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Sample records for dry triboelectrostatic separator

  1. Dry coal fly ash cleaning using rotary triboelectrostatic separator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Daniel; FAN Mao-ming; JIANG Xin-kai

    2009-01-01

    More than 80 million metric tons of fly ash is produced annually in the U.S. As coal combustion by-product. Coal fly ash can be converted to value-added products if unburned carbon is reduced to less than 2.5%. However, most of fly ash is currently landfilled as waste due to lack of efficient purification technologies to separate unburned carbon from fly ash. A rotary triboelectrostatic separator has been developed and patented recently at the University of Kentucky with unique features. Several fly ash samples have been used to understand the effects of major process parameters on the separation performance. The results show that compared to existing triboelectrostatic separators, the rotary triboelectrostatic separator has significant advantages in particle charging efficiency, solids throughput, separation efficiency, applicable particle size range.

  2. POC-scale testing of a dry triboelectrostatic separator for fine coal cleaning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both the ash and sulfur contents of run-of-mine coals. The extent of cleaning depends on the liberation characteristics of the coal, which generally improve with reducing particle size. however, since most of the advanced technologies are wet processes, the clean coal product must be dewatered before it can be transported and burned in conventional boilers. This additional treatment step significantly increases the processing cost and makes the industrial applicability of these advanced technologies much less attractive. In order to avoid problems associated with fine coal dewatering, researchers at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) developed a novel triboelectrostatic separation (TES) process that can remove mineral matter from dry coal. In this technique, finely pulverized coal is brought into contact with a material (such as copper) having a work function intermediate to that of the carbonaceous material and associated mineral matter. Carbonaceous particles having a relatively low work function become positively charged, while particles of mineral matter having significantly higher work functions become negatively charged. once the particles become selectively charged, a separation can be achieved by passing the particle stream through an electrically charged field. Details related to the triboelectrostatic charging phenomenon have been discussed elsewhere (Inculet, 1984).

  3. POC-SCALE TESTING OF A DRY TRIBOELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR FOR FINE COAL CLEANING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.H. Yoon; G.H. Luttrell; E.S. Yan; A.D. Walters

    2001-04-30

    Numerous advanced coal cleaning processes have been developed in recent years that are capable of substantially reducing both ash- and sulfur-forming minerals from coal. However, most of the processes involve fine grinding and use water as the cleaning medium; therefore, the clean coal products must be dewatered before they can be transported and burned. Unfortunately, dewatering fine coal is costly, which makes it difficult to deploy advanced coal cleaning processes for commercial applications. As a means of avoiding problems associated with the fine coal dewatering, the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) developed a dry coal cleaning process in which mineral matter is separated from coal without using water. In this process, pulverized coal is subjected to triboelectrification before being placed in an electric field for electrostatic separation. The triboelectrification is accomplished by passing a pulverized coal through an in-line mixer made of copper. Copper has a work function that lies between that of carbonaceous material (coal) and mineral matter. Thus, coal particles impinging on the copper wall lose electrons to the metal thereby acquiring positive charges, while mineral matter impinging on the wall gain electrons to acquire negative charges. The charged particles then pass through an electric field where they are separated according to their charges into two or more products depending on the configuration of the separator. The results obtained at NETL showed that it is capable of removing more than 90% of the pyritic sulfur and 70% of the ash-forming minerals from a number of eastern U.S. coals. However, the BTU recoveries were less than desirable. The laboratory-scale batch triboelectrostatic separator (TES) used by NETL relied on adhering charged particles on parallel electrode surfaces and scraping them off. Therefore, its throughput will be proportional to the electrode surface area. If this laboratory device is scaled-up as is, it would

  4. Triboelectrostatic separation for granular plastic waste recycling: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guiqing; Li, Jia; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-03-01

    The world's plastic consumption has increased incredibly in recent decades, generating more and more plastic waste, which makes it a great public concern. Recycling is the best treatment for plastic waste since it cannot only reduce the waste but also reduce the consumption of oil for producing new virgin plastic. Mechanical recycling is recommended for plastic waste to avoid the loss of its virgin value. As a mechanical separation technology, triboelectrostatic separation utilizes the difference between surface properties of different materials to get them oppositely charged, deflected in the electric field and separately collected. It has advantages such as high efficiency, low cost, no concern of water disposal or secondary pollution and a relatively wide processing range of particle size especially suitable for the granular plastic waste. The process of triboelectrostatic separation for plastic waste is reviewed in this paper. Different devices have been developed and proven to be effective for separation of plastic waste. The influence factors are also discussed. It can be concluded that the triboelectrostatic separation of plastic waste is a promising technology. However, more research is required before it can be widely applied in industry.

  5. Triboelectrostatic Separation-an Efficient Method of Producing Low Ash Clean Coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章新喜; 边炳鑫; 段超红; 熊建军

    2002-01-01

    At present, coal is mainly consumed as fuel. In fact, coal is also a kind of precious raw material in chemical industry on the premise that some harmful minerals should be removed from coal. The paper presents the results of the research on producing low ash (<2%) coal with triboelectrostatic separator used for producing high-grade active carbon. The test is conducted in bench-scale system, whose capacity is 30~100 kg/h. The results indicate that: 1) the ash content of clean coal increases with the increase of solid content of feedstock, on the contrary, the yield of clean coal is declining; 2) a high velocity may result in a good separation efficiency; 3) for the same solid content, the reunion caused by intermolecular force makes the separation efficiency drop down when the ultra-fine coal is separated; 4) the separation efficiency is improved with the increase of electric field intensity, but there is a good optimized match between the electric field intensity and yield of clean coal; 5) a low rank coal is easy-to-wash in triboelectrostatic separation process; 6) the yield of clean coal can be enhanced and the ash decreased through adapting optimized conditions according to various coals.

  6. Tribo-charging properties of waste plastic granules in process of tribo-electrostatic separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wu, Guiqing; Xu, Zhenming

    2015-01-01

    Plastic products can be found everywhere in people's daily life. With the consistent growth of plastic consumption, more and more plastic waste is generated. Considering the stable chemical and physics characteristics of plastic, regular waste management methods are not suitable for recycling economic strategy of each government, which has become a serious environmental problem. Recycling plastic waste is considered to be the best way to treat it, because it cannot only deduce the waste but also save the energy to produce new virgin plastic. Tribo-electrostatic separation is strongly recommended for plastic separation as it can preserve the original properties of plastic and has little additional pollution. In this study, plastic granules are generated by crushing plastic waste in waste electric and electronic equipment. The tribo-charging properties of plastic waste were studied by vibrating tribo-charging and cyclone tribo-charging. The triboelectric series obtained by vibrating was: (-)-PE-PS-PC-PVC-ABS-PP-(+), while the triboelectric series obtained by cyclone was (-)-PE-PS-PC-PVC-ABS-PP-(+). Further, the cyclone charging was more effective and stable than vibrating charging. The impact factors experiments showed that small particle size was better changed than large ones and were more suitable recycled by tribo-electrostatic separation. High relative humidity was identified as impede charging effect. The results of this study will help defining the operating parameters of subsequent separator.

  7. Solid-state, triboelectrostatic and dissolution characteristics of spray-dried piroxicam-glucosamine solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebisi, Adeola O; Kaialy, Waseem; Hussain, Tariq; Al-Hamidi, Hiba; Nokhodchi, Ali; Conway, Barbara R; Asare-Addo, Kofi

    2016-10-01

    This work explores the use of both spray drying and d-glucosamine HCl (GLU) as a hydrophilic carrier to improve the dissolution rate of piroxicam (PXM) whilst investigating the electrostatic charges associated with the spray drying process. Spray dried PXM:GLU solid dispersions were prepared and characterised (XRPD, DSC, SEM). Dissolution and triboelectric charging were also conducted. The results showed that the spray dried PXM alone, without GLU produced some PXM form II (DSC results) with no enhancement in solubility relative to that of the parent PXM. XRPD results also showed the spray drying process to decrease the crystallinity of GLU and solid dispersions produced. The presence of GLU improved the dissolution rate of PXM. Spray dried PXM: GLU at a ratio of 2:1 had the most improved dissolution. The spray drying process generally yielded PXM-GLU spherical particles of around 2.5μm which may have contributed to the improved dissolution. PXM showed a higher tendency for charging in comparison to the carrier GLU (-3.8 versus 0.5nC/g for untreated material and -7.5 versus 3.1nC/g for spray dried materials). Spray dried PXM and spray dried GLU demonstrated higher charge densities than untreated PXM and untreated GLU, respectively. Regardless of PXM:GLU ratio, all spray dried PXM:GLU solid dispersions showed a negligible charge density (net-CMR: 0.1-0.3nC/g). Spray drying of PXM:GLU solid dispersions can be used to produce formulation powders with practically no charge and thereby improving handling as well as dissolution behaviour of PXM.

  8. A dry-surface coating method for visualization of separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.; Durgin, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A simple and reasonably accurate dry-surface coating method for the visualization of the separation line on a bluff body is described. This method is not restricted to any particular Reynolds-number range and it supplies a clear permanent record of good photographic quality. Examination of this technique in visualizing the separation angle on a circular cylinder indicated that it is accurate within about + or - 4 percent.

  9. Comparison of coal separation characteristics based on different separating approaches in dry coal beneficiation flowsheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Jing-feng; ZHAO Yue-min; HE Ya-qun; LUO Zhen-fu; DUAN Chen-long

    2015-01-01

    The separation characteristic of raw coal from Luoyang mining area, China, was investigated by applying a dry coal beneficiation flowsheet with the dense medium gas-solid fluidized bed as main separating equipment. The experimental and simulation results indicate that the dense medium gas-solid fluidized bed can provide uniform distribution and stable fluctuation of bed densities at various heights. Two types of different separating approaches were compared using the dry coal beneficiation flowsheet. Compared with obtaining cleaning coal in the first stage of the flowsheet, a higher yield of the cleaning coal and better separation efficiency can be achieved when discharging gangue in the first stage. Finally, the results indicate that 64.86% pure cleaning coal with an ash content of 11.77% and 13.53% middlings were obtained, and 21.61% gangue was removed in two successive separation stages with the probable errors of 0.05 and 0.07 g/cm3, respectively.

  10. Preparation of functional lupine protein fractions by dry separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelgrom, P.J.M.; Berghout, J.A.M.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2014-01-01

    Lupine protein concentrate is a promising ingredient that can be obtained by a combination of milling and air classification, generally called dry fractionation. This is a more sustainable route than conventional wet extraction and delivers a protein concentrate with native functional properties.

  11. A dry-surface coating method for visualization of separation. [bluff bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.; Durgin, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    A relatively simple and reasonably accurate dry-surface coating method for visualization of the separation line on a bluff body was devised and successfully tested. This technique is based on the color reaction of a dry film containing a pH indicator with an appropriate gas released in the body wake. The dry-surface coating method is effective at any Reynolds number and for both incident laminar and turbulent flows. It further supplies a colorful permanent of consistently good photographic quality of the separation line. The effectiveness and accuracy of this technique were tested in visualizing the separation angle on a circular cylinder in both laminar and turbulent crossflows at subcritical Reynolds numbers. Separation angles revealed by the visualization were within + or - 4 percent of their counterparts deduced from the mean wall pressure distribution.

  12. Dry-surface coating method for visualization of separation on a bluff body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeh, W. Z.; Brauer, H. J.; Durgin, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A simple and relatively accurate dry-surface coating method for visualization of the flow separation on a circular cylinder (or any bluff body) during wind tunnel tests is described. The technique consists of (1) application of a thin coating composed of an indicator and a paint carrier; (2) drying of the film; (3) conditioning of the coating with an acidic solution to ensure a suitable color reaction; (4) release into the body wake of a gas able to produce a base through chemical reaction with the solvent of the conditioning solution; and (5) color reaction according to pH.

  13. Dry Separation of Iron Minerals from Low-Grade Coal-series Kaolin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Teng; LEI Shaomin; LIU Mochou; JI Mengjiao; LIU Yuanyuan; YIN Xudong; PENG Yongjun

    2015-01-01

    Dry separation of iron mineral from low-grade coal-series kaolin in Hubei Province of China was investigated. The structure and chemical composition of the kaolin ore were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyses. The narrow particle size range classiifcation, dry magnetic separation and calcination were carried out to evaluate the particle size distribution, and the relation between the content of iron and the whiteness. Experimental results revealed that the highest content of iron (3.70%) in kaolin ore was in the particle size range from 60 to 74 μm, and pyrite was the main occurrence of iron in the kaolin ore. Dry magnetic separation showed that the removal rate of iron in kaolin ore could be increased obviously after calcination, and the rate of iron removal was 60% in the particle size range from 60 to 74 μm. As pyrite can be transformed into hematite through calcination, thermodynamic studies and XRD analysis showed that the maximum content of hematite was obtained at 900℃, which would be more beneifcial to magnetic separation.

  14. Drying and moisture resorption behaviour of various electrode materials and separators for lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stich, Michael; Pandey, Nisrit; Bund, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    The drying behaviour and water uptake of a variety of commonly used electrode materials (graphite, LiFePO4, LiMn2O4, LiCoO2, Li(NiCoMn)O2) and separators (polyolefin, glass fibre) for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are investigated. The drying experiments are carried out using a coulometric Karl Fischer titrator in combination with a vaporiser. This setup leads to a highly sensitive and precise method to quantify water amounts in the microgram range in solid materials. Thereby the mass specific drying behaviour at RT and 120 °C is determined as well as the water resorption of the investigated materials in conditioned air atmosphere (T: 25 °C, RH: 40%). By extracting characteristic water detection rate curves for the investigated materials, a method is developed to predict the water detection beyond the runtime of the experiment. The results help optimising drying procedures of LIB components and thus can save time and costs. It is also shown, that water contaminations in graphite/LiFePO4 coin cells with a LiPF6 based electrolyte lead to a faster capacity fade during cycling and a significant change of the cell impedance.

  15. Separation, fractionation, concentration and drying of food products: Final report, March 4, 1987--March 31, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merlo, C.A.; Rose, W.W.; Pedersen, L.D.; Brewbaker, P.L.

    1988-03-01

    This project studied energy efficient processes for separation, fractionation, concentration, drying, and recombination of food products, in order to reduce energy requirements for processing, preservation, and transportation. The project had three phases. In the laboratory-scale phase, results of which are summarized in this report, tomato puree was separated by three methods: conventional vacuum filtration, centrifugation, and crossflow microfiltration to produce pulp and serum. Three methods of recombination were examined: homogenizing, stomacher blending, and static (in-line) mixing. Satisfactory recombined purees were obtained. In addition, after centrifugation, the pulp was rinsed producing rinsed-pulp, and the rinse water was added to the serum producing rinse/serum. The rinse/serum was concentrated by evaporation. This was recombined with the rinsed-pulp and water producing satisfactory puree. 11 refs., 18 figs., 18 tabs.

  16. Pilot scale harvesting, separation and drying of microalgae biomass from compact photo-bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Alberto Tadeu Martins; Luz Junior, Luiz Fernando de Lima [Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: luzjr@ufpr.br; Mariano, Andre Bellin; Ghidini, Luiz Francisco Correa; Gnoatto, Victor Eduardo; Locatelli Junior, Vilson; Mello, Thiago Carvalho de; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Nucleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Energia Autossustentavel (NPDEAS). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil)], E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br

    2010-07-01

    Bio diesel produced from microalgae lipids is gaining a substantial ground in the search for renewable energy sources. In order to optimize the operating conditions of a continuous process, several experiments were realized, both in laboratory and pilot scale. The microalgae cultivation can be conducted in a photo-bioreactor, a closed system which allows parameters control and necessarily involves the aquatic environment. Because of that, the use of separation unit operations is required. The process starts in a proposed compact photo-bioreactor, which consist of a chain of transparent tubes with 6 cm of diameter arranged in parallel where the cultivation media circulate with the help of a pump. This arrangement offers a closed culture with less risk of contamination and maintains a minimum contact with the environment. The microalgae grow inside the pipes under incidence of ambient light. In this paper, harvesting, separation and drying were studied, as part of the processes of a sustainable energy plant under construction at UFPR, as shown in Fig. 1. To control the production in a photo-bioreactor in continuous system, it is necessary to monitor the concentration of microalgae growth in suspension. To measure the cell concentration in this equipment, an optic sensor has been developed. The microalgae biomass separation from the culture media is achieved by microalgae flocculation. Several cultivation situations have been tested with different NaOH concentrations, increasing the pH to 10. The system was kept under agitation during the addition by an air pump into the tank. Thereafter the system was maintained static. After a short time, it was observed that the microalgae coagulated and settled. The clarified part water was removed, remaining a concentrated microalgae suspension. Our results suggest that pH increase is a suitable methodology for microalgae separation from the growth suspension. The microalgae sedimentation time was recorded, which allowed the

  17. Pilot scale harvesting, separation and drying of microalgae biomass from compact photo-bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, Alberto Tadeu Martins; Luz Junior, Luiz Fernando de Lima [Dept. de Engenharia Quimica. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)], e-mail: luzjr@ufpr.br; Mariano, Andre Bellin; Ghidini, Luiz Francisco Correa; Gnoatto, Victor Eduardo; Locatelli Junior, Vilson; Mello, Thiago Carvalho de; Vargas, Jose Viriato Coelho [Nucleo de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento em Energia Autossustentavel (NPDEAS). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba (Brazil)], E-mail: jvargas@demec.ufpr.br

    2010-07-01

    Bio diesel produced from microalgae lipids is gaining a substantial ground in the search for renewable energy sources. In order to optimize the operating conditions of a continuous process, several experiments were realized, both in laboratory and pilot scale. The microalgae cultivation can be conducted in a photo-bioreactor, a closed system which allows parameters control and necessarily involves the aquatic environment. Because of that, the use of separation unit operations is required. The process starts in a proposed compact photo-bioreactor, which consist of a chain of transparent tubes with 6 cm of diameter arranged in parallel where the cultivation media circulate with the help of a pump. This arrangement offers a closed culture with less risk of contamination and maintains a minimum contact with the environment. The microalgae grow inside the pipes under incidence of ambient light. In this paper, harvesting, separation and drying were studied, as part of the processes of a sustainable energy plant under construction at UFPR, as shown in Fig. 1. To control the production in a photo-bioreactor in continuous system, it is necessary to monitor the concentration of microalgae growth in suspension. To measure the cell concentration in this equipment, an optic sensor has been developed. The microalgae biomass separation from the culture media is achieved by microalgae flocculation. Several cultivation situations have been tested with different NaOH concentrations, increasing the pH to 10. The system was kept under agitation during the addition by an air pump into the tank. Thereafter the system was maintained static. After a short time, it was observed that the microalgae coagulated and settled. The clarified part water was removed, remaining a concentrated microalgae suspension. Our results suggest that pH increase is a suitable methodology for microalgae separation from the growth suspension. The microalgae sedimentation time was recorded, which allowed the

  18. Assessment of Agroforestry Trees in Dry-land Savanna Supports Ecohydrologic Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceperley, Natalie; Mande, Theophile; Van de Giesen, Nick; Tyler, Scott; Parlange, Marc

    2016-04-01

    We use stable isotopes of water to demonstrate the ecohydrologic separation, or the plant controlled compartmentalization, of different water sources in a catchment in South Eastern Burkina Faso. We analyze water extracted from the groundwater, stream water, precipitation, perched aquifer, xylem water of agroforestry trees, and sub-canopy soil water over a 6 year period to explore how the separation affects different components of the system over time. The ratio between deuterium and O18 allows us to assess whether the water that plants use is the same as the water that recharges the aquifer and runs off in the stream. Water extracted from the tree at leaf out in February corresponded to deuterium and O18 concentrations of the groundwater, a drop from its dry season, enriched, levels which mimicked the soil water. Examination of the isotopic signature suggests that the size of tree plays an important role in duration and timing of this leaf-out as well as the degree of enrichment during the peak of the dry season. Dates of leaf out were confirmed by analyzing sub-canopy radiation and photographs. Water extracted from roots suggests that the trees are performing hydraulic redistribution, or lifting the ground water and 'sharing it' with the rooting zone soil during the dry season. The enriched level of xylem, in this case, is a product of water loss and enrichment along the travel path of the water from the roots to the tip of the branch, as evidenced by the variation according to size of tree. Vapor pressure deficit, sap flow, soil water, and soil moisture interactions support this picture of interacting controls, separate from hydrologic triggers on the water movement in the tree. A second round of sampling focused on the leaf out period by extracting and analyzing stem water from throughout the canopy during the leaf out. Simultaneous large eddy correlation revealed high levels of latent energy flux, even during the dry season. Our isotope analysis allowed us to

  19. Separation, fractionation, concentration and drying of food products: Technology progress report, October 1, 1984-March 3, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, W. W.; Pederson, L. D.; Merlo, C. A.; Brewbaker, P. L.

    1987-11-01

    This report describes the first and second phases of a three phase project, the object of which is to develop energy efficient separation, concentration, and drying processes for food products, especially juice products, in order to reduce energy requirements and their associated costs for processing, preservation, and transportation. Presently in juice processing, much water is eliminated through evaporation. However, there are significant limits to the current evaporation technology. If, however, the juice could be separated, prior to evaporation, into liquid and solid fractions, and the liquid concentrated further, the containerization and transportation costs could be significantly reduced. Separation methods investigated in this project are: vacuum filtration, centrifugation, and crossflow microfiltration.

  20. Separation and Purification of Mineral Salts from Spacecraft Wastewater Processing via Electrostatic Beneficiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, John D., II; Lunn, Griffin

    2013-01-01

    Electrostatic separation is a class of material processing technologies commonly used for the sorting of coarse mixtures by means of electrical forces acting on charged or polarized particles. Most if not all of the existing tribo-electrostatic separators had been initially developed for mineral ores beneficiation. It is a well-known process that has been successfully used to separate coal from minerals. Potash (potassium) enrichment where underground salt mines containing large amounts of sodium is another use of this techno logy. Through modification this technology can be used for spacecraft wastewater brine beneficiation. This will add in closing the gap beeen traveling around Earth's Gravity well and long-term space explorations. Food has been brought on all man missions, which is why plant growth for food crops continues to be of interest to NASA. For long-term mission considerations food productions is one of the top priorities. Nutrient recovery is essential for surviving in or past low earth orbit. In our advance bio-regenerative process instead of nitrogen gas produced; soluble nitrate salts that can be recovered for plant fertilizer would be produced instead. The only part missing is the beneficiation of brine to separate the potassium from the sodium. The use of electrostatic beneficiation in this experiment utilizes the electrical charge differences between aluminum and dried brine by surface contact. The helixes within the aluminum tribocharger allows for more surface contact when being agitated. When two materials are in contact, the material with the highest affinity for electrons becomes negatively charged, while the other becomes positively charged. This contact exchange of charge may cause the particles to agglomerate depending on their residence time within the tribocharger, compromising the efficiency of separation. The aim of this experiment is to further the development in electrostatic beneficiation by optimizing the separation of ersatz and

  1. Solid-liquid separation of faecal sludge using drying beds in Ghana: implications for nutrient recycling in urban agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cofie, O O; Agbottah, S; Strauss, M; Esseku, H; Montangero, A; Awuah, E; Kone, D

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the possibility of recycling nutrients in human excreta and municipal solid waste for use in agriculture. It reports on the use of drying beds in separating solid and liquid fractions of faecal sludge (FS) so that the solids can be co-composted and the organic matter and part of the nutrients captured for urban agriculture. Sludge influent onto drying beds, percolate effluent, and dewatered sludge (biosolids) were monitored over eight loading cycles in 2002. The unplanted drying beds were made of 15 cm of sand (0.2-0.6mm diameter) and 25 cm gravel (10 and 19 mm diameter). The loading rate of sludge ranged from 196 to 321 kg total solids (TS) /m(2)y. Biosolids with TS 20% were obtained after an average drying time of 2 weeks. The drying beds retained 80% of solids and 100% of helminth eggs. The biosolids had average organic matter content of 61%; hence, allowing for co-composting with biodegradable organic solid waste for hygienisation. The process is being investigated further to attain higher efficiency and reliability.

  2. Use of spray-dried zirconia microspheres in the separation of immunoglobulins from cell culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, A; Carr, P W; McNeff, C V

    2000-08-18

    A method suitable for the isolation of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on novel zirconia microspheres (20-30 microm) is described. Zirconia microspheres were generated by spray drying colloidal zirconia. Spray-dried zirconia microspheres were further classified and characterized by X-ray diffraction, BET porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. Spray-dried zirconia microspheres were modified with ethylenediamine-N,N'-tetra(methylenephosphonic) acid (EDTPA) to create a cation-exchange chromatographic support. The chromatographic behavior of a semi-preparative column packed with EDTPA-modified zirconia microspheres was evaluated and implications for scale-up are provided. EDTPA-modified zirconia microspheres were further used to purify MAbs from cell culture supernatant. Analysis by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and gel electrophoresis demonstrate that MAbs can be recovered from a cell culture supernatant at high yield (92-98%) and high purity (>95%) in a single chromatographic step.

  3. Drying, phase separation, and deposition in droplets of sunset yellow chromonic liquid crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Adam; Davidson, Zoey S.; Huang, Yongyang; Still, Tim; Zhou, Chao; Yodh, A. G.

    We investigate the drying process and the final deposition patterns of multi-phase sessile droplets containing aqueous lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal (LC). The experiments employ a variety of optical techniques including profilometry, polarization optical microscopy and optical coherence microscopy. An unusual hierarchical LC assembly is observed during drying; in particular, LC mesogens are first formed at the start of drying and then compartments of isotropic, nematic and columnar phases arise. Nonuniform evaporation creates concentration gradients in droplets such that LC phases emerge from the outer edge of the drop and advance to the center over the course of drying. Distinct outward flows associated with the ``coffee-ring effect'' are seen initially, but the assembly of the mesogens creates viscosity, density, and surface tension gradients that effectively introduce new convective flows and complex LC phase boundaries within the drop. Finally, we show that the final deposit shape of chromonic materials changes with rate of evaporation. We gratefully acknowledge financial support through NSF DMR12-05463, MRSEC DMR11-20901, NASA NNX08AO0G, and NSF DBI-1455613.

  4. Process for dry chemisorption in filter separators. Verfahren fuer die trockene Chemisorption in Filterabscheidern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Gresch, H.; Igelbuescher, H.

    1987-05-07

    In order to minimize permeability in the filtration of pollutants from waste gas by dry chemisorption, only 1-2% of the total filter surface is used in filtration at any time, and before reuse this portion of the filter is preferably treated with fresh chemisorbent.

  5. Dry Separation of Palm Kernel and Palm Shell Using a Novel Five-Stage Winnowing Column System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohaya Mohamed Halim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The conventional separation system for the recovery of palm kernel from its palm shell–kernel mixture using water as process media generates a considerable amount of waste effluent that harms the environment. The aim of this study is to develop a dry separation process for the recovery of palm kernel by using winnowing columns. A commercial system consisting of a series of five winnowing columns was developed and installed at a local palm oil mill. The system parameters, including column height, blower capacity, airflow rate and mesh screen size for shell removal, were studied and optimized to ensure good separation of kernel and shell in the column to enable collection of different sizes of kernel and shell at each column outlet. The performance of the separation process was evaluated in terms of its kernel losses, dirt content and kernel recovery rate. The average kernel losses based on oil palm fresh fruit bunches processed were found to vary from 0.11 to 0.30 wt %, with most of the values obtained being below the targeted limit of 0.30 wt %. The dirt content was in the range 4.56–6.03 wt %, which was mostly below the targeted limit of 5.5 wt %. The kernel recovery rate was in the range 5.69–6.89 wt %, with most of the values achieving the minimum targeted limit of 6.00 wt %. The system operates under completely dry conditions and, therefore, produces zero waste effluent.

  6. Comparing the Effect of Topical Application of Human Milk and Dry Cord Care on Umbilical Cord Separation Time in Healthy Newborn Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Aghamohammadi, Azar; Zafari, Mandana; Moslemi, Leila

    2012-01-01

    Objective Comparing the effect of topical human milk application and dry cord care on cord separation time. Methods This research was a randomized clinical trial study on 130 singleton and mature newborns. Newborns were placed randomly in groups of topical application of human milk and dry cord care. The umbilical separation time was compared in the two groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Independent Samples t-Test, χ2, Fisher were used in this study. Findings Median time of cord sepa...

  7. Comparing the Effect of Topical Application of Human Milk and Dry Cord Care on Umbilical Cord Separation Time in Healthy Newborn Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azar Aghamohammadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comparing the effect of topical human milk application and dry cord care on cord separation time.Methods: This research was a randomized clinical trial study on 130 singleton and mature newborns.Newborns were placed randomly in groups of topical application of human milk and dry cord care. Theumbilical separation time was compared in the two groups. Data was analyzed by SPSS software. Independent Samples t-Test, χ2, Fisher were used in this study.Findings: Median time of cord separation in human milk application group (150.95±28.68 hours was significantly shorter than dry cord care group (180.93±37.42 hours (P<0.001.Conclusion: Topical application of human milk on the remaining part of the cord reduces the cord separation time and it can be used as an easy, cheap and non invasive way for cord care.

  8. Comparing the Effect of Topical Application of Maternal Milk, 96% Ethyl Alcohol, and Dry Cord Care on Umbilical Cord Separation Time in Healthy Full-Term Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Eghbalian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Umbilical cord infections are of main causes for neonatal morbidities and mortalities. Different methods are used for umbilical cord care with multifarious efficien-cies. The aim of this study was to compare three methods of local use of maternal milk, local use of 96% ethyl alcohol, and dry cord care. Materials & Methods: In this prospective, randomized, clinical trial, 207 healthy full-term neo-nates were randomly assigned to three groups. In the first and second groups, mothers rubbed her milk and 96% ethyl alcohol on umbilical cord until two days after its separation, respec-tively. In the third group, they only kept the cord clean and dry. The length of umbilical cord separation was compared among the groups with ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. Results: The difference among lengths of umbilical cord separation in three groups was statis-tically significant. For alcohol users group, this time was significantly longer than that for the other two groups. The difference between cord separation time in maternal milk users and dry cord care groups was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Usage of maternal milk on umbilical cord and keeping the cord dry are acceptable methods but alcohol is not recommended for cord care in healthy term neonates with home care and in normal state. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (1:5-10

  9. Effect of dry/wet-phase inversion method on fabricating polyetherimide-derived CMS membrane for H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itta, Arun Kumar; Wey, Ming-Yen [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402 (China); Tseng, Hui-Hsin [School of Occupational Safety and Health, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung 402 (China)

    2010-02-15

    The research investigated carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membranes through the dry/wet-phase inversion method from the casting polyetherimide (PEI) on alumina support for hydrogen separation. Different coating techniques such as dry method (slide casting followed by drying under vacuum; and spin coating followed by drying under vacuum); and wet method (spin coating and then later kept in an isopropyl alcohol (IPA)/water coagulating bath) at different pyrolysis temperatures of 550, 600, 650 C min{sup -1} were also investigated. The membranes were extensively characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) for surface morphology studies and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) for thermal properties. The best performance was obtained from CMS membranes fabricated with the dry-phase method (slide casting/vacuum) and pyrolysis at 600 C, where the H{sub 2}/N{sub 2} permselectivity was 16.2. In contrast with the wet-phase, the increase in gas permselectivity by the dry-phase (slide casting/vacuum) was believed to be due to the quick solidification that prevents rearrangement of polymer aggregates and coalescence of the nascent voids formed due to the spinodal or nucleation growth. (author)

  10. Impact of chlorhexidine cleansing of the umbilical cord on cord separation time and neonatal mortality in comparison to dry cord care - a nursery-based randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Gathwala, Geeta

    2014-08-01

    To study the impact of chlorhexidine cleansing of the umbilical cord on cord separation time and neonatal mortality in comparison to dry cord care. This is the secondary analysis of the data of the study which was conducted in the NICU of a teaching hospital in north India between 2010 and 2011. Newborns (>32 weeks of gestation and weighing >1500 g) were randomized into chlorhexidine application and dry cord care groups. Here, we analyze the data regarding time of cord separation, umbilical sepsis and mortality in both the groups. One hundred and forty (dry care group 70, chlorhexidine group 70) were enrolled and finally analyzed. A significant difference was observed among groups in terms of time to cord separation (8.92 ± 2.77 days versus 10.31 ± 3.23 days; t = 2.20; p = 0.02, significant) and neonatal mortality (χ(2) = 4.11; p = 0.042, significant). Use of chlorhexidine for umbilical cord care shortens duration of cord separation and decreases neonatal mortality in NICU. This simple intervention can be used as mode for decreasing neonatal mortality.

  11. Separation of dry and wet periods from regular weather station data for the analysis of wind erosion risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naeini, Mohammadali Saremi; Fister, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    ), climate (e.g. air temperature, solar radiation, evaporation) and soil (e.g. infiltration rate, adhesion). The purpose of this study is to overcome the lack of soil moisture data for wind erosion risk assessment by developing a method to estimate the soil wetness based on easy available weather data......, such as daily precipitation, hourly/sub hourly ambient air temperature and hourly/sub hourly relative humidity. This new method was used to identify periods of wet and dry soil moisture conditions of a time series from 20 weather stations in Denmark. The length of the time series varied between 8 to 37 years...... that using wind data without the influence of soil moisture most likely lead to an overestimation of the wind erosion risk. It is, therefore, strongly recommended for wind erosion risk assessments to associate more importance to winds that occur during dry times of the year, by including soil moisture...

  12. Production of no-carrier-added radiobromine. new nickel selenide target and optimized separation by dry distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Katharina; Spahn, Ingo; Spellerberg, Stefan; Coenen, Heinz H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM), Nuklearchemie (INM-5)

    2015-07-01

    Nickel(II) selenide (NiSe) was investigated as a new high-current target material for cyclotron production of radiobromine, as it contains a higher amount of selenium and has a lower melting point than the widely used Cu{sub 2}Se. Using a slanted target system, NiSe was successfully tested up to beam currents of 16 μA so far. With regard to the isolation of no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) radiobromide from the target material, an improved dry distillation device with high yields of 76%-86% was developed. The implementation of a special custom-made quartz funnel decreased the dead volume of the apparatus and a quartz capillary for trapping the radiobromine allowed to concentrate the radioactivity in a small volume of less than 100 μL of 0.1 M NaOH, ready for immediate subsequent radiosyntheses. Thus, the new apparatus improves the handling of the isolation procedure and the radioactive product. The radiochemical purity of the resulting solution of n.c.a. [*Br]bromide was verified by radio-IC where no other species were detected.

  13. Implementation of gradients of organic solvent in micellar liquid chromatography using DryLab(®): separation of basic compounds in urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodenas-Montano, J; Ortiz-Bolsico, C; Ruiz-Angel, M J; García-Alvarez-Coque, M C

    2014-05-30

    In micellar liquid chromatography (MLC), chromatographic peaks are more evenly distributed compared to conventional reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RPLC). This is the reason that most procedures are implemented using isocratic elution. However, gradient elution may be still useful in MLC to analyse mixtures of compounds within a wide range of polarities, decreasing the analysis time. Also, it benefits the determination of moderately to low polar compounds in physiological fluids performing direct injection: an initial micellar eluent with a low organic solvent content, or a pure micellar (without surfactant) solution, will provide better protection of the column against the proteins in the physiological fluid, and once the proteins are swept away, the elution strength can be increased using a positive linear gradient of organic solvent to reduce the analysis time. This work aims to encourage analysts to implement gradients of organic solvent in MLC, which is rather simple and allows rapid analytical procedures without pre-treatment or the need of re-equilibration. The implementation of gradient elution is illustrated through the separation of eight basic compounds (β-blockers) in urine samples directly injected into the chromatograph, the most hydrophobic showing large retention in both conventional RPLC and MLC. The use of the DryLab(®) software to optimise gradients of organic solvent with eluents containing a fixed amount of surfactant above the critical micellar concentration is shown to provide satisfactory predictions, and can facilitate greatly the implementation of gradient protocols.

  14. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  15. Application of electrostatic separation to the recycling of plastic wastes: separation of PVC, PET, and ABS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chul-Hyun; Jeon, Ho-Seok; Yu, Hyo-Shin; Han, Oh-Hyung; Park, Jai-Koo

    2008-01-01

    Plastics are widely used in everyday life as a useful material, and thus their consumption is growing at a rate of about 5% per year in Korea. However, the constant generation of plastic wastes and their disposal generates environmental problems along with economic loss. In particular, mixed waste plastics are difficult to recycle because of their inferior characteristics. A laboratory-scale triboelectrostatic separator unit has been designed and assembled for this study. On the basis of the control of electrostatic charge, the separation of three kinds of mixed plastics, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS), in a range of similar gravities has been performed through a two-stage separation process. Polypropylene (PP) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) were found to be the most effective materials for a tribo-charger in the separation of PVC, PET, and ABS. The charge-to-mass ratio (nC/g) of plastics increased with increasing air velocity in the tribo charger. In the first stage, using the PP cyclone charger, the separation efficiency of particles considerably depended on the air velocity (10 m/s), the relative humidity ( 20 kV), and the splitter position (+2 cm from the center) in the triboelelctrostatic separator unit. At this time, a PVC grade of 99.40% and a recovery of 98.10% have successfully been achieved. In the second stage, using the HIPS cyclone charger, a PET grade of 97.80% and a recovery of 95.12% could be obtained under conditions of 10 m/s, over 25 kV, a central splitter position, and less than 40% relative humidity. In order to obtain 99.9% PVC grade and 99.3% PET grade, their recoveries should be sacrificed by 20.9% and 27%, respectively, with moving the splitter from the center to a (+)6 cm position.

  16. Determination of acrylamide in dried fruits and edible seeds using QuEChERS extraction and LC separation with MS detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paola, Eleonora Laura; Montevecchi, Giuseppe; Masino, Francesca; Garbini, Davide; Barbanera, Martino; Antonelli, Andrea

    2017-02-15

    Acrylamide is a carcinogenic and neurotoxic process contaminant that is generated from food components during heat treatment, while it is absent in raw foodstuffs. Its level in food arouses great concern. A method for acrylamide extraction and determination in dried fruits (dried prunes and raisins) and edible seeds (almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, pine nuts, pistachios, and walnuts) using a QuEChERS-LC-ESI-MS-Triple Quadrupole approach was set up. Linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the method were satisfactory. Dried prunes and peanuts were the only samples appreciably contaminated, 14.7-124.3 and 10.0-42.9μg/kg, respectively, as a consequence of the drying process. In fact, prunes are dried at 70-80°C for a quite long time (24-36h), while peanuts undergo a roasting process at 160-180°C for 25-30min. The relative standard deviations, accuracy, LOD, and LOQ show that the method provides a reliable approach to acrylamide determination in different matrices.

  17. Dry NO/sub x/ separation, preferably for fluidized bed combustion plant. Trockentechnische NO/sub x/-Abscheidung vorzugsweise fuer Wirbelbett-Feuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

    1987-05-14

    The main patent application P 3534228.5 describes how, preferably in fluidized bed combustion plant, porous free-flying bodies are added in the gas flow above the flames in a boiler, where these free-flying bodies form a regular contact mist wall in the waste gas and, provided with means of reduction, cause NO/sub x/ reduction. Surprisingly, it has now been found that the desired effect can be considerably improved if the porous free-flying bodies contain means of absorption and/or reduction and/or are immersed in these, depending on the SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ loading of the stack gas. It is advantageous if the free-flying bodies for NO/sub x/ reduction are soaked and/or surrounded by ammonium salts. For SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ separation, the free-flying bodies are soaked in and/or surrounded by lime hydrate and ammonium salts.

  18. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    Production of large-area flat panel displays (FPDs) involves several pattern transfer and device fabrication steps that can be performed with dry etching technologies. Even though the dry etching using capacitively coupled plasma is generally used to maintain high etch uniformity, due to the need...... for the higher processing rates in FPDs, high-density plasma processing tools that can handle larger-area substrate uniformly are more intensively studied especially for the dry etching of polysilicon thin films. In the case of FPD processing, the current substrate size ranges from 730 × 920 mm (fourth...... generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  19. 小麦麸皮结构层干法分离的初步研究%Preliminary Study on the Dry-Process Separation of Different Wheat Bran Structral Layers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈中伟; 王莉; 杨春霞; 吴保承; 田燕宁; 陈正行

    2013-01-01

    研究了干法分离麦麸结构层.首先对小麦麸皮进行微粉碎,通过粒径分析出麦麸粉体的粒径分散性最好的粉碎时间,利用旋振筛对此时的麦麸进行筛分,得到粒径不同的4种麦麸粉体,然后对各个麦麸粉体进行荧光定性和生化标示物定量研究.结果表明,筛分后,外皮层和中间层集中在200目筛上物的麦麸中,约占78.9%,麦麸糊粉层的细胞壁主要集中在200目筛下物和325目筛上物中,比例达41.7%,而小颗粒的麦麸糊粉层细胞内容物则集中在325目筛下物.研究初步表明,通过微粉碎和筛分的方法可以对不同麦麸结构层进行富集,为麦麸的深加工提供了一种简单的干法分离途径.%In this paper, we studied the dry - process separation of different wheat bran structural layers. After crushing wheat bran into powders, we analyzed the crushing time for the best particle size dispersibility of the powders. After sieving the wheat bran with vibrating sieves we obtained four kinds of wheat bran powders of different particle sizes and then conducted fluorescent qualitative study and quantitative research of biochemical marker composition for various wheat bran powders. As the results showed, after the sieving, the exodermis and intermediate layers were concentrated in the wheat bran powders on the sieve of 200 mesh with an occupied proportion of 78. 9% , aleu-rone layer cell wall between the sieve of. 200 mesh and 325 mesh with the proportion of up to 41. 7% , and short grained aleurone layer cellular contents under the sieve of 325 mesh. This study premilinarily indicated that the different layers of wheat bran could be enriched through the methods of crushing and sieving, which provided a simple dry - process sepatation method for wheat bran deep processing.

  20. century drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  1. Magnetically responsive dry fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Filipa L.; Bustamante, Rodney; Millán, Angel; Palacio, Fernando; Trindade, Tito; Silva, Nuno J. O.

    2013-07-01

    Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid.Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01784b

  2. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  3. Gas separation membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, William J.

    1979-01-01

    A dry, fabric supported, polymeric gas separation membrane, such as cellulose acetate, is prepared by casting a solution of the polymer onto a shrinkable fabric preferably formed of synthetic polymers such as polyester or polyamide filaments before washing, stretching or calendering (so called griege goods). The supported membrane is then subjected to gelling, annealing, and drying by solvent exchange. During the processing steps, both the fabric support and the membrane shrink a preselected, controlled amount which prevents curling, wrinkling or cracking of the membrane in flat form or when spirally wound into a gas separation element.

  4. Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use a fluoride rinse or brush-on fluoride gel before bedtime. See your dentist at least twice yearly to have your teeth examined and plaque removed, to help prevent tooth decay. Several herbal remedies have been used historically to treat dry ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: ... your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ... your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan- ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...

  9. Assessment of a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting treatment facility for source-separated organic household waste, using material and substance flow analysis and life cycle inventory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Bang; Møller, Jacob; Scheutz, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    coefficients for a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility. All metals passed through the facility and ended up in compost or residues, but all concentrations of metals in the compost complied with legislation. About 23% of the carbon content of the organic waste was transferred......The fate of total solids, volatile solids, total organic carbon, fossil carbon, biogenic carbon and 17 substances (As, Ca, CaCO3, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, H, Hg, K, Mg, N, Ni, O, P, Pb, S, Zn) in a combined dry anaerobic digestion and post-composting facility were assessed. Mass balances showed good results...... and post-composting facility, including waste received, fuel consumption, energy use, gaseous emissions, products, energy production and chemical composition of the compost produced....

  10. Dry phase reactor for generating medical isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Thomas Rockwell; Heltemes, Thad Alexander

    2016-05-03

    An apparatus for generating medical isotopes provides for the irradiation of dry-phase, granular uranium compounds which are then dissolved in a solvent for separation of the medical isotope from the irradiated compound. Once the medical isotope is removed, the dissolved compound may be reconstituted in dry granular form for repeated irradiation.

  11. Acousto-Convective Drying of Pine Nuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhilin, A. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2014-07-01

    An experimental investigation of the process of drying pine nut grains has been carried out by three methods: acousto-convective, thermoconvective, and thermal. A qualitative and a quantitative comparison of the dynamics of the processes of moisture extraction from the nut grains for the considered drying methods have been made. To elucidate the mechanism of moisture extraction from the pine nut grains, we carried out a separate investigation of the process of drying the nut shell and the kernel. The obtained experimental data on the acousto-convective drying of nuts are well described by the relaxation model, the data on the thermoconvective drying are well described by the bilinear law, and the data on the thermal drying are well described by the combined method consisting of three time steps characterized by different kinetic regimes of drying.

  12. Morphology of drying blood pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Nick; Smith, Fiona; Nicloux, Celine; Brutin, David; D-Blood project Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Often blood pools are found on crime scenes providing information concerning the events and sequence of events that took place on the scene. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the drying dynamics of blood pools. This study focuses on the drying process of blood pools to determine what relevant information can be obtained for the forensic application. We recorded the drying process of blood pools with a camera and measured the weight. We found that the drying process can be separated into five different: coagulation, gelation, rim desiccation, centre desiccation, and final desiccation. Moreover, we found that the weight of the blood pool diminishes similarly and in a reproducible way for blood pools created in various conditions. In addition, we verify that the size of the blood pools is directly related to its volume and the wettability of the surface. Our study clearly shows that blood pools dry in a reproducible fashion. This preliminary work highlights the difficult task that represents blood pool analysis in forensic investigations, and how internal and external parameters influence its dynamics. We conclude that understanding the drying process dynamics would be advancement in timeline reconstitution of events. ANR funded project: D-Blood Project.

  13. Gas storage in "dry water" and "dry gel" clathrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin O; Wang, Weixing; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2010-03-02

    "Dry water" (DW) is a free-flowing powder prepared by mixing water, hydrophobic silica particles, and air at high speeds. We demonstrated recently that DW can be used to dramatically enhance methane uptake rates in methane gas hydrate (MGH). Here, we expand on our initial work, demonstrating that DW can be used to increase the kinetics of formation of gas clathrates for gases other than methane, such as CO(2) and Kr. We also show that the stability of the system toward coalescence can be increased via the inclusion of a gelling agent to form a "dry gel", thus dramatically improving the recyclability of the material. For example, the addition of gellan gum allows effective reuse over at least eight clathration cycles without the need for reblending. DW and its "dry gel" modification may represent a potential platform for recyclable gas storage or gas separation on a practicable time scale in a static, unmixed system.

  14. Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynolds, John C.

    2002-01-01

    expressions) for accessing and modifying shared structures, and for explicit allocation and deallocation of storage. Assertions are extended by introducing a "separating conjunction" that asserts that its sub-formulas hold for disjoint parts of the heap, and a closely related "separating implication". Coupled......, dynamically allocated arrays, and recursive procedures. We will also discuss promising future directions....

  15. CENTRIFUGAL SEPARATORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skarstrom, C.

    1959-03-10

    A centrifugal separator is described for separating gaseous mixtures where the temperature gradients both longitudinally and radially of the centrifuge may be controlled effectively to produce a maximum separation of the process gases flowing through. Tbe invention provides for the balancing of increases and decreases in temperature in various zones of the centrifuge chamber as the result of compression and expansions respectively, of process gases and may be employed effectively both to neutralize harmful temperature gradients and to utilize beneficial temperaturc gradients within the centrifuge.

  16. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, H.; Dziedzoave, N. T.; Kortei, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L⁎ = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L⁎ = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. PMID:27034924

  17. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Akonor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L⁎=47.4 than the air-oven-dried (L⁎=49.0. Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p<0.05 higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%, compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%. Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently.

  18. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akonor, P T; Ofori, H; Dziedzoave, N T; Kortei, N K

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L (⁎) = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L (⁎) = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently.

  19. Energy Efficient Textile Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Brunzell, Lena

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, textiles were dried outdoors with the wind and the sun enhancing the drying process. Tumble dryers offer a fast and convenient way of drying textiles independent of weather conditions. Tumble dryers, however, consume large amounts of electrical energy. Over 4 million tumble dryers are sold each year in Europe and a considerable amount of energy is used for drying of clothes. Increasing energy costs and the awareness about environmental problems related to a large energy use has...

  20. GPS Separator

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the 70 degree ISOLDE GPS separator magnet MAG70 as well as the switchyard for the Central Mass and GLM (GPS Low Mass) and GHM (GPS High Mass) beamlines in the GPS separator zone. In the GPS20 vacuum sector equipment such as the long GPS scanner 482 / 483 unit, faraday cup FC 490, vacuum valves and wiregrid piston WG210 and WG475 and radiation monitors can also be seen. Also the RILIS laser guidance and trajectory can be seen, the GPS main beamgate switch box and the actual GLM, GHM and Central Beamline beamgates in the beamlines as well as the first electrostatic quadrupoles for the GPS lines. Close up of the GHM deflector plates motor and connections and the inspection glass at the GHM side of the switchyard.

  1. HRS Separator

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the 90 and 60 degree ISOLDE HRS separator magnets in the HRS separator zone. In the two vacuum sectors HRS20 and HRS30 equipment such as the HRS slits SL240, the HRS faraday cup FC300 and wiregrid WG210 can be spotted. Vacuum valves, turbo pumps, beamlines, quadrupoles, water and compressed air connections, DC and signal cabling can be seen throughout the video. The HRS main and user beamgate in the beamline between MAG90 and MAG60 and its switchboxes as well as all vacuum bellows and flanges are shown. Instrumentation such as the HRS scanner unit 482 / 483, the HRS WG470 wiregrid and slits piston can be seen. The different quadrupoles and supports are shown as well as the RILIS guidance tubes and installation at the magnets and the different radiation monitors.

  2. Dry vacuum pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuet, R.

    2008-05-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R&D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed.

  3. Recent Activities in Magnetic Separation in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yanmin; Forssberg, Eric

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes some industrial applications of magnetic separation in Swedish mineral industry. Recent studies on magnetic treatment of minerals in Sweden are also presented. These studies involve selectivity of wet magnetic separation, wet magnetic recovery of mineral fines and ultrafines, sulphide processing by magnetic means, as well as dry magnetic purification of industrial minerals.

  4. Innovative Separations Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Tripp; N. Soelberg; R. Wigeland

    2011-05-01

    Reprocessing used nuclear fuel (UNF) is a multi-faceted problem involving chemistry, material properties, and engineering. Technology options are available to meet a variety of processing goals. A decision about which reprocessing method is best depends significantly on the process attributes considered to be a priority. New methods of reprocessing that could provide advantages over the aqueous Plutonium Uranium Reduction Extraction (PUREX) and Uranium Extraction + (UREX+) processes, electrochemical, and other approaches are under investigation in the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) Separations Campaign. In an attempt to develop a revolutionary approach to UNF recycle that may have more favorable characteristics than existing technologies, five innovative separations projects have been initiated. These include: (1) Nitrogen Trifluoride for UNF Processing; (2) Reactive Fluoride Gas (SF6) for UNF Processing; (3) Dry Head-end Nitration Processing; (4) Chlorination Processing of UNF; and (5) Enhanced Oxidation/Chlorination Processing of UNF. This report provides a description of the proposed processes, explores how they fit into the Modified Open Cycle (MOC) and Full Recycle (FR) fuel cycles, and identifies performance differences when compared to 'reference' advanced aqueous and fluoride volatility separations cases. To be able to highlight the key changes to the reference case, general background on advanced aqueous solvent extraction, advanced oxidative processes (e.g., volumetric oxidation, or 'voloxidation,' which is high temperature reaction of oxide UNF with oxygen, or modified using other oxidizing and reducing gases), and fluorination and chlorination processes is provided.

  5. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  6. "Dry-column" chromatography of plant pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woeller, F. H.; Lehwalt, M. F.; Oyama, V. I.

    1973-01-01

    Separation of plant pigments which can be accomplished on thin-layer silica plates with mixture of petroleum ether, halocarbon, acetone, and polar solvent can be readily translated into dry-column technique that yields reproducible chromatograms after elution in fashion of liquid chromatography with fluorimeter as detector. Best solvent system was found to be mixture of petroleum ether, dichloromethane, acetone, and ethyl acetate.

  7. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  8. Ocean Dynamics: Vietnam DRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Dynamics: Vietnam DRI Robert Pinkel Marine Physical Laboratory Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla California 92093-0213 Phone: (858) 534...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ocean Dynamics: Vietnam DRI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...cycle.. The Thorpe-scale estimates are local to Site III. South China Sea Process Cruise 2014 Under Vietnam DRI funding, Researcher Drew Lucas

  9. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  10. DRUM DRYER FOR DRYING THE PARTICULATE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Iurova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. For raise effectiveness drying process drum-type installation in which drum the mechanism of creation of various zones providing a necessary temperature and hydrodynamic regime of process of drying in process of product passage on a drum and changes in it of a relationship of various forms of communication of a moisture, and also a process intensification at last stage of drying by creation разряжения in a continuous technological stream of drying is provided is offered. The drum provides formation of a zone of separation of heat-transfer agent by means of the dissector, zones of intensive drying by disposing lobate nozzles in chessboard order with a dividing ring, zones of separation of the completed heat-transfer agent from жома as a result of separator installation in which the elliptic disk having cuts on a straight line from edge to the centre places, with formation of the triangular slot for passage dried pulp and heat-transfer agent, and also zones the final drying by performance of a section of a drum matching to a zone perforated on which length are had spring-loaded lobate nozzles representing the blades connected bow-shaped rod with metal plates, had with outer side of a drum and under the form repeating its contour, thus the bow-shaped rod from the interior of a drum which ends are supplied by springs rest against overhead and bottom persistent screw nuts, and blades and metal plates are installed with possibility of twirl concerning a fastening place on a drum and supplied by reinforcing ribs.

  11. Uniaxial tension of drying sieves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojić Nada V.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the literature contains numerous studies that have been developed to describe the nonlinear behavior of drying sieves' operation, there are no papers in this which report deeper investigation of the drying sieve behavior when exposed to tension and thermo stabilization. The aim of this paper is to provide insight into the elastoplastic behavior of the thermo stabilized and not stabilized sieves subjected to the tensile force. Within this work both theoretical and experimental investigations were performed. The sieves were joined by using a spiral. In separate experiments tests of wire base and weft of the weave mesh were performed, both for thermo stabilized and not thermo stabilized sieves, sieves joining and the sieve thermo stabilization itself. It was established that the thermo stabilization of sieves provides for stability of sieves' dimensions and that open thermo stabilized drying sieve exhibits better mechanical properties and exploitation characteristics then the sieves joining. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON174004: Micromechanics criteria of damage and fracture and br. TR 32036: Development of software for solving the coupled multi-physical problems

  12. 21 CFR 73.275 - Dried algae meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... algae meal is a dried mixture of algae cells (genus Spongiococcum, separated from its culture broth... suitable fermentation, under controlled conditions, from a pure culture of the genus Spongiococcum. (b...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  14. Dry imaging cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I K Indrajit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry imaging cameras are important hard copy devices in radiology. Using dry imaging camera, multiformat images of digital modalities in radiology are created from a sealed unit of unexposed films. The functioning of a modern dry camera, involves a blend of concurrent processes, in areas of diverse sciences like computers, mechanics, thermal, optics, electricity and radiography. Broadly, hard copy devices are classified as laser and non laser based technology. When compared with the working knowledge and technical awareness of different modalities in radiology, the understanding of a dry imaging camera is often superficial and neglected. To fill this void, this article outlines the key features of a modern dry camera and its important issues that impact radiology workflow.

  15. Stripping with dry ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    Mechanical-type stripping using dry ice (solid CO2) consists in blasting particles of dry ice onto the painted surface. This surface can be used alone or in duplex according to type of substrate to be treated. According to operating conditions, three physical mechanisms may be involved when blasting dry ice particles onto a paint system: thermal shock, differential thermal contraction, and mechanical shock. The blast nozzle, nozzle travel speed, blast angle, stripping distance, and compressed air pressure and media flow rate influence the stripping quality and the uniformity and efficiency obtained.

  16. [Little Dry Creek Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map of the drainage boundary, direction of flow, canals and ditches, and streets for the drainage study plan and profile for Little Dry Creek sub area in the North...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a ... the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media ...

  18. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye ... What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Can you explain why I have halos and blurry ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide ... What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear- ... Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  3. Electro-dry-adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo

    2012-03-27

    This work presents novel conductive bioinspired dry adhesives with mushroom caps that enable the use of a synergistic combination of electrostatic and van der Waals forces (electro-dry-adhesion). An increase in shear adhesion bond strength of up to 2046% on a wide range of materials is measured when a maximum electrical field of 36.4 V μm(-1) is applied. A suction effect, due to the shape of the dry adhesive fibers, on overall adhesion was not noted for electro-dry-adhesives when testing was performed at both atmospheric and reduced pressure. Utilization of electrostatics to apply a preloading force to dry adhesive fiber arrays allows increased adhesion even after electrostatic force generation has been halted by ensuring the close contact necessary for van der Waals forces to be effective. A comparison is made between self-preloading of the electro-dry-adhesives and the direct application of a normal preloading pressure resulting in nearly the same shear bond strength with an applied voltage of 3.33 kV on the same sample.

  4. Designing CAF-adjuvanted dry powder vaccines: spray drying preserves the adjuvant activity of CAF01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Christensen, Dennis; Larsen, Niels Bent; Hinrichs, Wouter Leonardus Joseph; Andersen, Peter; Rantanen, Jukka; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Yang, Mingshi; Foged, Camilla

    2013-05-10

    Dry powder vaccine formulations are highly attractive due to improved storage stability and the possibility for particle engineering, as compared to liquid formulations. However, a prerequisite for formulating vaccines into dry formulations is that their physicochemical and adjuvant properties remain unchanged upon rehydration. Thus, we have identified and optimized the parameters of importance for the design of a spray dried powder formulation of the cationic liposomal adjuvant formulation 01 (CAF01) composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) via spray drying. The optimal excipient to stabilize CAF01 during spray drying and for the design of nanocomposite microparticles was identified among mannitol, lactose and trehalose. Trehalose and lactose were promising stabilizers with respect to preserving liposome size, as compared to mannitol. Trehalose and lactose were in the glassy state upon co-spray drying with the liposomes, whereas mannitol appeared crystalline, suggesting that the ability of the stabilizer to form a glassy matrix around the liposomes is one of the prerequisites for stabilization. Systematic studies on the effect of process parameters suggested that a fast drying rate is essential to avoid phase separation and lipid accumulation at the surface of the microparticles during spray drying. Finally, immunization studies in mice with CAF01 in combination with the tuberculosis antigen Ag85B-ESAT6-Rv2660c (H56) demonstrated that spray drying of CAF01 with trehalose under optimal processing conditions resulted in the preservation of the adjuvant activity in vivo. These data demonstrate the importance of liposome stabilization via optimization of formulation and processing conditions in the engineering of dry powder liposome formulations.

  5. Olefin separation membrane and process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinnau, Ingo; Toy, Lora G.; Casillas, Carlos

    1997-01-01

    A membrane and process for separating unsaturated hydrocarbons from fluid mixtures. The membrane and process differ from previously known membranes and processes, in that the feed and permeate streams can both be dry, the membrane need not be water or solvent swollen, and the membrane is characterized by a selectivity for an unsaturated hydrocarbon over a saturated hydrocarbon having the same number of carbon atoms of at least about 20, and a pressure-normalized flux of said unsaturated hydrocarbon of at least about 5.times.10.sup.-6 cm.sup.3 (STP)/cm.sup.2 .multidot.s.multidot.cmHg, said flux and selectivity being measured with a gas mixture containing said unsaturated and saturated hydrocarbons, and in a substantially dry environment.

  6. Autochthonous "Bjelovars dried cheese"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available «Dried cheese» is in autochthonous group of Bjelovar region cheeses which is still produced in rural domestic scale. The name of cheese originates from production procedure - drying for longer or shorter period in airy place after which the cheese is smoked, or is smoked only without drying. This type of cheese is produced in whole central region of Croatia which includes Međimurje, Podravina, Bilogora; Moslavina, Posavina and region around the capital. The aim of this paper is to describe and determine sensory, chemical and microbiological composition to determine its characteristics and production standards. As standards for sensory properties following characteristics can be used: a Outer shape: dimensions: diameter: 140-145 mm, height: 58-61 mm, mass: 700-750 g, equal, rounded shape, smooth skin, equal colour; b Consistency: easily cut, elastic, soft; c Cut: nicely combined white body, few improper holes of equal size; d Odour: pleasant milky acid odour, fairly smoky; e Taste: Fairly milky acidic taste, medium salty, fairly smoky taste. Depending on fat in dry matter content and water content in non fat dry matter, analyzed samples can be characterized as quarter fat, soft and semidry cheese. Higher acidity and saltiness was determined in some samples, microbiological analyses has shown that the most common contaminants are yeasts and moulds.

  7. Drying of Malaysian Capsicum annuum L. (Red Chili) Dried by Open and Solar Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Fudholi; Mohd Yusof Othman; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of solar drying in the Malaysian red chili (Capsicum annuum L.). Red chilies were dried down from approximately 80% (wb) to 10% (wb) moisture content within 33 h. The drying process was conducted during the day, and it was compared with 65 h of open sun drying. Solar drying yielded a 49% saving in drying time compared with open sun drying. At the average solar radiation of 420 W/m2 and air flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, the collector, drying system, and pickup de...

  8. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn;

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  9. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  10. Trigger Point Dry Needling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Increasingly, physical therapists in the United States and throughout the world are using dry needling to treat musculoskeletal pain, even though this treatment has been a controversial addition to practice. To better generalize to physical therapy practice the findings about dry needling thus far, the authors of a study published in the March 2017 issue of JOSPT identified the need for a systematic review examining the effectiveness of dry needling performed by physical therapists on people with musculoskeletal pain. Their review offers a meta-analysis of data from several included studies and assesses the evidence for risks of bias. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):150. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0502.

  11. SEPARATION AND CONCENTRATION OF ETHANOL BY PERVAPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A significant issue affecting widespread acceptance of bioethanol as a sustainable fuel is the energy used to grow the feedstock, ferment the feedstock to ethanol, and separate dry ethanol from the fermentation broth. For the latter, the best current technology is two-step disti...

  12. ANALISIS PEMISAHAN UAP KERING PADA SEPARATOR PEMBANGKIT UAP AP1000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukmanto Dibyo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pembangkit uap merupakan penukar panas, yang bagian atasnya adalah steam drum yang memuat separator uap. Separator ini memisahkan kandungan air yang terbawa oleh uap dari sisi shell. Uap kering yang dihasilkan dari separator digunakan untuk memutar turbin. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis karakteristik pemisahan uap kering pada separator pembangkit uap AP1000, berdasarkan parameter fraksi void dalam kondisi aliran dua fasa dengan menggunakan RELAP5/SCDAP.Mod3.4. Data awal mencakup data dimensi dan parameter temperatur, tekanan, laju alir massa (943,0 kg/s, fraksi void, entalpi cair dan uap saturasi. Untuk memperoleh karakteristik separator maka analisis ini difokuskan pada sistem separator secara terpisah pada kondisi tunak. Nodalisasi untuk RELAP5/SCDAP.Mod3.4, terdiri dari model separator (default, volume, junction dan time-dependent junction dengan time-dependent volume sebagai kondisi batas. Kondisi uap kering terlihat pada parameter fraksi void yang keluar dari separator. Hasil menunjukkan bahwa semakin tinggi temperatur uap dari sisi shell pembangkit uap maka cenderung semakin tinggi uap kering yang dihasilkan. Pemisahan uap kering yang keluar dari separator ditunjukkan pada parameter fraksi void sebesar sekitar 0,99. Kata kunci: separator uap, pembangkit uap, RELAP5/SCDAP.Mod3.4, fraksi void A steam generator is heat exchanger in which the top side is steam drum containing steam separator. The separator is used to separate the water content carried by the steam come from The shell side. Dry vapor produced from the separator is used to turn turbines. this paper analyzes the dry Steam separation characteristic In The separator of AP1000 steam generator based on the parameters of void fraction in two phase flow using RELAP5/SCDAP.Mod3.4. The initial data include data dimensions and operating data (temperature, pressure, flow rate (943.0 KG/S, void fraction, enthalpy of water and saturation vapor. To obtain the characteristics of

  13. Mineral Separation in a CELSS by Ion-exchange Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, E. V.; Spitze, L. A.; Wong, F. W.; Wydeven, T.; Johnson, C. C.

    1982-01-01

    Operational parameters pertinent to ion exchange chromatography separation were identified. The experiments were performed with 9 mm diameter ion exchange columns and conventional column accessories. The cation separation beds were packed with AG 50W-X2 strong acid cation exchange resin in H(+) form and 200-400 dry mesh particle size. The stripper beds used in some experiments were packed with AG 1-XB strong base cation exchange resin in OH(-) form and 200-400 dry mesh particle size.

  14. Properties of Spray Dried Food and Spray Drying Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Fumio

    The following conclusions are obtained, studying properties of spray dried food and drying characteristics. (a) Dried particles are similar to spray droplets in size distribution (y=2.5), and particle count distribution is arranged as (dn/dx = ae-bx). (b) The ratio of the particle diameters before and after drying is calculated with moisture before and after drying, and porosity is given as (εp = ww4). (c) The standard drying method is presented to evaluate accurately drying problems at a certain standard. (d) Equilibrium moisture at 20 up to 100°C are summarized in terms of adsorption potential. (e) It makes clear that calulation based on the theory of residence time and drying time represents well complex spray drying characteristics.

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  16. Quantitative determination of beta-carotene stereoisomers in fresh, dried, and solar-dried mangoes (Mangifera indica L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pott, Isabell; Marx, Michaela; Neidhart, Sybille; Mühlbauer, Werner; Carle, Reinhold

    2003-07-30

    A rapid method for quantitative determination of beta-carotene, including cis-isomers, in dried mango has been developed. Applicability of available methods to dried products was limited because of formation of artifacts caused by extraction and preparation. The analytical procedure was based on the extraction of carotenoids from dried mango mesocarp using a mixture of methanol and acetone/hexane, allowing the separation of disturbing fibers. No saponification was required. Furthermore, carotenoid determination by HPLC on a C30 stationary phase was achieved. This method was applied to determine beta-carotene and its stereoisomers in fresh, dried, and solar-dried mango slices of four cultivars. Drying resulted in a complete and partial degradation of xanthophylls and all-trans-beta-carotene, respectively. Isomerization was shown to depend on the drying process. Whereas conventionally dried mangoes were characterized by elevated amounts of 13-cis-beta-carotene, solar-dried mango slices contained additional amounts of the 9-cis-isomer. Calculation of vitamin A values was based on the real amount of the beta-carotene stereoisomers and ranged from 113 to 420 and from 425 to 1010 RE/100 g for fresh and dried mango slices, respectively.

  17. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  18. Quality of dry ginger (Zingiber officinale) by different drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Jayashree; R, Visvanathan; T, John Zachariah

    2014-11-01

    Ginger rhizomes sliced to various lengths of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 mm and whole rhizomes were dried from an initial moisture content of 81.3 % to final moisture content of less than 10 % by various drying methods like sun drying, solar tunnel drying and cabinet tray drying at temperatures of 50, 55, 60 and 65 °C. Slicing of ginger rhizomes significantly reduced the drying time of ginger in all the drying methods. It was observed that drying of whole ginger rhizomes under sun took the maximum time (9 days) followed by solar tunnel drying (8 days). Significant reduction in essential oil and oleoresin content of dry ginger was found as the slice length decreased. The important constituents of ginger essential oil like zingiberene, limonene, linalool, geraniol and nerolidol as determined using a gas chromatography was also found to decrease during slicing and as the drying temperature increased. The pungency constituents in the oleoresin of ginger like total gingerols and total shogoals as determined using a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography also showed a decreasing trend on slicing and with the increase in drying temperature. It was observed from the drying studies that whole ginger rhizomes dried under sun drying or in a solar tunnel drier retained the maximum essential oil (13.9 mg/g) and oleoresin content (45.2 mg/g) of dry ginger. In mechanical drying, the drying temperature of 60 °C was considered optimum however there was about 12.2 % loss in essential oil at this temperature.

  19. Fictional Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jonas Buhrkal; Birkedal, Lars

    2012-01-01

    , separation means physical separation. In this paper, we introduce \\emph{fictional separation logic}, which includes more general forms of fictional separating conjunctions P * Q, where "*" does not require physical separation, but may also be used in situations where the memory resources described by P and Q...

  20. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety Print A A ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  1. Separation Anxiety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Separation Anxiety KidsHealth > For Parents > Separation Anxiety A A A ... both of you get through it. About Separation Anxiety Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents ...

  2. Study on drying rate in contact drying with flexible screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟宏; 陆仁书; 张显权

    2000-01-01

    The moisture contents (MC) of popular veneers were tested in Composition Board Laboratory of Northeast Forestry University by contact drying with flexible screen. The influence factors considered included temperature, initial moisture contents (IMC), and veneer thickness. Veneer-drying laws under different hot press conditions were analyzed. The results showed that the drying rate increased with temperature rising. 160℃ was considered to be more efficient than 140℃ and 180℃ because excessive high temperature has no significant contribution to drying rate. IMC had significant effect on drying rate. The veneer with high IMC had a higher drying rate at above fiber saturation point (FSP) and a lower drying rate at below FSP, compared to the veneer with low IMC. Average drying rate also varied with thickness in power law.

  3. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  4. An unusually dry story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Rajagopala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a middle-aged woman with a prior history of central nervous system (CNS demyelinating disorder who presented with an acute onset quadriparesis and respiratory failure. The evaluation revealed distal renal tubular acidosis with hypokalemia and medullary nephrocalcinosis. Weakness persisted despite potassium correction, and ongoing evaluation confirmed recurrent CNS and long-segment spinal cord demyelination with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies. There was no history of dry eyes or dry mouth. Anti-Sjogren′s syndrome A antigen antibodies were elevated, and there was reduced salivary flow on scintigraphy. Coexistent antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with inferior vena cava thrombosis was also found on evaluation. The index patient highlights several rare manifestations of primary Sjogren′s syndrome (pSS as the presenting features and highlights the differential diagnosis of the clinical syndromes in which pSS should be considered in the Intensive Care Unit.

  5. Phase Segregation in Individually Dried Particles Composed of Biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuzzo, Marine; Sloth, Jakob; Bergenstahl, Björn; Millqvist-Fureby, Anna

    2015-10-13

    Mixing of two biopolymers can results in phase separation due to their thermodynamically incompatibility under certain conditions. This phenomenon was first reported when the solution was allowed to equilibrate, but it has later been observed also as a consequence of drying. The challenges of this study were to observe phase segregation by confocal Raman microscopy and LV-SEM on dried film, individually dried particles, and spray dried particles. The influence of the solid content and the phase ratio (composition) of a HPMC/maltodextrin mixture on the localization of the ingredients in the individually dried particles was investigated. We observed that phase segregation of HPMC and maltodextrin is induced by solvent evaporation in film drying, single particle drying, as well as spray drying. The phase ratio is an important parameter that influences the localization of the HPMC-enriched phase and maltodextrin-enriched phase, i.e., to the particle surface, to the core, or in a more or less bicontinuous pattern. The drying time, affected by the solids content, was found to control the level of advancement of the phase segregation.

  6. Drying characteristics and kinetics of fluidized bed dried potato

    OpenAIRE

    S.B. BAKAL; K.H. GEDAM; Sharma, G. P.

    2008-01-01

    In developed countries, more than 50% potatoes are consumed as processed products. As drying is the vital phenomenon in processing, it is necessary to investigate the drying characteristics and its kinetics. In this experimental study, drying kinetics of Potato in two different shape of cuboidal & cylindrical with three aspect ratio was investigated as a function of drying conditions. Experiments were conducted using air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 ºC, at velocity of 7 ms-1. The experimenta...

  7. Dry Eye Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Javadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS, also known as dry eye syndrome, has been changed over recent years. Until lately, the condition was thought to be merely due to aqueous tear insufficiency. Today, it is understood that KCS is a multifactorial disorder due to inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal gland, neurotrophic deficiency and meibomian gland dysfunction. This change in paradigm has led to the development of new and more effective medications.

  8. Drying of complex suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Lei; Bergés, Alexis; Lu, Peter J.; Studart, André R.; Schofield, Andrew B.; Oki, Hidekazu; Davies, Simon; Weitz, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the 3D structure and drying dynamics of complex mixtures of emulsion droplets and colloidal particles, using confocal microscopy. Air invades and rapidly collapses large emulsion droplets, forcing their contents into the surrounding porous particle pack at a rate proportional to the square of the droplet radius. By contrast, small droplets do not collapse, but remain intact and are merely deformed. A simple model coupling the Laplace pressure to Darcy's law correctly estimates ...

  9. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000032.htm Dry mouth during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you ...

  10. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  11. Fluid flow in drying drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, H.

    2013-01-01

    When a suspension drop evaporates, it leaves behind a drying stain. Examples of these drying stains encountered in daily life are coffee or tea stains on a table top, mineral rings on glassware that comes out of the dishwasher, or the salt deposits on the streets in winter. Drying stains are also pr

  12. Controlling Separation in Turbomachines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Simon; Himmel, Christoph; Power, Bronwyn; Wakelam, Christian; Xu, Liping; Hynes, Tom; Hodson, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Four examples of flow control: 1) Passive control of LP turbine blades (Laminar separation control). 2) Aspiration of a conventional axial compressor blade (Turbulent separation control). 3) Compressor blade designed for aspiration (Turbulent separation control). 4.Control of intakes in crosswinds (Turbulent separation control).

  13. Shape-induced separation of nanospheres and aligned nanorods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmad, I.; Zandvliet, H.J.W.; Kooij, E.S.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the phase separation and spatial arrangement of gold nanorods and nanospheres after evaporative self-assembly from aqueous suspension. Depending on the position relative to the contact line of the drying droplet, spheres and rods separate into various liquid-crystalline phases. Nanorods e

  14. Terrestrial Planets Accreted Dry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2007-12-01

    Plate tectonics shaped the Earth, whereas the Moon is a dry and inactive desert. Mars probably came to rest within the first billion years of its history, and Venus, although internally very active, has a dry inferno for its surface. The strong gravity field of a large planet allows for an enormous amount of gravitational energy to be released, causing the outer part of the planetary body to melt (magma ocean), helps retain water on the planet, and increases the pressure gradient. The weak gravity field and anhydrous conditions prevailing on the Moon stabilized, on top of its magma ocean, a thick buoyant plagioclase lithosphere, which insulated the molten interior. On Earth, the buoyant hydrous phases (serpentines) produced by reactions between the terrestrial magma ocean and the wet impactors received from the outer Solar System isolated the magma and kept it molten for some few tens of million years. The elemental distributions and the range of condensation temperatures show that the planets from the inner Solar System accreted dry. The interior of planets that lost up to 95% of their K cannot contain much water. Foundering of their wet surface material softened the terrestrial mantle and set the scene for the onset of plate tectonics. This very same process may have removed all the water from the surface of Venus 500 My ago and added enough water to its mantle to make its internal dynamics very strong and keep the surface very young. Because of a radius smaller than that of the Earth, not enough water could be drawn into the Martian mantle before it was lost to space and Martian plate tectonics never began. The radius of a planet therefore is the key parameter controlling most of its evolutional features.

  15. Electrohydrodynamic drying of carrot slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Ding

    Full Text Available Carrots have one of the highest levels of carotene, and they are rich in vitamins, fiber and minerals. However, since fresh carrots wilt rapidly after harvest under inappropriate storage conditions, drying has been used to improve their shelf life and retain nutritional quality. Therefore, to further investigate the potential of this method, carrot slices were dried in an EHD system in order to study the effect of different voltages on drying rate. As measures of quality, carotene content and rehydration ratio were, respectively, compared against the conventional oven drying regime. Carotene, the main component of the dried carrot, and rehydration characteristics of the dried product can both indicate quality by physical and chemical changes during the drying process. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drying curves were also performed, using root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and modeling efficiency as the primary criteria to select the equation that best accounts for the variation in the drying curves of the dried samples. Theoretically, the Page model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of carrot slices at 10kV to 30kV. Experimentally, the drying rate of carrots was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and quality, as determined by carotene content and rehydration ratio, was also improved when compared to oven drying. Therefore, this work presents a facile and effective strategy for experimentally and theoretically determining the drying properties of carrots, and, as a result, it provides deeper insight into the industrial potential of the EHD drying technique.

  16. Dry EEG Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lopez-Gordo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG emerged in the second decade of the 20th century as a technique for recording the neurophysiological response. Since then, there has been little variation in the physical principles that sustain the signal acquisition probes, otherwise called electrodes. Currently, new advances in technology have brought new unexpected fields of applications apart from the clinical, for which new aspects such as usability and gel-free operation are first order priorities. Thanks to new advances in materials and integrated electronic systems technologies, a new generation of dry electrodes has been developed to fulfill the need. In this manuscript, we review current approaches to develop dry EEG electrodes for clinical and other applications, including information about measurement methods and evaluation reports. We conclude that, although a broad and non-homogeneous diversity of approaches has been evaluated without a consensus in procedures and methodology, their performances are not far from those obtained with wet electrodes, which are considered the gold standard, thus enabling the former to be a useful tool in a variety of novel applications.

  17. Solar drying and agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana del Monserrate Ruiz Cedeño

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Agribusinesses are the livelihoods of rural populations, but when production increase, many products are damaged and lose their commercial value due to lack of conservation treatments at a local level. Agricultural production represents the foundation of economic development of the province of Manabi. A significant level of agricultural products is lost due to lack of conservation technologies. Solar drying is a way of conserving by dehydration of some products such as: vegetables, fruits, aromatic and medicinal plants. This can be achieved by a process of proper conservation that is conducive to reduce losses using technologies easy to build, as are the different types of solar dryers which are already used in different parts of the South American region. This article proposes to introduce solar-drying technology in agricultural areas of the province of Manabi. And thereby achieve the regaining of different products that today are lost, incorporating new and attractive, marketable lines based on agricultural products naturally dehydrated with a high nutritionalvalue, capable of contributing to human health not only in the province but also in the country.

  18. Towards Formal Verification of a Separation Microkernel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Andrew; Sanan, David; Hinchey, Mike

    2013-08-01

    The best approach to verifying an IMA separation kernel is to use a (fixed) time-space partitioning kernel with a multiple independent levels of separation (MILS) architecture. We describe an activity that explores the cost and feasibility of doing a formal verification of such a kernel to the Common Criteria (CC) levels mandated by the Separation Kernel Protection Profile (SKPP). We are developing a Reference Specification of such a kernel, and are using higher-order logic (HOL) to construct formal models of this specification and key separation properties. We then plan to do a dry run of part of a formal proof of those properties using the Isabelle/HOL theorem prover.

  19. Actinide and fission product separation and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-07-01

    The second international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, took place in Argonne National Laboratory in Illinois United States, on 11-13 November 1992. The proceedings are presented in four sessions: Current strategic system of actinide and fission product separation and transmutation, progress in R and D on partitioning processes wet and dry, progress in R and D on transmutation and refinements of neutronic and other data, development of the fuel cycle processes fuel types and targets. (A.L.B.)

  20. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  1. How hydrophobic drying forces impact the kinetics of molecular recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Jagannath; Morrone, Joseph A; Berne, B J

    2013-08-13

    A model of protein-ligand binding kinetics, in which slow solvent dynamics results from hydrophobic drying transitions, is investigated. Molecular dynamics simulations show that solvent in the receptor pocket can fluctuate between wet and dry states with lifetimes in each state that are long enough for the extraction of a separable potential of mean force and wet-to-dry transitions. We present a diffusive surface hopping model that is represented by a 2D Markovian master equation. One dimension is the standard reaction coordinate, the ligand-pocket separation, and the other is the solvent state in the region between ligand and binding pocket which specifies whether it is wet or dry. In our model, the ligand diffuses on a dynamic free-energy surface which undergoes kinetic transitions between the wet and dry states. The model yields good agreement with results from explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulation and an improved description of the kinetics of hydrophobic assembly. Furthermore, it is consistent with a "non-Markovian Brownian theory" for the ligand-pocket separation coordinate alone.

  2. Dry ice blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

    1992-04-01

    As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

  3. Separation anxiety in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001542.htm Separation anxiety in children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Separation anxiety in children is a developmental stage in which ...

  4. Ionene membrane battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moacanin, J.; Tom, H. Y.

    1969-01-01

    Ionic transport characteristics of ionenes, insoluble membranes from soluble polyelectrolyte compositions, are studied for possible application in a battery separator. Effectiveness of the thin film of separator membrane essentially determines battery lifetime.

  5. Magnetic separation of algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nath, Pulak; Twary, Scott N.

    2016-04-26

    Described herein are methods and systems for harvesting, collecting, separating and/or dewatering algae using iron based salts combined with a magnetic field gradient to separate algae from an aqueous solution.

  6. Kinetic Gravity Separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Kooy, L.; Mooij, M.; Rem, P.

    2004-01-01

    Separations by density, such as the separation of non-ferrous scrap into light and heavy alloys, are often realized by means of heavy media. In principle, kinetic gravity separations in water can be faster and cheaper, because they do not rely on suspensions or salt solutions of which the density

  7. Dried fruit and dental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Michèle Jeanne

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature has found that the common perceptions that dried fruits are "sticky", adhere to teeth, and are detrimental to dental health on account of their sugar content are based on weak evidence. There is a lack of good quality scientific data to support restrictive advice for dried fruit intake on the basis of dental health parameters and further research is required. A number of potentially positive attributes for dental health, such as the need to chew dried fruits which encourages salivary flow, and the presence of anti-microbial compounds and of sorbitol, also require investigation to establish the extent of their effects and whether they balance against any potentially negative attributes of dried fruit. Advice on dried fruit consumption should also take account of the nutritional benefits of dried fruit, being high in fibre, low in fat and containing useful levels of micronutrients.

  8. Convective drying of sludge cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbo; Peng, Xiaofeng; Xue, Yuan; Lee, Duujong; Chu, Chingping

    2002-08-01

    This paper presented an experimental study on convective drying of waste water sludge collected from Beijing GaoBeiDian Sewage Treatment Plant, particularly on the correlation between the observed shrinkage dynamics of sludge cake and the drying curve. During the initial stage of drying the process resembles to that of a particulate bed, in which moisture diffuses and evaporates at the upper surface. Conventional drying theory assuming a diffusion-evaporating front interprets this period of drying. Consequently, owing to the very large shrinkage ratio of the dried cake, cracks emerges and propagates on and within the cake body, whence inducing evaporating channel that facilitates the water removal. This occurrence compensates the reduction of surface area for evaporation, whence extending the constant-rate period during the test. Afterwards, the cracks meet with each other and form isolated cake piles, while the subsequent drying occur mainly within these piles and the conventional theory fails. The transition between the drying on a plain cake layer and that on the isolated piles demonstrates the need to adopt distinct descriptions on these two regimes of drying for the sludge cake.

  9. Solidification and ordering during directional drying of a colloidal dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, Lucas; Clegg, William J; Routh, Alexander F

    2010-06-15

    During drying, colloidal dispersions undergo processes such as solidification, cracking, and the draining of interstitial pores. Here we show that the solidification of polystyrene and silica dispersions, during directional drying, occurs in two separate stages. These correspond to the initial ordering and subsequent aggregation of the colloidal particles. Transitions between these stages are observed as changes in transparency and color that propagate as distinct fronts along the drying layer. The dynamics of these fronts are shown to arise from a balance between compressive capillary forces and the electrostatic and van der Waals forces described by DLVO theory. This suggests a simple method by which the maximum interparticle repulsion between particles can be measured through the optical inspection of the dynamics of a drying dispersion, under a microscope.

  10. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  11. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and progre

  12. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  13. Acoustofluidic bacteria separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sixing; Ma, Fen; Bachman, Hunter; Cameron, Craig E.; Zeng, Xiangqun; Huang, Tony Jun

    2017-01-01

    Bacterial separation from human blood samples can help with the identification of pathogenic bacteria for sepsis diagnosis. In this work, we report an acoustofluidic device for label-free bacterial separation from human blood samples. In particular, we exploit the acoustic radiation force generated from a tilted-angle standing surface acoustic wave (taSSAW) field to separate Escherichia coli from human blood cells based on their size difference. Flow cytometry analysis of the E. coli separated from red blood cells shows a purity of more than 96%. Moreover, the label-free electrochemical detection of the separated E. coli displays reduced non-specific signals due to the removal of blood cells. Our acoustofluidic bacterial separation platform has advantages such as label-free separation, high biocompatibility, flexibility, low cost, miniaturization, automation, and ease of in-line integration. The platform can be incorporated with an on-chip sensor to realize a point-of-care sepsis diagnostic device.

  14. Staying dry under water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo; Megaridis, Constantine; Walther, Jens; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Patankar, Neelesh

    2012-11-01

    Lotus leaves are known for their non-wetting properties due to the presence of surface texture. The superhydrophobic behavior arises because of the prevention of liquid water from entering the pores of the roughness. Present superhydrophobic materials rely on air trapped within the surface pores to avoid liquid permeation. This is typically unsustainable for immersed bodies due to dissolution of the air, especially under elevated pressures. Here, molecular dynamics simulations are used to demonstrate the non-wetting behavior of an immersed ten-nanometer pore. This is accomplished by establishing thermodynamically sustained vapor pockets of the surrounding liquid medium. Over 300,000 atoms were used to construct the nanopore geometry and simulate SPC/E water molecules. Ambient pressure was varied along two isotherms (300 K, and 500 K). This approach for vapor-stabilization could offer valuable guidance for maintaining surfaces dry even in a submerged state without relying on trapped air. The approach may be extended to control general phase behavior of water adjacent to textured surfaces. ISEN support is gratefully acknowledged.

  15. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  16. Sessile nanofluid droplet drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Crivoi, Alexandru; Duan, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Nanofluid droplet evaporation has gained much audience nowadays due to its wide applications in painting, coating, surface patterning, particle deposition, etc. This paper reviews the drying progress and deposition formation from the evaporative sessile droplets with the suspended insoluble solutes, especially nanoparticles. The main content covers the evaporation fundamental, the particle self-assembly, and deposition patterns in sessile nanofluid droplet. Both experimental and theoretical studies are presented. The effects of the type, concentration and size of nanoparticles on the spreading and evaporative dynamics are elucidated at first, serving the basis for the understanding of particle motion and deposition process which are introduced afterward. Stressing on particle assembly and production of desirable residue patterns, we express abundant experimental interventions, various types of deposits, and the effects on nanoparticle deposition. The review ends with the introduction of theoretical investigations, including the Navier-Stokes equations in terms of solutions, the Diffusion Limited Aggregation approach, the Kinetic Monte Carlo method, and the Dynamical Density Functional Theory. Nanoparticles have shown great influences in spreading, evaporation rate, evaporation regime, fluid flow and pattern formation of sessile droplets. Under different experimental conditions, various deposition patterns can be formed. The existing theoretical approaches are able to predict fluid dynamics, particle motion and deposition patterns in the particular cases. On the basis of further understanding of the effects of fluid dynamics and particle motion, the desirable patterns can be obtained with appropriate experimental regulations.

  17. Steam separator modeling for various nuclear reactor transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paik, C Y; Mullen, G; Knoess, C; Griffith, P

    1987-06-01

    In a pressurized water reactor steam generator, a moisture separator is used to separate steam and liquid and to insure that essentially dry steam is supplied to the turbine. During a steam line break or combined steam line break plus tube rupture, a number of phenomena can occur in the separator which have no counterparts during steady-state operation. How the separator will perform under these circumstances is important for two reasons, it affects the carry-over of radioactive iodine and the water inventory in the secondary side. This study has as its goal the development of a simple separator model which can be applied to a variety of steam generator for off-design conditions. Experiments were performed using air and water on three different types of centrifugal separators: a cyclone as a generic separator, a Combustion Engineering type stationary swirl vane separator, and a Westinghouse type separator. The cyclone separator system has three stages of separation: first the cyclone, then a gravity separator, and finally a chevron plate separator. The other systems have only a centrifugal separator to isolate the effect of the primary separator. Experiments were also done in MIT blowdown rig, with and without a separator, using steam and water. The separators appear to perform well at flow rates well above the design values as long as the downcomer water level is not high. High downcomer water level rather than high flow rates appear to be the primary cause of degraded performance. Appreciable carry-over from the separator section of a steam generator occurs when the drain lines from three stages of separation are unable to carry off the liquid flow. Failure scenarios of the separator for extreme range of conditions from the quasi-steady state transient to the fast transients are presented. A general model structure and simple separator models are provided.

  18. Viscous property of dried clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-sheng; LI Jian-zhong

    2006-01-01

    One dimensional and triaxial compression tests of air-dried and oven-dried Fujinomori clay and Pisa clay were carried out. Water content is less than 4.5 % and 1.0% for air-dried and oven-dried clay specimens, respectively. In all tests, axial strain rate was changed stepwise many times and drained creep tests were performed several times during monotonic loading at a constant strain rate. Global unloading (and also reloading in some tests) was applied during which creep loading tests were performed several times. Cyclic loading with small stress amplitude and several cycles was also performed to calculate the modulus of elasticity of the clay in tests. Local displacement transducer was used in triaxial compression test to increase measuring accuracy of axial strain. The results show that air-dried and oven-dried clay have noticeable viscous properties; during global unloading, creep deformation changes from positive to negative, i.e. there exist neutral points (zero creep deformation or no creep deformation point) in global unloading part of strain-stress curve; viscous property of Fujinomori clay decreases when water content decreases, i.e. viscous property of air-dried Fujinomori clay is more significant than that of oven-dried Fujinomori clay.

  19. Microwave Drying of Moist Coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomatov, Vl. V.; Karelin, V. A.; Sladkov, S. O.; Salomatov, Vas. V.

    2017-03-01

    Physical principles and examples of practical implementation of drying large bodies of coal by microwave radiation are considered. It is shown that energy consumption in microwave drying of brown coals decreases to 1.5-1.8 (kW·h)/ kg as compared with traditional types of drying, for which the expenditures of energy amount to 3.0 (kW·h)/kg. In using microwave drying, the technological time of drying decreases to 4 h, whereas the time of convective drying, with other things being equal, comes to 8-20 h. Parallel with microwave radiation drying, grinding of a fuel takes place, as well as entrainment of such toxic and ecologically harmful elements as mercury, chlorine, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen. An analysis of the prospects of using a microwave energy for drying coal fuel has shown that microwave radiation makes it possible to considerably economize in energy, increase explosional safety, improve the ecological situation, and reduce the metal content and overall dimensions of the equipment.

  20. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.;

    2004-01-01

    A dry release method for fabrication of suspended nanostructures is presented. The technique has been combined with an anti-stiction treatment for fabrication of nanocantilever based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The process combines a dry release method, using a supporting layer of photo......A dry release method for fabrication of suspended nanostructures is presented. The technique has been combined with an anti-stiction treatment for fabrication of nanocantilever based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The process combines a dry release method, using a supporting layer......, the technique enables long time storage and transportation of produced devices without the risk of stiction. By combining the dry release method with a plasma deposited anti-stiction coating both fabrication induced stiction, which is mainly caused by capillary forces originating from the dehydration...

  1. High gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal via upwardly directed recirculating fluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eissenberg, David M.; Liu, Yin-An

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved device and method for the high gradient magnetic beneficiation of dry pulverized coal, for the purpose of removing sulfur and ash from the coal whereby the product is a dry environmentally acceptable, low-sulfur fuel. The process involves upwardly directed recirculating air fluidization of selectively sized powdered coal in a separator having sections of increasing diameters in the direction of air flow, with magnetic field and flow rates chosen for optimum separations depending upon particulate size.

  2. [Separation anxiety in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purper-Ouakil, Diane; Franc, Nathalie

    2010-06-20

    Separation anxiety disorder can be differentiated from developmental anxiety because of its intensity, persistence and negative impact on adaptive functioning. This disorder is closely linked to other anxiety and mood disorders and can also be associated with externalizing psychopathology in children and adolescents. Severe separation anxiety can result in school refusal and intra-familial violence. Cognitive behavioral therapies have the best evidence-based support for the treatment of separation anxiety disorder in children and adolescents. In addition, it is important to detect factors associated with persistence of anxiety such as systematic avoidance of separation and parental overprotection. The role of pediatricians and general practitioners in recognizing clinical separation anxiety and encouraging appropriate care and positive parental attitudes is essential, as separation anxiety is often associated with a variety of somatic symptoms.

  3. Degradation of PCBs in dry fermented sausages during drying/ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lušnic Polak, M; Zlatić, E; Demšar, L; Žlender, B; Polak, T

    2016-12-15

    The effects of several commercial meat starter cultures on degradation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in dry fermented sausages over 28days of drying/ripening were investigated. The sausage batter was prepared according to a classic recipe and spiked with a standard solution of a PCB congener mixture. With addition of different commercial meat starter cultures, five experimental groups were prepared: no further addition; and separate addition of each of four starter cultures: Texel DCM-1, Texel LM-30, Biostar Sprint, and SM-181. Samples were taken at the beginning of fermentation (zero time), and after 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28days. PCB residues were extracted with hexane. The PCB contents were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The PCB levels were reduced in all of the experimental groups tested, where addition of starter culture Biostar Sprint (Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus carnosus, Staphylococcus xylosus) showed the highest PCB degradation rates.

  4. Drying Characteristics of Garcinia atroviridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waigoon RITTIRUT

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some physical and chemical properties of fresh garcinia fruits are reported. The most suitable drying conditions for garcinia material in a tray dryer based on the final moisture content were determined by extensive testing. It was found that for the material thickness of 2, 4 and 6 mm, a temperature of 55 °C and air velocity of 1.2 m/s are suitable for drying. The most suitable time where the final moisture content met the commercial standard was found to be 199, 256 and 427 min, respectively. The higher the temperature, the shorter the drying time. It was also observed that the suitable drying time for 2-mm thick material and air velocity of 1.2 m/s was 199, 159 and 99 min for drying temperature of 55, 65 and 75 °C, respectively. Drying characteristics are also reported. Most of the drying rate curves appear in a falling rate period except at low temperature and low velocity of operation parameters i.e. 55 °C and 0.5 m/s for 4-mm thick material, where the constant drying rate is approximately 0.09 kg water/min.m2. The sorption isotherm is sigmoidal shape at 30 °C and monolayer moisture content is 14.78 kg water/100 kg dry solid. Soaking material in 1.5 and 3.0 %w/w sodium chloride did not affect the drying rate. Effective moisture diffusivities were evaluated to be  5.57´10-10, 6.94´10-10 and 1.11´10-9 m2/s at temperatures 55, 65 and 75 °C, respectively.

  5. [Separation anxiety. Theoretical considerations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandin, N; Parquet, P J; Bailly, D

    1994-01-01

    The interest in separation anxiety is nowadays increasing: this disorder appearing during childhood may predispose to the occurrence of anxiety disorders (such as panic disorder and agoraphobia) and major depression into adulthood. Psychoanalytic theories differ on the nature of separation anxiety and its place in child development. For some authors, separation anxiety must be understood as resulting from the unconscious internal conflicts inherent in the individuation process and gradual attainment of autonomy. From this point of view, the fear of loss of mother by separation is not regarded as resulting from a real danger. However, Freud considers the primary experience of separation from protecting mother as the prototype situation of anxiety and compares the situations generating fear to separation experiences. For him, anxiety originates from two factors: the physiological fact is initiated at the time of birth but the primary traumatic situation is the separation from mother. This point of view may be compared with behavioral theories. Behavioral theories suggest that separation anxiety may be conditioned or learned from innate fears. In Freud's theory, the primary situation of anxiety resulting from the separation from mother plays a role comparable to innate fears. Grappling with the problem of separation anxiety, Bowlby emphasizes then the importance of the child's attachment to one person (mother or primary caregiver) and the fact that this attachment is instinctive. This point of view, based on the watch of infants, is akin to ethological theories on behaviour of non human primates. Bowlby especially shows that the reactions of infant separated from mother evolve on three stages: the phase of protestation which may constitute the prototype of adulthood anxiety, the phase of desperation which may be the prototype of depression, and the phase of detachment. He emphasizes so the role of early separations in the development of vulnerability to depression

  6. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  7. Separation of flow

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Interdisciplinary and Advanced Topics in Science and Engineering, Volume 3: Separation of Flow presents the problem of the separation of fluid flow. This book provides information covering the fields of basic physical processes, analyses, and experiments concerning flow separation.Organized into 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the flow separation on the body surface as discusses in various classical examples. This text then examines the analytical and experimental results of the laminar boundary layer of steady, two-dimensional flows in the subsonic speed range. Other chapt

  8. Drying of α-amylase by spray drying and freeze-drying - a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Jesus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at comparing two traditional methods of drying of enzymes and at verifying the efficiency of each one and their advantages and disadvantages. The experiments were performed with a laboratory spray dryer and freeze-dryer using α-amylase as the model enzyme. An experimental design in star revealed that spray drying is mainly influenced by the inlet air temperature and feed flow rate, which were considered to be the main factors influencing the enzymatic activity and water activity; the long period of material exposure to high temperatures causes a partial activity loss. In the experiments of freeze drying, three methods of freezing were used (freezer, acetone and dry ice, and liquid nitrogen and samples subsequently freeze-dried for times ranging between 0-24 hours. The product obtained from the two techniques showed high enzymatic activity and low water activity. For the drying of heat-resistant enzymes, in which the product to be obtained does not have high added value, spray drying may be more economically viable because, in the freeze drying process, the process time can be considered as a limiting factor when choosing a technique.

  9. The separation of adult separation anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, David S; Gordon, Robert; Abelli, Marianna; Pini, Stefano

    2016-08-01

    The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) categorization of mental disorders places "separation anxiety disorder" within the broad group of anxiety disorders, and its diagnosis no longer rests on establishing an onset during childhood or adolescence. In previous editions of DSM, it was included within the disorders usually first diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence, with the requirement for an onset of symptoms before the age of 18 years: symptomatic adults could only receive a retrospective diagnosis, based on establishing this early onset. The new position of separation anxiety disorder is based upon the findings of epidemiological studies that revealed the unexpectedly high prevalence of the condition in adults, often in individuals with an onset of symptoms after the teenage years; its prominent place within the DSM-5 group of anxiety disorders should encourage further research into its epidemiology, etiology, and treatment. This review examines the clinical features and boundaries of the condition, and offers guidance on how it can be distinguished from other anxiety disorders and other mental disorders in which "separation anxiety" may be apparent.

  10. Drying of thin colloidal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, Alexander F.

    2013-04-01

    When thin films of colloidal fluids are dried, a range of transitions are observed and the final film profile is found to depend on the processes that occur during the drying step. This article describes the drying process, initially concentrating on the various transitions. Particles are seen to initially consolidate at the edge of a drying droplet, the so-called coffee-ring effect. Flow is seen to be from the centre of the drop towards the edge and a front of close-packed particles passes horizontally across the film. Just behind the particle front the now solid film often displays cracks and finally the film is observed to de-wet. These various transitions are explained, with particular reference to the capillary pressure which forms in the solidified region of the film. The reasons for cracking in thin films is explored as well as various methods to minimize its effect. Methods to obtain stratified coatings through a single application are considered for a one-dimensional drying problem and this is then extended to two-dimensional films. Different evaporative models are described, including the physical reason for enhanced evaporation at the edge of droplets. The various scenarios when evaporation is found to be uniform across a drying film are then explained. Finally different experimental techniques for examining the drying step are mentioned and the article ends with suggested areas that warrant further study.

  11. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  12. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a raw material in the production of starch, tapioca and snack foods ... The material was dried for 8 hours daily after which it was kept indoors overnight. The surface with .... statistical package (MS Office, 2007). .... preservation and marketing.

  13. EFFECT OF DRYING CONDITIONS ON MUSHROOM QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOJ KULSHRESHTHA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluidized bed drying of mushroom was undertaken to study the drying characteristics and quality of the dried mushrooms. Drying was done at drying air temperatures of 50, 70, and 90oC and air velocities of 1.71 and 2.13 m/s. Two batch sizes, namely, 0.5 kg and 1 kg of sliced milky mushrooms were dried. Drying characteristics and the quality of dried mushrooms were analyzed. The results indicated that the drying time decreased only marginally with increase in air velocity. Drying air temperature of 50oC was better as it resulted in a dried product having better rehydration characteristics, lesser shrinkage and lighter color. Highest energy efficiency (79.74% was observed while drying a batch size of 1 kg at a drying air temperature of 50oC, using an air velocity of 1.7 m/s.

  14. Working with Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krugman, Dorothy C.

    1971-01-01

    Discusses the role of the caseworker in providing support to children experiencing separation from their families and emphasizes the need to recognize that there are differences between those separation experiences dictated by the needs of children and those dictated by arbitrary or noncasework factors. (AJ)

  15. Separation anxiety disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nauta, M.H.; Emmelkamp, P.M.G.; Sturmey, P.; Hersen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Separation anxiety disorder (SAD) is the only anxiety disorder that is specific to childhood; however, SAD has hardly ever been addressed as a separate disorder in clinical trials investigating treatment outcome. So far, only parent training has been developed specifically for SAD. This particular t

  16. Social Separation in Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineka, Susan; Suomi, Stephen J.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews phenomena associated with social separation from attachment objects in nonhuman primates. Evaluates four theoretical treatments of separation in light of existing data: Bowlby's attachment-object-loss theory, Kaufman's conservation-withdrawal theory, Seligman's learned helplessness theory, and Solomon and Corbit's opponent-process theory.…

  17. Nonterminal Separating Macro Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendorp, Jan Anne; Asveld, P.R.J.; Nijholt, A.; Verbeek, Leo A.M.

    1987-01-01

    We extend the concept of nonterminal separating (or NTS) context-free grammar to nonterminal separating $m$-macro grammar where the mode of derivation $m$ is equal to "unrestricted". "outside-in' or "inside-out". Then we show some (partial) characterization results for these NTS $m$-macro grammars.

  18. CFD modeling of particle behavior in supersonic flows with strong swirls for gas separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yan; Wen, Chuang

    2017-01-01

    flow from the dry gas outlet. The separation efficiency reached over 80%, when the droplet diameter was more than 1.5 μm. The optimum length of the cyclonic separation section was approximate 16–20 times of the nozzle throat diameter to obtain higher collection efficiency for the supersonic separator...

  19. Spiral microfluidic nanoparticle separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Ali Asgar S.; Kuntaegowdanahalli, Sathyakumar S.; Dionysiou, Dionysios D.; Papautsky, Ian

    2008-02-01

    Nanoparticles have potential applications in many areas such as consumer products, health care, electronics, energy and other industries. As the use of nanoparticles in manufacturing increases, we anticipate a growing need to detect and measure particles of nanometer scale dimensions in fluids to control emissions of possible toxic nanoparticles. At present most particle separation techniques are based on membrane assisted filtering schemes. Unfortunately their efficiency is limited by the membrane pore size, making them inefficient for separating a wide range of sizes. In this paper, we propose a passive spiral microfluidic geometry for momentum-based particle separations. The proposed design is versatile and is capable of separating particulate mixtures over a wide dynamic range and we expect it will enable a variety of environmental, medical, or manufacturing applications that involve rapid separation of nanoparticles in real-world samples with a wide range of particle components.

  20. Natural wind drying of willow stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigler, J.K.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Berg, van den J.V.; Sonneveld, C.; Meerdink, G.

    2000-01-01

    The process of natural wind drying of willow (Salix viminalis) stems in large piles was investigated. A simple drying model was developed for stems. Large-scale drying experiments were conducted and drying data were statistically analysed. Whether drying in a pile of willow stems was uniform was inv

  1. A Mathematical Model for Freeze-Drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the experiments on freeze-drying carrot and potato slabs, the effects of some parameters, such as heating temperature and pressure on the freeze-drying process are examined. A simple model of freeze-drying is established to predict drying time and the mass variations of materials during the drying. The experimental results agree well with those calculated by the model.

  2. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  3. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.

    2015-01-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional...... mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have...... not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water.In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys – thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical...

  4. 10-minute consultation Dry mouth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Taubert; Eleanor M R Davies; Ian Back

    2007-01-01

    @@ A 67 year old man presents with a six week history of dry mouth (xerostomia). He has prostate cancer, which has spread to his spine, and he takes opiates for pain relief. Recently, he started taking an antidepressant.

  5. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Nandy, Krishanu; Schutzius, Thomas M.; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2015-08-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

  6. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... moisture Hot, dry air in desert environments Air conditioners that cool the air and remove moisture Taking ... scrubbing your skin. Shave right after bathing, when hair is soft. Wear soft, comfortable clothing next to ...

  7. Dry aging of beef; Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humid...

  8. Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

  9. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, J.; Menon, C.

    2013-08-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm2.

  10. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  11. Radiochemical separation of Cobalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.C. van

    1961-01-01

    A method is described for the radiochemical separation of cobalt based on the extraordinary stability of cobalt diethyldithiocarbamate. Interferences are few; only very small amounts of zinc and iron accompany cobalt, which is important in neutron-activation analysis.

  12. On Separate Universes

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Liang; Schmidt, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The separate universe conjecture states that in General Relativity a density perturbation behaves locally (i.e. on scales much smaller than the wavelength of the mode) as a separate universe with different background density and curvature. We prove this conjecture for a spherical compensated tophat density perturbation of arbitrary amplitude and radius in $\\Lambda$CDM. We then use Conformal Fermi Coordinates to generalize this result to scalar perturbations of arbitrary configuration and scale in a general cosmology with a mixture of fluids, but to linear order in perturbations. In this case, the separate universe conjecture holds for the isotropic part of the perturbations. The anisotropic part on the other hand is exactly captured by a tidal field in the Newtonian form. We show that the separate universe picture is restricted to scales larger than the sound horizons of all fluid components. We then derive an expression for the locally measured matter bispectrum induced by a long-wavelength mode of arbitrary...

  13. Electroextraction separation of dyestuffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, G.S.; Yu, M.J.; Jiang, W.B.; Zhu, S.L.; Dai, Y.Y. [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-03-01

    Electroseparation technologies have prospects for significant growth well into the next century. Electroextraction, a coupled separation technique of solvent extraction with electrophoresis, was used to remove dyestuffs from their aqueous stream. A study on the characteristics of the separation technique was carried out with n-butanol/acid-chrom blue K/water and n-butanol/methyl blue/water as working systems. A continuous separation equipment was designed and sued in this work. The influences of two-phase flow, field strength, and concentration of the feed on the recovery of solute were studied. The results showed that much higher recovery of solute with less solvent consumption could be achieved by using this technique to remove dyes from their aqueous streams, especially for the separation of the dilute solution. When the field strength is increased, the recovery and mass flux increase. When the feed flow rate and the initial solute concentration are increased, the recovery decreases and the mass flux increases.

  14. Shoulder separation - aftercare

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and top of your shoulder blade A severe shoulder separation You may need surgery right away if you have: Numbness in your fingers Cold fingers Muscle weakness in your arm Severe deformity of the joint

  15. Radiochemical separation of Cobalt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erkelens, P.C. van

    1961-01-01

    A method is described for the radiochemical separation of cobalt based on the extraordinary stability of cobalt diethyldithiocarbamate. Interferences are few; only very small amounts of zinc and iron accompany cobalt, which is important in neutron-activation analysis.

  16. DRI Renewable Energy Center (REC) (NV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoekman, S. Kent; Broch, Broch; Robbins, Curtis; Jacobson, Roger; Turner, Robert

    2012-12-31

    The primary objective of this project was to utilize a flexible, energy-efficient facility, called the DRI Renewable Energy Experimental Facility (REEF) to support various renewable energy research and development (R&D) efforts, along with education and outreach activities. The REEF itself consists of two separate buildings: (1) a 1200-ft2 off-grid capable house and (2) a 600-ft2 workshop/garage to support larger-scale experimental work. Numerous enhancements were made to DRI's existing renewable power generation systems, and several additional components were incorporated to support operation of the REEF House. The power demands of this house are satisfied by integrating and controlling PV arrays, solar thermal systems, wind turbines, an electrolyzer for renewable hydrogen production, a gaseous-fuel internal combustion engine/generator set, and other components. Cooling needs of the REEF House are satisfied by an absorption chiller, driven by solar thermal collectors. The REEF Workshop includes a unique, solar air collector system that is integrated into the roof structure. This system provides space heating inside the Workshop, as well as a hot water supply. The Workshop houses a custom-designed process development unit (PDU) that is used to convert woody biomass into a friable, hydrophobic char that has physical and chemical properties similar to low grade coal. Besides providing sufficient space for operation of this PDU, the REEF Workshop supplies hot water that is used in the biomass treatment process. The DRI-REEF serves as a working laboratory for evaluating and optimizing the performance of renewable energy components within an integrated, residential-like setting. The modular nature of the system allows for exploring alternative configurations and control strategies. This experimental test bed is also highly valuable as an education and outreach tool both in providing an infrastructure for student research projects, and in highlighting renewable

  17. Dry lubricant films for aluminum forming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, J.; Erdemir, A.; Fenske, G. R.

    1999-03-30

    During metal forming process, lubricants are crucial to prevent direct contact, adhesion, transfer and scuffing of workpiece materials and tools. Boric acid films can be firmly adhered to the clean aluminum surfaces by spraying their methanol solutions and provide extremely low friction coefficient (about 0.04). The cohesion strengths of the bonded films vary with the types of aluminum alloys (6061, 6111 and 5754). The sheet metal forming tests indicate that boric acid films and the combined films of boric acid and mineral oil can create larger strains than the commercial liquid and solid lubricants, showing that they possess excellent lubricities for aluminum forming. SEM analyses indicate that boric acid dry films separate the workpiece and die materials, and prevent their direct contact and preserve their surface qualities. Since boric acid is non-toxic and easily removed by water, it can be expected that boric acid films are environmentally friendly, cost effective and very efficient lubricants for sheet aluminum cold forming.

  18. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  19. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying. Yearly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  20. Safe Separators for Treewidth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodlaender, H.L.; Koster, A.M.C.A.

    2003-01-01

    A set of vertices S Í V is called a safe separator for treewidth, if S is a separator of G, and the treewidth of G equals the maximum of the treewidth over all connected components W of G - S of the graph, obtained by making S a clique in the subgraph of G, induced by W È S. We show that such safe s

  1. Hydrogen separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundschau, Michael [Longmont, CO; Xie, Xiaobing [Foster City, CA; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul [Longmont, CO; Wright, Harold [Longmont, CO

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  2. Separation techniques: Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Coskun, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorp...

  3. Distal humeral epiphyseal separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Calin S; Mason, Dan E

    2003-10-01

    Distal humeral epiphyseal separation is an uncommon injury that is often misdiagnosed upon initial presentation. To make a timely, correct diagnosis, the treating physician must have a thorough understanding of basic anatomical relationships and an awareness of the existence of this injury. This is a case of a child who sustained a separation of the distal humeral epiphysis, as well as multiple other bony injuries, secondary to child abuse.

  4. PREBIOTICS AS DRYING AIDS FOR SPRAY DRYING FRUIT JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. FREIXO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural fruit juices are difficult to transform into powder because they are rich in sugars and acids with low glass transition temperatures, resulting in a sticky behaviour during spray drying. The present research work aimed to test the prebiotics maltodextrin and arabic gum as drying agents in order to be able to produce dehydrated powder from pineapple, strawberry and apple juices. 2 % of maltodextrin and an inlet air temperature of 130 °C are recommended to spray dry apple juice, reaching 60 % yield of powder with a water activity below 0.40. For strawberry juice, 2 % of this carrier is recommended and the inlet air temperature, 120 °C or 130 °C, did not seem relevant. For pineapple, neither the concentration of the carrier nor the inlet air temperature seemed to be relevant.

  5. Foam droplet separation for nanoparticle synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyree, Corey A.; Allen, Jonathan O. [Arizona State University, Department of Chemical Engineering (United States)], E-mail: joallen@asu.edu

    2008-03-15

    A novel approach to nanoparticle synthesis was developed whereby foam bubble bursting produced aerosol droplets, an approach patterned after the marine foam aerosol cycle. The droplets were dried to remove solvent, leaving nanometer-sized particles composed of precursor material. Nanoparticles composed of sodium chloride (mean diameter, D-bar{sub p} {approx} 100 nm), phosphotungstic acid (D-bar{sub p} {approx} 55 nm), and bovine insulin (D{sub p} {approx} 5-30 nm) were synthesized. Foam droplet separation can be carried out at ambient temperature and pressure. The 'soft' nature of the process makes it compatible with a wide range of materials.

  6. Lupine protein enrichment by milling and electrostatic separation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jue; Zhao, Jun; Wit, De Martin; Boom, Remko M.; Schutyser, Maarten A.I.

    2016-01-01

    Lupine seeds are excellent source of plant protein. We here report on dry fractionation by combining milling and electrostatic separation providing an alternative to wet extraction of protein from lupine seeds. Relatively coarse milling was preferred as this provides sufficient detached protein

  7. Charged porous membrane structures for separation of biomolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kopec, Karina Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Thesis presents various membrane techniques for biomolecules separation. New charged membranes and new methods to introduce charge into the membranes are demonstrated. All chapters present characterization of the hollow fiber membranes produced via the immersion precipitation dry-wet spinning. Apart

  8. Potential evapotranspiration and continental drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P. C. D.; Dunne, K. A.

    2016-10-01

    By various measures (drought area and intensity, climatic aridity index, and climatic water deficits), some observational analyses have suggested that much of the Earth’s land has been drying during recent decades, but such drying seems inconsistent with observations of dryland greening and decreasing pan evaporation. `Offline’ analyses of climate-model outputs from anthropogenic climate change (ACC) experiments portend continuation of putative drying through the twenty-first century, despite an expected increase in global land precipitation. A ubiquitous increase in estimates of potential evapotranspiration (PET), driven by atmospheric warming, underlies the drying trends, but may be a methodological artefact. Here we show that the PET estimator commonly used (the Penman-Monteith PET for either an open-water surface or a reference crop) severely overpredicts the changes in non-water-stressed evapotranspiration computed in the climate models themselves in ACC experiments. This overprediction is partially due to neglect of stomatal conductance reductions commonly induced by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations in climate models. Our findings imply that historical and future tendencies towards continental drying, as characterized by offline-computed runoff, as well as other PET-dependent metrics, may be considerably weaker and less extensive than previously thought.

  9. Organic Separation Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L.; Rinehart, Donald E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2014-09-22

    Separable organics have been defined as “those organic compounds of very limited solubility in the bulk waste and that can form a separate liquid phase or layer” (Smalley and Nguyen 2013), and result from three main solvent extraction processes: U Plant Uranium Recovery Process, B Plant Waste Fractionation Process, and Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Process. The primary organic solvents associated with tank solids are TBP, D2EHPA, and NPH. There is concern that, while this organic material is bound to the sludge particles as it is stored in the tanks, waste feed delivery activities, specifically transfer pump and mixer pump operations, could cause the organics to form a separated layer in the tank farms feed tank. Therefore, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) is experimentally evaluating the potential of organic solvents separating from the tank solids (sludge) during waste feed delivery activities, specifically the waste mixing and transfer processes. Given the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) waste acceptance criteria per the Waste Feed Acceptance Criteria document (24590-WTP-RPT-MGT-11-014) that there is to be “no visible layer” of separable organics in the waste feed, this would result in the batch being unacceptable to transfer to WTP. This study is of particular importance to WRPS because of these WTP requirements.

  10. Gulf stream separation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Joseph

    Climate models currently struggle with the more traditional, coarse ( O(100 km) ) representation of the ocean. In these coarse ocean simulations, western boundary currents are notoriously difficult to model accurately. The modeled Gulf Stream is typically seen exhibiting a mean pathway that is north of observations, and is linked to a warm sea-surface temperature bias in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Although increased resolution ( O(10 km) ) improves the modeled Gulf Stream position, there is no clean recipe for obtaining the proper pathway. The 70 year history of literature on the Gulf Stream separation suggests that we have not reached a resolution on the dynamics that control the current's pathway just south of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Without a concrete knowledge on the separation dynamics, we cannot provide a clean recipe for accurately modeling the Gulf Stream at increased resolutions. Further, any reliable parameterization that yields a realistic Gulf Stream path must express the proper physics of separation. The goal of this dissertation is to determine what controls the Gulf Stream separation. To do so, we examine the results of a model intercomparison study and a set of numerical regional terraforming experiments. It is argued that the separation is governed by local dynamics that are most sensitive to the steepening of the continental shelf, consistent with the topographic wave arrest hypothesis of Stern (1998). A linear extension of Stern's theory is provided, which illustrates that wave arrest is possible for a continuously stratified fluid.

  11. Separably injective Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Avilés, Antonio; Castillo, Jesús M F; González, Manuel; Moreno, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    This monograph contains a detailed exposition of the up-to-date theory of separably injective spaces: new and old results are put into perspective with concrete examples (such as l∞/c0 and C(K) spaces, where K is a finite height compact space or an F-space, ultrapowers of L∞ spaces and spaces of universal disposition). It is no exaggeration to say that the theory of separably injective Banach spaces is strikingly different from that of injective spaces. For instance, separably injective Banach spaces are not necessarily isometric to, or complemented subspaces of, spaces of continuous functions on a compact space. Moreover, in contrast to the scarcity of examples and general results concerning injective spaces, we know of many different types of separably injective spaces and there is a rich theory around them. The monograph is completed with a preparatory chapter on injective spaces, a chapter on higher cardinal versions of separable injectivity and a lively discussion of open problems and further lines o...

  12. Development of energy efficient hydro-clones for separation - Pre-project; Udvikling af energieffektive hydrocykloner til separation. forprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsbaek, P.; Nielsen, John Bo; Christensen, Kent; Overgaerd, J.

    2005-07-15

    The aim of the pre-project is to expose obscurities and create a solid basis for decisions prior to an actual development project. The development project will include development and demonstration of the use of energy efficient methods for separation or classification of dry solid matter in suspensions. (BA)

  13. Electrostatic separation of mineral and vegetal powders with a custom built corona separator: application to biorefinery of rice husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajaonarivony Rova Karine

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In a dry biorefinery scheme, the separation of plant materials into powders rich in the constituents of interest is a crucial step. In recent years, electrostatic separation of agri-resources has sparked a growing interest for its potentialities, but optimization efforts remain to be done especially in case of fine powders. In this study a custom-designed corona-electrostatic separator has been built and its usage for the separation of mineral (ash from rice husk and vegetal powders (cellulose fibers with different particle size distributions has been studied. First, the powders have been characterized by their electric charge decay curves and their behaviour on the separator was studied. At a second time, separation tests have been carried out with blends of these two powders, and with native, finely ground, rice husk powder (constituted of both mineral and vegetal particles. In each case, the efficiency of the process was evaluated.

  14. Electrostatic separation of mineral and vegetal powders with a custom built corona separator: application to biorefinery of rice husk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaonarivony, Rova Karine; Rouau, Xavier; Dascalescu, Lucien; Mayer-Laigle, Claire

    2017-06-01

    In a dry biorefinery scheme, the separation of plant materials into powders rich in the constituents of interest is a crucial step. In recent years, electrostatic separation of agri-resources has sparked a growing interest for its potentialities, but optimization efforts remain to be done especially in case of fine powders. In this study a custom-designed corona-electrostatic separator has been built and its usage for the separation of mineral (ash from rice husk) and vegetal powders (cellulose fibers) with different particle size distributions has been studied. First, the powders have been characterized by their electric charge decay curves and their behaviour on the separator was studied. At a second time, separation tests have been carried out with blends of these two powders, and with native, finely ground, rice husk powder (constituted of both mineral and vegetal particles). In each case, the efficiency of the process was evaluated.

  15. Mass Separation by Metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Flórez, Juan Manuel; Maldovan, Martin

    2016-02-25

    Being able to manipulate mass flow is critically important in a variety of physical processes in chemical and biomolecular science. For example, separation and catalytic systems, which requires precise control of mass diffusion, are crucial in the manufacturing of chemicals, crystal growth of semiconductors, waste recovery of biological solutes or chemicals, and production of artificial kidneys. Coordinate transformations and metamaterials are powerful methods to achieve precise manipulation of molecular diffusion. Here, we introduce a novel approach to obtain mass separation based on metamaterials that can sort chemical and biomolecular species by cloaking one compound while concentrating the other. A design strategy to realize such metamaterial using homogeneous isotropic materials is proposed. We present a practical case where a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen is manipulated using a metamaterial that cloaks nitrogen and concentrates oxygen. This work lays the foundation for molecular mass separation in biophysical and chemical systems through metamaterial devices.

  16. Phaco slice and separate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arshinoff, S A

    1999-04-01

    Phaco slice and separate retains the advantages of the chopping techniques of Nagahara, Koch, and Fukasaku but replaces chopping or snapping with slicing across the center of the phaco-tip-stabilized nucleus using a Nagahara chopper and then repositioning the chopper to optimally separate the divided lens halves. As the lens is rotated in the capsular bag, small pieces of the nuclear pie are sliced off, separated, emulsified, and aspirated. Emulsification and aspiration can alternatively be left until most or all the slices have been made. This technique works with a broader range of lens densities than other chopping techniques and uses no sculpting and very little phaco time. The phaco time required for this technique is relatively independent of nuclear density compared with a sculpting technique.

  17. Membrane separation of hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Y. Alice; Kulkarni, Sudhir S.; Funk, Edward W.

    1986-01-01

    Mixtures of heavy oils and light hydrocarbons may be separated by passing the mixture through a polymeric membrane. The membrane which is utilized to effect the separation comprises a polymer which is capable of maintaining its integrity in the presence of hydrocarbon compounds and which has been modified by being subjected to the action of a sulfonating agent. Sulfonating agents which may be employed will include fuming sulfuric acid, chlorosulfonic acid, sulfur trioxide, etc., the surface or bulk modified polymer will contain a degree of sulfonation ranging from about 15 to about 50%. The separation process is effected at temperatures ranging from about ambient to about 100.degree. C. and pressures ranging from about 50 to about 1000 psig.

  18. Drying characteristics and kinetics of fluidized bed dried potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.B. BAKAL

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In developed countries, more than 50% potatoes are consumed as processed products. As drying is the vital phenomenon in processing, it is necessary to investigate the drying characteristics and its kinetics. In this experimental study, drying kinetics of Potato in two different shape of cuboidal & cylindrical with three aspect ratio was investigated as a function of drying conditions. Experiments were conducted using air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 ºC, at velocity of 7 ms-1. The experimental moisture data were fitted to Page and simple models available in the literature, and a good agreement was observed. The Page model gave better fit than simple model. In the ranges covered, the values of the effective moisture diffusivity, Deff were obtained between 2.278 × 10-9 to 3.314 × 10-8 m2s-1 from the Fick's diffusion model. Using Deff, the value of activation energy (Ea was determined assuming the Arrhenius-type temperature relationship.

  19. Solar Drying of Red Mud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, John L.

    Solar drying of thickened red mud is the latest method for its disposal in an economical and environmentally acceptable way. Two years full scale experience with this method in Jamaica has shown that its success depends on accurate grading of the solar drying area and accurate control of the pre-dewatering of the mud in the alumina plant. Experience with the use of deep thickening for pre-dewatering is described, together with a novel method for measurement and control of thickened mud rheology.

  20. Development of freeze dried vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    The development of freeze dried vegetables to be used in the Apollo food system is discussed. After the initial selection and screening of vegetables, several types of freeze dried vegetables were prepared in small batches. From these small batches, two vegetables were judged satisfactory for further testing and evaluation. These vegetables, mashed potatoes and asparagus, were subjected to storage at 100 deg plus or minus 5 F. for two weeks and then taste tested. The vegetables were also tested to determine if they complied with the microbiological requirements for Apollo food. The space food prototype production guide for the vegetables is submitted.

  1. Dry technologies and community bureaucracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation channels criss-cross the Andes, bringing water to the dry soils of the peasants' fields. To obtain water, people must deal not only with the amount of water and the physical terrain, but also with concerns of others and matters of the social terrain.......Irrigation channels criss-cross the Andes, bringing water to the dry soils of the peasants' fields. To obtain water, people must deal not only with the amount of water and the physical terrain, but also with concerns of others and matters of the social terrain....

  2. Fundamentals of freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nail, Steven L; Jiang, Shan; Chongprasert, Suchart; Knopp, Shawn A

    2002-01-01

    Given the increasing importance of reducing development time for new pharmaceutical products, formulation and process development scientists must continually look for ways to "work smarter, not harder." Within the product development arena, this means reducing the amount of trial and error empiricism in arriving at a formulation and identification of processing conditions which will result in a quality final dosage form. Characterization of the freezing behavior of the intended formulation is necessary for developing processing conditions which will result in the shortest drying time while maintaining all critical quality attributes of the freeze-dried product. Analysis of frozen systems was discussed in detail, particularly with respect to the glass transition as the physical event underlying collapse during freeze-drying, eutectic mixture formation, and crystallization events upon warming of frozen systems. Experiments to determine how freezing and freeze-drying behavior is affected by changes in the composition of the formulation are often useful in establishing the "robustness" of a formulation. It is not uncommon for seemingly subtle changes in composition of the formulation, such as a change in formulation pH, buffer salt, drug concentration, or an additional excipient, to result in striking differences in freezing and freeze-drying behavior. With regard to selecting a formulation, it is wise to keep the formulation as simple as possible. If a buffer is needed, a minimum concentration should be used. The same principle applies to added salts: If used at all, the concentration should be kept to a minimum. For many proteins a combination of an amorphous excipient, such as a disaccharide, and a crystallizing excipient, such as glycine, will result in a suitable combination of chemical stability and physical stability of the freeze-dried solid. Concepts of heat and mass transfer are valuable in rational design of processing conditions. Heat transfer by conduction

  3. Separation membrane development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M.W. [Savannah River Technology Center, Aiken, SC (United States)

    1998-08-01

    A ceramic membrane has been developed to separate hydrogen from other gases. The method used is a sol-gel process. A thin layer of dense ceramic material is coated on a coarse ceramic filter substrate. The pore size distribution in the thin layer is controlled by a densification of the coating materials by heat treatment. The membrane has been tested by permeation measurement of the hydrogen and other gases. Selectivity of the membrane has been achieved to separate hydrogen from carbon monoxide. The permeation rate of hydrogen through the ceramic membrane was about 20 times larger than Pd-Ag membrane.

  4. Separation techniques: Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskun, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Chromatography is an important biophysical technique that enables the separation, identification, and purification of the components of a mixture for qualitative and quantitative analysis. Proteins can be purified based on characteristics such as size and shape, total charge, hydrophobic groups present on the surface, and binding capacity with the stationary phase. Four separation techniques based on molecular characteristics and interaction type use mechanisms of ion exchange, surface adsorption, partition, and size exclusion. Other chromatography techniques are based on the stationary bed, including column, thin layer, and paper chromatography. Column chromatography is one of the most common methods of protein purification. PMID:28058406

  5. Learning Isometric Separation Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Vasiloglou, Nikolaos; Anderson, David V

    2008-01-01

    Maximum Variance Unfolding (MVU) and its variants have been very successful in embedding data-manifolds in lower dimensionality spaces, often revealing the true intrinsic dimensions. In this paper we show how to also incorporate supervised class information into an MVU-like method without breaking its convexity. We call this method the Isometric Separation Map and we show that the resulting kernel matrix can be used for a binary/multiclass Support Vector Machine in a semi-supervised (transductive) framework. We also show that the method always finds a kernel matrix that linearly separates the training data exactly without projecting them in infinite dimensional spaces.

  6. Separators for electrochemical cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Steven Allen; Anakor, Ifenna Kingsley

    2014-11-11

    Provided are separators for use in an electrochemical cell comprising (a) an inorganic oxide and (b) an organic polymer, wherein the inorganic oxide comprises organic substituents. Preferably, the inorganic oxide comprises an hydrated aluminum oxide of the formula Al.sub.2O.sub.3.xH.sub.2O, wherein x is less than 1.0, and wherein the hydrated aluminum oxide comprises organic substituents, preferably comprising a reaction product of a multifunctional monomer and/or organic carbonate with an aluminum oxide, such as pseudo-boehmite and an aluminum oxide. Also provided are electrochemical cells comprising such separators.

  7. 7 CFR 58.813 - Dry whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whey. 58.813 Section 58.813 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.813 Dry whey. The quality requirements for dry whey shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Dry Whey. Supplemental Specifications for...

  8. Dry deposition modelling of air pollutants over urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherin, N.; Roustan, Y.; Seigneur, C.; Musson Genon, L.

    2012-04-01

    More than one-half of the world's inhabitants lives in urban areas. Consequently, the evolution of pollutants inside these urban areas are problems of great concern in air quality studies. Though the dry deposition fluxes of air pollutants, which are known to be significant in the neighborhood of sources of pollution, like urban areas, have not been modeled precisely until recently within urban areas. By reviewing the physics of the processes leading to the dry deposition of air pollutants, it is clear that atmosphere turbulence is crucial for dry deposition. Urban areas, and particularly buildings, are known to significantly impact flow fields and then by extension the dry deposition fluxes. Numerous urban schemes have been developed in the past decades to approximate the effect of the local scale urban elements on drag, heat flux and radiative budget. The most recent urban canopy models are based on quite simple geometries, but sufficiently close to represent the aerodynamic and thermal characteristics of cities. These canopy models are generally intended to parameterize aerodynamic and thermal fields, but not dry deposition. For dry deposition, the current classical "roughness" approach, uses only two representative parameters, z0 and d, namely the roughness length and the zero-plane displacement height to represent urban areas. In this work, an innovative dry deposition model based on the urban canyon concept, is proposed. It considers a single road, bordered by two facing buildings, which are treated separately. It accounts for sub-grid effects of cities, especially a better parameterization of the turbulence scheme, through the use of local mixing length and a more detailled description of the urban area and key parameters within the urban canopy. Three different flow regimes are distinguished in the urban canyon according to the height-to-width ratio: isolated roughness flow, wake interference flow and skimming flow regime. The magnitude of differences in

  9. diffusive phase separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki Kenmochi

    1996-01-01

    w is constrained to have double obstacles σ*≤w≤σ* (i.e., σ* and σ* are the threshold values of w. The objective of this paper is to discuss the semigroup {S(t} associated with the phase separation model, and construct its global attractor.

  10. Phase separation micro molding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelaar, Laura

    2005-01-01

    The research described in this thesis concerns the development of a new microfabrication method, Phase Separation Micro Molding (PSμM). While microfabrication is still best known from semiconductor industry, where it is used to integrate electrical components on a chip, the scope has immensely expan

  11. Fathering After Marital Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, Harry Finkelstein; Rosenthal, Kristine M.

    1978-01-01

    Deals with experiences of a group of separated or divorced fathers who chose to remain fully involved in the upbringing of their children. As they underwent transition from married parenthood to single fatherhood, these men learned that meeting demands of child care contributed to personal stability and growth. (Author)

  12. Isotope hydrograph separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, P. [UFZ-Umweltforschungszentrum, Centre of Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle, Leipzig (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    Storm-runoff thus reflects the complex hydraulic behaviour of drainage basins and water-links of such systems. Water of different origin may participate in the events and in this lecture, the application of isotope techniques to separate storm hydrographs into different components will be presented.

  13. Unity Through Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Hans B.

    This PhD thesis asks how we can conceptualize the current separation doctrine of religion and politics in a country like Denmark, where the structure of the established church and peoplehood overlap. In order to answer this question, Hans Bruun Dabelsteen maps the current discussion of secularism...

  14. Acromioclavicular Joint Separations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Published online: 16 December 2012 # Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012 Abstract Acromioclavicular (AC) joint separations are common...injuries. The sports most likely to cause AC joint dislocations are football, soccer , hockey, rugby, and skiing, among others [9, 28, 29]. The major cause

  15. Pre-Separation Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-03-04

    SEPARATEES Defense Outplacement Referral System (DORS) Since most of us are not independently wealthy, we will need a job after separation. DORS is...Job Assistance SPOUSES OF ALL SEPARATEES As a spouse you may take advantage of preparing Standard Form 17 1’s and resu- the outplacement services

  16. Separation of Powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bill of Rights in Action, 1987

    1987-01-01

    The dimensions of the separation of powers principle are explored through three lessons in the subject areas of U.S. history, U.S. government, and world history. In 1748, a French nobleman, Baron de Montesquieu, wrote a book called "The Spirit of the Laws," in which he argued that there could be no liberty when all government power was…

  17. Evaluating the biogas potential of the dry fraction from pretreatment of food waste from households.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murto, Marika; Björnsson, Lovisa; Rosqvist, Håkan; Bohn, Irene

    2013-05-01

    At the waste handling company NSR, Helsingborg, Sweden, the food waste fraction of source separated municipal solid waste is pretreated to obtain a liquid fraction, which is used for biogas production, and a dry fraction, which is at present incinerated. This pretreatment and separation is performed to remove impurities, however also some of the organic material is removed. The possibility of realising the methane potential of the dry fraction through batch-wise dry anaerobic digestion was investigated. The anaerobic digestion technique used was a two-stage process consisting of a static leach bed reactor and a methane reactor. Treatment of the dry fraction alone and in a mixture with structural material was tested to investigate the effect on the porosity of the leach bed. A tracer experiment was carried out to investigate the liquid flow through the leach beds, and this method proved useful in demonstrating a more homogenous flow through the leach bed when structural material was added. Addition of structural material to the dry fraction was needed to achieve a functional digestion process. A methane yield of 98 m3/ton was obtained from the dry fraction mixed with structural material after 76 days of digestion. This was in the same range as obtained in the laboratory scale biochemical methane potential test, showing that it was possible to extract the organic content in the dry fraction in this type of dry digestion system for the production of methane.

  18. Hybrid Rice for Dry Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Luo Lijun, director of the Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, recently announced that Hanyou No. 3 - a genetically modified rice capable of producing high yields in dry areas - has been developed at the center.The hybrid yields 7,571 kilograms per hectare, about the same as ordinary rice.

  19. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  20. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  1. Longevity Of Dry Film Lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannel, J. W.; Stockwell, R. D.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes evaluation of dry film lubricants candidate for use in rotary joints of proposed Space Station. Study included experiments and theoretical analyses focused on longevity of sputtered molybdenum disulfide films and ion-plated lead films under conditions partially simulating rolling contact.

  2. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the condit

  3. Flavour release from dried vegetables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was focused on the development of an in vitro model system for isolation of volatile compounds from dried vegetables under mouth conditions, such as volume of the mouth, temperature, salivation and mastication. Instrumental analysis of these volatile compoun

  4. Determination of drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant in different drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Bayraktaroglu Urun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying is the most traditional process used for preserving eggplant a long time. The aim of this study was to determining drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant dried by sun drying, hot air convective drying and infrared assisted convective drying. Convective drying and infrared assisted convective were carried out in a convective dryer at three different temperatures(40°, 50°, 60°C and air velocity at 5 m/s.The increasing of temperatures during the drying of eggplant led to a significant reduction of the drying time. However loss of nutrition was observed in eggplant samples dried at higher temperature.The biggest change in colour parameters was observed in samples dried with sun drying.So it was thought that sun drying had a negative effect on quality properties of eggplant samples.

  5. Microgravity Passive Phase Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paragano, Matthew; Indoe, William; Darmetko, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A new invention disclosure discusses a structure and process for separating gas from liquids in microgravity. The Microgravity Passive Phase Separator consists of two concentric, pleated, woven stainless- steel screens (25-micrometer nominal pore) with an axial inlet, and an annular outlet between both screens (see figure). Water enters at one end of the center screen at high velocity, eventually passing through the inner screen and out through the annular exit. As gas is introduced into the flow stream, the drag force exerted on the bubble pushes it downstream until flow stagnation or until it reaches an equilibrium point between the surface tension holding bubble to the screen and the drag force. Gas bubbles of a given size will form a front that is moved further down the length of the inner screen with increasing velocity. As more bubbles are added, the front location will remain fixed, but additional bubbles will move to the end of the unit, eventually coming to rest in the large cavity between the unit housing and the outer screen (storage area). Owing to the small size of the pores and the hydrophilic nature of the screen material, gas does not pass through the screen and is retained within the unit for emptying during ground processing. If debris is picked up on the screen, the area closest to the inlet will become clogged, so high-velocity flow will persist farther down the length of the center screen, pushing the bubble front further from the inlet of the inner screen. It is desired to keep the velocity high enough so that, for any bubble size, an area of clean screen exists between the bubbles and the debris. The primary benefits of this innovation are the lack of any need for additional power, strip gas, or location for venting the separated gas. As the unit contains no membrane, the transport fluid will not be lost due to evaporation in the process of gas separation. Separation is performed with relatively low pressure drop based on the large surface

  6. Environmental Consequences of Future Biogas Technologies based on Separated Slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamelin, Lorie; Wesnæs, Marianne; Wenzel, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    the volatile solids in the solid fraction. The biogas scenario involving the most efficient separation technology resulted in a dry matter separation efficiency of 87% and allowed a net reduction of the global warming potential of 40%, compared to the reference slurry management. This figure comprises......This consequential life cycle assessment study highlights the key environmental aspects of producing biogas from separated pig and cow slurry, a relatively new but probable scenario for future biogas production, as it avoids the reliance on constrained carbon cosubstrates. Three scenarios involving...... different slurry separation technologies have been assessed and compared to a business-as-usual reference slurry management scenario. The results show that the environmental benefits of such biogas production are highly dependent upon the efficiency of the separation technology used to concentrate...

  7. GPS Separator HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the 70 degree ISOLDE GPS separator magnet MAG70 as well as the switchyard for the Central Mass and GLM (GPS Low Mass) and GHM (GPS High Mass) beamlines in the GPS separator zone. In the GPS20 vacuum sector equipment such as the long GPS scanner 482 / 483 unit, faraday cup FC 490, vacuum valves and wiregrid piston WG210 and WG475 and radiation monitors can also be seen. Also the RILIS laser guidance and trajectory can be seen, the GPS main beamgate switch box and the actual GLM, GHM and Central Beamline beamgates in the beamlines as well as the first electrostatic quadrupoles for the GPS lines. Close up of the GHM deflector plates motor and connections and the inspection glass at the GHM side of the switchyard.

  8. HRS Separator HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Footage of the 90 and 60 degree ISOLDE HRS separator magnets in the HRS separator zone. In the two vacuum sectors HRS20 and HRS30 equipment such as the HRS slits SL240, the HRS faraday cup FC300 and wiregrid WG210 can be spotted. Vacuum valves, turbo pumps, beamlines, quadrupoles, water and compressed air connections, DC and signal cabling can be seen throughout the video. The HRS main and user beamgate in the beamline between MAG90 and MAG60 and its switchboxes as well as all vacuum bellows and flanges are shown. Instrumentation such as the HRS scanner unit 482 / 483, the HRS WG470 wiregrid and slits piston can be seen. The different quadrupoles and supports are shown as well as the RILIS guidance tubes and installation at the magnets and the different radiation monitors.

  9. Nylon separators. [thermal degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H. S.

    1977-01-01

    A nylon separator was placed in a flooded condition in K0H solution and heated at various high temperatures ranging from 60 C to 110 C. The weight decrease was measured and the molecular weight and decomposition product were analyzed to determine: (1) the effect of K0H concentration on the hydrolysis rate; (2) the effect of K0H concentration on nylon degradation; (3) the activation energy at different K0H concentrations; and (4) the effect of oxygen on nylon degradation. The nylon hydrolysis rate is shown to increase as K0H concentration is decreased 34%, giving a maximum rate at about 16%. Separator hydrolysis is confirmed by molecular weight decrease in age of the batteries, and the reaction of nylon with molecular oxygen is probably negligible, compared to hydrolysis. The extrapolated rate value from the high temperature experiment correlates well with experimental values at 35 degrees.

  10. Battery separator manufacturing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmer, N.I.; Sugarman, N.

    1974-12-27

    A battery with a positive plate, a negative plate, and a separator of polymeric resin having a degree of undesirable hydrophobia, solid below 180/sup 0/F, extrudable as a hot melt, and resistant to degradation by at least either acids or alkalies positioned between the plates is described. The separator comprises a nonwoven mat of fibers, the fibers being comprised of the polymeric resin and a wetting agent in an amount of 0.5 to 20 percent by weight based on the weight of the resin with the amount being incompatible with the resin below the melting point of the resin such that the wetting agent will bloom over a period of time at ambient temperatures in a battery, yet being compatible with the resin at the extrusion temperature and bringing about blooming to the surface of the fibers when the fibers are subjected to heat and pressure.

  11. Unity Through Separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Hans B.

    analysis, Dabelsteen study Danish secularism as an ideological concept. He finds that the conceptual structure of Danish secularism holds separation-as-principled distance at its core. Institutionally this particularly pertains to the establishment arrangement, and in practice it translates...... and proposes two conceptual expansions. The first is to include modest establishment in a framework of secularism defensible by political liberalism, and the second is to consider secularism in close connection to a theory of peoplehood. Methodologically positioned between interpretive realism and policy...... into the principle of treating everybody equally (with religious freedom, equality and Danish peoplehood as the most important principles adjacent to secularism). In a study of the historical roots of the separation doctrine and two current policy cases (same-sex marriage and reforms of church governance...

  12. Acoustophoresis separation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for acoustophoresis, i.e., the separation of species via acoustic waves. An ultrasonic transducer applies an acoustic wave to one end of a sample container containing at least two species having different acoustic absorptions. The wave has a frequency tuned to or harmonized with the point of resonance of the species to be separated. This wave causes the species to be driven to an opposite end of the sample container for removal. A second ultrasonic transducer may be provided to apply a second, oppositely directed acoustic wave to prevent undesired streaming. In addition, a radio frequency tuned to the mechanical resonance and coupled with a magnetic field can serve to identify a species in a medium comprising species with similar absorption coefficients, whereby an acoustic wave having a frequency corresponding to this gyrational rate can then be applied to sweep the identified species to one end of the container for removal.

  13. Separation of enantiomers

    CERN Document Server

    Todd , Matthew H

    2014-01-01

    In one handy volume this handbook summarizes the most common synthetic methods for the separation of racemic mixtures, allowing an easy comparison of the different strategies described in the literature.Alongside classical methods, the authors also consider kinetic resolutions, dynamic kinetic resolutions, divergent reactions of a racemic mixture, and a number of ""neglected"" cases not covered elsewhere, such as the use of circularly polarized light, polymerizations, ""ripening"" processes, dynamic combinatorial chemistry, and several thermodynamic processes. The result is a thorough introdu

  14. Separation Logic and Concurrency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornat, Richard

    Concurrent separation logic is a development of Hoare logic adapted to deal with pointers and concurrency. Since its inception, it has been enhanced with a treatment of permissions to enable sharing of data between threads, and a treatment of variables as resource alongside heap cells as resource. An introduction to the logic is given with several examples of proofs, culminating in a treatment of Simpson's 4-slot algorithm, an instance of racy non-blocking concurrency.

  15. Colour Separation and Aversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M Haigh

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Aversion to achromatic patterns is well documented but relatively little is known about discomfort from chromatic patterns. Large colour differences are uncommon in the natural environment and deviation from natural statistics makes images uncomfortable (Fernandez and Wilkins 2008, Perception, 37(7, 1098–113; Juricevic et al 2010, Perception, 39(7, 884–899. We report twelve studies documenting a linear increase in aversion to chromatic square-wave gratings as a function of the separation in UCS chromaticity between the component bars, independent of their luminance contrast. Two possible explanations for the aversion were investigated: (1 accommodative response, or (2 cortical metabolic demand. We found no correlation between chromaticity separation and accommodative lag or variance in lag, measured using an open-field autorefractor. However, near infrared spectroscopy of the occipital cortex revealed a larger oxyhaemoglobin response to patterns with large chromaticity separation. The aversion may be cortical in origin and does not appear to be due to accommodation.

  16. Solar drying of jack fruit almonds

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre J. de M. Queiroz; Dantas,Hermeval J; Figueirêdo,Rossana M. F. de; Karla dos S Melo

    2011-01-01

    Dryers heated by solar energy have been constructed and used in drying whole and half jack fruit almonds. The samples were dried during the day in direct sun and in the conventional solar dryer prepared for this purpose. Another piece of equipment was built for reception and accumulation of sun energy in a body of water, which was used as a heat source for night drying. The drying with the sun energy was compared with artificial drying. The jack fruit almonds were dried whole, half, with pell...

  17. Magnetic field switchable dry adhesives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Bovero, Enrico; Menon, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    A magnetic field controllable dry adhesive device is manufactured. The normal adhesion force can be increased or decreased depending on the presence of an applied magnetic field. If the magnetic field is present during the entire normal adhesion test cycle which includes both applying a preloading force and measuring the pulloff pressure, a decrease in adhesion is observed when compared to when there is no applied magnetic field. Similarly, if the magnetic field is present only during the preload portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, a decrease in adhesion is observed because of an increased stiffness of the magnetically controlled dry adhesive device. When the applied magnetic field is present during only the pulloff portion of the normal adhesion test cycle, either an increase or a decrease in normal adhesion is observed depending on the direction of the applied magnetic field.

  18. Drying characteristics of ultrasound assisted hot air drying of Flos Lonicerae

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, YUNHONG; Sun, Yue; Miao, Shuai; Li, Fang; Luo, Denglin

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound assisted hot air drying of Flos Lonicerae was investigated in this study. The effects of drying parameters such as ultrasonic radiation distance, ultrasonic power and drying temperature on drying characteristics were discussed. The results showed that ultrasound application has positive and significant effects on hot air drying. Shortening ultrasonic radiation distance is beneficial to improve both ultrasonic energy efficiency and drying rate. Higher ultrasonic power had more posit...

  19. Drying poly(ethylene glycol)

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Lucas Kinard, Kurtis Kasper & Antonios Mikos ### Abstract This protocol describes the drying of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) by a simple 6 step procedure. One can implement this protocol using common lab glass and lab equipment. Water is removed from PEG by azeotropic distillation in toluene. The two components are mixed and toluene and water are distilled off by heating the solution to 170°C. This procedure can be implemented in ~2 h. ### Introduction In many ...

  20. Eddy current separation apparatus, separation module, separation method and method for adjusting an eddy current separation apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rem, P.C.; Bakker, M.C.M.; Berkhout, S.P.M.; Rahman, M.A.

    2012-01-01

    Eddy current separation apparatus (1) for separating particles (20) from a particle stream (w), wherein the apparatus (1) comprises a separator drum (4) adapted to create a first particle fraction (21) and a second particle fraction (23), a feeding device (2) upstream of the separator drum (4) for s

  1. Modelling and simulation of a moving interface problem: freeze drying of black tea extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ebubekir Sıddık; Yucel, Ozgun; Sadikoglu, Hasan

    2017-01-01

    The moving interface separates the material that is subjected to the freeze drying process as dried and frozen. Therefore, the accurate modeling the moving interface reduces the process time and energy consumption by improving the heat and mass transfer predictions during the process. To describe the dynamic behavior of the drying stages of the freeze-drying, a case study of brewed black tea extract in storage trays including moving interface was modeled that the heat and mass transfer equations were solved using orthogonal collocation method based on Jacobian polynomial approximation. Transport parameters and physical properties describing the freeze drying of black tea extract were evaluated by fitting the experimental data using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  2. Combined dry and wet adhesion between a particle and an elastic substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jin; Lin, Ji; Shi, Mingxing

    2016-12-01

    We theoretically model the combined dry and wet adhesion between a rigid sphere and an elastic substrate, where the dry contact area is surrounded by a liquid meniscus. The influence of the liquid on the interfacial adhesion is twofold: inducing the Laplace pressure around the dry contact area and altering the adhesion energy between solid surfaces. The behavior of such combined dry and wet adhesion shows a smooth transition between the JKR and DMT models for hydrophilic solids, governed by the prescribed liquid volume or environmental humidity. The JKR-DMT transition vanishes when the solids become hydrophobic. An inverse scaling law of adhesive strength indicates that size reduction helps to enhance the adhesive strength until a theoretical limit is reached. This study also demonstrates the jumping-on and jumping-off hysteresis between the combined dry-wet adhesion and pure liquid bridge in a complete separation and approach cycle.

  3. Fabrication of polyacrylate core-shell nanoparticles via spray drying method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pengpeng; Cheng, Zenghui; Chu, Fuxiang; Xu, Yuzhi; Wang, Chunpeng

    2016-05-01

    Fine polyacrylate particles are thought to be environmental plastisols for car industry. However, these particles are mainly dried through demulsification of the latexes, which is not reproducible and hard to be scaled up. In this work, a spray drying method had been applied to the plastisols-used acrylate latex. By adjusting the core/shell ratio, spray drying process of the latex was fully studied. Scanning electronic microscopy observation of the nanoparticles before and after spray drying indicated that the core-shell structures could be well preserved and particles were well separated by spray drying if the shell was thick enough. Otherwise, the particles fused into each other and core-shell structures were destroyed. Polyacrylate plastisols were developed using diisononylphthalate as a plasticizer, and plastigels were obtained after heat treatment of the sols. Results showed that the shell thickness also had a great influence on the storage stability of the plastisols and mechanical properties of the plastigels.

  4. Modelling and simulation of a moving interface problem: freeze drying of black tea extract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ebubekir Sıddık; Yucel, Ozgun; Sadikoglu, Hasan

    2017-06-01

    The moving interface separates the material that is subjected to the freeze drying process as dried and frozen. Therefore, the accurate modeling the moving interface reduces the process time and energy consumption by improving the heat and mass transfer predictions during the process. To describe the dynamic behavior of the drying stages of the freeze-drying, a case study of brewed black tea extract in storage trays including moving interface was modeled that the heat and mass transfer equations were solved using orthogonal collocation method based on Jacobian polynomial approximation. Transport parameters and physical properties describing the freeze drying of black tea extract were evaluated by fitting the experimental data using Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. Experimental results showed good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  5. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, A.G.; Smith, F.

    1959-08-25

    A method is described for separating plutonium from uranium and fission products by treating a nitrate solution of fission products, uranium, and hexavalent plutonium with a relatively water-insoluble fluoride to adsorb fission products on the fluoride, treating the residual solution with a reducing agent for plutonium to reduce its valence to four and less, treating the reduced plutonium solution with a relatively insoluble fluoride to adsorb the plutonium on the fluoride, removing the solution, and subsequently treating the fluoride with its adsorbed plutonium with a concentrated aqueous solution of at least one of a group consisting of aluminum nitrate, ferric nitrate, and manganous nitrate to remove the plutonium from the fluoride.

  6. POLONIUM SEPARATION PROCESS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karraker, D.G.

    1959-07-14

    A liquid-liquid extraction process is presented for the recovery of polonium from lead and bismuth. According to the invention an acidic aqueous chloride phase containing the polonium, lead, and bismuth values is contacted with a tributyl phosphate ether phase. The polonium preferentially enters the organic phase which is then separated and washed with an aqueous hydrochloric solution to remove any lead or bismuth which may also have been extracted. The now highly purified polonium in the organic phase may be transferred to an aqueous solution by extraction with aqueous nitric acid.

  7. PLUTONIUM SEPARATION METHOD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufait, L.J. Jr.; Stevenson, F.R.; Rollefson, G.K.

    1958-11-18

    The recovery of plutonium ions from neutron irradiated uranium can be accomplished by bufferlng an aqueous solutlon of the irradiated materials containing tetravalent plutonium to a pH of 4 to 7, adding sufficient acetate to the solution to complex the uranyl present, adding ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide, plutonlum, and associated fission products, removing and dissolving the colloid in aqueous nitric acid, oxldizlng the plutonium to the hexavalent state by adding permanganate or dichromate, treating the resultant solution with ferric nitrate to form a colloid of ferric hydroxide and associated fission products, and separating the colloid from the plutonlum left in solution.

  8. Freeze-Drying Makes Improved IPN And Semi-IPN Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pater, Ruth H.; Smith, Ricky E.; Razon, Ruperto T.; Hansen, Marion G.; Hsiung, Hahn J.; Soucek, Mark D.

    1993-01-01

    Novel process developed for production of interpenetrating polymer networks (IPN's) or semi-IPN's with greater fracture toughness and resistance to microcracks. Process controls degree of phase separation in IPN's. In experiment, IPN's and semi-IPN's formed by dissolving constituents in another common solvent in traditional method. Resins and composite materials produced were tested for both traditional and freeze-drying processes. Glass-transition temperatures and data from dynamic mechanical tests of freeze-dried IPN's and semi-IPN's demonstrated freeze-drying process provided much improved IPN's and semi-IPN's.

  9. DRYING WITH SOLAR COLLECTOR BY HEAT PIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet DOĞAN

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, heating pipe was used in the solar collector in order to take better advantage of the solar energy. The energy obtained from the sun was transferred to the drying air by means of heating pipes and this hot air was blown on the material to be dried. The water on the material to be dried vaporised with the effect of the hot air and drying took place. Because drying took place in the shade, distant from the direct radiation effects of the sun, some of the disadvantages seen in drying outside, under the sun were eliminated. Additionally, it was observed that it took less time to dry in this method than it takes to dry under the open sun.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF THE INTENSIFICATION CONVECTIVE DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Gavrilenkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Identified and analyzed the relationship of the intensity convective drying and air pollution emissions of heat. The ways to reduce the thermal pollution of the atmosphere at convective drying.

  11. Optimization of frozen wild blueberry vacuum drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to optimize the vacuum drying of frozen blueberries in order to preserve health benefits phytochemicals using response surface methodology. The drying was performed in a new design of vacuum dryer equipment. Investigated range of temperature was 46-74°C and of pressure 38-464 mbar. Total solids, total phenolics, vitamin C, anthocyanin content and total color change were used as quality indicators of dried blueberries. Within the experimental range of studied variables, the optimum conditions of 60 °C and 100 mbar were established for vacuum drying of blueberries. Separate validation experiments were conducted at optimum conditions to verify predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of total phenolics was 3.70 mgCAE/100dw, vitamin C 59.79 mg/100gdw, anthocyanin content 2746.33 mg/100gdw, total solids 89.50% and total color change 88.83. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  12. Airway blood flow response to dry air hyperventilation in sheep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parsons, G.H.; Baile, E.M.; Pare, P.D.

    1986-03-01

    Airway blood flow (Qaw) may be important in conditioning inspired air. To determine the effect of eucapneic dry air hyperventilation (hv) on Qaw in sheep the authors studied 7 anesthetized open-chest sheep after 25 min. of warm dry air hv. During each period of hv the authors have recorded vascular pressures, cardiac output (CO), and tracheal mucosal and inspired air temperature. Using a modification of the reference flow technique radiolabelled microspheres were injected into the left atrium to make separate measurements after humid air and dry air hv. In 4 animals a snare around the left main pulmonary artery was used following microsphere injection to prevent recirculation (entry into L lung of microspheres from the pulmonary artery). Qaw to the trachea and L lung as measured and Qaw for the R lung was estimated. After the final injection the sheep were killed and bronchi (Br) and lungs removed. Qaw (trachea plus L lung plus R lung) in 4 sheep increased from a mean of 30.8 to 67.0 ml/min. Airway mucosal temp. decreased from 39/sup 0/ to 33/sup 0/C. The authors conclude that dry air hv cools airway mucosa and increases Qaw in sheep.

  13. Printed Spacecraft Separation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holmans, Walter [Planetary Systems Corporation, Silver Springs, MD (United States); Dehoff, Ryan [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-10-01

    In this project Planetary Systems Corporation proposed utilizing additive manufacturing (3D printing) to manufacture a titanium spacecraft separation system for commercial and US government customers to realize a 90% reduction in the cost and energy. These savings were demonstrated via “printing-in” many of the parts and sub-assemblies into one part, thus greatly reducing the labor associated with design, procurement, assembly and calibration of mechanisms. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned several of the components of the separation system based on additive manufacturing principles including geometric flexibility and the ability to fabricate complex designs, ability to combine multiple parts of an assembly into a single component, and the ability to optimize design for specific mechanical property targets. Shock absorption was specifically targeted and requirements were established to attenuate damage to the Lightband system from shock of initiation. Planetary Systems Corporation redesigned components based on these requirements and sent the designs to Oak Ridge National Laboratory to be printed. ORNL printed the parts using the Arcam electron beam melting technology based on the desire for the parts to be fabricated from Ti-6Al-4V based on the weight and mechanical performance of the material. A second set of components was fabricated from stainless steel material on the Renishaw laser powder bed technology due to the improved geometric accuracy, surface finish, and wear resistance of the material. Planetary Systems Corporation evaluated these components and determined that 3D printing is potentially a viable method for achieving significant cost and savings metrics.

  14. Virus separation using membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies).

  15. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects...

  16. Drying and color characteristics of coriander foliage using convective thin-layer and microwave drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Mark; Meda, Venkatesh; Tabil, Lope; Opoku, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    Heat sensitive properties (aromatic, medicinal, color) provide herbs and spices with their high market value. In order to prevent extreme loss of heat sensitive properties when drying herbs, they are normally dried at low temperatures for longer periods of time to preserve these sensory properties. High energy consumption often results from drying herbs over a long period. Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L., Umbelliferae) was dehydrated in two different drying units (thin layer convection and microwave dryers) in order to compare the drying and final product quality (color) characteristics. Microwave drying of the coriander foliage was faster than convective drying. The entire drying process took place in the falling rate period for both microwave and convective dried samples. The drying rate for the microwave dried samples ranged from 42.3 to 48.2% db/min and that of the convective dried samples ranged from 7.1 to 12.5% db/min. The fresh sample color had the lowest L value at 26.83 with higher L values for all dried samples. The results show that convective thin layer dried coriander samples exhibited a significantly greater color change than microwave dried coriander samples. The color change index values for the microwave dried samples ranged from 2.67 to 3.27 and that of the convective dried samples varied from 4.59 to 6.58.

  17. energetic performance analysis of drying agricultural products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1,2,3,4DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, UNIVERSITY OF ILORIN, P.M.B. 1515, ILORIN, ... drying and moldy food [9]. ... solar drying systems diversely in operation are ... 2.1 Useful Energy Required for Drying A Unit Amount.

  18. 21 CFR 131.149 - Dry cream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dry cream. 131.149 Section 131.149 Food and Drugs... CONSUMPTION MILK AND CREAM Requirements for Specific Standardized Milk and Cream § 131.149 Dry cream. (a) Description. Dry cream is the product obtained by removal of water only from pasteurized milk or cream or...

  19. Drying of willow biomass in supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigler, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    The drying process of willow ( Salix viminalis ) in biomass supply chains to energy plants is quantitatively described. Drying at particle level was modelled for chips and stems by a diffusion equation linked to the mass transfer of moisture to the air. Drying at bulk level is described by a deep be

  20. Drying of willow biomass in supply chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigler, J.

    2000-01-01

    The drying process of willow ( Salix viminalis ) in biomass supply chains to energy plants is quantitatively described. Drying at particle level was modelled for chips and stems by a diffusion equation linked to the mass transfer of moisture to the air. Drying at bulk

  1. Magnetic separation studies for a low grade siliceous iron ore sample

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dwari Ranjan Kumar; Rao Danda Srinivas; Reddy Palli Sita Ram

    2013-01-01

    Investigations were carried out,on a low grade siliceous iron ore sample by magnetic separation,to establish its amenability for physical beneficiation.Mineralogical studies revealed that the sample consists of magnetite,hematite and goethite as major opaque oxide minerals where as silicates as well as carbonates form the gangue minerals in the sample.Processes involving combination of classification,dry magnetic separation and wet magnetic separation were carried out to upgrade the low grade siliceous iron ore sample to make it suitable as a marketable product.The sample was first ground and each closed size sieve fractions were subjected to dry magnetic separation and it was observed that limited upgradation is possible.The ground sample was subjected to different finer sizes and separated by wet low intensity magnetic separator.It was possible to obtain a magnetic concentrate of 67% Fe by recovering 90% of iron values at below 200 μm size.

  2. Plasma separation: physical separation at the molecular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Rax, Jean-Marcel; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2016-09-01

    Separation techniques are usually divided in two categories depending on the nature of the discriminating property: chemical or physical. Further to this difference, physical and chemical techniques differ in that chemical separation typically occurs at the molecular level, while physical separation techniques commonly operate at the macroscopic scale. Separation based on physical properties can in principle be realized at the molecular or even atomic scale by ionizing the mixture. This is in essence plasma based separation. Due to this fundamental difference, plasma based separation stands out from other separation techniques, and features unique properties. In particular, plasma separation allows separating different elements or chemical compounds based on physical properties. This could prove extremely valuable to separate macroscopically homogeneous mixtures made of substances of similar chemical formulation. Yet, the realization of plasma separation techniques' full potential requires identifying and controlling basic mechanisms in complex plasmas which exhibit suitable separation properties. In this paper, we uncover the potential of plasma separation for various applications, and identify the key physics mechanisms upon which hinges the development of these techniques.

  3. Dry fermentation of organic waste; Trockenfermentation von organischen Abfaellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodoridis, J. [BEKON Energy Technologies GmbH und Co. KG, Unterfoehring (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The dry fermentation according to the BEKON process enables a methanization of throwable biomasses from the agriculture and from the waste management without transferring the materials into a pumpable liquid substrate. In July 2003, the first dry fermentation plant according to the patented BEKON process could be taken into operation at the location Munich. Up to 8,000 tons of biological wastes from separated collection are processed annually. In the context of a scientific research program, the most important operating parameters were included. In the contribution under consideration, results from the practical operation are presented. Although the concept of the plant has minimized the expenditure for the mechanical treatment and the mixing of the fermentation substrate, so far acceptable yields of biogas could be determined for the assigned substrates. The yields lie in a range comparable to other fermentation processes which realize a higher expenditure during the mechanical preparation of substrate.

  4. Particle separator scroll vanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lastrina, F. A.; Mayer, J. C.; Pommer, L. M.

    1985-07-09

    An inlet particle separator for a gas turbine engine is provided with unique vanes distributed around an entrance to a particle collection chamber. The vanes are uniquely constructed to direct extraneous particles that enter the engine into the collection chamber and prevent the particles from rebounding back into the engine's air flow stream. The vanes are provided with several features to accomplish this function, including upstream faces that are sharply angled towards air flow stream direction to cause particles to bounce towards the collection chamber. In addition, throat regions between the vanes cause a localized air flow acceleration and a focusing of the particles that aid in directing the particles in a proper direction.

  5. Nebulized therapy. SEPAR year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira, Casilda; Muñoz, Ana; Domenech, Adolfo

    2014-12-01

    Inhaled drugs are deposited directly in the respiratory tract. They therefore achieve higher concentrations with faster onset of action and fewer side effects than when used systemically. Nebulized drugs are mainly recommended for patients that require high doses of bronchodilators, when they need to inhale drugs that only exist in this form (antibiotics or dornase alfa) or when they are unable to use other inhalation devices. Technological development in recent years has led to new devices that optimize pulmonary deposits and reduce the time needed for treatment. In this review we focus solely on drugs currently used, or under investigation, for nebulization in adult patients; basically bronchodilators, inhaled steroids, antibiotics, antifungals, mucolytics and others such as anticoagulants, prostanoids and lidocaine. Copyright © 2014 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Block copolymer battery separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  7. Block copolymer battery separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, David; Balsara, Nitash Pervez

    2016-04-26

    The invention herein described is the use of a block copolymer/homopolymer blend for creating nanoporous materials for transport applications. Specifically, this is demonstrated by using the block copolymer poly(styrene-block-ethylene-block-styrene) (SES) and blending it with homopolymer polystyrene (PS). After blending the polymers, a film is cast, and the film is submerged in tetrahydrofuran, which removes the PS. This creates a nanoporous polymer film, whereby the holes are lined with PS. Control of morphology of the system is achieved by manipulating the amount of PS added and the relative size of the PS added. The porous nature of these films was demonstrated by measuring the ionic conductivity in a traditional battery electrolyte, 1M LiPF.sub.6 in EC/DEC (1:1 v/v) using AC impedance spectroscopy and comparing these results to commercially available battery separators.

  8. Gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the applications of gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment are presented. Described is operation on conventional gravity separation and parallel plate separation. Key words: gravity separation, oil, conventional gravity separation, parallel plate separation.

  9. Gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Golomeova, Mirjana; Zendelska, Afrodita; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the applications of gravity separation for oil wastewater treatment are presented. Described is operation on conventional gravity separation and parallel plate separation. Key words: gravity separation, oil, conventional gravity separation, parallel plate separation.

  10. Single droplet drying for optimal spray drying of enzymes and probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Perdana, J.A.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Spray drying is a mild and cost-effective convective drying method. It can be applied to stabilise heat sensitive ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotic bacteria, albeit in industrial practice for example freeze drying or freezing are often preferred. The reason is that optimum drying conditions

  11. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  12. Membrane separation systems---A research and development needs assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.W. (Membrane Technology and Research, Inc., Menlo Park, CA (USA)); Cussler, E.L. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (USA). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science); Eykamp, W. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA)); Koros, W.J. (Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA)); Riley, R.L. (Separation Systems Technology, San Diego, CA (USA)); Strathmann, H. (Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Grenzflaech

    1990-04-01

    Industrial separation processes consume a significant portion of the energy used in the United States. A 1986 survey by the Office of Industrial Programs estimated that about 4.2 quads of energy are expended annually on distillation, drying and evaporation operations. This survey also concluded that over 0.8 quads of energy could be saved in the chemical, petroleum and food industries alone if these industries adopted membrane separation systems more widely. Membrane separation systems offer significant advantages over existing separation processes. In addition to consuming less energy than conventional processes, membrane systems are compact and modular, enabling easy retrofit to existing industrial processes. The present study was commissioned by the Department of Energy, Office of Program Analysis, to identify and prioritize membrane research needs in light of DOE's mission. Each report will be individually cataloged.

  13. Impregnation of leather during "freeze-drying"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storch, Mikkel; Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Dorte; Hovmand, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a recognized method for the preservation of waterlogged objects. Naturally, freeze-drying has also been used for waterlogged archaeological leather often after treatment with Na2.EDTA and impregnation with PEG; but the treated leather sometimes suffers from “excessive drying......” becoming too stiff and brittle. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a conventional freeze-drying method against an alternative freeze-drying method that preserves the natural moisture content of the leather. Both new and archaeological waterlogged leather were included in the study...... suggest that the process which takes place within the leather during the freeze-drying in not actual freeze-drying, but rather a sophisticated way of distributing the impregnating agent. The pure ice phase freezes out, but the impregnating agent remains liquid as the temperature does not become low enough...

  14. Characteristic Drying Curve of Oil Palm Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ifa Puspasari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The drying of crushed oil palm fronds was studied in a fluidized bed dryer assisted with mechanical agitation at different inlet air temperature, superficial air velocity, bed loading and agitation speed. The drying kinetics of the fibers under various drying conditions could be described by a single characteristic drying curve. A combined exponential and power law model is proposed to represent the characteristic drying curve which described both the increasing rate and the falling rate periods. The proposed model is also tested for drying kinetics of oil palm empty fruit bunch from previous researcher. It was found that the characteristic curve for both oil palm fronds and empty fruit bunch fibers has similar shape and that the proposed model is acceptable for describing the complete drying characteristics of the fibers.

  15. Dry spell frequency in West Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnaningtyas, V. I.; Boer, R.; Faqih, A.

    2017-03-01

    The climatology and variability of dry spells are valuable information for scientists, engineers, planners, and managers working in water-related sectors such as agriculture, ecology, hydrology, and water resources. The dry spell concerns consecutive dry days which are the largest number of consecutive days with less than 1 mm of daily precipitation within a year. The objective of this study is to analyse the spatial and temporal characteristics of dry spells and also specifically investigate the frequency patterns of the dry spell distribution based on historical observed daily precipitation from 1981 to 2010. The longest dry spell occured at Pasirukem with the length of 252 days. The northern coast of West Java have higher probabilities of dry spells more than 5, 10, 15, and 20 days.

  16. Dry etching technology for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Nojiri, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    This book is a must-have reference to dry etching technology for semiconductors, which will enable engineers to develop new etching processes for further miniaturization and integration of semiconductor integrated circuits.  The author describes the device manufacturing flow, and explains in which part of the flow dry etching is actually used. The content is designed as a practical guide for engineers working at chip makers, equipment suppliers and materials suppliers, and university students studying plasma, focusing on the topics they need most, such as detailed etching processes for each material (Si, SiO2, Metal etc) used in semiconductor devices, etching equipment used in manufacturing fabs, explanation of why a particular plasma source and gas chemistry are used for the etching of each material, and how to develop etching processes.  The latest, key technologies are also described, such as 3D IC Etching, Dual Damascene Etching, Low-k Etching, Hi-k/Metal Gate Etching, FinFET Etching, Double Patterning ...

  17. Membrane-Filtered Olive Mill Wastewater: Quality Assessment of the Dried Phenolic-Rich Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedej, Ivana; Milczarek, Rebecca; Wang, Selina C; Sheng, Runqi; de Jesús Avena-Bustillos, Roberto; Dao, Lan; Takeoka, Gary

    2016-04-01

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also to extract and utilize valuable by-products. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to explore different techniques for drying a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of OMWW and compare the techniques in terms of the dried product quality and feasibility of the process. The OMWW from 2 (3-phase and 2-phase) California mills was subjected to a 2-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich coproduct stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure water stream that could be recycled into the milling process. Spray-, freeze-, and infrared-drying were applied to obtain solid material from the RO-R. Drying of the RO-R was made possible only with addition of 10% maltodextrin as a carrier. The total soluble phenolics in dried RO-R were in the range 0.15 to 0.58 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight for 2-phase RO-R, and 1.38 to 2.17 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight for the 3-phase RO-R. Spray-dried RO-R from 3-phase OMWW showed remarkable antioxidant activity. Protocatechuic acid, tyrosol, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid were quantified in all dried RO-R, whereas 3-hydroxytyrosol was found in 3-phase dried RO-R. This combination of separation and drying technologies helps to add value and shelf-stability to an olive oil by-product and increase environmental sustainability of its production.

  18. Selectivity in capillary electrokinetic separations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zeeuw, R.A; de Jong, G.J.; Ensing, K

    1999-01-01

    This review gives a survey of selectivity modes in capillary electrophoresis separations in pharmaceutical analysis and bioanalysis. Despite the high efficiencies of these separation techniques, good selectivity is required to allow quantitation or identification of a Chemistry and Toxicology, parti

  19. Physical Separation in the Workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Diego; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Physical separation is pervasive in organizations, and has powerful effects on employee motivation and organizational behaviors. However, research shows that workplace separation is characterized by a variety of tradeoffs, tensions, and challenges that lead to both positive and negative outcomes...

  20. Determine separations process strategy decision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    This study provides a summary level comparative analysis of selected, top-level, waste treatment strategies. These strategies include No Separations, Separations (high-level/low-level separations), and Deferred Separations of the tank waste. These three strategies encompass the full range of viable processing alternatives based upon full retrieval of the tank wastes. The assumption of full retrieval of the tank wastes is a predecessor decision and will not be revisited in this study.

  1. Composite separators and redox flow batteries based on porous separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Luo, Qingtao; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Wei; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2016-01-12

    Composite separators having a porous structure and including acid-stable, hydrophilic, inorganic particles enmeshed in a substantially fully fluorinated polyolefin matrix can be utilized in a number of applications. The inorganic particles can provide hydrophilic characteristics. The pores of the separator result in good selectivity and electrical conductivity. The fluorinated polymeric backbone can result in high chemical stability. Accordingly, one application of the composite separators is in redox flow batteries as low cost membranes. In such applications, the composite separator can also enable additional property-enhancing features compared to ion-exchange membranes. For example, simple capacity control can be achieved through hydraulic pressure by balancing the volumes of electrolyte on each side of the separator. While a porous separator can also allow for volume and pressure regulation, in RFBs that utilize corrosive and/or oxidizing compounds, the composite separators described herein are preferable for their robustness in the presence of such compounds.

  2. Calorimetric analysis of cryopreservation and freeze-drying formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wendell Q

    2015-01-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a commonly used thermal analysis technique in cryopreservation and freeze-drying research. It has been used to investigate crystallization, eutectic formation, glass transition, devitrification, recrystallization, melting, polymorphism, molecular relaxation, phase separation, water transport, thermochemistry, and kinetics of complex reactions (e.g., protein denaturation). Such information can be used for the optimization of protective formulations and process protocols. This chapter gives an introduction to beginners who are less familiar with this technique. It covers the instrument and its basic principles, followed by a discussion of the methods as well as examples of specific applications.

  3. Total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, colour and drying characteristics of date fruit dried with different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçen İZLİ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Date slices were dried with the three drying methods convective (60, 70 and 80 °C, microwave (120 W and freeze drying to determine drying characteristics and to compare the dried fruit quality. All colour parameters changed depending on the drying method and colours closest to the fresh sample were obtained with freeze drying. It is interesting to note that the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in each sample rose when looked at in relation to the fresh sample. In particular, microwave-dried samples were recorded as having the highest total phenolic content and the highest antioxidant capacity. To explain the drying kinetics of the date slices, nine thin-layer drying models were also attempted. Based on statistical tests, the model developed by Midilli et al. model was found to be the best model for convective and microwave drying, but the Two Term model was the best for freeze drying. This study shows that microwave drying can produce high quality date slices with the additional advantage of reduced drying times compared to convective and freeze drying.

  4. Separating Underdetermined Convolutive Speech Mixtures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Wang, DeLiang; Larsen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    a method for underdetermined blind source separation of convolutive mixtures. The proposed framework is applicable for separation of instantaneous as well as convolutive speech mixtures. It is possible to iteratively extract each speech signal from the mixture by combining blind source separation...

  5. General Motors sidestream separator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessier, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    On February 15, 1980, the United States Environmental Protection Agency, acting pursuant to Paragraph 113(D) (4) of the Clean Air Act, issued to General Motors an innovative technology order covering fifteen coal-fired spreader-stoker boilers located at six General Motors plants in Ohio. The purpose and effect of this order was to permit General Motors time to develop a new, innovative technique for controlling particulate emissions from the specified boilers before compliance with the federally approved Ohio particulate control regulation was required. This new technology was christened, The Sidestream Separator, by General Motors. It provides a highly cost effective means of reducing particulate emissions below levels currently obtainable with conventionally used high efficiency mechanical collectors. These improvements could prove to be of substantial benefit to many industrial facilities with spreader-stoker coal-fired boilers that cannot be brought into compliance with applicble air pollution regulations except by application of far more expensive and unwieldly electrostatic precipitators (ESP's) or fabric filters (baghouses).

  6. PARAFFIN SEPARATION VACUUM DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A. Abdulrahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulated column performance curves were constructed for existing paraffin separation vacuum distillation column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company/Baiji-Iraq. The variables considered in this study are the thermodynamic model option, top vacuum pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed temperature, feed composition & reflux ratio. Also simulated columns profiles for the temperature, vapor & liquid flow rates composition were constructed. Four different thermodynamic model options (SRK, TSRK, PR, and ESSO were used, affecting the results within 1-25% variation for the most cases.The simulated results show that about 2% to 8 % of paraffin (C10, C11, C12, & C13 present at the bottom stream which may cause a problem in the LAB plant. The major variations were noticed for the top temperature & the  paraffin weight fractions at bottom section with top vacuum pressure. The bottom temperature above 240 oC is not recommended because the total bottom flow rate decreases sharply, where as  the weight fraction of paraffins decrease slightly. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with CHEMCAD

  7. Dry NO/sub x/ separation. Trockentechnische NO/sub x/-Abscheidung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelter, H.; Igelbuescher, H.; Gresch, H.; Dewert, H.

    1987-04-02

    There are wellknown processes for reducing NO/sub x/ to N/sub 2/ by wet technique or via catalysts by adding NH/sub 3/ or a similar reduction gas and therefore to make it harmless. The expense associated with this proved comparatively great. In order to avoid this disadvantage according to the invention it is proposed, particularly for fluidized beds, that porous free-flying bodies (e.g. perlite bodies) should be added above the flame grate, which when dosed with means of reduction, reduce the NO/sub x/. In the course of the dwell time of these bodies, which form a regular mist of very fine grain size in the waste gas, the NO/sub x/ reduction is done without additional contact with catalysts.

  8. Experimental Measurements of Store Separation Using Dry Ice Models in a Subsonic Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    second and the models were tracked using laser dot projection photogrammetry. In addition, one handheld camera recorded a test for qualitative analysis ...Results and Analysis ................................................................................................... 39 Raw Imagery...of attack [degrees] CG Center of gravity [-] D Diameter [inches] Ejector force [lbf] g Gravitational acceleration constant [ ] I Mass moment

  9. Hot dry rock geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiken, G.; Murphy, H.; Nunz, G.; Potter, R.

    1981-08-01

    Man-made geothermal systems are discussed which make it possible to extract heat from hot rocks in areas where natural fluids are insufficient for the development of hydrothermal energy. The location and magnitude of high- and low-temperature geothermal resources in the USA for such hot dry rock (HDR) systems are examined. An HDR concept is described in which water is injected into one of two nearly parallel wells connected at depth by man-made fractures; the injected water circulates through the fracture system, where it is heated by conduction from the hot rock, and hot fluid, which can be used for heating or for electric power generation, rises through the second well. Some heat-extraction experiments using the described concept are reviewed which are being conducted in a complex volcanic field in New Mexico. The economics of HDR energy is evaluated.

  10. Thermoplastic dry polymer powder prepregging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, R.A.; Loos, A.C.; Meyer, G. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Thermoplastic resin systems have shown potential for reducing the manufacturing costs and improving the damage tolerance of composite structures. Current methods for thermoplastic resin impregnation of fiber bundles are limited by various difficulties and thus produce poor quality prepregs. The emerging technology of fiber is one of the most promising options, producing excellent matrix drape, and feasibility for a wide variety of matrix systems. An electrostatic dry polymer powder prepregging system was developed at the NSF Science and Technology Center at Virginia Tech, and has been used to produce high quality thermoplastic towpreg from a wide variety o polymer matrices. Additionally, a modification of the system allows for the production of towpreg from 15 gram polymer samples. This is ideal for the production of composites from resin systems under development, allowing early feedback concerning processing and composite mechanical performance.

  11. Dry fermentation of agricultural residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, W. J.; Chandler, J. A.; Dellorto, S.; Fanfoni, K. J.; Fast, S.; Jackson, D.; Kabrick, R. M.

    1981-09-01

    A dry fermentation process is discussed which converts agricultural residues to methane, using the residues in their as produced state. The process appears to simplify and enhance the possibilities for using crop residues as an energy source. The major process variables investigated include temperature, the amount and type of inoculum, buffer requirements, compaction, and pretreatment to control the initial available organic components that create pH problems. A pilot-scale reactor operation on corn stover at a temperature of 550 C, with 25 percent initial total solids, a seed-to-feed ratio of 2.5 percent, and a buffer-to-feed ratio of 8 percent achieved 33 percent total volatile solids destruction in 60 days. Volumetric biogas yields from this unit were greater than 1 vol/vol day for 12 days, and greater than 0.5 vol/vol day for 32 days, at a substrate density of 169 kg/m (3).

  12. Setting up the drying regimes based on the theory of moisture migration during drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasić, M.; Radojević, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Drying is energy intensive process which has important effect on the quality of the clay tiles that are dried commercially. Chamber and tunnel dryers are constantly improving. Better technical equipment and operational strategies have lead to higher quality of the dried clay products. The moisture migration during isothermal drying process can be visually traced on the curve that represents the relationship between variable effective moisture diffusivity (MR) with time (t). Proposed non isothermal drying regimes were consisted from several isothermal segments. For the first time, the choice of isothermal segments specification and its duration was not specified by experience or by trial-and-error method. It was detected from the isothermal curves Deff - MR in accordance with the theory of moisture migration during drying. Proposed drying regimes were tested. Clay roofing tiles were dried without cracks. Dried clay roofing tiles has satisfied all requirements defined in EN 1304 norm related to the shape regularity and mechanical properties.

  13. A statistical approach to optimize the spray drying of starch particles: application to dry powder coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilancetti, Luca; Poncelet, Denis; Loisel, Catherine; Mazzitelli, Stefania; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2010-09-01

    This article describes the preparation of starch particles, by spray drying, for possible application to a dry powder coating process. Dry powder coating consists of spraying a fine powder and a plasticizer on particles. The efficiency of the coating is linked to the powder morphological and dimensional characteristics. Different experimental parameters of the spray-drying process were analyzed, including type of solvent, starch concentration, rate of polymer feeding, pressure of the atomizing air, drying air flow, and temperature of drying air. An optimization and screening of the experimental parameters by a design of the experiment (DOE) approach have been done. Finally, the produced spray-dried starch particles were conveniently tested in a dry coating process, in comparison to the commercial initial starch. The obtained results, in terms of coating efficiency, demonstrated that the spray-dried particles led to a sharp increase of coating efficiency value.

  14. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-03-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  15. Dry needling - peripheral and central considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-11-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture.

  16. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects of central sensitization, it reduces local and referred pain, improves range of motion and muscle activation pattern, and alters the chemical environment of trigger points. Trigger point dry needling should be based on a thorough understanding of the scientific background of trigger points, the differences and similarities between active and latent trigger points, motor adaptation, and central sensitize application. Several outcome studies are included, as well as comments on dry needling and acupuncture. PMID:23115475

  17. Thin layer convection-drying of mushrooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pal, U.S.; Chakraverty, A. [Indian Inst. of Tech., Kharagpur (India). Dept. of Agricultural Engineering

    1997-06-01

    Dehydration characteristics of the Oyster Pleurotus variety of mushroom were studied. Both untreated and treated (steam blanching followed by sulphiting and citric acid pretreatment before drying) mushrooms were dried in the thin layer experimental equipment at each of the drying air temperatures of 45, 50 and 60{sup o}C with air velocities of 0.9 and 1.6 m/s. Studies on the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) of both untreated and treated dehydrated mushrooms were performed at different relative humidities ranging from 11.2 to 86.3% at 30{sup o}C. Taking drying time and quality of the dehydrated product into account, a combination of a drying air temperature of 50{sup o}C and an air velocity of 0.9 m/s appears to be suitable for drying of both untreated and treated mushrooms for a good dehydrated product. (author)

  18. The effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood mineral status around calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Enemark, J M

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained in 6 separate studies concerned with the effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood calcium, magnesium and phosphorus status around calving. The experiments were conducted on 5 different farms, and comprised a total of 117 cows. Two...

  19. Predictive modeling of infrared radiative heating in tomato dry-peeling process: Part I. Model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared (IR) dry-peeling has emerged as an effective non-chemical alternative to conventional lye and steam methods of peeling tomatoes. Successful peel separation induced by IR radiation requires the delivery of a sufficient amount of thermal energy onto tomato surface in a very short duration. Th...

  20. Developmental Tendency of Dry Land Farming Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAN Lun

    2002-01-01

    The developmental tendency of dry land farming technologies in the semiarid area of China were reviewed based on the overview of recent progress in dry land farming researches from China and oversea. It was emphasized that conservation tillage, limited irrigation, genetic modification and chemical control are the important aspects for the dry land farming research and development of the future. In addition, some considerations and suggestions on above-mentioned aspects were proposed in this paper.

  1. Wood colour related to kiln drying

    OpenAIRE

    Sundqvist, Bror

    2000-01-01

    Raised temperature in artificial drying has led to some changes of wood products such as colour and strength etc. For special treatment of wood-products with clearly modified properties, among them colour, is often high temperature and steam used industrially. Knowledge about the colour rendering from wood that is subjected to heat under humid conditions and/or artificial drying, especially kiln drying, is thus of interest. It is also of interest to understand the chemical background, for the...

  2. Thin layer drying of tomato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Nath, Amit; Deka, Bidyut Chandra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-08-01

    The hot air convective drying characteristics of blanched tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum L.) slices have been investigated. Drying experiments were carried out at four different temperatures (50, 60, 65 and 70 °C). The effect of drying temperatures on the drying behavior of the tomato slices was evaluated. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The average effective diffusivity values varied from 0.5453 × 10(-9) to 2.3871 × 10(-9) m(2)/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 61.004 kJ/mol. In order to select a suitable form of the drying curve, six different thin layer drying models (Henderson-Pabis, Page, Diamante et al., Wang and Singh, Logarithmic and Newton models) were fitted to the experimental data. The goodness of fit tests indicated that the Logarithmic model gave the best fit to experimental results, which was closely followed by the Henderson-Pabis model. The influence of varied drying temperatures on quality attributes of the tomato slices viz. Hunter color parameters, ascorbic acid, lycopene, titratable acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars and sugar/acid ratio of dried slices was also studied. Slices dried at 50 and 60 °C had high amount of total sugars, lycopene, sugar/acid ratio, Hunter L- and a-values. Drying of slices at 50 °C revealed optimum retention of ascorbic acid, sugar/acid ratio and red hue, whereas, drying at higher temperature (65 and 70 °C) resulted in a considerable decrease in nutrients and colour quality of the slices.

  3. MODELLING OF THIN LAYER DRYING KINETICS OF COCOA BEANS DURING ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. HII

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Drying experiments were conducted using air-ventilated oven and sun dryer to simulate the artificial and natural drying processes of cocoa beans. The drying data were fitted with several published thin layer drying models. A new model was introduced which is a combination of the Page and two-term drying model. Selection of the best model was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2, reduced chi-square (2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the experimental and predicted values. The results showed that the new model was found best described the artificial and natural drying kinetics of cocoa under the conditions tested.

  4. High-efficiency filtration in dry/semi-dry FGD plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popovici, Florin [Evonik Fibres GmbH, Monza (Italy)

    2012-07-01

    Dry/semi-dry FGD plants are associated, in general, with a fabric filter plant. The paper highlights the importance of specific fibre properties like cross section and titre associated with the filtration requirements and the filter material chemical resistance for dry/semi-dry FGD process conditions in coal-fired boiler bag houses. References related to dry/semi-dry FGD plants applied to coal-fired boilers around the world are presented and include the performance evaluation of these plants, the type of filter media, plant design specifications, process parameters and particulate emission efficiency. (orig.)

  5. Basic Considerations for Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Revisited CFD Thermal Analysis on the Concrete Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Jae Soo [ACT Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Younwon; Song, Sub Lee [BEES Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeun Min [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The integrity of storage facility and also of the spent nuclear fuel itself is considered very important. Storage casks can be located in a designated area on a site or in a designated storage building. A number of different designs for dry storage have been developed and used in different countries. Dry storage system was classified into two categories by IAEA. One is container including cask and silo, the other one is vault. However, there is various way of categorization for dry storage system. Dry silo and cask are usually classified separately, so the dry storage system can be classified into three different types. Furthermore, dry cask storage can be categorized into two types based on the type of the materials, concrete cask and metal cask. In this paper, the design characteristics of dry storage cask are introduced and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based thermal analysis for concrete cask is revisited. Basic principles for dry storage cask design were described. Based on that, thermal analysis of concrete dry cask was introduced from the study of H. M. Kim et al. From the CFD calculation, the temperature of concrete wall was maintained under the safety criteria. From this fundamental analysis, further investigations are expected. For example, thermal analysis on the metal cask, thermal analysis on horizontally laid spent nuclear fuel assemblies for transportation concerns, and investigations on better performance of natural air circulation in dry cask can be promising candidates.

  6. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.(A123 Systems, Inc.)

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  7. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  8. Drying kinetics of some building materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moropoulou

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Moisture is one of the most deteriorating factors of buildings. The deteriorating effect of moisture occurs mainly during the drying phase, and not in the wetting phase. Appropriate parameters of the drying kinetics are required for the building materials. Environmental factors, such as air temperature, air humidity, and air velocity affect drying. An experimental air dryer of controlled drying air conditions was used to investigate the drying performance of 4 stone materials, 2 bricks and 7 plasters. Drying kinetics was examined at 4 air temperatures, 6 air humidities, and 3 air velocities. A first-order kinetics model was obtained, in which the drying time constant was a function of the drying conditions, and the equilibrium material moisture content was described by the Oswin equation. The parameters of the proposed model were found to be affected strongly by the material and the drying air conditions. The results obtained are very useful in selecting the appropriate plaster to protect existing historic buildings.

  9. Morphological Characteristics of Korean Dried Ginseng Products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hee-Do Hong; Chang-Woon Cho; Young-Chan Kim; Eunyoung Kim; Young-Kyung Rhee; Jeonghae Rho; Seung-Hoe Choi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a standard quality characteristic through the evaluation and statistical analysis of the morphological characteristics of dried ginseng (white ginseng) products...

  10. Liquid Crystal Research Shows Deformation By Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    These images, from David Weitz's liquid crystal research, show ordered uniform sized droplets (upper left) before they are dried from their solution. After the droplets are dried (upper right), they are viewed with crossed polarizers that show the deformation caused by drying, a process that orients the bipolar structure of the liquid crystal within the droplets. When an electric field is applied to the dried droplets (lower left), and then increased (lower right), the liquid crystal within the droplets switches its alignment, thereby reducing the amount of light that can be scattered by the droplets when a beam is shone through them.

  11. Dry Mouth? Don't Delay Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American Dental Association: Dry Mouth Related Consumer Updates Depression: FDA-Approved Medications May Help More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food ...

  12. Recent developments in drying of food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valarmathi, T. N.; Sekar, S.; Purushothaman, M.; Sekar, S. D.; Rama Sharath Reddy, Maddela; Reddy, Kancham Reddy Naveen Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Drying is a dehydration process to preserve agricultural products for long period usage. The most common and cheapest method is open sun drying in which the products are simply laid on ground, road, mats, roof, etc. But the open sun drying has some disadvantages like dependent on good weather, contamination by dust, birds and animals consume a considerable quantity, slow drying rate and damages due to strong winds and rain. To overcome these difficulties solar dryers are developed with closed environment for drying agricultural products effectively. To obtain good quality food with reduced energy consumption, selection of appropriate drying process and proper input parameters is essential. In recent years several researchers across the world have developed new drying systems for improving the product quality, increasing the drying rate, decreasing the energy consumption, etc. Some of the new systems are fluidized bed, vibrated fluidized bed, desiccant, microwave, vacuum, freeze, infrared, intermittent, electro hydrodynamic and hybrid dryers. In this review the most recent progress in the field of drying of agricultural food products such as new methods, new products and modeling and optimization techniques has been presented. Challenges and future directions are also highlighted. The review will be useful for new researchers entering into this ever needed and ever growing field of engineering.

  13. Antioxidant Properties of Some Dried Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Ertekin Filiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of various dried fruits were investigated. Total phenolic content of dried fruits (apple, quince, peach, orange, grapefruit, kiwi, banana, watermelon, cantaloupe, strawberries and tomatoes were between 219-5386 mg GAE/kg in dry matter (dm. TEAC and ORAC values of the samples were between 7.01-126 µmol TE/g dm and 11.69-211 µmol TE/g dm, respectively. Dried fruits can be considered as an important source of antioxidant components in diet with the higher antioxidant properties.

  14. Drying of Pigment-Cellulose Nanofibril Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Timofeev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new substrate containing cellulose nanofibrils and inorganic pigment particles has been developed for printed electronics applications. The studied composite structure contains 80% fillers and is mechanically stable and flexible. Before drying, the solids content can be as low as 20% due to the high water binding capacity of the cellulose nanofibrils. We have studied several drying methods and their effects on the substrate properties. The aim is to achieve a tight, smooth surface keeping the drying efficiency simultaneously at a high level. The methods studied include: (1 drying on a hot metal surface; (2 air impingement drying; and (3 hot pressing. Somewhat surprisingly, drying rates measured for the pigment-cellulose nanofibril substrates were quite similar to those for the reference board sheets. Very high dewatering rates were observed for the hot pressing at high moisture contents. The drying method had significant effects on the final substrate properties, especially on short-range surface smoothness. The best smoothness was obtained with a combination of impingement and contact drying. The mechanical properties of the sheets were also affected by the drying method and associated temperature.

  15. Solar drying of uruguayan red gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ono

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he use of solar energy as an alternative to non-renewable energy sources has been widely researched in the last decades. Compared to air drying, solar drying kilns can better control the drying process, resulting in a higher quality of the dry wood and lower final wood moisture content values. Investment and running costs for a solar drying kiln are lower than those of a conventional kiln. Moreover, the solar drying process can be advantageous for drying hardwoods which are traditionally considered difficult to dry such as eucalyptus wood of medium and high density (Red gums, known in Spanish as “Eucaliptos colorados”. The solar drying kiln naturally incorporates a daily high relative humidity period that can be similar to a conditioning or steaming step, although at a lower temperature.This results in fewer defects due to the drying process.A pilot scale 2.5 m3 semi-greenhouse type solar wood drying kiln was constructed at LATU (Uruguay Technological Laboratory in Montevideo, Uruguay. The operating conditions and the results from two drying runs are presented. Two species of red gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., ADD 870 kg/m3, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., ADD 800 kg/m3 were dried from initial average moisture contents (WMC of around 60% down to 10.0% and 12.7% in 108 days and 76 days, respectively. Boards were provided by the Grupo Forestal San Gregorio from trees harvested at Tacuarembo and Paysandu Departments from cattle shelter forests 60 and 70 years old.Mean volume shrinkage was 18% for E. tereticornis, and 16% for E. camaldulensis, and the level of defects was moderate. Residual stresses and moisture content gradients were observed for both species. Final moisture content values were similar compared to those obtained in conventional drying kilns but with longer drying periods and lower operating costs. This would make the solar drying process attractive to small and medium sized forest products industries in a small country

  16. Cleaning of South African coal using a compound dry cleaning apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Haibin; Luo Zhenfu; Zhao Yuemin; Wu Wanchang; Zhang Cuiyu; Dai Ningning

    2011-01-01

    The compound dry cleaning principle is briefly described. A beneficiation test on South African coal was conducted using a model compound dry cleaning apparatus. Excellent results were obtained and the optimum operating parameters were determined. They are: an amplitude of 3.0 ram, a motor frequency of 47.5 Hz, an air volume of 50%, a transverse angle of 7°, and a longitudinal angle of -2°. These conditions yield a clean coal containing 11% ash and a coal production of 75%. The organic efficiency, η, is 95.86%. These results show that the South African coal can be separated effectively by compound dry cleaning, which will popularize the compound dry cleaning method.

  17. Using dry and wet year hydroclimatic extremes to guide future hydrologic projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oni, Stephen; Futter, Martyn; Ledesma, Jose; Teutschbein, Claudia; Buttle, Jim; Laudon, Hjalmar

    2016-07-01

    There are growing numbers of studies on climate change impacts on forest hydrology, but limited attempts have been made to use current hydroclimatic variabilities to constrain projections of future climatic conditions. Here we used historical wet and dry years as a proxy for expected future extreme conditions in a boreal catchment. We showed that runoff could be underestimated by at least 35 % when dry year parameterizations were used for wet year conditions. Uncertainty analysis showed that behavioural parameter sets from wet and dry years separated mainly on precipitation-related parameters and to a lesser extent on parameters related to landscape processes, while uncertainties inherent in climate models (as opposed to differences in calibration or performance metrics) appeared to drive the overall uncertainty in runoff projections under dry and wet hydroclimatic conditions. Hydrologic model calibration for climate impact studies could be based on years that closely approximate anticipated conditions to better constrain uncertainty in projecting extreme conditions in boreal and temperate regions.

  18. COMPARISON BETWEEN WOOD DRYING DEFECT SCORES: SPECIMEN TESTING X ANALYSIS OF KILN-DRIED BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is important to develop drying technologies for Eucalyptus grandis lumber, which is one of the most planted species of this genus in Brazil and plays an important role as raw material for the wood industry. The general aim of this work was to assess the conventional kiln drying of juvenile wood of three clones of Eucalyptus grandis. The specific aims were to compare the behavior between: i drying defects indicated by tests with wood specimens and conventional kiln-dried boards; and ii physical properties and the drying quality. Five 11-year-old trees of each clone were felled, and only flatsawn boards of the first log were used. Basic density and total shrinkage were determined, and the drying test with wood specimens at 100 °C was carried out. Kiln drying of boards was performed, and initial and final moisture content, moisture gradient in thickness, drying stresses and drying defects were assessed. The defect scoring method was used to verify the behavior between the defects detected by specimen testing and the defects detected in kiln-dried boards. As main results, the drying schedule was too severe for the wood, resulting in a high level of boards with defects. The behavior between the defects in the drying test with specimens and the defects of kiln-dried boards was different, there was no correspondence, according to the defect scoring method.

  19. Separators - Technology review: Ceramic based separators for secondary batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nestler, Tina; Schmid, Robert; Münchgesang, Wolfram; Bazhenov, Vasilii; Schilm, Jochen; Leisegang, Tilmann; Meyer, Dirk C.

    2014-06-01

    Besides a continuous increase of the worldwide use of electricity, the electric energy storage technology market is a growing sector. At the latest since the German energy transition ("Energiewende") was announced, technological solutions for the storage of renewable energy have been intensively studied. Storage technologies in various forms are commercially available. A widespread technology is the electrochemical cell. Here the cost per kWh, e. g. determined by energy density, production process and cycle life, is of main interest. Commonly, an electrochemical cell consists of an anode and a cathode that are separated by an ion permeable or ion conductive membrane - the separator - as one of the main components. Many applications use polymeric separators whose pores are filled with liquid electrolyte, providing high power densities. However, problems arise from different failure mechanisms during cell operation, which can affect the integrity and functionality of these separators. In the case of excessive heating or mechanical damage, the polymeric separators become an incalculable security risk. Furthermore, the growth of metallic dendrites between the electrodes leads to unwanted short circuits. In order to minimize these risks, temperature stable and non-flammable ceramic particles can be added, forming so-called composite separators. Full ceramic separators, in turn, are currently commercially used only for high-temperature operation systems, due to their comparably low ion conductivity at room temperature. However, as security and lifetime demands increase, these materials turn into focus also for future room temperature applications. Hence, growing research effort is being spent on the improvement of the ion conductivity of these ceramic solid electrolyte materials, acting as separator and electrolyte at the same time. Starting with a short overview of available separator technologies and the separator market, this review focuses on ceramic-based separators

  20. Mathematical modelling of membrane separation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Frank

    This thesis concerns mathematical modelling of membrane separation. The thesis consists of introductory theory on membrane separation, equations of motion, and properties of dextran, which will be the solute species throughout the thesis. Furthermore, the thesis consist of three separate mathemat......This thesis concerns mathematical modelling of membrane separation. The thesis consists of introductory theory on membrane separation, equations of motion, and properties of dextran, which will be the solute species throughout the thesis. Furthermore, the thesis consist of three separate....... It is found that the probability of entering the pore is highest when the largest of the radii in the ellipse is equal to half the radius of the pore, in case of molecules with circular radius less than the pore radius. The results are directly related to the macroscopic distribution coefficient...

  1. Capillary Separation: Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terabe, Shigeru

    2009-07-01

    Micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC), a separation mode of capillary electrophoresis (CE), has enabled the separation of electrically neutral analytes. MEKC can be performed by adding an ionic micelle to the running solution of CE without modifying the instrument. Its separation principle is based on the differential migration of the ionic micelles and the bulk running buffer under electrophoresis conditions and on the interaction between the analyte and the micelle. Hence, MEKC's separation principle is similar to that of chromatography. MEKC is a useful technique particularly for the separation of small molecules, both neutral and charged, and yields high-efficiency separation in a short time with minimum amounts of sample and reagents. To improve the concentration sensitivity of detection, several on-line sample preconcentration techniques such as sweeping have been developed.

  2. Separable programming theory and methods

    CERN Document Server

    Stefanov, Stefan M

    2001-01-01

    In this book, the author considers separable programming and, in particular, one of its important cases - convex separable programming Some general results are presented, techniques of approximating the separable problem by linear programming and dynamic programming are considered Convex separable programs subject to inequality equality constraint(s) and bounds on variables are also studied and iterative algorithms of polynomial complexity are proposed As an application, these algorithms are used in the implementation of stochastic quasigradient methods to some separable stochastic programs Numerical approximation with respect to I1 and I4 norms, as a convex separable nonsmooth unconstrained minimization problem, is considered as well Audience Advanced undergraduate and graduate students, mathematical programming operations research specialists

  3. Separation process using microchannel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Perry, Steven T.; Arora, Ravi; Qiu, Dongming; Lamont, Michael Jay; Burwell, Deanna; Dritz, Terence Andrew; McDaniel, Jeffrey S.; Rogers, Jr.; William A.; Silva, Laura J.; Weidert, Daniel J.; Simmons, Wayne W.; Chadwell, G. Bradley

    2009-03-24

    The disclosed invention relates to a process and apparatus for separating a first fluid from a fluid mixture comprising the first fluid. The process comprises: (A) flowing the fluid mixture into a microchannel separator in contact with a sorption medium, the fluid mixture being maintained in the microchannel separator until at least part of the first fluid is sorbed by the sorption medium, removing non-sorbed parts of the fluid mixture from the microchannel separator; and (B) desorbing first fluid from the sorption medium and removing desorbed first fluid from the microchannel separator. The process and apparatus are suitable for separating nitrogen or methane from a fluid mixture comprising nitrogen and methane. The process and apparatus may be used for rejecting nitrogen in the upgrading of sub-quality methane.

  4. Wastewater treatment with acoustic separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kambayashi, Takuya; Saeki, Tomonori; Buchanan, Ian

    2017-07-01

    Acoustic separation is a filter-free wastewater treatment method based on the forces generated in ultrasonic standing waves. In this report, a batch-system separator based on acoustic separation was demonstrated using a small-scale prototype acoustic separator to remove suspended solids from oil sand process-affected water (OSPW). By applying an acoustic separator to the batch use OSPW treatment, the required settling time, which was the time that the chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased to the environmental criterion (<200 mg/L), could be shortened from 10 to 1 min. Moreover, for a 10 min settling time, the acoustic separator could reduce the FeCl3 dose as coagulant in OSPW treatment from 500 to 160 mg/L.

  5. Design of a drying system for a rollover carwash machine using CFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed M.M. Sabet

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design and development of a new drying system for a rollover carwash machine with the support of numerical tools. The drying system is composed of a pair of stationary vertical dryers and a moveable horizontal dryer that can adjust itself to the contour of a vehicle. After the definition of the dryers’ concept, their performance was assessed individually to check their internal flow pattern and to improve their airflow distribution. These issues are expected to provide feedback on redesign and geometric optimization of the dryers. After redesign of the dryers separately, the behaviour of the complete drying system was studied on actual vehicle models, representative of the shortest and tallest dimensions that can be washed with the existing carwash machine sector. The drying efficiency of the whole system was studied by calculation of shear stress distribution on various surfaces of a given vehicle. The results allowed concluding that the overall drying performance of the design system is very good and assure adequate drying on most vehicles surfaces. The results obtained from numerical studies were then validated with experimental measurements and a good agreement was found between the two. The procedure employed in this work can be applied to support the design and analysis of other mechanical drying systems.

  6. Study of the comparative costs of five wet/dry cooling tower concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaloudek, F.R.; Allemann, R.T.; Faletti, D.W.; Johnson, B.M.; Parry, H.L.; Smith, G.C.; Tokarz, R.D.; Walter, R.A.

    1976-09-01

    The projected cost of five alternative dry/wet power plant heat rejection concepts was studied under conditions imposed by hypothetical use in association with the San Juan Plant Unit 3, a 550-MWe facility currently under construction near the ''Four Corners'' area of New Mexico. The five alternative concepts were: integrated dry/wet tower; separate dry and wet towers; metal fin-tube induced draft tower with deluge water augmentation; plastic heat exchanger tower with deluge water augmentation, and metal fin-tube/deluge augmentation tower with an intermediate ammonia evaporation-condensation condenser and the cooling tower. The integrated dry/wet tower concept, already chosen for service at San Juan Unit 3, was included for reference purposes. All concepts were conceptually designed and estimated using the same bases and employing uniform practices. Each concept was assumed to use all water allocated for consumptive use in Unit 3. The cost estimates obtained showed the following descending order of ''comparable capital cost'': separate dry/wet; metal fin-tube/deluge; integrated dry/wet; plastic tube/deluge; and metal fin-tube/deluge/ammonia. The results indicate that two of the advanced concepts considered, i.e., the plastic tube/deluge concept and the metal fin tube/deluge/ammonia concept, can possibly reduce the overall costs of dry/wet cooling under conditions imposed by the site considered. It was recommended that these two concepts receive additional attention by the ERDA Dry Cooling Tower Program and industry to further quantify their potential benefits and demonstrate their performance and reliability.

  7. Hereditary separability in Hausdorff continua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Daniel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We consider those Hausdorff continua S such that each separable subspace of S is hereditarily separable. Due to results of Ostaszewski and Rudin, respectively, all monotonically normal spaces and therefore all continuous Hausdorff images of ordered compacta also have this property. Our study focuses on the structure of such spaces that also possess one of various rim properties, with emphasis given to rim-separability. In so doing we obtain analogues of results of M. Tuncali and I. Loncar, respectively.

  8. Separation of phosphorus from pig slurry using chemical additives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Estevez Rodriguez, M.D.; Gomez del Puerto, A.M.; Montealegre Meléndez, M.L.;

    2005-01-01

    of water and therefore transport costs can be reduced by separating the P from a high volume of slurry into a small dry-matter- and P-rich solid fraction. This study tested different combinations of coagulants (ferric salts) and flocculants (polyacrylamide polymers) that can contribute to an efficient...... retention of P in a solid fraction. The laboratory studies showed that 98% of the P in slurry was retained in the solid fraction retained on the filter net (12% to 28% retained W:W) after the addition of coagulants and flocculants. Linear cationic polyacrylamide polymers proved to be more efficient at lower...... irrespective of the amounts added (12% to 18%). The cost of an efficient separation of slurry using coagulants and flocculants and including the cost of screw press separation was estimated to be $2.4 m(-3) slurry....

  9. Shape-induced separation of nanospheres and aligned nanorods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, I; Zandvliet, H J W; Kooij, E S

    2014-07-15

    We studied the phase separation and spatial arrangement of gold nanorods and nanospheres after evaporative self-assembly from aqueous suspension. Depending on the position relative to the contact line of the drying droplet, spheres and rods separate into various liquid-crystalline phases. Nanorods exhibit a strong preference for side-by-side alignment, giving rise to smectic phases; spheres in solution are forced out of these regions and form close-packed arrays. We discuss this self-separation into nanorod- and sphere-rich phases in terms of various interactions, including electrostatic, van der Waals, and deplection interactions forces. The experimental results are compared to quantitative calculations of the colloidal interaction energies. We also describe and discuss the role of the surfactant on the different crystal facets of the nanorods on the assembly process.

  10. Cleaning properties of dry adhesives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J.; P.; DíAZ; TéLLEZ; D.; SAMEOTO; C.; MENON

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we present a study into the cleaning properties of synthetic dry adhesives. We have manufactured the adhesive micro-fibres through a low-cost, high yield fabrication method using Sylgard 184 Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the structural material. We deliberately contaminated the adhesive samples with different sized particles in the micro and macro scales and tested different cleaning methods for their efficacy with respect to each particle size. We investigated different cleaning methods, which included the use of wax moulding, vibration and pressure sensitive adhesives. For adhesion testing we used a custom system with a linear stage and a force sensor indenting a hemispherical probe into the adhesive surface and measuring the pull-off force. To characterize the cleaning efficacy we visually inspected each sample in a microscope and weighed the samples with a microgram-accuracy analytical balance. Results showed that the moulding method induced adhesion recovery in a greater percentage than the other cleaning methods and even helped with the recovery of collapsed posts in some cases. On the other hand pressure sensitive adhesives seem to have the upper hand with regards to certain particle sizes that can potentially pose problems with the moulding method.

  11. Spray drying technique. I: Hardware and process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, Krzysztof; Sollohub, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    Spray drying is a transformation of feed from a fluid state into a dried particulate form by spraying the feed into a hot drying medium. The main aim of drying by this method in pharmaceutical technology is to obtain dry particles with desired properties. This review presents the hardware and process parameters that affect the properties of the dried product. The atomization devices, drying chambers, air-droplet contact systems, the collection of dried product, auxiliary devices, the conduct of the spray drying process, and the significance of the individual parameters in the drying process, as well as the obtained product, are described and discussed.

  12. Investigation of Solar Drying of Ginger (Zingiber officinale): Emprical Modelling, Drying Characteristics, and Quality Study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Waheed Deshmukh; Mahesh N. Varma; Chang Kyoo Yoo; Wasewar, Kailas L.

    2014-01-01

    Drying is a simultaneous heat and mass transfer energy intensive operation, widely used as a food preservation technique. In view of improper postharvest methods, energy constraint, and environmental impact of conventional drying methods, solar drying could be a practical, economical, and environmentally reliable alternative. In the present paper applicability of mixed mode solar cabinet dryer was investigated for drying of commercially important and export oriented ginger. Freshly harvested ...

  13. Cold vacuum drying facility 90% design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, C.T.

    1997-05-02

    This document contains review comment records for the CVDF 90% design review. Spent fuels retrieved from the K Basins will be dried at the CVDF. It has also been recommended that the Multi-Conister Overpacks be welded, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility before transport to dry storage.

  14. Control of fluidized bed tea drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Tea is a product made from the leaf of the tea bush by several processes, including drying. The drying stage is the most energy intensive, and has tight performance criteria. This project investigated the options for the control of a fluidized bed tea dryer. The work included establishing some of th

  15. Hot-dry-rock feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The hot-dry-rock project tasks are covered as follows: hot-dry-rock reservoir; generation facilities; water resources; transmission requirements; environmental issues; government and community institutional factors; leasing, ownership and management of facilities; regulations, permits, and laws; and financial considerations. (MHR)

  16. Reflectance characteristics of dry plant materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvidge, Christopher D.

    1987-01-01

    Chlorophyll and water obscure the absorption features of all other leaf constituents in the spectra of green leaves. The predominant near-IR and thermal IR spectral features of dry plant materials originate from lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose. These compounds account for 80 to 98 percent of the dry weight in most plant materials.

  17. 7 CFR 58.220 - Drying systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drying systems. 58.220 Section 58.220 Agriculture....220 Drying systems. (a) Spray dryers. Spray dryers shall be of a continuous discharge type and all... filter system shall comply with the applicable requirements of the 3-A Accepted Practices for Milk and...

  18. 27 CFR 24.202 - Dried fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... reduce the density to 22 degrees Brix. If the dried fruit liquid after restoration is found to be... degrees Brix. After addition of water to the dried fruit, the resulting liquid may be ameliorated with... Brix. (26 U.S.C. 5387)...

  19. Application of Dry Air Drying Techniques on West-East Gas Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoJianguo; XieLigong; DaiZongyu

    2004-01-01

    Based on the pre-eommissioning requirements of gas pipeline, the basic principles and influential factors of dry air drying adopted in long distance gas pipelines, and states in detail the technological flow and the equipment required, etc. are introduced, which will have practical significance in drying operation on gas pipeline.

  20. Desorption isotherms, drying characteristics and qualities of glace tropical fruits undergoing forced convection solar drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamradloedluk, Jindaporn; Wiriyaumpaiwong, Songchai [Mahasarakham Univ. Khamriang, Kantarawichai, Mahasarakham (Thailand)

    2008-07-01

    Solar energy, a form of sustainable energy, has a great potential for a wide variety of applications because it is abundant and accessible, especially for countries located in the tropical region. Drying process is one of the prominent techniques for utilization of solar energy. This research work proposes a forced convection solar drying of osmotically pretreated fruits viz. mango, guava, and pineapple. The fruit cubes with a dimension of 1cm x 1cm x 1cm were immersed in 35% w./w. sucrose solution prior to the drying process. Drying kinetics, color and hardness of the final products obtained from solar drying were investigated and compared with those obtained from open air-sun drying. Desorption isotherms of the osmosed fruits were also examined and five mathematical models were used to fit the desorption curves. Experimental results revealed that solar drying provided higher drying rate than natural sun drying. Color of glace fruit processed by solar drying was more intense, indicated by lower value of lightness and higher value of yellowness, than that processed by sun drying. Hardness of the products dehydrated by both drying methods, however, was not significantly different (p>0.05). Validation of the mathematical models developed showed that the GAB model was most effective for describing desorption isotherms of osmotically pretreated mango and pineapple whereas Peleg's model was most effective for describing desorption isotherms of osmotically pretreated guava. (orig.)

  1. Optimization of a solar-assisted drying system for drying bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smitabhindu, R. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Janjai, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Chankong, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2008-07-15

    This paper presents a mathematical model for optimal design of a solar-assisted drying system for drying bananas. The optimization model consists of a simulation model of a solar-assisted drying system combined with an economic model. The simulation model is composed of two systems of differential equations: one for the collector and other for the drying cabinet. These systems of the differential equation were solved using the finite difference method. Values of the model parameters were determined experimentally. A computer program in FORTRAN was developed to simulate the performance of the drying system. The model was validated by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results and they were in good agreement. This simulation model was used for the optimization of the solar-assisted drying system. An economic model was formulated to calculate the annual drying cost. The optimization problem was defined as the optimization of the geometry and operational parameters of the drying system so as to minimize the drying cost per unit of dried product. Currently used collector area and the air recycle factor were considered as the parameters for basic mode of operation of the drying system. The adaptive pattern search technique was adopted to find the optimum values of the solar collector area and the recycle factor. The optimum values of the collector area and the recycle factor were found to be 26 m{sup 2} and 90%, respectively. The computer program developed in this study can be used to optimize similar drying systems. (author)

  2. Drying kinetics and quality aspects during heat pump drying of onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Ranjan Sahoo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A prototype heat pump dryer has been developed for drying of fruits and vegetables at low temperature and relative humidity to maintain the quality of dried product. Onions, of Nasik red variety were peeled, trimmed and sliced to 2 mm thickness. The onion slices were dried in the heat pump dryer at 35ºC (32 % R.H., 40ºC (26 % R.H., 45ºC (19 % R.H. and 50ºC (15 % R.H.. Samples were also dried in a hot air dryer at 50ºC (52 % R.H. for comparison. The drying rate increased with increase in drying air temperature, associated with reduced R.H., in the heat pump dryer. Drying took place mainly under the falling rate period. The Page equation, resulting in a higher coefficient of determination and lower root mean square error, better described the thin-layer drying of onion slices than the Henderson and Pabis equation. Heat pump drying took less drying time of 360 min and yielded better quality dried product, with higher retention of ascorbic acid and pyruvic acid and lower colour change, as compared to a hot air dryer at the same drying air temperature of 50ºC.

  3. Mathematical modelling of cucumber (cucumis sativus) drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahari, N.; Hussein, S. M.; Nursabrina, M.; Hibberd, S.

    2014-07-01

    This paper investigates the applicability of using an experiment based mathematical model (empirical model) and a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage to describe the drying curve of cucumis sativus (cucumber). Drying experiments were conducted using conventional air drying and data obtained from these experiments were fitted to seven empirical models using non-linear least square regression based on the Levenberg Marquardt algorithm. The empirical models were compared according to their root mean square error (RMSE), sum of square error (SSE) and coefficient of determination (R2). A logarithmic model was found to be the best empirical model to describe the drying curve of cucumber. The numerical result of a single phase mathematical model with shrinkage was also compared with experiment data for cucumber drying. A good agreement was obtained between the model predictions and the experimental data.

  4. Progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuemin Zhao; Xuliang Yang; Zhenfu Luo; Chenlong Duan; Shulei Song

    2014-01-01

    China’s energy supply heavily relies on coal and China’s coal resource and water resource has a reverse distribution. The problem of water shortages restricts the applications of wet coal beneficiation technologies in drought regions. The present situation highlights the significance and urgency of developing dry beneficiation technologies of coal. Besides, other countries that produce large amounts of coal also encounter serious problem of lack of water for coal beneficiation, such as American, Australia, Canada, South Africa, Turkey and India. Thus, dry coal beneficiation becomes the research hot-points in the field of coal cleaning worldwide in recent years. This paper systematically reviewed the promising research efforts on dry coal beneficiation reported in literature in last 5 years and discussed the progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation worldwide. Finally, we also elaborated the prospects and the challenges of the development of dry coal beneficiation.

  5. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  6. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed.

  7. Mathematical Model for the Continuous Vacuum Drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Hui-liang

    2002-01-01

    An improved mathematical model for the continuous vacuum drying of highly viscous and heatsensitive foodstuffs was proposed, The process of continuous vacuum drying was presented as a moving boundary problem of moisture evaporation in cylindrical coordinates. Boundary condition of the first kind for the known functional dependence of the drying body surface temperature on time was considered. Finally, the appropriate system of differential equations was solved numerically and the values of drying rate, integral moisture content of the material, moving boundary position as well as temperature in any point of the material and at any moment time were obtained. This procedure was applied to continuous vacuum drying of foods such as natural cheese and fresh meat paste.

  8. EUV extendibility via dry development rinse process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayan, Safak; Zheng, Tao; De Simone, Danilo; Vandenberghe, Geert

    2016-03-01

    Conventional photoresist processing involves resist coating, exposure, post-exposure bake, development, rinse and spin drying of a wafer. DDRP mitigates pattern collapse by applying a special polymer material (DDRM) which replaces the exposed/developed part of the photoresist material before wafer is spin dried. As noted above, the main mechanism of pattern collapse is the capillary forces governed by surface tension of rinse water and its asymmetrical recession from both sides of the lines during the drying step of the develop process. DDRP essentially eliminates these failure mechanisms by replacing remaining rinse water with DDRM and providing a structural framework that support resist lines from both sides during spin dry process. Dry development rinse process (DDRP) eliminates the root causes responsible for pattern collapse of photoresist line structures. Since these collapse mechanisms are mitigated, without the need for changes in the photoresist itself, achievable resolution of the state-of-the-art EUV photoresists can further be improved.

  9. Parental separation and pediatric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grant, Sally; Carlsen, Kathrine; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold Hansen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for separation (ending cohabitation) of the parents of a child with a diagnosis of cancer.......The purpose of this study was to determine the risk for separation (ending cohabitation) of the parents of a child with a diagnosis of cancer....

  10. Fast Monaural Separation of Speech

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Dyrholm, Mads

    2003-01-01

    a Factorial Hidden Markov Model, with non-stationary assumptions on the source autocorrelations modelled through the Factorial Hidden Markov Model, leads to separation in the monaural case. By extending Hansens work we find that Roweis' assumptions are necessary for monaural speech separation. Furthermore we...

  11. Metals Separation by Liquid Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmary, G.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    As part of a project focusing on techniques in industrial chemistry, students carry out experiments on separating copper from cobalt in chloride-containing aqueous solution by liquid extraction with triisoctylamine solvent and search the literature on the separation process of these metals. These experiments and the literature research are…

  12. Vision 2020: 2000 Separations Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Stephen [Center for Waster Reduction Technologies; Beaver, Earl [Practical Sustainability; Bryan, Paul [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Robinson, Sharon [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watson, Jack [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the results of four workshops on the technology barriers, research needs, and priorities of the chemical, agricultural, petroleum, and pharmaceutical industries as they relate to separation technologies utilizing adsorbents, crystallization, distillation, extraction, membranes, separative reactors, ion exchange, bioseparations, and dilute solutions.

  13. Electrostatically enhanced core separator system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Easom, B.H.; Smolensky, L.A.; Altman, R.F. [LSR Technologies, Inc., Acton, MA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Electrostatically Enhanced Core Separator (EECS) system employs the same design principles as the mechanical Core Separator system plus an electrostatic separation enhancing technique. The EECS system contains a special type of separator, the EECS element, a conventional solids collector and means for flow recirculation. In the EECS system solids separation and collection are accomplished in two different components. The EECS element acts as a separator, not as a collector so particles are not collected on its walls. This eliminates or at least mitigates the problems associated with reentrainment (due to high or low dust resistivity), seepage (due to gas flow below the precipitator plates and over the hoppers), sneakage (due to gas flow both above and below the precipitator plates), and rapping reentrainment. If the EECS separation efficiency is high enough, particles cannot leave the system with the process stream. They recirculate until they are extracted by the collector. As a result, the separation efficiency of the EECS element determines the efficiency of the system, even if the collector efficiency is relatively low. 8 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Relational Parametricity and Separation Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkedal, Lars; Yang, Hongseok

    2008-01-01

    Separation logic is a recent extension of Hoare logic for reasoning about programs with references to shared mutable data structures. In this paper, we provide a new interpretation of the logic for a programming language with higher types. Our interpretation is based on Reynolds's relational...... parametricity, and it provides a formal connection between separation logic and data abstraction. Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  15. Semi-Dried Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Uysal Seçkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, the preservation of fruit and vegetables is an ancient method of drying. Sun drying method has been used more widely. In general, consumer-ready products are dried fruits, while the dried vegetables are the foods subjected to the rehydration processes such as boiling, heating and baking before consumption. In recent years, new products with high eating quality have been attempted to achieve without losing characteristic of raw material. With the improving of food technology, using developed methods (pH reduction with reducing aw, slight heating, preservatives use etc. as protective agent, and using a combination of a low rate as an alternative to traditional food preservation process, products have been obtained without changing original characteristics of food. ‘Semi-dried 'or 'medium moist 'products with little difference between the taste and texture of the product with a damp have gained importance in recent years in terms of consumer preferences. Vegetables or fruits, which have water activity levels between 0.50 and 0.95 and the moisture content of between 26% and 60%, are called 'medium moist fruit or vegetables'. Two different manufacturing process to obtain a semi-dried or intermediate moisture products are applied. First, fully dried fruits and vegetables to be rehydrated with water are brought to the desired level of their moisture content. Second, in the first drying process, when the product moisture content is reduced to the desired level, the drying process is finished. The semi-dried products are preferred by consumers because they have a softer texture in terms of eating quality and like fresh products texture.

  16. Deformation and failure characteristics of four types of lithium-ion battery separators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Sahraei, Elham; Wang, Kai

    2016-09-01

    Mechanical properties and failure mechanisms of battery separators play a crucial role in integrity of Lithium-ion batteries during an electric vehicle crash event. In this study, four types of commonly used battery separators are characterized and their mechanical performance, strength, and failure are compared. This includes two dry-processed polyethylene (PE) and trilayer separators, a wet-processed ceramic-coated separator, and a nonwoven separator. In detail, uniaxial tensile tests were performed along machine direction (MD), transverse direction (TD) and diagonal direction (DD). Also, through-thickness compression tests and biaxial punch tests were conducted. Comprehensive mechanical tests revealed interesting deformation and failure patterns under extreme mechanical loads. Last, a finite element model of PE separator was developed in LSDYNA based on the uniaxial tensile and through-thickness compression test data. The model succeeded in predicting the response of PE separator under punch tests with different sizes of punch head.

  17. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  18. Testing Orions Fairing Separation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Henry; Cloutier, Chris; Lemmon, Heber; Rakes, Daniel; Oldham, Joe; Schlagel, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Traditional fairing systems are designed to fully encapsulate and protect their payload from the harsh ascent environment including acoustic vibrations, aerodynamic forces and heating. The Orion fairing separation system performs this function and more by also sharing approximately half of the vehicle structural load during ascent. This load-share condition through launch and during jettison allows for a substantial increase in mass to orbit. A series of component-level development tests were completed to evaluate and characterize each component within Orion's unique fairing separation system. Two full-scale separation tests were performed to verify system-level functionality and provide verification data. This paper summarizes the fairing spring, Pyramidal Separation Mechanism and forward seal system component-level development tests, system-level separation tests, and lessons learned.

  19. Effect of Drying Temperature on the Chemical Properties and Diffusivity of belimbi (averrhoa belimbi)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahari, N.; Jamil, N.; Rasmani, K. A.; Nursabrina

    2015-09-01

    In recent years, many dried fruit products have been developed in response to a strong demand by the customer. This type of fruit has a different composition and hence different moisture diffusivity (D). During drying, Fick's Law of diffusion, which describes the movement of liquid water was used to calculate this diffusivity. However diffusivity has strong effects on the material drying characteristics and these must be determined. In this paper, Fick's Law of diffusion with different kinds of boundary conditions was solve using separation of variable (SOV). In order to get the value of D, results obtained using SOV will be compared with the results from the drying of belimbi at temperature of 40°C, 50°C and 60°C. Although the results show that variation in the values of diffusivity for different temperatures is relatively small, but the variation in the total time required for drying is significantly bigger: between 3-7 hours. Its shown that diffusivity is an important measurement and should be considered in the modeling of the drying process. The chemical properties of belimbi slices in terms of vitamin C, total ash and antioxidant activity with different air temperatures and pretreatment were also investigated. Higher drying temperatures gives less drying time, a lower vitamin C and antioxidant activity but a greater total of ash, whilst pre-treatment can increased vitamin C and antioxidant activity. The results show that pre-treatment and the drying temperature are important variables to improve mass and heat transfer, as well as the belimbi chemical properties.

  20. Technological Development of Brewing in Domestic Refrigerator Using Freeze-Dried Raw Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika-Ioanna Gialleli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a novel directly marketable beer brewed at low temperature in a domestic refrigerator combined with yeast immobilization technology is presented in this study. Separately, freeze-dried wort and immobilized cells of the cryotolerant yeast strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae AXAZ-1 on tubular cellulose were used in low-temperature fermentation (2, 5 and 7 °C. The positive eff ect of tubular cellulose during low-temperature brewing was examined, revealing that freeze-dried immobilized yeast cells on tubular cellulose signifi cantly reduced the fermentation rates in contrast to freeze-dried free cells, although they are recommended for home-made beer production. Immobilization also enhanced the yeast resistance at low-temperature fermentation, reducing the minimum brewing temperature value from 5 to 2 °C. In the case of high-quality beer production, the eff ect of temperature and initial sugar concentration on the fermentation kinetics were assessed. Sensory enrichment of the produced beer was confi rmed by the analysis of the fi nal products, revealing a low diacetyl concentration, together with improved polyphenol content, aroma profi le and clarity. The proposed process for beer production in a domestic refrigerator can easily be commercialized and applied by dissolving the content of two separate packages in tap water; one package containing dried wort and the other dried immobilized cells on tubular cellulose suspended in tap water.

  1. DRYING OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES AS WASTED BIOMASS BY HYBRID SOLAR–THERMAL DRYING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Al-Kayiem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar drying of EFB is highly feasible and economic, but the solar drying process is interrupted during cloudy or rainy days and also at night. In the present paper, a combined solar, as the main heat input, and biomass burner, as an auxiliary source of thermal energy, has been investigated experimentally to dry EFB. An experimental model consisting of a solar dryer integrated with a thermal backup unit was designed and fabricated. A series of experimental measurements were carried out in four different drying modes, namely, open sun, mixed direct and indirect solar, thermal backup, and hybrid. The results from the four modes used to dry 2.5 kg of EFB were summarized and compared. The results indicated that the solar drying mode required around 52 to 80 hours to dry the EFB, while the open sun drying mode required 100 hours. Usage of the thermal backup as heat source reduced the drying time to 48–56 hours. With the hybrid mode, the drying time was considerably reduced to 24–32 hours. The results demonstrate that the combined solar and thermal backup effectively enhanced the drying performance. The application of a solar dryer with a biomass burner is practical for massive production of solid fuels from EFB.

  2. Pseudo-stationary separation materials for highly parallel separations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Anup K.; Palmer, Christopher (University of Montana, Missoula, MT)

    2005-05-01

    Goal of this study was to develop and characterize novel polymeric materials as pseudostationary phases in electrokinetic chromatography. Fundamental studies have characterized the chromatographic selectivity of the materials as a function of chemical structure and molecular conformation. The selectivities of the polymers has been studied extensively, resulting in a large body of fundamental knowledge regarding the performance and selectivity of polymeric pseudostationary phases. Two polymers have also been used for amino acid and peptide separations, and with laser induced fluorescence detection. The polymers performed well for the separation of derivatized amino acids, and provided some significant differences in selectivity relative to a commonly used micellar pseudostationary phase. The polymers did not perform well for peptide separations. The polymers were compatible with laser induced fluorescence detection, indicating that they should also be compatible with chip-based separations.

  3. WASTE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARDS SEPARATION IN ELECTROSTATIC SEPARATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branimir Fuk

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Printed circuit boards from electronic waste are very important source of precious metals by recycling. The biggest challenge is liberation and separation of useful components; thin film which contains copper, zinc, tin, lead and precious metals like silver, gold and palladium from non useful components; polymers, ceramics and glass fibbers. The paper presents results for separation of shredded printed circuit boards from TV sets in electrostatic separator. Testing where conducted with material class 2/1 and 1/0.5 mm in laboratory on equipment for mineral processing. Results showed influence from independent variable; separation knife gradient, drum rotation speed and voltage on concentrate quality and recovery (the paper is published in Croatian.

  4. Hydrogen isotope separation; Separation isotopique de l'hydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leterq, D.; Guidon, H. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, 91 (France)

    2001-12-01

    CEA-DAM has been operating for more than 20 years hydrogen isotopes separation by batch chromatography with palladium coated on alumina as absorbing material. The efforts have been focused on the development of two new separation processes: TCAP (Thermal Cycling Absorption Process) and chromatography an molecular sieve at 77 K. H{sub 2}/D{sub 2} first tests results are promising. (authors)

  5. Particle separations by electrophoretic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballou, N.E.; Petersen, S.L.; Ducatte, G.R.; Remcho, V.T.

    1996-03-01

    A new method for particle separations based on capillary electrophoresis has been developed and characterized. It uniquely separates particles according to their chemical nature. Separations have been demonstrated with chemically modified latex particles and with inorganic oxide and silicate particles. Separations have been shown both experimentally and theoretically to be essentially independent of particle size in the range of about 0.2 {mu}m to 10 {mu}m. The method has been applied to separations of U0{sub 2} particles from environmental particulate material. For this, an integrated method was developed for capillary electrophoretic separation, collection of separated fractions, and determinations of U0{sub 2} and environmental particles in each fraction. Experimental runs with the integrated method on mixtures of UO{sub 2} particles and environmental particulate material demonstrated enrichment factors of 20 for UO{sub 2} particles in respect to environmental particles in the U0{sub 2}containing fractions. This enrichment factor reduces the costs and time for processing particulate samples by the lexan process by a factor of about 20.

  6. Cryopreservation of spin-dried mammalian cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilay Chakraborty

    Full Text Available This study reports an alternative approach to achieve vitrification where cells are pre-desiccated prior to cooling to cryogenic temperatures for storage. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cells suspended in a trehalose solution were rapidly and uniformly desiccated to a low moisture content (<0.12 g of water per g of dry weight using a spin-drying technique. Trehalose was also introduced into the cells using a high-capacity trehalose transporter (TRET1. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR was used to examine the uniformity of water concentration distribution in the spin-dried samples. 62% of the cells were shown to survive spin-drying in the presence of trehalose following immediate rehydration. The spin-dried samples were stored in liquid nitrogen (LN(2 at a vitrified state. It was shown that following re-warming to room temperature and re-hydration with a fully complemented cell culture medium, 51% of the spin-dried and vitrified cells survived and demonstrated normal growth characteristics. Spin-drying is a novel strategy that can be used to improve cryopreservation outcome by promoting rapid vitrification.

  7. XANES analysis of dried and calcined bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, Jayapradhi [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington (United States); Gialanella, Stefano [Materials Science and Industrial Technology Department, University of Trento (Italy); Aswath, Pranesh B., E-mail: aswath@uta.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The structure of dried and calcined bones from chicken, bovine, deer, pig, sheep and chamois was examined using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The oxygen K-edge absorption edge indicates that the surface of dried bone has a larger proportion of carbonate than the interior that is made up of phosphates. The phosphorus L and K edge clearly indicate that pyrophosphates, α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) and hydrogen phosphates of Ca do not exist in either the dried bone or calcined bone and phosphorus exists as either β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or hydroxyapatite, both in the dried and calcined conditions. The Ca K-edge analysis indicates that β-TCP is the likely form of phosphate in both the dried and calcined conditions. - Highlights: • For the first time bones of five different species of vertebrates have been compared in both the dried and calcined states. • O, P and Ca edges detail the local coordination of these atoms in dried and calcined bone. • O K-edge shows that the surface of bone has more CO{sub 3} while the interior has more PO{sub 4}. • P and Ca edges eliminate the presence of pyrophosphates and confirmed the presence of HA and β-TCP. • The stability of these phosphates on calcination has been examined using XANES.

  8. Physical properties of sunflower grains after drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the physical properties of the grains is important for the optimization of post-harvest operations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of convective drying with different air temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75 °C the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The drying sunflower grains was performed in convection oven with forced air. In natural conditions, samples of 5 kg of pellets were used for each repetition drying. During the drying process, the grains samples were weighed periodically until they reach 10% (wet basis, w.b., then were subjected to evaluations of physical properties. According to the results it was observed that the porosity, apparent density, thousand kernel weight to the drag coefficient, roundness, sphericity and width of sunflower seed did not change with increasing temperature drying air. It was concluded that the drying air temperatures of 45 °C and 55 retained the initial physical characteristics of sunflower seeds. The temperature of the drying air of 75 °C had greater influence on changes in volumetric shrinkage of the grains.

  9. Survival of bifidobacteria after spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Wen-Chian; Hsiao, Hung-Chi; Chou, Cheng-Chun

    2002-03-25

    To investigate the survival of bifidobacteria after spray-drying, Bifidobacterium infantis CCRC 14633, B. infantis CCRC 14661, B. longum ATCC 15708, B. longum CCRC 14634 and B. longum B6 were first spray-dried with different carrier media including 10% (w/w) gelatin, gum arabic and soluble starch. B. infantis CCRC 14633 and B. longum were also determined in skim milk. It was found that survival of bifidobacteria after spray-drying varied with strains and is highly dependent on the carriers used. Among the test organisms, B. longum B6 exhibited the least sensitivity to spray-drying and showed the highest survival of ca. 82.6% after drying with skim milk. Comparisons of the effect of carrier concentrations revealed that spray-drying at 10% (w/w) gelatin, gum arabic or soluble starch resulted in the highest survival of bifidobacteria. In addition, among the various outlet-air temperatures tested, bifidobacteria showed the highest survival after drying at 50 degrees C. Elevation of outlet-air temperature caused increased inactivation of bifidobacteria. However, the inactivation caused by increased outlet-air temperature varied with the carrier used, with the greatest reduction observed using soluble starch and the least with skim milk.

  10. Physical Cleaning of Lakhra Coal by Dense Medium Separation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikandar Ali Channa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This research is an attempt to upgrade Lakhra Lignite Coal using ?Dense Medium Separation? technique, to make it techno-environmentally acceptable product for different industries. The air-dried samples of ROM (Run of Mine coal were crushed, screened, ground and subjected to initial analysis and specific gravity based sink-float tests. The initial analysis of air-dried samples shows the average values of moisture 19%, volatile matter 22.33%, ash 27.41%, fixed carbon 31.26% and sulphur 4.98%. The investigational results of sink-float analysis indicate that physical cleaning at particle size range from -5.6 to +0.3 mm and 75% clean coal recovery can potentially reduce the ash yield and sulphur content of Lakhra coal up to 41 and 42.4% respectively. This washed coal is techno-environmentally acceptable yield and simultaneously qualifies the quality parameters set by various industries of Pakistan

  11. Separation and speciation analysis of zinc from Flammulina velutipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthogonal experiment was applied to optimize the water extraction parameters of zinc from Flammulina velutipes, and then the extracts were separated by membrane filter (0.45 μm and D101 macroporous resin. Six different species of Zn were obtained and the Zn content of various species were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The optimized conditions for the extraction of Zn were: ratio of dried material to water, 1:30; extraction temperature, 75°C; extraction time, 120 minutes. About 34.43 μg Zn was extracted from 1 g dried F. velutipes powder under the optimal conditions. The recovery value for Zn was 96.5% with a low relative standard deviation. In addition, the content of the organic state of Zn was more than that of the inorganic state, and most of the organic state Zn was found in the polysaccharide and protein fractions.

  12. Efficient separations & processing crosscutting program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    The Efficient Separations and Processing Crosscutting Program (ESP) was created in 1991 to identify, develop, and perfect chemical and physical separations technologies and chemical processes which treat wastes and address environmental problems throughout the DOE complex. The ESP funds several multiyear tasks that address high-priority waste remediation problems involving high-level, low-level, transuranic, hazardous, and mixed (radioactive and hazardous) wastes. The ESP supports applied research and development (R & D) leading to the demonstration or use of these separations technologies by other organizations within the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management.

  13. Effects of dope extrusion rate on the morphology and gas separation performance of asymmetric polysulfone hollow fiber membranes for O2/N2 separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fausi Ismail

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of dope extrusion rates on morphology and gas separation performance of asymmetric polysulfone hollow fiber membranes. Asymmetric polysulfone hollow fiber membranes for gas separation were prepared from a solution consisting of 26.0 wt. % of polysulfone, 30.4 wt. % of N, N-dimethylacetamide, 30.4 wt. % of tetrahydrofuran and 13.2 wt. % ethanol. The dry/wet phase separation process was applied to a dry/wet spinning process. Fibers were spun at various dope extrusion rates (DER ranging from 1.5 - 3.0 cm3/min and hence at different levels of shear. The results suggest that as the dope extrusion rate is increased, the selectivity will increase until a critical level of shear is reached, beyond which the membrane performance deteriorates. Pressure-normalized-fluxes and selectivities were evaluated by using pure oxygen and nitrogen as test gases.

  14. Hot Air Drying of Green Table Olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayit Sargin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of hot air-drying of green table olives (Domat variety by using a tray dryer were studied. Air temperature varied from 40 to 70 °C with an air velocity of 1 m/s. Drying rate curves were determined and quality of dried green olives was evaluated by instrumental analysis (bulk density, particle density, porosity, shrinkage, moisture content, water activity, colour value, protein content, oil content, peroxide value and acidity. Consumers’ acceptance test and microbiological analysis were also applied.

  15. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for U.S...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor....

  17. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [of freeze dried foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Methods which produce freeze dried foods of improved quality were examined with emphasis on storage stability. Specific topics discussed include: microstructure of freeze dried systems, investigation of structural changes in freeze dried systems, artificial food matrices, osmotic preconcentration to yield improved quality freeze dried fruits, and storage stability of osmotically preconcentrated freeze dried fruits.

  18. The Urban Function of the Infraordinary: Dry Cleaners as Social Vertexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen

    2015-01-01

    of social coexistence that has ‘a function that is separate from their practical use’ (Jorn 1954). A London dry cleaner serves as testing ground, employing critical spatial practices and creative writing as research tools. The dry cleaner does not simply clean clothes, but is a social vertex and physical...... interface through which (non-)events unfold, trajectories thickens and people of the neighbourhood coexists as familiar strangers (Milgram 2010; Paulos and Goodman 2004) through events in real-time and deposits over time. It is a semi-public space and an implosion of the external neighbourhood, partly...

  19. Drying Characteristics and Product Quality of Lemon Slices Dried with Hot Air Circulation Oven and Hybrid Heatpump Dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hong Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, drying characteristics and product quality of Coulomb-force-assisted heatpump and oven dried lemon slices were studied. Lemon slices with 3 mm thickness each, were dried using oven and Coulomb-force-assisted-heatpump dryer with and without auxiliary heater at different drying conditions. It was found that the drying rate of the lemon slices dried by all drying methods showed only falling rate states, which indicates the drying kinetics were controlled by internal moisture diffusion. Oven drying of lemon slices at 60°C showed the highest drying rate among all, followed by oven dried slices at 50°C, Coulomb-force-heater-assisted-heatpump (CF-HT-HP dried slices at 31°C, Coulomb-force-assisted-heatpump (CF-HP dried slices at 22°C, oven dried slices at 40°C and heatpump dried slices at 22°C. The average effective moisture diffusivity value for the slices dried with these drying methods was found in the range of 16.2 to 63.8´10-4 mm2min-1. In terms of quality assessment, CF-HP dried lemon slices retained the highest amount of Vitamin C as compared to the lemon slices dried by other drying methods. However, it retained relatively lower amount of total phenolic content (TPC as compared to oven dried products. Among of all, CF-HP drying method produced dried lemon slices with the highest Vitamin C (6.74 mg AA / g dry weight whereas oven dried lemon slices at 50°C preserved most of the TPC in the dried slices, which recorded as 13.76 mg GA / g dry weight.

  20. Chromatographic separation of fructose from date syrup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Eid, Salah M

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a process for separating fructose from a mixture of sugars containing essentially fructose and glucose, obtained from date palm fruits. The extraction procedure of date syrup from fresh dates gave a yield of 86.5% solids after vacuum drying. A process for separating fructose from an aqueous solution of date syrup involved adding the date syrup solutions (20, 30 and 40% by weight) to a chromatographic column filled with Dowex polystyrene strong cation exchange gel matrix resin Ca2 + and divinylbenzene, a functional group, sulfonic acid, particle size 320 microm, with a flow rate of 0.025 and 0.05 bed volume/min, under 30 and 70 degrees C column temperature. After the date sugar solution batch, a calculated quantity of water was added to the column. Glucose was retained by the resin more weakly than fructose and proceeded faster into the water batch flowing ahead. Three fractions were collected: a glucose-rich fraction, a return fraction, and a fructose-rich fraction. The return fraction is based on when the peaks of fructose and glucose were reached, which could be determined by means of an analyzer (polarimeter) based on the property of glucose and fructose solutions to turn the polarization level of polarized light. A high yield of fructose is obtained at 70 degrees C column temperature with a flow rate of 0.025 bed volume/min and date syrup solution containing 40% sugar concentration. The low recovery by weight obtained using date syrup solutions having a sugar concentration of 20 and 30%, encourages the use of a concentration of 40%. However, with the 40% date syrup supply the average concentrations of glucose and fructose in the return fractions were more than 40%, which can be used for diluting the thick date syrup solution extracted from dates.

  1. Observer performance assessment of dry laser versus traditional wet film imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupinski, Elizabeth A.

    1996-04-01

    This study compared diagnostic accuracy and image quality for laser imaging film from two systems: traditional 'wet' using chemical processing and the new 'DryView' system from 3M which is wet-chemistry-free. Three separate ROC studies (for CT, MRI, and US) were conducted. The 'wet' and 'dry' laser film imaging systems were connected in parallel and identical images for each case were printed on both systems. For each of the 3 studies, 10 radiologists reviewed each case, reporting diagnostic decision confidence. Evaluations of image quality (overall quality, visibility, sharpness, color, contrast) were also obtained. In all three studies, there were no major differences in diagnostic accuracy (ROC Az) for 'wet' vs 'dry' films, although performance was on average higher for the 'dry' film in all three modalities. Judgments of image quality were comparable for 'wet' and 'dry' films for all three modalities. There were no significant differences in viewing time in any of the studies. Thus, 'dry' processing represents a very useful, cost-effective and pollution-free alternative to currently used 'wet' laser imaging systems.

  2. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS improves ISRU oxygen...

  3. Selective Photoinitiated Electrophoretic Separator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA Johnson Space Center needs for gas separation and collection technology for lunar in-situ resource utilization, Physical Optics Corporation (POC)...

  4. Magnetic separation in microfluidic systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smistrup, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    This Ph.D. thesis presents theory, modeling, design, fabrication, experiments and results for microfluidic magnetic separators. A model for magnetic bead movement in a microfluidic channel is presented, and the limits of the model are discussed. The effective magnetic field gradient is defined...... for fabrication of silicon based systems. This fabrication scheme is explained, and it is shown how, it is applied with variations for several designs of magnetic separators. An experimental setup for magnetic separation experiments has been developed. It has been coupled with an image analysis program....... It is shown conceptually how such a system can be applied for parallel biochemical processing in a microfluidic system. ’Passive’ magnetic separators are presented, where on-chip soft magnetic elements are magnetized by an external magnetic field and create strong magnetic fields and gradients inside...

  5. Chiral separation of agricultural fungicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, Virginia; García, Maria Ángeles; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2011-09-23

    Fungicides are very important and diverse environmental and agricultural concern species. Their determination in commercial formulations or environmental matrices, requires highly efficient, selective and sensitive methods. A significant number of these chemicals are chiral with the activity residing usually in one of the enantiomers. The different toxicological and degradation behavior observed in many cases for fungicide enantiomers, results in the need to investigate them separately. For this purpose, separation techniques such as GC, HPLC, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) and CE have widely been employed although, at present, HPLC still dominates chromatographic chiral analysis of fungicides. This review covers the literature concerning the enantiomeric separation of fungicides usually employed in agriculture grouping the chiral separation methodologies developed for their analysis in environmental, biological, and food samples.

  6. Lunar Soil Particle Separator Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Lunar Soil Particle Separator (LSPS) is an innovative method to beneficiate soil prior to in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The LSPS can improve ISRU oxygen...

  7. The Impact of Dry Saharan Air on Tropical Cyclone Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The controversial role of the dry Saharan Air Layer (SAL) on tropical storm intensification in the Atlantic will be addressed. The SAL has been argued in previous studies to have potential positive influences on storm development, but most recent studies have argued for a strong suppressing influence on storm intensification as a result of dry air, high stability, increased vertical wind shear, and microphysical impacts of dust. Here, we focus on observations of Hurricane Helene (2006), which occurred during the NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Activities (NAMMA) experiment. Satellite and airborne observations, combined with global meteorological analyses depict the initial environment of Helene as being dominated by the SAL, although with minimal evidence that the SAL air actually penetrated to the core of the disturbance. Over the next several days, the SAL air quickly moved westward and was gradually replaced by a very dry, dust-free layer associated with subsidence. Despite the wrapping of this very dry air around the storm, Helene intensified steadily to a Category 3 hurricane suggesting that the dry air was unable to significantly slow storm intensification. Several uncertainties remain about the role of the SAL in Helene (and in tropical cyclones in general). To better address these uncertainties, NASA will be conducting a three year airborne campaign called the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3). The HS3 objectives are: To obtain critical measurements in the hurricane environment in order to identify the role of key factors such as large-scale wind systems (troughs, jet streams), Saharan air masses, African Easterly Waves and their embedded critical layers (that help to isolate tropical disturbances from hostile environments). To observe and understand the three-dimensional mesoscale and convective-scale internal structures of tropical disturbances and cyclones and their role in intensity change. The mission objectives will be achieved using

  8. Separators for Lithium Ion Batteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    G.C.Li; H.P.Zhang; Y.P.Wu

    2007-01-01

    1 Results A separator for rechargeable batteries is a microporous membrane placed between electrodes of opposite polarity, keeping them apart to prevent electrical short circuits and at the same time allowing rapid transport of lithium ions that are needed to complete the circuit during the passage of current in an electrochemical cell, and thus plays a key role in determining the performance of the lithium ion battery. Here provides a comprehensive overview of various types of separators for lithium io...

  9. Lithium isotope separation by laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arisawa, T.; Maruyama, Y.; Suzuki, Y.; Shiba, K.

    1982-01-01

    A lithium isotope separation was performed using a laser isotope separation method. It was found that the lithium atoms with a natural isotopic abundance enhanced its /sup 6/Li concentration up to over 90% by tuning the laser wavelength to the /sup 2/Psub(1/2) of /sup 6/Li. Too high power, however, leads to a loss of enrichment due to the power broadening effect which was analysed by the equation of motion of density matrices.

  10. Fuel-Cell Water Separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth Alan; Fisher, Caleb; Newman, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The main product of a typical fuel cell is water, and many fuel-cell configurations use the flow of excess gases (i.e., gases not consumed by the reaction) to drive the resultant water out of the cell. This two-phase mixture then exits through an exhaust port where the two fluids must again be separated to prevent the fuel cell from flooding and to facilitate the reutilization of both fluids. The Glenn Research Center (GRC) has designed, built, and tested an innovative fuel-cell water separator that not only removes liquid water from a fuel cell s exhaust ports, but does so with no moving parts or other power-consuming components. Instead it employs the potential and kinetic energies already present in the moving exhaust flow. In addition, the geometry of the separator is explicitly intended to be integrated into a fuel-cell stack, providing a direct mate with the fuel cell s existing flow ports. The separator is also fully scalable, allowing it to accommodate a wide range of water removal requirements. Multiple separators can simply be "stacked" in series or parallel to adapt to the water production/removal rate. GRC s separator accomplishes the task of water removal by coupling a high aspect- ratio flow chamber with a highly hydrophilic, polyethersulfone membrane. The hydrophilic membrane readily absorbs and transports the liquid water away from the mixture while simultaneously resisting gas penetration. The expansive flow path maximizes the interaction of the water particles with the membrane while minimizing the overall gas flow restriction. In essence, each fluid takes its corresponding path of least resistance, and the two fluids are effectively separated. The GRC fuel-cell water separator has a broad range of applications, including commercial hydrogen-air fuel cells currently being considered for power generation in automobiles.

  11. Development of Radiochemical Separation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eil Hee; Kim, K. W.; Yang, H. B. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    This project of the second phase was aimed at the development of basic unit technologies for advanced partitioning, and the application tests of pre-developed partitioning technologies for separation of actinides by using a simulated multi-component radioactive waste containing Am, Np, Tc, U and so on. The goals for recovery yield of TRU, and for purity of Tc are high than 99% and about 99%, respectively. The work scopes and contents were as follows. 1). For the development of basic unit technologies for advanced partitioning. 1. Development of technologies for co-removal of TRU and for mutual separation of U and TRU with a reduction-complexation reaction. 2. Development of extraction system for high-acidity co-separation of An(+3) and Ln(+3) and its radiolytic evaluation. 3. Synthesis of extractants for the selective separation of An(+3) and its relevant extraction system development. 4. Development of a hybrid system for the recovery of noble metals and its continuous separation tests. 5. Development of electrolytic system for the decompositions of N-NO3 and N-NH3 compounds to nitrogen gas. 2). For the application test of pre-developed partitioning technologies for the separation of actinide elements in a simulated multi-component solution equivalent to HLW level. 1. Co-separation of Tc, Np and U by a (TBP-TOA)/NDD system. 2. Mutual-separation of Am, Cm and RE elements by a (Zr-DEHPA)/NDD system. All results will be used as the fundamental data for the development of advanced partitioning process in the future.

  12. Optics of mass separator I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, S.J.

    1981-07-01

    The ion optics of an existing mass separator are documented. The elctrostatic and magnetic stages are analyzed theoretically, both separately and in combination, by paying particular attention to the ion trajectories, the linear and angular magnifications, and the dispersion. The possibility of converting the magnet into a tunable unit by means of current-carrying elements in the gap is demonstrated. The feasibility of correction coils constructed from printed circuit board is shown.

  13. Effect of different technologies and animal manures on solid-liquid separation efficiencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Cocolo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Solid-liquid separation is a widely used manure treatment option. However, little information is available to predict separator performance in a specific operating condition. This study investigates the effect on the separation efficiency of animal species (cattle and swine, use of flocculants, and separator construction and operating characteristics (filtration, pressurised filtration, settling and centrifugation. Using data available from published experiments, we evaluated correlations of the separation efficiencies with the physical and chemical characteristics of the inlet slurries (dry matter, total nitrogen, ammoniacal nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. Dry matter concentration of the input manure was found to be the best parameter used to calculate and validate regression equations. Regres sions for the operating conditions of 7 of the 14 subgroups evaluated were significant (P<0.05 for at least one parameter. Pressurised filtration seems to be the process best represented by these regressions that can predict dry matter and nitrogen efficiency with relative root mean squared errors of less than 50%. However, they could only be used for some of the parameters and separation techniques. Therefore, it was not possible to use the available experimental data to define and validate empirical predictive models for all the conditions. Specific studies are needed to define more precise and physically-based models.

  14. Impingement drying for preparing dried apple pomace flour and its fortification in bakery and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Cavender, George; Zhao, Yanyun

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate impingement drying (ID) as a rapid drying method to dry wet apple pomace (WAP) and to investigate the fortification of dried apple pomace flour (APF) or WAP in bakery and meat products. ID at ~110 °C reduced the moisture content of apple pomace from 80 % (wet basis) to 4.5 % within 3 h, compared with 24 h to 2.2 % using 40 °C forced-air drying and ~60 h to 2.3 % using freeze drying. Furthermore, ID enhanced the extractable phenolic compounds, allowing for a 58 % increase in total phenolic content (TPC) compared with wet pomace, a 110 % and 83 % higher than TPC in forced-air dried and freeze dried samples, respectively. The 15-20 % APF-fortified cookies were found to be ~44-59 % softer, ~30 % more chewy, and ~14 % moister than those of the control. WAP-fortified meat products had significantly higher dietary fiber content (0.7-1.8 % vs. 0.1-0.2 % in control) and radical scavenging activity than that of the control. These results suggest that impingement drying is a fast and effective method for preparing dried APF with highly retained bioactive compounds, and apple pomace fortified products maintained or even had improved quality.

  15. Investigation of drying kinetics of tomato slices dried by using a closed loop heat pump dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Salih; Doymaz, İbrahim; Tunçkal, Cüneyt; Erdoğan, Seçil

    2016-11-01

    In this study, tomato slices were dried at three different drying air temperatures (35, 40 and 45 °C) and at 1 m/s air velocities by using a closed loop heat pump dryer (HPD). To explain the drying characteristics of tomato slices, ten thin-layer drying models were applied. The drying of tomato slices at each temperature occurred in falling-rate period; no constant-rate period of drying was observed. The drying rate was significantly influenced by drying temperature. The effective moisture diffusivity varied between 8.28 × 10-11 and 1.41 × 10-10 m2/s, the activation energy was found to be 43.12 kJ/mol. Besides, at the end of drying process, the highest mean specific moisture extraction ratio and coefficient of performance of HPD system were obtained as 0.324 kg/kWh and 2.71, respectively, at the highest drying air temperature (45 °C).

  16. Investigation of drying kinetics of tomato slices dried by using a closed loop heat pump dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Salih; Doymaz, İbrahim; Tunçkal, Cüneyt; Erdoğan, Seçil

    2017-06-01

    In this study, tomato slices were dried at three different drying air temperatures (35, 40 and 45 °C) and at 1 m/s air velocities by using a closed loop heat pump dryer (HPD). To explain the drying characteristics of tomato slices, ten thin-layer drying models were applied. The drying of tomato slices at each temperature occurred in falling-rate period; no constant-rate period of drying was observed. The drying rate was significantly influenced by drying temperature. The effective moisture diffusivity varied between 8.28 × 10-11 and 1.41 × 10-10 m2/s, the activation energy was found to be 43.12 kJ/mol. Besides, at the end of drying process, the highest mean specific moisture extraction ratio and coefficient of performance of HPD system were obtained as 0.324 kg/kWh and 2.71, respectively, at the highest drying air temperature (45 °C).

  17. Determination of temperature dependent drying parameters for potato cylinders and slices during solar drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, P.P.; Kumar, Subodh [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2008-11-15

    In the present work, a methodology for the determination of temperature dependent drying parameters namely drying constant and lag factor from the experimental drying kinetic curves of food product is proposed. A laboratory scale mixed-mode solar dryer consisting of an inclined flat plate solar collector connected in series to a drying chamber glazed at the top was used to perform natural convection drying experiments with potato cylinders of length 0.05 m and diameter 0.01 m and slices of diameter 0.05 m and thickness 0.01 m. The thin-layer drying equation describing the drying behavior of food products is derived from Fick's law of diffusion. The present analysis reveals that both drying constant and lag factor increase with sample temperature, as expected. Linear and exponential correlations for these parameters are proposed to represent their variation as a function of sample temperature. Results of statistical error analysis indicate that the proposed linear correlation can better represent the experimental drying kinetic curves for both cylinders and slices. Comparison of experimental dimensionless moisture contents with those calculated with variable (temperature dependent) and constant values of drying parameters demonstrates that the predicted results from variable parameters can better simulate the experiments. (author)

  18. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ORANGE SEED DRYING KINETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying of orange seeds representing waste products from juice processing was studied in the temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and drying velocities of 0.6, 1.0 and 1.4 m/s. Experimental drying kinetics of orange seeds were obtained using a convective air forced dryer. Three thin-layer models: Page model, Lewis model, and the Henderson-Pabis model and the diffusive model were used to predict the drying curves. The Henderson-Pabis and the diffusive models show the best fitting performance and statistical evaluations. Moreover, the temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity followed an Arrhenius relationship, and the activation energies ranging from 16.174 to 16.842 kJ/mol

  19. Drying characteristics and engineering properties of fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drying characteristics and engineering properties of fermented ground cassava. ... African Journal of Biotechnology. Journal Home · ABOUT ... moisture content, specific heat capacity, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and bulk density.

  20. Spalling Resistance Fast-drying Refractory Castables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jing; Peng Xigao

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Scope This standard specifies the term and definition,classification, technical requirements, test methods,quality appraisal procedures, packing, marking, transportation, storage, and quality certificate of spalling resistance fast-drying refractory castables.

  1. One-Dimensional Simulation of Clay Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siljan Siljan

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Drying of clay is simulated by a one-dimensional model. The background of the work is to form a better basis for investigation of the drying process in production of clay-based building materials. A model of one-dimensional heat and mass transfer in porous material is used and modified to simulate drying of clay particles. The convective terms are discretized by first-order upwinding, and the diffusive terms are discretized by central differencing. DASSL was used to solve the set of algebraic and differential equations. The different simulations show the effect of permeability, initial moisture content and different boundary conditions. Both drying of a flat plate and a spherical particle are modelled.

  2. Well-plate freeze-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Rantanen, Jukka; Grohganz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    due to increasing amount of amorphous matter in the samples was observed in both vials and well plates. Cake collapse was found to be representative in well plates and could be effectively quantified using image analysis. Reconstitution time was also found to be equal in all three platforms. Finally......Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well-plates...... as a high throughput platform for formulation screening of freeze-dried products. Methods: Model formulations consisting of mannitol, sucrose and bovine serum albumin were freeze-dried in brass well plates, plastic well plates and vials. Physical properties investigated were solid form, residual moisture...

  3. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  4. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  5. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Di Donfrancesco, Brizio; Koppel, Kadri; Swaney-Stueve, Marianne; Chambers, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food...

  6. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and

  7. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This purpose of this project is to develop a spray drying prototype to for the recovery and recycle of water from concentrated waste water recovery system brine....

  8. High strength air-dried aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  9. Dry Mouth: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Do about Dry Mouth? (National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research) Clinical Trials ClinicalTrials.gov: Xerostomia (National Institutes of Health) Journal Articles References and abstracts from MEDLINE/PubMed (National ...

  10. Kinetics of microwave drying of apples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of main technological parameters was studied as a result of research of microwave drying of apples and the analysis of kinetic regularity of the process was performed.

  11. A drying coefficient for building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    The drying experiment is an important element of the hygrothermal characterisation of building materials. Contrary to other moisture transport experiments as the vapour diffusion and the water absorption test, it is until now not possible to derive a simple coefficient for the drying. However...... coefficient is defined which can be determined based on measured drying data. The correlation of this coefficient with the water absorption and the vapour diffusion coefficient is analyzed and its additional information content is critically challenged. As result, a drying coefficient has been derived...... and defined as a new and independent material parameter. It contains information about the moisture transport properties throughout the wide range of moisture contents from hygroscopic up to saturation. With this new and valuable coefficient, it is now possible to distinguish and select building materials...

  12. Nitrogen loss during solar drying of biosolids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shaughnessy, S A; Song, I; Artiola, J F; Choi, C Y

    2008-01-01

    Solar drying has been used extensively to dewater biosolids for ease of transportation and to a lesser degree to reduce pathogens prior to land application. The nitrogen in biosolids makes them a relatively inexpensive but valuable source of fertilizer. In this study, nitrogen loss from tilled and untilled biosolids was investigated during the solar drying process. Samples of aerobically and anaerobically digested biosolids during three solar drying experiments were analyzed for their nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) ions concentrations. Nitrogen losses varied depending on the solar drying season and tillage. Although not directly measured, the majority of nitrogen loss occurred through ammonia volatilization; organic nitrogen content (organic N) remained relatively stable for each sample, nitrate concentrations for the majority of samples remained below detectable levels and the decline of ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) generally followed the trend of moisture loss in the biosolids.

  13. Bendable Zeolite Membranes: Synthesis and Improved Gas Separation Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Ho, W S Winston; Figueroa, Jose D; Dutta, Prabir K

    2015-06-23

    Separation and sequestration of CO2 emitted from fossil energy fueled electric generating units and industrial facilities will help in reducing anthropogenic CO2, thereby mitigating its adverse climate change effects. Membrane-based gas separation has the potential to meet the technical challenges of CO2 separation if high selectivity and permeance with low costs for large-scale manufacture are realized. Inorganic zeolite membranes in principle can have selectivity and permeance considerably higher than polymers. This paper presents a strategy for zeolite growth within the pores of a polymer support, with crystallization time of an hour. With a thin coating of 200-300 nm polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) on the zeolite-polymer composite, transport data for CO2/N2 separation indicate separation factors of 35-45, with CO2 permeance between 1600 and 2200 GPU (1 GPU = 3.35 × 10(-10) mol/(m(2) s Pa)) using dry synthetic mixtures of CO2 and N2 at 25 °C. The synthesis process results in membranes that are highly reproducible toward transport measurements and exhibit long-term stability (3 days). Most importantly, these membranes because of the zeolite growth within the polymer support, as contrasted to conventional zeolite growth on top of a support, are mechanically flexible.

  14. Separation mechanisms and fluid flow in oil/water separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celius, H.K.; Knudsen, B. [IKU Petroleumsforskning A/S, Trondheim (Norway); Hafskjold, B.; Hansen, E.W. [Selskapet for Industriell og Teknisk Forskning, Trondheim (Norway)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes work aimed at physical and numerical modeling of separation rates of oil/water systems in order to establish better tools for design and operation of offshore operators. This work aims to integrate the chemical and physical phenomena behind coalescence and settling with those of fluid flow in the system, in order to develop tools for design and operational analysis of separation equipment. The work includes the development of a high pressure, bench-scale test rig to perform separation tests on live oil and water samples, and a rationale in the form of a computer code that can be used to interpret the test results and transform them to a form siutable for operational purposes. This involves a formulation of a mathematical description of the chemical and physical mechanisms behind the emulsification and separation process, and to establish a link to the hydrdynamic properties of the separator vessel. The Emucol computer program is used in the analysis. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  15. Development of Solar Biomass Drying System

    OpenAIRE

    Atnaw Samson Mekbib; Bin Che Ku Yahya Che Ku Mohammad Faizal; Jama Oumer Abduaziz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper focuses on the experimental pre-treatment of biomass in agricultural site using solar energy as power source and contribution of common use and efficiency solar dryer system for consumer. The main purpose of this design for solar cabinet dryer is to dry biomass via direct and indirect heating. Direct heating is the simplest method to dry biomass by exposing the biomass under direct sunlight. The solar cabinet dryer traps solar heat to increase the temperature of the ...

  16. Consumer Acceptance of Dry Dog Food Variations

    OpenAIRE

    Brizio Di Donfrancesco; Kadri Koppel; Marianne Swaney-Stueve; Edgar Chambers

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The objectives of this study were to compare the acceptance of different dry dog food products by consumers, determine consumer clusters for acceptance, and identify the characteristics of dog food that drive consumer acceptance. Pet owners evaluated dry dog food samples available in the US market. The results indicated that appearance of the sample, especially the color, influenced pet owner’s overall liking more than the aroma of the product. Abstract The objectives of this s...

  17. Methane storage in dry water gas hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixing; Bray, Christopher L; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2008-09-03

    Dry water stores 175 v(STP)/v methane at 2.7 MPa and 273.2 K in a hydrate form which is close to the Department of Energy volumetric target for methane storage. Dry water is a silica-stabilized free-flowing powder (95% wt water), and fast methane uptakes were observed (90% saturation uptake in 160 min with no mixing) as a result of the relatively large surface-to-volume ratio of this material.

  18. Separation and quantification of microalgal carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeton, David W; Quinn, Matthew; Van Wychen, Stefanie; Hyman, Deborah; Laurens, Lieve M L

    2012-12-28

    Structural carbohydrates can constitute a large fraction of the dry weight of algal biomass and thus accurate identification and quantification is important for summative mass closure. Two limitations to the accurate characterization of microalgal carbohydrates are the lack of a robust analytical procedure to hydrolyze polymeric carbohydrates to their respective monomers and the subsequent identification and quantification of those monosaccharides. We address the second limitation, chromatographic separation of monosaccharides, here by identifying optimum conditions for the resolution of a synthetic mixture of 13 microalgae-specific monosaccharides, comprised of 8 neutral, 2 amino sugars, 2 uronic acids and 1 alditol (myo-inositol as an internal standard). The synthetic 13-carbohydrate mix showed incomplete resolution across 11 traditional high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods, but showed improved resolution and accurate quantification using anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) as well as alditol acetate derivatization followed by gas chromatography (for the neutral- and amino-sugars only). We demonstrate the application of monosaccharide quantification using optimized chromatography conditions after sulfuric acid analytical hydrolysis for three model algae strains and compare the quantification and complexity of monosaccharides in analytical hydrolysates relative to a typical terrestrial feedstock, sugarcane bagasse.

  19. Detailed monitoring of two biogas plants and mechanical solid-liquid separation of fermentation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Alexander; Mayr, Herwig; Hopfner-Sixt, Katharina; Amon, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    The Austrian "green electricity act" (Okostromgesetz) has led to an increase in biogas power plant size and consequently to an increased use of biomass. A biogas power plant with a generating capacity of 500 kW(el) consumes up to 38,000 kg of biomass per day. 260 ha of cropland is required to produce this mass. The high water content of biomass necessitates a high transport volume for energy crops and fermentation residues. The transport and application of fermentation residues to farmland is the last step in this logistic chain. The use of fermentation residues as fertilizer closes the nutrient cycle and is a central element in the efficient use of biomass for power production. Treatment of fermentation residues by separation into liquid and solid phases may be a solution to the transport problem. This paper presents detailed results from the monitoring of two biogas plants and from the analysis of the separation of fermentation residues. Furthermore, two different separator technologies for the separation of fermentation residues of biogas plants were analyzed. The examined biogas plants correspond to the current technological state of the art and have designs developed specifically for the utilization of energy crops. The hydraulic retention time ranged between 45.0 and 83.7 days. The specific methane yields were 0.40-0.43 m(3)N CH(4) per kg VS. The volume loads ranged between 3.69 and 4.00 kg VS/m(3). The degree of degradation was between 77.3% and 82.14%. The screw extractor separator was better suited for biogas slurry separation than the rotary screen separator. The screw extractor separator exhibited a high throughput and good separation efficiency. The efficiency of slurry separation depended on the dry matter content of the fermentation residue. The higher the dry matter content, the higher the proportion of solid phase after separation. In this project, we found that the fermentation residues could be divided into 79.2% fluid phase with a dry matter

  20. Freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Fernanda; Cenard, Stéphanie; Passot, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are of great importance for the food and biotechnology industry. They are widely used as starters for manufacturing food (e.g., yogurt, cheese, fermented meats, and vegetables) and probiotic products, as well as for green chemistry applications. Freeze-drying or lyophilization is a convenient method for preservation of bacteria. By reducing water activity to values below 0.2, it allows long-term storage and low-cost distribution at suprazero temperatures, while minimizing losses in viability and functionality. Stabilization of bacteria via freeze-drying starts with the addition of a protectant solution to the bacterial suspension. Freeze-drying includes three steps, namely, (1) freezing of the concentrated and protected cell suspension, (2) primary drying to remove ice by sublimation, and (3) secondary drying to remove unfrozen water by desorption. In this chapter we describe a method for freeze-drying of lactic acid bacteria at a pilot scale, thus allowing control of the process parameters for maximal survival and functionality recovery.

  1. Drying a tuberculosis vaccine without freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yun-Ling; Sampson, Samantha; Germishuizen, Willem Andreas; Goonesekera, Sunali; Caponetti, Giovanni; Sadoff, Jerry; Bloom, Barry R; Edwards, David

    2007-02-20

    With the increasing incidence of tuberculosis and drug resistant disease in developing countries due to HIV/AIDS, there is a need for vaccines that are more effective than the present bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. We demonstrate that BCG vaccine can be dried without traditional freezing and maintained with remarkable refrigerated and room-temperature stability for months through spray drying. Studies with a model Mycobacterium (Mycobacterium smegmatis) revealed that by removing salts and cryoprotectant (e.g., glycerol) from bacterial suspensions, the significant osmotic pressures that are normally produced on bacterial membranes through droplet drying can be reduced sufficiently to minimize loss of viability on drying by up to 2 orders of magnitude. By placing the bacteria in a matrix of leucine, high-yield, free-flowing, "vial-fillable" powders of bacteria (including M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG) can be produced. These powders show relatively minor losses of activity after maintenance at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C up to and beyond 4 months. Comparisons with lyophilized material prepared both with the same formulation and with a commercial formulation reveal that the spray-dried BCG has better overall viability on drying.

  2. Sex hormones and the dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Susan; Cole, Nerida; Stapleton, Fiona; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2014-07-01

    The greater prevalence of dry eye in women compared to men suggests that sex hormones may have a role in this condition. This review aims to present evidence for how sex hormones may affect the ocular structures involved in the production, regulation and maintenance of the normal tear film. It is hypothesised that hormone changes alter the homeostasis of the ocular surface and contribute to dry eye. Androgens impact on the structure and function of the meibomian and lacrimal glands and therefore androgen deficiency is, at least in part, associated with the aetiology of dry eye. In contrast, reports of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on these ocular structures and on the conjunctiva are contradictory and the mechanisms of action of these female-specific sex hormones in the eye are not well understood. The uncertainty of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on dry eye symptoms is reflected in the controversial relationship between hormone replacement therapy and the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Current understanding of sex hormone influences on the immune system suggests that oestrogen may modulate a cascade of inflammatory events, which underlie dry eye.

  3. Cryopreservation of spin-dried mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Nilay; Menze, Michael A; Malsam, Jason; Aksan, Alptekin; Hand, Steven C; Toner, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    This study reports an alternative approach to achieve vitrification where cells are pre-desiccated prior to cooling to cryogenic temperatures for storage. Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells suspended in a trehalose solution were rapidly and uniformly desiccated to a low moisture content (spin-drying technique. Trehalose was also introduced into the cells using a high-capacity trehalose transporter (TRET1). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was used to examine the uniformity of water concentration distribution in the spin-dried samples. 62% of the cells were shown to survive spin-drying in the presence of trehalose following immediate rehydration. The spin-dried samples were stored in liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) at a vitrified state. It was shown that following re-warming to room temperature and re-hydration with a fully complemented cell culture medium, 51% of the spin-dried and vitrified cells survived and demonstrated normal growth characteristics. Spin-drying is a novel strategy that can be used to improve cryopreservation outcome by promoting rapid vitrification.

  4. Development of Solar Biomass Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atnaw Samson Mekbib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper focuses on the experimental pre-treatment of biomass in agricultural site using solar energy as power source and contribution of common use and efficiency solar dryer system for consumer. The main purpose of this design for solar cabinet dryer is to dry biomass via direct and indirect heating. Direct heating is the simplest method to dry biomass by exposing the biomass under direct sunlight. The solar cabinet dryer traps solar heat to increase the temperature of the drying chamber. The biomass absorbs the heat and transforms the moisture content within the biomass into water vapour and then leaves the chamber via the exhaust air outlet. This problem however can be solved by adopting indirect solar drying system. High and controllable temperatures can be achieved as a fan is used to move the air through the solar collector. This project has successfully created a solar cabinet dryer that combines both direct and indirect solar drying systems and functions to dry biomass as well as crops effectively and efficiently with minimal maintenance. Hence, it is indeed a substitution for conventional dryers which are affordable to local farmers.

  5. Reduction of oil in sludges from light petroleum separators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallenkemper, B. (Fachhochschule Muenster (DE)); Voss, U. (Oswald Schulze GmbH and Co., Gladback (DE))

    1991-08-01

    A flotation treatment for reducing the oil content of sludges accumulated in light petroleum separators and grit traps is described. Hydrocarbon content of the sludge can be reduced to less than 3% of the dry solids by air flotation assisted by appropriate surfactants. There is a corresponding reduction in Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) and Polyaromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). Air escaping from the flotation cells is scrubbed in a bio-filter and water is purified by activated sludge or a further flotation method. Recovered oil can be further dewatered to produce a useful fuel. (author).

  6. Anaerobic digestion of pig manure fibres from commercial pig slurry separation units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thygesen, Ole; Triolo, Jin M.; Sommer, Sven G.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of manure fibres (MF) from 17 commercially separated pig slurries and seven raw pig slurries were characterised in terms of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), protein, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin. The average lignocellulose concentration in manure fibres and pig slurries...

  7. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  8. The influence of the dried blood spot drying time on the recoveries of six immunosuppressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco A. Koster

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the drying time of dried blood spots (DBS is currently not included in DBS validations. The influence of the DBS drying time on the recovery of tacrolimus, ascomycin, sirolimus, everolimus, cyclosporin A and temsirolimus was evaluated by measuring DBS with a fixed blood volume at a hematocrit range between 0.1 and 0.6 L/L at 3, 24 and 48 hours of drying time. Results showed that the recovery of sirolimus, everolimus, temsirolimus and cyclosporin A was influenced by the DBS drying time, while the recovery of tacrolimus and ascomycin was not. A drying time of at least 24 hours is advised in order to stabilize hematocrit and concentration related recovery effects of sirolimus, everolimus, temsirolimus and cyclosporin A.

  9. Spray drying technique: II. Current applications in pharmaceutical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollohub, Krzysztof; Cal, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    This review presents current applications of spray drying in pharmaceutical technology. The topics discussed include the obtention of excipients and cospray dried composites, methods for increasing the aqueous solubility and bioavailability of active substances, and modified release profiles from spray-dried particles. This review also describes the use of the spray drying technique in the context of biological therapies, such as the spray drying of proteins, inhalable powders, and viable organisms, and the modification of the physical properties of dry plant extracts.

  10. DRYING OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES AS WASTED BIOMASS BY HYBRID SOLAR–THERMAL DRYING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    H. H. Al-Kayiem; Y. Md Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Solar drying of EFB is highly feasible and economic, but the solar drying process is interrupted during cloudy or rainy days and also at night. In the present paper, a combined solar, as the main heat input, and biomass burner, as an auxiliary source of thermal energy, has been investigated experimentally to dry EFB. An experimental model consisting of a solar dryer integrated with a thermal backup unit was designed and fabricated. A series of experimental measurements were carried out in fou...

  11. Open sun drying of green bean: influence of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2017-04-01

    Green bean ( Phaseolus Vulgaris L), classified under legume family, is a primary source of dietary protein in human diets especially in the agricultural countries. Green bean is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of their high moisture content and in order to prevent and present the green bean drying process is applied. In this study, effects of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity of green bean were investigated. It was observed that the pretreatment affected the drying time. The shortest drying times were obtained from pretreated samples with blanched. Drying times were determined as 47, 41 and 29 h for natural, salted and blanch, respectively. The results showed that pretreatment and ambient temperature significantly ( P = 0.05) affected the drying rate and the drying time. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick's second law and was found to be range between 3.15 × 10-10 and 1.2 × 10-10 m2/s for the pre-treated and natural green bean samples. The rehydration values were obtained 2.75, 2.71, 2.29 (g water/g dry matter) for the blanched, salted and natural samples. The effective diffusion coefficients were calculated using the data collected during the falling rate period and the experimental data are fitted to seven thin layer drying models which found in the literature. The Logarithmic model was found to best describe the drying behavior of fresh green beans under open air sun. Rehydration time and color parameters had been determined in order to improve the quality of dried green bean. Regarding with rehydration time and colour data, the best results were obtained at blanched drying conditions.

  12. Open sun drying of green bean: influence of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    İsmail, Osman; Kantürk Figen, Aysel; Pişkin, Sabriye

    2016-08-01

    Green bean (Phaseolus Vulgaris L), classified under legume family, is a primary source of dietary protein in human diets especially in the agricultural countries. Green bean is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of their high moisture content and in order to prevent and present the green bean drying process is applied. In this study, effects of pretreatments on drying kinetics, colour and rehydration capacity of green bean were investigated. It was observed that the pretreatment affected the drying time. The shortest drying times were obtained from pretreated samples with blanched. Drying times were determined as 47, 41 and 29 h for natural, salted and blanch, respectively. The results showed that pretreatment and ambient temperature significantly (P = 0.05) affected the drying rate and the drying time. The effective moisture diffusivity was determined by using Fick's second law and was found to be range between 3.15 × 10-10 and 1.2 × 10-10 m2/s for the pre-treated and natural green bean samples. The rehydration values were obtained 2.75, 2.71, 2.29 (g water/g dry matter) for the blanched, salted and natural samples. The effective diffusion coefficients were calculated using the data collected during the falling rate period and the experimental data are fitted to seven thin layer drying models which found in the literature. The Logarithmic model was found to best describe the drying behavior of fresh green beans under open air sun. Rehydration time and color parameters had been determined in order to improve the quality of dried green bean. Regarding with rehydration time and colour data, the best results were obtained at blanched drying conditions.

  13. Development of the dry powdering/mixing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Hoo; Kim, Y. H.; Hong, D. H.; Yoon, J. S.; Jin, J. H.; Park, G. Y.; Seo, C. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The dry pulverizing/mixing device is used to deal with the spent fuels for the safe disposal. The separated pellets from hulls by a slitting device are put and oxidized from UO{sub 2} solid pellet to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder in the device. The device have been developed based on a voloxidation method which is one of several dry de-cladding methods. We have benchmarked dry de-cladding methods, analyzed applicability to the advanced spent fuel management process, integrated and compared several configuration, and finally derived detailed specifications proper to requirements for the device. Also, thermal characteristics of the device such as thermal stress and strain have been analyzed by the commercial software, I-DEAS, and the reliability of the results have been verified by the KOLAS(KOrea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme). The UO{sub 2} solid pellets are put in the device which has a capacity of 20 kgHM per a batch, heated up about 600 .deg. C in the air environment. Then, the UO{sub 2} solid pellets are oxidized into the U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder, and the powder is collected in a special vessel. The device has been designed and developed as follows: the multi-staged fine hole meshes are used to reduce the size of the powder gradually, heat and air(oxygen) are supplied continuously to reduce the reaction time, and slight vibration effect are applied to collect powder cling to the device. 11 refs., 61 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

  14. Development of high efficiency ventilation bag actuated dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Srinivas R B; Longest, P Worth; Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael

    2014-04-25

    New active dry powder inhaler systems were developed and tested to efficiently aerosolize a carrier-free formulation. To assess inhaler performance, a challenging case study of aerosol lung delivery during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was selected. The active delivery system consisted of a ventilation bag for actuating the device, the DPI containing a flow control orifice and 3D rod array, and streamlined nasal cannula with separate inlets for the aerosol and HFNC therapy gas. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess deposition in the device, emitted dose (ED) from the nasal cannula, and powder deaggregation. The best performing systems achieved EDs of 70-80% with fine particle fractions ventilation, nose-to-lung aerosol administration, and to assist patients that cannot reproducibly use passive DPIs.

  15. [Dry eye syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanská, V; Hlinomazová, Z; Fojtík, Z; Nemec, P

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to review the incidence of the dry eye syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, evaluate the association among the incidence of the dry eye syndrome, presence of positive rheumatoid factor (RF), the RA stage, and the duration of the disease. The group consisted of altogether 100 patients, 16 men and 84 women; the average age was 58.9 years (SD 14.6). The average duration of RA was 12.3 years, SD 11.0. In each patient, the Schirmer test I was performed, the presence of the LIPCOF (Lid Parallel Conjunctival Folds) on the slit lamp was assessed, the BUT (Tear Break-Up Time) was measured and vital fluorescein staining was performed. In each patient the data of the presence or absence of the RF in the serum, RA severity according to the X-ray examination, and the disease duration were recorded. The Pearson's association test for nominal variables was used for statistical evaluation of the association between the rheumatoid arthritis presence and the dry eye syndrome. In our group of 100 patients, the Schirmer test I was positive in 67% of patients. Positive BUT was marked in 84 % of patients. The conjunctival folds were present in 45 % of patients only. The pathological findings after cornea fluorescein staining appeared in 18 % of patients. The dry eye syndrome incidence was marked in 74% of patients with RA. Subjective difficulties were declared by 38.3% of patients only. The local treatment was already established in 23.0% of patients only. We did not find statistically significant correlation between the RF positive rheumatoid arthritis appearance and dry eye syndrome, nor between the stage of the rheumatoid arthritis and presence of the dry eye syndrome. We proved statistical connection between the presence of dry eye syndrome and the duration of rheumatoid arthritis longer than 10 years. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the most common ocular complication in rheumatoid arthritis patients. We proved the connection

  16. Microbial growth responses upon rewetting dry soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meisner, Annelein; Rousk, Johannes; Bååth, Erland

    2015-04-01

    Increased rainfall and drought periods are expected to occur with current climate change, leading to fluctuations in soil moisture. Changes in soil moisture are known to affect carbon cycling. A pulse of carbon dioxide release (respiration) is often observed after rewetting a dry soil and a drying threshold is observed before this pulse emerges. Increased microbial activity is often assumed to be the cause for the pulse in respiration. Yet, the microbial growth responses that underlie this pulse are often not studied. The following questions will be addressed in this presentation. 1) Do fungal and bacterial growth explain the pulse in respiration upon rewetting a dry soil? 2) How does microbial growth respond to different drying intensities before rewetting? To answer the research questions, soils from Sweden, U.K. and Greenland were put in microcosms, air-dried for four days, a prolonged period or to different moisture content before rewetting. We measured soil respiration, fungal growth rates and/or bacterial growth rates at high temporal resolution during one week after rewetting. Our results suggest that the respiration pulse upon rewetting dry soil is not due to high microbial growth rates. During the first hours after rewetting, bacterial and fungal growth rates were low whereas the respiration rates were high. As such, there was a decoupling between the pulse in respiration and microbial growth rates. Two patterns of bacterial growth were observed upon rewetting the three different soils. In "pattern 1", bacteria started growing immediately in a linear pattern up to values similar as the moist control. In "pattern 2", bacteria started growing exponentially after a lag period of no growth with a second pulse of respiration occurring at the start of bacterial growth. Manipulating the drying intensity changed the patterns. Soils with "pattern 1" were changed to "pattern 2" when subjected to more extensive drying periods whereas soils with "pattern 2" were

  17. [Effect on quality of Scrophulariae Radix with modern drying technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui-wei; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-wei; Lu, Xue-jun; Guo, Sheng; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-11-01

    Modern drying technology was used to explore suitable drying process to provide scientific basis for improving drying processing methods of Scrophulariae Radix. Controlled temperature and humidity drying, vacuum drying apparatus, microwave vacuum drying apparatus, short infrared drying device were used to gain samples for analyzing. The character appearance, concentration of main components and power consumption indicators were chosen for preliminary judging. Six major components, including iridoids and phenylpropanoids were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS method. The contents of polysaccharides were determined by UV-visible spectrophotometry. The character appearance with controlled temperature and humidity drying and short infrared drying meet the pharmacopoeia standard (Ch. p, edition 2015), while samples with vacuum and microwave vacuum drying apparatus didn't. Compared to fresh sample, concentrations of harpagide, harpagoside, aucubin and catalpol were lower in the dried samples. Angoroside-C showed no significant change before and after drying. Concentration of acteoside increased after drying. Samples with controlled temperature (70 degrees C) and humidity (15% - 10%) drying had high content and short drying time. The better drying process of Scrophulariae Radix was controlled temperature and humidity drying. The method will provide the reference for the drying technology standard of roots medicine.

  18. Effect of moisture and drying time on the bond strength of the one-step self-etching adhesive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Lee

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives To investigate the effect of dentin moisture degree and air-drying time on dentin-bond strength of two different one-step self-etching adhesive systems. Materials and Methods Twenty-four human third molars were used for microtensile bond strength testing of G-Bond and Clearfil S3 Bond. The dentin surface was either blot-dried or air-dried before applying these adhesive agents. After application of the adhesive agent, three different air drying times were evaluated: 1, 5, and 10 sec. Composite resin was build up to 4 mm thickness and light cured for 40 sec with 2 separate layers. Then the tooth was sectioned and trimmed to measure the microtensile bond strength using a universal testing machine. The measured bond strengths were analyzed with three-way ANOVA and regression analysis was done (p = 0.05. Results All three factors, materials, dentin wetness and air drying time, showed significant effect on the microtensile bond strength. Clearfil S3 Bond, dry dentin surface and 10 sec air drying time showed higher bond strength. Conclusions Within the limitation of this experiment, air drying time after the application of the one-step self-etching adhesive agent was the most significant factor affecting the bond strength, followed by the material difference and dentin moisture before applying the adhesive agent.

  19. Membrane manufacture for peptide separations

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2016-06-07

    Nanostructured polymeric membranes are key tools in biomedical applications such as hemodialysis, protein separations, in the food industry, and drinking water supply from seawater. Despite of the success in different separation processes, membrane manufacture itself is at risk, since the most used solvents are about to be banned in many countries due to environmental and health issues. We propose for the first time the preparation of polyethersulfone membranes based on dissolution in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium dimethylphosphate ([EMIM]DEP). We obtained a series of membranes tailored for separation of solutes with molecular weight of 30, 5, 1.3, and 1.25 kg mol-1 with respective water permeances of 140, 65, 30 and 20 Lm-2h-1bar-1. We demonstrate their superior efficiency in the separation of complex mixtures of peptides with molecular weights in the range of 800 to 3500 gmol-1. Furthermore, the thermodynamics and kinetics of phase separation leading to the pore formation in the membranes were investigated. The rheology of the solutions and the morphology of the prepared membranes were examed and compared to those of polyethersulfone in organic solvents currently used for membrane manufacture.

  20. Thermally-dried immobilized kefir on casein as starter culture in dried whey cheese production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrellou, D; Kourkoutas, Y; Koutinas, A A; Kanellaki, M

    2009-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of thermally-dried immobilized kefir on casein as a starter culture for protein-enriched dried whey cheese. For comparison reasons, dried whey cheese with thermally-dried free kefir culture and with no starter culture were also produced. The effect of the nature of the culture, the ripening temperature and the ripening process on quality characteristics of the whey cheese was studied. The association of microbial groups during cheese maturation suggested repression of spoilage and protection from pathogens due to the thermally-dried kefir, as counts of coliforms, enterobacteria and staphylococci were significantly reduced in cheeses produced using thermally-dried kefir starter cultures. The effect of the starter culture on production of volatile compounds responsible for cheese flavor was also studied using the SPME GC/MS technique. Thermally-dried immobilized kefir starter culture resulted in an improved profile of aroma-related compounds. The preliminary sensory evaluation ascertained the soft, fine taste and the overall improved quality of cheese produced with the thermally-dried immobilized kefir. The potential of protein-based thermally-dried starter cultures in dairy products is finally highlighted and assessed.

  1. Vacuum Drying of Barberry Fruit (Berberis vulgaris and Selection of a Suitable Thin Layer Drying Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Sharifi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In an investigation on kinetics of seedless barberry drying at 35, 45 and 55°C in vacuum and with water vapor and citric acid pre-treatments, the value of effective moisture Diffusivity (Deff was calculated using the second Fick's diffusion equation, activation energy was determined and drying process was simulated by 10 common mathematical equations of thin layer-drying models. Results which were obtained from regression analysis of studied models showed that approximation of diffusion model had the best fitting for vacuum-drying of barberries through available data. Drying barberry took place in the falling rate drying period and pre-treated samples had higher drying rate. The effective diffusivity coefficient for vacuum-drying of barberry fruits was evaluated between 0.022810-10 and 0.253810-10m2/s, which increased along with temperature rise. An Arrhenius equation for drying of seedless barberry with activation energy values ranged from 27.618 to 92.493 kJ/mol expressed the effect of temperature on moisture diffusivity.

  2. Raman mapping of mannitol/lysozyme particles produced via spray drying and single droplet drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekka Pajander, Jari; Matero, Sanni Elina; Sloth, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a model protein on the solid state of a commonly used bulk agent in spray-dried formulations. METHODS: A series of lysozyme/mannitol formulations were spray-dried using a lab-scale spray dryer. Further, the surface temperature of drying droplet......-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and Raman microscopy. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis was used for analyzing the Raman microscopy data. RESULTS: XRPD results indicated that a mixture of β-mannitol and α-mannitol was produced in the spray-drying process which was supported by the Raman analysis...

  3. System for deflection measurements of floating dry docks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbachev, Alexey A.; Pantyushin, Anton V.; Serikova, Mariya G.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a system for deflection measurement of floating dry docks. The system contains two measurement channels observing opposite directions of the dock. It also includes set of reference marks, an industrial computer and a display. Each channel contains CMOS camera with long focal-length lens. Reference marks are implemented as IR LED arrays with 940 nm working wavelength for better performance within bad weather conditions (e.g. fog, rain, high humidity etc.). In the paper we demonstrate results of an analysis of different optical schemes for coupling the oppositely directed channels of the measurement unit and show that the scheme with two image sensors with separated lenses is an optimal option, because it allows usage of nonequidistant location of reference marks and demonstrates the least value of parasitic shift caused by rotations of the measuring unit. The developed system was tested both on specially-designed setup and in real infrastructure of a floating dry dock. The conducted tests proved that a measuring error of the system is smaller than +/- 1.5 mm within the measurement range of +/- 150 mm when deflection of 100 m dock is measured. Obtained results showed that the system demonstrates an ability to work in a harsh environment including poor weather conditions.

  4. Effectiveness of dry needling for upper-quarter myofascial pain: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kietrys, David M; Palombaro, Kerstin M; Azzaretto, Erica; Hubler, Richard; Schaller, Bret; Schlussel, J Mathew; Tucker, Mary

    2013-09-01

    Systematic review and meta-analysis. Myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is associated with hyperalgesic zones in muscle called myofascial trigger points. When palpated, active myofascial trigger points cause local or referred symptoms, including pain. Dry needling involves inserting an acupuncture-like needle into a myofascial trigger point, with the goal of reducing pain and restoring range of motion. To explore the evidence regarding the effectiveness of dry needling to reduce pain in patients with MPS of the upper quarter. An electronic literature search was performed using the key word dry needling. Articles identified with the search were screened for the following inclusion criteria: human subjects, randomized controlled trial (RCT), dry needling intervention group, and MPS involving the upper quarter. The RCTs that met these criteria were assessed and scored for internal validity using the MacDermid Quality Checklist. Four separate meta-analyses were performed: (1) dry needling compared to sham or control immediately after treatment, (2) dry needling compared to sham or control at 4 weeks, (3) dry needling compared to other treatments immediately after treatment, and (4) dry needling compared to other treatments at 4 weeks. The initial search yielded 246 articles. Twelve RCTs were ultimately selected. The methodological quality scores ranged from 23 to 40 points, with a mean of 34 points (scale range, 0-48; best possible score, 48). The findings of 3 studies that compared dry needling to sham or placebo treatment provided evidence that dry needling can immediately decrease pain in patients with upper-quarter MPS, with an overall effect favoring dry needling. The findings of 2 studies that compared dry needling to sham or placebo treatment provided evidence that dry needling can decrease pain after 4 weeks in patients with upper-quarter MPS, although a wide confidence interval for the overall effect limits the impact of the effect. Findings of studies that

  5. Distribution and organoleptic impact of sotolon enantiomers in dry white wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons, Alexandre; Lavigne, Valérie; Landais, Yannick; Darriet, Philippe; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2008-03-12

    The enantiomers of sotolon, a flavor compound typical of oxidized white wines, were separated by preparative HPLC to determine their perception thresholds and distribution in wines. The enantiomeric ratios of chiral sotolon were evaluated in several dry white wines using gas chromatography and a chiral column (beta-cyclodextrin) connected to a 2 m precolumn (BP20). The perception threshold of (S)-sotolon (0.8 microg/L) in model wine solution was 100 times lower than that of the (R) form (89 microg/L), indicating that (S)-sotolon contributes to the characteristic aroma of prematurely aged dry white wines. Both enantiomers are detected in white wines. Analysis of commercial dry white wines from various vintages and origins revealed three types of distribution patterns: the racemic form, an excess of R, and an excess of S. The proportions found in these wines may be partially explained by the slow racemization kinetics (20 months) of optically active sotolon.

  6. Separation process design for isolation and purification of natural products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malwade, Chandrakant R.

    selection of separation techniques and operating conditions. The key factor in designing separation processes with multiple unit operations is to determine the synergy between them which in turn demands molecular level understanding of process streams. Therefore, the methodology is fortified with process......, thereby providing process information crucial for determining synergistic effects between different unit operations. In this work, the formulated methodology has been used to isolate and purify artemisinin, an antimalarial drug, from dried leaves of the plant Artemisia annua. A process flow sheet...... is generated consisting of maceration, flash column chromatography and crystallization unit operations for extraction, partial purification and final purification of artemisinin, respectively. PAT framework is used extensively to characterize the process streams at molecular level and the generated process...

  7. The Signal Space Separation method

    CERN Document Server

    Taulu, S; Simola, J; Taulu, Samu; Kajola, Matti; Simola, Juha

    2004-01-01

    Multichannel measurement with hundreds of channels essentially covers all measurable degrees of freedom of a curl and source free vector field, like the magnetic field in a volume free of current sources (e.g. in magnetoencephalography, MEG). A functional expansion solution of Laplace's equation enables one to separate signals arising from the sphere enclosing the interesting sources, e.g. the currents in the brain, from the rest of the signals. The signal space separation (SSS) is accomplished by calculating individual basis vectors for each term of the functional expansion solution to create a signal basis covering all measurable signal vectors. Any signal vector has a unique SSS decomposition with separate coefficients for the interesting signals and signals coming from outside the interesting volume. Thus, SSS basis provides an elegant method to remove external disturbances, and to transform the interesting signals to virtual sensor configurations. SSS can also be used in compensating the movements of the...

  8. Rare Earth Separation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    During the last decade, China rare earth (RE) industry has made significant progress and become one of the most important producers in the world. In this paper, the recent developments in both fundamental research and industrial application are briefly reviewed: (1) the development and application of Theory of Countercurrent Extraction, (2) the novel solvent extraction process and its application in industry for separating heavy rare earth elements (Tm, Yb, Lu), yttrium (Y), and scandium (Sc), (3) the on-line analysis and automatic control of countercurrent extraction, (4) the eco-friendly process for RE/Th separation of bastnasite in Sichuan Province and electrochemical process for Eu/RE separation, and (5) the optimized flowcharts for typical rare earth minerals in China.

  9. Thermographic Detection of separated Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dollinger, C.; Balaresque, N.; Schaffarczyk, A. P.; Fischer, A.

    2016-09-01

    Thermographic wind tunnel measurements, both on a cylinder as well as on a 2D airfoil, were performed at various Reynolds numbers in order to evaluate the possibility of detecting and visualizing separated flow areas. A new approach by acquiring a series of thermographic images and applying a spatial-temporal statistical analysis allows improving both the resolution and the information content of the thermographic images. Separated flow regions become visible and laminar/turbulent transitions can be detected more accurately. The knowledge about possibly present stall cells can be used to confirm two-dimensional flow conditions and support the development of more effective and silent rotorblades.

  10. Separation processes, I: Azeotropic rectification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Svetomir

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In a series of two articles, the problems of azeotrope separation (part I and the design of separation units (part II were analyzed. The basic definition and equations of vapour-liquid equilibria for ideal and non-ideal systems, the importance of the activity coefficient calculation necessary for the analysis of non-ideal equilibrium systems, as well as theoretical aspects of azeotrope rectification and the determination of the optimal third component (modifier or azeotrope agent are presented in the first part.

  11. Separable metrics and radiating stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Z ABEBE; S D MAHARAJ

    2017-01-01

    We study the junction condition relating the pressure to heat flux at the boundary of an accelerating and expanding spherically symmetric radiating star. We transform the junction condition to an ordinary differential equation by making a separability assumption on the metric functions in the space–time variables. The condition of separability on the metric functions yields several new exact solutions. A class of shear-free models is found which contains a linear equation of state and generalizes a previously obtained model. Four new shearing models are obtained; all the gravitational potentials can be written explicitly. A brief physical analysis indicates that the matter variables are well behaved.

  12. SOFC and Gas Separation Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Søgaard, Martin

    2009-01-01

    from air. Subsequent separation and sequestration of CO2 is therefore easier on a SOFC plant than on conventional power plants based on combustion. Oxide ion conducting materials may be used for gas separation purposes with close to 100 % selectivity. They typically work in the same temperature range...... as SOFCs. Such membranes can potentially be used in Oxyfuel processes as well as in IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power plants for supply of process oxygen, which may reduce cost of carbon capture and storage as dilution of the flue gas with nitrogen is avoided. Both technologies are very...

  13. Separation and confirmation of showers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neslušan, L.; Hajduková, M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Using IAU MDC photographic, IAU MDC CAMS video, SonotaCo video, and EDMOND video databases, we aim to separate all provable annual meteor showers from each of these databases. We intend to reveal the problems inherent in this procedure and answer the question whether the databases are complete and the methods of separation used are reliable. We aim to evaluate the statistical significance of each separated shower. In this respect, we intend to give a list of reliably separated showers rather than a list of the maximum possible number of showers. Methods: To separate the showers, we simultaneously used two methods. The use of two methods enables us to compare their results, and this can indicate the reliability of the methods. To evaluate the statistical significance, we suggest a new method based on the ideas of the break-point method. Results: We give a compilation of the showers from all four databases using both methods. Using the first (second) method, we separated 107 (133) showers, which are in at least one of the databases used. These relatively low numbers are a consequence of discarding any candidate shower with a poor statistical significance. Most of the separated showers were identified as meteor showers from the IAU MDC list of all showers. Many of them were identified as several of the showers in the list. This proves that many showers have been named multiple times with different names. Conclusions: At present, a prevailing share of existing annual showers can be found in the data and confirmed when we use a combination of results from large databases. However, to gain a complete list of showers, we need more-complete meteor databases than the most extensive databases currently are. We also still need a more sophisticated method to separate showers and evaluate their statistical significance. Tables A.1 and A.2 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc

  14. Barriers in Concurrent Separation Logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobor, Aquinas; Gherghina, Cristian

    We develop and prove sound a concurrent separation logic for Pthreads-style barriers. Although Pthreads barriers are widely used in systems, and separation logic is widely used for verification, there has not been any effort to combine the two. Unlike locks and critical sections, Pthreads barriers enable simultaneous resource redistribution between multiple threads and are inherently stateful, leading to significant complications in the design of the logic and its soundness proof. We show how our logic can be applied to a specific example program in a modular way. Our proofs are machine-checked in Coq.

  15. Convolutive Blind Source Separation Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Syskind; Larsen, Jan; Kjems, Ulrik

    2008-01-01

    During the past decades, much attention has been given to the separation of mixed sources, in particular for the blind case where both the sources and the mixing process are unknown and only recordings of the mixtures are available. In several situations it is desirable to recover all sources from....... This may help practitioners and researchers new to the area of convolutive source separation obtain a complete overview of the field. Hopefully those with more experience in the field can identify useful tools, or find inspiration for new algorithms....

  16. Analysis of Organic and Inorganic Contaminants in Dried Sewage Sludge and By-Products of Dried Sewage Sludge Gasification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Werle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic and inorganic contaminants in sewage sludge may cause their presence also in the by-products formed during gasification processes. Thus, this paper presents multidirectional chemical instrumental activation analyses of dried sewage sludge as well as both solid (ash, char coal and liquid (tar by-products formed during sewage gasification in a fixed bed reactor which was carried out to assess the extent of that phenomenon. Significant differences were observed in the type of contaminants present in the solid and liquid by-products from the dried sewage sludge gasification. Except for heavy metals, the characteristics of the contaminants in the by-products, irrespective of their form (solid and liquid, were different from those initially determined in the sewage sludge. It has been found that gasification promotes the migration of certain valuable inorganic compounds from sewage sludge into solid by-products which might be recovered. On the other hand, the liquid by-products resulting from sewage sludge gasification require a separate process for their treatment or disposal due to their considerable loading with toxic and hazardous organic compounds (phenols and their derivatives.

  17. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  18. Blanching, salting and sun drying of different pumpkin fruit slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workneh, T S; Zinash, A; Woldetsadik, K

    2014-11-01

    The study was aimed at assessing the quality of pumpkin (Cucuribita Spp.) slices that were subjected to pre-drying treatments and drying using two drying methods (uncontrolled sun and oven) fruit accessions. Pre-drying had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on the quality of dried pumpkin slices. 10 % salt solution dipped pumpkin fruit slices had good chemical quality. The two-way interaction between drying methods and pre-drying treatments had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect on chemical qualities. Pumpkin subjected to salt solution dipping treatment and oven dried had higher chemical concentrations. Among the pumpkin fruit accessions, pumpkin accession 8007 had the superior TSS, total sugar and sugar to acid ratio after drying. Among the three pre-drying treatment, salt solution dipping treatment had significant (P ≤ 0.05) effect and the most efficient pre-drying treatment to retain the quality of dried pumpkin fruits without significant chemical quality deterioration. Salt dipping treatment combined with low temperature (60 °C) oven air circulation drying is recommended to maintain quality of dried pumpkin slices. However, since direct sun drying needs extended drying time due to fluctuation in temperature, it is recommended to develop or select best successful solar dryer for use in combination with pre-drying salt dipping or blanching treatments.

  19. High-intensity drying processes: Impulse drying. Progress report on furnish evaluations for impulse drying commercialization demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.; Phelan, P.M.; Rudman, I.

    1995-02-01

    Laboratory and pilot scale experiments were performed to identify potential furnishes and operating parameters for upcoming high-speed pilot scale trials and commercial demonstration of impulse drying of heavy weight grades of paper. Results indicate that hydrodynamic specific surface is highly dependent on sheet formation and prehandling. Mill refined pulp and machine paper were comparable to laboratory prepared samples in regards to permeability and impulse drying. Process variables such as platen surface coating, felt type, felt moisture, and presteaming temperature profiles were investigated. Substantial improvements in sheet smoothness were achieved.

  20. DRY MIX FOR OBTAINING FOAM CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leonovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composition of a dry mix has been developed for production of non-autoclaved foam concrete with natural curing. The mix has been created on the basis of Portland cement, UFAPORE foaming agent, mineral additives (RSAM sulfoaluminate additive, MK-85 micro-silica and basalt fiber, plasticizing and accelerating “Citrate-T” additive and   redispersible Vinnapas-8034 H powder. It has been established that foam concrete with  density of 400–800 kg/m3, durability of 1,1–3,4 MPa, low water absorption (40–50 %, without shrinkable cracks has been formed while adding water of Water/Solid = 0.4–0.6 in the dry mix,  subsequent mechanical swelling and curing of foam mass.Introduction of the accelerating and plasticizing “Citrate-T” additive into composition of the dry mix leads to an increase of rheological properties in expanded foam mass and  time reduction of its drying and curing. An investigation on microstructure of foam-concrete chipping surface carried out with the help of a scanning electron microscope has shown that the introduction of  basalt fiber and redispersible Vinnapas-8034 H powder into the composition of the dry mix promotes formation of more finely-divided crystalline hydrates. Such approach makes it possible to change purposefully morphology of crystalline hydrates and gives the possibility to operate foam concrete structurization process.

  1. Dried fruits quality assessment by hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serranti, Silvia; Gargiulo, Aldo; Bonifazi, Giuseppe

    2012-05-01

    Dried fruits products present different market values according to their quality. Such a quality is usually quantified in terms of freshness of the products, as well as presence of contaminants (pieces of shell, husk, and small stones), defects, mould and decays. The combination of these parameters, in terms of relative presence, represent a fundamental set of attributes conditioning dried fruits humans-senses-detectable-attributes (visual appearance, organolectic properties, etc.) and their overall quality in terms of marketable products. Sorting-selection strategies exist but sometimes they fail when a higher degree of detection is required especially if addressed to discriminate between dried fruits of relatively small dimensions and when aiming to perform an "early detection" of pathogen agents responsible of future moulds and decays development. Surface characteristics of dried fruits can be investigated by hyperspectral imaging (HSI). In this paper, specific and "ad hoc" applications addressed to propose quality detection logics, adopting a hyperspectral imaging (HSI) based approach, are described, compared and critically evaluated. Reflectance spectra of selected dried fruits (hazelnuts) of different quality and characterized by the presence of different contaminants and defects have been acquired by a laboratory device equipped with two HSI systems working in two different spectral ranges: visible-near infrared field (400-1000 nm) and near infrared field (1000-1700 nm). The spectra have been processed and results evaluated adopting both a simple and fast wavelength band ratio approach and a more sophisticated classification logic based on principal component (PCA) analysis.

  2. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  3. Aging: A Predisposition to Dry Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushree Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye syndrome is a disease of the ocular surface and tear film that is prevalent in older adults. Even though the degree of visual acuity loss in dry eye patients is commonly mild-to-moderate, in the aging population, this minimal change in visual status can lead to a significant decrease in visual function and quality of life. A healthy ocular surface is maintained by appropriate tear production and tear drainage, and deficiencies in this delicate balance can lead to dryness. In the aging eye, risk factors such as polypharmacy, androgen deficiency, decreased blink rates, and oxidative stress can predispose the patient to developing dry eye that is frequently more severe, has higher economic costs, and leads to worse consequences to the well-being of the patient. Understanding why elderly patients are at higher risk for developing dry eyes can provide insights into the diagnosis and management of the growing number of older adults struggling with dry eye and minimize the burden of disease on our aging population.

  4. Dry needling for myofascial pain: prognostic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuan-Ting; Lin, Shun-Yuan; Neoh, Choo-Aun; Wang, Kuo-Yang; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Shi, Hon-Yi

    2011-08-01

    The study objectives were to evaluate outcomes in patients who have received dry needling treatments and to identify predictors of pain and disability. The study was a prospective cohort follow-up design. The study was conducted at the Pain Clinic at Pingtung Christian Hospital, Taiwan. Ninety-two (92) patients sick-listed for 3 months or longer for myofascial pain syndrome. From February to October 2008, participants were treated at the pain clinic with dry needling of trigger points and muscle stretches of the involved muscles. Data were collected by self-administered questionnaires to assess changes in pain intensity and pain interference. Data collection was performed at baseline and after 2, 4, and 8 weeks. Sociodemographic variables, symptom characteristics, and baseline outcome measures were analyzed using generalized estimating equation methodology. The proposed dry-needling protocol reduced pain intensity and pain interference. Long duration of pain symptoms, high pain intensity, poor quality of sleep, and repetitive stress were associated with poor outcomes. Dry needling is an effective treatment for reducing pain and pain interference. However, long pain duration, high pain intensity, poor quality of sleep, and repetitive stress are associated with poor outcomes. Treatment outcome depends not only on the dry needling protocol, but also on disease characteristics and patient demographic profile.

  5. Magnetic separation apparatus and methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tibbe, Arjan; Scholtens, Tycho M.; Terstappen, Leon W.M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Apparatuses and methods for separating, immobilizing, and quantifying biological substances from within a fluid medium. Biological substances are observed by employing a vessel (6) having a chamber therein, the vessel comprising a transparent collection wall (5). A high internal gradient magnetic ca

  6. Separating Device for solid Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, T.P.R.; Kattentidt, H.U.R.; Schokker, E.A.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to a separating device for solid fragments, comprising a conveyor belt for supplying the fragments, at least one sensor for detecting the fragments, and an ejector for dislodging the fragments from the belt. The ejector is embodied as mechanical impulse-transmitting organ opera

  7. Operation of Electromagnetic Isotope Separator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MI; Ya-jing

    2015-01-01

    In 2015,we mainly completed the installation of the electromagnetic isotope separator comprehensive technical transformation projects,including the work of installation,debugging,commissioning and acceptance.In June 30,2015,according to the schedule requirements,the project

  8. 33rd Actinide Separations Conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, L M; Wilk, P A

    2009-05-04

    Welcome to the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference hosted this year by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This annual conference is centered on the idea of networking and communication with scientists from throughout the United States, Britain, France and Japan who have expertise in nuclear material processing. This conference forum provides an excellent opportunity for bringing together experts in the fields of chemistry, nuclear and chemical engineering, and actinide processing to present and discuss experiences, research results, testing and application of actinide separation processes. The exchange of information that will take place between you, and other subject matter experts from around the nation and across the international boundaries, is a critical tool to assist in solving both national and international problems associated with the processing of nuclear materials used for both defense and energy purposes, as well as for the safe disposition of excess nuclear material. Granlibakken is a dedicated conference facility and training campus that is set up to provide the venue that supports communication between scientists and engineers attending the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference. We believe that you will find that Granlibakken and the Lake Tahoe views provide an atmosphere that is stimulating for fruitful discussions between participants from both government and private industry. We thank the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the United States Department of Energy for their support of this conference. We especially thank you, the participants and subject matter experts, for your involvement in the 33rd Actinide Separations Conference.

  9. Working inside an electrostatic separator

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    This type of separators with electrodes of a length of 2 m and a field of 100 kV/cm were still in use for secondary beams in the East Hall at the PS. Michel Zahnd is on foreground, left, and Pierre Simon on background, right.

  10. Development of Separator for Soybeans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de H.C.P.; Rijpma, P.J.; Owaa, J.S.E.

    1997-01-01

    A simple and effective separator for soybeans was developed for small-scale farmers in Uganda, to clean the seeds from foreign material, chaff, broken beans etc. as demanded by local and world markets. It will help to avoid losses during post-harvest time and to reduce human drudgery of cleaning the

  11. Separation technology 2005; Separasjonsteknologi 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference comprises 13 presentations on the topics of separation technology aspects with emphasis on technology assessment. Some topics of particular interest are emulsion stabilization, sand technology and handling, water handling and reservoir injection, technical equipment and compression and pressure aspects.

  12. Separating proteins with activated carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew T; Kozlov, Mikhail

    2014-07-15

    Activated carbon is applied to separate proteins based on differences in their size and effective charge. Three guidelines are suggested for the efficient separation of proteins with activated carbon. (1) Activated carbon can be used to efficiently remove smaller proteinaceous impurities from larger proteins. (2) Smaller proteinaceous impurities are most efficiently removed at a solution pH close to the impurity's isoelectric point, where they have a minimal effective charge. (3) The most efficient recovery of a small protein from activated carbon occurs at a solution pH further away from the protein's isoelectric point, where it is strongly charged. Studies measuring the binding capacities of individual polymers and proteins were used to develop these three guidelines, and they were then applied to the separation of several different protein mixtures. The ability of activated carbon to separate proteins was demonstrated to be broadly applicable with three different types of activated carbon by both static treatment and by flowing through a packed column of activated carbon.

  13. Gas Separations using Ceramic Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul KT Liu

    2005-01-13

    This project has been oriented toward the development of a commercially viable ceramic membrane for high temperature gas separations. A technically and commercially viable high temperature gas separation membrane and process has been developed under this project. The lab and field tests have demonstrated the operational stability, both performance and material, of the gas separation thin film, deposited upon the ceramic membrane developed. This performance reliability is built upon the ceramic membrane developed under this project as a substrate for elevated temperature operation. A comprehensive product development approach has been taken to produce an economically viable ceramic substrate, gas selective thin film and the module required to house the innovative membranes for the elevated temperature operation. Field tests have been performed to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability for (i) energy and water recovery from boiler flue gases, and (ii) hydrogen recovery from refinery waste streams using the membrane/module product developed under this project. Active commercializations effort teaming with key industrial OEMs and end users is currently underway for these applications. In addition, the gas separation membrane developed under this project has demonstrated its economical viability for the CO2 removal from subquality natural gas and landfill gas, although performance stability at the elevated temperature remains to be confirmed in the field.

  14. Simultaneously Enhanced Efficiency and Stability of Polymer Solar Cells by Employing Solvent Additive and Upside-down Drying Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qianqian; Zhang, Fujun; An, Qiaoshi; Zhang, Miao; Ma, Xiaoling; Zhang, Jian

    2017-03-15

    The morphology of active layer plays an important role in determining the power conversion efficiency (PCE) and stability of polymer solar cells (PSCs), which strongly depend on the dynamic drying process of active layer. In this work, an efficient and universal method was developed to let active layer undergo upside-down drying process in a covered glass Petri dish. For the PSCs based on PTB7-Th:PC71BM, the champion PCEs were improved from 8.58% to 9.64% by mixing 3 vol % 1,8-di-iodooctane and further to 10.30% by employing upside-down drying method. The enhanced PCEs of PSCs with active layers undergoing upside-down drying process are mainly attributed to the optimized vertical phase separation, the more ordered and tightly packed π-π stacking of polymer molecules. Meanwhile, PC71BM molecules can be frozen in more ordered and tightly packed π-π stacking polymer network, which lead to the enhanced stability of PSCs. The universality of upside-down drying method can be solidly confirmed from PSCs with PTB7:PC71BM, PffBT4T-2OD:PC71BM, or PBDT-TS1:PC71BM as active layers, respectively. The molecular packing and phase separation of blend films with different solvent additives and drying methods were investigated by grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

  15. Drying kinetics, rehydration and colour characteristics of convective hot-air drying of carrot slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, İbrahim

    2016-03-01

    The effects of air drying temperature, slice thickness and pre-treatment application on the drying kinetics of carrot slices during convective drying in the range 50-70 °C were investigated. Results indicated that drying time, rehydration ratio and colour characteristics of carrot slices were more affected by drying air temperature, followed by pre-treatment applications. Five thin-layer drying models were applied to describe the drying kinetics. Midilli et al. model was the best model to characterize the drying kinetics of carrot slices. The moisture effective diffusivity calculated from the second Fick's law of diffusion ranged from 3.46 × 10-10 to 1.02 × 10-9 m2/s. The values of activation energy determined from the slope of the Arrhenius plot, ln(D eff ) versus 1/(T + 273.15), were 35.53, 43.42, and 37.75 kJ/mol for blanch, potas and control samples, respectively.

  16. Persistence and survival of pathogens in dry foods and dry food processing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Beuchat; E. Komitopoulou; R. Betts; H. Beckers; F. Bourdichon; H. Joosten; S. Fanning; B. ter Kuile

    2011-01-01

    Low-moisture foods and food ingredients, i.e., those appearing to be dry or that have been subjected to a drying process, represent important nutritional constituents of human diets. Some of these foods are naturally low in moisture, such as cereals, honey and nuts, whereas others are produced from

  17. COMPARISON OF DRY EYES IN POST- MENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH AND WITHOUT SYMPTOMS OF DRY EYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : PURPOSE: This study was done to evaluate the relationship between menopause and dry eyes, to assess the severity of dry eyes in symptomatic post-menopausal women and to validate Ocular Surface Disease Index. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study, cross sectional group comprised of 293 postmenopausal patients attending the postmenopausal clinic in Gynecology Out Patient Department and fulfilling our selection criteria. After noting the detailed history and demography, the Allergan Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI score was done. Visual acuity was assessed on Snellen’s chart and anterior segment evaluation was done with slit lamp biomicroscope. Dry eye evaluation was done with Schirmer and Tear film Break-Up Time (tBUT tests. RESULTS: The important ocular findings in postmenopausal women were foreign-body sensation and grittiness, hyperaemia, mucoid discharge and fluctuating or blurry vision. The overall prevalence of dry eye in symptomatic post-menopausal women was 82.97% which was statistically significant. (p<0.00 CONCLUSION: Results from the present study reveal that dry eye symptoms are common problems in postmenopausal women. The prevalence of dry eye in post-menopausal women with symptoms has significant association. Hence, examination for dry eye should be an integral part of the postmenopausal women especially those having dry eye symptoms.

  18. Drying kinetics, rehydration and colour characteristics of convective hot-air drying of carrot slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, İbrahim

    2017-01-01

    The effects of air drying temperature, slice thickness and pre-treatment application on the drying kinetics of carrot slices during convective drying in the range 50-70 °C were investigated. Results indicated that drying time, rehydration ratio and colour characteristics of carrot slices were more affected by drying air temperature, followed by pre-treatment applications. Five thin-layer drying models were applied to describe the drying kinetics. Midilli et al. model was the best model to characterize the drying kinetics of carrot slices. The moisture effective diffusivity calculated from the second Fick's law of diffusion ranged from 3.46 × 10-10 to 1.02 × 10-9 m2/s. The values of activation energy determined from the slope of the Arrhenius plot, ln( D eff ) versus 1/(T + 273.15), were 35.53, 43.42, and 37.75 kJ/mol for blanch, potas and control samples, respectively.

  19. PADDY DRYING IN MIXED ADSORPTION DRYER WITH ZEOLITE: DRYING RATE AND TIME ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Djaeni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the main problem of the rice stock and distribution in Indonesia is the quality degradation as indicated in unpleasant odor (smelly, stained, yellowness, and high percentage of broken rice. This is due to the low of paddy quality dried by from either direct sunlight or conventional fluidized bed dryer. As a result, the paddy cracks and breaks easily during milling in which causes the storage life being shorter as the enzymatic degradation by germ or fungi occurs. Air dehumidified with zeolite at drying medium temperature is potential to improve the quality of paddy. Zeolite is a material having high affinity to water vapor. In this case, the paddy and zeolite was mixed and fluidized with the air. The air will evaporate water from paddy, and at same time, the zeolite will adsorb water from air. Hence, the humidity of dryer can be kept low in which improves the driving force for drying. This work discusses the effect of presence of zeolite in the dryer, operational drying temperature, air velocity and relative humidity on drying rate of paddy. The results showed that increasing of zeolite as well as operational temperature increased the drying rate. In addition, using the model, the air dehumidification with zeolite and increase of air velocity can speed up drying time significantly at operational temperature below 80oC. This condition is very suitable for paddy drying since the quality degradation can be avoided.

  20. Development of dry gram-negative bacteria biocontrol products and small pilot tests against dry rot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strains S11:P:12, P22:Y:05, and S22:T:04 suppress four important storage potato maladies; dry rot, late blight, pink rot, and sprouting. Studies were designed to identify methods for producing a dried, efficacious biological control product. The strains were evaluated individ...

  1. Scalable organic solvent free supercritical fluid spray drying process for producing dry protein formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuchuchua, O; Every, H A; Hofland, G W; Jiskoot, W

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the influence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) spray drying conditions, in the absence of organic solvent, on the ability to produce dry protein/trehalose formulations at 1:10 and 1:4 (w/w) ratios. When using a 4L drying vessel, we found that decreasing the solution flow rate and solution volume, or increasing the scCO2 flow rate resulted in a significant reduction in the residual water content in dried products (Karl Fischer titration). The best conditions were then used to evaluate the ability to scale the scCO2 spray drying process from 4L to 10L chamber. The ratio of scCO2 and solution flow rate was kept constant. The products on both scales exhibited similar residual moisture contents, particle morphologies (SEM), and glass transition temperatures (DSC). After reconstitution, the lysozyme activity (enzymatic assay) and structure (circular dichroism, HP-SEC) were fully preserved, but the sub-visible particle content was slightly increased (flow imaging microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis). Furthermore, the drying condition was applicable to other proteins resulting in products of similar quality as the lysozyme formulations. In conclusion, we established scCO2 spray drying processing conditions for protein formulations without an organic solvent that holds promise for the industrial production of dry protein formulations.

  2. Model-based optimization of the primary drying step during freeze-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Nopens, Ingmar;

    2015-01-01

    Since large molecules are considered the key driver for growth of the pharmaceutical industry, the focus of the pharmaceutical industry is shifting from small molecules to biopharmaceuticals: around 50% of the approved biopharmaceuticals are freeze-dried products. Therefore, freeze- drying is an ...

  3. ESEM drying tests: microcracking initiation in thin cement paste due to early age drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jankovic, D.

    2009-01-01

    Scattered and discontinues microcracking as a subsequent side-effect of deformations due to early age drying, occurs in thin (approximately 1 mm thick) cement paste samples, when stepwise dried in ESEM. Microcracking of cement paste and restrains appear to be practically unavoidable. They are relate

  4. Impact of tilling on biosolids drying and indicator microorganisms survival during solar drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Inhong; Dominguez, Teodulo; Choi, Christopher Y; Kang, Moon Seong

    2014-01-01

    As biosolids application to croplands becomes a common practice, potential harm from pathogenic microbes needs to be mitigated for its safe reuse. The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of tilling treatment on biosolids drying and microbial inactivation during the solar drying process in a semi-arid and temperate region. Solar drying experiments were conducted in sand and gravel dying beds open-to-the-air and under covering structures with biosolids to 20 cm depth from 2004 to 2006. Anaerobically- and Aerobically-digested biosolids received different tilling treatments throughout the drying process, while a series of biosolids samples were collected to determine the impact on total solids and microbial concentrations (Salmonella spp and heminth ova). Tilling treatments appeared to enhance the biosolids drying and microbial inactivation. Tilling was more effective during the cold season compared with the summer season and tilling treatments were also helpful in elevating biosolids temperature by expediting biosolids drying. The combined effect of temperature increase and moisture decrease by tilling may have resulted in faster microbial inactivation, particularly for persistent helminth ova. It was concluded that incorporation of tilling into biosolids solar drying can expedite biosolids drying as well as microbial inactivation, and thus can be an effective measure for shortening the biosolids conversion to Class A biosolids in which pathogens are reduced to below detectable levels.

  5. Combined influence of growth and drying conditions on the activity of dried Lactobacillus plantarum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders, L.J.M.; Kets, E.P.W.; Bont, J.A.M. de; Riet, K.V. van 't

    1998-01-01

    The production of active dried starter cultures can be influenced at several levels in the production process. In this paper the following process factors are discussed: osmotic stress during growth and cell density prior to drying. Contradicting results are reported in the literature on the influen

  6. Evaluation of drying methods with respect to drying kinetics, mineral content and colour characteristics of rosemary leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Derya [Selcuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering, Konya (Turkey); Musa Ozcan, M. [Selcuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Food Engineering, Konya (Turkey)], E-mail: mozcan@selcuk.edu.tr

    2008-05-15

    Rosemary leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis L., Lamiaceae) were dried by using sun, oven (50 deg. C) and microwave oven (700 W, 2450 MHz) drying methods. Microwave oven drying shortened the drying time more than 99% when compared to the sun and oven drying methods. K, Ca, Na, Mg and P were the most abundant elements in the rosemary samples. The mineral content of oven dried rosemary leaves was higher than that of the sun and microwave dried samples. The logarithmic and Midilli and Kuecuek models were shown to give a good fit to the sun and oven drying. The Page, Modified Page and Midilli and Kuecuek models have shown a better fit to the experimental microwave oven drying data of rosemary leaves. Microwave oven drying revealed optimum colour values. Oven drying resulted in a considerable decrease in the colour quality of the rosemary leaves.

  7. 干旱期dry spell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟杰

    2009-01-01

    上面的报道中,dry spell就是指“干旱期”,指的是降水偏少的一段时间,也就是气候上常说的“旱季”,还可以用dry season来表示。Spell在这里表示“连续的一段时间”。比如寒流过后,我们终于可以享受到a spell of warm weather(持续的温暖天气)。除了dry spell以外,常见的类似用法还有cold spell(春寒期),

  8. Scale formation in deluged dry cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, D.R.

    1976-05-01

    Deluging of air-cooled heat exchangers with water during warm periods holds the promise of increasing heat rejection capability and reducing the cost of dry cooling. One of the principal uncertainties in the use of the deluge concept is the tendency toward deposition of solids from the delugate. Small amounts of calcium carbonate scale may significantly reduce the cooling efficiency of a deluged system by reducing the heat transfer coefficient and interfering with delugate flow. Thus the question of delugate water quality is of major importance in evaluating scale formation and its effect on heat transfer in the deluged dry cooling system. The paper discusses, in relation to the deluged dry cooling system, the importance of scale prevention, the theory of scale formation and application of this theory to the deluged system, the problems of delugate evaporation, and delugate treatment required to prevent scaling.

  9. Diagnostic Procedures and Management of Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaštelan, Snježana; Tomić, Martina; Salopek-Rabatić, Jasminka; Novak, Branko

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye disease or dysfunctional tear syndrome is among the most frequent diagnoses in ophthalmology. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film which results in ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Risk factors for dry eye syndrome include age, sex (female gender), race, contact lens wear, environment with low humidity, systemic medications, and autoimmune disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the systematic classification, epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and advances in the management of dry eye disease. The recent improvements in comprehending the underlying etiologic factors will inevitably improve future classifications and diagnostic abilities leading to more effective therapeutic options. Treatment of this highly prevalent condition can drastically improve the quality of life of individuals and prevent damage to the ocular surface. PMID:24024186

  10. Diagnostic Procedures and Management of Dry Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Kaštelan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye disease or dysfunctional tear syndrome is among the most frequent diagnoses in ophthalmology. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film which results in ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Risk factors for dry eye syndrome include age, sex (female gender, race, contact lens wear, environment with low humidity, systemic medications, and autoimmune disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the systematic classification, epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and advances in the management of dry eye disease. The recent improvements in comprehending the underlying etiologic factors will inevitably improve future classifications and diagnostic abilities leading to more effective therapeutic options. Treatment of this highly prevalent condition can drastically improve the quality of life of individuals and prevent damage to the ocular surface.

  11. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN OPERATING DRY PORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciortescu Cezar-Gabriel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach for recognizing and defining correct and operable performance will be presented with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of processes in dry ports (inland intermodal hubs. The challenge in evaluating the possible improvements of the underlying processes lies in the special nature and the complex structure of dry ports. It is important to consider that all the processes are highly interconnected and that changes in parameters in one process also have an impact on parameters in other processes. Furthermore, the performance of dry ports, seen as the backbone of the system, has a significant impact on the overall performance of the whole transportation network.

  12. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Style, R. W.

    2010-06-30

    During the drying of colloidal suspensions, the desiccation process causes the suspension near the air interface to consolidate into a connected porous matrix or crust. Fluid transport in the porous medium is governed by Darcy\\'s law and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model of the concentration and stress profiles during drying. A solution is found for the steady-state growth of a nedimensional crust during constant evaporation rate from the surface. The solution is used to demonstrate the importance of the system boundary conditions on stress profiles and diffusivity in a drying crust. © 2011 The Royal Society.

  13. The influence of lysozyme on mannitol polymorphism in freeze-dried and spray-dried formulations depends on the selection of the drying process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Lee, Yan-Ying; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    -infrared spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis and further, results were verified with X-ray powder diffraction. It was seen that the prevalence of the mannitol polymorphic form shifted from ß-mannitol to d-mannitol with increasing protein concentration in freeze-dried formulations. In spray......-dried formulations an increase in protein concentration resulted in a shift from ß-mannitol to a-mannitol. An increase in final drying temperature of the freeze-drying process towards the temperature of the spray-drying process did not lead to significant changes. It can thus be concluded that it is the drying...

  14. Magnetic separation for environmental remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schake, A.R.; Avens, L.R.; Hill, D.D.; Padilla, D.D.; Prenger, F.C.; Romero, D.A.; Worl, L.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Tolt, T.L. [Lockheed Environmental Systems and Technologies Co., Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    1994-11-01

    High Gradient Magnetic Separation (HGMS) is a form of magnetic separation used to separate solids from other solids, liquids or gases. HGMS uses large magnetic field gradients to separate ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles from diamagnetic host materials. The technology relies only on physical properties, and therefore separations can be achieved while producing a minimum of secondary waste. Actinide and fission product wastes within the DOE weapons complex pose challenging problems for environmental remediation. Because the majority of actinide complexes and many fission products are paramagnetic, while most host materials are diamagnetic, HGMS can be used to concentrate the contaminants into a low volume waste stream. The authors are currently developing HGMS for applications to soil decontamination, liquid waste treatment, underground storage tank waste treatment, and actinide chemical processing residue concentration. Application of HGMS usually involves passing a slurry of the contaminated mixture through a magnetized volume. Field gradients are produced in the magnetized volume by a ferromagnetic matrix material, such as steel wool, expanded metal, iron shot, or nickel foam. The matrix fibers become trapping sites for ferromagnetic and paramagnetic particles in the host material. The particles with a positive susceptibility are attracted toward an increasing magnetic field gradient and can be extracted from diamagnetic particles, which react in the opposite direction, moving away from the areas of high field gradients. The extracted paramagnetic contaminants are flushed from the matrix fibers when the magnetic field is reduced to zero or when the matrix canister is removed from the magnetic field. Results are discussed for the removal of uranium trioxide from water, PuO{sub 2}, U, and Pu from various soils (Fernald, Nevada Test Site), and the waste water treatment of Pu and Am isotopes using HGMS.

  15. Designing CAF-adjuvanted dry powder vaccines: Spray drying preserves the adjuvant activity of CAF01

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Christensen, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    spray drying. The optimal excipient to stabilize CAF01 during spray drying and for the design of nanocomposite microparticles was identified among mannitol, lactose and trehalose. Trehalose and lactose were promising stabilizers with respect to preserving liposome size, as compared to mannitol......Dry powder vaccine formulations are highly attractive due to improved storage stability and the possibility for particle engineering, as compared to liquid formulations. However, a prerequisite for formulating vaccines into dry formulations is that their physicochemical and adjuvant properties...... remain unchanged upon rehydration. Thus, we have identified and optimized the parameters of importance for the design of a spray dried powder formulation of the cationic liposomal adjuvant formulation 01 (CAF01) composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose 6,6′-dibehenate (TDB) via...

  16. The effect of slicing type on drying kinetics and quality of dried carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Naghipour zadeh mahani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carrot is one of the most common vegetables used for human nutrition because of its high vitamin and fiber contents. Drying improves the product shelf life without addition of any chemical preservative and reduces both the size of package and the transport cost. Drying also aidsto reduce postharvest losses of fruits and vegetables especially, which can be as high as 70%. Dried carrots are used in dehydrated soups and in the form of powder in pastries and sauces. The main aim of drying agricultural products is decrease the moisture content to a level which allows safe storage over an extended period. Many fruits and vegetables can be sliced before drying.because of different tissue of a fruit or vegetable, cutting them in different direction and shape created different tissue slices. Due to drying is the exiting process of the moisture from internal tissue so different tissue slices caused different drying kinetics. Therefore, the study on effect of cutting parameters on drying is necessary. Materials and Methods: Carrots (Daucus carota L. were purchased from the local market (Kerman, Iran and stored in a refrigerator at 5°C. The initial moisture contents of the Carrot samples were determined by the oven drying method. The sample was dried in an oven at 105±2°C about 24 hours. The carrots cut by 3 models blade at 3 directions. The samples were dried in an oven at 70°C. Moisture content of the carrot slices were determined by weighting of samples during drying. Volume changes because of sample shrinkage were measured by a water displacement method. Rehydration experiment was performed by immersing a weighted amount of dried samples into hot water 50 °C for 30 min. In this study the effect of some cutting parameters was considered on carrot drying and the quality of final drying product. The tests were performed as a completely random design. The effects of carrot thickness at two levels (3 and 6 mm, blade in 3 models (flat blade

  17. The effect of slicing type on drying kinetics and quality of dried carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Naghipour zadeh mahani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carrot is one of the most common vegetables used for human nutrition because of its high vitamin and fiber contents. Drying improves the product shelf life without addition of any chemical preservative and reduces both the size of package and the transport cost. Drying also aidsto reduce postharvest losses of fruits and vegetables especially, which can be as high as 70%. Dried carrots are used in dehydrated soups and in the form of powder in pastries and sauces. The main aim of drying agricultural products is decrease the moisture content to a level which allows safe storage over an extended period. Many fruits and vegetables can be sliced before drying.because of different tissue of a fruit or vegetable, cutting them in different direction and shape created different tissue slices. Due to drying is the exiting process of the moisture from internal tissue so different tissue slices caused different drying kinetics. Therefore, the study on effect of cutting parameters on drying is necessary. Materials and Methods: Carrots (Daucus carota L. were purchased from the local market (Kerman, Iran and stored in a refrigerator at 5°C. The initial moisture contents of the Carrot samples were determined by the oven drying method. The sample was dried in an oven at 105±2°C about 24 hours. The carrots cut by 3 models blade at 3 directions. The samples were dried in an oven at 70°C. Moisture content of the carrot slices were determined by weighting of samples during drying. Volume changes because of sample shrinkage were measured by a water displacement method. Rehydration experiment was performed by immersing a weighted amount of dried samples into hot water 50 °C for 30 min. In this study the effect of some cutting parameters was considered on carrot drying and the quality of final drying product. The tests were performed as a completely random design. The effects of carrot thickness at two levels (3 and 6 mm, blade in 3 models (flat blade

  18. Advancements in Spacecraft Brine Water Recovery: Development of a Radial Vaned Capillary Drying Tray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargusingh, Miriam J.; Pickerin, Karen D.; Weislogel, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Technology improvements in the recovery of water from brine are critical to establishing closedloop water recovery systems, enabling long duration missions, and achieving a sustained human presence in space. A genre of 'in-place drying' brine water recovery concepts, collectively referred to herein as Brine Residual In-Containment (BRIC), are under development which aim to increase the overall robustness and reliability of the brine recovery process by performing drying inside the container used for final disposal of the solid residual waste. Implementation of in-place drying techniques have been demonstrated for applications where gravity is present and phase separation occurs naturally by buoyancy induced effects. In this work, a microgravity compatible analogue of the gravity-driven phase separation process is considered by exploiting capillarity in the form of surface wetting, surface tension, and container geometry. The proposed design consists of a series of planar radial vanes aligned about a central slotted core. Preliminary testing of the fundamental geometry in a reduced gravity environment has shown the device to spontaneously fill and saturate rapidly creating a free surface from which evaporation and phase separation can occur similar to a 1-g like 'cylindrical pool' of fluid. Mathematical modeling and analysis of the design suggest predictable rates of filling and stability of fluid containment as a function of relevant system dimensions, e.g., number of vanes, vane length, width, and thickness. A description of the proposed capillary design solution is presented along with preliminary results from testing, modeling and analysis of the system.

  19. Improved shelf life of dried Beauveria bassiana blastospores using convective drying and active packaging processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascarin, Gabriel Moura; Jackson, Mark A; Behle, Robert W; Kobori, Nilce N; Júnior, Ítalo Delalibera

    2016-10-01

    The yeast form (blastospore) of the dimorphic insect-pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana can be rapidly produced using liquid fermentation methods but is generally unable to survive rapid dehydration processes or storage under non-refrigerated conditions. In this study, we evaluated the influence of two convective drying methods, various modified atmosphere packaging systems, and storage temperatures on the desiccation tolerance, storage stability, and virulence of blastospores of B. bassiana ESALQ 1432. All blastospore formulations were dried to <5 % water content equivalent to aw < 0.3. The viability of B. bassiana blastospores after air drying and spray drying was greater than 80 %. Vacuum-packaged blastospores remained viable longer when stored at 4 °C compared with 28 °C with virtually no loss in viability over 9 months regardless the drying method. When both oxygen and moisture scavengers were added to sealed packages of dried blastospore formulations stored at 28 °C, viability was significantly prolonged for both air- and spray-dried blastospores. The addition of ascorbic acid during spray drying did not improve desiccation tolerance but enhanced cell stability (∼twofold higher half-life) when stored at 28 °C. After storage for 4 months at 28 °C, air-dried blastospores produced a lower LC80 and resulted in higher mortality to whitefly nymphs (Bemisia tabaci) when compared with spray-dried blastospores. These studies identified key storage conditions (low aw and oxygen availability) that improved blastospore storage stability at 28 °C and will facilitate the commercial development of blastospores-based bioinsecticides.

  20. Annotated Bibliography for Drying Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebecca E. Smith

    2011-09-01

    Internationally, the nuclear industry is represented by both commercial utilities and research institutions. Over the past two decades many of these entities have had to relocate inventories of spent nuclear fuel from underwater storage to dry storage. These efforts were primarily prompted by two factors: insufficient storage capacity (potentially precipitated by an open-ended nuclear fuel cycle) or deteriorating quality of existing underwater facilities. The intent of developing this bibliography is to assess what issues associated with fuel drying have been identified, to consider where concerns have been satisfactorily addressed, and to recommend where additional research would offer the most value to the commercial industry and the U. S. Department of Energy.