulent liquid flow regimes, a possibility arises to develop sufficiently general method for HTC predicting. Under the above conditions nucleate boiling occurs up to rather high flow quality, even in annular flow regime due to extremely small size of an equilibrium vapour bubble. This conclusion is in agreement with the available experimental data. The predicting equation for nucleate boiling heat transfer developed by the present author in 1988 is valid for any nonmetallic liquid. A contribution of forced convection in heat transfer is calculated according to the Petukhov et al. equation with correction factor, which accounted for an effect of velocity increase due to evaporation. This effect can be essential at relatively small heat fluxes and rather high mass flow rates. The Reynolds analogy and homogeneous model are used in order to account for the convective heat transfer augmentation in two-phase flow. Due to low ratio of liquid and vapour densities at high reduced pressures the homogeneous approximation of two-phase flow seems to be warranted. A total heat transfer coefficient is calculated as an interpolated value of boiling and convective HTCs. The experimental data on CO 2 flow boiling related to regimes before heated wall dryout incipience are in rather good agreement with the calculations. (author)

  2. Empirical closures for particulate debris bed spreading induced by gas–liquid flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basso, S., E-mail: simoneb@kth.se; Konovalenko, A.; Kudinov, P.

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Experimental study of the debris bed self-leveling phenomenon. • A scaling approach and a non-dimensional model to describe particle flow rate are proposed. • The model is validated against experiments with particles of different properties and at different gas injection conditions. - Abstract: Efficient removal of decay heat from the nuclear reactor core debris is paramount for termination of severe accident progression. One of the strategies is based on melt fragmentation, quenching and cooling in a deep pool of water under the reactor vessel. Geometrical configuration of the debris bed is among the important factors which determine possibility of removing the decay heat from the debris bed by natural circulation of the coolant. For instance, a tall mound-shape debris bed can be non-coolable, while the same debris can be coolable if spread uniformly. Decay heat generates a significant amount of thermal energy which goes to production of steam inside the debris bed. Two-phase flow escaping through the top layer of the bed becomes a source of mechanical energy which can move the particulate debris along the slope of the bed. The motion of the debris will lead to flattening of the bed. Such process is often called “self-leveling” phenomenon. Spreading of the debris bed by the self-leveling process can take significant time, depending on the initial debris bed configuration and other parameters. There is a competition between the time scales for reaching (i) a coolable configuration of the bed, and (ii) onset of dryout and re-melting of the debris. In the previous work we have demonstrated that the rate of particulate debris spreading is determined by local gas velocity and local slope angle of the bed. In this work we develop a scaling approach and a closure for prediction of debris spreading rate based on generalization of available experimental data. We demonstrate that introduced scaling criteria are universal for particles of different

  3. Governing equations for heat and mass transfer in heat-generating porous beds-II. Particulate melting and substrate penetration by dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, T C; Minkowycz, W J; Pedersen, D R

    1985-11-01

    Upon dryout of the bed, the dominant modes of heat transfer are conduction and radiation. Radiation is modeled through the Rosseland approximation. The melting of stainless-steel particulate imbedded in the fuel is modeled by assuming the bed to be a continuum with conduction and radiatio as the dominant modes of heat transfer. The molten steel, after it drains to the bottom of the bed, is assumed to disappear into cracks and mortar joints of the MgO bricks. The melting of fuel in the interior of the bed is modeled identically to the steel particulate, except for the bed settling which is more pronounced in the case of fuel melting and is assumed to be instantaneous owing to the significant weight of overlying bed and sodium pool. The molten layer of fuel, as it collects at the bottom of the bed, causes the heatup of the MgO lining to the eutectic temperature (2280/sup 0/C), and the MgO lining begins to dissolve. The density gradient caused by the dissolution of MgO leads to natural convection and mixing in the molten layer. The submerged fuel particulate also begins to dissolve in the molten solution and ultimately leads to the conversion of debris to a molten pool of fuel and MgO. The process of penetration of the MgO lining continues until the mixing process lowers the concentration of fuel in the volume of the pool to the level where the internal heat rate per unit volume is not enough to keep the body of the pool molten and leads to freezing in the cooler part of the pool. A the molten pool reaches a frozen or a quiescent state, the MgO brick lining thickness provided is deemed ''safe'' for a given bed loading and the external rate of cooling.

  4. Capillary Pumped Heat Transfer (CHT) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallinan, Kevin P.; Allen, J. S.

    1998-01-01

    The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.

  5. An ultra-thin miniature loop heat pipe cooler for mobile electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Guohui; Li, Ji; Lv, Lucang

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A 1.2 mm thick miniature loop heat pipe was developed. • The mLHP can manage a wide range of heat loads at natural convection. • A minimum mLHP thermal resistance of 0.111 °C/W was achieved at 11 W. • The proposed mLHP is a promising solution for cooling mobile electronics. - Abstract: In this paper, we present a miniature loop heat pipe (mLHP) employing a 1.2 mm thick flat evaporator and a vapor line, liquid line and condenser with a 1.0 mm thickness. The mLHP employs an internal wick structure fabricated of sintered fine copper mesh, comprised of a primary wick structure in the evaporator to provide the driving force for circulating the working fluid, and a secondary wick inside the liquid line to promote the flow of condensed working fluid back to the evaporator. All tests were conducted under air natural convection at an ambient temperature of 24 ± 1 °C. The proposed mLHP demonstrated stable start-up behavior at a low heat load of 2 W in the horizontal orientation with an evaporator temperature of 43.9 °C and efficiently dissipates a maximum heat load of 12 W without dry-out occurring. A minimum mLHP thermal resistance of 0.111 °C/W was achieved at a heat load of 11 W in a gravity favorable operation mode, at which the evaporator temperature was about 97.2 °C. In addition, an analytical analysis was conducted, and the devised equation could be used to evaluate the performance of the mLHP.

  6. Modelling and performance of heat pipes with long evaporator sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wits, Wessel W.; te Riele, Gert Jan

    2017-11-01

    This paper presents a planar cooling strategy for advanced electronic applications using heat pipe technology. The principle idea is to use an array of relatively long heat pipes, whereby heat is disposed to a long section of the pipes. The proposed design uses 1 m long heat pipes and top cooling through a fan-based heat sink. Successful heat pipe operation and experimental performances are determined for seven heating configurations, considering active bottom, middle and top sections, and four orientation angles (0°, 30°, 60° and 90°). For all heating sections active, the heat pipe oriented vertically in an evaporator-down mode and a power input of 150 W, the overall thermal resistance was 0.014 K/W at a thermal gradient of 2.1 K and an average operating temperature of 50.7 °C. Vertical operation showed best results, as can be expected; horizontally the heat pipe could not be tested up to the power limit and dry-out occurred between 20 and 80 W depending on the heating configuration. Heating configurations without the bottom section active demonstrated a dynamic start-up effect, caused by heat conduction towards the liquid pool and thereafter batch-wise introducing the working fluid into the two-phase cycle. By analysing the heat pipe limitations for the intended operating conditions, a suitable heat pipe geometry was chosen. To predict the thermal performance a thermal model using a resistance network was created. The model compares well with the measurement data, especially for higher input powers. Finally, the thermal model is used for the design of a 1 kW planar system-level electronics cooling infrastructure featuring six 1 m heat pipes in parallel having a long ( 75%) evaporator section.

  7. Evaluation of mechanistic DNB models using HCLWR CHF data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamura, Takamichi; Watanabe, Hironori; Okubo, Tsutomu; Araya, Fumimasa; Murao, Yoshio.

    1992-03-01

    An onset of departure from nucleate boiling (DNB) in light water reactor (LWR) has been generally predicted with empirical correlations. Since these correlations have less physical bases and contain adjustable empirical constants determined by best fitting of test data, applicable geometries and flow conditions are limited within the original experiment ranges. In order to obtain more universal prediction method, several mechanistic DNB models based on physical approaches have been proposed in recent years. However, the predictive capabilities of mechanistic DNB models have not been verified successfully especially for advanced LWR design purposes. In this report, typical DNB mechanistic models are reviewed and compared with critical heat flux (CHF) data for high conversion light water reactor (HCLWR). The experiments were performed using triangular 7-rods array with non-uniform axial heat flux distribution. Test pressure was 16 MPa, mass velocities ranged from 800 t0 3100 kg/s·m 2 and exit qualities from -0.07 to 0.19. The evaluated models are: 1) Wisman-Pei, 2) Chang-Lee, 3) Lee-Mudawwar, 4) Lin-Lee-Pei, and 5) Katto. The first two models are based on near-wall bubble crowding model and the other three models on sublayer dryout model. The comparison with experimental data indicated that the Weisman-Pei model agreed relatively well with the CHF data. Effects of empirical constants in each model on CHF calculation were clarified by sensitivity studies. It was also found that the magnitudes of physical quantities obtained in the course of calculation were significantly different for each model. Therefore, microscopic observation of the onset of DNB on heated surface is essential to clarify the DNB mechanism and establish a general DNB mechanistic model based on physical phenomenon. (author)

  8. An empirical correlation for the entrainment fraction at the onset of annular flow based on 2006 CHF look-up table

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiao, Bo; Yang, Dongyu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Rongcheng Campus, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Rongcheng 264300, Shandong (China); Gan, Zhihua, E-mail: gan_zhihua@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China); Key Laboratory of Refrigeration and Cryogenic Technology of Zhejiang Province, Hangzhou (China); National Quality Inspection Center of Refrigeration Equipment (Henan), Minquan (China)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • A parallel look-up table for the entrainment fraction at annular point was developed. • A correlation was given based on the selected database from 2006 CHF look-up table. • Its reliability on the other conditions in the look-up table was discussed. - Abstract: The critical heat flux (CHF) of gas-liquid flow plays an important role in the safety of industrial equipment. At present, the liquid film dryout model is widely used for predicting CHF in gas-liquid annular flow. Most parameters in this model can be determined by some empirical correlations which are valid under different conditions. However, up to now, the entrainment fraction at the onset of annular flow is always assumed due to the lack of relevant experimental data. In this paper, the normalized data of the 2006 CHF look-up table (LUT) which has been adopted widely, especially in the nuclear industry, were used. Firstly, the empirical correlations, provided for the onset of annular flow and the limiting quality, were employed. In the valid pressure and mass flux range of these correlations, the selected database from LUT was confirmed. Secondly, the liquid film model was built. The entrainment fraction at the onset of annular flow was obtained when the calculated CHF by the model agreed with the corresponding value in LUT. A parallel look-up table for it was developed. Its correlation including the Weber and the liquid Reynolds number at outlet was proposed. The errors are mostly within ±30%. Finally, its reliability on the other conditions in LUT, which are beyond the valid range of the empirical correlations used for determining the database, was discussed. All the conditions whose errors are outside ±30% of the predictions by the provided correlation were marked in the tables.

  9. Two-phase flow pattern measurements with a wire mesh sensor in a direct steam generating solar thermal collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Michael; Mokhtar, Marwan; Zahler, Christian; Willert, Daniel; Neuhäuser, Anton; Schleicher, Eckhard

    2017-06-01

    At Industrial Solar's test facility in Freiburg (Germany), two phase flow patterns have been measured by using a wire mesh sensor from Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). Main purpose of the measurements was to compare observed two-phase flow patterns with expected flow patterns from models. The two-phase flow pattern is important for the design of direct steam generating solar collectors. Vibrations should be avoided in the peripheral piping, and local dry-outs or large circumferential temperature gradients should be prevented in the absorber tubes. Therefore, the choice of design for operation conditions like mass flow and steam quality are an important step in the engineering process of such a project. Results of a measurement with the wire mesh sensor are the flow pattern and the plug or slug frequency at the given operating conditions. Under the assumption of the collector power, which can be assumed from previous measurements at the same collector and adaption with sun position and incidence angle modifier, also the slip can be evaluated for a wire mesh sensor measurement. Measurements have been performed at different mass flows and pressure levels. Transient behavior has been tested for flashing, change of mass flow, and sudden changes of irradiation (cloud simulation). This paper describes the measurements and the method of evaluation. Results are shown as extruded profiles in top view and in side view. Measurement and model are compared. The tests have been performed at low steam quality, because of the limits of the test facility. Conclusions and implications for possible future measurements at larger collectors are also presented in this paper.

  10. Governing equations for heat and mass transfer in heat-generating porous beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chawla, T.C.; Pedersen, D.R.; Minkowycz, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Upon dryout of the bed, the dominant modes of heat transfer are conduction and radiation. Radiation is modeled through the Rosseland approximation. The melting of stainless-steel particulate imbedded in the fuel is modeled by assuming the bed to be a continuum with conduction and radiation as the dominant modes of heat transfer. The molten steel, after it drains to the bottom of the bed, is assumed to disappear into cracks and mortar joints of the MgO bricks. The melting of fuel in the interior of the bed is modeled identically to the steel particulate, except for the bed settling which is more pronounced in the case of fuel melting and is assumed to be instantaneous owing to the significant weight of overlying bed and sodium pool. The molten layer of fuel, as it collects at the bottom of the bed, causes the heatup of the MgO lining to the eutectic temperature (2280 0 C), and the MgO lining begins to dissolve. The density gradient caused by the dissolution of MgO leads to natural convection and mixing in the molten layer. The submerged fuel particulate also begins to dissolve in the molten solution and ultimately leads to the conversion of debris to a molten pool of fuel and MgO. The process of penetration of the MgO lining continues until the mixing process lowers the concentration of fuel in the volume of the pool to the level where the internal heat rate per unit volume is not enough to keep the body of the pool molten and leads to freezing in the cooler part of the pool. As the molten pool reaches a frozen or a quiescent state, the MgO brick lining thickness provided is deemed 'safe' for a given bed loading and the external rate of cooling. (author)

  11. Large-scale in situ heater tests for hydrothermal characterization at Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buscheck, T.A.; Wilder, D.G.; Nitao, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    To safely and permanently store high-level nuclear-waste, the potential Yucca Mountain repository site must mitigate the release and transport of radionuclides for tens of thousands of years. In the failure scenario of greatest concern, water would contact a waste package, accelerate its failure rate, and eventually transport radionuclides to the water table. Our analysis indicate that the ambient hydrological system will be dominated by repository-heat-driven hydrothermal flow for tens of thousands of years. In situ heater tests are required to provide an understanding of coupled geomechanical-hydrothermal-geochemical behavior in the engineered and natural barriers under repository thermal loading conditions. In situ heater tests have been included in the Site Characterization Plan in response to regulatory requirements for site characterization and to support the validation of process models required to assess the total systems performance at the site. The success of the License Application (LA) hinges largely on how effectively we validate the process models that provide the basis for performance assessment. Because of limited time, some of the in situ tests will have to be accelerated relative to actual thermal loading conditions. We examine the trade-offs between the limited test duration and generating hydrothermal conditions applicable to repository performance during the entire thermal loading cycle, including heating (boiling and dry-out) and cooldown (re-wetting). For in situ heater tests duration of 6-7 yr (including 4 yr of full-power heating) is required. The parallel use of highly accelerated, shorter-duration tests may provide timely information for the LA, provided that the applicability of the test results can be validated against ongoing nominal-rate heater tests

  12. Physical modeling of the boiling crisis: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolayev, Vadim; Beysens, Daniel; Chatain, Denis

    2008-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In this presentation we describe a physical approach to the boiling crisis called also the critical heat flux (CHF) phenomenon. This approach is based on the hypothesis that the boiling crisis is triggered by spreading of individual vapor bubbles over the heater or equivalently by the growth of individual dry spots under the bubbles. The role of bubble coalescence is assumed to be secondary. The spreading is due to forces acting at the microscopic scale, in the neighborhood of the line of triple contact of liquid, vapor and heater where the local heat fluxes are the strongest. This picture is supposed to be independent on boiling conditions. It is confirmed by the pool boiling experiments carried out at extremely high pressures close to the gas-liquid critical point. Such unusual conditions are chosen to slow down the bubble growth sufficiently to be able to observe the dryout dynamics. In the above experiments it lasted during about a minute. To keep the usual bubble geometry, it is necessary to perform such experiments under reduced gravity. The numerical simulations are carried out for high pressures. They show two regimes of bubble growth. When the heat flux is smaller than a threshold value associated with the CHF, a vapor bubble grows and then leaves the heater by buoyancy. When the heat flux is larger than the CHF, the bubble spreads over the heater without leaving it in agreement with the experimental data. This occurs because the vapor recoil force causes both bubble spreading and strong adhesion to the heater. The CHF variation with system parameters predicted by simulations is briefly discussed. (authors) [fr

  13. Progress report on pre-test calculations for the large block test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) is investigating the suitability of the Topopah Spring tuff in the thick vadose zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a host rock for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste. As part of the YMP, a group of field tests, referred to as the Large Block Test (LBT), will be conducted on a large electrically heated block of Topopah Spring tuff, isolated at Fran Ridge, Nevada Test Site. The block, which will be 3 x 3 m in horizontal dimensions and 4.5 m in height, will be heated by electrical heaters. The goals of the LBT axe to gain information on the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes active in the near-field environment of a repository; to provide field data for testing and calibrating models; and to help the development of measurement systems and techniques. This progress report presents results of on-going numerical modeling calculations carried out in support of the LBT design. An equivalent continuum model with an upper boundary temperature of 60 degrees C was used to simulate the hydrothermal response of the block to heating over a one-year period. The total heating power was started at 1500 W and later reduced to maintain an approximately uniform temperature of 138-140 degrees C. For a homogeneous bulk permeability case, the results show the formation of a distinct dry-out zone in and around the heater plane, and well-developed condensation zones above and below the heater plane. For a heterogeneous permeability distribution, the condensation zone above the heater plane was not well developed. This difference in results suggests that water saturation changes might be sensitive to changes in bulk permeability distribution. Rock temperatures were almost unaffected by permeability distribution. Heat flow was dominated by conduction. No liquid flow through the top of the block was predicted

  14. Spent fuel dry storage technology development: thermal evaluation of three adjacent drywells (each containing a 0.6 kW PWR spent fuel assembly)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterzuber, R.; Hanson, J.P.

    1981-09-01

    A spent fuel Adjacent Drywell Test was conducted at the Engine-Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site utilizing three nearly identical pressurized water reactor spent fuel assemblies each having a decay heat level of approximately 0.6 kW. Each fuel assembly was encapsulated inside the E-MAD Hot Bay and placed in an instrumented near-surface drywell storage cell for thermal testing. Each fuel assembly was sealed inside a 14-in. diam, 168-in.-long stainless steel canister and attached to a concrete-filled, 20-in.-diam, 34-in.-long, shield plug. The canister assembly was then placed in a carbon steel drywell liner which had been grouted into a hole drilled in the soil adjacent to E-MAD. The three drywells were located 25 feet apart in a linear array. Thermocouples, provided to measure canister, liner and soil temperatures, were inserted into tubes on the outside of the canister and drywell liner and were attached to plastic pipes which were grouted into holes in the soil. Temperatures from the three drywells and the adjacent soil were recorded throughout the Adjacent Drywell Test. Drywell thermal data showed virtually no thermal interaction between adjacent drywells. However, peak temperatures reached by the three drywells did show a fairly significant difference. Peak canister and drywell liner temperatures were reached in August 1981 for all three drywells. The two previously unused drywells responded similarly with peak canister and liner temperatures reaching 199 0 F and 158 0 F, respectively. Comparable peak temperatures for the third drywell which had previously contained spent fuel for nearly 21 months prior to the Adjacent Drywell Test reached 210 0 F for the canister and 169 0 F for the drywell liner. This difference is attributed to a decrease in soil thermal conductivity caused by the dryout of soil around the drywell used for previous spent fuel testing

  15. Two-phase natural circulation experiments in a pressurized water loop with CANDU geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardron, K.H.; Krishnan, V.S.; McGee, G.R.; Anderson, J.W.D.; Hawley, E.H.

    1984-07-01

    A series of tests has been performed in the RD-12 loop, a 10-MPa pressurized-water loop containing two active boilers, two pumps, and two, or four, heated horizontal channels arranged in a symmetrical figure-of-eight configuration characteristic of the CANDU reactor primary heat-transport system. In the tests, single-phase natural circulation was established in the loop and void was introduced by controlled draining, with the surge tank (pressurizer) valved out of the system. Results indicate that a stable, two-phase, natural circulation flow can usually be established. However, as the void fraction in the loop is increased, large-amplitude flow oscillations can occur. The initial flow oscillations in the two halves of the loop are usually very nearly 180/sup 0/ out-of-phase. However, as the loop inventory is further decreased, an in-phase oscillation component is observed. In tests with two parallel, heated channels in each half-loop, oscillations associated with mass transfer between the channel pairs are also observed. Although flow oscillations can lead to intermittent dryout of the upper elements of the heater-rod assemblies in the horizontal channels, natural circulation cooling appears to be effective until about 50% of the loop inventory is drained; sustained flow stratification then occurs in the heated channels, leading to heater temperature excursions. The paper reviews the experimental results obtained and describes the evolution of natural circulation flow in particular cases as voidage is progressively increased. The stability behavior is discussed briefly with reference to a simple stability model.

  16. PIV Measurement of Isothermal Flow in the Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Sung, Hyung Jin; Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol; Kim, Hyoung Tae

    2014-01-01

    One of the important design features of a CANDU reactor (a pressurize heavy water reactor) is the use of moderator as a heat sink during some postulated accidents such as a large break Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA). If the moderator available subcooling at the onset of a large LOCA is greater than the subcooling requirements, a sustained calandria tube dryout is avoided. The subcooling requirements are determined from a set of experiments known as the fuel channel contact boiling experiments. The difference between available subcooling and required subcooling is called subcooling margins. The local temperature of the moderator is a key parameter in determining the available subcooling. To predict the local temperature in the calandria, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started the experimental research on moderator circulation as one of a national R and D research programs from 2012. In the present work the test vessel is equipment with 380 acrylic pipes instead of the heater rods and a preliminary measurement of velocity field using PIV is performed under the iso-thermal test conditions. The 2D velocity is measured on the cross-sectional plane normal to the axial direction of the tank. The PIV measurement results could capture the same flow pattern as that expected in the CANDU6 calandria tank under momentum dominant flow condition, where the inlet jets penetrate to the top of the tank and produce a downward flow through the center of the tube columns towards the outlet nozzle and the flow fields are in symmetric distributions. The measurements of downward velocities are performed at different locations. The velocity is shown to be axially uniform. The velocity is rapidly decreased as the measurement location is far from the center of tank, since the downward flow is dominant along the center of the tube columns. More experimental works for the iso-thermal conditions as well as the heating conditions will be performed using PIV measurement in the

  17. User's Manual for the FEHM Application-A Finite-Element Heat- and Mass-Transfer Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George A. Zyvoloski; Bruce A. Robinson; Zora V. Dash; Lynn L. Trease

    1997-07-07

    This document is a manual for the use of the FEHM application, a finite-element heat- and mass-transfer computer code that can simulate nonisothermal multiphase multicomponent flow in porous media. The use of this code is applicable to natural-state studies of geothermal systems and groundwater flow. A primary use of the FEHM application will be to assist in the understanding of flow fields and mass transport in the saturated and unsaturated zones below the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository in Nevada. The equations of heat and mass transfer for multiphase flow in porous and permeable media are solved in the FEHM application by using the finite-element method. The permeability and porosity of the medium are allowed to depend on pressure and temperature. The code also has provisions for movable air and water phases and noncoupled tracers; that is, tracer solutions that do not affect the heat- and mass-transfer solutions. The tracers can be passive or reactive. The code can simulate two-dimensional, two-dimensional radial, or three-dimensional geometries. In fact, FEHM is capable of describing flow that is dominated in many areas by fracture and fault flow, including the inherently three-dimensional flow that results from permeation to and from faults and fractures. The code can handle coupled heat and mass-transfer effects, such as boiling, dryout, and condensation that can occur in the near-field region surrounding the potential repository and the natural convection that occurs through Yucca Mountain due to seasonal temperature changes. The code is also capable of incorporating the various adsorption mechanisms, ranging from simple linear relations to nonlinear isotherms, needed to describe the very complex transport processes at Yucca Mountain. This report outlines the uses and capabilities of the FEHM application, initialization of code variables, restart procedures, and error processing. The report describes all the data files, the input data

  18. Supercritical heat transfer correlation for carbon dioxide flowing upward in a vertical tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokry, S. J.; Pioro, I. L.; Farah, A.; King, K.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to analyze heat-transfer at supercritical conditions using carbon dioxide as a modeling fluid, and to develop a heat-transfer correlation based on data published in open literature. Supercritical (SC) fluids have unique properties. Beyond the critical point (22.1 MPa and 374.1 deg.C for water and 7.38 MPa and 31.0 deg.C for carbon dioxide), the fluid resembles a dense gas. The transition from single-phase liquid to single-phase gas does not involve a distinct phase change under these conditions. Phenomena such as dryout (or critical heat flux) are therefore not relevant. However, at supercritical conditions, deteriorated heat-transfer regime, (i.e., lower Heat Transfer Coefficient (HTC) values, compared to those for the normal or regular heat-transfer regime) may exist. Experiments with Supercritical Water (SCW) are very expensive due to high critical parameters. Therefore, a number of experiments are performed in modeling fluids such as carbon dioxide or/and refrigerants. However, there is no common opinion if SC modeling fluids' correlations can be applied to SCW and vice versa. Thus, the objective of this work was to generalize SC carbon dioxide data with a new correlation, and also, to compare these data with SCW correlations The experimental data was analyzed, and a new correlation was developed as part of a larger project assessing the feasibility of Generation IV SCW reactor concepts. Results are given for supercritical heat-transfer for several combinations of wall and bulk-fluid temperatures that were below, at or above the pseudo critical temperature. Uncertainties of all primary parameters were estimated. Two modes of heat transfer at supercritical pressures have been identified: (I) Normal Heat Transfer (NHT), and (2) Deteriorated Heat Transfer (DHT) characterized by lower-than-expected HTCs (i.e., higher-than-expected wall temperatures) than in the normal heat-transfer regime. These heat-transfer data are

  19. A New Correlation to Predict Nucleate Pool Boiling Heat Transfer in Vertical Annuli with Closed Bottoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2012-01-01

    It is important to find a way of enhancing heat transfer coefficients if the space for heat exchanger installation is limited, as it is in advanced light water reactors. One of the effective methods to increase heat transfer coefficients ( h b ) of pool boiling is to consider a confined space. It is well known from the literature that the confined boiling is an effective technique to enhance heat transfer. Once the flow inlet at the tube bottom is closed, a very rapid increase in heat transfer coefficient is observed at low heat fluxes ( q ' ). The similar tendency is observed regardless of the geometric shape. Yao and Chang and Kang investigated a vertical annulus while Rops et al. investigated a confined plate. Fujita et al., in other wise, used parallel plates with side and bottom inflow is restricted. Around the upper region of the annulus with closed bottoms the downward liquid interrupts the upward movement of the bubble slugs. Thereafter, bubbles are coalescing into much bigger bubbles while fluctuating up and down in the annular space. As the heat flux increases (1) the isolate bubble region, (2) the coalesced big size bubble region, and (3) the dryout region is observed in series. The major causes of the heat transfer enhancement are related with the liquid film evaporation and active liquid agitation. Literature review on the previous studies about crevice effects on pool boiling denotes that heat transfer is highly dependent on the geometric parameters. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify the effect of each geometric parameter to estimate heat transfer coefficients accurately. Although some correlations were developed to predict pool boiling heat transfer in confined spaces based on open bottoms, the application of them to a confined space with closed bottoms could result in much error. To overcome the limits of the published correlations, Kang developed a correlation to predict pool boiling heat transfer in annuli with closed bottoms. However, the

  20. Optimization of force-cooled power transmission cables by means of 3D FEM simulations; Optimierung zwangsgekuehlter Energiekabel durch dreidimensionale FEM-Simulationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Dongping

    2009-10-26

    Lateral forced cooling can significantly increase the temporary overload capacity of a cable system, but the design of such systems requires a time-dependent 3D analysis of the nonlinear thermal behavior as the cooling water along the cable is heated up, resulting in position-dependent and time-dependent heat uptake. For this, a new calculation method was developed on the basis of an available 3D FEM software. The new method enables 3D simulation of force-cooled cables in consideration of the potential partial dryout of soil and of thermal stabilizations. The new method was first applied to a 110 kV wind power transmission cable for different configurations and grid conditions. It was found that with lateral forced cooling, the 110 kV will have a temporal 50 percent overload capacity. Further, the thermal characteristics and limiting capacity of a force-cooled 380 kV cable system were investigated. According to the results so far, laterally cooled cable systems open up new operating options, with advantages in terms of availability, economic efficiency, and flexibility. (orig.) [German] Eine laterale Zwangskuehlung kann die temporaere Ueberlastbarkeit einer Kabelanlage signifikant erhoehen. Der Entwurf solcher zwangsgekuehlter Kabelanlagen erfordert jedoch eine zeitabhaengige, dreidimensionale Analyse des nichtlinearen thermischen Verhaltens, da sich das Kuehlwasser entlang der Trasse erwaermt und sich so eine orts- und zeitabhaengige Waermeaufnahme ergibt. Zu diesem Zweck wurde auf der Basis eines vorhandenen zweidimensionalen FEM-Programms ein neues Berechnungsverfahren entwickelt, das die dreidimensionale Simulation zwangsgekuehlter Kabelanlagen unter Beruecksichtigung einer moeglicherweise auftretenden partiellen Bodenaustrocknung und von thermischen Stabilisierungen erlaubt. Mit Hilfe dieses Berechnungsverfahrens wurde zuerst eine 110-kV-Kabelanlage zur Windenergieuebertragung bei unterschiedlichen Anordnungen und unterschiedlichen Netzsituationen untersucht

  1. Liquid Water Transport in the Reactant Channels of Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Rupak

    been investigated in detail. This study begins to investigate the effects of changing operating conditions on liquid water transport through the reactant channels. It has been identified that rapidly increasing temperature leads to the dry-out of the membrane and rapidly cooling the cell below 55°C results in the start of cell flooding. In changing the operating load of the PEMFC, overshoot in the pressure drop in the reactant channel has been identified for the first time as part of this investigation. A parametric study has been conducted to identify the factors which influence this overshoot behavior.

  2. Critical review of creep FRAPCON-3 model under dry storage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L.E. [Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    dry storage conditions within the FRAPCON-3 structure. The performance of this adapted version has been checked by analyzing a postulated but real scenario of a Zry-4 fuel rod irradiated to 45 GWd/MTU. The entire sequence of phases (i.e., in-reactor irradiation, subsequent in-pool cooling, heating-up during dry-out and final cooling in the dry storage) has been simulated and the results obtained compared to default FRAPCON-3 estimates. As expected, significant discrepancies have been found in terms of hoop strain, the new adaptation predicting cladding creep-out whereas the default FRAPCON-3 hardly shows any effect on clad dimensions during the whole dry storage period. This work has been sponsored by ENRESA. (authors)

  3. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emission of Scots pine under drought stress - a 13CO2 labeling study to determine de novo and pool emissions under different treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpke, M.

    2015-12-01

    Plants emit biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) to e.g. communicate and to defend herbivores. Yet BVOCs also impact atmospheric chemistry processes, and lead to e.g. the built up of secondary organic aerosols. Abiotic stresses, such as drought, however highly influence plant physiology and subsequently BVOCs emission rates. In this study, we investigated the effect of drought stress on BVOCs emission rates of Scots pine trees, a de novo and pool emitter, under controlled climate chamber conditions within a dynamic enclosure system consisting of four plant chambers. Isotopic labeling with 13CO2 was used to detect which ratio of emissions of BVOCs derives from actual synthesis and from storage organs under different treatments. Additionally, the synthesis rate of the BVOCs synthesis can be determined. The experiment consisted of two campaigns (July 2015 and August 2015) of two control and two treated trees respectively in four controlled dynamic chambers simultaneously. Each campaign lasted for around 21 days and can be split into five phases: adaptation, control, dry-out, drought- and re-watering phase. The actual drought phase lasted around five days. During the campaigns two samples of BVOCs emissions were sampled per day and night on thermal desorption tubes and analyzed by a gas chromatograph coupled with a mass spectrometer and a flame ionization detector. Additionally, gas exchange of water and CO2, soil moisture, as well as leaf and chamber temperature was monitored continuously. 13CO2 labeling was performed simultaneously in all chambers during the phases control, drought and re-watering for five hours respectively. During the 13CO2 labeling four BVOCs emission samples per chamber were taken to identify the labeling rate on emitted BVOCs. First results show a decrease of BVOCs emissions during the drought phase and a recovery of emission after re-watering, as well as different strength of reduction of single compounds. The degree of labeling with 13

  4. Experimental and visual study on flow patterns and pressure drops in U-tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Da Silva Lima, J. R.

    2011-01-01

    In single- and two-phase flow heat exchangers (in particular 'coils'), besides the straight tubes there are also many singularities, in particular the 180° return bends (also called return bends or U-bends). However, contrary to the literature concerning pressure drops and heat transfer in straight tubes, where many experimental data and predicting methods are available, only a limited number of studies concerning U-bends can be found. Neither reliable experimental data nor proven prediction methods are available. Indeed, flow structure, pressure drop and heat transfer in U-bends are an old unresolved design problem in the heat transfer industry. Thus, the present study aims at providing further insight on two-phase pressure drops and flows patterns in U-bends. Based on a new type of U-bend test section, an extensive experimental study was conducted. The experimental campaign covered five test sections with three internal diameters (7.8, 10.8 and 13.4 mm), five bend diameters (24.8, 31.7, 38.1, 54.8 and 66.1 mm), tested for three orientations (horizontal, vertical upflow and vertical downflow), two fluids (R134a and R410A), two saturation temperatures (5 and 10 °C) and mass velocities ranging from 150 to 1000 kg s -1 m -2 . The flow pattern observations identified were stratified-wavy, slug-stratified-wavy, intermittent, annular, dryout and mist flows. The effects of the U-bend on the flow patterns were also observed. A total of 5655 pressure drop data were measured at seven different locations in the test section ( straight tubes and U-bend) providing a total of almost 40,000 data points. The straight tube data were first used to improve the actual two-phase straight tube model of Moreno-Quibén and Thome. This updated model was then used to developed a two-phase U-bend pressure drop model. Based on a comparison between experimental and predicted values, it is concluded that the new two-phase frictional pressure drop model for U-bends successfully

  5. Rewetting of a hot metallic wall by liquid spray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castiglia, F.; Giardina, M.; Lombardo, C.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Rewetting is the re-establishment of liquid in contact with a hot dried surface, whose initial temperature is higher than the so-called 'rewetting temperature'. This phenomenology is of interest in many industrial processes, for example: in metallurgical quenching, in electronic equipments cooling, in cryogenic processes, in preserving the integrity of toxic and dangerous substances metallic containers endangered by a hypothetical fire. Moreover it is essential for the re-establishment of normal and safe temperature levels following rod cluster dryout or hypothesized loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) in nuclear reactors. In spite of the large amount of experimental and theoretical work done in the past decades, the above depicted phenomenology still deserves further clarifications and deepening. For this reason, recently at the Institute of Energetic Thermal-Fluid Dynamics of ENEA (Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente, at Casaccia, Italy), experimental researches have been carried out on the rewetting of vertical surfaces, at ambient pressure and various water flow rates by spraying subcooled water at the top. Spraying devices of various configuration, able to supply water drops of uniform diameter, have been used [1]. As it is known when, following the drops impact in some region at the top of the surface the temperature is lowered below the rewetting temperature, a liquid falling film forms, the front of which advances with a velocity ( the so called 'rewetting velocity'), limited by the rapidity by which the heat is conducted into the solid (conduction controlled rewetting). In the past, about the rewetting the researchers of Department of Nuclear Engineering of the University of Palermo have carried out an extensive theoretical work and more recently, have proposed a semi-theoretical model which proved successful in correlating a lot of experimental data [2]. This model has been suitably modified in order to

  6. Rewetting of a hot metallic wall by liquid spray

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castiglia, F.; Giardina, M.; Lombardo, C. [University of Palermo, Department of Nuclear Engineering, V.le delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Rewetting is the re-establishment of liquid in contact with a hot dried surface, whose initial temperature is higher than the so-called 'rewetting temperature'. This phenomenology is of interest in many industrial processes, for example: in metallurgical quenching, in electronic equipments cooling, in cryogenic processes, in preserving the integrity of toxic and dangerous substances metallic containers endangered by a hypothetical fire. Moreover it is essential for the re-establishment of normal and safe temperature levels following rod cluster dryout or hypothesized loss of coolant accidents (LOCAs) in nuclear reactors. In spite of the large amount of experimental and theoretical work done in the past decades, the above depicted phenomenology still deserves further clarifications and deepening. For this reason, recently at the Institute of Energetic Thermal-Fluid Dynamics of ENEA (Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente, at Casaccia, Italy), experimental researches have been carried out on the rewetting of vertical surfaces, at ambient pressure and various water flow rates by spraying subcooled water at the top. Spraying devices of various configuration, able to supply water drops of uniform diameter, have been used [1]. As it is known when, following the drops impact in some region at the top of the surface the temperature is lowered below the rewetting temperature, a liquid falling film forms, the front of which advances with a velocity ( the so called 'rewetting velocity'), limited by the rapidity by which the heat is conducted into the solid (conduction controlled rewetting). In the past, about the rewetting the researchers of Department of Nuclear Engineering of the University of Palermo have carried out an extensive theoretical work and more recently, have proposed a semi-theoretical model which proved successful in correlating a lot of experimental data [2]. This model has been

  7. Intercomparison of cosmic-ray neutron sensors and water balance monitoring in an urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrön, Martin; Zacharias, Steffen; Womack, Gary; Köhli, Markus; Desilets, Darin; Oswald, Sascha E.; Bumberger, Jan; Mollenhauer, Hannes; Kögler, Simon; Remmler, Paul; Kasner, Mandy; Denk, Astrid; Dietrich, Peter

    2018-03-01

    Sensor-to-sensor variability is a source of error common to all geoscientific instruments that needs to be assessed before comparative and applied research can be performed with multiple sensors. Consistency among sensor systems is especially critical when subtle features of the surrounding terrain are to be identified. Cosmic-ray neutron sensors (CRNSs) are a recent technology used to monitor hectometre-scale environmental water storages, for which a rigorous comparison study of numerous co-located sensors has not yet been performed. In this work, nine stationary CRNS probes of type CRS1000 were installed in relative proximity on a grass patch surrounded by trees, buildings, and sealed areas. While the dynamics of the neutron count rates were found to be similar, offsets of a few percent from the absolute average neutron count rates were found. Technical adjustments of the individual detection parameters brought all instruments into good agreement. Furthermore, we found a critical integration time of 6 h above which all sensors showed consistent dynamics in the data and their RMSE fell below 1 % of gravimetric water content. The residual differences between the nine signals indicated local effects of the complex urban terrain on the scale of several metres. Mobile CRNS measurements and spatial simulations with the URANOS neutron transport code in the surrounding area (25 ha) have revealed substantial sub-footprint heterogeneity to which CRNS detectors are sensitive despite their large averaging volume. The sealed and constantly dry structures in the footprint furthermore damped the dynamics of the CRNS-derived soil moisture. We developed strategies to correct for the sealed-area effect based on theoretical insights about the spatial sensitivity of the sensor. This procedure not only led to reliable soil moisture estimation during dry-out periods, it further revealed a strong signal of intercepted water that emerged over the sealed surfaces during rain events. The

  8. Diffuse interface methods for multiphase flow modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamet, D.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows:Nuclear reactor safety programs need to get a better description of some stages of identified incident or accident scenarios. For some of them, such as the reflooding of the core or the dryout of fuel rods, the heat, momentum and mass transfers taking place at the scale of droplets or bubbles are part of the key physical phenomena for which a better description is needed. Experiments are difficult to perform at these very small scales and direct numerical simulations is viewed as a promising way to give new insight into these complex two-phase flows. This type of simulations requires numerical methods that are accurate, efficient and easy to run in three space dimensions and on parallel computers. Despite many years of development, direct numerical simulation of two-phase flows is still very challenging, mostly because it requires solving moving boundary problems. To avoid this major difficulty, a new class of numerical methods is arising, called diffuse interface methods. These methods are based on physical theories dating back to van der Waals and mostly used in materials science. In these methods, interfaces separating two phases are modeled as continuous transitions zones instead of surfaces of discontinuity. Since all the physical variables encounter possibly strong but nevertheless always continuous variations across the interfacial zones, these methods virtually eliminate the difficult moving boundary problem. We show that these methods lead to a single-phase like system of equations, which makes it easier to code in 3D and to make parallel compared to more classical methods. The first method presented is dedicated to liquid-vapor flows with phase-change. It is based on the van der Waals' theory of capillarity. This method has been used to study nucleate boiling of a pure fluid and of dilute binary mixtures. We discuss the importance of the choice and the meaning of the order parameter, i.e. a scalar which discriminates one

  9. Tools for designing the cooling system of a proton exchange membrane fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soupremanien, Ulrich; Le Person, Stéphane; Favre-Marinet, Michel; Bultel, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) requires a careful management of the heat distribution inside the stack. The proton exchange membrane is the most sensitive element of this thermal management and it must operate under specific conditions in order to increase the lifetime and also the output power of the fuel cell. These last decades, the enhancement of the output power of the PEMFC has led the manufacturers to greatly improve the heat transfer effectiveness for cooling such systems. In addition, homogenizing the bipolar plate temperature increases the lifetime of the system by limiting the occurrence of strong thermal gradients. In this context, using a fluid in boiling conditions to cool down the PEMFC seems to be very suitable for this purpose. In order to compare the thermal performances between a coolant used in single-phase flow or in boiling flow conditions, we have built an experimental set-up allowing the investigation of cooling flows for these two conditions. Moreover, the geometry of the cooling channels is one of the key parameters which allows the improvement of the thermal performances. Indeed, the size or the aspect ratio of these channels could be designed in order to decrease the thermal system response. The sizing of the fuel cell cooling system is of paramount importance in boiling flow conditions because it can modify, not only the pressure losses along the channel and the heat transfer coefficient like in a single-phase flow but also, the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) and the dryout point or critical heat flux (CHF). Thus, in order to understand some heat transfer mechanisms, which are geometry-dependent, a parametric study was completed by considering flows in four different rectangular channels. Finally, this study allows a better insight on the optimization of the geometrical parameters which improve the thermal performances of a PEMFC, from a cooling strategy aspect point of view. - Highlights: ► Parameters for the using of a

  10. A progress report for the large block test of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, W.; Wilder, D.G.; Blink, J.

    1994-10-01

    This is a progress report on the Large Block Test (LBT) project. The purpose of the LBT is to study some of the coupled thermal-mechanical-hydrological-chemical (TMHC) processes in the near field of a nuclear waste repository under controlled boundary conditions. To do so, a large block of Topopah Spring tuff will be heated from within for about 4 to 6 months, then cooled down for about the same duration. Instruments to measure temperature, moisture content, stress, displacement, and chemical changes will be installed in three directions in the block. Meanwhile, laboratory tests will be conducted on small blocks to investigate individual thermal-mechanical, thermal-hydrological, and thermal-chemical processes. The fractures in the large block will be characterized from five exposed surfaces. The minerals on fracture surfaces will be studied before and after the test. The results from the LBT will be useful for testing and building confidence in models that will be used to predict TMHC processes in a repository. The boundary conditions to be controlled on the block include zero moisture flux and zero heat flux on the sides, constant temperature on the top, and constant stress on the outside surfaces of the block. To control these boundary conditions, a load-retaining frame is required. A 3 x 3 x 4.5 m block of Topopah Spring tuff has been isolated on the outcrop at Fran Ridge, Nevada Test Site. Pre-test model calculations indicate that a permeability of at least 10 -15 m 2 is required so that a dryout zone can be created within a practical time frame when the block is heated from within. Neutron logging was conducted in some of the vertical holes to estimate the initial moisture content of the block. It was found that about 60 to 80% of the pore volume of the block is saturated with water. Cores from the vertical holes have been used to map the fractures and to determine the properties of the rock. A current schedule is included in the report

  11. Flow Boiling on a Downward-Facing Inclined Plane Wall of Core Catcher

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyoung Tak; Bang, Kwang Hyun; Suh, Jung Soo

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate boiling behavior on downward-facing inclined heated wall prior to the CHF condition, an experiment was carried out with 1.2 m long rectangular channel, inclined by 10 .deg. from the horizontal plane. High speed video images showed that the bubbles were sliding along the heated wall, continuing to grow and combining with the bubbles growing at their nucleation sites in the downstream. These large bubbles continued to slide along the heated wall and formed elongated slug bubbles. Under this slug bubble thin liquid film layer on the heated wall was observed and this liquid film prevents the wall from dryout. The length, velocity and frequency of slug bubbles sliding on the heated wall were measured as a function of wall heat flux and these parameters were used to develop wall boiling model for inclined, downward-facing heated wall. One approach to achieve coolable state of molten core in a PWR-like reactor cavity during a severe accident is to retain the core melt on a so-called core catcher residing on the reactor cavity floor after its relocation from the reactor pressure vessel. The core melt retained in the core catcher is cooled by water coolant flowing in an inclined cooling channel underneath as well as the water pool overlaid on the melt layer. Two-phase flow boiling with downward-facing heated wall such as this core catcher cooling channel has drawn a special attention because this orientation of heated wall may reach boiling crisis at lower heat flux than that of a vertical or upward-facing heated wall. Nishikawa and Fujita, Howard and Mudawar, Qiu and Dhir have conducted experiments to study the effect of heater orientation on boiling heat transfer and CHF. SULTAN experiment was conducted to study inclined large-scale structure coolability by water in boiling natural convection. In this paper, high-speed visualization of boiling behavior on downward-facing heated wall inclined by 10 .deg. is presented and wall boiling model for the

  12. Quantifying the Influence of Near-Surface Water-Energy Budgets on Soil Thermal Properties Using a Network of Coupled Meteorological and Vadose Zone Instrument Arrays in Indiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, S.; Gustin, A. R.; Ellett, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    known standards and comparing measurements from transient line heat source devices. Transform equations have been developed to correct in-situ measurements of thermal conductivity and comparing these results with soil moisture data indicates that thermal conductivity can increase by as much as 25 percent during wetting front propagation. Thermal dryout curves have also been modeled based on laboratory conductivity data collected from core samples to verify field measurements, and alternatively, temperature profile data are used to calibrate near-surface temperature gradient models. We compare data collected across various spatial scales to assess the potential for upscaling near-surface thermal regimes based on available soils data. A long-term goal of the monitoring effort is to establish continuous data sets that determine the effect of climate variability on soil thermal properties such that expected ranges in thermal conductivity can be used to determine optimal ground-coupling loop lengths for GSHP systems.

  13. Experimental investigations on the coolability of prototypical particle beds with respect to reactor safety; Experimentelle Untersuchungen der Kuehlbarkeit prototypischer Schuettungskonfigurationen unter dem Aspekt der Reaktorsicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, Simon

    2017-02-22

    In case of a severe accident in a light water reactor, continuous unavailability of cooling water to the reactor core may result in overheating of the fuel elements and finally the loss of core integrity. Under such conditions, a structure of heat-releasing particles of different size and shape may be formed by fragmentation of molten core material in several stages of the accident. The long-term coolability of such beds is of prime im-portance to avoid any damage to the reactor pressure vessel or even a release of fission products to the environment. In the frame of this work, specific experiments were con-ducted under prototypical conditions employing the existing DEBRIS test facility in order to gain further knowledge about the thermohydraulic behavior of such beds. In steady state boiling experiments, the pressure gradients in particle beds were meas-ured both for one- and multi-dimensional cooling water flow conditions and compared with one another in order to assess the flow behavior inside the bed. For these different flow conditions as well as for stratified bed configurations, the maximum removable heat flux densities were determined in the dryout experiments. E. g., it was found that an axial stratification of the permeability can significantly reduce the bed's coolability. For the first time, the quenching behavior of dry, superheated beds was investigated at elevated system pressure up to 0.5 MPa. In these experiments, the effect of system pressure on the coolability was quantified by means of the quenching time (time period to cool down the bed to saturation temperature). The investigated particle beds mainly consisted of non-spherical particles with well-defined geometry (cylinders and screws). It was shown that the effect of the particles geometry on the flow in a particle bed can be best estimated by using an equivalent particle diameter calculated for monodisperse particle beds from the product of the Sauter diameter and a shape factor and for

  14. Creep-rupture, steam oxidation and recovery behaviours upon dynamic transients up to 1300 C of cold-worked 304 stainless steel tubes dedicated to nuclear core fuel cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portier, L.; Brachet, J.C.; Vandenberghe, V.; Guilbert, T.; Lezaud-Chaillioux, V.; Bernard, C.; Rabeau, V.

    2011-01-01

    An ambitious mechanical tests program was conducted on the fuel rod cladding of the CABRI facility between 2004 and 2009 to re-evaluate the cladding tubes materials behaviour. As an offspring of this major scientific investment several conclusions of interest could be drawn on the 304 stainless steel material. In particular, the specific behaviour of the materials during hypothetical and extreme 'dry-out' conditions was investigated. In such a scenario, the cladding tube materials should experience a very brief incursion at high temperatures, in a steam environment, up to 1300 C, before cladding rewetting. Some of the measurements performed in the range of interest for the safety case were on purpose developed beyond the conservatively safe domain. Some of the results obtained for these non-conventional heating rates, pressures and temperature ranges will be presented. First in order to assess the high temperature creep-rupture material behaviour under internal pressure upon dynamic transient conditions, tests have been performed on cold-worked 304 stainless cladding tubes in a steam environment, for heating rates up to 100 C*s -1 and pressure ramp rates up to 10 bar*s -1 thanks to the use of the EDGAR facility. Other tests performed at a given pressure allowed us to check the steady-state secondary creep rate of the materials in the 1100-1200 C temperature range. It was also possible to determine the rupture strength value and the failure mode as a function of the thermal and pressure loading history applied. It is worth noticing that, for very specific conditions, a surprising pure intergranular brittle failure mode of the clad has been observed. Secondly, in order to check the materials oxidation resistance of the materials, two-side steam oxidation tests have been performed at 1300 C, using the DEZIROX facility. It was shown that, thanks to the use of Ring Compression tests, the 304 cladding tube keeps significant ductility for oxidation times up to at least

  15. Effects of a large scale nitrogen and phosphorous fertilization on the ecosystem functioning of a Mediterranean tree-grass ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Mirco; El Madany, Tarek; Perez-Priego, Oscar; Carrara, Arnaud; Hammer, Tiana; Henkel, Kathin; Kolle, Olaf; Luo, Yunpeng; Moreno, Gerardo; Morris, Kendalynn; Nair, Richard; Schrumpf, Marion; Wutzler, Thomas; Reichstein, Markus

    2017-04-01

    in autumn after the first rainfall are observed. In particular we observed an enhanced response of NEP and greenness to onset of precipitation in fall for the NP treatment. No systematic differences are observed in summer during the dry-out period. These results suggest that an increase of N availability can have a relevant impact on the studied tree-grass ecosystem. The attempt of compensating the N/P imbalance, by adding P, impacted marginally the C fluxes, while increased the WUE of the ecosystem. Differences in temporal variations of ecosystem level greenness also might indicate an impact of N and NP availability of the temporal variability of surface albedo.

  16. Fuel rod quenching with oxidation and precursory cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidi, A.; Elias, E.; Olek, S.

    1999-01-01

    During a loss-of-coolant-accident in LWR fuel rods may be temporarily exposed thus reaching high temperature levels. The injection of cold water into the core, while providing the necessary cooling to prevent melting may also generate steam inducing exothermal oxidation of the cladding. A number of high temperature quenching experiments [I] have demonstrated that during the early phase of the quenching process, the rate of hydrogen generation increased markedly and the surface temperatures rose rapidly. These effects are believed to result from thermal stresses breaking up the oxide layer on the zircalloy cladding, thus exposing the inner surface to oxidizing atmosphere. Steam reacts exothermally with the metallic components of the newly formed surface causing temporarily local temperature escalation. The main objective of this study is to develop and assess a one-dimensional time-dependent rewetting model to address the problem of quenching of hot surfaces undergoing exothermic oxidation reactions. Addressing a time-dependent problem is an important aspect of the work since it is believed that the progression of a quench-front along a hot oxidizing surface is an unsteady process. Several studies dealing with time-dependent rewetting problems have been published, e.g. [2]-[5], but none considers oxidation reactions downstream of the quench-front. The main difficulty in solving time-dependent rewetting problems stems from the fact that either the quench-front velocity or the quench-front positions constitute a time-dependent eigenvalue of the problem. The model is applied to describe the interrelated processes of cooling and exothermic steam-metal reactions at the vapor zirconium-cladding interface during quenching of degraded fuel rods. A constant heat transfer coefficient is assumed upstream of the quenching front whereas the combined effect of oxidation and post dry-out cooling is described by prescribing a heat flux distribution of general form downstream. The

  17. Liquid metal thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottowski-Duemenil, H.M.

    1994-01-01

    This textbook is a report of the 26 years activity of the Liquid Metal Boiling Working Group (LMBWG). It summarizes the state of the art of liquid metal thermo-hydraulics achieved through the collaboration of scientists concerned with the development of the Fast Breeder Reactor. The first chapter entitled ''Liquid Metal Boiling Behaviour'', presents the background and boiling mechanisms. This section gives the reader a brief but thorough survey on the superheat phenomena in liquid metals. The second chapter of the text, ''A Review of Single and Two-Phase Flow Pressure Drop Studies and Application to Flow Stability Analysis of Boiling Liquid Metal Systems'' summarizes the difficulty of pressure drop simulation of boiling sodium in core bundles. The third chapter ''Liquid Metal Dry-Out Data for Flow in Tubes and Bundles'' describes the conditions of critical heat flux which limits the coolability of the reactor core. The fourth chapter dealing with the LMFBR specific topic of ''Natural Convection Cooling of Liquid Metal Systems''. This chapter gives a review of both plant experiments and out-of-pile experiments and shows the advances in the development of computing power over the past decade of mathematical modelling ''Subassembly Blockages Suties'' are discussed in chapter five. Chapter six is entitled ''A Review of the Methods and Codes Available for the Calculation on Thermal-Hydraulics in Rod-Cluster and other Geometries, Steady state and Transient Boiling Flow Regimes, and the Validation achieves''. Codes available for the calculation of thermal-hydraulics in rod-clusters and other geometries are reviewed. Chapter seven, ''Comparative Studies of Thermohydraulic Computer Code Simulations of Sodium Boiling under Loss of Flow Conditions'', represents one of the key activities of the LMBWG. Several benchmark exercises were performed with the aim of transient sodium boiling simulation in single channels and bundle blockages under steady state conditions and loss of

  18. Experimental studies of the effect of functional spacers to annular flow in subchannels of a BWR fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damsohn, M., E-mail: damsohn@lke.mavt.ethz.c [ETH Zurich, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Prasser, H.-M. [ETH Zurich, Department of Mechanical and Process Engineering, Sonneggstrasse 3, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-10-15

    For the prediction of dryout in fuel elements of boiling water reactors, the dynamic behavior of the water film covering the fuel rod has to be understood. This paper provides high resolved experimental data of the liquid film and gives insight into the dynamic film behavior. The experiments of this work were conducted in a vertical channel representing a pair of neighboring subchannels of a BWR fuel rod bundle. Air and water at ambient pressure and temperature are used as model fluids, creating an annular flow in the test section. The influence of different functional spacer shapes on the liquid film has been studied. The heart of the instrumentation is a liquid film sensor (LFS), which measures the film thickness distribution around a half cylinder with a matrix of 64 x 16 measuring points with a time resolution of 10,000 frames per second and a spatial resolution of 2 mm x 2 mm. The high resolution allows for a visualization of the dynamic liquid film as a movie animation. Principals of the dynamic behavior of the liquid film are observed. The time-averaged film thickness distributions show that the spacers structure the liquid film significantly. The gaseous phase is accelerated due to the cross-section blockage caused by the spacer. This leads to a local thinning of the liquid film downstream of the spacer. Two statistical evaluation methods are presented to determine different dynamic wave properties: The wave velocity as function of the wave height, the traveling path of the waves and the location of wave separation and merge events. The first evaluation method shows that big waves move generally faster than small waves. The analysis further shows wave acceleration in close proximity of the spacer with subsequent deceleration further downstream. Analyzing the wave as a two-dimensional entity it can be seen that the wave paths are clearly structured by the spacer and hence do not travel circumferentially around the fuel rod. Wave separation and merge has a

  19. Experimental studies of the effect of functional spacers to annular flow in subchannels of a BWR fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damsohn, M.; Prasser, H.-M.

    2010-01-01

    For the prediction of dryout in fuel elements of boiling water reactors, the dynamic behavior of the water film covering the fuel rod has to be understood. This paper provides high resolved experimental data of the liquid film and gives insight into the dynamic film behavior. The experiments of this work were conducted in a vertical channel representing a pair of neighboring subchannels of a BWR fuel rod bundle. Air and water at ambient pressure and temperature are used as model fluids, creating an annular flow in the test section. The influence of different functional spacer shapes on the liquid film has been studied. The heart of the instrumentation is a liquid film sensor (LFS), which measures the film thickness distribution around a half cylinder with a matrix of 64 x 16 measuring points with a time resolution of 10,000 frames per second and a spatial resolution of 2 mm x 2 mm. The high resolution allows for a visualization of the dynamic liquid film as a movie animation. Principals of the dynamic behavior of the liquid film are observed. The time-averaged film thickness distributions show that the spacers structure the liquid film significantly. The gaseous phase is accelerated due to the cross-section blockage caused by the spacer. This leads to a local thinning of the liquid film downstream of the spacer. Two statistical evaluation methods are presented to determine different dynamic wave properties: The wave velocity as function of the wave height, the traveling path of the waves and the location of wave separation and merge events. The first evaluation method shows that big waves move generally faster than small waves. The analysis further shows wave acceleration in close proximity of the spacer with subsequent deceleration further downstream. Analyzing the wave as a two-dimensional entity it can be seen that the wave paths are clearly structured by the spacer and hence do not travel circumferentially around the fuel rod. Wave separation and merge has a

  20. COOLOCE debris bed experiments and simulations investigating the coolability of cylindrical beds with different materials and flow modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takasuo, E.; Kinnunen, T.; Holmstroem, S.; Lehtikuusi, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland)

    2013-07-15

    The COOLOCE experiments aim at investigating the coolability of debris beds of different geometries, flow modes and materials. A debris bed may be formed of solidified corium as a result of a severe accident in a nuclear power reactor. The COOLOCE-8 test series consisted of experiments with a top-flooded test bed with irregular gravel as the simulant material. The objective was to produce comparison data useful in estimating the effects of different particle materials and the possible effect of the test arrangement on the results. It was found that the dryout heat flux (DHF) measured for the gravel was lower compared to previous experiments with spherical beads, and somewhat lower compared to the early STYX experiments. The difference between the beads and gravel is at least partially explained by the smaller average size of the gravel particles. The COOLOCE-9 test series included scoping experiments examining the effect of subcooling of the water pool in which the debris bed is immersed. The experiments with initially subcooled pool suggest that the subcooling may increase DHF and increase coolability. The aim of the COOLOCE-10 experiments was to investigate the effect of lateral flooding on the DHF a cylindrical test bed. The top of the test cylinder and its sidewall were open to water infiltration. It was found that the DHF is increased compared to a top-flooded cylinder by more than 50%. This suggests that coolability is notably improved. 2D simulations of the top-flooded test beds have been run with the MEWA code. Prior to the simulations, the effective particle diameter for the spherical beads and the irregular gravel was estimated by single-phase pressure loss measurements performed at KTH in Sweden. Parameter variations were done for particle size and porosity used as input in the models. It was found that with the measured effective particle diameter and porosity, the simulation models predict DHF with a relatively good accuracy in the case of spherical

  1. Incorporating single detector failure into the ROP detector layout optimization for CANDU reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastanya, Doddy, E-mail: Doddy.Kastanya@snclavalin.com

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • ROP TSP value needs to be adjusted when any detector in the system fails. • Single detector failure criterion has been incorporated into the detector layout optimization as a constraint. • Results show that the optimized detector layout is more robust with respect to its vulnerability to a single detector failure. • An early rejection scheme has been introduced to speed-up the optimization process. - Abstract: In CANDU{sup ®} reactors, the regional overpower protection (ROP) systems are designed to protect the reactor against overpower in the fuel which could reduce the safety margin-to-dryout. In the CANDU{sup ®} 600 MW (CANDU 6) design, there are two ROP systems in the core, each of which is connected to a fast-acting shutdown system. Each ROP system consists of a number of fast-responding, self-powered flux detectors suitably distributed throughout the core within vertical and horizontal flux detector assemblies. The placement of these ROP detectors is a challenging discrete optimization problem. In the past few years, two algorithms, DETPLASA and ADORE, have been developed to optimize the detector layout for the ROP systems in CANDU reactors. These algorithms utilize the simulated annealing (SA) technique to optimize the placement of the detectors in the core. The objective of the optimization process is typically either to maximize the TSP value for a given number of detectors in the system or to minimize the number of detectors in the system to obtain a target TSP value. One measure to determine the robustness of the optimized detector layout is to evaluate the maximum decrease (penalty) in TSP value when any single detector in the system fails. The smaller the penalty, the more robust the design is. Therefore, in order to ensure that the optimized detector layout is robust, the single detector failure (SDF) criterion has been incorporated as an additional constraint into the ADORE algorithm. Results from this study indicate that there

  2. Boiling on a tube bundle: heat transfer, pressure drop and flow patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royen Van, E.

    2011-11-01

    utilised to generate improved prediction methods for pool boiling and bundle boiling, including a method for predicting the onset of dryout. (author)

  3. Development of a feed-and-bleed operation strategy with hybrid-SIT under low pressure condition of PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, In Seop, E-mail: jeoni@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY (United States); Han, Sang Hoon, E-mail: shhan2@kaeri.re.kr [Advanced Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 70 Daedeok-daero 989 Beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Sang Hee, E-mail: sanghee.kang@khnp.co.kr [NSSS Design Group, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Central Research Institute, 70, 1312-beongil, Yuseongdaero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Gook, E-mail: hyungook@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • The novel F&B operation strategy with H-SIT and LPSI is developed. • The effectiveness of the H-SITs is verified using thermo-hydraulic simulations. • Success criteria considered for the new F&B operation strategy is identified. • A PSA model of APR+ reflecting the new F&B strategy with H-SIT is developed. • A risk analysis of the proposed F&B operation strategy is performed. - Abstract: While safety functions in current nuclear power plants are mainly provided by active safety systems, recently passive safety systems are being combined with the active systems to strengthen accident mitigation capability and therefore enhance overall plant safety. To this end, securing long-term cooling of the core is of particular importance. This study considers the hybrid safety injection tank (H-SIT), a passive injection system, as a target component to develop a long-term cooling strategy using active and passive systems concurrently. In the feed-and-bleed (F&B) operation, one of the important long-term cooling strategies to maintain core safety in pressurized water reactors, low pressure safety injection (LPSI) pumps are typically considered inoperable as depressurization is first required, which leads to core dry-out before reaching LPSI operable pressure. This study investigates whether H-SITs, with the important design feature of passive coolant injection under any pressure condition of the primary coolant system, can make up the core during depressurization thereby allowing LPSI pumps to be used in F&B operation as an additional means of long-term cooling. The effectiveness of the H-SITs is verified using thermal-hydraulic simulations, and based on the results a novel F&B operation strategy with H-SITs and LPSI pumps is developed. A probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) model is then developed in order to assess the risk effect of the suggested strategy. PSA results demonstrate that the proposed strategy lowers core damage frequency in the target

  4. Two-phase flow boiling pressure drop in small channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardeshpande, Madhavi V.; Shastri, Parikshit; Ranade, Vivek V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Study of typical 19 mm steam generator tube has been undertaken in detail. • Study of two phase flow boiling pressure drop, flow instability and identification of flow regimes using pressure fluctuations is the main focus of present work. • Effect of heat and mass flux on pressure drop and void fraction was studied. • Flow regimes identified from pressure fluctuations data using FFT plots. • Homogeneous model predicted pressure drop well in agreement. - Abstract: Two-phase flow boiling in small channels finds a variety of applications in power and process industries. Heat transfer, boiling flow regimes, flow instabilities, pressure drop and dry out are some of the key issues related to two-phase flow boiling in channels. In this work, the focus is on pressure drop in two-phase flow boiling in tubes of 19 mm diameter. These tubes are typically used in steam generators. Relatively limited experimental database is available on 19 mm ID tube. Therefore, in the present work, the experimental set-up is designed for studying flow boiling in 19 mm ID tube in such a way that any of the different flow regimes occurring in a steam generator tube (from pre-heating of sub-cooled water to dry-out) can be investigated by varying inlet conditions. The reported results cover a reasonable range of heat and mass flux conditions such as 9–27 kW/m 2 and 2.9–5.9 kg/m 2 s respectively. In this paper, various existing correlations are assessed against experimental data for the pressure drop in a single, vertical channel during flow boiling of water at near-atmospheric pressure. A special feature of these experiments is that time-dependent pressures are measured at four locations along the channel. The steady-state pressure drop is estimated and the identification of boiling flow regimes is done with transient characteristics using time series analysis. Experimental data and corresponding results are compared with the reported correlations. The results will be

  5. Mechanism of subcooled water flow boiling critical heat flux in a circular tube at high liquid Reynolds number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, K.; Fukuda, K.; Masuzaki, S.

    2014-01-01

    theoretical values of the liquid sub-layer dry-out models suggested by other workers, respectively. The dominant mechanism of the subcooled flow boiling CHF on the Pt circular tube is discussed at high liquid Reynolds number. (author)

  6. Anomalies and other concerns related to the critical heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groeneveld, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper summarizes various unusual trends in the critical heat flux (CHF) that have been observed experimentally in tubes. They include the following: Occurrence of a minimum in the CHF vs. quality (X) curve at high flows - leading to an initial upstream CHF occurrence in uniformly heated tubes. This phenomenon has been observed at high flows in both water and Freon. Occurrence of a limiting quality region on the CHF vs. X curve where the CHF drops by 30 - 90% for a nearly constant quality. This is thought to correspond to the boundary between the entrainment-controlled and the deposition-controlled region and causes problems for prediction methods of the form CHF=f(X). Impact of flow obstructions on the occurrence of upstream CHF and the limiting quality region. The additional mixing by grid spacers or bundle appendages results in a more homogeneous phase distribution, thus diminishing the effects of flow regime/heat transfer regime transitions responsible for the above unusual CHF trends. This will lead to a more gradually decreasing CHF vs. X curve. Absence of a CHF temperature excursion at high flows and high qualities - this is found to be caused by a change in slope of the transition boiling part of the boiling curve from a negative value (usual trend that results in a dryout temperature excursion) to a positive slope. Gradual disappearance of the sharp temperature excursion at CHF when increasing the pressure towards and beyond the critical pressure - no drastic change is observed in the shape of the axial temperature distribution of a heated tube experiencing CHF or heat transfer deterioration, when, for constant mass flux and inlet temperature, the pressure is gradually increased from subcritical to supercritical. CHF fluid-to-fluid modeling: differences in CHF behavior at certain conditions between refrigerants and water at equivalent conditions. The mechanisms responsible for these trends and the implications for predicting CHF for bundle geometries

  7. Single- and two-phase flow modeling for coupled neutronics / thermal-hydraulics transient analysis of advanced sodium-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chenu, A.

    2011-10-01

    Nuclear power is nowadays in the front rank as regards helping to meet the growing worldwide energy demand while avoiding an excessive increase in greenhouse gas emissions. However, the operating nuclear power plants are mainly thermal-neutron reactors and, as such, can not be maintained on the basis of the currently identified uranium resources beyond one century at the present consumption rate. Sustainability of nuclear power thus involves closure of the fuel cycle through breeding. With a uranium-based fuel, breeding can only be achieved using a fast-neutron reactor. Sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR) technology benefits from 400 reactor-years of accumulated experience and is thus a prime candidate for the implementation of so-called Generation-IV nuclear energy systems. In this context, the safety demonstration of SFRs remains a major Research and Development related issue. The current research aims at the development of a computational tool for the in-depth understanding of SFR core behaviour during accidental transients, particularly those including boiling of the coolant. An accurate modelling of the core physics during such transients requires the coupling between 3D neutron kinetics and thermal-hydraulics in the core, to account for the strong interactions between the two-phase coolant flow and power variations caused by the sodium void effect. The present study is specifically focused upon models for the representation of sodium two-phase flow. The extension of the thermal-hydraulics TRACE code, previously limited to the simulation of single-phase sodium flow, has been carried out through the implementation of equations-of-state and closure relations specific to sodium. The different correlations have then been implemented as options. From the validation study carried out, it has been possible to recommend a set of models which provide satisfactory results, while considering annular flow as the dominant regime up to dryout and a smooth breakdown of the

  8. Development of Optimized Core Design and Analysis Methods for High Power Density BWRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirvan, Koroush

    temperature was kept the same for the BWR-HD and ABWR which resulted in 4 °K cooler core inlet temperature for the BWR-HD given that its feedwater makes up a larger fraction of total core flow. The stability analysis using the STAB and S3K codes showed satisfactory results for the hot channel, coupled regional out-of-phase and coupled core-wide in-phase modes. A RELAPS model of the ABWR system was constructed and applied to six transients for the BWR-HD and ABWR. The 6MCPRs during all the transients were found to be equal or less for the new design and the core remained covered for both. The lower void coefficient along with smaller core volume proved to be advantages for the simulated transients. Helical Cruciform Fuel (HCF) rods were proposed in prior MIT studies to enhance the fuel surface to volume ratio. In this work, higher fidelity models (e.g. CFD instead of subchannel methods for the hydraulic behaviour) are used to investigate the resolution needed for accurate assessment of the HCF design. For neutronics, conserving the fuel area of cylindrical rods results in a different reactivity level with a lower void coefficient for the HCF design. In single-phase flow, for which experimental results existed, the friction factor is found to be sensitive to HCF geometry and cannot be calculated using current empirical models. A new approach for analysis of flow crisis conditions for HCF rods in the context of Departure from Nucleate Boiling (DNB) and dryout using the two phase interface tracking method was proposed and initial results are presented. It is shown that the twist of the HCF rods promotes detachment of a vapour bubble along the elbows which indicates no possibility for an early DNB for the HCF rods and in fact a potential for a higher DNB heat flux. Under annular flow conditions, it was found that the twist suppressed the liquid film thickness on the HCF rods, at the locations of the highest heat flux, which increases the possibility of reaching early dryout. It

  9. Hydrogeologic controls on saturation profiles in heat-pipe-like hydrothermal systems: numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervin, Mollika; Ghergut, Iulia; Graf, Thomas; Peche, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    work, we explore some mechanisms and geologic controls that can lead to the formation of extensive vapor-dominated zones within a two-phase system. In particular, we investigate the effect of vertical heterogeneity of permeability (stratified reservoir, containing a permeability barrier) on the liquid water saturation profile within a modified HP model. Though in field observations liquid water has been directly encountered only within the condensation zone at reservoir top, it was speculated that large amounts of liquid water might also exist below the condensation zone. This is of great practical significance to the exploitation of vapor-dominated reservoirs, as their longevity depends on the fluid reserves in place. Within this work, we demonstrate by numerical simulations of a modified HP model that high values of liquid water saturation (>0.8) can prevail even far below the condensation zone. Such findings are useful as a baseline for future calculations regarding the economic exploitation of vapor-dominated systems, where premature productivity drop (or dry-out) is the main issue of concern. References: Eastman, G. Y:, 1968: The heat pipe. Scientific American, 218(5):38-46. Preuss, K. A., 1985: A quantitative model of vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs as heat pipes in fractured porous rock, Transactions, Geothermal Resources. Council, 9(2), 353-361. Truesdell, A. H., and White, D.E. 1973: Production of superheated Steam from Vapor- dominated geothermal reservoirs. Geothermics, 2(3-4), 154-173

  10. The Comparison Analysis of Thermalhydraulic Behavior Between A Reference 37-element Bundle and A Modified 37-element Bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Eui-Seung; You, Sung-Chang

    2014-01-01

    As pressure tube diameter creep increase, the coolant flows through some of the interior subchannels of the fuel bundle are reduced and consequently reduces the Critical Heat Flux (CHF). For this reason, Canadian Utilities have performed the project that developing the new fuel design (modified 37-element bundle) to increase critical heat flux. The modified 37-element (37M) bundle has the same overall geometry as the reference 37-element (37R) bundle that is using in the Wolsong units now but the center element diameter has been reduced from 13.06mm to 11.5mm. The reduction in center element diameter of the 37M bundle design increase the flow of center areas to improve the cooling and thus to enhance CHF. The CHF experiments with 37M bundle string simulator in un-crept and crept (3.3%, 5.1% peak creep) flow channels were completed at Stern Laboratories in 2008. A substantially large increase in dryout-power was observed for the 37M bundle compared to the 37R bundle, particularly in the 5.1% crept channel. As a result of the experiments, Ontario Power Generation (OPG) and Bruce Power (BP) have increased the operational margin with this CHF correlation and has fully refueled the 37M fuel on some units or almost done on the other units. KHNP also has performed the project to refuel the 37M bundle which is the same design with OPG and BP recently. This paper summarizes the comparison assessment of Thermalhydraulic (T/H) behavior for 37M bundle and 37R bundle with their own correlations and geometry parameters. This analysis performed with the thermal hydraulic code (NUCIRC) and the site measured data at the Wolsong Unit2. Tests to evaluate the CHF performance with the 37M fuel bundle have been conducted in 2008 using the un-crept, 3.3% crept and 5.1% crept flow channels in the CHF Test facility at Stern Laboratories. In addition pressure drop tests have been performed at the same time. The changes of geometry from 37R bundle to 37M bundle reduced the center element

  11. CHF experiments of tight pitch lattice rod bundles under PWR pressure condition for development of reduced moderation water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araya, Fumimasa; Nakatsuka, Toru; Yoritsune, Tsutomu

    2002-10-01

    in the comparably lower axial heat flux region of the heater rod, it was implied that the film dryout type CHFs might be occurred in the experiments. The experiment analysis with the evaluation methodology of critical heat flux i.e. the subchannel analysis code COBRA-IV-I incorporated the KfK CHF correlation showed that the calculated critical heat fluxes were 10 to 60% smaller than the experimental values. Based on the calculated results, it can be said that the present evaluation methodology can evaluate the critical heat flux with enough margin for the core configurations with narrow gap widths treated in the present study. (author)

  12. Investigation of the Potential for In-Vessel Melt Retention in the Lower Head of a BWR by Cooling through the Control Rod Guide Tubes. APRl 4, Stage 2 Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehgal, B.R.; Jasiulevicius, A.; Konovalikhin, M.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the experiments performed at the Division, investigating the coolability potential offered by the Control Rod Guide Tubes (CRGTs), which are present in large numbers in the lower head of a BWR and there is a water flow circuit in each one of them. This investigation is related to the overall goal of retaining the core melt in the lower head of a BWR during a postulated severe accident, through accident management procedures, or strategy. The experiments were performed in two facilities, i.e. POMECO (Porous MEdium COolability) and COMECO (Core MElt COolability), respectively, for investigating the coolability when the core material is in the form of a particulate debris bed and when it is in the form of a melt. The POMECO facility employed a sand bed heated electrically to heating levels of up to 1 MW/m 3 and experiments performed in that facility obtained the enhancement in the dryout heat flux and in the quench velocity due to presence of a CRGT, with, and without, water flow in it. The COMECO facility employed a simulant material melt pool heated electrically to power levels of = 1.3 MW/m 3 and the experiments in it also determined the enhancement in the