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Sample records for dry powder inhaler

  1. Dry powder inhalers for pulmonary drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, H.W.; De Boer, A.H.

    2004-01-01

    The pulmonary route is an interesting route for drug administration, both for effective local therapy (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cystic fibrosis) and for the systemic administration of drugs (e.g., peptides and proteins). Well-designed dry powder inhalers are highly efficient

  2. Computational modelling for dry-powder inhalers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kröger, Ralf; Woolhouse, Robert; Becker, Michael; Wachtel, Herbert; de Boer, Anne; Horner, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a simulation tool used for modelling powder flow through inhalers to allow optimisation both of device design and drug powder. Here, Ralf Kröger, Consulting Senior CFD Engineer, ANSYS Germany GmbH; Marc Horner, Lead Technical Services Engineer, Healthcare, ANSYS

  3. Computational modelling for dry-powder inhalers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kröger, Ralf; Woolhouse, Robert; Becker, Michael; Wachtel, Herbert; de Boer, Anne; Horner, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a simulation tool used for modelling powder flow through inhalers to allow optimisation both of device design and drug powder. Here, Ralf Kröger, Consulting Senior CFD Engineer, ANSYS Germany GmbH; Marc Horner, Lead Technical Services Engineer, Healthcare,

  4. Technological and practical challenges of dry powder inhalers and formulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppentocht, M.; Hagedoorn, P.; Frijlink, H.W.; de Boer, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    In the 50 years following the introduction of the first dry powder inhaler to the market, several developments have occurred. Multiple-unit dose and multi-dose devices have been introduced, but first generation capsule inhalers are still widely used for new formulations. Many new particle engineerin

  5. Dry powder inhalable formulations for anti-tubercular therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Chang, Rachel Yoon Kyung; Abdelghany, Sharif; Ye, Tian Tian; Britton, Warwick John; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-07-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an intracellular infectious disease caused by the airborne bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite considerable research efforts, the treatment of TB continues to be a great challenge in part due to the requirement of prolonged therapy with multiple high-dose drugs and associated side effects. The delivery of pharmacological agents directly to the respiratory system, following the natural route of infection, represents a logical therapeutic approach for treatment or vaccination against TB. Pulmonary delivery is non-invasive, avoids first-pass metabolism in the liver and enables targeting of therapeutic agents to the infection site. Inhaled delivery also potentially reduces the dose requirement and the accompanying side effects. Dry powder is a stable formulation of drug that can be stored without refrigeration compared to liquids and suspensions. The dry powder inhalers are easy to use and suitable for high-dose formulations. This review focuses on the current innovations of inhalable dry powder formulations of drug and vaccine delivery for TB, including the powder production method, preclinical and clinical evaluations of inhaled dry powder over the last decade. Finally, the risks associated with pulmonary therapy are addressed. A novel dry powder formulation with high percentages of respirable particles coupled with a cost effective inhaler device is an appealing platform for TB drug delivery.

  6. Towards the optimisation and adaptation of dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Schmalfuß, S; Zellnitz, S; Sommerfeld, M; Urbanetz, N

    2014-08-15

    Pulmonary drug delivery by dry powder inhalers is becoming more and more popular. Such an inhalation device must insure that during the inhalation process the drug powder is detached from the carrier due to fluid flow stresses. The goal of the project is the development of a drug powder detachment model to be used in numerical computations (CFD, computational fluid dynamics) of fluid flow and carrier particle motion through the inhaler and the resulting efficiency of drug delivery. This programme will be the basis for the optimisation of inhaler geometry and dry powder inhaler formulation. For this purpose a multi-scale approach is adopted. First the flow field through the inhaler is numerically calculated with OpenFOAM(®) and the flow stresses experienced by the carrier particles are recorded. This information is used for micro-scale simulations using the Lattice-Boltzmann method where only one carrier particle covered with drug powder is placed in cubic flow domain and exposed to the relevant flow situations, e.g. plug and shear flow with different Reynolds numbers. Therefrom the fluid forces on the drug particles are obtained. In order to allow the determination of the drug particle detachment possibility by lift-off, sliding or rolling, also measurements by AFM (atomic force microscope) were conducted for different carrier particle surface structures. The contact properties, such as van der Waals force, friction coefficient and adhesion surface energy were used to determine, from a force or moment balance (fluid forces versus contact forces), the detachment probability by the three mechanisms as a function of carrier particle Reynolds number. These results will be used for deriving the drug powder detachment model.

  7. Design and evaluation of a new dry powder inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Rouholamini Najafabadi AH

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Three versions of a new dry powder inhaler (DPI, RG-haler, were designed using two kinds of grid inserts. Salbutamol sulfate/lactose blend (Ventolin Rotacaps® was selected as a model formulation to analyze the performance of all inhalers and compare their efficiency with three marketed devices (Rotahaler®, Spinhaler® and ISF inhalator® using the twin impinger (TI. Deposition of the drug in device was significantly (P<0.05 lower for ISF inhalator® and all kinds of RG-halers in comparison with those of Rotahaler® and Spinhaler®. The amount of drug deposited in the stage 2 and the respirable dose for RG-halers were similar to those of ISF inhalator® and significantly (P<0.05 higher than those of Rotahaler® and Spinhaler®. The results suggest efficient aerosol generating capability of the RG-haler.

  8. Development of liposomal salbutamol sulfate dry powder inhaler formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Hua; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Wu, Heng; Wong, Yuen-Fan; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Liu, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to develop a formulation of liposomal salbutamol sulfate (SBS) dry powder inhaler (DPI) for the treatment of asthma. Liposomes of high encapsulation efficiency (more than 80%) were prepared by a vesicular phospholipid gel (VPG) technique. SBS VPG liposomes were subjected to lyophilization using different kinds of cryoprotectants in various mass ratios. Coarse lactose (63-106 microm) in different mass ratios was used as a carrier. Magnesium stearate (0.5%) was added as a lubricator. The dry liposomal powders were then crushed by ball milling and sieved through a 400-mesh sieve to control the mean particle size at about 10 microm. The effects of different kinds of cryoprotectants and the amount of lactose carrier on the fine particle fraction (FPF) of SBS were investigated. The results showed that the developed formulation of liposomal dry powder inhaler was obtained using lactose as a cryoprotectant with a mass ratio of lyophilized powder to carrier lactose at 1 : 5; 0.5% magnesium stearate was used as a lubricator. The value of FPF for SBS was 41.51+/-2.22% for this formulation. Sustained release of SBS from the VPG liposomes was found in the in vitro release study. The study results offer the promising possibility of localized pulmonary liposomal SBS delivery in the anhydrous state.

  9. Development of high efficiency ventilation bag actuated dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behara, Srinivas R B; Longest, P Worth; Farkas, Dale R; Hindle, Michael

    2014-04-25

    New active dry powder inhaler systems were developed and tested to efficiently aerosolize a carrier-free formulation. To assess inhaler performance, a challenging case study of aerosol lung delivery during high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy was selected. The active delivery system consisted of a ventilation bag for actuating the device, the DPI containing a flow control orifice and 3D rod array, and streamlined nasal cannula with separate inlets for the aerosol and HFNC therapy gas. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess deposition in the device, emitted dose (ED) from the nasal cannula, and powder deaggregation. The best performing systems achieved EDs of 70-80% with fine particle fractions ventilation, nose-to-lung aerosol administration, and to assist patients that cannot reproducibly use passive DPIs.

  10. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of a Unit Dose Dry Powder Inhaler with a Multidose Dry Powder Inhaler for Delivery of Fluticasone Furoate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rashmi; Moore, Alison; Riddell, Kylie; Joshi, Shashidhar; Chan, Robert

    2017-05-02

    The unit dose dry powder inhaler (UD-DPI) is being considered as an alternative inhaler platform that, if developed, has the potential to improve access to inhaled respiratory medicines in developing countries. This study compared the systemic exposure of fluticasone furoate after delivery from the UD-DPI with that from the ELLIPTA(®) inhaler. This open-label, five-way cross-over, randomized, single-dose study in healthy subjects evaluated fluticasone furoate systemic exposure of three dose strengths (using four inhalations), 4 × 80 μg [320 μg], 4 × 100 μg [400 μg], and 4 × 140 μg [560 μg]), and two percentages of drug in lactose blends (0.6% and 0.8% by weight) after delivery from the UD-DPI compared with systemic exposures from the ELLIPTA inhaler (4 × 100 μg [400 μg] dose, 0.8% lactose blend). The primary treatment comparisons were area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to 6 hours [AUC0-6] and maximum plasma concentration [Cmax]. After single-dose administration of fluticasone furoate, systemic exposure was lower from all UD-DPI formulations versus the ELLIPTA inhaler in terms of both AUC0-6 [AUC0-6 geometric least squares mean (GLM) ratios confidence interval (90% CI) for: UD-DPI (400 μg 0.8% blend)/ELLIPTA: 0.61 (0.55-0.67) and Cmax GLM (90% CI) for: UD-DPI (400 μg 0.8% blend)/ELLIPTA: 0.56 (0.49-0.64)]. Systemic exposures were ∼10% lower for fluticasone furoate UD-DPI for the 0.8% blend versus the 0.6% blend [GLM ratio (90% CI); 0.90 (0.81-1.00) for AUC0-6 and 0.89 (0.77-1.01) for Cmax], and increasing doses of fluticasone furoate from the UD-DPI showed systemic exposures that were approximately dose proportional. All treatments were well tolerated. Fluticasone furoate systemic exposure was lower from the UD-DPI than from the ELLIPTA inhaler, but the UD-DPI formulations did demonstrate detectable systemic levels and approximate dose proportionality. Together with the good tolerability shown

  11. A New Quantitative Method for Evaluating Dry Powder Inhalation Efficiency in Asthma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yasha; Hu, Hefang; Tian, Cuijie; Lei, Yi; Liu, Chuntao; Luo, Fengming

    2016-10-01

    Many methods have been developed to evaluate dry powder inhalation techniques and their efficiency for disease control in asthma patients. However, it is difficult to apply these methods to clinical practice and research. In this study, we introduce a simple new method that can be applied to dry powder inhalation techniques to evaluate their efficiency in clinical practice. Twenty volunteers were recruited to evaluate the reliability of this new method. One hundred one asthma patients who met the inclusion criteria participated in this study. A dark cloth covered the outlet of the inhaler during dry powder inhalation. The image formed by the inhalation process was evaluated using analysis software and converted into integrated optical density (IOD). Inhalation techniques were scored before and after inhalation technique training, and asthma control was evaluated using the Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) before inhalation technique training. The relative standard deviation of IOD ranged from 3.8% to 7.8%. In patients with or without inhaler prior use, both the IOD and inhalation technique scores improved significantly after inhalation technique training (p quantitative method is equivalent to traditional methods for dry powder inhalation evaluation. This study also indicated that training significantly improved the inhalation technique and efficiency in asthma patients with or without prior inhaler use.

  12. Dry powder inhalation of hemin to induce heme oxygenase expression in the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, G.S.; Brandsma, C.; Harpe, M.F.H.; Van Dam, G.M.; Slebos, D.J.; Kerstjens, H.A.M.; de Boer, Anne; Frijlink, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to formulate hemin as a powder for inhalation and to show proof of concept of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression in the lungs of mice by inhalation of hemin. Hemin was spray dried from a neutralized sodium hydroxide solution. The particle size distribution of the powder

  13. DEM analysis of particle adhesion during powder mixing for dry powder inhaler formulation development

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, J; Wu, C-Y; Adams, M.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the adhesive interactions between active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) particles and carrier particles in dry powder inhalers (DPIs) is critical for the development of formulations and process design. In the current study, a discrete element method, which accounts for particle adhesion, is employed to investigate the attachment processes in DPIs. A critical velocity criterion is proposed to determine the lowest impact velocity at which two elastic autoadhesive spherical partic...

  14. Powder dispersion mechanisms within a dry powder inhaler using microscale particle image velocimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xiang; Wereley, Steven T; Heng, Paul W S; Chan, Lai Wah; Carvajal, M Teresa

    2016-12-05

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the ability of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to visually assess dry powder dispersion within an inhaler. Herein, the study reports particle movement characterization of entrained low-micron particles within an inhaler to further scheme of potential mechanisms. Carrier based DPI formulations were prepared and placed in a transparent model Rotahaler(®) chamber for the aerosolization experiments. Then using the PIV, a high-speed camera, the dried powder dispersion was directly observed and analyzed for all, neat, binary and ternary systems. Powder dispersion mechanisms proposed include drag force, impact with obstacle and particle-particle collision; these different mechanisms depended on the powder flow properties. A revised ratio of aerodynamic response time (τA) to the mean time between collisions (τC) was found to be 6.8 indicating that particle collisions were of strong influence to particle dispersion. With image analysis techniques, visualization of particle flow pattern and collision regions was possible; suggesting that the various mechanisms proposed did govern the powder dispersion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Discrete Modelling of Powder Dispersion in Dry Powder Inhalers - A Brief Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zhenbo; Yu, Aibing; Chan, Hak-Kim; Yang, Runyu

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a dry powder inhaler (DPI) depends on powder properties as well as the air and particle flows in the device. The main principle of powder dispersion is to overcome the inter-particle cohesion using various dispersion/ de-agglomeration forces. While different dispersion mechanisms have been identified, their relative importance under different conditions is less clear. The lack of understanding of these mechanisms is a major obstacle to the advance of pharmaceutical powder aerosol technology. This paper briefly reviews our recent effort in developing a combined computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) approach to gain such pivotal information. Dispersions under various specifically designed conditions were simulated to exam the role of individual dispersion mechanism. The air and particle flows were analysed at the particle scale and linked to dispersion performance characterised by fine particle fraction (FPF). In addition, the dispersion mechanisms of both drug only and carrier based formulations in a commercial inhaler were studied. Our work shows that the approach has the potential to develop a theoretical framework for designing new DPIs.

  16. Investigation of the applicability of dry powder inhalation in school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A. J.; Kruizinga, T. J.; Hagedoorn, P.; Frijlink, H. W.; Rottier, B. L.; de Boer, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Children are an important target group for inhalation therapy, but little is known about their intellectual and inspiratory capacities to operate dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Most studies so far have focused either on a specific DPI, or on (single) inhala- tion parameters and how these are affected b

  17. Investigation of the applicability of dry powder inhalation in school children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A. J.; Kruizinga, T. J.; Hagedoorn, P.; Frijlink, H. W.; Rottier, B. L.; de Boer, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Children are an important target group for inhalation therapy, but little is known about their intellectual and inspiratory capacities to operate dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Most studies so far have focused either on a specific DPI, or on (single) inhala- tion parameters and how these are affected b

  18. The clinical relevance of dry powder inhaler performance for drug delivery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demoly, Pascal; Hagedoorn, Paul; de Boer, Anne H.; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Although understanding of the scientific basis of aerosol therapy with dry powder inhalers (DPIs) has increased, some misconceptions still persist. These include the beliefs that high resistance inhalers are unsuitable for some patients, that extra fine ( Objectives: This article aims to

  19. Adhesion forces in interactive mixtures for dry powder inhalers--evaluation of a new measuring method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrmann, Maike; Kappl, Michael; Butt, Hans-Juergen; Urbanetz, Nora Anne; Lippold, Bernhard Christian

    2007-09-01

    Dry powder inhalers mostly contain carrier based formulations where micronized drug particles are adhered to coarse carrier particles. The performance of the dry powder inhaler depends on the inhaler device, the inhalation manoeuvre and the formulation. The most important factor influencing the behaviour of the formulation is the adhesion force acting between the active ingredient and the carrier particles, which can be measured using different methods, for example the centrifuge technique or atomic force microscopy. In this study the tensile strength method, usually applied to determine cohesion forces between powder particles of one material, is optimized for adhesion force measurements between powder particles of unlike materials. Adhesion force measurements between the carrier materials lactose or mannitol and the drug substance salbutamol sulphate using the tensile strength method and the atomic force microscopy show higher values with increasing relative humidity. Consequently, the fine particle fraction determined using the Next Generation Impactor decreases with increasing relative humidity as a result of the enhanced interparticle interactions.

  20. Use of a cognitive ergonomics approach to compare usability of a multidose dry powder inhaler and a capsule dry powder inhaler: an open-label, randomized, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Mark; Briggs, Pamela

    2004-11-01

    Usability (ease of use) is an important feature of inhalers to ensure optimal dose delivery The aim of this study was to compare the usability of a multidose dry powder inhaler (mDPI) and a capsule dry powder inhaler (cDPI) in older individuals, using a range of qualitative and quantitative techniques from the field of cognitive ergonomics. Participants aged >50 years were enrolled in this 2-visit, open-label, randomized, controlled, parallel-group study conducted at Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom. Participants who had used an inhaler or were inhaler naive were randomized to use the mDPI or cDPI. At visit 1, the inhaler procedure was demonstrated twice by the investigator. Participants then repeated the procedure (although they were not expected to inhale because no drug was to be administered) until they made 3 consecutive correct attempts. They also undertook a range of tests to assess their confidence in using the device, manual dexterity, and self-efficacy At visit 2 (2 days later), participants made a single inhaler attempt before receiving any demonstrations from the investigator; this was intended to simulate clinical practice, in which the patient may not use an inhaler for a few days after it is prescribed. Participants then completed the inhaler procedure 10 times while undertaking a concurrent distracter task. The number of critical errors (ie, those having a high impact on dose delivery) was recorded for all attempts. To facilitate subsequent correlation analyses, an overall performance measure was derived from a combination of the results of the single inhaler trial and the 10 trials with a distracter. Eighty individuals (51 women, 29 men; mean [SD] age, 74.1 [7.5] years) participated in the study(40 participants per device). Forty of the participants (50%) had used an inhaler previously; 40 (50%) were inhaler naive. Based on the overall performance measure, participants testing the mDPI made significantly fewer critical

  1. [Effect of mixing of fine carrier particles on dry powder inhalation property of salbutamol sulfate (SS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, K; Leuenberger, H; Fueg, L M; Müller-Walz, R; Okamoto, H; Danjo, K

    2000-01-01

    The most commonly used formulations for dry powder inhalations are binary ordered mixes composed of micronized drugs and coarse carriers. An optimal dry powder aerosol formulation should possess an optimal inhalation property and a good flow property. These characteristics are especially important for a multidose dry powder inheler (DPI). In the present study, model powder blend were prepared consisting of synthesized sugar (different particle sized isomalt; IM-PF, IM-FS, IM-F) as a carrier and micronized salbutamol sulfate (SS). These ordered mixtures were aerosolized by the multidose JAGO DPI (SkyePharma AG) and in vitro deposition properties (fine particle fraction, FPF) were evaluated by a twin impinger (TI) at a flow rate of 60 l/min. The separation property between SS and carrier particles was investigated by the centrifuge method and air jet sieve (AJS) method. It was found that FPF decreased with increasing carrier particle size. However, a large carrier particle possesses a good flow property. Therefore, the effect of mixing of fine carrier particles (IM-PF) into the large carrier particles (IM-FS) on dry powder inhalation property was investigated. When the proportion of IM-PF (fine carrier) increase from 0% to 25% of the total carrier powder blend, the FPF also increases from 16.7% to 38.9%. It is concluded that the effect of mixing of fine carrier particles might be a suitable method for improving the dry powder inhalation properties.

  2. Heat-Stable Dry Powder Oxytocin Formulations for Delivery by Oral Inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio, Karine; Curley, Kieran; Guarneri, Joseph; Adamo, Benoit; Laurenzi, Brendan; Grant, Marshall; Offord, Robin; Kraft, Kelly; Leone-Bay, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    In this work, heat stable dry powders of oxytocin (OT) suitable for delivery by oral inhalation were prepared. The OT dry powders were prepared by spray drying using excipients chosen to promote OT stability including trehalose, isoleucine, polyvinylpyrrolidone, citrate (sodium citrate and citric acid), and zinc salts (zinc chloride and zinc citrate). Characterization by laser diffraction indicated that the OT dry powders had a median particle size of 2 μm, making them suitable for delivery by inhalation. Aerodynamic performance upon discharge from proprietary dry powder inhalers was evaluated by Andersen cascade impaction (ACI) and in an anatomically correct airway (ACA) model, and confirmed that the powders had excellent aerodynamic performance, with respirable fractions up to 77% (ACI, 30 L/min). Physicochemical characterization demonstrated that the powders were amorphous (X-ray diffraction) with high glass transition temperature (modulated differential scanning calorimetry, MDSC), suggesting the potential for stabilization of the OT in a glassy amorphous matrix. OT assay and impurity profile were conducted by reverse phase HPLC and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) after storage up to 32 weeks at 40°C/75%RH. Analysis demonstrated that OT dry powders containing a mixture of citrate and zinc salts retained more than 90% of initial assay after 32 weeks storage and showed significant reduction in dimers and trisulfide formation (up to threefold reduction compared to control).

  3. A Preference Study of Two Placebo Dry Powder Inhalers in Adults with COPD: ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler (DPI) versus DISKUS® DPI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun Kirby, Suyong; Zhu, Chang-Qing; Kerwin, Edward M; Stanford, Richard H; Georges, George

    2016-01-01

    Patients' preference is an important factor in selecting an inhaler treatment for COPD. The DISKUS® dry powder inhaler (DPI), which has been available to deliver several COPD medications for a decade, and the ELLIPTA® DPI, developed for the delivery of newer once-daily medications for patients with COPD, were studied in terms of patient preference and inhaler-specific attributes. We conducted a randomized, open-label, crossover study in patients with COPD. Patients used placebo ELLIPTA DPI once daily and placebo DISKUS DPI twice daily, for ∼1 week each, while continuing their COPD medications. Endpoints were: inhaler preference based on size of the numbers on the dose-counter (primary); the number of steps needed and inhaler size (secondary); and based on comfort of the mouthpiece, ease of opening, overall preference, and dosing regimen preference ('other'). Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs). A total of 287 patients were randomized. A significantly (p ELLIPTA DPI over DISKUS DPI for each of the tested attributes and overall, and preferred once-daily over twice-daily dosing. AEs were reported for 36 patients (13%); one (dry mouth) was considered to be related to the placebo-containing DISKUS DPI. Three patients had five non-fatal serious AEs, none were deemed inhaler-related. This study demonstrated that more patients with COPD preferred five specific inhaler attributes of the ELLIPTA DPI over DISKUS DPI and overall, and preferred once-daily versus twice-daily dosing. Safety profiles were consistent with those expected for COPD.

  4. The influence of amino acids on aztreonam spray-dried powders for inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Fei Yang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The dry powder inhalation of antibiotics for the treatment of lung infections has attracted drastically increasing attention as it offers rapid local therapy at lower doses and minimal side effects. In this study, aztreonam (AZT was used as the model antibiotic and spray-dried to prepare powders for inhalation. Amino acids of glycine (GLY, histidine (HIS and leucine (LEU were used as excipients to modify the spray-dried particles. It was demonstrated that the GLY-AZT spray-dried powders formed huge agglomerates with the size of 144.51 µm, which made it very difficult to be delivered to the lungs (FPF: 0.29% w/w only. In comparison with the AZT spray-dried powders, HIS-modified spray-dried powders showed increased compressibility, indicating larger distance and less cohesion between particles; while the LEU-modified spray-dried particles showed a hollow structure with significantly decreased densities. The fine particle fraction for HIS- and LEU-modified powders was 51.4% w/w and 61.7% w/w, respectively, and both were significantly increased (one-way ANOVA, Duncan's test, P < 0.05 compared to that of AZT spray-dried powders (45.4% w/w, showing a great potential to be applied in clinic.

  5. Flow-dependent effect of formoterol dry-powder inhaled from the Aerolizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Skov, M; Klug, B

    1997-01-01

    expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after exercise was 34% on the placebo day, but only 15% when formoterol was inhaled at the high flow rate. This difference was statistically significant. The decrease in FEV1 was 23% after treatment with formoterol inhaled at the low flow rate......The output and size distribution of aerosols from dry powder inhalers are dependent on the flow rate through the device. Therefore, in an in vivo study, we examined the flow-dependency of the effect of formoterol when delivered from a dry powder inhaler, the Aerolizer, in a flow range relevant...... to schoolchildren. In a preliminary study comprising 126 asthmatic children aged 3-10 yrs, the relationship between age and peak inspiratory flow (PIF) rate through the Aerolizer was determined. Mean PIF was 104 L.min-1 and all children aged > 5 yrs performed a PIF > 60 L.min-1. Sixteen children aged 8-15 yrs...

  6. Genuair® in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a novel, user-friendly, multidose, dry-powder inhaler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palen, van der Job

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids and bronchodilators, which are pivotal to the management of respiratory diseases, are delivered by numerous devices, including pressurized metered-dose inhalers and dry-powder inhalers. However, patient adherence to these medications is suboptimal and incorrect inhaler techni

  7. The effect of carrier particle size on adhesion, content uniformity and inhalation performance of budesonide using dry powder inhalers

    OpenAIRE

    Kaialy, Waseem; Larhrib, El Hassan; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Dry Powder Inhalers (DPIs) are the result of the development of two technologies: powder technology and device technology. Particle deposition in the respiratory tract is affected by many aerosol particle properties such as particle size, shape, density, charge, and hygroscopicity.1 In particular, particle size is of great importance as it is known that particleparticle interactions within DPI formulations are related to van der Waals forces. Therefore, particle size is the mos...

  8. The ability of Parkinson's disease patients to use dry powder inhalers during off periods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luinstra, Marianne; Rutgers, W.A.W.F.; Dijkstra, H.; Grasmeijer, F.; Hagedoorn, P.; Vogelzang, J.; Frijlink, H.W.; De Boer, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of our study was to assess the applicability of Parkinson's patients to use a dry powder inhaler correctly during their off periods, when motor function impairments like tremor, bradykinesia and rigidity are present. Background: Because of its expected rapid onset of effect, pulmo

  9. Formulation of dry powder tobramycin for the twincertm high dose, disposable inhaler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoppentocht, M.; Hagedoorn, P.; Frijlink, H.W.; De Boer, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Currently applied nebulisation techniques for the administration of antibiotics to patients with infectious lung diseases are ineffective, time consuming and therefore, burdensome to the patient. Dry powder inhalers may be an interesting alternative as they can be effective, simple, chea

  10. Spray-freeze-dried dry powder inhalation of insulin-loaded liposomes for enhanced pulmonary delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Ru; Shao, Wei; Wang, Qun; Zhang, Na

    2008-11-01

    Nowadays, growing attention has been paid to the pulmonary region as a target for the delivery of peptide and protein drugs, especially macromolecules with systemic effect like insulin, since the pulmonary route exhibits numerous benefits to be an alternative for repeated injection. Furthermore, encapsulation of insulin into liposomal carriers is an attractive way to increase drug retention time and control the drug release in the lung; however, its long-term stability during storage in the reservoir and the process of aerosolization might be suspected when practically applied. Thus, the aim of this study was to design and characterize dry powder inhalation of insulin-loaded liposomes prepared by novel spray-freeze-drying method for enhanced pulmonary delivery. Process variables such as compressed air pressure, pump speed, and concentration were optimized for parameters such as mean particle diameter, moisture content, and fine particle fraction of the produced powders. Influence of different kinds and amounts of lyoprotectants was also evaluated for the best preservation of the drug entrapped in the liposome bilayers after the dehydration-rehydration cycle. The in vivo study of intratracheal instillation of insulin-loaded liposomes to diabetic rats showed successful hypoglycemic effect with low blood glucose level and long-lasting period and a relative pharmacological bioavailability as high as 38.38% in the group of 8 IU/kg dosage.

  11. Development of inhalable dry powder formulation of basic fibroblast growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Basma M; Jun, Seoung Wook; Lee, Mee Yong; Kang, Soo Hyung; Yeo, Yoon

    2010-01-29

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is a promising agent for therapy of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. We aim to develop an inhalable powder formulation of bFGF, which may provide a safe, effective, and convenient way of delivering bFGF to the disease-ridden lungs. Development of a bFGF dry powder formulation is constrained by the poor stability of bFGF and the uncertainty in compatibility of the protein with carrier excipients. With these constraints in mind, we prepared dry powders containing bFGF in combinations of albumin, phospholipid, lactose, and/or leucine, by spray drying, and evaluated the aerodynamic properties of the powders and the stability of bFGF loaded in the powders. While an ethanolic solution of phospholipid, albumin, and lactose produced dispersible powder, bFGF was unstable in ethanol. The stability of bFGF was preserved when spray-dried with lactose in an aqueous solution. Leucine was required to obtain dry powder with good dispersibility; however, increase in the leucine content more than 50% (w/w) negatively influenced the bFGF stability with no additional benefit to the aerodynamic properties of the powders. Dry powders containing 20% (w/w) leucine provided desirable aerodynamic properties (fine particle fraction of 25.2+/-5.4% and mass median aerodynamic diameter of 4.7+/-0.9 microm) and 98.1+/-7% recovery of bioactive bFGF. This result warrants further investigation of the biological activity of the inhaled bFGF in a disease model. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Nanospray Drying as a Novel Technique for the Manufacturing of Inhalable NSAID Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino Rita Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential of the nanospray drier as a novel apparatus for the manufacturing of a dry powder for inhalation containing ketoprofen lysinate, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug able to control the inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients. We produced several ketoprofen lysinate and leucine powder batches by means of nanospray dryer, studying the influence of process parameters on yield, particle properties (size distribution and morphology, and, mainly, aerodynamic properties of powders. Micronized particles were prepared from different hydroalcoholic solutions (alcohol content from 0 to 30% v/v using ketoprofen in its lysine salt form and leucine as dispersibility enhancer in different ratios (from 5 to 15% w/w with a total solid concentration ranging from 1 to 7% w/v. Results indicated that the spray head equipped with a 7 µm nozzle produced powders too big to be inhaled. The reduction of nozzle size from 7 to 4 µm led to smaller particles suitable for inhalation but, at the same time, caused a dramatic increase in process time. The selection of process variables, together with the nozzle pretreatment with a surfactant solution, allowed us to obtain a free flowing powder with satisfying aerosol performance, confirming the usefulness of the nanospray drier in the production of powder for inhalation.

  13. Automatic actuation of a dry powder inhaler into a nonelectrostatic spacer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H

    1998-01-01

    This article describes a new "automatic spacer" device, which has been developed to improve the delivery of inhaled medication to young children. In the device, a dry powder inhaler (DPI) is mechanically actuated into a nonelectrostatic spacer, producing an aerosol cloud of fine drug particles...... of the patient to the additives and propellants used in pressurized metered dose inhalers. Studies with the prototype device show a high yield of fine drug particles in the aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter, 2.8 microm), a high repeatability of drug delivery owing to the mechanical nature...... of the actuation (relative standard deviation, 12%), and a prolonged residence time of the fine particle aerosol (half-life of the fallout of the fine particles, 82 s). These features should prove advantageous in the treatment of young children with inhaled medication....

  14. Characterisation of salmon calcitonin in spray-dried powder for inhalation. Effect of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, M; Velaga, S; Yamamoto, H; Takeuchi, H; Kawashima, Y; Hovgaard, L; van de Weert, M; Frokjaer, S

    2007-03-01

    Salmon calcitonin (sCT) powders suitable for inhalation, containing chitosan and mannitol as absorption enhancer and protection agent, respectively, were prepared using a spray-drying process. The effect of chitosan on physicochemical stability of sCT in the dry powder was investigated by different analytical techniques. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis indicated that sCT was chemically stable upon spray-drying. With the proportion of chitosan in spray-drying formulation being increased, dissolution of sCT from the dry powders was decreased both in phosphate buffer and acetate buffer. The thioflavine T fluorescence assay showed that no fibrils were present in the spray-dried powder. However, sCT partly fibrillated in the phosphate buffer, but not in acetate buffer. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that the secondary structure of sCT was slightly changed in the dry powder, yet no aggregate signal was observed. Circular dichroism analysis indicated that the structure of sCT in an aqueous formulation was slightly altered by addition of chitosan. Nevertheless, recovery of sCT was not influenced by chitosan in the aqueous formulation as indicated by HPLC analysis. This study suggested that sCT, in absence of any additives, was stable during the spray-drying process under certain conditions. Addition of chitosan affects recovery of sCT from spray-dried powders, which may be due to formation of a partially irreversible complex between the protein and chitosan during the spray-drying process.

  15. Predicting the Fine Particle Fraction of Dry Powder Inhalers Using Artificial Neural Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muddle, Joanna; Kirton, Stewart B; Parisini, Irene; Muddle, Andrew; Murnane, Darragh; Ali, Jogoth; Brown, Marc; Page, Clive; Forbes, Ben

    2017-01-01

    Dry powder inhalers are increasingly popular for delivering drugs to the lungs for the treatment of respiratory diseases, but are complex products with multivariate performance determinants. Heuristic product development guided by in vitro aerosol performance testing is a costly and time-consuming process. This study investigated the feasibility of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict fine particle fraction (FPF) based on formulation device variables. Thirty-one ANN architectures were evaluated for their ability to predict experimentally determined FPF for a self-consistent dataset containing salmeterol xinafoate and salbutamol sulfate dry powder inhalers (237 experimental observations). Principal component analysis was used to identify inputs that significantly affected FPF. Orthogonal arrays (OAs) were used to design ANN architectures, optimized using the Taguchi method. The primary OA ANN r(2) values ranged between 0.46 and 0.90 and the secondary OA increased the r(2) values (0.53-0.93). The optimum ANN (9-4-1 architecture, average r(2) 0.92 ± 0.02) included active pharmaceutical ingredient, formulation, and device inputs identified by principal component analysis, which reflected the recognized importance and interdependency of these factors for orally inhaled product performance. The Taguchi method was effective at identifying successful architecture with the potential for development as a useful generic inhaler ANN model, although this would require much larger datasets and more variable inputs.

  16. Physicochemical characterization and water vapor sorption of organic solution advanced spray-dried inhalable trehalose microparticles and nanoparticles for targeted dry powder pulmonary inhalation delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojian; Mansour, Heidi M

    2011-12-01

    Novel advanced spray-dried inhalable trehalose microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders with low water content were successfully produced by organic solution advanced spray drying from dilute solution under various spray-drying conditions. Laser diffraction was used to determine the volumetric particle size and size distribution. Particle morphology and surface morphology was imaged and examined by scanning electron microscopy. Hot-stage microscopy was used to visualize the presence/absence of birefringency before and following particle engineering design pharmaceutical processing, as well as phase transition behavior upon heating. Water content in the solid state was quantified by Karl Fisher (KF) coulometric titration. Solid-state phase transitions and degree of molecular order were examined by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy showed a correlation between particle morphology, surface morphology, and spray drying pump rate. All advanced spray-dried microparticulate/nanoparticulate trehalose powders were in the respirable size range and exhibited a unimodal distribution. All spray-dried powders had very low water content, as quantified by KF. The absence of crystallinity in spray-dried particles was reflected in the powder X-ray diffractograms and confirmed by thermal analysis. DSC thermal analysis indicated that the novel advanced spray-dried inhalable trehalose microparticles and nanoparticles exhibited a clear glass transition (T(g)). This is consistent with the formation of the amorphous glassy state. Spray-dried amorphous glassy trehalose inhalable microparticles and nanoparticles exhibited vapor-induced (lyotropic) phase transitions with varying levels of relative humidity as measured by gravimetric vapor sorption at 25°C and 37°C.

  17. Effect of Disease Severity in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Inhaler-Specific Inhalation Profiles Through the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prime, David; de Backer, Wilfried; Hamilton, Melanie; Cahn, Anthony; Preece, Andrew; Kelleher, Dennis; Baines, Amanda; Moore, Alison; Brealey, Noushin; Moynihan, Jackie

    2015-12-01

    Two studies were undertaken to characterize the maximal effort inhalation profiles of healthy subjects and patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through a moderate-resistance dry powder inhaler (DPI). Correlations between inhaler-specific inhalation characteristics and inhaler-independent lung function parameters were investigated. Healthy subjects (n = 15), patients with mild, moderate, or severe asthma (n = 45), and patients with mild, moderate, severe, or very-severe COPD (n = 60) were included in the studies. Inhalation pressure drop versus time profiles were recorded using an instrumented ELLIPTA® DPI or bespoke resistor component with equivalent resistivity. Inhaler-independent lung function assessments included pharyngometry, spirometry, plethysmography, and diffusion. For the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles, the mean maximal effort peak inspiratory flow rates (PIFRs) varied across the subgroups from 65.8-110.6 L/min (range: 41.6-142.9). Peak pressure drop, PIFR, inhaled volume, and average inhalation flow rate (primary endpoints) did not differ markedly between healthy subjects and patients with asthma or mild COPD. Moderate, severe, and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated lower mean peak pressure drops, PIFRs and inhaled volumes, which tended to decrease with increasing COPD severity. Severe and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated shorter mean inhalation times compared with all other participants. Inhaler-independent lung function parameters were consistent with disease severity, and statistically significant (p  0.7) with components of the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles were observed in the COPD cohort; correlations in the asthma cohort tended to be weaker. All participants achieved a maximal effort PIFR ≥ 41.6 L/min through the moderate resistance of the ELLIPTA inhaler. Patients with asthma achieved similar inhalation profiles to healthy subjects, but increasing COPD severity

  18. A STUDY OF INSPIRATORY RESISTANCE OF DRY POWDER INHALER OF AGENTS FOR ASTHMA CONTROL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suda, Shigeaki; Konno, Rio; Kurosawa, Hajime; Tamura, Gen

    2016-07-01

    Because dry powder inhalers (DPI) aerosolize agents by means of inspiration of patients themselves, inspiratory resistance of DPI is an important factor for increasing inhalation efficiency. Therefore, we measured inspiratory resistance of DPI of agents for asthma control. Using Flow/Volume Simulator, when setting flow rates at 6, 30, 60, 90, and 120L/min, we read off suction pressures and find inspiratory resistances by calculation (=suction pressure/flow rate) at each flow rate. In all DPI, inspiratory resistance increases with the increasing flow rate. To maintain flow rate of 60L/min, suction pressure of around 20-cmH2O for Diskus(®) and Ellipta(®), between 35- and 45-cmH2O for Turbuhaler (®), and about 60-cmH2O for Twisthaler(®) were needed. It is suggested that we should instruct patients to inhaler DPI based on inspiratory resistance of the DPI.

  19. Evaluation of cariogenic potential of dry powder inhalers: A case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Godara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Dry powder inhalers (DPIs are commonly employed in the management of asthma and other diseases with airway obstruction. A causal relationship of DPI use and occurrence of dental caries has been speculated. The present case-control study was therefore designed to examine the potential link between dental caries and specific use of dry powder inhalers in patients with bronchial asthma. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 100 asthmatic patients aged between 10 and 45 years who were using DPIs for at least one year. The control group (n = 100 was selected from non-asthmatic individuals and were matched with the study group with respect to age, gender, and socio-economic status. Results: The results revealed that asthmatic subjects exhibited higher occurrence of dental caries in comparison to control group, but the difference was statistically non-significant. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT indices scores in asthmatic and control group were found to be 1.71 ± 2.34 SD and 1.46 ± 1.89 SD (P = 0.408, respectively. Likewise, the mean decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (DMFS indices scores in both the groups were 2.41 ± 3.84 SD and 2.34 ± 4.48 SD (P = 0.90. However, increased frequency of DPI use was associated with significant risk of caries (P = 0.01. It has been observed that oral rinsing after an inhaler use limited the occurrence of dental caries to a certain extent although was non significant. Conclusions: Dry powder inhaler use in patients with bronchial asthma was not associated with significant risk of dental caries.

  20. Novel budesonide particles for dry powder inhalation (DPI) prepared using a microfluidic reactor coupled with ultrasonic spray freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboti, Denis; Maver, Uroš; Chan, Hak-Kim; Planinšek, Odon

    2017-03-09

    Budesonide is a potent active pharmaceutical ingredient, often administered using respiratory devices such as metered dose inhalers (MDI), nebulizers and dry powder inhalers (DPI). Inhalable drug particles are conventionally produced by crystallization followed by milling. This approach tends to generate partially amorphous materials that require post-processing to improve the formulations' stability. Other methods involve homogenization or precipitation and often require the use of stabilizers, mostly surfactants. The purpose of this study was therefore to develop a novel method for preparation of fine budesonide particles using a microfluidic reactor coupled with ultrasonic spray freeze drying, and hence avoiding the need of additional homogenization or stabilizer use. A T-junction microfluidic reactor was employed to produce particle suspension (using an ethanol-water, methanol-water and an acetone-water system), which was directly fed into an ultrasonic atomization probe, followed by direct feeding to liquid nitrogen. Freeze drying was the final preparation step. The result were fine crystalline budesonide powders which, when blended with lactose and dispersed in an Aerolizer at 100 L/min, generated fine particle fraction in the range 47.6±2.8% to 54.9±1.8%, thus exhibiting a good aerosol performance. Subsequent sample analysis confirmed the suitability of the developed method to produce inhalable drug particles without additional homogenization or stabilizers. The developed method provides a viable solution for particle isolation in microfluidics in general.

  1. Development of an inhaled sustained release dry powder formulation of salbutamol sulphate, an antiasthmatic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Kumaresan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present research was aimed to develop and characterize a sustained release dry powder inhalable formulation of salbutamol sulphate. The salbutamol sulphate microparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation method using biodegradable polymer poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid to produce salbutamol sulphate microparticle mixed with carrier respirable grade lactose for oral inhalation of dry powder. The drug content were estimated to produce 1 mg sustained release salbutamol sulphate per dose. Total four formulations K1, K2, K3 and K4 were prepared with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid. The developed formulations were studied for physicochemical properties, in vitro drug relase and Anderson cascade impaction studies. The prepared formulations effectively releases drug for 12 h in diffusion bag studies. Based on dissolution performance the 1:1 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid produces in vitrorelease 92.57% at 12 h and having particle size of microparticles (D0.5μm 5.02±0.6 and the pulmonary deposition of dry powder 34.5±3.21 (respiratory fraction in percentage.

  2. Ease-of-use preference for the ELLIPTA® dry powder inhaler over a commonly used single-dose capsule dry powder inhaler by inhalation device-naïve Japanese volunteers aged 40 years or older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komase Y

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Yuko Komase,1 Akimoto Asako,2 Akihiro Kobayashi,3 Raj Sharma4 1Department of Respiratory Internal Medicine, St Marianna University School of Medicine, Yokohama City Seibu Hospital, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan; 2MA Respiratory Department, Development and Medical Affairs Unit, GlaxoSmithKline KK, Tokyo, Japan; 3Biomedical Data Sciences Department, GlaxoSmithKline KK, Tokyo, Japan; 4Global Respiratory Franchise Medical Department, GSK, Stockley Park, UK Background: In patients receiving inhaled medication, dissatisfaction with and difficulty in using the inhaler can affect treatment adherence. The incidence of handling errors is typically higher in the elderly than in younger people. The aim of the study was to assess inhaler preference for and handling errors with the ELLIPTA® dry powder inhaler (DPI, (GSK, compared with the established BREEZHALER™, a single-dose capsule DPI (Novartis, in inhalation device-naïve Japanese volunteers aged ≥40 years. Methods: In this open-label, nondrug interventional, crossover DPI preference study comparing the ELLIPTA DPI and BREEZHALER, 150 subjects were randomized to handle the ELLIPTA or BREEZHALER DPIs until the point of inhalation, without receiving verbal or demonstrative instruction (first attempt. Subjects then crossed over to the other inhaler. Preference was assessed using a self-completed questionnaire. Inhaler handling was assessed by a trained assessor using a checklist. Subjects did not inhale any medication in the study, so efficacy and safety were not measured. Results: The ELLIPTA DPI was preferred to the BREEZHALER by 89% of subjects (odds ratio [OR] 70.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] 33.69–146.01; P-value not applicable for this inhaler for ease of use, by 63% of subjects (OR 2.98, CI 1.87–4.77; P<0.0001 for ease of determining the number of doses remaining in the inhaler, by 91% for number of steps required, and by 93% for time needed for handling the inhaler. The BREEZHALER was

  3. Optimizing the Entrainment Geometry of a Dry Powder Inhaler: Methodology and Preliminary Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsch, Thomas; Murnane, Darragh; Symons, Digby

    2016-11-01

    For passive dry powder inhalers (DPIs) entrainment and emission of the aerosolized drug dose depends strongly on device geometry and the patient's inhalation manoeuvre. We propose a computational method for optimizing the entrainment part of a DPI. The approach assumes that the pulmonary delivery location of aerosol can be determined by the timing of dose emission into the tidal airstream. An optimization algorithm was used to iteratively perform computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of the drug emission of a DPI. The algorithm seeks to improve performance by changing the device geometry. Objectives were to achieve drug emission that was: A) independent of inhalation manoeuvre; B) similar to a target profile. The simulations used complete inhalation flow-rate profiles generated dependent on the device resistance. The CFD solver was OpenFOAM with drug/air flow simulated by the Eulerian-Eulerian method. To demonstrate the method, a 2D geometry was optimized for inhalation independence (comparing two breath profiles) and an early-bolus delivery. Entrainment was both shear-driven and gas-assisted. Optimization for a delay in the bolus delivery was not possible with the chosen geometry. Computational optimization of a DPI geometry for most similar drug delivery has been accomplished for an example entrainment geometry.

  4. Lung deposition of salbutamol in healthy human subjects from the MAGhaler dry powder inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S; Malik, S; Hirst, R; Pitcairn, G; Heide, A; Pabst, J; Dinkelaker, A; Fleischer, W

    2002-12-01

    The MAGhaler (Mundipharma GmbH) is a multidose dry powder inhaler (DPI) containing a novel formulation of drug and lactose compacted by an isostatic pressing technique (GGU GmbH). On actuation, a precise dose is metered from a compacted ring-shaped drug tablet. In this study, the lung deposition of salbutamol from this device has been assessed. Ten healthy non-smoking subjects completed a two-way cross-over study assessing the pulmonary deposition of salbutamol (200 microg) from the MAGhaler at high (60 l/min) and low (30 l/min) peak inhaled flow rates (PIFRs), representing maximal and sub-maximal inspiratory efforts. The formulation was radiolabelled with 99mTc, and lung and oropharyngeal depositions were quantified by gamma scintigraphyThe mean (SD)% ofthe delivered dose deposited in the lungs was 26.4 (4.3)% at 60 l/min and 21.1 (5.1)% at 30 l/min (P < 0.05), corresponding to mean lung depositions of 52.8 and 42.2 microg salbutamol, respectively. The distribution of drug within different lung regions did not vary significantly with inhaled flow rate. The data provided proof of concept for the novel inhaler device and the innovative drug formulation. In comparison with previous deposition data obtained with other DPIs, the lung deposition was relatively high, relatively reproducible (coefficient of variation 16% at 60 l/min) and relatively insensitive to the change in peak inhaled flow rate.

  5. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) assisted performance evaluation of the Twincer (TM) disposable high-dose dry powder inhaler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Anne H.; Hagedoorn, Paul; Woolhouse, Robert; Wynn, Ed

    Objectives To use computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for evaluating and understanding the performance of the high-dose disposable Twincer (TM) dry powder inhaler, as well as to learn the effect of design modifications on dose entrainment, powder dispersion and retention behaviour. Methods Comparison

  6. PREPARATION OF ISONIAZID AS DRY POWDER FORMULATIONS FOR INHALATION BY PHYSICAL MIXING AND SPRAY DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SOMCHAI SAWATDEE

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this study is to develop isoniazid as dry powder aerosol for delivery to the lower airways and to study the susceptibility of M. bovis and M. tuberculosis to the formulationsstudied. Isoniazid was formulated with trehalose, mannose and lactose by physical mixing and spray drying techniques. All formulations were evaluated for delivery efficiency and stability.Susceptibility tests of Mycobacterium species to the drug formulations were carried out. Isoniazid mixed with fine trehalose, micronised mannose or fine lactose produced the formulations whichgave fine particle fraction ( 0.05.

  7. Improvement of asthma therapy by a novel formoterol multidose dry powder inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, Manfred; Grimmbacher, Stefanie; Munzel, Ullrich

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this post-marketing surveillance (PMS) was the evaluation of efficacy, tolerability, and acceptance of the advanced formoterol (CAS 73573-87-2) multidose dry powder inhaler (MDPI) Formatris 6 microg/12 microg Novolizer (FN) in asthmatic patients (n = 5219) in a real-life setting. A total of 2727 patients (52%) received concomitant anti-inflammatory treatment exclusively via a budesonide Novolizer (BN). Efficacy of the FN was assessed by measurement of peak expiratory flow (PEF) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) before and after 4 weeks of therapy. The severity of cough, wheezing, diurnal dyspnea, nocturnal dyspnea and dyspnea on physical effort were assessed on a four-point scale, and a severity sum score was calculated. The patients' satisfaction with the multiple feedback mechanisms, handling and safety of the FN was also assessed. The physicians judged the patient compliance and any improved inhalation reassurance due to FN control mechanisms in comparison with other inhalation systems. FN use (n = 2727) was associated with improved lung function. After 4 weeks, PEF increased by 26% (from 270 L/min to 340 L/min) and the median FEV1 increased by 24% (from 2.1 L to 2.6 L). The median severity sum score decreased from 8.0 before therapy to 3.0 after therapy. Most patients assessed the control mechanisms and safety functions of the FN as 'very good' or 'good'. 96% of patients were satisfied with the optical control mechanism, 92% with the acoustic mechanism, 70% with the taste feedback, 89% with the dose counter and 76% with the overdose prevention. The majority of patients (95%) confirmed that the multiple feedback mechanisms reassured correct drug intake, with 83% rating the FN as 'much better' or 'better' than previously used inhalers. The physicians confirmed that in contrast to previously used inhalers the FN ensured correct inhalation in 87% of all patients. The physicians were satisfied with the patients' compliance in 95% of

  8. New dry powders for inhalation containing temozolomide-based nanomicelles for improved lung cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosière, Rémi; Gelbcke, Michel; Mathieu, Véronique; Van Antwerpen, Pierre; Amighi, Karim; Wauthoz, Nathalie

    2015-09-01

    Besides the numerous advantages of a chemotherapy administered by the inhalation route for lung cancer therapy, dry powder for inhalation (DPI) offers many advantages compared to other techniques and seems to be a technique that is well-adapted to an anticancer treatment. DPI formulations were developed using the cytotoxic drug temozolomide and a new folate-grafted self-assembling copolymer, a conjugate of three components, folate-polyethylene glycol-hydrophobically-modified dextran (F-PEG-HMD). F-PEG-HMD was synthesized using carbodiimide-mediated coupling chemistry in three main steps. F-PEG-HMD was characterized by 1H-NMR, mass spectrometry and thermal analysis. F-PEG-HMD presented a critical micellar concentration in water of 4x10-7 M. F-PEG-HMD nanomicelles were characterized by a trimodal particle size distribution with Z-average diameter of 83±1 nm in water. Temozolomide-loaded nanomicelles were prepared by solubilization of F-PEG-HMD in the presence of temozolomide. Temozolomide solubility in water was increased in the presence of F-PEG-HMD (2-fold increase in molar solubility) which could potentially lead to increased local concentrations in the tumor site. The temozolomide-loaded F-PEG-HMD nanomicelles were characterized by a Z-average diameter of ~50 to ~60 nm, depending on the F-PEG-HMD concentration used. The nanomicelles were then spray-dried to produce dry powders. Temozolomide remained stable during all the formulation steps, confirmed by similar in vitro anticancer properties for the DPI formulations and a raw temozolomide solution. Two of the developed DPI formulations were characterized by good aerodynamic properties (with a fine particle fraction of up to 50%) and were able to release the F-PEG-HMD nanomicelles quickly in aqueous media. Moreover, in vitro, the two DPI formulations showed wide pulmonary deposition in the lower respiratory tract where adenocarcinomas are more often found. The present study, therefore, shows that F

  9. Spray dried amikacin powder for inhalation in cystic fibrosis patients: a quality by design approach for product construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belotti, Silvia; Rossi, Alessandra; Colombo, Paolo; Bettini, Ruggero; Rekkas, Dimitrios; Politis, Stavros; Colombo, Gaia; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Buttini, Francesca

    2014-08-25

    An amikacin product for convenient and compliant inhalation in cystic fibrosis patients was constructed by spray-drying in order to produce powders of pure drug having high respirability and flowability. An experimental design was applied as a statistical tool for the characterization of amikacin spray drying process, through the establishment of mathematical relationships between six Critical Quality Attributes (CQAs) of the finished product and five Critical Process Parameters (CPPs). The surface-active excipient, PEG-32 stearate, studied for particle engineering, in general did not benefit the CQAs of the spray dried powders for inhalation. The spray drying feed solution required the inclusion of 10% (v/v) ethanol in order to reach the desired aerodynamic performance of powders. All desirable function solutions indicated that the favourable concentration of amikacin in the feed solution had to be kept at 1% w/v level. It was found that when the feed rate of the sprayed solution was raised, an increase in the drying temperature to the maximum value (160 °C) was required to maintain good powder respirability. Finally, the increase in drying temperature always led to an evident increase in emitted dose (ED) without affecting the desirable fine particle dose (FPD) values. The application of the experimental design enabled us to obtain amikacin powders with both ED and FPD, well above the regulatory and scientific references. The finished product contained only the active ingredient, which keeps low the mass to inhale for dose requirement.

  10. Technical validation of a face mask adapted for dry powder inhalation in the equine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvivier, D H; Votion, D; Vandenput, S; Art, T; Lekeux, P

    1997-11-01

    Development of dry powder inhalation (DPI) for horses requires the use of an adapted face mask. In experiment I, 4 masks (A, B, C and D) were tested and factors influencing the delivery of the dry powder were determined. Mask A was one which is commercially available for metered-dose inhalation. Mask B had the same shape as Mask A but an airtight rubber seal was added for the connection between the mask and horse's head. Mask C was a prototype adapted for DPI with connection for the DPI device between the nostrils, airtight expiratory valves in front of each nostril and airtight rubber seal to attach the mask on the horse's head. Mask D was the same as Mask C but the airtight expiratory valve was situated in front of one nostril and the connection for the DPI device was placed in front of the other nostril. Inhalet emptying and peak inspiratory pressure were measured on 5 healthy horses with each face mask. Both Masks A and B gave a low rate of inhalet emptying. Inspiratory pressures created in Masks C and D were negative enough to ensure inhalet emptying rates of mean +/- s.d. 98.28 +/- 1.79% and 100% respectively. In experiment 2, the face masks giving the greatest inhalet emptying were used to test the therapeutic efficacy of ipratropium bromide DPI. This was tested on 6 horses suffering from acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). At a dose of 200 micrograms/100 kg bwt, ipratropium administered with Mask D improved significantly pulmonary function measurements compared to baseline values and placebo inhalation. With Mask C, a double dose of ipratropium (400 micrograms/100 kg bwt) was necessary to improve these parameters compared to baseline values. This indicated the importance of locating the DPI device in front of one nostril. It was concluded that inhalet emptying is correlated to inspiratory pressures measured in the face masks. Secondly, these pressures are in turn dependent on the air-tightness of the mask, i.e. air

  11. Numerical Modelling of Agglomeration and Deagglomeration in Dry Powder Inhalers: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiecheng; Wu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Numerical modelling using computational fluid mechanics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) becomes increasingly prevalent for the exploration of agglomeration and deagglomeration in dry powder inhalers (DPIs). These techniques provide detailed information on air flow and particle-particle/wall interaction, respectively. Coupling of CFD and DEM enables an in-depth investigation of the mechanisms at the microscopic level. This paper reviews the applications of CFD and DEM in DPI development and optimisation. The recent progress in modelling of two key processes in DPIs, i.e. agglomeration and deagglomeration, is presented. It has been demonstrated that DEM-CFD is a promising numerical approach to investigate the underlying agglomeration and deagglomeration mechanisms for DPIs. With further advances in computing capacity, it is expected that DEM-CFD will be capable of addressing more realistic and complicated issues in DPI improvement.

  12. Characterization and aerosol dispersion performance of advanced spray-dried chemotherapeutic PEGylated phospholipid particles for dry powder inhalation delivery in lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenach, Samantha A; Anderson, Kimberly W; Zach Hilt, J; McGarry, Ronald C; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-07-16

    Pulmonary inhalation chemotherapeutic drug delivery offers many advantages for lung cancer patients in comparison to conventional systemic chemotherapy. Inhalable particles are advantageous in their ability to deliver drug deep in the lung by utilizing optimally sized particles and higher local drug dose delivery. In this work, spray-dried and co-spray dried inhalable lung surfactant-mimic PEGylated lipopolymers as microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders containing paclitaxel were rationally designed via organic solution advanced spray drying (no water) in closed-mode from dilute concentration feed solution. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine poly(ethylene glycol) (DPPE-PEG) with varying PEG chain length were mixed with varying amounts of paclitaxel in methanol to produce co-spray dried microparticles and nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscopy showed the spherical particle morphology of the inhalable particles. Thermal analysis and X-ray powder diffraction confirmed the retention of the phospholipid bilayer structure in the solid-state following spray drying, the degree of solid-state molecular order, and solid-state phase transition behavior. The residual water content of the particles was very low as quantified analytically Karl Fisher titration. The amount of paclitaxel loaded into the particles was quantified which indicated high encapsulation efficiencies (43-99%). Dry powder aerosol dispersion performance was measured in vitro using the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) coupled with the Handihaler dry powder inhaler device and showed mass median aerodynamic diameters in the range of 3.4-7 μm. These results demonstrate that this novel microparticulate/nanoparticulate chemotherapeutic PEGylated phospholipid dry powder inhalation aerosol platform has great potential in lung cancer drug delivery.

  13. Evaluation of dry powder inhalers with a focus on ease of use and user preference in inhaler-naïve individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schantz, Sofia; Katajavuori, Nina; Antikainen, Osmo; Juppo, Anne

    2016-07-25

    Inhaler errors are common amongst inhaler users. Therefore, in the development work of new inhalation devices, it is important to characterize the ease of use of the inhalers. In this study four dry powder inhalers, Diskus, Easyhaler, Ellipta and Turbuhaler, were evaluated, focusing on ease of use and patient preference. The study used a triangular methodology. The sample consisted of 31 inhaler naïve individuals. Educational videos for all inhalers were watched, and afterwards, the use of all four inhalers was demonstrated in a random order. The demonstrations were videotaped. Thereafter they were checked against a predefined checklist and all mistakes were recorded. Only 33% of inhaler demonstrations were completed without the participants making any mistakes. The proportions of subjects who used the devices correctly were as follows: Diskus 48%, Easyhaler 19%, Ellipta 55% and Turbuhaler 16%. When comparing correct and incorrect inhaler technique for each inhaler pair the following differences were statistically significant: Diskus vs. Easyhaler (pEllipta vs. Easyhaler (pEllipta vs. Turbuhaler (pEllipta, followed by Turbuhaler, were most often ranked as most preferred. Participants' preference of Ellipta over Easyhaler (p<0.01) and over Diskus (p<0.001) were statistically significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Investigation on the aerosol performance of dry powder inhalation hypromellose capsules with different lubricant levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, I Y; Diez, F; Jones, B E; Kayali, N; Polo, L

    2015-08-15

    HPMC capsules are made by a dipping process and a surface lubricant for the mould pins is an essential processing aid for removing dried capsules shells. For the purpose of this study, the level was determined by quantifying methyloleate (MO) a component found in the lubricant but not in the hypromellose capsules. Here we investigated the influence of the lubricant, low (10.81 μg/capsule=60 mg/kg MO), medium (15.97 μg/capsule=90 mg/kg MO) and high (23.23 μg/capsule=127 mg/kg MO) content on powder (binary mixture of salbutamol: lactose, 1:50 w/w) aerosolization properties was investigated. Results indicated significantly lower emitted dose from capsules with 60 mg/kg MO. Furthermore, the 90 and 127 mg/kg MO level of lubricant capsules produced almost double the Fine Particle Dose & Fine Particle Fraction compared with the low level of lubricant. The data indicates that lubricant level within capsules has an influence on deposition profiles and amount of drug remaining in capsule and inhaler device after actuation. It is suggested lubricant levels greater than 60 mg/kg MO per capsule are required to minimise powder retention within capsules and maximise deposition profiles. AFM (atomic force microscopy) data suggest that internal surface roughness may be related with this phenomena. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. New aspects of developing a dry powder inhalation formulation applying the quality-by-design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallagi, Edina; Karimi, Keyhaneh; Ambrus, Rita; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Csóka, Ildikó

    2016-09-10

    The current work outlines the application of an up-to-date and regulatory-based pharmaceutical quality management method, applied as a new development concept in the process of formulating dry powder inhalation systems (DPIs). According to the Quality by Design (QbD) methodology and Risk Assessment (RA) thinking, a mannitol based co-spray dried formula was produced as a model dosage form with meloxicam as the model active agent. The concept and the elements of the QbD approach (regarding its systemic, scientific, risk-based, holistic, and proactive nature with defined steps for pharmaceutical development), as well as the experimental drug formulation (including the technological parameters assessed and the methods and processes applied) are described in the current paper. Findings of the QbD based theoretical prediction and the results of the experimental development are compared and presented. Characteristics of the developed end-product were in correlation with the predictions, and all data were confirmed by the relevant results of the in vitro investigations. These results support the importance of using the QbD approach in new drug formulation, and prove its good usability in the early development process of DPIs. This innovative formulation technology and product appear to have a great potential in pulmonary drug delivery.

  16. Dispersibility of lactose fines as compared to API in dry powders for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalberg, Kyrre; Åslund, Simon; Skogevall, Marcus; Andersson, Patrik

    2016-05-17

    This work investigates the dispersion performance of fine lactose particles as function of processing time, and compares it to the API, using Beclomethasone Dipropionate (BDP) as model API. The total load of fine particles is kept constant in the formulations while the proportions of API and lactose fines are varied. Fine particle assessment demonstrates that the lactose fines have higher dispersibility than the API. For standard formulations, processing time has a limited effect on the Fine Particle Fraction (FPF). For formulations containing magnesium stearate (MgSt), FPF of BDP is heavily influenced by processing time, with an initial increase, followed by a decrease at longer mixing times. An equation modeling the observed behavior is presented. Surprisingly, the dispersibility of the lactose fines present in the same formulation remains unaffected by mixing time. Magnesium analysis demonstrates that MgSt is transferred to the fine particles during the mixing process, thus lubrication both BDP and lactose fines, which leads to an increased FPF. Dry particle sizing of the formulations reveals a loss of fine particles at longer mixing times. Incorporation of fine particles into the carrier surfaces is believed to be behind this, and is hence a mechanism of importance as regards the dispersion performance of dry powders for inhalation.

  17. Effect of rise in simulated inspiratory flow rate and carrier particle size on powder emptying from dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, V; Dalby, R

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of carrier particle size and simulated inspiratory flow increase rate on emptying from dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Several flow rate ramps were created using a computer-generated voltage signal linked to an electronic proportioning valve with a fast response time. Different linear ramps were programmed to reach 30, 60, 90, and 120 L/minute over 1, 2, or 3 seconds. At the lower flow rates, 100-ms and 500-ms ramps were also investigated. Three DPIs, Spinhaler, Rotahaler, and Turbuhaler, were used to test the effect of flow rate ramp on powder emptying. To test the effect of carrier particle size, anhydrous lactose was sieved into 3 particle sizes, and 20 mg of each was introduced into #2 and #3 hard gelatin capsules for Spinhaler and Rotahaler, respectively. Emptying tests were also carried out using the on/off solenoid valve described in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) (resulting in no ramp generation). Powder emptying increased from 9% to 46% for Rotahaler and 69% to 86% for Spinhaler from the shallowest (3 seconds to reach peak flow) to the 100-ms ramp for the 53- to 75 microm lactose size range at 30 L/minute. Similar trends were observed for larger particle size fractions at the same flow rate. However, at higher airflow rates (60, 90, and 120 L/minute), there was no significant increase in percentage of emptying within the ramps for a particular particle size range. Trends observed were similar for placebo-filled Turbuhaler and commercially available Rotacaps used with Rotahaler, with the steepest ramp demonstrating more complete emptying. Percentage of powder emptying determined by the USP solenoid valve overestimated the emitted dose compared with the ramp method at 30 L/minute for all 3 devices. Results indicate that there is a significant difference in powder emptying at 30 L/minute from the shallowest to the steepest ramp within a particular size range. Within a particular particle size range, the

  18. Development of a microparticle-based dry powder inhalation formulation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride applying the quality by design approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimi K

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Keyhaneh Karimi, Edina Pallagi, Piroska Szabó-Révész, Ildikó Csóka, Rita Ambrus Faculty of Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Regulatory Affairs, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary Abstract: Pulmonary drug delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride offers effective local antibacterial activity and convenience of easy application. Spray drying is a trustworthy technique for the production of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride microparticles. Quality by design (QbD, an up-to-date regulatory-based quality management method, was used to predict the final quality of the product. According to the QbD-based theoretical preliminary parameter ranking and priority classification, dry powder inhalation formulation tests were successfully performed in practice. When focusing on the critical parameters, the practical development was more effective and was in correlation with our previous findings. Spray drying produced spherical microparticles. The dry powder formulations prepared were examined by particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and in vitro drug release and aerodynamic particle size analyses were also performed. These formulations showed an appropriate particle size ranging between 2 and 4 µm and displayed an enhanced aerosol performance with fine particle fraction up to 80%. Keywords: antibiotic, carrier-free formulation, quality by design, aerodynamic evaluation, dry powder for inhalation

  19. Pharmaceutical aerosols deposition patterns from a Dry Powder Inhaler: Euler Lagrangian prediction and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi Kannan, Ravishekar; Przekwas, A J; Singh, Narender; Delvadia, Renishkumar; Tian, Geng; Walenga, Ross

    2017-04-01

    This study uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to predict, analyze and validate the deposition patterns in a human lung for a Budesonide drug delivered from the Novolizer Dry Powder Inhaler device. We used a test case of known deposition patterns to validate our computational Euler Lagrangian-based deposition predictions. Two different lung models are used: (i) a basic ring-less trachea model and (ii) an advanced Human Zygote5 model. Unlike earlier attempts, the current simulations do not include the device in the computational domain. This greatly reduces the computational effort. To mimic the device, we model the inlet particle jet stream from the device as a spray entering the mouth in a conical fashion. Deposition studies in the various lung regions were performed. We were able to computationally predict and then demonstrate the enhanced deposition in the tracheal and first generation rings/ridges. The enhanced vorticity creation due to the ring structure and the geometrical design contributes to larger deposition in the Zygote5 model. These are in accord with existing data, unlike the ring-less model. Our validated results indicate the need to (i) introduce the ridges in the experimental casts and the CFD surface meshes to be anatomically consistent and obtain physiologically consistent depositions; (ii) introduce a factor to account for the recirculating lighter particles in empirical models.

  20. The effect of engineered mannitol-lactose mixture on dry powder inhaler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaialy, Waseem; Larhrib, Hassan; Martin, Gary P; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2012-08-01

    To co-crystallise mannitol and lactose with a view to obtaining crystals with more favourable morphological features than either lactose or mannitol alone, suitable for use as carriers in formulations for dry powder inhalers (DPIs) using simultaneous engineering of lactose-mannitol mixtures. Mannitol and lactose individually and the two sugars with three different ratios were crystallised/co-crystallised using anti-solvent precipitation technique. Obtained crystals were sieved to separate 63-90 μm size fractions and then characterised by size, shape, density and in vitro aerosolisation performance. Solid state of crystallized samples was studied using FT-IR, XRPD and DSC. At unequal ratios of mannitol to lactose, the elongated shape dominated in the crystallisation process. However, lactose exerted an opposite effect to that of mannitol by reducing elongation ratio and increasing the crystals' width and thickness. Crystallised β-lactose showed different anomers compared to commercial lactose (α-lactose monohydrate). Crystallised α-mannitol showed different polymorphic form compared to commercial mannitol (β-mannitol). Crystallised mannitol:lactose showed up to 5 transitions corresponding to α-mannitol, α-lactose monohydrate, β-lactose, 5α-/3β-lactose and 4α-/1β-lactose. In vitro deposition assessments showed that crystallised carriers produced more efficient delivery of salbutamol sulphate compared to formulations containing commercial grade carriers. The simultaneous crystallization of lactose-mannitol can be used as a new approach to improve the performance of DPI formulations.

  1. Dry powder inhaler: influence of humidity on topology and adhesion studied by AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, V; Lesniewska, E; Andrès, C; Pertuy, D; Laroche, C; Pourcelot, Y

    2002-01-31

    In the dry powder inhalers (DPIs), the adhesion results of the interactions between the active substance and the excipient. The carrier and the micronized drug particle morphologies are believed to affect the delivery of the drug. In this work, the couple studied was the lactose monohydrate and micronized zanamivir, used for the treatment of influenza. In a first approach, observations by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have shown that the relative humidity (RH) greatly influenced the zanamivir amount fixed on the lactose monohydrate surface. This paper deals with the direct measurement in controlled atmosphere by atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the forces and the interaction ranges between a zanamivir probe and a lactose substrate. Selected zanamivir crystals were attached to the standard AFM probe. Different RH have been used in order to determine influent parameters permitting to identify the nature of adhesion forces between them. This study demonstrated that the increase of RH modified progressively the surface topology of the two components and increased the adhesion force.

  2. Liposomal amphotericin B dry powder inhaler: effect of fines on in vitro performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, S P; Misra, A

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to improve in vitro pulmonary deposition of amphotericin B (AMB) liposomal dry powder inhaler (LDPI) formulations. Liposomes with negative (AMB1) and positive (AMB2) charge were prepared by the reverse phase evaporation (REV) technique, extruded to reduce size, separated from unentrapped drug and lyophilized using an optimized cryoprotectant to achieve maximum drug retention. Lactose carrier (Sorbolac 400) in varying mass ratio with or without addition of fines (500# sieved Pharmatose 325M) in different mixing sequence were used to formulate AMB LDPI formulations. In vitro evaluation was done with twin stage impinger (TSI) for fine particle fraction. The lactose carrier containing 10% fines was found to be optimum blend at 1:6 mass ratio of liposome: lactose. The addition of fines and order of mixing fines were found to influence the fine particle fraction (FPF) significantly. FPF of LDPI formulations using a Rotahaler (Cipla, India) as delivery device at 30, 60 and 90 L/min were found to be 23.1 +/- 1.5 percent and 17.3 +/- 2.2 percent; 25.3 +/- 1.8 percent and 19.6 +/- 1.5 percent and 28.4 +/- 2.1 percent and 22.9 +/- 1.9 percent for AMB1 and AMB2 respectively.

  3. Duration of action of formoterol and salbutamol dry-powder inhalation in prevention of exercise-induced asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer Schrøder; Nielsen, K G; Skov, M

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and tolerability of formoterol 12 micrograms on exercise-induced asthma in children for 12 h as compared to the effect of salbutamol 400 micrograms and placebo. The drugs were inhaled as dry powder from a flow-dependent metered-dose inhaler (DP......-MDI). Sixteen asthmatic children took part in a double-blind placebo-controlled within-patient single-centre trial. On each study day the patients were given one of the drugs or placebo in random order, and standardized exercise tests were performed after 3 and 12 h. At a pretrial test the children had....... Formoterol 12 micrograms administered as dry powder offers significantly better protection against exercise-induced asthma after 3 and 12 h as compared to salbutamol 400 micrograms and placebo....

  4. Dry powder inhalation of macromolecules using novel PEG-co-polyester microparticle carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfeek, Hesham M; Evans, Andrew R; Iftikhar, Abid; Mohammed, Afzal R; Shabir, Anjum; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana; Hutcheon, Gillian A; Saleem, Imran Y

    2013-01-30

    This study investigated optimizing the formulation parameters for encapsulation of a model mucinolytic enzyme, α-chymotrypsin (α-CH), within a novel polymer; poly(ethylene glycol)-co-poly(glycerol adipate-co-ω-pentadecalactone), PEG-co-(PGA-co-PDL) which were then applied to the formulation of DNase I. α-CH or DNase I loaded microparticles were prepared via spray drying from double emulsion (w(1)/o/w(2)) utilizing chloroform (CHF) as the organic solvent, L-leucine as a dispersibility enhancer and an internal aqueous phase (w(1)) containing PEG4500 or Pluronic(®) F-68 (PLF68). α-CH released from microparticles was investigated for bioactivity using the azocasein assay and the mucinolytic activity was assessed utilizing the degradation of mucin suspension assay. The chemical structure of PEG-co-(PGA-co-PDL) was characterized by (1)H NMR and FT-IR with both analyses confirming PEG incorporated into the polymer backbone, and any unreacted units removed. Optimum formulation α-CH-CHF/PLF68, 1% produced the highest bioactivity, enzyme encapsulation (20.08±3.91%), loading (22.31±4.34 μg/mg), FPF (fine particle fraction) (37.63±0.97%); FPD (fine particle dose) (179.88±9.43 μg), MMAD (mass median aerodynamic diameter) (2.95±1.61 μm), and the mucinolytic activity was equal to the native non-encapsulated enzyme up to 5h. DNase I-CHF/PLF68, 1% resulted in enzyme encapsulation (17.44±3.11%), loading (19.31±3.27 μg/mg) and activity (81.9±2.7%). The results indicate PEG-co-(PGA-co-PDL) can be considered as a potential biodegradable polymer carrier for dry powder inhalation of macromolecules for treatment of local pulmonary diseases.

  5. Profile of fluticasone furoate/vilanterol dry powder inhaler combination therapy as a potential treatment for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caramori G

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano Caramori,1 Kian Fan Chung,2 Ian M Adcock2 1Centro Interdipartimentale per lo Studio delle Malattie Infiammatorie delle Vie Aeree e Patologie Fumo-correlate (CEMICEF; formerly Centro di Ricerca su Asma e BPCO, Sezione di Medicina Interna e Cardiorespiratoria, Università di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy; 2Airways Disease Section, National Heart and Lung Institute, Royal Brompton Hospital Biomedical Research Unit, Imperial College London, London, UK Abstract: Currently, there is no cure for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The limited efficacy of current therapies for COPD indicates a pressing need to develop new treatments to prevent the progression of the disease, which consumes a significant amount of health care resources and is an important cause of mortality worldwide. Current national and international guidelines for the management of stable COPD patients recommend the use of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and their combination for maintenance treatment of moderate to severe stable COPD. Once-daily fluticasone furoate/vilanterol dry powder inhaler combination therapy has recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency as a new regular treatment for patients with stable COPD. Fluticasone furoate/vilanterol dry powder inhaler combination therapy has been shown to be effective in many controlled clinical trials involving thousands of patients in the regular treatment of stable COPD. This is the first once-daily combination of ultra-long-acting inhaled ß2-agonists and inhaled glucocorticoids that is available for the treatment of stable COPD and has great potential to improve compliance to long-term regular inhaled therapy and hence to improve the natural history and prognosis of COPD patients. Keywords: COPD, LABA, ULABA, ICS, bronchodilator, new drugs

  6. The development of a cascade impactor simulator based on adhesion force measurements to aid the development of dry powder inhalations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podczeck, F

    1997-05-01

    Adhesion and friction forces are the main physical factors determining the re-suspension of a micronized drug from carrier particles during inhalation. Hence, it appears useful to link adhesion and friction force measurements to the in vitro testing of dry powder inhalations, namely the assessment of the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) using an eight-stage Andersen cascade impactor. Interactive mixtures of micronized Salmeterol Xinafoate adhered to irrespirable lactose monohydrate carrier particles were used as model dosage forms. The adhesion force between the drug and carrier particles was assessed using a centrifuge technique, and the MMAD was determined under standardized working conditions using the Andersen-Cascade impactor (Mark II). A cascade impactor simulator (CIS), which is a computer program containing a re-suspension model to assess the amount of drug detached from the carrier particles during inhalation, was developed and validated using the experimental data. It could be shown, that the CIS provided a good estimate of the loss of drug due to adhesion to the carrier particles and the loss of drug on the cascade impactor walls. Small deviations between the theoretical and experimental mass median aerodynamic particle diameters however were found. These deviations were shown to be mainly due to the experimental error introduced by the cascade impactor, and that the error due to the experimental adhesion measurements is negligibly small. Hence, the CIS developed could be a useful tool in early development stages of dry powder inhalations to predict the in vitro aerodynamic performance of drug particles.

  7. The ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler: Design, Functionality, In Vitro Dosing Performance and Critical Task Compliance by Patients and Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Andrew C; Walker, Richard; Hamilton, Melanie; Garrill, Karl

    2015-12-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) are commonly used for the delivery of inhaled medications, and should provide consistent, efficient dosing, be easy to use correctly, and be liked by patients; these attributes can all affect patient compliance and therefore treatment efficacy. The ELLIPTA(®) DPI was developed for the delivery of once-daily therapies for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It has moderate resistance to airflow and can hold one or two blister strips, with each blister containing a sealed single dose of medication. Monotherapies can be delivered by the single-strip configuration and, in the two-strip configuration, one dose from each strip can be aerosolized simultaneously to allow combination therapies to be delivered, which enables the formulations for each product to be developed individually, since they are stored separately until the point of administration. There are three principal operating steps to administer a dose: open, inhale, close. This article summarizes the design, functionality, and in vitro dose-delivery characteristics of the ELLIPTA inhaler, and describes the results of human factors validation tests, designed to assess the performance of critical tasks required to use the inhaler. Results from the in vitro studies indicate that the ELLIPTA inhaler performs consistently with respect to in vitro dose delivery characteristics at a range of flow rates that can be achieved by the target population (≥30 L/min) and over its 30-day in-use life. Data from the human factors validation tests demonstrated that almost all participants (≥97%) were able to complete each of the steps required to prepare a dose for inhalation without error. Overall, the ELLIPTA inhaler has a versatile single- or two-strip design that allows it to be used for the delivery of a range of treatment options. It also improves patient ease-of-use when compared with the DISKUS(®) DPI.

  8. A comparison between spray drying and spray freeze drying for dry powder inhaler formulation of drug-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yajie; Kho, Katherine; Cheow, Wean Sin; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2012-03-15

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles - polymeric nanoparticles enveloped by lipid layers - have emerged as a potent therapeutic nano-carrier alternative to liposomes and polymeric nanoparticles. Herein we perform comparative studies of employing spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD) to produce inhalable dry-powder form of drug-loaded lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles. Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid), lecithin, and levofloxacin are employed as the polymer, lipid, and drug models, respectively. The hybrid nanoparticles are transformed into micro-scale nanoparticle aggregates (or nano-aggregates) via SD and SFD, where the effects of (1) different excipients (i.e. mannitol, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and leucine), and (2) nanoparticle to excipient ratio on nano-aggregate characteristics (e.g. size, flowability, aqueous reconstitution, aerosolization efficiency) are examined. In both methods, PVA is found more effective than mannitol for aqueous reconstitution, whereas hydrophobic leucineis needed to achieve effective aerosolization as it reduces nano-aggregate agglomeration. Using PVA, both methods are equally capable of producing nano-aggregates having size, density, flowability, yield and reconstitutibility in the range ideal for inhaled delivery. Nevertheless, nano-aggregates produced by SFD are superior to SD in terms of their aerosolization efficiency manifested in the higher emitted dose and fine particle fraction with lower mass median aerodynamic diameter.

  9. A comparison between spray drying and spray freeze drying to produce an influenza subunit vaccine powder for inhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, V.; Amorij, J-P.; Kapteyn, J. C.; de Boer, A. H.; Frijlink, H. W.; Hinrichs, W. L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate two different processes to produce a stable influenza subunit vaccine powder for pulmonary immunization i.e. spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD). The formulations were analyzed by proteolytic assay, single radial immunodiffusion assay (SRID), casc

  10. A comparison between spray drying and spray freeze drying to produce an influenza subunit vaccine powder for inhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, V.; Amorij, J-P.; Kapteyn, J. C.; de Boer, A. H.; Frijlink, H. W.; Hinrichs, W. L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate two different processes to produce a stable influenza subunit vaccine powder for pulmonary immunization i.e. spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD). The formulations were analyzed by proteolytic assay, single radial immunodiffusion assay (SRID),

  11. Systematic review of the dry powder inhalers colistimethate sodium and tobramycin in cystic fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Uttley

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review evaluated evidence for two dry powder formulations, colistimethate sodium and tobramycin, for the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis, as part of the UK national recommendation process for new technologies. Electronic bibliographic databases were searched in May 2012 (MEDLINE, MEDLINE in-Process, EMBASE, Cochrane Library databases, CINAHL, Web of Science, Conference Proceedings Citation Index and BIOSIS Previews. Relevant outcomes included rate and extent of microbial response (e.g. sputum density of P. aeruginosa, lung function (e.g. forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, frequency, severity of acute exacerbations and adverse events. Three trials were included, and both dry powder formulations were reported to be non-inferior in the short term to nebulised tobramycin for FEV1. However, long-term follow-up data were missing and the effect on exacerbation rates was not always reported. Whilst short-term results showed that both dry powder drugs were non-inferior to nebulised tobramycin, there was no long-term follow-up and no phase 3 trials compared nebulised and dry powder colistimethate sodium. The use of FEV1 as the primary end-point may not accurately represent changes in lung health. This review illustrates the difficulty in assessing new technologies where the evidence base is poor.

  12. Surface Energy Determined by Inverse Gas Chromatography as a Tool to Investigate Particulate Interactions in Dry Powder Inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Shyamal C; Tucker, Ian G; Stewart, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) usually contain drug particles energy of particles. Inverse gas chromatography (IGC) has been used to determine the surface energy of powder particles used in DPI to characterize materials and to understand aerosolization behaviour. Early studies used an infinite dilution technique to determine nonpolar surface energy and free energy of adsorption for polar interactions separately. Although some correlations were observed with the change in nonpolar surface energy before and after micronization, milling and storage, a lack of consistency in the change of free energy of adsorption was common. Moreover, a consistent relationship between complex de-agglomeration behaviour and surface energy has not been established and there are even some examples of negative correlation. In fact, nonpolar surface energy at infinite dilution is an incomplete representation of powder surface characteristics. The techniques for measuring polar surface energy, total surface energy and surface energy distribution have provided more revealing information about surface energetics of powders. Surface energy distributions determined by IGC or surface energy analyser have been successfully used to understand energetic heterogeneity of surfaces, characterize different polymorphs and understand changes due to micronization, structural relaxation, dry coating and storage. Efforts have been made to utilize surface energy distribution data to calculate powder strength distribution and to explain complex de-agglomeration behaviour of DPI formulations.

  13. Design, physicochemical characterization, and optimization of organic solution advanced spray-dried inhalable dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine poly(ethylene glycol) (DPPE-PEG) microparticles and nanoparticles for targeted respiratory nanomedicine delivery as dry powder inhalation aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meenach, Samantha A; Vogt, Frederick G; Anderson, Kimberly W; Hilt, J Zach; McGarry, Ronald C; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    Novel advanced spray-dried and co-spray-dried inhalable lung surfactant-mimic phospholipid and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)ylated lipopolymers as microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of biodegradable biocompatible lipopolymers were rationally formulated via an organic solution advanced spray-drying process in closed mode using various phospholipid formulations and rationally chosen spray-drying pump rates. Ratios of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine PEG (DPPE-PEG) with varying PEG lengths were mixed in a dilute methanol solution. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the smooth, spherical particle morphology of the inhalable particles. The size of the particles was statistically analyzed using the scanning electron micrographs and SigmaScan® software and were determined to be 600 nm to 1.2 μm in diameter, which is optimal for deep-lung alveolar penetration. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were performed to analyze solid-state transitions and long-range molecular order, respectively, and allowed for the confirmation of the presence of phospholipid bilayers in the solid state of the particles. The residual water content of the particles was very low, as quantified analytically via Karl Fischer titration. The composition of the particles was confirmed using attenuated total-reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), and chemical imaging confirmed the chemical homogeneity of the particles. The dry powder aerosol dispersion properties were evaluated using the Next Generation Impactor™ (NGI™) coupled with the HandiHaler® dry powder inhaler device, where the mass median aerodynamic diameter from 2.6 to 4.3 μm with excellent aerosol dispersion performance, as exemplified by high values of emitted dose, fine particle fraction, and respirable fraction. Overall, it was determined that the pump rates defined in the

  14. Development of a microparticle-based dry powder inhalation formulation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride applying the quality by design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Keyhaneh; Pallagi, Edina; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Csóka, Ildikó; Ambrus, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary drug delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride offers effective local antibacterial activity and convenience of easy application. Spray drying is a trustworthy technique for the production of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride microparticles. Quality by design (QbD), an up-to-date regulatory-based quality management method, was used to predict the final quality of the product. According to the QbD-based theoretical preliminary parameter ranking and priority classification, dry powder inhalation formulation tests were successfully performed in practice. When focusing on the critical parameters, the practical development was more effective and was in correlation with our previous findings. Spray drying produced spherical microparticles. The dry powder formulations prepared were examined by particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and in vitro drug release and aerodynamic particle size analyses were also performed. These formulations showed an appropriate particle size ranging between 2 and 4 μm and displayed an enhanced aerosol performance with fine particle fraction up to 80%.

  15. Development of a microparticle-based dry powder inhalation formulation of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride applying the quality by design approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Keyhaneh; Pallagi, Edina; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Csóka, Ildikó; Ambrus, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary drug delivery of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride offers effective local antibacterial activity and convenience of easy application. Spray drying is a trustworthy technique for the production of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride microparticles. Quality by design (QbD), an up-to-date regulatory-based quality management method, was used to predict the final quality of the product. According to the QbD-based theoretical preliminary parameter ranking and priority classification, dry powder inhalation formulation tests were successfully performed in practice. When focusing on the critical parameters, the practical development was more effective and was in correlation with our previous findings. Spray drying produced spherical microparticles. The dry powder formulations prepared were examined by particle size analysis, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and in vitro drug release and aerodynamic particle size analyses were also performed. These formulations showed an appropriate particle size ranging between 2 and 4 μm and displayed an enhanced aerosol performance with fine particle fraction up to 80%. PMID:27784991

  16. In Vitro Dosing Performance of the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler Using Asthma and COPD Patient Inhalation Profiles Replicated with the Electronic Lung (eLung™).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Melanie; Leggett, Richard; Pang, Cheng; Charles, Stephen; Gillett, Ben; Prime, David

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the in vitro dose delivery characteristics of approved asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) therapies delivered via the ELLIPTA(®) dry powder inhaler across inhalation endpoints representative of the target patient population, using the Electronic Lung (eLung™) to replicate inhaler-specific patient inhalation profiles that were previously recorded in vivo. Selected profiles, representative of the range of inhalation endpoints achieved by patients with all severities of asthma and COPD, were replicated using the eLung breathing simulator in conjunction with an oropharyngeal cast. A Next Generation Impactor was coupled to the eLung to determine the aerodynamic particle size distribution of the ex-throat dose (ETD) of asthma and COPD therapies delivered via the ELLIPTA inhaler. Delivered dose (DD), ETD, and fine particle dose (FPD; defined as a mass of active substance less than 5 μm) were determined for fluticasone furoate (FF)/vilanterol (VI) 100/25 μg and 200/25 μg (asthma and COPD), umeclidinium (UMEC)/VI 62.5/25 μg (COPD only), FF 100 μg and 200μg monotherapy (asthma only), and UMEC 62.5 μg monotherapy (COPD only). Inhalation profiles replicated by eLung covered a wide range of peak inspiratory flow rates (41.6-136.9 L/min), pressure drops (1.2-13.8 kPa), and inhaled volumes through the inhaler (0.7-4.2L). DD was consistent across the range of patient representative inhalation parameters for all components (FF, VI, and UMEC) of each therapy assessed; although ETD and FPD were also generally consistent, some small variation was observed. Dose delivery was consistent for each of the components, whether delivered as mono- or combination therapy. The in vitro performance of the ELLIPTA inhaler has been demonstrated for the delivery of FF/VI, UMEC/VI, FF monotherapy, and UMEC monotherapy. Across a range of inspiratory profiles, DD was consistent, while ETD and FPD showed little flow dependency.

  17. Jet-vortex spray freeze drying for the production of inhalable lyophilisate powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanning, Stefan; Süverkrüp, Richard; Lamprecht, Alf

    2017-01-01

    Spray-freeze-dried powders were suggested for nasal, epidermal (needle-free injection) or pulmonary application of proteins, peptides or nucleic acids. In spray-freeze-drying processes an aqueous solution is atomized into a refrigerant medium and subsequently dried by sublimation. Droplet-stream generators produce a fast stream of monodisperse droplets, where droplets are subject to collisions and therefore the initial monodispersity is lost and droplets increase in diameter, which reduces their suitability for pulmonary application. In jet-vortex-freezing, a droplet-stream is injected into a vortex of cold process gas to prevent droplet collisions. Both the injection position of the droplet-stream and the velocity of the cold gas vortex have an impact on the size distributions of the resulting powders. A model solution containing mannitol (1.5%m/V) and maltodextrin (1.5%m/V) was sprayed at 5 droplet-stream positions at distances between 1mm and 30mm from the gas jet nozzle and 5 gas velocities (0.8-6.8m/s) at a process temperature of -100°C. Mean geometric diameters of the highly porous particles (bulk density: 0.012±0.007g/cm3) ranged between 55±4 and 98±4μm. Evaluation of the aerodynamic properties by Next-Generation-Impactor (NGI) analysis showed that all powders had high emitted doses (98±1%) and fine-particle fractions ranged between 4±1% and 21±2%. It was shown that jet-vortex freezing is a suitable method for the reproducible production of lyophilized powders with excellent dispersibility in air, which has a high potential for nasal and pulmonary drug delivery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Physicochemical characterization and stability of rifampicin liposome dry powder formulations for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changsan, Narumon; Chan, Hak-Kim; Separovic, Frances; Srichana, Teerapol

    2009-02-01

    Liposomes were used to encapsulate rifampicin (RIF) as an alternative formulation for delivery to the respiratory tract. Factors affecting the stability of liposomes containing RIF were determined. Four liposome suspensions were prepared, containing different millimole ratios of cholesterol (CH) and soybean L-infinity-phosphatidylcholine (SPC) by the chloroform film method, followed by freeze-drying. Cryo-transmission electron microscopy, photon correlation spectroscopy, (2)H and (31)P solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance were used to characterize the liposome suspensions. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction were used to examine the properties of the powder formulations. The powder was dispersed through an Andersen cascade impactor to evaluate the performance of the aerosolized powder. The liposomes were a mixture of 200-300 nm unilamellar and multilamellar vesicles. Higher CH content in the liposome formulation resulted in a smaller change in size distribution with time, and higher CH content was associated with an increase in the (2)H NMR splitting, indicative of an increase in order of the lipid acyl chains. Furthermore, the SS-NMR results indicated that RIF was located between the acyl chains of the phospholipid bilayer and associated with CH molecules. Fifty percent encapsulation of RIF was obtained when the lipid content was high (SPC 10 mM: CH 10 mM). Mannitol was found to be a suitable cryoprotectant, which is attributed to its crystallinity, and use of mannitol gave particles with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of less than 5 microm. In terms of chemical stability, RIF in dry powder formulations was considerably more stable when compared to RIF aqueous solutions and RIF liposomal suspensions.

  19. The effect of excipients on the stability and aerosol performance of salmon calcitonin dry powder inhalers prepared via the spray freeze drying process

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    Poursina Narges

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spray freeze drying was developed to produce dry powders suitable for applications such as inhalation delivery. In the current study, the spray freeze drying technique was employed to produce inhalable salmon calcitonin microparticles. Effects of the carrier type, concentration of hydroxyl propyl-β-cyclodextrin and the presence of Tween 80 on the chemical and structural stability, as well as on the aerosol performance of the particles were investigated. The results indicated that hydroxyl propyl-β-cyclodextrin had the most important effect on the chemical stability of the powder and strongly increased its stability by increasing its concentration in the formulation. Chemically stable formulations (over 90 % recovery were selected for further examinations. Fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism suggested that the formulations were structurally stable. Aerosol performance showed that the Tween-free powders produced higher fine particle fraction values than the formulations containing Tween (53.7 vs. 41.92 % for trehalose content and 52.85 vs. 43.06 % for maltose content.

  20. The effect of excipients on the stability and aerosol performance of salmon calcitonin dry powder inhalers prepared via the spray freeze drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursina, Narges; Vatanara, Alireza; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Gilani, Kambiz; Najafabadi, Abdolhossein Rouholamini

    2016-06-01

    Spray freeze drying was developed to produce dry powders suitable for applications such as inhalation delivery. In the current study, the spray freeze drying technique was employed to produce inhalable salmon calcitonin microparticles. Effects of the carrier type, concentration of hydroxyl propyl-β-cyclodextrin and the presence of Tween 80 on the chemical and structural stability, as well as on the aerosol performance of the particles were investigated. The results indicated that hydroxyl propyl-β-cyclodextrin had the most important effect on the chemical stability of the powder and strongly increased its stability by increasing its concentration in the formulation. Chemically stable formulations (over 90 % recovery) were selected for further examinations. Fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism suggested that the formulations were structurally stable. Aerosol performance showed that the Tween-free powders produced higher fine particle fraction values than the formulations containing Tween (53.7 vs. 41.92 % for trehalose content and 52.85 vs. 43.06 % for maltose content).

  1. Delivery characteristics and patients’ handling of two single-dose dry-powder inhalers used in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman KR

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Kenneth R Chapman1, Charles M Fogarty2, Clare Peckitt3, Cheryl Lassen3, Dalal Jadayel3, Juergen Dederichs4, Mukul Dalvi4, Benjamin Kramer5On behalf of the INDEED (indacaterol: handling and preference evaluation of the Breezhaler device in COPD study investigators1University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada; 2Spartanburg Medical Research, Spartanburg, SC, United States; 3Novartis Horsham Research Centre, Horsham, West Sussex, UK; 4Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 5Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ, USAAbstract: For optimal efficacy, an inhaler should deliver doses consistently and be easy for patients to use with minimal instruction. The delivery characteristics, patients’ correct use, and preference of two single-dose dry powder inhalers (Breezhaler and HandiHaler were evaluated in two complementary studies. The first study examined aerodynamic particle size distribution, using inhalation profiles of seven patients with moderate to very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The second was an open-label, two-period, 7-day crossover study, evaluating use of the inhalers with placebo capsules by 82 patients with mild to severe COPD. Patients’ correct use of the inhalers was assessed after reading written instructions on Day 1, and after training and 7 days of daily use. Patients’ preference was assessed after completion of both study periods. Patient inhalation profiles showed average peak inspiratory flows of 72 L/minute through Breezhaler and 36 L/minute through HandiHaler. For Breezhaler and HandiHaler, fine particle fractions were 27% and 10%, respectively. In the second study, correct use of Breezhaler and HandiHaler was achieved by >77% of patients for any step after 7 days; 61% of patients showed an overall preference for Breezhaler and 31% for HandiHaler (P = 0.01. Breezhaler is a low-resistance inhaler suitable for use by patients with a range of disease severities. Most patients used both inhalers correctly

  2. Inspiratory flows through dry powder inhaler in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: age and gender rather than severity matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Pekka Malmberg

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available L Pekka Malmberg1, Paula Rytilä2, Pertti Happonen2, Tari Haahtela11Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Orion Corporation, Orion Pharma, Espoo, FinlandBackground: Dry powder inhalers (DPIs are inspiratory flow driven and hence flow dependent. Most patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are elderly and have poor lung function. The factors affecting their inspiratory flows through inhalers are unclear.Objective: To study peak inspiratory flows (PIFs and their determinants through a DPI in COPD patients of varying age and severity.Methods: Flow-volume spirometry was performed in 93 COPD patients. Maximum PIF rates were recorded through an empty Easyhaler® (PIFEH; Orion Corporation, Espoo, Finland, a DPI that provides consistent dose delivery at inhalation rates through the inhaler of 28 L/min or higher.Results: The mean PIFEH was 54 L/min (range 26–95 L/min with a coefficient of variation of 7%. All but two patients were able to generate a flow of ≥28 L/min. In a general linear model, the independent determinants for PIFEH were age (P = 0.02 and gender (P = 0.01, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 expressed as percent predicted was not a significant factor. The regression model accounted only for 18% of the variation in PIFEH.Conclusion: In patients with COPD, age and gender are more important determinants of inspiratory flow through DPIs than the degree of expiratory airway obstruction. Most COPD patients with varying age and severity are able to generate inspiratory flows through the test inhaler that is sufficient for optimal drug delivery to the lower airways.Keywords: COPD, forced expiratory volume, peak inspiratory flow 

  3. Assessment of satisfaction with different dry powder inhalation devices in Greek patients with COPD and asthma: the ANASA study

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    Zervas E

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Eleftherios Zervas, Konstantinos Samitas, Mina Gaga 7th Respiratory Department and Asthma Center, Athens Chest Hospital “Sotiria”, Athens, Greece Background: Poor adherence to inhaled therapy is common in patients with asthma and COPD. An inhaler selection based on patients’ preference could be beneficial to adherence and treatment effectiveness. Properly designed questionnaires can assess patients’ satisfaction with their medication devices. The aim of this study was to estimate, using the Feeling of Satisfaction with Inhaler (FSI-10 questionnaire, the ease of use and satisfaction of patients regarding three different marketed dry powder inhalers (DPIs: Diskus® (DK, Elpenhaler® (EH, and Turbuhaler® (TH. The FSI-10 is a self-completed questionnaire to assess patients’ opinions regarding ease of use, portability, and usability of devices, irrespective of the drug used.Patients and methods: We performed a 4-week, open, noninterventional, multicenter, parallel clinical study in 560 asthmatic and 561 COPD patients. During the first visit, patients were classified into three groups according to the DPI they were already using. Patients were regularly receiving their treatments (Seretide DK, Rolenium EH, and Symbicort TH and agreed to complete the FSI-10 questionnaire in the second visit.Results: A total of 517 COPD and 523 asthma patients completed the study. All DPIs tested received satisfactory results, while the EH obtained consistently higher scores in the FSI-10 in both COPD and asthma patients (44.7 and 44.1 vs 41.5 and 43 for TH, 40.8 and 41.4 for DK, P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively. TH was rated better than DK by asthma patients. Patients suffering with severe COPD tended to express higher feeling of satisfaction than those with moderate or mild disease, irrespective of the device used.Conclusion: All DPIs tested were highly acceptable by asthma and COPD patients of different ages; nevertheless, EH received significantly higher

  4. Dry powder inhaler formulation of lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles via electrostatically-driven nanoparticle assembly onto microscale carrier particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yue; Cheow, Wean Sin; Hadinoto, Kunn

    2012-09-15

    Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles have emerged as promising nanoscale carriers of therapeutics as they combine the attractive characteristics of liposomes and polymers. Herein we develop dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation of hybrid nanoparticles composed of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and soybean lecithin as the polymer and lipid constituents, respectively. The hybrid nanoparticles are transformed into inhalable microscale nanocomposite structures by a novel technique based on electrostatically-driven adsorption of nanoparticles onto polysaccharide carrier particles, which eliminates the drawbacks of conventional techniques based on controlled drying (e.g. nanoparticle-specific formulation, low yield). First, we engineer polysaccharide carrier particles made up of chitosan cross-linked with tripolyphosphate and dextran sulphate to exhibit the desired aerosolization characteristics and physical robustness. Second, we investigate the effects of nanoparticle to carrier mass ratio and salt inclusion on the adsorption efficiency, in terms of the nanoparticle loading and yield, from which the optimal formulation is determined. Desorption of the nanoparticles from the carrier particles in phosphate buffer saline is also examined. Lastly, we characterize aerosolization efficiency of the nanocomposite product in vitro, where the emitted dose and respirable fraction are found to be comparable to the values of conventional DPI formulations.

  5. Ease-of-use, preference, confidence, and satisfaction with Revolizer ® , a novel dry powder inhaler, in an Indian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujeet K Rajan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: While prescribing an inhaler device, it is important to take into account the usability, preference, confidence, and satisfaction of the patients. Aims: The present study assessed these parameters with Revolizer ® , a novel dry powder inhaler (DPI, in patients with obstructive airway diseases and in device-naïve healthy participants. Settings and Design: In this open-label, prospective, multicentre study with 100 participants [n = 50 healthy participants, n = 45 mild asthma patients, and n = 5 mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD patients], all participants were instructed and trained on the use of Revolizer and then the participants subsequently demonstrated the inhalation technique at two visits. Materials and Methods: The average time required to execute three correct consecutive attempts and the number of errors (including critical errors were recorded. Participants were asked about the ease of use, preference, confidence, and satisfaction by means of a questionnaire at each visit. Results: The average time required by the participants to achieve three correct consecutive attempts at visit 1 was 3.75 ± 2.10 min, which significantly reduced at visit 2 (3.07 ± 1.32 min, P < 0.01. The number of errors decreased from visit 1 to visit 2. More than 85% participants found the Revolizer easy to use, and it was preferred by more than 75% participants. Revolizer scored high on the confidence and satisfaction of all participants at both visits. Conclusions: Revolizer is an easy-to-use and a preferred device in patients with mild asthma and COPD, as well as in healthy participants with no previous experience of using inhalation devices. The participants felt confident and satisfied using the Revolizer.

  6. New inhalation-optimized itraconazole nanoparticle-based dry powders for the treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis

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    Duret C

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Christophe Duret,1 Nathalie Wauthoz,1 Thami Sebti,2 Francis Vanderbist,2 Karim Amighi11Laboratoire de Pharmacie Galénique et de Biopharmacie, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium; 2SMB Laboratoires, Brussels, BelgiumPurpose: Itraconazole (ITZ dry powders for inhalation (DPI composed of nanoparticles (NP embedded in carrier microparticles were prepared and characterized.Methods: DPIs were initially produced by reducing the ITZ particle size to the nanometer range using high-pressure homogenization with tocopherol polyethylene 1000 succinate (TPGS, 10% w/w ITZ as a stabilizer. The optimized nanosuspension and the initial microsuspension were then spray-dried with different proportions of or in the absence of mannitol and/or sodium taurocholate. DPI characterization was performed using scanning electron microscopy for morphology, laser diffraction to evaluate the size-reduction process, and the size of the dried NP when reconstituted in aqueous media, impaction studies using a multistage liquid impactor to determine the aerodynamic performance and fine-particle fraction that is theoretically able to reach the lung, and dissolution studies to determine the solubility of ITZ.Results: Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the DPI particles were composed of mannitol microparticles with embedded nano- or micro-ITZ crystals. The formulations prepared from the nanosuspension exhibited good flow properties and better fine-particle fractions, ranging from 46.2% ± 0.5% to 63.2% ± 1.7% compared to the 23.1% ± 0.3% that was observed with the formulation produced from the initial microsuspension. Spray-drying affected the NP size by inducing irreversible aggregation, which was able to be minimized by the addition of mannitol and sodium taurocholate before the drying procedure. The ITZ NP-based DPI considerably increased the ITZ solubility (58 ± 2 increased to 96 ± 1 ng/mL compared with that of raw ITZ or an ITZ microparticle

  7. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of controlled release insulin loaded PLGA microcapsules using dry powder inhaler in diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamishehkar, Hamed; Emami, Jaber; Najafabadi, Abdolhossien Rouholamini; Gilani, Kambiz; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Hassanzadeh, Kambiz; Mahdavi, Hamid; Koohsoltani, Maryam; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2010-03-01

    The pulmonary route is an alternative route of administration for the systemic delivery of peptide and proteins with short-half lives. A long-acting formulation of insulin was prepared by encapsulation of protein into respirable, biodegradable microcapsules prepared by an oil in oil emulsification/solvent evaporation method. Insulin-loaded PLGA microcapsules prepared as a dry powder inhaler formulation were administered via the pulmonary route to diabetic rats and serum insulin and glucose concentrations were monitored. Control treatments consisted of respirable spray-dried insulin (RSDI) powder administered by intratracheal insufflation, insulin-loaded PLGA microcapsules and NPH (long-acting) insulin administered by subcutaneous (SC) administration. Pharmacokinetic analysis demonstrated that insulin administered in PLGA microcapsules illustrated a sustained release profile which resulted in a longer mean residence time, 4 and 5 fold longer than those after pulmonary administration of RSDI and SC injection of NPH insulin, respectively. Accordingly, the hypoglycemic profile followed a stable and sustained pattern which remained constant between 10 and 48 h. Results of the in vitro experiments were in good agreement with those of in vivo studies. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis indicated that microcapsules administration did not increase the activities of lactate dehydrogenase and total protein. However, histological examination of the lung tissue indicated a minor but detectable effect on the normal physiology of the rat lung. These findings suggest that the encapsulation of peptides and proteins into PLGA microcapsules technique could be a promising controlled delivery system for pulmonary administration.

  8. Comparative in vitro performance of the new drug aclidinium in a novel multidose dry powder inhaler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gjaltema, Doetie; Hagedoorn, Paul; Grasmeijer, Floris; Huijbers, Bernardus G.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; De Boer, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: With new inhalation products, lack of knowledge of how much drug is deposited at the site of action in the lungs plus variation in performance of inhalation devices can lead to inaccurate conclusions about drug efficacy. Aim: To compare the consistency of delivered dose (DD) and fine

  9. Comparative in vitro performance of the new drug aclidinium in a novel multidose dry powder inhaler

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gjaltema, Doetie; Hagedoorn, Paul; Grasmeijer, Floris; Huijbers, Bernardus G.; Frijlink, Henderik W.; De Boer, Anne H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: With new inhalation products, lack of knowledge of how much drug is deposited at the site of action in the lungs plus variation in performance of inhalation devices can lead to inaccurate conclusions about drug efficacy. Aim: To compare the consistency of delivered dose (DD) and fine par

  10. A dry powder formulation of liposome-encapsulated recombinant secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (rSLPI) for inhalation: preparation and characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Aileen; McElvaney, Noel G; Cryan, Sally-Ann

    2010-09-01

    Inhaled recombinant secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (rSLPI) has shown potential for the treatment of inflammatory lung conditions. Rapid inactivation of rSLPI by cathepsin L (Cat L) and rapid clearance from the lungs has limited clinical efficacy to date. Previous studies by us have shown that encapsulation of rSLPI within1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-[phospho-L-serine]/cholesterol (DOPS/Chol) liposomes protects rSLPI against Cat L inactivation in vitro. Liquid DOPS-rSLPI preparations were found to be unstable upon long-term storage and nebulisation. The aim of this study was therefore to develop a method of manufacture for preparing DOPS-rSLPI liposomes as a dry powder for inhalation. DOPS-rSLPI dry powders were lyophilised and subsequently micronised with a novel micronisation aid. The effects of formulation and processing on rSLPI stability, activity, and uniformity of content within the powders were characterised. Using D-mannitol as the micronisation aid, dry powder particles in the inhalable size range (powder inhaler, and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) was evaluated after collection in a cascade impactor. Aerosolisation of the DOPS-rSLPI dry powder yielded 38% emitted dose, with 2.44 μm MMAD. When challenged with Cat L post-aerosolisation, DOPS-rSLPI dry powder was significantly better at retaining a protective function against Cat L-induced rSLPI inactivation compared to the aqueous DOPS-rSLPI liposome dispersion and was also more stable under storage.

  11. Inhalable PEGylated Phospholipid Nanocarriers and PEGylated Therapeutics for Respiratory Delivery as Aerosolized Colloidal Dispersions and Dry Powder Inhalers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priya Muralidharan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Nanomedicine is making groundbreaking achievements in drug delivery. The versatility of nanoparticles has given rise to its use in respiratory delivery that includes inhalation aerosol delivery by the nasal route and the pulmonary route. Due to the unique features of the respiratory route, research in exploring the respiratory route for delivery of poorly absorbed and systemically unstable drugs has been increasing. The respiratory route has been successfully used for the delivery of macromolecules like proteins, peptides, and vaccines, and continues to be examined for use with small molecules, DNA, siRNA, and gene therapy. Phospholipid nanocarriers are an attractive drug delivery system for inhalation aerosol delivery in particular. Protecting these phospholipid nanocarriers from pulmonary immune system attack by surface modification by polyethylene glycol (PEGylation, enhancing mucopenetration by PEGylation, and sustaining drug release for controlled drug delivery are some of the advantages of PEGylated liposomal and proliposomal inhalation aerosol delivery. This review discusses the advantages of using PEGylated phospholipid nanocarriers and PEGylated therapeutics for respiratory delivery through the nasal and pulmonary routes as inhalation aerosols.

  12. Design, physicochemical characterization, and optimization of organic solution advanced spray-dried inhalable dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine poly(ethylene glycol (DPPE-PEG microparticles and nanoparticles for targeted respiratory nanomedicine delivery as dry powder inhalation aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meenach SA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Samantha A Meenach,1,2 Frederick G Vogt,3 Kimberly W Anderson,2,4 J Zach Hilt,2,4 Ronald C McGarry,5Heidi M Mansour1,41Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences-Drug Development Division, University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, Lexington, KY; 2Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, USA; 3Analytical Sciences, Product Development, GlaxoSmithKline, King of Prussia, PA; 4Center of Membrane Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 5Department of Radiation Medicine, University of Kentucky College of Medicine, Lexington, KY, USAAbstract: Novel advanced spray-dried and co-spray-dried inhalable lung surfactant-mimic phospholipid and poly(ethylene glycol (PEGylated lipopolymers as microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of biodegradable biocompatible lipopolymers were rationally formulated via an organic solution advanced spray-drying process in closed mode using various phospholipid formulations and rationally chosen spray-drying pump rates. Ratios of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine PEG (DPPE-PEG with varying PEG lengths were mixed in a dilute methanol solution. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the smooth, spherical particle morphology of the inhalable particles. The size of the particles was statistically analyzed using the scanning electron micrographs and SigmaScan® software and were determined to be 600 nm to 1.2 μm in diameter, which is optimal for deep-lung alveolar penetration. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD were performed to analyze solid-state transitions and long-range molecular order, respectively, and allowed for the confirmation of the presence of phospholipid bilayers in the solid state of the particles. The residual water content of the particles was very low, as quantified analytically via Karl Fischer titration. The composition of the particles was confirmed using attenuated

  13. Dry powder inhalers: physicochemical and aerosolization properties of several size-fractions of a promising alterative carrier, freeze-dried mannitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2015-02-20

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical and inhalation characteristics of different size fractions of a promising carrier, i.e., freeze-dried mannitol (FDM). FDM was prepared and sieved into four size fractions. FDMs were then characterized in terms of micromeritic, solid-state and bulk properties. Dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations were prepared using salbutamol sulphate (SS) and then evaluated in terms of drug content homogeneity and in vitro aerosolization performance. The results showed that the crystalline state of mannitol was maintained following freeze-drying for all size fractions of FDM. All FDM particles showed elongated morphology and contained mixtures of α-, β- and δ-mannitol. In comparison to small FDM particles, FDMs with larger particle sizes demonstrated narrower size distributions, higher bulk and tap densities, lower porosities and better flowability. Regardless of particle size, all FDMs generated a significantly higher (2.2-2.9-fold increase) fine particle fraction (FPF, 37.5 ± 0.9%-48.6 ± 2.8%) of SS in comparison to commercial mannitol. The FPFs of SS were related to the shape descriptors of FDM particles; however, FPFs did not prove quantitative apparent relationships with either particle size or powder bulk descriptors. Large FDM particles were more favourable than smaller particles because they produced DPI formulations with better flowability, better drug content homogeneity, lower amounts of the drug depositing on the throat and contained lower fine-particle-mannitol. Optimized stable DPI formulations with superior physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties can be achieved using larger particles of freeze-dried mannitol (FDM). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dry Powder Inhalers: A Focus on Advancements in Novel Drug Delivery Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyush Mehta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Administration of drug molecules by inhalation route for treatment of respiratory diseases has the ability to deliver drugs, hormones, nucleic acids, steroids, proteins, and peptides, particularly to the site of action, improving the efficacy of the treatment and consequently lessening adverse effects of the treatment. Numerous inhalation delivery systems have been developed and studied to treat respiratory diseases such as asthma, COPD, and other pulmonary infections. The progress of disciplines such as biomaterials science, nanotechnology, particle engineering, molecular biology, and cell biology permits further improvement of the treatment capability. The present review analyzes modern therapeutic approaches of inhaled drugs with special emphasis on novel drug delivery system for treatment of various respiratory diseases.

  15. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of spray-dried and jet-milled microparticles containing bosentan hydrate for dry powder inhalation aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee H

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hyo-Jung Lee,1 Ji-Hyun Kang,1 Hong-Goo Lee,1 Dong-Wook Kim,2 Yun-Seok Rhee,3 Ju-Young Kim,4 Eun-Seok Park,5 Chun-Woong Park1 1College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University, 2Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Cheongju University, Cheongju, 3College of Pharmacy and Research Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 4College of Pharmacy, Woosuk University, Wanju-gun, 5School of Pharmacy, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Republic of Korea Abstract: The objectives of this study were to prepare bosentan hydrate (BST microparticles as dry powder inhalations (DPIs via spray drying and jet milling under various parameters, to comprehensively characterize the physicochemical properties of the BST hydrate microparticles, and to evaluate the aerosol dispersion performance and dissolution behavior as DPIs. The BST microparticles were successfully prepared for DPIs by spray drying from feeding solution concentrations of 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/v and by jet milling at grinding pressures of 2, 3, and 4 MPa. The physicochemical properties of the spray-dried (SD and jet-milled (JM microparticles were determined via scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering particle size analysis, Karl Fischer titration, surface analysis, pycnometry, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro aerosol dispersion performance and drug dissolution behavior were evaluated using an Anderson cascade impactor and a Franz diffusion cell, respectively. The JM microparticles exhibited an irregular corrugated surface and a crystalline solid state, while the SD microparticles were spherical with a smooth surface and an amorphous solid state. Thus, the in vitro aerosol dispersion performance and dissolution behavior as DPIs were considerably different due to the differences in the physicochemical properties of the SD and JM microparticles. In

  16. In vitro dose comparison of Respimat® inhaler with dry powder inhalers for COPD maintenance therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciliani, Anna-Maria; Langguth, Peter; Wachtel, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Background Combining in vitro mouth–throat deposition measurements, cascade impactor data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, four different inhalers were compared which are indicated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment. Methods The Respimat inhaler, the Breezhaler, the Genuair, and the Ellipta were coupled to the idealized Alberta throat model. The modeled dose to the lung (mDTL) was collected downstream of the Alberta throat model using either a filter or a next generation impactor (NGI). Idealized breathing patterns from COPD patient groups – moderate and very severe COPD – were applied. Theoretical lung deposition patterns were assessed by an individual path model. Results and conclusion For the Respimat the mDTL was found to be 59% (SD 5%) for the moderate COPD breathing pattern and 67% (SD 5%) for very severe COPD breathing pattern. The percentages refer to nominal dose (ND) in vitro. This is in the range of 44%–63% in vivo in COPD patients who display large individual variability. Breezhaler showed a mDTL of 43% (SD 2%) for moderate disease simulation and 51% (SD 2%) for very severe simulation. The corresponding results for Genuair are mDTL of 32% (SD 2%) for moderate and 42% (SD 1%) for very severe disease. Ellipta vilanterol particles showed a mDTL of 49% (SD 3%) for moderate and 55% (SD 2%) for very severe disease simulation, and Ellipta fluticasone particles showed a mDTL of 33% (SD 3%) and 41% (SD 2%), respectively for the two breathing patterns. Based on the throat output and average flows of the different inhalers, CFD simulations were performed. Laminar and turbulent steady flow calculations indicated that deposition occurs mainly in the small airways. In summary, Respimat showed the lowest amount of particles depositing in the mouth–throat model and the highest amount reaching all regions of the simulation lung model. PMID:28603412

  17. In vitro dose comparison of Respimat(®) inhaler with dry powder inhalers for COPD maintenance therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciciliani, Anna-Maria; Langguth, Peter; Wachtel, Herbert

    2017-01-01

    Combining in vitro mouth-throat deposition measurements, cascade impactor data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, four different inhalers were compared which are indicated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment. The Respimat inhaler, the Breezhaler, the Genuair, and the Ellipta were coupled to the idealized Alberta throat model. The modeled dose to the lung (mDTL) was collected downstream of the Alberta throat model using either a filter or a next generation impactor (NGI). Idealized breathing patterns from COPD patient groups - moderate and very severe COPD - were applied. Theoretical lung deposition patterns were assessed by an individual path model. For the Respimat the mDTL was found to be 59% (SD 5%) for the moderate COPD breathing pattern and 67% (SD 5%) for very severe COPD breathing pattern. The percentages refer to nominal dose (ND) in vitro. This is in the range of 44%-63% in vivo in COPD patients who display large individual variability. Breezhaler showed a mDTL of 43% (SD 2%) for moderate disease simulation and 51% (SD 2%) for very severe simulation. The corresponding results for Genuair are mDTL of 32% (SD 2%) for moderate and 42% (SD 1%) for very severe disease. Ellipta vilanterol particles showed a mDTL of 49% (SD 3%) for moderate and 55% (SD 2%) for very severe disease simulation, and Ellipta fluticasone particles showed a mDTL of 33% (SD 3%) and 41% (SD 2%), respectively for the two breathing patterns. Based on the throat output and average flows of the different inhalers, CFD simulations were performed. Laminar and turbulent steady flow calculations indicated that deposition occurs mainly in the small airways. In summary, Respimat showed the lowest amount of particles depositing in the mouth-throat model and the highest amount reaching all regions of the simulation lung model.

  18. In vitro dose comparison of Respimat® inhaler with dry powder inhalers for COPD maintenance therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciciliani A

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Anna-Maria Ciciliani,1,2 Peter Langguth,1 Herbert Wachtel2 1Institute of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Faculty 09 (Chemistry, Pharmaceutics and Geosciences, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, 2Analytical Development Department, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Ingelheim, Germany Background: Combining in vitro mouth–throat deposition measurements, cascade impactor data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations, four different inhalers were compared which are indicated for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD treatment.Methods: The Respimat inhaler, the Breezhaler, the Genuair, and the Ellipta were coupled to the idealized Alberta throat model. The modeled dose to the lung (mDTL was collected downstream of the Alberta throat model using either a filter or a next generation impactor (NGI. Idealized breathing patterns from COPD patient groups – moderate and very severe COPD – were applied. Theoretical lung deposition patterns were assessed by an individual path model.Results and conclusion: For the Respimat the mDTL was found to be 59% (SD 5% for the moderate COPD breathing pattern and 67% (SD 5% for very severe COPD breathing pattern. The percentages refer to nominal dose (ND in vitro. This is in the range of 44%–63% in vivo in COPD patients who display large individual variability. Breezhaler showed a mDTL of 43% (SD 2% for moderate disease simulation and 51% (SD 2% for very severe simulation. The corresponding results for Genuair are mDTL of 32% (SD 2% for moderate and 42% (SD 1% for very severe disease. Ellipta vilanterol particles showed a mDTL of 49% (SD 3% for moderate and 55% (SD 2% for very severe disease simulation, and Ellipta fluticasone particles showed a mDTL of 33% (SD 3% and 41% (SD 2%, respectively for the two breathing patterns. Based on the throat output and average flows of the different inhalers, CFD simulations were performed. Laminar and turbulent steady flow calculations indicated that

  19. Dry powder inhalation versus wet nebulisation delivery of antibiotics in cystic fibrosis patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerman, E.M.; Heijerman, H.G.M.; Frijlink, H.W.

    Inhalation of antipseudomonal antibiotics is a cornerstone in treating cystic fibrosis patients. It has shown to be effective in slowing down the process of pulmonary deterioration and decreasing the incidence of infectious exacerbations. The focus is now on innovating drug delivery devices,

  20. Air classifier technology (ACT) in dry powder inhalation. Part 1 : Introduction of a novel force distribution concept (FDC) explaining the performance of a basic air classifier on adhesive mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, A H; Hagedoorn, P; Gjaltema, D; Goede, J; Frijlink, H W

    2003-01-01

    Air classifier technology (ACT) is introduced as part of formulation integrated dry powder inhaler development (FIDPI) to optimise the de-agglomeration of inhalation powders. Carrier retention and de-agglomeration results obtained with a basic classifier concept are discussed. The theoretical cut-of

  1. Highly loaded interactive mixtures for dry powder inhalers: prediction of the adhesion capacity using surface energy and solubility parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, K G; Dowe, U; Zadnik, J

    2005-05-01

    In order to correlate drug adhesion properties of a highly loaded interactive mixture for the use in dry powder inhalers with the surface energy and to establish a link to the solubility parameter, surface free energy was detected for micronized substances (salbutamol sulfate, salbutamol base, theophylline and alpha-lactose monohydrate) using inverse gas chromatography (IGC). Interactive mixtures with coarse crystalline alpha-lactose monohydrate as a carrier were prepared at loading levels from 7.5 to 20% (w/w) and analyzed with respect to their adhesion capacity (CA) using the air jet sieving method. Solubility parameters were taken from literature or calculated. As a result the CA was independent of the drug load and correlated linearly with volume specific surface energy interaction (SEIv) values of the adherents (R2 = 0.98498). A link between SEIv and the size normalized solubility parameter (delta(tot)/d50) was found. Consequently, plotting delta(tot)/d50 versus CA resulted also in a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.99140). Overall a powerful tool was established to judge and quantify adhesion properties of highly loaded interactive mixtures even for estimates in early preformulation at a time where just the molecular structure of the active ingredient is known.

  2. Influence of crystal form of ipratropium bromide on micronisation and aerosolisation behaviour in dry powder inhaler formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Jagdeep; Kubavat, Harshal A; Ruecroft, Graham; Hipkiss, David; Price, Robert

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between the mechanical properties of anhydrous and monohydrate ipratropium bromide (IB) crystals, their processing behaviour upon air-jet micronisation and aerosolisation performance in dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. IB monohydrate and anhydrous crystals were produced from seed crystals and supercritical carbon dioxide crystallisation, respectively. Young's modulus of anhydrous and monohydrate IB crystals was determined using nanoindentation. For air-jet micronised crystals, the physicochemical and surface interfacial properties via the cohesive-adhesive balance (CAB) approach were investigated. These data were correlated to in-vitro aerosolisation performance of carrier-based DPI formulations containing either anhydrous or monohydrate IB. Particle size and Young's modulus of both crystals were similar and this was reflected in their similar processing upon micronisation. Particle size of micronised anhydrous and monohydrate crystals were similar. CAB measurements of the micronised particles of monohydrate or anhydrous forms of IB with respect to lactose were 0.70 (R² = 0.998) and 0.77 (R² = 0.999), respectively. These data suggested that both samples had similar adhesion to lactose, which correlated with their similar in-vitro aerosolisation performance in DPI formulations. Monohydrate and anhydrous crystals of IB exhibited similar mechanical properties and interfacial properties upon secondary processing. As a result, the performance of the DPI formulations were similar. © 2012 The Authors. JPP © 2012 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  3. Influence of primary crystallisation conditions on the mechanical and interfacial properties of micronised budesonide for dry powder inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubavat, Harshal A; Shur, Jagdeep; Ruecroft, Graham; Hipkiss, David; Price, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Investigate the influence of primary crystallisation conditions on the mechanical properties and secondary processing behaviour of budesonide for dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. Young's modulus of two batches of budesonide crystals (samples A and B) produced using different anti-solvents was determined using nanoindentation. Physicochemical and surface interfacial properties via the cohesive-adhesive balance (CAB) approach to colloid probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) of air-jet micronised budesonide crystals were also investigated. These data were correlated to in vitro aerosolization performance of carrier-based DPI formulations containing either budesonide samples A or B and lactose monohydrate. Young's modulus of budesonide samples A and B crystals was 0.95 and 4.04 GPa, respectively. Sample A crystals with low Young's modulus exhibited poorer micronisation efficiency than sample B. CAB analysis of micronised budesonide samples A and B, suggest that sample B budesonide had a greater adhesion to lactose than sample A. These data correlated with in vitro aerosolisation studies, which showed that the fine particle delivery of budesonide sample A was higher than that of sample B. In conclusion, crystallisation conditions may affect the mechanical properties of budesonide, and therefore secondary processing of the material and their interfacial properties and product performance in carrier based DPI formulations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of small amorphous amounts in hydrophilic and hydrophobic APIs on storage stability of dry powder inhalation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thorsten; Krehl, Regina; Schiewe, Jörg; Weiler, Claudius; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different manufacturing methods to induce formation of amorphous content, changes of physico-chemical characteristics of powder blends and changes of aerodynamic properties over storage time (6months) analyzed with the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) are investigated. Earlier studies have shown that standard pharmaceutical operations lead to structural disorders which may influence drug delivery and product stability. In this investigation, fully amorphous drug samples produced by spray-drying (SD) and ball-milling (BM) as well as semi-crystalline samples (produced by blending and micronization) are studied and compared to fully crystalline starting material. The amorphous content of these hydrophilic and hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was determined using a validated one-step DVS-method. For the conducted blending and micronization tests, amorphous amounts up to a maximum of 5.1% for salbutamol sulfate (SBS) and 17.0% for ciclesonide (CS) were measured. In order to investigate the impact of small amorphous amounts, inhalable homogenous powder mixtures with very high and low amorphous content and a defined particle size were prepared with a Turbula blender for each API. These blends were stored (6months, 45% RH, room temperature) to evaluate the influence of amorphous amounts on storage stability. The fine particle fraction (FPF: % of emitted dosehydrophobic CS a constantly increasing FPF (from 6% to >15%) over storage time for both types of blends was determined. Therefore, prolonged stability of amorphous parts and an incalculable behavior for CS blends are supposed, in contrast, SBS showed a controllable FPF after conditioning.

  5. Dry Powder Inhalers: Study of the Parameters Influencing Adhesion and Dispersion of Fluticasone Propionate

    OpenAIRE

    Le, V. N. P.; Thi, T. H. Hoang; Robins, E.; Flament, M. P.

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between particles are dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the interacting particles but it is also important to consider the manufacturing process. Blending active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with carrier is a critical stage that determines the blend homogeneity and is the first step towards obtaining the final quality of the powder blend. The aim of this work was to study parameters that influence the interactions between API and carrier in adhesive mixtures ...

  6. Preparation and physicochemical characterization of spray-dried and jet-milled microparticles containing bosentan hydrate for dry powder inhalation aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyo-Jung; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Hong-Goo; Kim, Dong-Wook; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Eun-Seok; Park, Chun-Woong

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to prepare bosentan hydrate (BST) microparticles as dry powder inhalations (DPIs) via spray drying and jet milling under various parameters, to comprehensively characterize the physicochemical properties of the BST hydrate microparticles, and to evaluate the aerosol dispersion performance and dissolution behavior as DPIs. The BST microparticles were successfully prepared for DPIs by spray drying from feeding solution concentrations of 1%, 3%, and 5% (w/v) and by jet milling at grinding pressures of 2, 3, and 4 MPa. The physicochemical properties of the spray-dried (SD) and jet-milled (JM) microparticles were determined via scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, dynamic light scattering particle size analysis, Karl Fischer titration, surface analysis, pycnometry, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The in vitro aerosol dispersion performance and drug dissolution behavior were evaluated using an Anderson cascade impactor and a Franz diffusion cell, respectively. The JM microparticles exhibited an irregular corrugated surface and a crystalline solid state, while the SD microparticles were spherical with a smooth surface and an amorphous solid state. Thus, the in vitro aerosol dispersion performance and dissolution behavior as DPIs were considerably different due to the differences in the physicochemical properties of the SD and JM microparticles. In particular, the highest grinding pressures under jet milling exhibited excellent aerosol dispersion performance with statistically higher values of 56.8%±2.0% of respirable fraction and 33.8%±2.3% of fine particle fraction and lower mass median aerodynamic diameter of 5.0±0.3 μm than the others (P<0.05, analysis of variance/Tukey). The drug dissolution mechanism was also affected by the physicochemical properties that determine the dissolution kinetics of the SD and JM microparticles, which were well

  7. Forces between insulin microspheres and polymers surfaces for a dry powder inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strathmann, Steve C; Murphy, Mary Ann; Goeckner, Bruce A; Carter, Phillip W; Green, John-Bruce D

    2009-05-08

    Here we demonstrate the use of a colloidal probe atomic force microscope (AFM) to compare the interactions between a model protein microsphere (insulin) and a set of common device polymers (polytetrafluoroethylene, polyethylene and polypropylene) with and without antistatic additive. For inhalation-based delivery devices the solid protein microspheres will interact with the device surfaces under ambient atmospheric conditions, and as such we studied the particle device interaction at a range of relative humidities. The results clearly discriminate between the five different polymer choices, and the impact of the antistatic additive. Although the mechanistic understanding is incomplete, it is evident that the polypropylene with antistatic additive gives consistent and relatively small interaction forces over the entire humidity range. The other polymer surfaces have humidity ranges where the pull-off forces are substantially greater. At 80% relative humidity, the insulin-polymer adhesion forces were similar for all the polymers probably due to the dominance of static charge mitigation and surface hydration effects. Overall, direct measurement of adhesion forces between pharmaceutical microspheres and container substrates can help direct rational choice of plastics/coatings for medical devices.

  8. Dry powder inhalers: study of the parameters influencing adhesion and dispersion of fluticasone propionate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, V N P; Hoang Thi, T H; Robins, E; Flament, M P

    2012-06-01

    Interactions between particles are dependent on the physicochemical characteristics of the interacting particles but it is also important to consider the manufacturing process. Blending active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) with carrier is a critical stage that determines the blend homogeneity and is the first step towards obtaining the final quality of the powder blend. The aim of this work was to study parameters that influence the interactions between API and carrier in adhesive mixtures used in DPI and their effect on API dispersion. The study was done with fluticasone propionate blended with lactose 'Lactohale 200'. The study was based on the influence of the operating conditions (speed, mixing time, resting steps during mixing), the size of the carrier and the storage conditions on the blend properties and on the API dispersion. The quality of the blends was examined by analysing the API content uniformity. Adhesion characteristics were evaluated by submitting mixtures to a sieving action by air depression with the Alpine air-jet sieve. Aerodynamic evaluation of fine particle fraction (FPF) was obtained using a Twin Stage Impinger; the FPF being defined as the mass percentage of API below 6.4 μm. For good dispersion and therefore good homogeneity of the API in the carrier particles, speed and powder blending time have to be sufficient, but not too long to prevent the appearance of static electricity, which is not favourable to homogeneity and stability. The FPF increases with the decrease in the carrier size. The storage conditions have also to be taken into consideration. Higher humidity favours the adhesion of API on the carrier and decreases the FPF.

  9. Dry powder inhalers: mechanistic evaluation of lactose formulations containing salbutamol sulphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaialy, Waseem; Ticehurst, Martyn; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2012-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between physicochemical properties and aerosolisation performance of different grades of lactose. In order to get a wide range of physicochemical properties, various grades of lactose namely Flowlac 100 (FLO), Lactopress anhydrous 250 (LAC), Cellactose 80 (CEL), Tablettose 80 (TAB), and Granulac 200 (GRA) were used. The different lactose grades were carefully sieved to separate 63-90 μm particle size fractions and then characterised in terms of size, shape, density, flowability, and solid state. Formulations were prepared by blending each lactose with salbutamol sulphate (SS) at ratio of 67.5:1 (w/w), and then evaluated in terms of SS content uniformity, lactose-SS adhesion properties, and in vitro aerosolisation performance delivered from the Aerolizer. Sieved lactose grades showed similar particle size distributions (PSDs) and good flow properties but different particle shape, particle surface texture, and particle solid state. Content uniformity assessments indicated that lactose particles with rougher surface produced improved SS homogeneity within DPI formulation powders. Lactose-SS adhesion assessments indicated that lactose particles with more elongated shape and the rougher surface showed smaller adhesion force between lactose and salbutamol sulphate. Lactose powders with higher bulk density and higher tap density produced smaller emission (EM) and higher drug loss (DL) of SS. In vitro aerosolisation for various lactose grades followed the following rank order in terms of deposition performance: GRA>TAB>LAC ≈ CEL>FLO. Linear relationships were established showing that in order to maximize SS delivery to lower airway regions, lactose particles with more elongated shape, more irregular shape, and rougher surface are preferred. Therefore, considerable improvement in DPI performance can be achieved by careful selection of grade of lactose included within DPI formulations.

  10. Multivariate Analysis of Effects of Asthmatic Patient Respiratory Profiles on the In Vitro Performance of a Reservoir Multidose and a Capsule-Based Dry Powder Inhaler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttini, Francesca; Pasquali, Irene; Brambilla, Gaetano; Copelli, Diego; Alberi, Massimiliano Dagli; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Bettini, Ruggero; Sisti, Viviana

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of two different dry powder inhalers, of the NGI induction port and Alberta throat and of the actual inspiratory profiles of asthmatic patients on in-vitro drug inhalation performances. The two devices considered were a reservoir multidose and a capsule-based inhaler. The formulation used to test the inhalers was a combination of formoterol fumarate and beclomethasone dipropionate. A breath simulator was used to mimic inhalatory patterns previously determined in vivo. A multivariate approach was adopted to estimate the significance of the effect of the investigated variables in the explored domain. Breath simulator was a useful tool to mimic in vitro the in vivo inspiratory profiles of asthmatic patients. The type of throat coupled with the impactor did not affect the aerodynamic distribution of the investigated formulation. However, the type of inhaler and inspiratory profiles affected the respirable dose of drugs. The multivariate statistical approach demonstrated that the multidose inhaler, released efficiently a high fine particle mass independently from the inspiratory profiles adopted. Differently, the single dose capsule inhaler, showed a significant decrease of fine particle mass of both drugs when the device was activated using the minimum inspiratory volume (592 mL).

  11. Defining the critical material attributes of lactose monohydrate in carrier based dry powder inhaler formulations using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Hanne; Hebbink, Gerald; Peters, Harry; Shur, Jagdeep; Price, Robert

    2014-08-01

    The study aimed to establish a function-based relationship between the physical and bulk properties of pre-blended mixtures of fine and coarse lactose grades with the in vitro performance of an adhesive active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Different grades of micronised and milled lactose (Lactohale (LH) LH300, LH230, LH210 and Sorbolac 400) were pre-blended with coarse grades of lactose (LH100, LH206 and Respitose SV010) at concentrations of 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 wt.%. The bulk and rheological properties and particle size distributions were characterised. The pre-blends were formulated with micronised budesonide and in vitro performance in a Cyclohaler device tested using a next-generation impactor (NGI) at 90 l/min. Correlations between the lactose properties and in vitro performance were established using linear regression and artificial neural network (ANN) analyses. The addition of milled and micronised lactose fines with the coarse lactose had a significant influence on physical and rheological properties of the bulk lactose. Formulations of the different pre-blends with budesonide directly influenced in vitro performance attributes including fine particle fraction, mass median aerodynamic diameter and pre-separator deposition. While linear regression suggested a number of physical and bulk properties may influence in vitro performance, ANN analysis suggested the critical parameters in describing in vitro deposition patterns were the relative concentrations of lactose fines % < 4.5 μm and % < 15 μm. These data suggest that, for an adhesive API, the proportion of fine particles below % < 4.5 μm and % < 15 μm could be used in rational dry powder inhaler formulation design.

  12. Design, characterization, and aerosolization of organic solution advanced spray-dried moxifloxacin and ofloxacin dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders for pulmonary inhalation aerosol delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Jinghua Duan,1,2 Frederick G Vogt,3 Xiaojian Li,1 Don Hayes Jr,4,5 Heidi M Mansour6 1University of Kentucky College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences – Drug Development Division, Lexington, KY, USA; 2University of Washington-Seattle, College of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutics, Seattle, WA, USA; 3GlaxoSmithKline, Analytical Sciences, Product Development, King of Prussia, PA, USA; 4The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Departments of Pediatrics and Internal Medicine, Nationwide Children's Hospital Lung and Heart-Lung Transplant Programs, Columbus, OH, USA; 5The Ohio State University, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, Columbus, OH, USA; 6The University of Arizona–Tucson, College of Pharmacy, Skaggs Center of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tucson, AZ, USA Abstract: The aim of this study was to design and develop respirable antibiotics moxifloxacin (MOXI hydrochloride and ofloxacin (OFLX microparticles and nanoparticles, and multifunctional antibiotics particles with or without lung surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery as a pulmonary nanomedicine. Particles were rationally designed and produced by advanced spray-drying particle engineering from an organic solution in closed mode (no water from dilute solution. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that these particles had both optimal particle morphology and surface morphology, and the particle size distributions were suitable for pulmonary delivery. Comprehensive and systematic physicochemical characterization and in vitro aerosol dispersion performance revealed significant differences between these two fluoroquinolone antibiotics following spray drying as drug aerosols and as cospray-dried antibiotic drug: DPPC aerosols. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confocal Raman microspectroscopy were employed to probe composition and interactions in the solid state. Spray-dried MOXI was

  13. 干粉吸入剂空气动力学分散模型的建立和验证%Development and Validation of a Dry Powder Inhalation Aerodynamic Dispersion Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜力群; 汤玥; 鲁锡峰; 陈西敬; 朱家壁

    2011-01-01

    在Weiler干粉粒子聚集体全分散理论模型基础上,以硫酸沙丁胺醇为模型药物,建立了一种更加深入的千粉吸入剂空气动力学分散模型.硫酸沙丁胺醇干粉吸入剂体外沉积试验表明,该模型可预测干粉粒子的空气动力学分散行为,并可结合计算流体动力学,估算干粉吸入剂在吸入装置中的分散及微细粒子分数.%An improved dry powder inhalation aerodynamic dispersion model was developed based on the model introduced by Weiler for describing the complete disintegration of dry powder clusters with salbutamol sulfate as the model drug. The results of in vitro deposition experiments of salbutamol sulfate dry powder inhalation showed that the model could predict the dry powder aerodynamic dispersion behavior and estimate the dispersion behavior of a dry powder inhalation in a dry powder inhaler device and the fine particle fraction of the inhalation combined with computational fluid dynamics.

  14. Comparison of the systemic bioavailability of mometasone furoate after oral inhalation from a mometasone furoate/formoterol fumarate metered-dose inhaler versus a mometasone furoate dry-powder inhaler in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kosoglou T

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Teddy Kosoglou,1 James Hubbell,2 Fengjuan Xuan,3 David L Cutler,1 Alan G Meehan,4 Bhavna Kantesaria,5 Bret A Wittmer6,† 1Clinical Pharmacology, 2Exploratory Drug Metabolism, 3Early Development Statistics, 4Medical Communications, 5Drug Metabolism/Pharmacokinetics, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp, Whitehouse Station, NJ, USA; 6Commonwealth Biomedical Research, LLC, Madisonville, KY, USA†Dr Bret A Wittmer passed away on May 9, 2012.Background: Coadministration of mometasone furoate (MF and formoterol fumarate (F produces additive effects for improving symptoms and lung function and reduces exacerbations in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The present study assessed the relative systemic exposure to MF and characterized the pharmacokinetics of MF and formoterol in patients with COPD.Methods: This was a single-center, randomized, open-label, multiple-dose, three-period, three-treatment crossover study. The following three treatments were self-administered by patients (n = 14 with moderate-to-severe COPD: MF 400 µg/F 10 µg via a metered-dose inhaler (MF/F MDI; DULERA®/ZENHALE® without a spacer device, MF/F MDI with a spacer, or MF 400 µg via a dry-powder inhaler (DPI; ASMANEX® TWISTHALER® twice daily for 5 days. Plasma samples for MF and formoterol assay were obtained predose and at prespecified time points after the last (morning dose on day 5 of each period of the crossover. The geometric mean ratio (GMR as a percent and the corresponding 90% confidence intervals (CI were calculated for treatment comparisons.Results: Systemic MF exposure was lower (GMR 77%; 90% CI 58, 102 following administration by MF/F MDI compared to MF DPI. Additionally, least squares geometric mean systemic exposures of MF and formoterol were lower (GMR 72%; 90% CI 61, 84 and (GMR 62%; 90% CI 52, 74, respectively, following administration by MF/F MDI in conjunction with a spacer compared to MF/F MDI without a spacer. MF/F MDI had a

  15. In vitro evaluation of novel inhalable dry powders consisting of thioridazine and rifapentine for rapid tuberculosis treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parumasivam, T; Chan, J G Y; Pang, A; Quan, D H; Triccas, J A; Britton, W J; Chan, H K

    2016-10-01

    Thioridazine is an orally administered antipsychotic drug with potential for treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). However, drug-induced adverse cardiac effects have been reported when thioridazine was used at an efficacious oral dose of 200mg/day to treat TB. Pulmonary delivery of thioridazine could be a rational approach to reduce dose-related side effects while enabling high drug concentrations at the primary site of infection. The present study compares in vitro aerosol performance, storage stability, and in vitro antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of two inhalable powders composed of thioridazine and a first-line anti-TB drug, rifapentine. Formulation 1 is a combination of amorphous thioridazine and crystalline rifapentine, while Formulation 2 consisted of both drugs as amorphous forms. Both thioridazine-rifapentine formulations were found suitable for inhalation with a total fine particle fraction (tuberculosis H37Ra and M. tuberculosis H37Rv, respectively. In contrast, thioridazine alone had a MIC90 of 12.5μg/mL and 500μg/mL, against M. tuberculosis H37Ra and M. tuberculosis H37Rv, respectively, demonstrating no synergistic anti-TB activity. However, thioridazine and rifapentine in a ratio of 1:3 enhanced the killing of M. tuberculosis H37Ra within the human monocyte-derived macrophages (THP-1) compared to the single drug treatments. Both powders showed an acceptable half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 31.25μg/mL on both THP-1 and human lung epithelial (A549) cells. However, Formulation 1 showed greater chemical stability than Formulation 2 after three months of storage under low humidity (vacuum) at 20±3°C. In conclusion, we have demonstrated a novel inhalable powder consisted of amorphous thioridazine and crystalline rifapentine (Formulation 1) with a good aerosol performance, potent anti-TB activity and storage stability, which deserves further in vivo investigations.

  16. An investigation into the effect of fine lactose particles on the fluidization behaviour and aerosolization performance of carrier-based dry powder inhaler formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Hanne; Hebbink, Gerald; Peters, Harry; Shur, Jagdeep; Price, Robert

    2014-08-01

    The effect of milled and micronized lactose fines on the fluidization and in vitro aerosolization properties of dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations was investigated, and the suitability of static and dynamic methods for characterizing general powder flow properties of these blends was assessed. Lactose carrier pre-blends were prepared by adding different lactose fines (Lactohale® (LH) 300, 230 and 210) with coarse carrier lactose (Lactohale100) at 2.5, 5, 10 and 20 wt% concentrations. Powder flow properties of lactose pre-blends were characterized using the Freeman Technology FT4 and Schulze RST-XS ring shear tester. A strong correlation was found between the basic flow energy (BFENorm) measured using the Freeman FT4 Rheometer and the flowability number (ffc) measured on Schulze RST-XS. These data indicate that both static and dynamic methods are suitable for characterizing general powder flow properties of lactose carriers. Increasing concentration of fines corresponded with an increase in the normalized fluidization energy (FENorm). The inclusion of fine particles of lactose resulted in a significant (p lactose containing up to 10 wt% LH300. A similar trend was found for the milled lactose grades LH230 and LH210. However, the increase in FENorm upon addition of milled fines only corresponded to a very slight improvement in the performance. These data suggest that whilst the fluidization energy correlated with fine particle delivery, this relationship is specific to lactose grades of similar particle size.

  17. Development and evaluation of well-tolerated and tumor-penetrating polymeric micelle-based dry powders for inhaled anti-cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosière, Rémi; Van Woensel, Matthias; Mathieu, Véronique; Langer, Ingrid; Mathivet, Thomas; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Amighi, Karim; Wauthoz, Nathalie

    2016-03-30

    Despite the direct access to the lung offered by the inhalation route, drug penetration into lung tumors could remain an important issue. In this study, folate-polyethylene glycol-hydrophobically-modified dextran (F-PEG-HMD) micelles were developed as an effective pulmonary drug delivery system to reach and penetrate lung tumors and cancer cells. The F-PEG-HMD micelles were able to enter HeLa and M109-HiFR, two folate receptor-expressing cancer cell lines, in vitro, and in vivo after administration by inhalation to orthotopic M109-HiFR lung tumor grafted mice. Paclitaxel-loaded F-PEG-HMD micelles characterized in PBS by a Z-average diameter of ∼50 nm and a zeta potential of ∼-4 mV were prepared with an encapsulation efficiency of ∼100%. The loaded micelles reduced HeLa and M109-HiFR cell growth, with half maximal inhibitory concentrations of 37 and 150 nM, respectively. Dry powders embedding the paclitaxel-loaded F-PEG-HMD micelles were developed by spray-drying. In vitro, good deposition profiles were obtained, with a fine particle fraction of up to 50% and good ability to re-disperse the micelles in physiological buffer. A polymeric micelle-based dry powder without paclitaxel was well-tolerated in vivo, as assessed in healthy mice by determination of total protein content, cell count, and cytokine IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids.

  18. Correct usage, ease of use, and preference of two dry powder inhalers in patients with COPD: analysis of five phase III, randomized trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riley JH

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available John H Riley,1 Maggie Tabberer,2 Nathalie Richard,3 Alison Donald,3 Alison Church,3 Stephanie S Harris3 1MDC Global Clinical Development – UK, GlaxoSmithKline, 2Value Evidence and Outcomes, GlaxoSmithKline, Uxbridge, Middlesex, UK; 3Respiratory Medicines Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Durham, NC, USA Background: Handheld inhalers are used to deliver treatment for COPD. Incorrect usage leads to suboptimal disease control. Complex treatment regimens and use of multiple inhalers may reduce patient compliance. The Anoro Ellipta™ dry powder inhaler (DPI simultaneously delivers umeclidinium bromide (UMEC and vilanterol (VI without coformulation being required.Aim: To assess the correct usage and ease of use of the Ellipta™ DPI administering UMEC/VI and to compare patient preference for Ellipta™ with the HandiHaler® through exploratory analyses of patient and observer questionnaires in five Phase III studies.Methods: Two Phase III, 3-month double-blind, placebo-controlled studies assessed the correct usage of the Ellipta™ DPI at Day 1 and after 6 weeks, and ease of use of the Ellipta™ DPI using a nonvalidated patient questionnaire after 6 weeks or early withdrawal. In three 6-month, blinded double-dummy, active comparator studies (two Phase IIIa and one Phase IIIb, patients completed a COPD device preference questionnaire between the Ellipta™ DPI and the HandiHaler® at Day 168 (Week 24 or early withdrawal.Results: In the 3-month placebo-controlled studies, ≥98% of patients used the Ellipta™ DPI correctly and 99% of patients found the inhaler easy/very easy-to-use and the dose counter easy/very easy to read. Across the two Phase IIIa active comparator studies, patients consistently stated a preference for the Ellipta™ DPI over HandiHaler® regarding the number of steps to use (59% vs 17%, time taken to use (62% vs 14%, and ease of use (63% vs 15% regardless of which inhaler contained active drug. Results were consistent

  19. Dose-ranging study of salmeterol using a novel fluticasone propionate/salmeterol multidose dry powder inhaler in patients with persistent asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David S; Yiu, Gloria; Hellriegel, Edward T; Steinfeld, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    New inhalation devices with improved lung delivery may allow the use of lower salmeterol doses for treatment of asthma. To determine the dose of salmeterol administered from a novel fluticasone propionate/salmeterol (FS) inhalation-driven, multidose dry powder inhaler (MDPI), which provides comparable efficacy and safety to FS dry powder inhaler (DPI). This double-blind, six-period crossover, dose-ranging study randomized 72 patients (ages ≥12 years; with persistent asthma and predose maximum forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] of 40-85% of the predicted normal) to treatment sequences (one dose per treatment), which consisted of FS MDPI 100/6.25, 100/12.5, 100/25, 100/50 μg; fluticasone propionate (Fp) MDPI 100 μg; and open-label FS DPI 100/50 μg. The primary efficacy variable was the baseline-adjusted FEV1 area under the curve over 12 hours after the dose (AUC0-12). Pharmacokinetics and tolerability were also assessed. FEV1 AUC0-12 was significantly higher with all FS MDPI doses and FS DPI versus Fp MDPI (p < 0.0001), and with FS MDPI 100/50 μg versus FS DPI (least squares [LS] mean, 57.88 mL; p = 0.0017). FEV1 AUC0-12 trended toward higher efficacy with FS MDPI 100/25 μg (LS mean, 34.14 mL; p = 0.0624) and was comparable with FS MDPI 100/12.5 μg (LS mean, 3.42 mL; p = 0.8503) versus FS DPI. Salmeterol area under the plasma concentration-versus-time curve from time 0 to the time of the last measurable concentration (AUC0-t) for FS MDPI 100/12.5 μg and 100/25 μg was lower versus FS DPI 100/50 μg; AUC0-t for FS MDPI 100/50 μg was higher than FS DPI 100/50 μg. All FS MDPI doses were generally well tolerated. All FS MDPI doses produced greater efficacy versus Fp MDPI. FS MDPI 100/12.5 μg demonstrated similar efficacy to FS DPI 100/50 μg with less salmeterol exposure. Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02139644, NCT02175771, and NCT02141854.

  20. Supercritical CO2-Assisted Spray Drying of Strawberry-Like Gold-Coated Magnetite Nanocomposites in Chitosan Powders for Inhalation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Therefore, it is of extreme importance to develop new systems that can deliver anticancer drugs into the site of action when initiating a treatment. Recently, the use of nanotechnology and particle engineering has enabled the development of new drug delivery platforms for pulmonary delivery. In this work, POXylated strawberry-like gold-coated magnetite nanocomposites and ibuprofen (IBP were encapsulated into a chitosan matrix using Supercritical Assisted Spray Drying (SASD. The dry powder formulations showed adequate morphology and aerodynamic performances (fine particle fraction 48%–55% and aerodynamic diameter of 2.6–2.8 µm for deep lung deposition through the pulmonary route. Moreover, the release kinetics of IBP was also investigated showing a faster release of the drug at pH 6.8, the pH of lung cancer. POXylated strawberry-like gold-coated magnetite nanocomposites proved to have suitable sizes for cellular internalization and their fluorescent capabilities enable their future use in in vitro cell based assays. As a proof-of-concept, the reported results show that these nano-in-micro formulations could be potential drug vehicles for pulmonary administration.

  1. Benefit of hospital pharmacy intervention on the current status of dry powder inhaler technique in patients with asthma and COPD: a study from the Central Development Region, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poudel RS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramesh Sharma Poudel,1 Rano Mal Piryani,2 Shakti Shrestha,3 Aastha Prajapati1 1Hospital Pharmacy, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, 3Department of Pharmacy, Shree Medical and Technical College, Chitwan, Nepal Background: The majority of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have been known to perform inhaler technique inadequately. We aimed to evaluate the benefit of hospital pharmacy intervention on the current status of dry powder inhaler (Rotahaler® technique in such patients and the factors associated with the correct use. Methods: A pre–post interventional study was conducted at the outpatient pharmacy in a teaching hospital of the Central Development Region, Nepal, in patients with asthma and COPD currently using a Rotahaler device. Patients’ demographics and Rotahaler technique were assessed before intervention. Those who failed to demonstrate the correct technique were educated and trained by the pharmacist, and their technique was reassessed after 2 weeks of intervention. Descriptive statistics, including Wilcoxon signed rank test, Mann–Whitney U test, Spearman’s correlations and Kruskal–Wallis test, were performed for statistical analysis. Results: Before intervention, only 5.7% (10 of 174 of the patients demonstrated the correct Rotahaler technique and the most common errors observed were failure to breathe out gently before inhalation (98.8% and failure to hold breath for about 10 seconds after inhalation (84.8%. After the intervention (n=164, 67.1% of the patients showed their technique correctly (p≤0.001 and failure to breathe out gently before inhalation was the most common error (27.44%. Age (p=0.003, previous instruction (p=0.007, patient’s education level (p=0.013 and source of instruction (p<0.001 were associated with an appropriate technique before intervention, while age (p=0.024, duration of therapy (p=0.010 and gender (p=0.008 were

  2. The RESPIRE trials: Two phase III, randomized, multicentre, placebo-controlled trials of Ciprofloxacin Dry Powder for Inhalation (Ciprofloxacin DPI) in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksamit, Timothy; Bandel, Tiemo-Joerg; Criollo, Margarita; De Soyza, Anthony; Elborn, J Stuart; Operschall, Elisabeth; Polverino, Eva; Roth, Katrin; Winthrop, Kevin L; Wilson, Robert

    2017-07-01

    The primary goals of long-term disease management in non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis (NCFB) are to reduce the number of exacerbations, and improve quality of life. However, currently no therapies are licensed for this. Ciprofloxacin Dry Powder for Inhalation (Ciprofloxacin DPI) has potential to be the first long-term intermittent therapy approved to reduce exacerbations in NCFB patients. The RESPIRE programme consists of two international phase III prospective, parallel-group, randomized, double-blinded, multicentre, placebo-controlled trials of the same design. Adult patients with idiopathic or post-infectious NCFB, a history of ≥2 exacerbations in the previous 12months, and positive sputum culture for one of seven pre-specified pathogens, undergo stratified randomization 2:1 to receive twice-daily Ciprofloxacin DPI 32.5mg or placebo using a pocket-sized inhaler in one of two regimens: 28days on/off treatment or 14days on/off treatment. The treatment period is 48weeks plus an 8-week follow-up after the last dose. The primary efficacy endpoints are time to first exacerbation after treatment initiation and frequency of exacerbations using a stringent definition of exacerbation. Secondary endpoints, including frequency of events using different exacerbation definitions, microbiology, quality of life and lung function will also be evaluated. The RESPIRE trials will determine the efficacy and safety of Ciprofloxacin DPI. The strict entry criteria and stratified randomization, the inclusion of two treatment regimens and a stringent definition of exacerbation should clarify the patient population best positioned to benefit from long-term inhaled antibiotic therapy. Additionally RESPIRE will increase understanding of NCFB treatment and could lead to an important new therapy for sufferers. The RESPIRE trials are registered in ClinicalTrials.gov, ID number NCT01764841 (RESPIRE 1; date of registration January 8, 2013) and NCT02106832 (RESPIRE 2; date of registration

  3. Safety and pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin dry powder for inhalation in cystic fibrosis: a phase I, randomized, single-dose, dose-escalation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stass, Heino; Delesen, Heinz; Nagelschmitz, Johannes; Staab, Doris

    2015-04-01

    Reliable, reproducible deposition to the lung is a major prerequisite for the clinical use of inhaled drugs. Ciprofloxacin dry powder for inhalation (ciprofloxacin DPI; Bayer HealthCare AG, Leverkusen, Germany) is an antibacterial therapy in development using Novartis' PulmoSphere™ technology (Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland) for the targeted delivery of ciprofloxacin to the lung via a T-326 inhaler. This randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation study investigated the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of single-dose ciprofloxacin DPI (32.5 mg [n=6] or 65 mg [n=6]) and matching placebo (n=4) in adult patients with cystic fibrosis and stable pulmonary status (forced expiratory volume in 1 sec ≥30%) who were colonized with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Peak sputum concentrations of 34.9 mg/L (range 2.03-229) and 376 mg/L (8.95-1283) for ciprofloxacin 32.5 mg and 65 mg, respectively, indicated targeting of ciprofloxacin DPI to the lung. This contrasted with low systemic exposure (peak plasma concentrations: 0.0790 mg/L [32.5 mg] and 0.182 mg/L [65 mg]). Single-dose ciprofloxacin DPI 32.5 mg or 65 mg was well tolerated with similar incidences of adverse events across all groups. No deaths, discontinuations, treatment-related serious adverse events, or clinically relevant changes in laboratory parameters, vital signs, or lung function tests were reported. Lung targeting with high pulmonary concentrations of ciprofloxacin combined with low systemic exposure was confirmed. These results support further study of ciprofloxacin DPI as a potentially more convenient alternative to nebulized antibiotic solutions for managing chronic lung infections.

  4. Inhaladores de polvo seco para el tratamiento de las enfermedades respiratorias: Parte I Dry powder inhalers for the treatment of respiratory diseases: Part I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Muñoz Cernada

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta una revisión acerca de la tecnología de los inhaladores de polvo seco (IPS empleados para el tratamiento de las enfermedades respiratorias entre las que se destaca el asma bronquial y la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC. Los IPS comenzaron su desarrollo en la década de los 70 y se han reactualizado en años recientes como una alternativa de sustitución de los inhaladores de dosis metrada con clorofluocarbono (CFC. Se describen los antecedentes de esta tecnología, se mencionan las características físico-químicas principales de este tipo de formulación, así como los factores que influyen en la desagregación y dispersión de los polvos. Por último, se menciona la técnica empleada actualmente en el desarrollo de un nuevo prototipo de IPS que permite optimizar los mecanismos de fluidización para lograr una dosificación altamente reproducibleA review of the dry powder inhalers (DPI technology used to treat respiratory diseases, such as bronchial asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, was made. The DPIs began to be developed in the 70's and they have been reupdated recently as a replacement alternative of metered-dose inhalers with chlorofluorocarbon (CFC. The history of this technology is dealt with, the main physicochemical characteristics of this type of formulation are described, and the factors influencing on the disaggregation and dispersion of the powders are mentioned. Finally, the technique used at present in the development of a new prototype of DPI that allows to optimize the fluidization mechanisms to attain a highly reproducible dosage is approached

  5. Inhalation characteristics and their effects on in vitro drug delivery from dry powder inhalers .1. Inhalation characteristics, work of breathing and volunteers' preference in dependence of the inhaler resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    deBoer, AH; Winter, H.M.I.; Lerk, CF

    1996-01-01

    A test inhaler with exchangeable air flow resistances encompassing the range of commercial DPIs has been used to study the inspiratory flow curves of 39 healthy adult volunteers. A strong increase in mean Peak Inspiratory Flow Rate (PIFR) has been obtained with decreasing inhaler resistance, varying

  6. Clinical effect of Diskus dry-powder inhaler at low and high inspiratory flow-rates in asthmatic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Auk, I L; Bojsen, K

    1998-01-01

    In vitro studies with the Diskus inhaler at low and high flow rates show consistent doses of drug as fine particles ... at low (30 L x min[-1]) and high (90 L x min[-1]) flow rates. A pilot study in 129 children aged 3-10 yrs demonstrated that 99% of children of 3 yrs and above can generate a flow > or = 30 L x min(-1) through the device, while 26% performed > or = 90 L x min(-1). Eighteen children aged 8-15 yrs...... with exercise induced asthma inhaled placebo or salmeterol 50 microg at either 30 L x min(-1) or 90 L x min(-1). Exercise challenges were carried out 1 h and 12 h after dosing. The maximum percentage fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEVI) after exercise 12 h after treatment was significantly less...

  7. Extrinsic lactose fines improve dry powder inhaler formulation performance of a cohesive batch of budesonide via agglomerate formation and consequential co-deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinnunen, Hanne; Hebbink, Gerald; Peters, Harry; Huck, Deborah; Makein, Lisa; Price, Robert

    2015-01-15

    The aim of the study was to investigate how the fine particle content of lactose carriers prepared with different types of lactose fines regulates dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation performance of a cohesive batch of micronised budesonide. Budesonide formulations (0.8 wt%) were prepared with three different lactose carriers (Lactohale (LH) LH100, 20 wt% LH210 in LH100 and 20 wt% LH300 in LH100). Fine particle fraction of emitted dose (FPFED) and mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of budesonide was assessed with a Next Generation Impactor (NGI) using a Cyclohaler at 90 l/min. Morphological and chemical characteristics of particles deposited on Stage 2 were determined using a Malvern Morphologi G3-ID. The results indicate that increasing concentration of lactose fines (lactose particles were available the more agglomerates of budesonide and lactose were delivered to Stage 2. These results suggest drug-fines agglomerate formation is an important mechanism for how lactose fines improve and regulate DPI formulation performance.

  8. Three-dimensional DEM-CFD analysis of air-flow-induced detachment of API particles from carrier particles in dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiecheng; Wu, Chuan-Yu; Adams, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Air flow and particle-particle/wall impacts are considered as two primary dispersion mechanisms for dry powder inhalers (DPIs). Hence, an understanding of these mechanisms is critical for the development of DPIs. In this study, a coupled DEM-CFD (discrete element method-computational fluid dynamics) is employed to investigate the influence of air flow on the dispersion performance of the carrier-based DPI formulations. A carrier-based agglomerate is initially formed and then dispersed in a uniformed air flow. It is found that air flow can drag API particles away from the carrier and those in the downstream air flow regions are prone to be dispersed. Furthermore, the influence of the air velocity and work of adhesion are also examined. It is shown that the dispersion number (i.e., the number of API particles detached from the carrier) increases with increasing air velocity, and decreases with increasing the work of adhesion, indicating that the DPI performance is controlled by the balance of the removal and adhesive forces. It is also shown that the cumulative Weibull distribution function can be used to describe the DPI performance, which is governed by the ratio of the fluid drag force to the pull-off force.

  9. Investigation into the influence of primary crystallization conditions on the mechanical properties and secondary processing behaviour of fluticasone propionate for carrier based dry powder inhaler formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubavat, Harshal A; Shur, Jagdeep; Ruecroft, Graham; Hipkiss, David; Price, Robert

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the influence of primary crystallization conditions on the mechanical properties and secondary processing behaviour of fluticasone propionate (FP) for carrier based dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations. Young's modulus of FP crystals produced using different anti-solvents was determined using nanoindentation. Physicochemical and surface interfacial properties via the cohesive-adhesive balance (CAB) approach to colloid probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) of air-jet micronised FP crystals were investigated. These data were correlated to in vitro aerosolization performance of binary and combination DPI formulations containing salmeterol xinafoate (SX). Young's modulus of FP crystals produced using different anti-solvents ranged from 0.6-12.4 GPa. Crystals with low Young's modulus required multiple passes in the microniser to reduce the particle size to less than 5 μm, whilst those with the highest Young's modulus required a single pass. CAB of micronized FP samples was similar with respect to lactose, however, their adhesive affinity to SX varied. Samples of FP with greatest adhesion to SX produced greater fine particle delivery of SX in combination DPI formulations. Crystallisation conditions may affect the mechanical properties of FP, and therefore secondary processing of the material and their interfacial properties and product performance in carrier based DPI formulations.

  10. Bronchodilation and bronchoprotection in asthmatic preschool children from formoterol administered by mechanically actuated dry-powder inhaler and spacer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K G; Bisgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    resistance (sRaw) in a whole body plethysmograph. Hyperventilation of cold, dry air was used as bronchial challenge, and the responsiveness was estimated as change in sRaw. The bronchoprotective effect of formoterol Turbohaler 9 microg was compared with salbutamol 200 microg and placebo at 15 min, 4 and 8 h...

  11. Simple and scalable method for peptide inhalable powder production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoubben, Aurélie; Blasi, Paolo; Giovagnoli, Stefano; Ricci, Maurizio; Rossi, Carlo

    2010-01-31

    The aim of this work was to produce capreomycin dry powder and capreomycin loaded PLGA microparticles intended for tuberculosis inhalation therapy, using simple and scalable methods. Capreomycin physico-chemical characteristics have been modified by hydrophobic ion pairing with oleate. The powder suspension was processed by high pressure homogenization and spray-dried. Spray-drying was also used to prepare capreomycin oleate (CO) loaded PLGA microparticles. CO powder was suspended in the organic phase containing PLGA and the suspension was spray-dried. Particle dimensions were determined using photon correlation spectroscopy and Accusizer C770. Morphology was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and capreomycin content by spectrophotometry. Capreomycin properties were modified to increase polymeric microparticle content and obtain respirable CO powder. High pressure homogenization allowed to reduce CO particle dimensions obtaining a population in the micrometric (6.18 microm) and one in the nanometric (approximately 317 nm) range. SEM pictures showed not perfectly spherical particles with a wrinkled surface, generally suitable for inhalation. PLGA particles were characterized by a high encapsulation efficiency (about 90%) and dimensions (approximately 6.69 microm) suitable for inhalation. Concluding, two different formulations were successfully developed for capreomycin pulmonary delivery. The hydrophobic ion pair strategy led to a noticeable drug content increase.

  12. Tailored Antibiotic Combination Powders for Inhaled Rotational Antibiotic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sie Huey; Teo, Jeanette; Heng, Desmond; Ng, Wai Kiong; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Reginald B H

    2016-04-01

    Respiratory lung infections due to multidrug-resistant (MDR) superbugs are on a global upsurge and have very grim clinical outcomes. Their MDR profile makes therapeutic options extremely limited. Although a highly toxic antibiotic, colistin, is favored today as a "last-line" therapeutic against these hard-to-treat MDR pathogens, it is fast losing its effectiveness. This work therefore seeks to identify and tailor-make useful combination regimens (that are potentially rotatable and synergistic) as attractive alternative strategies to address the rising rates of drug resistance. Three potentially rotatable ternary dry powder inhaler constructs (each involving colistin and 2 other different-classed antibiotics chosen from rifampicin, meropenem, and tigecycline) were identified (with distinct complementary killing mechanisms), coformulated via spray drying, evaluated on their aerosol performance using a Next-Generation Impactor and tested for their efficacies against a number of MDR pathogens. The powder particles were of respirable size (d50, 3.1 ± 0.3 μm-3.4 ± 0.1 μm) and predominantly crumpled in morphology. When dispersed via a model dry powder inhaler (Aerolizer(®)) at 60 L/min, the powders showed concomitant in vitro deposition with fine particle fractions of ∼53%-70%. All formulations were successfully tested in the laboratory to be highly effective against the MDR pathogens. In addition, a favorable synergistic interaction was detected across all 3 formulations when tested against MDR Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  13. Liposomal dry powders as aerosols for pulmonary delivery of proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Dongmei; Hickey, Anthony J.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop liposomal dry powder aerosols for protein delivery. The delivery of stable protein formulations is essential for protein subunit vaccine delivery, which requires local delivery to macrophages in the lungs. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) was used as a model protein to evaluate dry powder liposomes as inhaled delivery vehicles. Dimyristoyl phosphatylcholine:cholesterol (7∶3) was selected as the liposome composition. The lyophilization of liposomes, micronizati...

  14. Dry powder platform for pulmonary drug delivery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Derek Ivan Daniher; Jesse Zhu

    2008-01-01

    The phenomenon of particle interaction involved in pulmonary drug delivery belongs to a wide variety of disciplines of particle technology, in particular, fluidization. This paper reviews the basic concepts of pulmonary drug delivery with references to fluidization research, in particular, studies on Geldart group C powders. Dry powder inhaler device-formulation combination has been shown to be an effective method for delivering drugs to the lung for treatment of asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis. Even with advanced designs, however, delivery efficiency is still poor mainly due to powder dispersion problems which cause poor lung deposition and high dose variability. Drug particles used in current inhalers must be 1-5 μm in diameter for effective deposition in small-diameter airways and alveoli. These powders are very cohesive, have poor flowability, and are difficult to disperse into aerosol due to cohesion arising from van tier Waals attraction. These problems are well known in fluidization research, much of which is highly relevant to pulmonary drug delivery.

  15. Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

  16. Risk Assessment of Baby Powder Exposure through Inhalation

    OpenAIRE

    Moon, Min Chaul; Park, Jung Duck; Choi, Byung Soon; Park, So Young; Kim, Dong Won; Chung, Yong Hyun; HISANAGA, Naomi; Yu, Il Je

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the exposure risk through inhalation to baby powder for babies and adults under simulated conditions. Baby powder was applied to a baby doll and the amount of baby powder consumed per application was estimated. The airborne exposure to baby powder during application was then evaluated by sampling the airborne baby powder near the breathing zones of both the baby doll and the person applying the powder (the applicator). The average amount of baby powder consu...

  17. Liposomal dry powders as aerosols for pulmonary delivery of proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dongmei; Hickey, Anthony J

    2005-12-21

    The purpose of this research was to develop liposomal dry powder aerosols for protein delivery. The delivery of stable protein formulations is essential for protein subunit vaccine delivery, which requires local delivery to macrophages in the lungs. Beta-glucuronidase (GUS) was used as a model protein to evaluate dry powder liposomes as inhaled delivery vehicles. Dimyristoyl phosphatylcholine:cholesterol (7:3) was selected as the liposome composition. The lyophilization of liposomes, micronization of the powders, aerosolization using a dry powder inhaler (DPI), and in vitro aerodynamic fine particle fraction upon collection in a twin-stage liquid impinger were evaluated. After lyophilization and jet-milling, the total amount of GUS and its activity, representing encapsulation efficiency and stability, were evaluated. The GUS amount and activity were measured and compared with freshly-prepared liposomes in the presence of mannitol, 43% of initial GUS amount, 29% of GUS activity after lyophilization and 36% of GUS amount, 22% of activity after micronization were obtained. Emitted doses from dry powder inhaler were 53%, 58%, 66%, and 73% for liposome powder:mannitol carrier ratios of 1:0, 1:4, 1:9, and 1:19. Fifteen percent of the liposome particles were less than 6.4 mum in aerodynamic diameter. The results demonstrate that milled liposome powders containing protein molecules can be aerosolized effectively at a fixed flow rate. Influences of different cryoprotectants on lyophilization of protein liposome formulations are reported. The feasibility of using liposomal dry powder aerosols for protein delivery has been demonstrated but further optimization is required in the context of specific therapeutic proteins.

  18. Recent advances in liposomal dry powder formulations: preparation and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Ambikanandan; Jinturkar, Kaustubh; Patel, Deepa; Lalani, Jigar; Chougule, Mahavir

    2009-01-01

    Liposomal drug dry powder formulations have shown many promising features for pulmonary drug administration, such as selective localization of drug within the lung, controlled drug release, reduced local and systemic toxicities, propellant-free nature, patient compliance, high dose carrying capacity, stability and patent protection. Critical review of the recent developments will provide a balanced view on benefits of liposomal encapsulation while developing dry powder formulations and will help researchers to update themselves and focus their research in more relevant areas. In liposomal dry powder formulations (LDPF), drug encapsulated liposomes are homogenized, dispersed into the carrier and converted into dry powder form by using freeze drying, spray drying and spray freeze drying. Alternatively, LDPF can also be formulated by supercritical fluid technologies. On inhalation with a suitable inhalation device, drug encapsulated liposomes get rehydrated in the lung and release the drug over a period of time. The prepared LDPF are evaluated in vitro and in vivo for lung deposition behavior and drug disposition in the lung using a suitable inhaler device. The most commonly used liposomes are composed of lung surfactants and synthetic lipids. Delivery of anticancer agents for lung cancer, corticosteroids for asthma, immunosuppressants for avoiding lung transplantation rejection, antifungal drugs for lung fungal infections, antibiotics for local pulmonary infections and cystic fibrosis and opioid analgesics for pain management using liposome technology are a few examples. Many liposomal formulations have reached the stage of clinical trials for the treatment of pulmonary distress, cystic fibrosis, lung fungal infection and lung cancer. These formulations have given very promising results in both in vitro and in vivo studies. However, modifications to new therapies for respiratory diseases and systemic delivery will provide new challenges in conducting well

  19. Inhalation of baby talc powder by hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, A.P.; Zwicker, G.M.; Cannon, W.C.; Watson, C.R.

    1975-01-01

    Groups of 50 male and 50 female Syrian golden hamsters are being exposed to baby talc powder aerosol 3 min/day, 30 min/day, and 150 min/day, respectively, for 30 exposure days, and for 30 min/day and 150 min/day, respectively, for 300 exposure days. Mean total aerosol concentration is approximately 28 ..mu..g/l, mean respirable fraction of the aerosol is approximately 8 ..mu..g/l. Two groups of 25 male and 25 female control hamsters are receiving sham exposures 150 min/day for 30 and 300 exposure days, respectively. After the 30- and 300-day exposures the hamsters are being maintained for life span observations. At death, lung, trachea, larynx, liver, kidneys, adrenals, heart, stomach, ovaries and uterus, or testicles, and tissues showing gross lesions, are collected for histopathologic examination. Evaluative criteria are histopathologic findings, life span and body weights. Experimental data and results are incomplete at this time. Final results will be available by spring 1975. Preliminary pathologic evaluation indicates that systemic amyloidosis is the major cause of death in the exposed as well as in the control animals. Kidneys, adrenal glands, and liver are most frequently involved. Inhalation of baby talc powder has caused no obvious pulmonary lesions and no decreased life span in the exposed hamsters evaluated to date as compared with their controls.

  20. Tobramycin inhalation powder (TOBI Podhaler) for the treatment of lung infection in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Espinosa, E; Marcos, C; Alonso, T; Giron, R M; Gomez-Punter, R M; Garcia-Castillo, E; Zamora, E; Cisneros, C; Garcia, J; Valenzuela, C; Ancochea, J

    2016-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive inherited disease secondary to a defect in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). Mortality in CF is associated with impairment of lung function in which bacterial infection plays a fundamental role. The microorganism Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a marker of poor prognosis. Tobramycin was the first parenteral antibiotic to be used as inhaled medication in CF. Owing to its beneficial effects; it was subsequently used in designed inhaled formulations. The first formulation was the inhalation solution, which improved lung function, lowered hospitalization rates, and reduced the courses of intravenous antibiotic. However, the high associated costs and time necessary to administer the medication negatively affected quality of life. The recent development of tobramycin inhalation powder has optimized treatment. The dry powder inhaler is a simple device that reduces administration time and improves adherence. As there is no risk of bacterial contamination, disinfection is unnecessary.

  1. Inhaled Surfactant in the treatment of accidental Talc Powder inhalation: a new case report

    OpenAIRE

    Lo Piparo Caterina; Vitulo Patrizio; Maggio Maria; Collura Mirella; Matina Federico; Corsello Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the bene...

  2. Thermoplastic dry polymer powder prepregging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucher, R.A.; Loos, A.C.; Meyer, G. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    Thermoplastic resin systems have shown potential for reducing the manufacturing costs and improving the damage tolerance of composite structures. Current methods for thermoplastic resin impregnation of fiber bundles are limited by various difficulties and thus produce poor quality prepregs. The emerging technology of fiber is one of the most promising options, producing excellent matrix drape, and feasibility for a wide variety of matrix systems. An electrostatic dry polymer powder prepregging system was developed at the NSF Science and Technology Center at Virginia Tech, and has been used to produce high quality thermoplastic towpreg from a wide variety o polymer matrices. Additionally, a modification of the system allows for the production of towpreg from 15 gram polymer samples. This is ideal for the production of composites from resin systems under development, allowing early feedback concerning processing and composite mechanical performance.

  3. 应用PDCA管理模式对患者掌握干粉吸入剂使用方法效果研究%Application of PDCA Management Model for Patients With Dry Powder Inhaler Use Effect of Master

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王华; 陈峰恩; 王艳丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective Exploration in the PDCA management mode patients to master the use of a dry powder inhaler effect. Methods Dividing 100 patients into control group and observation group randomly. The control group only received traditional education by health-care professions. For the observation group, patients not only received traditional education, but also received the full follow-up treatment by clinical pharmacist which is using PDCA model. The PDCA model is consisting of plan(P), do(D), check(C), action(A).Results Tracking education stepped up outside the hospital's patient medication guide, to make up for lack of education in community hospital medicine. Medication compliance of patients in the observation group, medication rationality than the control group.The incidence of adverse reactions were lower than the control group.Conclusion The medication education under the mode of PDCA is more effective, the patients of dry powder inhaler master is more reasonable.%目的:探索在PDCA管理模式下患者掌握干粉吸入剂使用方法效果。方法将100名患者随机分为两组,对照组由医护人员进行传统用药教育,观察组在对照组基础上联合临床药师PDCA模式下(包括P制定计划,D实施工作,C检查成效,A整改处理)院内、院外用药教育。结果观察组患者用药依从性、用药合理性优于对照组,不良反应发生率低于对照组,治疗满意率提高。结论采用PDCA模式下用药教育更加有效,使患者对干粉吸入剂掌握更合理。

  4. Comparison of the cohesion-adhesion balance approach to colloidal probe atomic force microscopy and the measurement of Hansen partial solubility parameters by inverse gas chromatography for the prediction of dry powder inhalation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Matthew D; Buckton, Graham

    2016-07-25

    The abilities of the cohesive-adhesive balance approach to atomic force microscopy (AFM) and the measurement of Hansen partial solubility parameters by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) to predict the performance of carrier-based dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations were compared. Five model drugs (beclometasone dipropionate, budesonide, salbutamol sulphate, terbutaline sulphate and triamcinolone acetonide) and three model carriers (erythritol, α-lactose monohydrate and d-mannitol) were chosen, giving fifteen drug-carrier combinations. Comparison of the AFM and IGC interparticulate adhesion data suggested that they did not produce equivalent results. Comparison of the AFM data with the in vitro fine particle delivery of appropriate DPI formulations normalised to account for particle size differences revealed a previously observed pattern for the AFM measurements, with a slightly cohesive AFM CAB ratio being associated with the highest fine particle fraction. However, no consistent relationship between formulation performance and the IGC data was observed. The results as a whole highlight the complexity of the many interacting variables that can affect the behaviour of DPIs and suggest that the prediction of their performance from a single measurement is unlikely to be successful in every case.

  5. Long-term safety of Mometasone Furoate administered via a dry powder inhaler in children: Results of an open-label study comparing Mometasone Furoate with Beclomethasone Dipropionate in children with persistent asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corren Jonathan

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the long-term pediatric safety of 2 doses of mometasone furoate administered via a dry powder inhaler (MF-DPI for mild-to-moderate persistent asthma and compare them with that of beclomethasone dipropionate administered via a metered dose inhaler (BDP-MDI in the treatment of persistent asthma. Both MF-DPI doses tested are twice the approved pediatric dosage of 100 μg once-daily (QD for children aged 4–11 years. Methods Children (N = 233 aged 4–11 years were randomized to 52 weeks of treatment with MF-DPI 200 μg QD AM, MF-DPI 100 μg twice daily (BID, or BDP-MDI 168 μg BID. Patients had used inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs daily for ≥ 30 days before the screening visit and were on stable ICS doses for ≥ 2 weeks before screening. The primary safety variable was the incidence of adverse events. Secondary safety variables were laboratory tests (including cortisol concentrations, vital signs, and physical examination. Results The incidence of adverse events was similar in all 3 treatment groups. The most frequently reported adverse event was upper respiratory tract infection, reported by 47%–49% of the MF-DPI-treated patients and 51% of the BPD-treated patients. Most adverse events were considered unrelated to study drug. The most frequently reported related adverse events were headache (MF-DPI 200 μg QD AM, 8%; MF-DPI 100 μg BID, 4%; BDP-MDI 168 μg BID, 2% and oral candidiasis (4% in each treatment group. No clinically relevant changes in laboratory values, including plasma cortisol, vital signs, or physical examinations were noted in any treatment group. Conclusion Both MF-DPI doses were well tolerated, with no unusual or unexpected adverse events or safety concerns, and had a similar adverse event profile to that of BDP-MDI 168 μg BID.

  6. Inhaled surfactant in the treatment of accidental talc powder inhalation: a new case report

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matina, Federico; Collura, Mirella; Maggio, Maria Cristina; Vitulo, Patrizio; Lo Piparo, Caterina; Corsello, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    .... Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported...

  7. Corelafion between dry powder inhalation therapy in children with asthma and asthma control effects%哮喘患儿干粉吸入疗法技术水平及其与哮喘控制情况的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡平; 张际; 黄英; 袁小平; 王倩

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand dry powder inhaler treatment technology level in children with asthma, and to explore the correlation with the disease control status. Methods: Totally 236 asthma children were investigated by the self-designed dry powder inhalation therapy technical knowledge questionnaire and children' s asthma control quality test ( C - ACT). Results: ① The overall average score of dry powder inhalation technique investigated was 2.06 ± 1.03 , which was low. ②Patients with high score of dry powder inhaler technique got an C- ACT average score 23.87 ± 1.82, which is significantly higher than that in patients with low score levels of dry powder inhaler technique(23.87 ± 1.82 vs. 16.51 ± 1.44s, p 〈 0.01 ). Conclusion: Asthmatic children' s dry powder inhalation therapy skill level was generally in a low rank. Proper dry powder inhalation technology can enhance the drug efficacy and improve anti - asthma effects significantly. It is recommended to strengthen scientific and effective dry powder inhaler technical guidance and related health education for medical workers in the future.%目的:了解哮喘患儿干粉吸人疗法技术水平,并探讨其与疾病控制情况的相关性。方法:用自制的哮喘干粉吸人疗法技术知识题及儿童哮喘控制测试(C—ACT)题对236例哮喘患儿进行调查。结果:①患儿干粉吸人疗法技术平均得分为2.06±1.03分,总体水平偏低o②干粉吸入技术水平高的患者组C—ACT平均得分为23.87±1.82分,水平低的患者组得分为16.51±1.44分,差异有统计学意义(P〈0.01)。结论:哮喘患儿的干粉吸入疗法技术水平偏低,正确使用干粉吸人技术,能显著增强药物疗效,提高哮喘控制情况,建议在今后的工作中,医务工作者应加强对患儿进行科学、有效的干粉吸人技术指导及相关健康宣教。

  8. Effect of Cholesterol on the Properties of Spray-Dried Lysozyme-Loaded Liposomal Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Charnvanich, Dusadee; Vardhanabhuti, Nontima; Kulvanich, Poj

    2010-01-01

    The influence of cholesterol (Chol) in the liposomal bilayer on the properties of inhalable protein-loaded liposomal powders prepared by spray-drying technique was investigated. Lysozyme (LSZ) was used as a model protein. Feed solution for spray drying was prepared by direct mixing of aqueous solution of LSZ with mannitol solution and empty liposome dispersions composed of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine and Chol at various molar ratios. The spray-dried powders were characterized with respec...

  9. The influence of carrier roughness on adhesion, content uniformity and the in vitro deposition of terbutaline sulphate from dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, Marie-Pierre; Leterme, Pierre; Gayot, Anne

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a correlation between carrier characteristics and the dispersibility of drug from the blend. The influence of the roughness of a commonly used carrier material, lactose monohydrate, on the adhesion, dose uniformity, and aerodynamic properties of a model drug, terbutaline sulphate was investigated. Evaluation of adhesion was carried out with a mechanical sieve and an Alpine air-jet sieve. For the characterisation of lactose roughness, we used image analysis software. Aerodynamic evaluation of fine particle dose and emitted dose was obtained using a twin stage impinger. The study with the mechanical sieve demonstrated that at least 60% of drug adheres to lactose. The Alpine air-jet sieve assays showed there was a correlation between drug separation from a carrier by sieving and that obtained from longer in vitro deposition studies. Adhesion, blend homogeneity and stability are related to the surface roughness of the lactose used as carrier. There is a linear relationship between the parameters "fine particle fraction" and "roughness". A compromise between homogeneity and drug liberation must be found: a certain roughness is necessary to allow for drug adhesion and blend homogeneity, but if too high it will prevent drug liberation after inhalation.

  10. Inhaled Surfactant in the treatment of accidental Talc Powder inhalation: a new case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Piparo Caterina

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches.

  11. Inhaled surfactant in the treatment of accidental talc powder inhalation: a new case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matina, Federico; Collura, Mirella; Maggio, Maria Cristina; Vitulo, Patrizio; Lo Piparo, Caterina; Corsello, Giovanni

    2011-09-27

    The use of talcum powder is incorrectly part of the traditional care of infants. Its acute aspiration is a very dangerous condition in childhood. Although the use of baby powder has been discouraged from many authors and the reports of its accidental inhalation have been ever more rare, sometimes new cases with several fatalities have been reported. We report on a patient in which accidental inhalation of baby powder induced severe respiratory difficulties. We also point out the benefits of surfactant administration. Surfactant contributed to the rapid improvement of the medical and radiological condition, preventing severe early and late complications and avoiding invasive approaches.

  12. Characterisation and deposition studies of engineered lactose crystals with potential for use as a carrier for aerosolised salbutamol sulfate from dry powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larhrib, Hassan; Martin, Gary P; Prime, David; Marriott, Christopher

    2003-07-01

    Lactose particles with different elongation ratio, roundness, polymorphic form and crystallinity were prepared by a one-step crystallisation process using varying ratios of acetone/water. The crystals were characterised using image analysis optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction. The elongation ratio was found to increase with increasing acetone ratio which therefore, appears to accelerate the growth in length rather than width and/or thickness. The crystallinity and polymorphic forms were also acetone-concentration dependent. For example, the crystals formed using 65-80% v/v acetone were almost all of the alpha-form whereas at 85% v/v a small amount of beta-form was precipitated, as detected by a peak at the reflection angle 2 theta=10.4 in the X-ray diffractogram. When 90% v/v acetone was incorporated a mixture of alpha- and beta-forms were produced in almost equal quantity, whereas, with 95% v/v acetone the beta-form predominated. At high acetone concentration (90 and 95% v/v), the crystallisation proceeded rapidly leading to the creation of some amorphous content. The 63-90-microm sieve cut of either commercial grade lactose (CL) or crystallised lactose was mixed with salbutamol sulfate and dispersibility was determined using the twin stage liquid impinger. All the formulations containing carrier particles generated by crystallization from solvent showed higher dispersibility and fine particle fraction (FPF) of the drug compared to the formulation made containing CL. The carrier that showed the highest elongation ratio (produced from an 85% acetone 15% water solution), when mixed with salbutamol sulfate produced the highest dispersibility (38.5%) and highest FPF (29.24%). These parameters were six times higher than the values obtained with the formulation containing CL.

  13. Aerosolization properties, surface composition and physical state of spray-dried protein powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosquillon, Cynthia; Rouxhet, Paul G; Ahimou, François; Simon, Denis; Culot, Christine; Préat, Véronique; Vanbever, Rita

    2004-10-19

    Powder aerosols made of albumin, dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and a protein stabilizer (lactose, trehalose or mannitol) were prepared by spray-drying and analyzed for aerodynamic behavior, surface composition and physical state. The powders exited a Spinhaler inhaler as particle aggregates, the size of which depending on composition, spray-drying parameters and airflow rate. However, due to low bulk powder tap density (powders, respectively. Particle surface analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed a surface enrichment with DPPC relative to albumin for powders prepared under certain spray-drying conditions. DPPC self-organized in a gel phase in the particle and no sugar or mannitol crystals were detected by X-ray diffraction. Water sorption isotherms showed that albumin protected lactose from moisture-induced crystallization. In conclusion, a proper combination of composition and spray-drying parameters allowed to obtain dry powders with elevated fine particle fractions (FPFs) and a physical environment favorable to protein stability.

  14. Risk Assessment of Baby Powder Exposure through Inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Min Chaul; Park, Jung Duck; Choi, Byung Soon; Park, So Young; Kim, Dong Won; Chung, Yong Hyun; Hisanaga, Naomi; Yu, Il Je

    2011-09-01

    This study was conducted to assess the exposure risk through inhalation to baby powder for babies and adults under simulated conditions. Baby powder was applied to a baby doll and the amount of baby powder consumed per application was estimated. The airborne exposure to baby powder during application was then evaluated by sampling the airborne baby powder near the breathing zones of both the baby doll and the person applying the powder (the applicator). The average amount of baby powder consumed was 100 mg/application, and the average exposure concentration of airborne baby powder for the applicator and baby doll was 0.00527 mg/m(3) (range 0.00157~0.01579 mg/m(3)) and 0.02207 mg/m(3) (range 0.00780~ 0.04173 mg/m(3)), respectively. When compared with the Occupational Exposure Limit of 2 mg/m(3) set by the Korean Ministry of Labor and the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 2 mg/m(3) set by the ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists), the exposure concentrations were much lower. Next, the exposure to asbestos-containing baby powder was estimated and the exposure risk was assessed based on the lung asbestos contents in normal humans. As a result, the estimated lung asbestos content resulting from exposure to asbestos-containing baby powder was found to be much lower than that of a normal Korean with no asbestos-related occupational history.

  15. Occupational asthma caused by inhalation of bovine serum albumin powder

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Gil-Soon; Kim, Joo-Hee; Lee, Haet-Nim; Sung, Jun-Mo; Lee, Jin-Woo; Park, Hae-Sim

    2009-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA), which is present in bovine plasma, is one of the major allergens affecting patients with food allergies induced by milk and meat. It is also commonly used in research laboratories. Although some reports have documented food allergies associated with BSA, BSA-induced occupational asthma has not been reported. We report a case of occupational asthma and rhinitis in a laboratory worker caused by the inhalation of BSA powder, in which an IgE-mediated response was sugge...

  16. Spray drying of siRNA-containing PLGA nanoparticles intended for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ditte Marie Krohn; Cun, Dongmei; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Frokjaer, Sven; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Foged, Camilla

    2010-02-25

    Local delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to the lungs constitutes a promising new area in drug delivery. The present study evaluated parameters of importance for spray drying of siRNA-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) into nanocomposite microparticles intended for inhalation. The spray drying process was optimised using a statistical design of experiment and by evaluating powder characteristics upon systematic variation of the formulation parameters. Concentration, carbohydrate excipient (trehalose, lactose and mannitol) and the ratio of NP to excipient were varied to monitor the effects on moisture content, particle morphology, particle size and powder yield. The identified optimum conditions were applied for spray drying of siRNA-loaded nanocomposite microparticles, resulting in a product with a low water content (0.78% w/w) and an aerodynamic particle diameter considered suitable for inhalation. The use of mannitol in the formulation allowed a significantly lower moisture content than trehalose and lactose. The inclusion of 50% (w/w) or higher amounts of NPs resulted in a marked change in the surface morphology of the spray-dried particles. Importantly, the integrity and biological activity of the siRNA were preserved during the spray drying process. In conclusion, the present results show that spray drying is a suitable technique for producing nanocomposite microparticles comprising siRNA-containing PLGA NPs for potential use in inhalation therapy.

  17. Design and development of dry powder sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin complex for pulmonary delivery of fisetin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohtar, Noratiqah; Taylor, Kevin M G; Sheikh, Khalid; Somavarapu, Satyanarayana

    2017-04-01

    This study has investigated complexation of fisetin, a natural flavonoid, with three types of cyclodextrins to improve its solubility. Sulfobutylether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) showed the highest complexation efficiency while maintaining the in vitro antioxidant activity of fisetin. Addition of 20%v/v ethanol in water improved the amount of solubilized fisetin in the complex 5.9-fold compared to the system containing water alone. Spray drying of fisetin-SBE-β-CD complex solution in the presence of ethanol produced a dry powder with improved aerosolization properties when delivered from a dry powder inhaler, indicated by a 2-fold increase in the fine particle fraction (FPF) compared to the powder produced from the complex solution containing water alone. The pitted morphological surface of these particles suggested a more hollow internal structure, indicating a lighter and less dense powder. Incorporation of 20%w/w leucine improved the particle size distribution of the powder and further increased the FPF by 2.3-fold. This formulation also showed an EC50 value equivalent to fisetin alone in the A549 cell line. In conclusion, an inhalable dry powder containing fisetin-SBE-β-CD complex was successfully engineered with an improved aqueous solubility of fisetin. The dry powder may be useful to deliver high amounts of fisetin to the deep lung region for therapeutic purposes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Efeito do salbutamol liberado através de inalador de pó seco sobre o broncoespasmo induzido por metacolina Effects of salbutamol delivered by dry-powder inhaler on methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalberto Sperb Rubin

    2004-06-01

    (MDIs are the drugs usually used for the reversal of methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. The b2 agonists that are delivered by dry-powder inhaler (DPI can be an efficacious option. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness and speed of action of salbutamol delivered by DPI (Pulvinal; Butovent®, in comparison to salbutamol delivered by MDI, in reversing methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction. METHOD: Sixty successive methacholine-induced bronchoconstriction patients who presented a decrease of at least 20% in forced expiratory volume (FEV1 were evaluated prospectively. Of these 60 patients, we randomized 30 (first group to receive 200 mcg of salbutamol by MDI and 30 (second group to receive 200 mcg of salbutamol by DPI (Pulvinal. Both drugs were administered with the objective of reversing bronchoconstriction during the final phase of a bronchoprovocation test. The FEV1 values obtained at 1 and 5 minutes after bronchodilator administration were evaluated. RESULTS: The groups were comparable in gender distribution, age, weight, dose level provoking a 20% drop in FEV1 (first group: 1.3 mg; second group: 1.19 mg; p = 0.79 and post-methacholine FEV1 (first group: 2.03 l; second group: 1.99 l; p = 0.87, with no statistically significant differences between the two groups. In the first group (MDI, the mean increase in FEV1 was 16.2% (at 1 minute and 22.2% (at 5 minutes, and in the second group (DPI it was 17% (at 1 minute and 23.6% (at 5 minutes. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.8. CONCLUSION: The beta2-agonists delivered by DPI (Pulvinal present the same bronchodilator efficacy and speed of action as do those delivered by the more traditional MDI method.

  19. Feasibility of spray drying bacteriophages into respirable powders to combat pulmonary bacterial infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Singh, Abhishek; Vandersteegen, Katrien; Klumpp, Jochen; Lavigne, Rob; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2013-08-01

    The use of bacterial viruses for antibacterial treatment (bacteriophage therapy) is currently being reevaluated. In this study, we analyze the potential of processing bacteriophages in a dry powder formulation, using a laboratory spray dryer. The phages were dried in the presence of lactose, trehalose or dextran 35, serving as an excipient to give the resulting powder the necessary bulk mass and offer protection to the delicate phage structure. Out of the three excipients tested, trehalose was found to be the most efficient in protecting the phages from temperature and shear stress throughout the spray drying process. A low inlet air temperature and atomizing force appeared to be the best parameter conditions for phage survival. Pseudomonas podovirus LUZ19 was remarkably stable, suffering less than 1 logarithmic unit reduction in phage titer. The phage titer of Staphyloccus phage Romulus-containing powders, a member of the Myoviridae family, showed more than 2.5 logarithmic units reduction. On the other hand, Romulus-containing powders showed more favorable characteristics for pulmonary delivery, with a high percentage of dry powder particles in the pulmonary deposition fraction (1-5 μm particle diameter). Even though the parameters were not optimized for spray drying all phages, it was demonstrated that spray drying phages with this industrial relevant and scalable set up was possible. The resulting powders had desirable size ranges for pulmonary delivery of phages with dry powder inhalers (DPIs).

  20. Preparation and in vivo absorption evaluation of spray dried powders containing salmon calcitonin loaded chitosan nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinsuebpol C

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Chutima Sinsuebpol, Jittima Chatchawalsaisin, Poj Kulvanich Department of Pharmaceutics and Industrial Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand Purpose: The aim of the present study was to prepare inhalable co-spray dried powders of salmon calcitonin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (sCT-CS-NPs with mannitol and investigate pulmonary absorption in rats. Methods: The sCT-CS-NPs were prepared by the ionic gelation method using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP as a cross-linking polyion. Inhalable dry powders were obtained by co-spray drying aqueous dispersion of sCT-CS-NPs and mannitol. sCT-CS-NPs co-spray dried powders were characterized with respect to morphology, particle size, powder density, aerodynamic diameter, protein integrity, in vitro release of sCT, and aerosolization. The plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration of sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders to the rats was also determined. Results: sCT-CS-NPs were able to be incorporated into mannitol forming inhalable microparticles by the spray drying process. The sCT-CS-NPs/mannitol ratios and spray drying process affected the properties of the microparticles obtained. The conformation of the secondary structures of sCTs was affected by both mannitol content and spray dry inlet temperature. The sCT-CS-NPs were recovered after reconstitution of spray dried powders in an aqueous medium. The sCT release profile from spray dried powders was similar to that from sCT-CS-NPs. In vitro inhalation parameters measured by the Andersen cascade impactor indicated sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders having promising aerodynamic properties for deposition in the deep lung. Determination of the plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration to rats revealed that the inhalable sCT-CS NPs spray dried powders provided higher protein absorption compared to native sCT powders. Conclusion: The sCT-CS-NPs with mannitol based spray dried powders were

  1. Effect of cholesterol on the properties of spray-dried lysozyme-loaded liposomal powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnvanich, Dusadee; Vardhanabhuti, Nontima; Kulvanich, Poj

    2010-06-01

    The influence of cholesterol (Chol) in the liposomal bilayer on the properties of inhalable protein-loaded liposomal powders prepared by spray-drying technique was investigated. Lysozyme (LSZ) was used as a model protein. Feed solution for spray drying was prepared by direct mixing of aqueous solution of LSZ with mannitol solution and empty liposome dispersions composed of hydrogenated phosphatidylcholine and Chol at various molar ratios. The spray-dried powders were characterized with respect to morphology, thermal property, and crystallinity using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction, respectively. Most formulations gave slightly aggregated, spherical particles, and percentage yields of the spray-dried powders decreased with increasing Chol content. Degree of particle aggregation depended on the powder composition. The powders spontaneously formed liposomes which efficiently entrapped LSZ after reconstitution with HEPES buffered saline (HBS) at 37 degrees C. Lysozyme entrapment efficiency and size distribution of the reconstituted liposomes were evaluated after the powders were reconstituted with HBS. Increasing Chol content resulted in a decrease in size of the reconstituted liposomes and an increase in entrapment efficiency of LSZ. These results correlated with thermal behaviors of the reconstituted liposomes. Biological activity of LSZ was not affected by the spray-drying process. It was also demonstrated that LSZ-loaded liposomal powders could be produced without the need to preload the LSZ into liposomes prior to spray-drying process.

  2. Preparation and in vivo absorption evaluation of spray dried powders containing salmon calcitonin loaded chitosan nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinsuebpol, Chutima; Chatchawalsaisin, Jittima; Kulvanich, Poj

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare inhalable co-spray dried powders of salmon calcitonin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (sCT-CS-NPs) with mannitol and investigate pulmonary absorption in rats. The sCT-CS-NPs were prepared by the ionic gelation method using sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a cross-linking polyion. Inhalable dry powders were obtained by co-spray drying aqueous dispersion of sCT-CS-NPs and mannitol. sCT-CS-NPs co-spray dried powders were characterized with respect to morphology, particle size, powder density, aerodynamic diameter, protein integrity, in vitro release of sCT, and aerosolization. The plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration of sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders to the rats was also determined. sCT-CS-NPs were able to be incorporated into mannitol forming inhalable microparticles by the spray drying process. The sCT-CS-NPs/mannitol ratios and spray drying process affected the properties of the microparticles obtained. The conformation of the secondary structures of sCTs was affected by both mannitol content and spray dry inlet temperature. The sCT-CS-NPs were recovered after reconstitution of spray dried powders in an aqueous medium. The sCT release profile from spray dried powders was similar to that from sCT-CS-NPs. In vitro inhalation parameters measured by the Andersen cascade impactor indicated sCT-CS-NPs spray dried powders having promising aerodynamic properties for deposition in the deep lung. Determination of the plasmatic sCT levels following intratracheal administration to rats revealed that the inhalable sCT-CS NPs spray dried powders provided higher protein absorption compared to native sCT powders. The sCT-CS-NPs with mannitol based spray dried powders were prepared to have appropriate aerodynamic properties for pulmonary delivery. The developed system was able to deliver sCT via a pulmonary route into the systemic circulation.

  3. Dry mixing and coating of powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso, M.

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a review on the mixing and coating of powders by dry processes. The review surveys fundamental works on mixture characterization (mixing index definitions and sampling techniques, mixing mechanisms and models, segregation with especial emphasis on free-surface segregation, mixing of cohesive powders and interparticle forces, ordered mixing (dry coating including mechanism, model and applications and mixing equipment selection.

    En este artículo se presenta una revisión bibliográfica sobre el mezclado y recubrimiento de materiales pulverulentos mediante procesos por vía seca. La revisión incluye trabajos fundamentales sobre caracterización de mezclas (definiciones de índices de mezclado y técnicas de muestreo, mecanismos y modelos de mezclado, segregación con especial énfasis en la segregación de superficie libre, mezclado de polvos cohesivos y fuerzas interpartículas, mezcla ordenada (recubrimiento incluyendo mecanismo, modelo y aplicaciones, y selección de equipos de mezclado.

  4. Tobramycin inhalation powder: an efficient and efficacious therapy for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somayaji, Ranjani; Parkins, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    Inhaled antipseudomonal therapies are critical components in the management of cystic fibrosis (CF) and have significantly contributed to improved patient outcomes. Dry powder inhaler technologies represent a significant advance in drug delivery, alleviating treatment burden and potentially improving adherence associated with traditional CF nebulized therapies. Tobramycin inhalation powder (TIP) uses PulmoSphere(®) technology for very efficient drug delivery into the lower airways. In placebo-controlled and comparative studies with traditional tobramycin formulations, TIP is equally efficacious and is associated with increased patient convenience and satisfaction. TIP has been recommended in the 2013 CF Foundation and the 2014 European guidelines as a therapy in CF for the maintenance of lung health. Going forward, TIP may offer a therapeutic advantage over traditional formulations of tobramycin as recent prospective 'real world' studies of TIP have demonstrated high patient tolerance and improved adherence compared with traditional formulations.

  5. Nutritional composition of ginger powder prepared using various drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangwan, A; Kawatra, A; Sehgal, S

    2014-09-01

    A study was undertaken to prepare ginger powder using various drying methods and their nutritional evaluation was carried out. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) was dried using shade, solar, oven and microwave drying methods. All the samples were ground in grinder to make fine powder. Sensory analysis indicated that acceptability of all types of ginger powders were in the range of 'liked very much' to 'liked moderately' by the panelists. The mean score obtained for colour was higher in shade dried ginger powder i.e., 8.20 as compared to oven dried (7.60), solar dried (7.70) and microwave dried ginger powder (7.80). Moisture content ranged from 3.55 % in solar dried ginger powder to 3.78 % in shade dried ginger powder. Slightly higher moisture content was found in shade dried ginger powder. Protein, crude fiber, fat and ash contents ranged from 5.02 to 5.82, 4.97 to 5.61, 0.76 to 0.90 and 3.38 to 3.66 %, respectively. β-carotene and ascorbic acid content was found maximum in shade dried ginger powder i.e., 0.81 mg/100 g and 3.83 mg/100 g, respectively. Polyphenol content was almost similar in all the samples whereas calcium was slightly higher in the shade dried ginger powder i.e., 69.21 mg/100 g. Results have shown that ginger powder prepared from various drying methods had good sensory and nutritional profile.

  6. Physical properties of yoghurt powder produced by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Banu; Sakin-Yılmazer, Melike; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen; Balkır, Pınar

    2014-07-01

    The study is an extension of an optimization study, which was planned to determine the optimum spray drying conditions (the feed, outlet and inlet air temperatures) for producing yoghurt powder. The resulting yoghurt powder at each condition was subjected to the measurement of physical properties, moisture content, and reconstitution properties. All the reconstitution properties of yoghurt powders produced under 20 different spray drying conditions according to CCRD experimental design were affected by the drying outlet temperature only. Furthermore, the bulk (bulk and tapped densities, porosity, flowability, hygroscopicity and degree of caking) and particle properties (particle size distribution, particle density and morphology) of yoghurt powder obtained from optimum spray drying conditions were also determined. The bulk, tapped and particle densities of yoghurt powder were 538, 746 and 1177 kg/m(3), respectively. The mean diameter (D4.3) and the span value of yoghurt powder were 3.053 and 2.487 μm, respectively.

  7. [Inhalation therapy: inhaled corticosteroids in ENT, development and technical challenges of powder inhalers, nebulisers synchronized with breathing and aerosol size distribution. GAT aerosolstorming, Paris 2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, P; Peron, N; Durand, M; Pourchez, J; Cavaillon, P; Reychler, G; Vecellio, L; Dubus, J-C

    2013-10-01

    The working group on aerosol therapy (GAT) of the Société de Pneumologie de Langue Française (SPLF) has organized its third Aerosolstorming in 2012. During one single day, different aspects of inhaled therapies have been treated and are detailed in two articles, this one being the second. This text deals with the indications of inhaled corticosteroids in ENT, the development and technical challenges of powder inhalers, the advantages and disadvantages of each type of technologies to measure the particle sizes of inhaled treatments.

  8. Fluticasone furoate and vilanterol inhalation powder for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matera, Maria Gabriella; Capuano, Annalisa; Cazzola, Mario

    2015-02-01

    Fluticasone furoate/vilanterol (FF/VI) is a novel inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β₂-agonist (ICS/LABA) fixed dose combination that, by simplifying the dosing schedule, allows, for the first time in a member of the ICS/LABA class, a shift from twice-daily to once-daily treatment. FF/VI is delivered via a novel, single-step activation, multi-dose dry powder inhaler for oral inhalation, Ellipta. Regrettably, there are no head-to-head trials that have shown superiority in the safety or efficacy of FF versus other ICSs, but evidence shows that VI has a quicker onset of effect versus salmeterol. However, the clinical utility of this effect in a maintenance medication is still questionable. Furthermore, benefits of FF/VI over twice-daily ICS/LABA comparator have not been shown yet and, in addition, its adverse event profile is generally consistent with the known class effects of an ICS/LABA fixed dose combination. In particular, there is an increase in the risk of pneumonia among patients treated with FF/VI relative to VI, mainly among those who benefit most from FF/VI. Nevertheless, the interesting pharmacological profiles of both FF and VI, the possibility that FF/VI can be administered once-daily, and the attractive characteristics of Ellipta are important features that could help FF/VI to be a successful combination in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  9. Preparation of Ultra-fine Salbutamol Sulfate Particles by Reactive Precipitation and Characterization of Dry Powder Inhalant%反应沉淀法制备超细硫酸沙丁胺醇颗粒及其粉雾剂的表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    续京; 刘晓林; 陈建峰

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of ultra.fine particles of salbutamol sulphate(SS)was accomplished with a reactive precipitation pathway,in Which salbutamo]and sulphuric acid were used as reactants wlth the solvents of ethanol.The effects of sulphuric acid concentration.reaction temperature,stirring rate,and reaction time on the Size of the particle were investigated.A binary mixture composed of lactose and SS was prepared to evaluate SS.The results showed that ultra-fine SS particles with controlled diameters ranging between 3 grn and 0.8 μm and with a narrow distribution could be achieyed.The morphology consisting of clubbed particles was successfully obtained.The pu-fity of the particles reached above 98%with UV detection.The dose of dry powder inhalation was obtained by blending the particles with recrystallized lactose.which acted as a carrier.The deposition quantity of the drug in breathing tract was estimated using a twin impinger apparatus.Compared wlth the Shapuer powder(purchased in the market),the results showed that SS particles had more quantines subsided in simulative lung.

  10. Tobramycin Inhalation Powder (TIP): An Efficient Treatment Strategy for the Management of Chronic Pseudomonas Aeruginosa Infection in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, John; Vaughan, Steven; Parkins, Michael D

    2013-11-13

    Repeated bouts of acute and chronic lung infections are responsible for progressive pulmonary function decline in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF), ultimately leading to respiratory failure and death. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the archetypical CF pathogen, causes chronic infection in 70% of individuals, and is associated with an accelerated clinical decline. The management of P. aeruginosa in CF has been revolutionized with the development and widespread use of inhaled antibiotics. Aerosol delivery of antimicrobial compounds in CF enables extremely high concentrations of antibiotics to be reached directly at the site of infection potentially overcoming adaptive resistance and avoiding the potential for cumulative systemic toxicities. Tobramycin inhalation powder (TIP) represents the first dry powder inhaled (DPI) antibiotic available for use in CF. DPIs are notable for a markedly reduced time for administration, ease of portability, and increased compliance. TIP has been developed as a therapeutic alternative to tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS), the standard of care for the past 20 years within CF. Relative to TIS 300 mg nebulized twice daily in on-and-off cycles of 28 days duration, TIP 112 mg twice daily via the T-326 inhaler administered on the same schedule is associated with marked time savings, increased patient satisfaction, and comparable clinical end points. TIP represents an innovative treatment strategy for those individuals with CF and holds the promise of increased patient compliance and thus the potential for improved clinical outcomes.

  11. Severe Acute Respiratory Failure due to Inhalation of Baby Powder and Successfully Treated with Venous-Venous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panarello, Giovanna; Occhipinti, Giovanna; Piazza, Marcello; Capitanio, Guido; Vitulo, Patrizio; Gridelli, Bruno; Pilato, Michele; Arcadipane, Antonio

    2015-12-15

    Accidental inhalation of powder is a potential problem for infants. The clinical effects of inhaling powder depend on the powder contents, degree of aspiration, and the child's underlying systemic response. We present a case of accidental inhalation of rice starch powder in a 17-month-old girl, which led to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome responsive to conventional treatment, ultimately requiring venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  12. A statistical approach to optimize the spray drying of starch particles: application to dry powder coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilancetti, Luca; Poncelet, Denis; Loisel, Catherine; Mazzitelli, Stefania; Nastruzzi, Claudio

    2010-09-01

    This article describes the preparation of starch particles, by spray drying, for possible application to a dry powder coating process. Dry powder coating consists of spraying a fine powder and a plasticizer on particles. The efficiency of the coating is linked to the powder morphological and dimensional characteristics. Different experimental parameters of the spray-drying process were analyzed, including type of solvent, starch concentration, rate of polymer feeding, pressure of the atomizing air, drying air flow, and temperature of drying air. An optimization and screening of the experimental parameters by a design of the experiment (DOE) approach have been done. Finally, the produced spray-dried starch particles were conveniently tested in a dry coating process, in comparison to the commercial initial starch. The obtained results, in terms of coating efficiency, demonstrated that the spray-dried particles led to a sharp increase of coating efficiency value.

  13. Eficácia e segurança de dois inaladores de pó seco usados para a aplicação de furoato de mometasona em pacientes com asma Efficacy and safety of two dry-powder inhalers for the administration of mometasone furoate in asthma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto de Castro Pereira

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O furoato de mometasona (FM é um novo corticosteroide inalatório sintético potente. Internacionalmente, o FM é fornecido em um inalador de pó seco que permite sua administração em múltiplas doses. Para se obter uma preparação com melhor relação custo-eficácia, foram desenvolvidas no Brasil formulações de FM em cápsulas de pó seco para serem administradas em dose única. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia e a segurança dos dois inaladores usados para a administração de FM em pacientes asmáticos. MÉTODOS: Estudo clínico, aberto, comparativo, paralelo e multicêntrico com 74 adultos portadores de asma persistente e moderada, randomizados em dois grupos para receber FM em uma dose de aproximadamente 400 µg, fornecida por um inalador de dose múltipla ou pelo novo inalador de dose única, uma vez ao dia durante 60 dias. RESULTADOS: Não foram observadas diferenças significantes entre os dois grupos estudados nos desfechos primários (VEF1 e frequência do uso de medicação de resgate ou nos desfechos secundários (PFE matinal, tolerabilidade e segurança, essa última avaliada pelo estudo do eixo hipotálamo-hipófise-adrenal. CONCLUSÕES: A administração de FM com o novo inalador de dose única desenvolvido no Brasil tem eficácia e segurança comparáveis à administração com o inalador de dose múltipla no tratamento de pacientes asmáticos.OBJECTIVE: Mometasone furoate (MF is a new, potent synthetic inhaled corticosteroid. Worldwide, MF is administered via a dry-powder inhaler that contains multiple doses. As a preparation that would be more cost-effective, single-dose MF capsules were developed in Brazil. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the two inhalers for MF administration in patients with asthma. METHODS: A randomized, multicenter, open-label, parallel-group clinical trial involving 74 adult patients with moderate, persistent asthma who

  14. Characterisation of spray dried soy sauce powders made by adding crystalline carbohydrates to drying carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Zhou, Weibiao

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to reduce stickiness and caking of spray dried soy sauce powders by introducing a new crystalline structure into powder particles. To perform this task, soy sauce powders were formulated by using mixtures of cellulose and maltodextrin or mixtures of waxy starch and maltodextrin as drying carriers, with a fixed carrier addition rate of 30% (w/v) in the feed solution. The microstructure, crystallinity, solubility as well as stickiness and caking strength of all the different powders were analysed and compared. Incorporating crystalline carbohydrates in the drying carrier could significantly reduce the stickiness and caking strength of the powders when the ratio of crystalline carbohydrates to maltodextrin was above 1:5 and 1:2, respectively. X-ray Diffraction (XRD) results showed that adding cellulose or waxy starch could induce the crystallinity of powders. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) results demonstrated that the native starch added to the soy sauce powders did not fully gelatinize during spray drying.

  15. Dry Powder Precursors of Cubic Liquid Crystalline Nanoparticles (cubosomes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spicer, Patrick T.; Small, William B.; Small, William B.; Lynch, Matthew L.; Burns, Janet L.

    2002-08-01

    Cubosomes are dispersed nanostructured particles of cubic phase liquid crystal that have stimulated significant research interest because of their potential for application in controlled-release and drug delivery. Despite the interest, cubosomes can be difficult to fabricate and stabilize with current methods. Most of the current work is limited to liquid phase processes involving high shear dispersion of bulk cubic liquid crystalline material into sub-micron particles, limiting application flexibility. In this work, two types of dry powder cubosome precursors are produced by spray-drying: (1) starch-encapsulated monoolein is produced by spray-drying a dispersion of cubic liquid crystalline particles in an aqueous starch solution and (2) dextran-encapsulated monoolein is produced by spray-drying an emulsion formed by the ethanol-dextran-monoolein-water system. The encapsulants are used to decrease powder cohesion during drying and to act as a soluble colloidal stabilizer upon hydration of the powders. Both powders are shown to form (on average) 0.6 μm colloidally-stable cubosomes upon addition to water. However, the starch powders have a broader particle size distribution than the dextran powders because of the relative ease of spraying emulsions versus dispersions. The developed processes enable the production of nanostructured cubosomes by end-users rather than just specialized researchers and allow tailoring of the surface state of the cubosomes for broader application.

  16. Characterisation of Aronia powders obtained by different drying processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horszwald, Anna; Julien, Heritier; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges connected with the preservation of the highest possible quality of fruit products obtained after processing. Attention has been drawn to Aronia fruits due to numerous health promoting properties of their products. However, processing of Aronia, like other berries, leads to difficulties that stem from the preparation process, as well as changes in the composition of bioactive compounds. Consequently, in this study, Aronia commercial juice was subjected to different drying techniques: spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum drying with the temperature range of 40-80 °C. All powders obtained had a high content of total polyphenols. Powders gained by spray drying had the highest values which corresponded to a high content of total flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, cyaniding-3-glucoside and total proanthocyanidins. Analysis of the results exhibited a correlation between selected bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, drying techniques have an impact on selected quality parameters, and different drying techniques cause changes in the content of bioactives analysed. Spray drying can be recommended for preservation of bioactives in Aronia products. Powder quality depends mainly on the process applied and parameters chosen. Therefore, Aronia powders production should be adapted to the requirements and design of the final product.

  17. Applying a novel electrostatic dry powder coating technology to pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingliang; Ma, Yingliang; Zhu, Jesse

    2015-11-01

    The present study aimed to apply a novel dry powder technology to coat pellets with different coating materials grounded into fine powders. Piroxicam, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, was used as the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). Eudragit® EPO, Eudragit® RS/RL and Acryl EZE were used as the coating materials to achieve immediate release, sustained release and delayed release, respectively. Three steps including preheating, powder adhesion and curing were carried out to form the coating film while liquid plasticizers were used to decrease the glass transition temperature of coating powders and also served to reduce the electrical resistance of pellets. Results of SEM indicated coating film could be better formed by increasing curing temperature or extending curing time. Dissolution tests showed that three different drug release profiles, including immediate release, sustained release and delayed release, were achieved by this coating technology with different coating formulations. And the dry powder coated pellets using this developed technology exhibited an excellent stability with 1 month at 40 °C/75% RH. The coating procedure could be shortened to within 120 min and the use of fluidized hot air was minimized, both cutting down the overall cost dramatically compared to organic solvent coating and aqueous coating. All results demonstrated that the novel electrostatic dry powder coating method is a promising technology in the pharmaceutical coating industry.

  18. Peak inspiratory flow generated through different analogue dry powder inhalers in Shenzhen healthy preschool children%深圳地区正常学龄前儿童常用吸入器阻力状态下的最高吸气流量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张清玲; 郑劲平; 潘卫华; 何桦; 陈桂莲; 安嘉颖; 袁丽芬; 罗锭芬

    2008-01-01

    Objective Dry powder inhalers(DPIs)are increasingly being used to deliver drugs for the treatment of asthma.It is known that DPIs require a crueial minimal inspiratory flow.Previous studies have demonstrated that the peak inspiratory flow(PIF,L/min)through a DPI is dependent on the type of device,the age of the patient,and the level of bronchial obstruction.However,the peak inspiratory flow of healtlly preschool children in China remains scant in the literature.The present study aimed to analyze the ability of inspifing flow through the resistance state of ordinary use inhaler in Shenzhen healthy preschool children by measuring the peak inspiratory flow through the different analogue dry powder inhalers and go further into the relationship between it and the age,weight and forced expiratory volume of the children.Method A survey in 370 healthy preschool children aged 3 to 6 years(75 children aged 3 years,104 children aged 4 years,100 children aged 5 years and 91 children aged 6 years)was carried out in Shenzhen.Peak inspiratory flow(PIF)was measured without and with resistances,which mimicked the internal resistances of several inhalers,Diskus,Turbuhaler,Autohaler,Surehaler by PIF meter(In-check DIAL)and then data PIF-N,PIF-D,PIF-T,PIF-A and PIF-S were obtained.Peak expiratory flow(PEF) was measured by PEF meter(MicroPeak,USA).These two measurements were made in a well-controlled setting,and at least three attempts were recorded to establish maximum achievement.Six spirometry parameters forced vital capacity(FVC),forced expiratory volume at 0.5 second(FEV 0.5),forced expiratory volume at 0.75 second(FEV 0.75),forced expiratory volume at one second(FEV1),maximal mid expiratory flow rate(FEF 25-75,PEF were measured by using COSMED spirometry of Italy and the FVC measurements should be around the quality control for spirometry in preschool children which we suggested and published in 2005.All data were expressed as mean±SD and analyzed with the statistical software

  19. Identification of Polymorphic Forms of Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient in Low-Concentration Dry Powder Formulations by Synchrotron X-Ray Powder Diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Kenji; Okazaki, Fumiaki; Schiewe, Joerg; Werthmann, Ulrike; Wolkenhauer, Markus

    2017-09-13

    The identification of different (pseudo) polymorphs of an active pharmaceutical ingredient in dry powder formulations is of importance during development and entire product lifecycle, e.g., quality control. Whereas determination of polymorphic differences of pure substances is rather easy, in dry powder formulations, it is generally difficult and the difficulties increase particularly, if the substance of interest is present only in low concentrations in the formulation. Such a formulation is Spiriva(®) inhalation powder (Boehringer Ingelheim), which contains only 0.4 w/w% of the active pharmaceutical ingredient tiotropium bromide monohydrate in a matrix of α-lactose monohydrate as excipient. In this study, identification of 0.4 w/w% tiotropium bromide in the dry powder formulation was examined by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) using a synchrotron radiation source and the results were compared with the conventional laboratory XRPD measurements. The detection limit of tiotropium bromide by the laboratory XRPD was around 2-5 w/w%, and hence, detection of 0.4 w/w% tiotropium bromide was impossible. The synchrotron XRPD was capable to detect significantly lower level of tiotropium bromide by at least an order of magnitude. Four different polymorphic forms of tiotropium bromide present at 0.4 w/w% concentration in lactose powder blends were unambiguously identified by the synchrotron XRPD method.

  20. Element test experiments and simulations: from dry towards cohesive powders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imole, O.I.; Kumar, N.; Luding, S.; Onate, E.; Owen, D.R.J.

    2011-01-01

    Findings from experiments and particle simulations for dry and cohesive granular materials are presented with the goal to reach quantitative agreement between simulations and experiments. Results for the compressibility, tested with the FT4 Powder Rheometer are presented. The first simulation result

  1. Dry powder formulation in the twincertm for bronchial challenge testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A.J.; Hagedoorn, P.; Frijlink, H.W.; Ten Hacken, N.H.T.; Steckel, H.; De Boer, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background: In bronchial challenge testing lung deposition of the stimulus may be poorly controlled due to incorrect use of nebulisers. Furthermore, the need for freshly prepared solutions burdens personnel and budget. In this study we aim to develop a dry powder alternative with higher repr

  2. Formulation and process development of (recombinant human) deoxyribonuclease I as a powder for inhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Gerrit S; Ponsioen, Bart J; Hummel, Sylvia A; Sanders, Niek; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; de Boer, Anne H; Frijlink, Henderik W

    2009-01-01

    A formulation and process development study was performed to formulate recombinant human deoxyribonuclease I as a powder for inhalation. First, excipient compatibility (with bovine DNase as a model substance) was examined with a stability study at stressed conditions (60 and 85 degrees C) while

  3. Equivalência farmacêutica da formulação combinada de budesonida e formoterol em cápsula única com dispositivo inalador de pó Pharmaceutical equivalence of the combination formulation of budesonide and formoterol in a single capsule with a dry powder inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Andrade-Lima

    2012-12-01

    , respectively, whereas it was 353.0 µg and 11.1 µg in the reference formulation. These values are within the recommended range for this type of formulation (75-125% of the labeled dose. The fine particle fraction (< 5 µm for budesonide and formoterol was 45% and 56%, respectively, in the test formulation and 54% and 52%, respectively, in the reference formulation. CONCLUSIONS: For both of the formulations tested, the levels of active ingredients, dose uniformity, and aerodynamic diameters were suitable for use with the respective dry powder inhalers.

  4. Quality characteristic of spray-drying egg white powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang; Zhao, Songning; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Yiding; Liu, Jingbo; Xu, Menglei

    2013-10-01

    Spray drying is a useful method for developing egg process and utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects on spray drying condition of egg white. The optimized conditions were spraying flow 22 mL/min, feeding temperature 39.8 °C and inlet-air temperature 178.2 °C. Results of sulfydryl (SH) groups measurement indicated conformation structure have changed resulting in protein molecule occur S-S crosslinking phenomenon when heating. It led to free SH content decreased during spray drying process. There was almost no change of differential scanning calorimetry between fresh egg white and spray-drying egg white powder (EWP). For a given protein, the apparent SH reactivity is in turn influenced by the physico-chemical characteristics of the reactant. The phenomenon illustrated the thermal denaturation of these proteins was unrelated to their free SH contents. Color measurement was used to study browning level. EWP in optimized conditions revealed insignificant brown stain. Swelling capacity and scanning electron micrograph both proved well quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP. Results suggested spray drying under the optimized conditions present suitable and alternative method for egg processing industrial implementation. Egg food industrialization needs new drying method to extend shelf-life. The purpose of the study was to provide optimal process of healthy and nutritional instant spray-drying EWP and study quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP.

  5. Formulation optimization and characterization of spray dried microparticles for inhalation delivery of doxycycline hyclate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Madhusmita; Mishra, Brahmeshwar

    2011-01-01

    The local delivery of antibiotics in the treatment of infectious respiratory diseases is an attractive alternative to deliver high concentration of antimicrobials directly to the lungs and minimize systemic side effects. In this study, inhalable microparticles containing doxycycline hyclate, sodium carboxymethylcellulose, leucine and lactose were prepared by spray drying of aqueous ethanol formulations. Box-Behnken design was used to study the influence of various independent variables such as polymer concentration, leucine concentration, ethanol concentration and inlet temperature of the spray dryer on microparticle characteristics. The microparticles were characterized in terms of particle morphology, drug excipient interaction, yield, entrapment efficiency, Carr's index, moisture content, thermal properties, X-ray powder diffraction, aerosolization performance and in vitro drug release. The effect of independent variables on spray dryer outlet temperature was also studied. The overall shape of the particles was found to be spherical like doughnuts in the size range of 1.16-5.2 µm. The optimized formulation (sodium carboxymethylcellulose concentration 14% w/v, leucine concentration 33% w/v, ethanol concentration 36% v/v, inlet temperature of 140°C) exhibited the following properties: yield 56.69%, moisture content 3.86%, encapsulation efficiency 61.74%, theoretical aerodynamic diameter 3.11 µm and Carr's index 23.5% at an outlet temperature 77°C. The powders generated were of a suitable mass median aerodynamic diameter (4.89 µm) with 49.3% fine particle fraction and exhibited a sustained drug release profile in vitro.

  6. Could interchangeable use of dry powder inhalers affect patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, D; Summers, M; Zanen, P

    2005-01-01

    The aim of asthma treatment is optimal disease control. Poor asthma control results in considerable patient morbidity, as well as contributing to the considerable burden placed by the disease on healthcare budgets. There is a need for costs to be carefully scrutinised, with the switching of patients

  7. Permanent magnet microstructures using dry-pressed magnetic powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oniku, Ololade D.; Bowers, Benjamin J.; Shetye, Sheetal B.; Wang, Naigang; Arnold, David P.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents microfabrication methods and performance analysis of bonded powder permanent magnets targeting dimensions ranging from 10 µm to greater than 1 mm. For the structural definition and pattern transfer, a doctor blade technique is used to dry press magnetic powders into pre-etched cavities in a silicon substrate. The powders are secured in the cavities by one of the three methods: capping with a polyimide layer, thermal reflow of intermixed wax-binder particles, or conformal coating with a vapor-deposited parylene-C film. A systematic study of micromagnets fabricated using these methods is conducted using three different types of magnetic powders: 50 µm Nd-Fe-B, 5 µm Nd-Fe-B and 1 µm barium ferrite powder. The isotropic magnets are shown to exhibit intrinsic coercivities (Hci) as high as 720 kA m-1, remanences (Br) up to 0.5 T and maximum energy products (BHmax) up to 30 kJ m-3, depending on the magnetic powder used. Process compatibility experiments demonstrate the potential for the magnets to withstand typical microfabrication chemical exposure and thermal cycles, thereby facilitating their integration into more complex process flows. The remanences are also characterized at elevated temperatures to determine thermal sensitivities and maximum operating temperature ranges.

  8. Designing CAF-adjuvanted dry powder vaccines: Spray drying preserves the adjuvant activity of CAF01

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Christensen, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    spray drying. The optimal excipient to stabilize CAF01 during spray drying and for the design of nanocomposite microparticles was identified among mannitol, lactose and trehalose. Trehalose and lactose were promising stabilizers with respect to preserving liposome size, as compared to mannitol......Dry powder vaccine formulations are highly attractive due to improved storage stability and the possibility for particle engineering, as compared to liquid formulations. However, a prerequisite for formulating vaccines into dry formulations is that their physicochemical and adjuvant properties...... remain unchanged upon rehydration. Thus, we have identified and optimized the parameters of importance for the design of a spray dried powder formulation of the cationic liposomal adjuvant formulation 01 (CAF01) composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose 6,6′-dibehenate (TDB) via...

  9. Development of the dry powdering/mixing device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Jae Hoo; Kim, Y. H.; Hong, D. H.; Yoon, J. S.; Jin, J. H.; Park, G. Y.; Seo, C. S. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-03-01

    The dry pulverizing/mixing device is used to deal with the spent fuels for the safe disposal. The separated pellets from hulls by a slitting device are put and oxidized from UO{sub 2} solid pellet to U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder in the device. The device have been developed based on a voloxidation method which is one of several dry de-cladding methods. We have benchmarked dry de-cladding methods, analyzed applicability to the advanced spent fuel management process, integrated and compared several configuration, and finally derived detailed specifications proper to requirements for the device. Also, thermal characteristics of the device such as thermal stress and strain have been analyzed by the commercial software, I-DEAS, and the reliability of the results have been verified by the KOLAS(KOrea Laboratory Accreditation Scheme). The UO{sub 2} solid pellets are put in the device which has a capacity of 20 kgHM per a batch, heated up about 600 .deg. C in the air environment. Then, the UO{sub 2} solid pellets are oxidized into the U{sub 3}O{sub 8} powder, and the powder is collected in a special vessel. The device has been designed and developed as follows: the multi-staged fine hole meshes are used to reduce the size of the powder gradually, heat and air(oxygen) are supplied continuously to reduce the reaction time, and slight vibration effect are applied to collect powder cling to the device. 11 refs., 61 figs., 15 tabs. (Author)

  10. Crystal coating via spray drying to improve powder tabletability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhoorne, V; Peeters, E; Van Snick, B; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2014-11-01

    A continuous crystal coating method was developed to improve both flowability and tabletability of powders. The method includes the introduction of solid, dry particles into an atomized spray during spray drying in order to coat and agglomerate individual particles. Paracetamol was used as a model drug as it exhibits poor flowability and high capping tendency upon compaction. The particle size enlargement and flowability were evaluated by the mean median particle size and flow index of the resulting powders. The crystal coating coprocessing method was successful for the production of powders containing 75% paracetamol with excellent tableting properties. However, the extent of agglomeration achieved during coprocessing was limited. Tablets compressed on a rotary tablet press in manual mode showed excellent compression properties without capping tendency. A formulation with 75% paracetamol, 5% PVP and 20% amorphous lactose yielded a tensile strength of 1.9 MPa at a compression pressure of 288 MPa. The friability of tablets compressed at 188 MPa was only 0.6%. The excellent tabletability of this formulation was attributed to the coating of paracetamol crystals with amorphous lactose and PVP through coprocessing and the presence of brittle and plastic components in the formulation. The coprocessing method was also successfully applied for the production of directly compressible lactose showing improved tensile strength and friability in comparison to a spray dried direct compression lactose grade.

  11. Spray Drying of Honey: The Effect of Drying Agents on Powder Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samborska Katarzyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of honey spray drying with addition of maltodextrin and gum Arabic as drying agents. The influence of the concentration of the solution subjected to drying, the type and content of the drying agents upon the physical properties of obtained powders was examined. An attempt was undertaken to obtain powder with a honey content of more than 50% d.b. Spray drying of multifloral honey with the addition of maltodextrin and gum Arabic was carried out at inlet air temperature of 180°C, feed rate of 1 mL/s and rotational speed of a disc atomizer of 39,000 rpm. The properties of obtained powders were quantified in terms of moisture content, bulk density, Hausner ratio, apparent density, hygroscopicity and wettability. Using gum Arabic it was possible to obtain a product with a higher content of honey (67% solids than in the case of maltodextrin (50% d.b.. However, the powders obtained with gum Arabic were characterised by worse physical properties: higher hygroscopicity and cohesion, and longer wetting time.

  12. Dry powder segregation and flowability: Experimental and numerical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, David R.

    Dry powder blending is a very important industrial and physical process used in the production of numerous pharmaceutical dosage forms such as tablets, capsules, and dry powder aerosols. Key aspects of this unit operation are process monitoring and control. Process control is particularly difficult due to the complexity of particle-particle interactions, which arise from the adhesion/cohesion characteristics of interfaces and morphological characteristics such as particle size, shape, and dispersity. The effects of such characteristics need to be understood in detail in order to correlate individual particle properties to bulk powder properties. The present dissertation numerically and experimentally quantifies the mixing process to rationalize particle-particle interactions. In particular, near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to non-invasively characterize in real-time the blending processes and thus investigate the dynamics of blending under different operating conditions. A novel image analysis technique was developed to quantify the scale of segregation from images obtained non-destructively via near infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI). Although NIR-CI data acquisition times are too long for real-time data collection, NIR-CI has an advantage, in that it provides the spatial distribution of the drug. Therefore, NIRS and NIR-CI are complementary techniques for investigating the complex process of blending dry powders and assessing end-product quality. Additionally, the discrete element method was used to investigate the effect of powder cohesion on the packing fraction. Simulations indicated an exponential relationship between the random loose packing fraction and cohesive forces. Specifically, the packing fraction decreased asymptotically with increased ratio of cohesive force to particle weight. Thus, increasing this force ratio above a critical value has negligible impact on the packing fraction. Such result directly impacts the Hausner ratio flowability

  13. Designing CAF-adjuvanted dry powder vaccines: spray drying preserves the adjuvant activity of CAF01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Christensen, Dennis; Larsen, Niels Bent; Hinrichs, Wouter Leonardus Joseph; Andersen, Peter; Rantanen, Jukka; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Yang, Mingshi; Foged, Camilla

    2013-05-10

    Dry powder vaccine formulations are highly attractive due to improved storage stability and the possibility for particle engineering, as compared to liquid formulations. However, a prerequisite for formulating vaccines into dry formulations is that their physicochemical and adjuvant properties remain unchanged upon rehydration. Thus, we have identified and optimized the parameters of importance for the design of a spray dried powder formulation of the cationic liposomal adjuvant formulation 01 (CAF01) composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) via spray drying. The optimal excipient to stabilize CAF01 during spray drying and for the design of nanocomposite microparticles was identified among mannitol, lactose and trehalose. Trehalose and lactose were promising stabilizers with respect to preserving liposome size, as compared to mannitol. Trehalose and lactose were in the glassy state upon co-spray drying with the liposomes, whereas mannitol appeared crystalline, suggesting that the ability of the stabilizer to form a glassy matrix around the liposomes is one of the prerequisites for stabilization. Systematic studies on the effect of process parameters suggested that a fast drying rate is essential to avoid phase separation and lipid accumulation at the surface of the microparticles during spray drying. Finally, immunization studies in mice with CAF01 in combination with the tuberculosis antigen Ag85B-ESAT6-Rv2660c (H56) demonstrated that spray drying of CAF01 with trehalose under optimal processing conditions resulted in the preservation of the adjuvant activity in vivo. These data demonstrate the importance of liposome stabilization via optimization of formulation and processing conditions in the engineering of dry powder liposome formulations.

  14. Investigation into Alternative Sugars as Potential Carriers for Dry Powder Formulation of Budesonide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nokhodchi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dry powder inhaler (DPI formulations are so far being used for pulmonary drug delivery, mainly for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Currently most of DPI formulations rely on lactose as a carrier in the drug powder blend. However, due to reducing sugar function of lactose which makes it incompatible with some drugs such as budesonide, it is realistic to investigate for alternative sugars that would overcome the concerned drawback but still have the positive aspects of lactose. Methods: The study was conducted by characterizing carriers for their physico-chemical properties and preparing drug/carrier blends with concentration of 5% and 10% drug with the carrier. The mixing uniformity (homogeneity of Budesonide in the blends was analyzed using spectrophotometer. The blend was then filled into NB7/2 Airmax inhaler device and the deposition profiles of the drug were determined using multi stage liquid impinger (MSLI after aerosolization at 4 kPa via the inhaler. The morphology of the carriers conducted using the scanning electron microscope. Results: The results determined that the mean fine particle fraction (FPF of 5% and 10% blends of mannitol was 61%, possibly due to fine elongated particles. Dextrose exhibited excellent flowability. Scanning electron microscope illustrated mannitol with fine elongated particles and dextrose presenting larger and coarse particles. It was found out that type of carriers, particle size distribution, and morphology would influence the FPF of budesonide. Conclusion: It may be concluded that mannitol could be suitable as a carrier on the basis of its pharmaceutical performance and successful achievement of FPF whereas the more hygroscopic sugars such as sorbitol or xylitol showed poor dispersibility leading to lower FPF.

  15. Inhalation toxicity of 316L stainless steel powder in relation to bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockmann-Juvala, H; Hedberg, Y; Dhinsa, N K; Griffiths, D R; Brooks, P N; Zitting, A; Wallinder, I Odnevall; Santonen, T

    2013-11-01

    The Globally Harmonized System for Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS) considers metallic alloys, such as nickel (Ni)-containing stainless steel (SS), as mixtures of substances, without considering that alloys behave differently compared to their constituent metals. This study presents an approach using metal release, explained by surface compositional data, for the prediction of inhalation toxicity of SS AISI 316L. The release of Ni into synthetic biological fluids is >1000-fold lower from the SS powder than from Ni metal, due to the chromium(III)-rich surface oxide of SS. Thus, it was hypothesized that the inhalation toxicity of SS is significantly lower than what could be predicted based on Ni metal content. A 28-day inhalation study with rats exposed to SS 316L powder (<4 µm, mass median aerodynamic diameter 2.5-3.0 µm) at concentrations up to 1.0 mg/L showed accumulation of metal particles in the lung lobes, but no signs of inflammation, although Ni metal caused lung toxicity in a similar published study at significantly lower concentrations. It was concluded that the bioaccessible (released) fraction, rather than the elemental nominal composition, predicts the toxicity of SS powder. The study provides a basis for an approach for future validation, standardization and risk assessment of metal alloys.

  16. A novel method to produce dry geopolymer cement powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Abdel-Gawwad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Geopolymer cement is the result of reaction of two materials containing aluminosilicate and concentrated alkaline solution to produce an inorganic polymer binder. The alkali solutions are corrosive and often viscous solutions which are not user friendly, and would be difficult to use for bulk production. This work aims to produce one-mix geopolymer mixed water that could be an alternative to Portland cement by blending with dry activator. Sodium hydroxide (SH was dissolved in water and added to calcium carbonate (CC then dried at 80 °C for 8 h followed by pulverization to a fixed particle size to produce the dry activator consisting of calcium hydroxide (CH, sodium carbonate (SC and pirssonite (P. This increases their commercial availability. The dry activator was blended with granulated blast-furnace slag (GBFS to produce geopolymer cement powder and by addition of water; the geopolymerization process is started. The effect of W/C and SH/CC ratio on the physico-mechanical properties of slag pastes was studied. The results showed that the optimum percent of activator and CC content is 4% SH and 5% CC, by the weight of slag, which give the highest physico-mechanical properties of GBFS. The characterization of the activated slag pastes was carried out using TGA, DTG, IR spectroscopy and SEM techniques.

  17. Inhalable siRNA-loaded nano-embedded microparticles engineered using microfluidics and spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agnoletti, Monica; Bohr, Adam; Thanki, Kaushik

    2017-01-01

    processing, and nanocomplexes could be reconstituted from the dry powders. The amorphous saccharide excipients trehalose and inulin provided better stabilization than crystalline mannitol, and they enabled full reconstitution of the nanocomplexes. In particular, a binary mixture of trehalose and inulin...

  18. Effect of drying parameters on physiochemical and sensory properties of fruit powders processed by PGSS-, Vacuum- and Spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feguš, Urban; Žigon, Uroš; Petermann, Marcus; Knez, Željko

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this experimental work was to investigate the possibility of producing fruit powders without employing drying aid and to investigate the effect of drying temperatures on the final powder characteristics. Raw fruit materials (banana puree, strawberry puree and blueberry concentrate) were processed using three different drying techniques each operating at a different temperature conditions: vacuum-drying (-27-17 °C), Spray-drying (130-160 °C) and PGSS-drying (112-152 °C). Moisture content, total colour difference, antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics of the processed fruit powders were analysed. The results obtained from the experimental work indicate that investigated fruit powders without or with minimal addition of maltodextrin can be produced. Additionally, it was observed that an increase in process temperature results in a higher loss of colour, antioxidant activity and intensity of the flavour profile.

  19. Modification of ADP extinguishing powder by siliconization in spray drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaojing Zhang; Zhigang Shen; Chujiang Cai; Xiaozheng Yu; Jun Du; Yushan Xing; Shulin Ma

    2012-01-01

    Superfine spherical fire-extinguishing powder,ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP,NH4H2PO4),was prepared by spray drying and modified in situ with methyl hydrogen silicone oil (MHSO) emulsion and the fluorinated surfactant FK-510.The influences of the MHSO mass ratio on the hydrophobicity,surface composition,surface morphology,dispersion and particle-size distribution of the NH4H2PO4 were studied,and the influence of the drying air temperature on the decomposition of the NH4H2PO4 was also researched.The results indicate that the MHSO and FK-510 congregate on the particle surfaces and then form a hydrophobic shell.This shell improves the particle hydrophobicity and leads to a fine dispersion of the particles.During the process of preparing the precursor solution,3 wt% (based on the weight of NH4H2PO4) was chosen as the optimum value of the MHSO mass ratio.During the spray drying,a low absolute humidity of the air should be maintained,and it is very important to keep the exit-air temperature below 100℃ to avoid decomposition.

  20. Development of cyclosporine A-loaded dry-emulsion formulation using highly purified glycerol monooleate for safe inhalation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hideyuki; Ogawa, Kumiko; Kojo, Yoshiki; Kawabata, Yohei; Mizumoto, Takahiro; Yamada, Shizuo; Onoue, Satomi

    2013-05-01

    The main objective of this study was to improve the safety and oxidative stability of glycerol monooleate (GMO)-based dry-emulsion (DE) formulation containing cyclosporine A (CsA) for inhalation therapy. GMO or highly purified GMO (hpGMO) was used as surfactant for the DE formulations (GMO/DE or hpGMO/DE), the toxicological and physicochemical properties of which were characterized with a focus on oxidative stability, in vitro/in vivo toxicity, and dissolution property. Incubation of GMO at oxidation accelerating conditions for 10 days at 60°C resulted in the formation of lipid peroxides as evidenced by increased malondialdehyde (111 μmol/mg); however, hpGMO samples exhibited increase of only 20.7 μmol/mg in malondialdehyde level. No significant acute cytotoxicity was observed in rat alveolar L2 cells exposed to hpGMO (0.28mM), and intratracheal administration of hpGMO powder in rats did not cause an increase of the plasma LDH level. The hpGMO/DE exhibited marked improvement in dissolution behavior of CsA, and stable fine micelles with a mean diameter of 320 nm were formed when suspended in water. A respirable powder formulation of hpGMO/DE (hpGMO/DE-RP) was newly prepared, and its in vitro inhalation property and in vivo efficacy were also evaluated. The hpGMO/DE-RP exhibited high dispersibility in laser diffraction analysis and significantly improved potency to attenuate recruitment of inflammatory cells into airway and thickening of airway wall in an animal model. Thus, the strategic use of hpGMO would improve oxidative stability and local toxicity compared with a GMO-based DE formulation, and its application to RP formulation could be a promising approach for effective inhalation therapy.

  1. Nanofibrillation of Dry Chitin Powder by Star Burst System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Ifuku

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitin nanofibers were prepared from dry chitin powder by nanofibrillation using a Star Burst instrument employing a high-pressure water jet system. FE-SEM micrographs showed that the nanofibers became thinner as the number of Star Burst passes increased. Fibrillation in an acidic condition made the chitin fibers thinner than those in a neutral condition. The transmittance spectra of chitin nanofiber/acrylic resin composites led us to the same conclusion. In addition, chitin nanofibers prepared by treatment consisting of five Star Burst passes in the neutral condition were thinner than the previously reported nanofibers. X-ray diffraction profiles showed that the Star Burst system did not damage the chitin nanofibers and did not reduce their crystallinity.

  2. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which open the breathing passages. Inhalers are very safe when used as prescribed by doctors. Inhalants, on the other hand, are common household chemicals that contain a volatile component which can be ...

  3. Isoniazid proliposome powders for inhalation-preparation, characterization and cell culture studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojanarat, Wipaporn; Changsan, Narumon; Tawithong, Ekawat; Pinsuwan, Sirirat; Chan, Hak-Kim; Srichana, Teerapol

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop proliposome powders containing isoniazid (INH) in a dry powder aerosol form. INH-proliposome powders were prepared by a spray drying method. Proliposome physicochemical properties were determined using cascade impactor, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. The toxicity of proliposomes to respiratory-associated cell lines and its potential to provoke immunological responses from alveolar macrophages (AM) were determined. Free INH and INH-proliposome bioactivities were tested in vitro and in AM infected with Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). Aerosolization properties of INH-proliposome powders at 60 L/min, the powders showed mass median aerodynamic diameters of 2.99-4.92 μm, with fine particle fractions (aerosolized particles less than 4.4 μm) of 15-35%. Encapsulation of INH was 18-30%. Proliposome formulations containing INH to mannitol ratios of 4:6 and 6:4 exhibited the greatest overlapping peak between the drug and mannitol. INH-proliposomes were evidently nontoxic to respiratory-associated cells, and did not activate AM to produce inflammatory mediators-including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and nitric oxide-at a toxic level. The efficacy of INH-proliposome against AM infected with M. bovis was significantly higher than that of free INH (p < 0.05). INH-proliposomes are potential candidates for an alternative tuberculosis treatment.

  4. Who Can Use an Inhaler?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a bit harder. Any kid, even a baby, can use a metered dose inhaler with a spacer and a mask. Once a kid is 5 or 6 years old, he or she can learn to use a metered dose inhaler with just a spacer. Most kids that age are also able to use a dry powder inhaler. Your doctor will help you decide what ...

  5. Solid Lipid Nanoparticle assemblies (SLNas) for an anti-TB inhalation treatment-A Design of Experiments approach to investigate the influence of pre-freezing conditions on the powder respirability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maretti, Eleonora; Rustichelli, Cecilia; Romagnoli, Marcello; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Buttini, Francesca; Sacchetti, Francesca; Leo, Eliana; Iannuccelli, Valentina

    2016-09-10

    For direct intramacrophagic antitubercular therapy, pulmonary administration through Dry Powder Inhaler (DPI) devices is a reasonable option. For the achievement of efficacious aerosolisation, rifampicin-loaded Solid Lipid Nanoparticle assemblies (SLNas) were developed using the melt emulsifying technique followed by freeze-drying. Indeed, this drying method can cause freezing or drying stresses compromising powder respirability. It is the aim of this research to offer novel information regarding pre-freezing variables. These included type and concentration of cryoprotectants, pre-freezing temperature, and nanoparticle concentration in the suspension. In particular, the effects of such variables were observed at two main levels. First of all, on SLNas characteristics - i.e., size, polydispersity index, zeta-potential, circularity, density, and drug loading. Secondly, on powder respirability, taking into account aerodynamic diameter, emitted dose, and respirable fraction. Considering the complexity of the factors involved in a successful respirable powder, a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach was adopted as a statistical tool for evaluating the effect of pre-freezing conditions. Interestingly, the most favourable impact on powder respirability was exerted by quick-freezing combined with a certain grade of sample dilution before the pre-freezing step without the use of cryoprotectants. In such conditions, a very high SLNas respirable fraction (>50%) was achieved, along with acceptable yields in the final dry powder as well as a reduction of powder mass to be introduced into DPI capsules with benefits in terms of administered drug dose feasibility.

  6. 30 CFR 75.1101-15 - Construction of dry powder chemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Construction of dry powder chemical systems. 75.1101-15 Section 75.1101-15 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-15 Construction of dry powder...

  7. 30 CFR 75.1101-13 - Dry powder chemical systems; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dry powder chemical systems; general. 75.1101-13 Section 75.1101-13 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-13 Dry powder chemical systems;...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1101-14 - Installation of dry powder chemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Installation of dry powder chemical systems. 75.1101-14 Section 75.1101-14 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Fire Protection § 75.1101-14 Installation of dry powder...

  9. Effect of drying method on the adsorption isotherms and isosteric heat of passion fruit pulp powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica Marques Pedro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The sorption behavior of dry products is generally affected by the drying method. The sorption isotherms are useful to determine and compare thermodynamic properties of passion fruit pulp powder processed by different drying methods. The objective of this study is to analyze the effects of different drying methods on the sorption properties of passion fruit pulp powder. Passion fruit pulp powder was dehydrated using different dryers: vacuum, spray dryer, vibro-fluidized, and freeze dryer. The moisture equilibrium data of Passion Fruit Pulp (PFP powders with 55% of maltodextrin (MD were determined at 20, 30, 40 and 50 ºC. The behavior of the curves was type III, according to Brunauer's classification, and the GAB model was fitted to the experimental equilibrium data. The equilibrium moisture contents of the samples were little affected by temperature variation. The spray dryer provides a dry product with higher adsorption capacity than that of the other methods. The vibro-fluidized bed drying showed higher adsorption capacity than that of vacuum and freeze drying. The vacuum and freeze drying presented the same adsorption capacity. The isosteric heats of sorption were found to decrease with increasing moisture content. Considering the effect of drying methods, the highest isosteric heat of sorption was observed for powders produced by spray drying, whereas powders obtained by vacuum and freeze drying showed the lowest isosteric heats of sorption.

  10. Spray-dried tomato powder: reconstitution properties and colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Santos de Sousa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Powdered tomato was produced by spray drying the tomato pulp. A full 2³ factorial design with the central point was used, varying the feed flow rate (127-276 g/min, air inlet temperature (200-220ºC and the atomisation speed (25,000-35,000 rpm. The responses analysed were: moisture content, solubility, wettability consistency and colour, but the factors only significantly affected the colour parameter. All the samples became significantly darker and less red with an increase of the variables under study. A low atomisation speed (25,000 rpm and lower inlet air temperature (220ºC produced the powders with a higher colour index (a/b and less darkening.Tomate em pó foi produzido por secagem por atomização da polpa de tomate. Um planejamento 2³fatorial completo com ponto central foi conduzido variando a taxa de alimentação (127276 g/min, temperatura de entrada do ar (200-220ºC e a velocidade de atomização (25000-35000 rpm. As respostas analisadas foram: conteúdo de umidade, solubilidade, molhabilidade, consistência e cor, ma os fatores somente afetaram significativamente a cor. Todas as amostras tornaram significantemente mais escuras e menos vermelhas com o aumento das variáveis sob estudo. Baixa velocidade de atomização (25000 rpm e menor temperatura do ar de secagem (220ºC produziram pós de maior índice de cor (a/b e menor escurecimento.

  11. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., Asteraceae: development of granules from spray dried powder

    OpenAIRE

    Petrovick,Gustavo F.; Pedro R. Petrovick; Valquiria L. Bassani

    2010-01-01

    Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC., Asteraceae, is a herbal specie widely used in folk medicine in the south of Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Paraguay. The technological characteristics of an Achyrocline satureioides spray dried extract powder, produced in semi-industrial scale, as well as the feasibility of the granules are reported in the present work. The spray dried powder was characterized as a fine powder consisting of small spherical particles with rough and porous surface. The Hausn...

  12. How surface composition of high milk proteins powders is influenced by spray-drying temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaiani, C; Morand, M; Sanchez, C; Tehrany, E Arab; Jacquot, M; Schuck, P; Jeantet, R; Scher, J

    2010-01-01

    High milk proteins powders are common ingredients in many food products. The surface composition of these powders is expected to play an essential role during their storage, handling and/or final application. Therefore, an eventual control of the surface composition by modifying the spray-drying temperature could be very useful in the improvement of powder quality and the development of new applications. For this purpose, the influence of five spray-drying temperatures upon the surface composition of the powders was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The major milk proteins were studied: native micellar casein and native whey, both more or less enriched in lactose. The results show a surface enrichment in lipids for all the powders and in proteins for many powders. Whatever the drying temperature, lipids and proteins are preferentially located near the surface whereas lactose is found in the core. This surface enrichment is also highly affected by the spray-drying temperature. More lipids, more proteins and less lactose are systematically observed at the surface of powders spray-dried at lower outlet air temperatures. The nature of proteins is also found essential; surface enrichment in lipids being much stronger for whey proteins containing powders than for casein containing powders. Additionally, we found a direct correlation between the lipids surface concentration and the wetting ability for the 25 powders studied.

  13. Spray Drying of High Sugar Content Foods: Improving of Product Yield and Powder Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet Koç; Figen Kaymak-Ertekin

    2016-01-01

    Spray drying is the most preferred drying method to produce powdered food in the food industry and it is also widely used to convert sugar-rich liquid foods to a powder form. During and/or after spray drying process of sugar-rich products, undesirable situation was appeared such as stickiness, high moisture affinity (hygroscopicity) and low solubility due to low molecular weight monosaccharides that found naturally in the structure. The basis of these problems was formed by low glass transiti...

  14. Preparation of High-Grade Powders from Tomato Paste Using a Vacuum Foam Drying Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sramek, Martin; Schweiggert, Ralf Martin; van Kampen, Andreas; Carle, Reinhold; Kohlus, Reinhard

    2015-08-01

    We present a rapid and gentle drying method for the production of high-grade tomato powders from double concentrated tomato paste, comparing results with powders obtained by foam mat air drying and freeze dried powders. The principle of this method consists of drying tomato paste in foamed state at low temperatures in vacuum. The formulations were dried at temperatures of 50, 60, and 70 °C and vacuum of 200 mbar. Foam stability was affected by low serum viscosity and the presence of solid particles in tomato paste. Consequently, serum viscosity was increased by maltodextrin addition, yielding optimum stability at tomato paste:maltodextrin ratio of 2.4:1 (w/w) in dry matter. Material foamability was improved by addition of 0.5% (w/w, fresh weight) egg white. Because of solid particles in tomato paste, foam air filling had to be limited to critical air volume fraction of Φ = 0.7. The paste was first pre-foamed to Φ = 0.2 and subsequently expanded in vacuo. After drying to a moisture content of 5.6% to 7.5% wet base (w.b.), the materials obtained were in glassy state. Qualities of the resulting powders were compared with those produced by freeze and air drying. Total color changes were the least after vacuum drying, whereas air drying resulted in noticeable color changes. Vacuum foam drying at 50 °C led to insignificant carotenoid losses, being equivalent to the time-consuming freeze drying method. In contrast, air drying caused lycopene and β-carotene losses of 18% to 33% and 14% to 19% respectively. Thus, vacuum foam drying enables production of high-grade tomato powders being qualitatively similar to powders obtained by freeze drying.

  15. Effect of oil droplet size on the oxidative stability of spray-dried flaxseed oil powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Hirokazu; Loon Neoh, Tze; Ninomiya, Ai; Adachi, Sae; Pasten, Ignacio Lopez; Adachi, Shuji; Yoshii, Hidefumi

    2017-04-01

    The effect of the size of oil droplets on the oxidative stability of flaxseed oil in spray-dried powders was investigated. Maltodextrin with a dextrose equivalent of 25 was used as a wall material, and sodium caseinate and transglutaminase-polymerized sodium caseinate were used as emulsifiers. The oxidative stability of flaxseed oil encapsulated in the spray-dried powders was evaluated using lipid oxidation and conductometric determination tests at 105 °C. The powders containing larger oil droplets exhibited higher surface oil content after spray drying, and higher peroxide value and conductivity after storage at 105 °C. Removal of the surface oil from the powders by washing with hexane significantly decreased the conductivity. The results indicated that the surface oil of the spray-dried flaxseed oil powders affected the oxidation stability.

  16. [Study on totai flavonoids of Epimedium assisted with soybean polysaccharide spray-drying powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hong-mei; Jia, Xiao-bin; Zhang, Zhen-hai; Sun, E; Deng, Jia-hui

    2015-08-01

    In order to evaluate the characteristics of the spray drying of total flavonoids of Epimedium extracts assisted with soybean polysaccharide, a certain percentage of soybean polysaccharide or polyvidone were added to the total flavonoids of Epimedium extract to conduct the spray drying. The effect of soybean polysaccharides against the wall sticking effect of the spray drying was detected, as well as the powder property of total flavonoids of Epimedium spray drying powder and the dissolution in vitro behavior of the effective component. Compared with the total flavonoids of Epimedium spray drying powder, soybean polysaccharide revealed a significant anti-wall sticking effect. The spray drying power which had no notable change in the grain size made a increase in the fluidity, improvement in the moisture absorption and remarkable rise in the dissolution in vitro behavior. It was worth further studying the application of soybean polysaccharide in spray drying power of traditional Chinese medicine.

  17. Atmospheric freeze drying for the reduction of powder electrostatics of amorphous, low density, high surface area pharmaceutical powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, K P; Cai, Z; Schmerler, P; Williams, R O

    2013-02-01

    Amorphous itraconazole (ITZ) was prepared by Thin Film Freezing (TFF) utilizing 1,4-dioxane as the solvent with subsequent solvent removal via conventional tray lyophilization (ITZ LYO) or atmospheric freeze drying (ITZ AFD). ITZ AFD was prepared under various drying conditions to assess the influence of drying parameters on powder properties. XRD analysis confirmed all products were amorphous and DSC analysis revealed both drying processes resulted in the formation of the nematic mesophase of ITZ. SEM revealed a larger pore size and agglomerate size with fewer fine particles (i.e. less than 10 microns in diameter) for ITZ AFD compared to ITZ LYO. Residual solvent analysis revealed a primary drying temperature of -10°C resulted in residual solvent levels above the acceptable limits set by the International Conference on Harmonization as a result of microcollapse. Primary drying temperatures of less than -10°C resulted in acceptable residual solvent levels. The extent of microcollapse did not alter the macrostructure of the resulting powder. Powder flowability was determined to be similar for ITZ AFD and ITZ LYO based on Carr's index and the Hausner ratio, as well as by dynamic angle of repose. All powders displayed poor flowability. Chargeability measurements demonstrated a lower charge transfer for ITZ AFD powders compared to ITZ LYO due to a combination of factors including differences in residual solvent level, particle size, pore size, surface area, and fine particles content. The reduction in chargeability as a result of AFD is highly desirable because it allows for improved powder handling and use post-production.

  18. Poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) Nanoparticle Agglomerates as Carriers in Dry Powder Aerosol Formulation of Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peek, Laura J.; Roberts, Lydia; Berkland, Cory

    2013-01-01

    A dry powder aerosol drug delivery system was designed with both nano- and microstructure to maximize the protein loading via surface adsorption and to facilitate delivery to the deep lung, respectively. Ovalbumin was employed as a model protein to adsorb to and controllably flocculate DOTAP-coated PLG nanoparticles into “nanoclusters” possessing low density microstructure. The mechanism of nanoparticle flocculation was probed by evaluating the effects of ionic strength, shear force, and protein concentration on the geometric and aerodynamic diameters of the nanoclusters as well as the protein adsorption efficiency. Salt ions were found to compete with ovalbumin adsorption to nanoparticles and facilitate flocculation; therefore, formulation of nanoclusters for inhaled drug delivery may require the lowest possible ionic strength to maximize protein adsorption. Additional factors, such as shear force and total protein–particle concentration can be altered to optimize nanocluster size, suggesting the possibility of regional lung delivery. Immediate release of ovalbumin was observed, and native protein structure upon release was confirmed by circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy studies. Controlled flocculation of nanoparticles may provide a useful alternative to spray drying when formulating dry powders for pulmonary or nasal administration of protein therapeutics or antigens. PMID:18680321

  19. Effects of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of dry common bean powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Yongfeng; Cichy, Karen A; Harte, Janice B; Kelly, James D; Ng, Perry K W

    2016-11-15

    The impact of extrusion cooking on the chemical composition and functional properties of bean powders from four common bean varieties was investigated. The raw bean powders were extruded under eight different conditions, and the extrudates were then dried and ground (particle size⩽0.5mm). Compared with corresponding non-extruded (raw) bean powders (particle size⩽0.5mm), the extrusion treatments did not substantially change the protein and starch contents of the bean powders and showed inconsistent effects on the sucrose, raffinose and stachyose contents. The extrusion cooking did cause complete starch gelatinization and protein denaturation of the bean powders and thus changed their pasting properties and solvent-retention capacities. The starch digestibilities of the cooked non-extruded and cooked extruded bean powders were comparable. The extruded bean powders displayed functional properties similar to those of two commercial bean powders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of Heating at Oven-Dry State on Steam Treated Bamboo Powder Thermal Fluidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kajikawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In hot molding processes of woody material, it is important to understand the effect of oven-dry heating on the property of woody biomass material, such as thermal fluidity. In this study, thermal flow tests of untreated and steam treated bamboo powder were conducted to investigate the effects of heating at an oven-dry state on thermal fluidity. The test temperature was set to 200°C. Before the thermal flow test, powder was dry-heated in a capillary rheometer at 200°C with a variable heating time. Thermogravimetry was conducted to understand the thermal changes of the powder during an increasing temperature and constant temperature. Fluidity of untreated powder was improved with a short dry-heating but decreased with a long dry-heating. In contrast, steam treated powder fluidity was high compared to untreated one, but its fluidity did not improve from dry-heating. From these thermogravimetry results, the chemical changes associated with component volatilization relate with the thermal fluidity. Therefore, the decrease in fluidity from dry-heating occurred because fluidity related components escape from the powder through volatilization.

  1. Clarithromycin and N-acetylcysteine co-spray-dried powders for pulmonary drug delivery: A focus on drug solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manniello, Michele Dario; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Aquino, Rita P; Russo, Paola

    2017-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) lungs are usually susceptible to Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization and this bacterium is resistant to immune system clearance and drug control. Particularly, the biofilm mode of growth protects several microorganisms from host defenses and antibacterial drugs, mainly due to a delayed penetration of the drug through the biofilm matrix. Biofilm, together with lung mucus viscosity and tenacity, reduces, therefore, the effectiveness of conventional antibiotic therapy in CF. The aim of this research was to design and develop a stable, portable, easy to use dry powder inhaler (DPI) for CF patients, able to release directly to the lung an association of macrolide antibiotics (clarithromycin) and a mucolytic agent (N-Acetyl-Cysteine). Its effectiveness is based on the counteracting of the characteristics of P. aeruginosa infections in CF (lung bacterial adhesion to lung epithelium, biofilm formation and mucus viscosity) and the ability to let the antimicrobial drug exert their pharmacological action. A solution of these two drugs, without any excipients, was spray-dried to obtain respirable microparticles, characterized by aerodynamic diameters suitable for inhalation (acetylcysteine which can interact with clarithromycin dimethyl-amino group, a consistent enhancement of drug solubility was obtained, compared to raw material and to the drug sprayed alone. The mucolytic agent added in the DPI may improve the macrolide diffusion into the mucus, enabling its action.

  2. Characterisation of high dose dry powder aerosols by cascade impaction and laser diffraction analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasmeijer, F.; Hagedoorn, P.; Frijlink, H.W.; De Boer, A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Developments in high dose dry powder inhalationcontinue to challenge the viability of pharmacopoeialmethods for drug aerosol characterisation. Especiallythe occurrence of bounce effects can cause the amount offines (<1 lm) to be highly overestimated in particle sizedistributions (PSDs) o

  3. High shear treatment of concentrates and drying conditions influence the solubility of milk protein concentrate powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Mary Ann; Sanguansri, Peerasak; Williams, Roderick; Andrews, Helen

    2012-11-01

    The solubility of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders was influenced by the method used for preparing the concentrate, drying conditions, and the type of dryer used. Increasing total solids of the ultrafiltered concentrates (23% total solids, TS) by diafiltration to 25% TS or evaporation to 31% TS decreased the solubility of MPC powders (80-83% protein, w/w dry basis), with ultrafiltration followed by evaporation to higher total solids having the greater detrimental effect on solubility. High shear treatment (homogenisation at 350/100 bar, microfluidisation at 800 bar or ultrasonication at 24 kHz, 600 watts) of ultrafiltered and diafiltered milk protein concentrates prior to spray drying increased the nitrogen solubility of MPC powders (82% protein, w/w dry basis). Of the treatments applied, microfluidisation was the most effective for increasing nitrogen solubility of MPC powders after manufacture and during storage. Manufacture of MPC powders (91% protein, w/w dry basis) prepared on two different pilot-scale dryers (single stage or two stage) from milk protein concentrates (20% TS) resulted in powders with different nitrogen solubility and an altered response to the effects of microfluidisation. Microfluidisation (400, 800 and 1200 bar) of the concentrate prior to drying resulted in increased long term solubility of MPC powders that were prepared on a single stage dryer but not those produced on a two stage spray dryer. This work demonstrates that microfluidisation can be used as a physical intervention for improving MPC powder solubility. Interactions between the method of preparation and treatment of concentrate prior to drying, the drying conditions and dryer type all influence MPC solubility characteristics.

  4. Inhalants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip to main content En español Researchers Medical & Health Professionals Patients & Families Parents & Educators Children & Teens Search Connect with NIDA : ... get treatment for addiction to inhalants? Some people seeking treatment for ... for positive behaviors such as staying drug-free. More research is ...

  5. Effect of sucrose on physical properties of spray-dried whole milk powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, U V Lay; Ziegler, G R; Floros, J D

    2008-11-01

    Spray-dried whole milk powders were prepared from whole condensed milk with various sucrose concentrations (0%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10% w/w), and their glass transition temperature and some physical properties of importance in chocolate manufacture were evaluated. In milk powder samples, the glass transition temperature and free-fat content decreased in a nonlinear manner with sucrose addition. Moreover, increasing sucrose concentration reduced the formation of dents on the particle surface. Addition of sucrose in whole condensed milk increased linearly the apparent particle density and in a nonlinear manner the particle size of spray-dried milk powders. The particle size volume distribution of milk powders with the highest sucrose concentration differed from the log-normal distribution of the other samples due to the formation of large agglomerates. Neither vacuole volume, nor the amorphous state of milk powders was affected by sucrose addition.

  6. Physicochemical properties of whole fruit plum powders obtained using different drying technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Lech, Krzysztof; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam

    2016-09-15

    Physicochemical quality parameters of plum powders obtained by applying conventional drying methods and their combination devised to process plums were evaluated. The effect of freeze-drying (FD), vacuum drying (VD), convective drying (CD), microwave-vacuum drying (MVD) and combination of convective pre-drying and microwave finish-drying (CPD-MVFD) affected physical (bulk density, porosity, colour, solubility) and chemical (polyphenolic compounds determined by UPLC and antioxidant capacity by TEAC ABTS and FRAP methods) properties of plum powders. The MVD at 1.2 W g(-1) and a novel combination for plum powders production - CPD-MVFD at 70 °C/1.2 W g(-1) allowed the best preservation of phenolic compounds and increased the efficiency of production. Results obtained support the use of MVD and its combination for better quality of dried plum products. The study proved that the determination of the browning index and HMF level (formed via Maillard reaction) might be good tool for monitoring the thermal processing of plum powders.

  7. Adhesive mixtures for inhalation : the cohesion between formulation variables, inhalation variables and dispersion performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasmeijer, Floris

    2014-01-01

    Powdery drugs for inhalation to treat asthma and COPD are often mixed with lactose to enable their accurate dosing. However, because the drug particles adhere strongly to the lactose particles, they are difficult to disperse with the aid of a dry powder inhaler. As a result, over half the dose usual

  8. Suitability of differently formulated dry powder Newcastle disease vaccines for mass vaccination of poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyge, Katrien; Van Reeth, Kristien; De Beer, Thomas; Landman, Wil J M; van Eck, Jo H H; Remon, Jean Paul; Vervaet, Chris

    2012-04-01

    Dry powders containing a live-attenuated Newcastle disease vaccine (LZ58 strain) and intended for mass vaccination of poultry were prepared by spray drying using mannitol in combination with trehalose or inositol, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and/or bovine serum albumin (BSA) as stabilizers. These powders were evaluated for vaccine stabilizing capacity during production and storage (at 6 °C and 25 °C), moisture content, hygroscopicity and dry powder dispersibility. A mixture design, varying the ratio of mannitol, inositol and BSA, was used to select the stabilizer combination which resulted in the desired powder properties (i.e. good vaccine stability during production and storage, low moisture content and hygroscopicity and good dry dispersibility). Inositol-containing powders had the same vaccine stabilizing capacity as trehalose powders, but were less hygroscopic. Incorporation of BSA enhanced the vaccine stability in the powders compared to PVP-containing formulations. However, increasing the BSA concentration increased the hygroscopicity and reduced the dry dispersibility of the powder. No valid mathematical model could be calculated for vaccine stability during production or storage, but the individual experiments indicated that a formulation combining mannitol, inositol and BSA in a ratio of 73.3:13.3:13.3 (wt/wt) resulted in the lowest vaccine titre loss during production (1.6-2.0 log(10) 50% egg infectious dose (EID(50)) and storage at 6 °C (max. 0.8 log(10) EID(50) after 6 months) in combination with a low moisture content (1.1-1.4%), low hygroscopicity (1.9-2.1% water uptake at 60% relative humidity) and good dry dispersibility properties.

  9. Spray Drying of High Sugar Content Foods: Improving of Product Yield and Powder Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Koç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is the most preferred drying method to produce powdered food in the food industry and it is also widely used to convert sugar-rich liquid foods to a powder form. During and/or after spray drying process of sugar-rich products, undesirable situation was appeared such as stickiness, high moisture affinity (hygroscopicity and low solubility due to low molecular weight monosaccharides that found naturally in the structure. The basis of these problems was formed by low glass transition temperature of sugar-rich products. This review gives information about the difficulties in drying of sugar-rich products via spray dryer, actions need to be taken against these difficulties and drying of sugar-rich honey and fruit juices with spray drying method.

  10. Engineering of an Inhalable DDA/TDB Liposomal Adjuvant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Yang, Mingshi; Mulvad, Helle

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize spray drying parameters of importance for the design of an inhalable powder formulation of a cationic liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB).......The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize spray drying parameters of importance for the design of an inhalable powder formulation of a cationic liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB)....

  11. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arawwawala, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka; Hewageegana, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi; Arambewela, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha; Ariyawansa, Hettiarachchige Sami

    2011-04-01

    The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle.

  12. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka Arawwawala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b screening for phytochemicals; and (c development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle.

  13. Cubic phase-forming dry powders for controlled drug delivery on mucosal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moebus, K; Siepmann, J; Bodmeier, R

    2012-01-30

    The purpose of this study was to prepare and physicochemically characterize protein-loaded, glycerol monooleate (GMO)-based dry powder systems, which can be used for the controlled mucosal delivery of macromolecules (e.g., nasal, buccal, pulmonary). Bovine serum albumin (BSA)-loaded powders were prepared by spray-drying, freeze-drying and/or spray-freezing using different types of carrier materials, including mannitol, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP 25) and polyethylene glycols (PEGs). The systems were characterized by optical and polarized light microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, gel electrophoresis and diffusion studies. The type of carrier material strongly affected the resulting particle size and shape. The presence of GMO effectively slowed down BSA release. Importantly, broad ranges of release patterns could be achieved by varying the type of preparation method and composition of the dry powders. In all cases, the primary structure of the BSA remained intact. GMO, which is a wax solid at room temperature, has been successfully converted into dry powder formulations that offer potential for the controlled mucosal delivery of proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Multifunctional graded dielectrics fabricated using dry powder printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Austin J.; Roper, David; Good, Brandon; Yarlagadda, Shridhar; Mirotznik, Mark S.

    2017-09-01

    The ability to fabricate multifunctional devices that combine good structural properties with embedded electromagnetic functionality has many practical applications, including antireflective surfaces for structural radomes, load bearing conformal antennas, integrated RF transmission lines and passive beam forming networks. We describe here a custom made 3D printer that can print high dielectric constant ceramic powders within a low-loss structural composite substrate to produce mechanically robust parts with integrated graded dielectric properties. We fabricated a number of these parts and evaluated their anisotropic dielectric properties by determining the complete permittivity tensor of the printed samples as a function of local powder weight. This data was then experimentally validated using two practical examples: a Chebyshev antireflective stack and a 2D passive beamsteering network. The results of both electromagnetic systems displayed acceptable agreement between the simulated and measured results. This agreement shows that powder printing is a potential approach for fabricating spatially graded dielectric electromagnetic systems. This paper was submitted for review on 15 February 2017. The project is funded by the Office of Naval Research, Code 331.

  15. Formulation pre-screening of inhalation powders using computational atom-atom systematic search method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Vasuki; Murnane, Darragh; Hammond, Robert B; Pickering, Jonathan; Roberts, Kevin J; Soufian, Majeed; Forbes, Ben; Jaffari, Sara; Martin, Gary P; Collins, Elizabeth; Pencheva, Klimentina

    2015-01-05

    The synthonic modeling approach provides a molecule-centered understanding of the surface properties of crystals. It has been applied extensively to understand crystallization processes. This study aimed to investigate the functional relevance of synthonic modeling to the formulation of inhalation powders by assessing cohesivity of three active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs, fluticasone propionate (FP), budesonide (Bud), and salbutamol base (SB)) and the commonly used excipient, α-lactose monohydrate (LMH). It is found that FP (-11.5 kcal/mol) has a higher cohesive strength than Bud (-9.9 kcal/mol) or SB (-7.8 kcal/mol). The prediction correlated directly to cohesive strength measurements using laser diffraction, where the airflow pressure required for complete dispersion (CPP) was 3.5, 2.0, and 1.0 bar for FP, Bud, and SB, respectively. The highest cohesive strength was predicted for LMH (-15.9 kcal/mol), which did not correlate with the CPP value of 2.0 bar (i.e., ranking lower than FP). High FP-LMH adhesive forces (-11.7 kcal/mol) were predicted. However, aerosolization studies revealed that the FP-LMH blends consisted of agglomerated FP particles with a large median diameter (∼4-5 μm) that were not disrupted by LMH. Modeling of the crystal and surface chemistry of LMH identified high electrostatic and H-bond components of its cohesive energy due to the presence of water and hydroxyl groups in lactose, unlike the APIs. A direct comparison of the predicted and measured cohesive balance of LMH with APIs will require a more in-depth understanding of highly hydrogen-bonded systems with respect to the synthonic engineering modeling tool, as well as the influence of agglomerate structure on surface-surface contact geometry. Overall, this research has demonstrated the possible application and relevance of synthonic engineering tools for rapid pre-screening in drug formulation and design.

  16. Real-life characteristics of asthma inhaler device use in South Korea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wan Yau Ming, S.; Rhee, C.K.; Park, H.Y.; Yoo, K.H.; Kim, D.K.; Van Boven, J.F.; Price, D.; Park, H.S.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Historically, dry powder inhalers (DPIs) were considered to provide better airway distribution, easier identification of empty devices, and easier handling when compared to pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). Prior research into the major handling errors with inhaler

  17. Trends in the technology-driven development of new inhalation devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijlink, Erik; de Boer, A.H

    2005-01-01

    Inhalation technology diverges rapidly along various lines. A variety of technological solutions are currently under development to overcome the many problems related to adequate aerosol generation both for dry powder inhalation systems and for liquid inhalation systems. Many of the improvements are

  18. Pulmonary drug delivery by powder aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Michael Yifei; Chan, John Gar Yan; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2014-11-10

    The efficacy of pharmaceutical aerosols relates to its deposition in the clinically relevant regions of the lungs, which can be assessed by in vivo lung deposition studies. Dry powder formulations are popular as devices are portable and aerosolisation does not require a propellant. Over the years, key advancements in dry powder formulation, device design and our understanding on the mechanics of inhaled pharmaceutical aerosol have opened up new opportunities in treatment of diseases through pulmonary drug delivery. This review covers these advancements and future directions for inhaled dry powder aerosols.

  19. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug for pulmonary administration: design and investigation of ketoprofen lysinate fine dry powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stigliani, Mariateresa; Aquino, Rita P; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Mencherini, Teresa; Sansone, Francesca; Russo, Paola

    2013-05-01

    Pulmonary inflammation is an important therapeutic target in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, aiming to limit and delay the lung damage. The purpose of the present research was to produce respirable engineered particles of ketoprofen lysinate, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug able to fight lung inflammatory status by direct administration to the site of action. Micronized drug powders containing leucine as dispersibility enhancer were prepared by co-spray drying the active compound and the excipient from water or hydro-alcoholic feeds. Microparticles were fully characterized in terms of process yield, particle size distribution, morphology and drug content. The ability of the drug to reach the deepest airways after aerosolization of spray-dried formulations was evaluated by Andersen cascade impactor, using the monodose DPI as device. In order to investigate the behaviour of the drug once in contact with lung fluid, an artificial CF mucus was prepared. Drug permeation properties were evaluated interposing the mucus layer between the drug and a synthetic membrane mounted in Franz-type diffusion cells. Finally, the effect of the engineered particles on vitality of human airway epithelial cells of patients homozygous for ΔF 508 CF (CuFi1) was studied and compared to that of raw active compound. Results indicated that powders engineering changed the diameter and shape of the particles, making them suitable for inhalation. The mucus layer in the donor compartment of vertical diffusion cells slowed down drug dissolution and permeation, leucine having no influence. Cell proliferation studies evidenced that the spray drying process together with the addition of leucine reduced the cytotoxic effect of ketoprofen lysine salt as raw material, making the ketoprofen lysinate DPI a very promising product for the inflammation control in CF patients.

  20. Functional and physicochemical properties of whole egg powder: effect of spray drying conditions

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Pasteurized liquid whole egg was subjected to spray drying to determine the effect of spray drying conditions on moisture content, water activity, peroxide value, emulsion stability, gel texture, foaming stability and colour change of the powder product. Drying process was carried out in a pilot scale spray dryer (Mobile Minor Niro-Atomizer, Denmark). The inlet (165–195 °C) and outlet air temperatures (60–80 °C) and the atomization pressure (196–392 kPa) were investigated as spray drying proc...

  1. Optimization of spray drying process for developing seabuckthorn fruit juice powder using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvamuthukumaran, Meenakshisundaram; Khanum, Farhath

    2014-12-01

    The response surface methodology was used to optimize the spray drying process for development of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The independent variables were different levels of inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration. The responses were moisture, solubility, dispersibility, vitamin C and overall color difference value. Statistical analysis revealed that independent variables significantly affected all the responses. The Inlet air temperature showed maximum influence on moisture and vitamin C content, while the maltodextrin concentration showed similar influence on solubility, dispersibility and overall color difference value. Contour plots for each response were used to generate an optimum area by superimposition. The seabuckthorn fruit juice powder was developed using the derived optimum processing conditions to check the validity of the second order polynomial model. The experimental values were found to be in close agreement to the predicted values and were within the acceptable limits indicating the suitability of the model in predicting quality attributes of seabuckthorn fruit juice powder. The recommended optimum spray drying conditions for drying 100 g fruit juice slurry were inlet air temperature and maltodextrin concentration of 162.5 °C and 25 g, respectively. The spray dried juice powder contains higher amounts of antioxidants viz., vitamin C, vitamin E, total carotenoids, total anthocyanins and total phenols when compared to commercial fruit juice powders and they are also found to be free flowing without any physical alterations such as caking, stickiness, collapse and crystallization by exhibiting greater glass transition temperature.

  2. Economic Evaluation of Tobramycin Inhalation Powder for the Treatment of Chronic Pulmonary Pseudomonas aeruginosa Infection in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panguluri, Srilekha; Gunda, Praveen; Debonnett, Laurie; Hamed, Kamal

    2017-08-01

    Chronic lung infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa occurs in approximately 50% of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). This infection further compromises lung function, and significantly contributes to the increased healthcare costs. Inhaled tobramycin, used to manage P. aeruginosa infection in CF patients, is available as powder (tobramycin inhalation powder, TIP) and solution (tobramycin inhalation solution, TIS). Evidence suggests increased adherence with the use of TIP over TIS. Hence, this analysis aimed to evaluate the potential pharmacoeconomic benefit of increased adherence with TIP over TIS in the US setting. A patient-level simulation model was developed to compare TIP with TIS. Both costs and benefits were predicted over a 10-year time horizon from a payer's perspective, and were discounted annually at 3%. All costs were presented in 2016 US dollars. TIP was associated with greater quality-adjusted life-years (by 0.27) and lower total costs (by US$36,168) as compared with TIS over a 10-year time horizon. TIP-treated patients experienced a decreased mean number of exacerbations than TIS-treated patients (39.24 vs 50.20). Furthermore, administration of TIP via the T-326 Inhaler was associated with significant cost savings per patient, because of the nebulizer required for administering TIS (by US$1596) and exacerbation costs (by US$76,531). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that TIP was dominant over TIS in 100% of the simulations. TIP is likely to be a more cost-effective treatment than TIS, and therefore may reduce the economic burden of CF.

  3. Zanamivir Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for inhaling powder) and five Rotadisks (circular foil blister packs each containing four blisters of medication). Zanamivir powder ... put a hole in or open any medication blister pack until inhaling a dose with the Diskhaler.Carefully ...

  4. Inhalation delivery of asthma drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, H

    1990-01-01

    In the immediate future, metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) with spacers remain the aerosol application of choice for topical steroids, mainly to reduce side effects. For beta 2-agonist, anticholinergics and prophylactic drugs, MDI (with or without demand valve), dry powder inhalers (multidose inhalers), ultrasonic or jet aerosol generators (with or without mechanical breathing assistance [IPPB]) are chosen according to the preference or the ability of the patients to perform the necessary breathing maneuvers as well as the availability of different products in different countries.

  5. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Spray Drying Powders from Stropharia rugoso-annulata and Agaricus brunnescens Blanching Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yibin Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impacts of carrier agents on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant retention rate of spray drying powders from blanching liquids of Stropharia rugoso-annulata (BLS and Agaricus brunnescens (BLA. Physicochemical, nutritional and antioxidant properties of the powder were examined in order to better determine potential applications of powders. Carrier agents could improve the qualities of the spray drying BLS powders and BLA powders and &beta-Cyclodextrin (&beta-CD was more suitable as carrier agent than Maltodextrin (MD. The powder had higher flour yield and antioxidant retention rate while &beta-CD addition rate was 44.44 g/100 g (w/w.Proximate composition and total phenolics were performed. The powder was ranging from 5 and 30 μm in particle size with spherical particle morphology. BLA powders had higher antioxidant activity (hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity and lipid peroxidation inhibition ability than BLS powder.

  6. Development of a rapid screening protocol for selection of strains resistant to spray drying and storage in dry powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, S; Grattepanche, F; Baggenstos, C; Rezzonico, E; Berger, B; Arigoni, F; Lacroix, C

    2010-06-01

    An efficient screening method for selection of Bifidobacterium longum strains resistant to spray drying and storage was developed based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for identification of the best survivors in mixed strains bacterial preparations. Three different primers were used to generate RAPD profiles of 22 B. longum strains. All strains were distinguished according to their RAPD profiles except for the strain NCC2705 and its H(2)O(2) resistant derivative variant. The 22 strains were grouped in 3 batches of 7, 7 and 8 strains and subjected to spray drying and storage at 30 and 37 °C under anaerobic conditions. Batch survival rates after spray drying reached 17.1±4.4%. Strains showing the highest prevalence and/or resistance to storage at 37 °C were selected from individual batches for subsequent spray drying and storage testing. After 67 days of storage, NCC572 was identified as the dominant strain in powder. The stability of strain NCC572 was confirmed by performing single spray drying and storage tests. Out of 22 B. longum strains, a robust strain was identified by combining RAPD with a simultaneous screening test for survival under spray drying and storage. The method allowed a fast screening of B. longum strains in mixture for resistance to spray drying and storage compared to traditional screening procedures carried out with individual strains, in the same conditions. This approach could be applied to other stress conditions.

  7. Stability to oxidation of spray-dried fish oil powder microencapsulated using milk ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keogh, M.K.; O'Kennedy, B.T.; Kelly, J.;

    2001-01-01

    Microencapsulation of fish oil was achieved by spray-drying homogenized emulsions of fish oil using 3 different types of casein as emulsifier and lactose as filler. As the degree of aggregation of the casein emulsifier increased, the vacuole volume of the microencapsulated powders decreased...

  8. A novel electrostatic dry powder coating process for pharmaceutical dosage forms: immediate release coatings for tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mingxi; Zhang, Liqiang; Ma, Yingliang; Zhu, Jesse; Chow, Kwok

    2010-10-01

    An electrostatic dry powder coating process for pharmaceutical solid dosage forms was developed for the first time by electrostatic dry powder coating in a pan coater system. Two immediate release coating compositions with Opadry® AMB and Eudragit® EPO were successfully applied using this process. A liquid plasticizer was sprayed onto the surface of the tablet cores to increase the conductivity of tablet cores to enhance particle deposition, electrical resistivity reduced from greater than 1×10(13)Ωm to less than 1×10(9)Ωm, and to lower the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the coating polymer for film forming in the pan coater. The application of liquid plasticizer was followed by spraying charged coating particles using an electrostatic charging gun to enhance the uniform deposition on tablet surface. The coating particles were coalesced into a thin film by curing at an acceptable processing temperature as formation was confirmed by SEM micrographs. The results also show that the optimized dry powder coating process produces tablets with smooth surface, good coating uniformity and release profile that are comparable to that of the tablet cores. The data also suggest that this novel electrostatic dry powder coating technique is an alternative to aqueous- or solvent-based coating process for pharmaceutical products. Crown Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety and efficacy of a novel, dry powder fibrin sealant for hemostasis in hepatic resection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenbeek, K.; Ayez, N.; Verhoef, C.; Wilt, J.H.W. de; Bottema, J.; Rijken, A.M.; Rij, M. van; Koopman, J; Zuckerman, L.A.; Frohna, P.; Porte, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fibrocaps is a dry powder fibrin sealant containing human plasma-derived fibrinogen and thrombin. The safety, efficacy, and application methods for Fibrocaps were evaluated in an exploratory, first-in-human, noncomparative, clinical study. METHODS: Patients with minor bleeding/oozin

  10. Safety and Efficacy of a Novel, Dry Powder Fibrin Sealant for Hemostasis in Hepatic Resection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruitenbeek, Karin; Ayez, N.; Verhoef, C.; de Wilt, J. Hans W.; Bottema, Jan; Rijken, Arjen M.; van Rij, Monique; Koopman, Jaap; Zuckerman, Linda A.; Frohna, Paul; Porte, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims: Fibrocaps is a dry powder fibrin sealant containing human plasma-derived fibrinogen and thrombin. The safety, efficacy, and application methods for Fibrocaps were evaluated in an exploratory, first-in-human, non-comparative, clinical study. Methods: Patients with minor bleeding/oozi

  11. The relative nutritive value of irradiated spray-dried blood powder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blood meal and 0,90 for whey protein concentrate plus irradiated spray-dried blood powder. Whey protein con- .... These experimental diets were fed ad libitum from 29 to 41 days of .... also increased the range of protein intake since the palat- ability of the .... composition of young obese and lean Zucker Rats. Growth. 41,63 ...

  12. Bronchodilator effect of disodium cromoglycate administered as a dry powder in exercise induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, C R; Jones, R M; Lee, D; Brennan, S R

    1984-01-01

    A double-blind, placebo controlled study of the effects of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG), administered as a dry powder via the spinhaler, in established exercise-induced asthma, was carried out. DSCG resulted in an increase in the rate of recovery compared with placebo. The findings confirm that DSCG has bronchodilator properties. PMID:6439234

  13. FREEZE DRYING OF KIWI (ACTINIDIA DELICIOSA PUREE AND THE POWDER PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulsah Calıskan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it was intended to investigate the production of freeze dried kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa puree in the form of powder that can be used as a natural alternative to synthetic additives used in food products such as pudding, instant tea, and sauces for improving their flavour. In order to obtain the powder product, kiwi puree as plain and with maltodextrin (Dextrose Equivalence of 10-12, as 10 % by weight addition were freeze dried. Drying behaviour of plain kiwi puree and kiwi puree with MD were explained by Logarithmic model (R2=0.994, RMSE=0.024, χ2=0.0008 and Wang and Singh model (R2=0.999, RMSE=0.012, χ2=0.0002, respectively. The effective moisture diffusivity (Deff value was calculated as 7.3x10−10 m2/s and it was observed that it was not affected by the addition of MD. The vitamin C content of fresh kiwi fruit was evaluated as 66.3 mg/100 g kiwi and there was a loss of 17.1% for plain and 19.8% for MD containing powders respectively after freeze drying. It was also observed that, the addition of maltodextrin decreased cohesiveness, on the other hand, increased bulk and tapped densities, average time values for wettability and solubility, and glass transition temperature of the powder products.

  14. Characterization of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 powders synthesized by spray drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow Tullmar, Peter; Chen, Weiwu; Lundberg, Mats;

    2009-01-01

    Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 powders were synthesized by spray drying and successive calcinations. The phase purity, BET surface area, and particle morphology of as-sprayed and calcined powders were characterized. After calcination above 300 °C, the powders were single phase and showed a BET surface area of 68...

  15. Effects of Whey Powder Supplementation on Dry-Aged Meat Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of dietary supplementation with whey powder (WP, 1g/kg feed) from weaning to slaughter (150 d) on dry-aged loin quality of pigs. Fifty-eight pigs were randomly divided into two dietary treatment groups (seven replications of four pigs per treatments). Basal diet with 0.1% whey powder was supplied to the WP group. Basal diet was used for the control group (CON). Diet whey protein did not appear to influence the moisture or protein contents. However, ash and fat contents were significantly (psupplemented with 0.1% whey powder influence negatively the lipid oxidation of meat whereas the texture property and mineral composition of meat from whey powder fed pigs are developed. PMID:27433111

  16. The influence of raw material, added emulsifying salt and spray drying on cheese powder structure and hydration properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felix da Silva, Denise; Larsen, Flemming Hofmann; Hougaard, Anni Bygvrå

    2017-01-01

    The present work has evaluated how raw material, addition of emulsifying salts (ES) and drying technology affect particle characteristics, structure, and hydration of cheese powders. In this context the spray drying technology induced the strongest effect on morphology and swelling of cheese powder...

  17. Effect of vegetable proteins on physical characteristics of spray-dried tomato powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontul, Ismail; Topuz, Ayhan; Ozkan, Ceren; Karacan, Merve

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the effectiveness of different vegetable proteins (pea protein isolate, soy protein isolate and zein from maize) at two different ratios (1% and 5%) on product yield and physical properties of spray-dried pulpy tomato juice was investigated. Additionally, these proteins were compared with whey protein concentrate which has a superior effect on spray dried products at the same concentrations. Additionally, plain tomato juice was also spray dried for comparison with vegetable proteins. The product yield of the tomato powders dried with the vegetable proteins was lower than with the whey protein concentrate. Among vegetable proteins, the highest product yield was produced with 1% soy protein isolate. In all products, there was a slight colour difference between the reconstituted tomato powders and the raw tomato juice, which indicated that pulpy tomato juice can be spray dried with minor colour change. All powders had unique free-flowing properties estimated as Carr index and Hausner ratio due to their large particles. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Functional and physicochemical properties of whole egg powder: effect of spray drying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koç, Mehmet; Koç, Banu; Susyal, Gonca; Sakin Yilmazer, Melike; Kaymak Ertekin, Figen; Bağdatlıoğlu, Neriman

    2011-04-01

    Pasteurized liquid whole egg was subjected to spray drying to determine the effect of spray drying conditions on moisture content, water activity, peroxide value, emulsion stability, gel texture, foaming stability and colour change of the powder product. Drying process was carried out in a pilot scale spray dryer (Mobile Minor Niro-Atomizer, Denmark). The inlet (165-195 °C) and outlet air temperatures (60-80 °C) and the atomization pressure (196-392 kPa) were investigated as spray drying process variables. Perturbation and 3-D graphs revealed that outlet air temperature and atomization pressure had more effect than inlet air temperature, on the properties of whole egg powder. Optimum spray drying conditions of whole egg powder were determined according to the specific end-product requirements (bakery foods, omelette and mayonnaise and salad dressing) targeting to obtain the desired value of functional properties, i.e.; emulsion stability, gel texture, foaming stability and colour change.

  19. Effects of spray-drying conditions on the chemical, physical, and sensory properties of cheese powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Nurcan; Erbay, Zafer; Kaymak-Ertekin, Figen

    2015-05-01

    Dairy powders are produced to increase the shelf life of fresh dairy products and for use as flavoring agents. In this study, 24 cheese powders produced under 7 different conditions were used to investigate the effects of spray-drying parameters (e.g., inlet air temperature, atomization pressure, and outlet air temperature) on the quality of white cheese powder. Composition, color, physical properties, reconstitution, and sensory characteristics of white cheese powders were determined. The results revealed that the white cheese powders produced in this study had low moisture content ratios and water activity values. High outlet air temperatures caused browning and enhanced Maillard reactions. Additionally, high outlet air temperatures increased wettability and dispersibility and decreased the solubility of white cheese powders. Free fat content was positively correlated with inlet air temperature and negatively correlated with outlet air temperature and atomization pressure. Sensory analyses revealed that white cheese powder samples had acceptable sensory characteristics with the exception of the sample produced at an outlet air temperature of 100°C, which had high scores for scorched flavor and color and low scores for cheese flavor.

  20. [Obtainment of pineapple juice powder by foam-mat drying].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beristain, C I; Cortés, R; Casillas, M A; Díaz, R

    1991-06-01

    The foam-mat production and stability using pineapple juice concentrate (25, 30 and 40 degrees Brix), adding a surfactants mixture and maltodextrin (DE 10) as co-adjuvant, stirred in a commercial mixer, was studied. Adequate foam formation conditions were as follows: concentrate of 25 degrees Brix using surface active agents (Sorbac 60-Polisorbac 80) 0.285% surface active agent/total solids, HLB = 6, and stirring time, 7 min. The foam was dehydrated in an oven dried with a horizontal air flow circulation set at 60, 70 and 80 degrees C using 3, 5 and 10 mm bed depths. The best conditions were obtained at 60 degrees C and 5 mm bed depth. The product had a particle size of sieve 40-80, and a moisture content of 3%. It was then packaged in multilayer plastic film and stored at environmental conditions. No brown color formation or mold growth was detected during storage. Pineapple juice and a refreshing drink were prepared. The general acceptability in a community indicated that 95% of the population involved accepted the product.

  1. Dry ripened mortar with quarry waste and rubber powder from unserviceable tires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido Canova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stone-quarry fines have been evaluated in mortar and concrete, but have presented drying shrinkage and consequently higher incidence of cracks than those with natural sand. This study compared the dry ripened mortar in two types of aggregates added of 8% rubber powder. It was used quicklime, artificial and natural sand in volumetric proportions of 1:6. Mixtures were oven-dried, received the cement, establishing the volumetric proportion of 1: 1.5:9. Inplastic state, we evaluated aspects such as consistence, air content, water retention and bleeding; whereas compressive strength, static deformation modulus and water absorption by capillarity was determined in hardened state. Cracking aspects were evaluated in substrate. As a result, the mortar with artificial sand showed higher increases in compressive strength, capillarity rate and cracking, and greater reductions in air content and bleeding. As for the rubber powder, exhibited a greater reduction in the cracking rate and capillarity was found.

  2. How to match the optimal currently available inhaler device to an individual child with asthma or recurrent wheeze

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Aalderen, W. M.; Garcia-Marcos, L.; Gappa, M.;

    2015-01-01

    choice most likely to benefit different groups of children. The main focus will be on pressurised metered dose inhalers and dry powder inhalers. In this paper we will discuss (1) practical difficulties with the devices and with inhaled therapy and (2) the optimal location for deposition of medicines...

  3. Kilogram-scale production of SnO(2) yolk-shell powders by a spray-drying process using dextrin as carbon source and drying additive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Seung Ho; Kang, Yun Chan

    2014-05-05

    A simple and general method for the large-scale production of yolk-shell powders with various compositions by a spray-drying process is reported. Metal salt/dextrin composite powders with a spherical and dense structure were obtained by spray drying and transformed into yolk-shell powders by simple combustion in air. Dextrin plays a key role in the preparation of precursor powders for fabricating yolk-shell powders by spray drying. Droplets containing metal salts and dextrin show good drying characteristics even in a severe environment of high humidity. Sucrose, glucose, and polyvinylpyrrolidone are widely used as carbon sources in the preparation of metal oxide/carbon composite powders; however, they are not appropriate for large-scale spray-drying processes because of their caramelization properties and adherence to the surface of the spray dryer. SnO2 yolk-shell powders were studied as the first target material in the spray-drying process. Combustion of tin oxalate/dextrin composite powders at 600 °C in air produced single-shelled SnO2 yolk-shell powders with the configuration SnO2 @void@SnO2 . The SnO2 yolk-shell powders prepared by the simple spray-drying process showed superior electrochemical properties, even at high current densities. The discharge capacities of the SnO2 yolk-shell powders at a current density of 2000 mA g(-1) were 645 and 570 mA h g(-1) for the second and 100th cycles, respectively; the corresponding capacity retention measured for the second cycle was 88 %.

  4. Conference report: 2nd Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastow, Orest

    2014-02-01

    2nd Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium 16 October 2013, Lund, Sweden The 2nd Medicon Valley Inhalation Symposium was arranged by the Medicon Valley Inhalation Consortium. It was held at the Medicon Village, which is the former AstraZeneca site in Lund, Sweden. It was a 1 day symposium focused on inhaled drug delivery and inhalation product development. 120 delegates listened to 11 speakers. The program was organized to follow the value chain of an inhalation product development. This year there was a focus on inhaled biomolecules. The inhaled delivery of insulin was covered by two presentations and a panel discussion. The future of inhaled drug delivery was discussed together with an overview of the current market situation. Two of the inhalation platforms, capsule inhalers and metered-dose inhalers, were discussed in terms of the present situation and the future opportunities. Much focus was on the regulatory and intellectual aspects of developing inhalation products. The manufacturing of a dry powder inhaler requires precision filling of powder, and the various techniques were presented. The benefits of nebulization and nasal delivery were illustrated with some case studies and examples. The eternal challenge of poor compliance was addressed from an industrial design perspective and some new approaches were introduced.

  5. Optimization of spray drying conditions for production of quality pomegranate juice powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Muzaffar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to optimize the spray drying operating parameters for the production of quality pomegranate juice powder using response surface methodology. The spray drying operating conditions including inlet air temperature (170–190°C, feed flow rate (18–30 mL/min, and blower speed varied (2,000–2,400 rpm were used as independent variables. The responses evaluated were ascorbic acid content, anthocyanin content, moisture content, hygroscopicity, and water solubility index. Statistical analysis showed that among the independent variables, inlet air temperature showed greater effect on all the investigated responses. The derived optimum conditions were used for the powder production to check the validity of the quadratic model. Small deviations were observed between the experimental values and the predicted ones and the values were within the acceptable limits. The results showed that the optimum spray drying operating conditions for the production of pomegranate juice powder with optimum quality were 171°C inlet temperature, 30 mL/min feed flow rate, and 2,400 rpm blower speed. Under these optimum conditions, quality pomegranate juice powder with desirable properties of high content of vitamin C and anthocyanin, low moisture content, low hygroscopicity, and high solubility could be produced.

  6. Material accountancy measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of nuclear spent fuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, S. F.

    1999-03-24

    The paper addresses the development of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), thermal ionization-mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha-spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry techniques for in-line analysis of highly irradiated (18 to 64 GWD/T) PWR spent fuels in a dry-powdered processing cycle. The dry-powdered technique for direct elemental and isotopic accountancy assay measurements was implemented without the need for separation of the plutonium, uranium and fission product elements in the bulk powdered process. The analyses allow the determination of fuel burn-up based on the isotopic composition of neodymium and/or cesium. An objective of the program is to develop the ICPMS method for direct fissile nuclear materials accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent fuel. The ICPMS measurement system may be applied to the KAERI DUPIC (direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) experiment, and in a near-real-time mode for international safeguards verification and non-proliferation policy concerns.

  7. Colistimethate sodium powder and tobramycin powder for inhalation for the treatment of chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis: systematic review and economic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappenden, P; Harnan, S; Uttley, L; Mildred, M; Carroll, C; Cantrell, A

    2013-12-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited condition characterised by the abnormal transport of chloride ions across transporting epithelia. This leads to the production of thick sticky mucus in the lungs, pancreas, liver, intestine and reproductive tract, and an increase in the salt content in sweat. Among other problems, people with CF experience recurrent respiratory infections and have difficulties digesting food. CF affects over 9000 individuals in the UK. CF shortens life expectancy and adversely affects quality of life. In 2010, CF was recorded as the cause of 103 deaths in England and Wales. To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of colistimethate sodium dry powder for inhalation (DPI) (Colobreathe(®), Forest Laboratories) and tobramycin DPI (TOBI Podhaler(®), Novartis Pharmaceuticals) for the treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in CF. Electronic databases were searched in February and March 2011 [MEDLINE, MEDLINE In-Process & Other Non-Indexed citations, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library databases, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science, Conference Proceedings Citation Index (CPCI) and Bioscience Information Service (BIOSIS) Previews]. Relevant databases were searched for ongoing and unpublished studies, and bibliographies of relevant systematic reviews and the manufacturers' submissions were also hand-searched. A systematic review of the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of colistimethate sodium DPI and tobramycin DPI for the treatment of chronic P. aeruginosa lung infection in CF was conducted. Existing economic evidence within the literature was reviewed and a de novo health economic model was also developed. Three randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the clinical effectiveness review. Both colistimethate sodium DPI and tobramycin DPI were reported to be non-inferior to nebulised tobramycin for the outcome forced expiratory volume in first second

  8. Culture and spray-drying of Tsukamurella paurometabola C-924: stability of formulated powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Armando; Weekers, Fréderic; Mena, Jesús; Pimentel, Eulogio; Zamora, Jesús; Borroto, Carlos; Thonart, Philippe

    2007-11-01

    The nematocidal agent, Tsukamurella paurometabola C-924, was cultured in a 300 l bioreactor. Spray-dried formulations of this microorganism were prepared using sucrose. At an outlet temperature 62 degrees C, survival rates between 12 and 85% were reached with sucrose up to 10% (w/w). The stability study of the powders showed that the best storage condition was at 4 degrees C under vacuum. A new method for the calculation of cell death order for bacteria stored at low temperatures was developed. Powders stored under vacuum showed an Arrhenius behavior in relation to cell death kinetics.

  9. Comparison between freeze and spray drying to obtain powder Rubrivivax gelatinosus biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Francisco do Espírito Santo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of colorants in products of animal origin is justified by the improvement in the color of foods since this attribute is considered a quality criterion. These additives can be produced using industrial effluents as substrates and appropriate organisms, such as Rubrivivax gelatinosus. Oxycarotenoids represent a class of carotenes responsible for the pigmentation of animals and vegetables. R. gelatinosus grows in fish industry effluent with the resulting production of a bacterial biomass containing oxycarotenoids. The purpose of this study was to compare the use of two drying processes - spray and freeze drying - to obtain powder biomass in terms of the process parameters (yield, productivity, and product recovery and the product characteristics (color, proximate composition, and oxycarotenoids. No difference was detected in the yield between these techniques, while productivity was higher using spray drying. Higher product recovery and moisture were achieved with freeze drying, while ash was higher with spray drying. The freeze dried biomass was redder, darker and less saturated than the spray dried biomass. No difference in oxycarotenoids was detected between the biomasses. Although it results in lower recovery rate, spray drying was faster and more productive, and it provided the same yield as freeze drying, which makes it the method of choice for obtaining R. gelatinosus biomass.

  10. Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Asteraceae: development of granules from spray dried powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo F. Petrovick

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Asteraceae, is a herbal specie widely used in folk medicine in the south of Brazil, Uruguay, Argentina and Paraguay. The technological characteristics of an Achyrocline satureioides spray dried extract powder, produced in semi-industrial scale, as well as the feasibility of the granules are reported in the present work. The spray dried powder was characterized as a fine powder consisting of small spherical particles with rough and porous surface. The Hausner's factor, Carr's index, and densification index of the spray dried powder were, respectively, 1,23, 18,9%, and 27,2 mL, characterizing it as a poor flow and low density powder. The preparation of granules from this spray dried powder, through dry disaggregation method, yielded irregularly shaped granules, with a rough surface, but with better flow and compactability characteristics. These granules presented a Hausner's factor, a Carr's index, and a densification index of, respectively, 1,09, 8,16%, and 12,33 mL. The LC assay of the main polyphenols, quercetin, luteolin, and 3-O-methylquercetin revealed that the granulation process did not changed the quantitative and qualitative profile of these constituents originally present in the spray dried powder. The comparative evaluation of the physical stability of both the spray dried powder and the granules, under relative humidity conditions of 65% and 99%, showed an expressive reduction in the humidity sorption on the granules as compared to the spray dried powders.Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., Asteraceae, é uma planta amplamente utilizada na medicina popular no sul do Brasil, Uruguai, Argentina e Paraguai. As características tecnológicas do extrato seco por aspersão de Achyrocline satureioides, produzido em escala semi-industrial, assim como a viabilidade da produção de granulados são relatadas no presente trabalho. O extrato seco por aspersão foi caracterizado como um pó fino, composto por

  11. Fourier transform infared spectroscopy investigation of protein conformation in spray-dried protein/trehalose powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Donna L; Arakawa, Tsutomu; Li, Tiansheng

    2004-03-01

    Spray drying is a way to generate protein solids (powders), which is also true for lyophilization. Sugars are used to protect proteins from conformational changes and chemical degradations arising from drying processes and storage conditions such as the humidity. The influence of trehalose and humidity on the conformation and hydration of spray-dried recombinant human granolucyte colony stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) and recombinant consensus interferon-alpha (rConIFN) was investigated using Fourier transform IR spectroscopy. The spectral analysis of spray-dried powders in the amide I region demonstrated that trehalose stabilized the alpha-helical conformation of both rhG-CSF and rConIFN proteins. Exposure of the pure protein powders to 33% relative humidity (RH) resulted in the formation of beta sheets and loss of turns but no change in alpha-helical structure. Trehalose reduced the magnitude of the changes in beta sheets and turns. Exposure of the pure protein powders to 75% RH resulted in the loss of alpha-helical conformation with a corresponding increase in beta structures (beta sheets and turns). Trehalose did not protect proteins from the loss of alpha-helical structures, but it reduced the formation of antiparallel beta sheets. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange (H-D exchange) was used to further characterize these hydration-induced conformational changes. At 33% RH the percent exchange of the protein decreased with increasing trehalose content, indicating a greater protection of the protein from H-D exchange by a higher concentration of trehalose. Such protection correlates with decreased conformational changes of the protein by trehalose at this humidity. At 75% RH the degree of H-D exchange of the protein was insensitive to the powder composition in all powders. Surprisingly, the H-D exchange of trehalose was low at about 20-25%, which was nearly independent of the protein/trehalose ratio and humidity, indicating that the exchangeable protons on trehalose

  12. Influence of granule characteristics on microstructure quality of compacts made from spray-dried powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, Sreeram

    Powder compaction is a widely used technique for the manufacture of high volume of ceramic components that have simple shapes and sizes. However, this technique is inherently prone to strength-limiting defects like large intergranular pores and remnants of the initial granule structure. These defects are a major obstacle that hinder the use of powder compaction to fabricate parts for applications where strength is an important criterion. The objective of this work is to understand the important factors that control the elimination of strength-limiting defects in compacts made from spray dried powders. The influence of granule density, internal lubricants, particle shape and external application of a plasticizer to already spray dried powders on compaction behavior was investigated. Emphasis was placed on role of these factors in the elimination of large intergranular pores and persistent granule interfaces. The powders were spray dried under varying conditions to tailor the granule characteristics, including granule density, granule size distribution, binder content and lubricant content. These powders were compacted at different pressures, and the microstructures of green and sintered compacts were then evaluated, and strength-limiting features were quantified. Comparisons were made on the basis of compaction curves, green strength, green density and microstructure quality at different pressures. Lowering the granule density reduced the number of granule relics and large intergranular pores. The presence of an internal lubricant improved particle packing and yielded compacts with higher green density and fewer large intergranular pores at comparable pressures. Spray dried powders with the externally applied plasticizer deformed at lower compaction pressures. This allowed easier knitting of particles across granule interfaces and elimination of large intergranular pores and persistent granule interfaces. Spherical (equiaxed) particles rearranged better at granule

  13. Burstable nanostructured micro-raspberries: Towards redispersible nanoparticles from dry powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauch, Claudia; Ballweg, Thomas; Stracke, Werner; Luxenhofer, Robert; Mandel, Karl

    2017-03-15

    Despite immense progress in nanoscience and technology, one of the yet unsolved challenges is the redispersion of nanoparticles from dry powders back to the individual, primary particles. Herein, an easy to handle powder consisting of nanostructured micron sized raspberry-like particles is presented. These nanostructured micro-raspberries are composed of individual nanoparticles which are equipped with molecules that introduce a separating effect or "spring" functionality. Thereby, a powder system is obtained that allows for an easy and complete redispersibility of the agglomerates down to the level of individual nanoparticles in solvents and polymers. The mechanism of redispersibility involves mechanic stimuli/force as well as solvent like disintegration aspects ("like dissolves like" effect). Furthermore, by tailoring the degree of spacer-equipped particles, the bursting behavior can also be tuned, yielding different redispersion degrees. The redispersibility of the nanostructured micro-raspberries is demonstrated in solvents and silicone-based nanocomposites. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Optimization of spray drying conditions for production of quality pomegranate juice powder

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Muzaffar; Bijamwar Vilas Dinkarrao; Pradyuman Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present study was aimed to optimize the spray drying operating parameters for the production of quality pomegranate juice powder using response surface methodology. The spray drying operating conditions including inlet air temperature (170–190°C), feed flow rate (18–30 mL/min), and blower speed varied (2,000–2,400 rpm) were used as independent variables. The responses evaluated were ascorbic acid content, anthocyanin content, moisture content, hygroscopicity, and water solubility index. S...

  15. Lactose Crystallization in Commercial Whey Powders and in Spray-Dried Lactose

    OpenAIRE

    SAITO, Zenichi

    1988-01-01

    Two kinds of whey powder, one containing only amorphous lactose, and the other containing precrystallized lactose, and spray-dried amorphous lactose were examined for particle structure by scanning electron microscopy. Lactose crystallization under 75th relative humidity was studied by X-ray diffraction analysis. Scanning electron microscopy appeared to detect changes due to lactose crystallization on the smooth surface of the particles examined. Lactose crystallization s tarted within 30 min...

  16. Preparation of redispersible liposomal dry powder using an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying technique for transdermal delivery of human epithelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Guo, Shiyan; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying (USFD) technique was used to prepare a stable liposomal dry powder for transdermal delivery of recombinant human epithelial growth factor (rhEGF). Morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and skin permeability were systematically compared between rhEGF liposomal dry powder prepared using USFD and that prepared using a conventional lyophilization process. Porous and spherical particles with high specific area were produced under USFD conditions. USFD effectively avoided formation of ice crystals, disruption of the bilayer structure, and drug leakage during the liposome drying process, and maintained the stability of the rhEGF liposomal formulation during storage. The reconstituted rhEGF liposomes prepared from USFD powder did not show significant changes in morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, or in vitro release characteristics compared with those of rhEGF liposomes before drying. Moreover, the rhEGF liposomal powder prepared with USFD exhibited excellent enhanced penetration in ex vivo mouse skin compared with that for powder prepared via conventional lyophilization. The results suggest that ultrasonic USFD is a promising technique for the production of stable protein-loaded liposomal dry powder for application to the skin.

  17. Formulation development and rheological studies of palatable cefetamet pivoxil hydrochloride dry powder suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Divakar

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and the purpose of the study: Because of its intense bitter taste and susceptibility to moisture Cefetamet Pivoxil (CPH is presently available only in the form of tablet. The aim of this study was to develop taste masked CPH dry powder suspension. Methods: Methods employed for formulations were: a Film coating of CPH using Eudragit E100 and subsequent adsorption on different carriers such as spray-dried lactose, sodium starch glycolate and spry-dried mannitol and b Complexation of CPH with three different ion exchange resins viz; indion 234, amberlite IRP64 and amberlite IRP69. Results: Taste evaluation as recognized by volunteers revealed that coating with eudragit E100 and subsequent adsorption on different carriers do not mask the bitter taste of the drug. Suspensions prepared using amberlite IRP64 and amberlite IRP69 were extremely palatable with no bitter after taste. They showed pseudoplastic flow behavior and were too viscous even after shearing for sufficient duration of time and exhibited poor pourability. The suspension made with indion 234 was palatable with slight or no bitter after taste. It demonstrated plastic flow with negligible thixotropy. It had moderate viscosity at rest and could be poured after a reasonable amount of shaking. CPH dry powder suspensions were very unstable under different conditions except under refrigeration. A 5% degradation of drug was occurred in reconstituted suspension in 4 days period when stored at room temperature. Conclusion: Dry powder suspension prepared with indion 234 with 5% overages was stable even after 4th day of reconstitution and palatable with slight or no bitter after taste

  18. Inhalation therapy in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, P L

    2000-03-01

    Current consensus guidelines advocate the use of inhalation therapy for all children with asthma. In this paper, the published evidence on technical and practical aspects of inhalation therapy in children with asthma is reviewed. For children under 6 yr of age, nebulizers and metered dose inhaler (MDI)/spacer combinations can be used. Nebulizers are cumbersome, bulky, and difficult to operate. They require technical and hygienic maintenance. A number of studies has shown that nebulizers are no more effective in delivering bronchodilator therapy than MDI/spacer combinations. Thus, for young children with asthma, MDI/spacer combinations are the device of choice for inhalation therapy. Due to static charge, the output from plastic spacers is lower than that from metal spacers. Static charge on plastic spacers can be reduced by washing the spacer in detergent and allow it to drip dry. Most children aged 6 yr or over can use a dry powder inhaler (DPI) reliably. Modern DPIs require relatively low inspiratory flow rates for proper operation. Lung deposition from the Turbuhaler is twice as high as that from the Diskus, but the former device is slightly more difficult to operate than the latter. Many children with asthma have a poor inhalation technique. Because a reliable inhalation technique is the key to successful inhalation therapy, inhalation technique should be instructed carefully and checked repeatedly in every asthmatic child using an inhaler device.

  19. Characterization of powder from the permeate of yacon extract by ultrafiltration and dehydrated by spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Lazzare Brites

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Yacon root is a functional food which contains antioxidants and prebiotics compounds. This study aimed to evaluate the physical, chemical and prebiotic characteristics of a yacon extract powder obtained by ultrafiltration (UF with membranes of 10 and 30 kDa and encapsulation of the resulting permeate by spray drying. Drying air temperatures of 140 and 160 ºC and concentrations of gum arabic of 10 and 15% were tested. The samples had solubility values greater than 90% while the hygroscopicity decreased with increasing gum concentration and drying temperature. Electron microscopy showed a strong tendency to agglomeration of smaller particles around the larger ones, mainly at a temperature of 140 ºC. Regarding color, the parameter L* showed that drying at 160 ºC produced darker samples and the parameters a* and b* indicated that all samples were greenish yellow. The concentration of inulin decreased during drying, whereas the levels of glucose and fructose increased due to the thermolysis reaction, which led to degradation of inulin chains at drying temperature. The permeates and retentates from the UF membranes had prebiotic activity, while only the encapsulated product from UF-30 membrane, metabolized by Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5(r, presented activity scores without significant difference to that of glucose.

  20. The Production of a Stable Infliximab Powder: The Evaluation of Spray and Freeze-Drying for Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko ten; Bakker, Arjen; Wagner, Koen; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Kersten, Gideon F. A.; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    In prospect of developing an oral dosage form of Infliximab, for treatment of Crohn’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis, freeze-drying (vial vs Lyoguard trays) and spray-drying were investigated as production method for stable powders. Dextran and inulin were used in combination with sucrose as stabilizing excipients. The drying processes did not affect Infliximab in these formulations, i.e. both the physical integrity and biological activity (TNF binding) were retained. Accelerated stability studies (1 month at 60°C) showed that the TNF binding ability of Infliximab was conserved in the freeze-dried formulations, whereas the liquid counterpart lost all TNF binding. After thermal treatment, the dried formulations showed some chemical modification of the IgG in the dextran-sucrose formulation, probably due to Maillard reaction products. This study indicates that, with the appropriate formulation, both spray-drying and freeze-drying may be useful for (bulk) powder production of Infliximab. PMID:27706175

  1. Decorporation of plutonium by pulmonary administration of Ca-DTPA dry powder: a study in rat after lung contamination with different plutonium forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serandour, A.L.; Grillon, G.; Frechou, M.; Fritsch, P.; Poncy, J.L. [CEA/DSV/DRR, Laboratoire de Radiotoxicologie, BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-Le-Chatel (France); Tsapis, N.; Gervelas, C.; Fattal, E. [Universite Paris-Sud 11 CNRS, UMR 8612, Physico-chimie-Pharmacotechnie-Biopharmacie, 92296 Chatenay-Malabry (France); Deverre, J.R. [CEA/DSV/DRM, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, 91401 Orsay (France); Benech, H. [CEA/DSV/DRM, Service de Pharmacologie et d' Immunologie, 91191, Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2007-07-01

    This study evaluates the decorporation efficacy of a pulmonary administration of a new Ca-DTPA (diethylene-triamine-pentaacetic acid) dry powder (18 {mu}mol kg{sup -1} of body mass) after pulmonary contamination of rats with different Pu compounds. After inhalation of PuO{sub 2}, a delayed intratracheal administration of DTPA cannot reduce significantly the retention of Pu in the lungs but limits its transfer in liver and skeleton. After pulmonary contamination by Pu nitrate, early insufflation of the DTPA powder appears twice as more efficient than an i.v injection of DTPA (30 {mu}mol kg{sup -1}) to reduce Pu retention in the lungs and is as effective as i.v. injection to limit the extra-pulmonary deposit. In contrast, a delayed administration of DTPA cannot reduce the lung or extra-pulmonary retention. In conclusion, the improvement of aerodynamic properties of DTPA powder leads to an increase of DTPA amount deposited in the lungs and enhances the body decorporation. (authors)

  2. Thermal, Structural, and Physical Properties of Freeze Dried Tropical Fruit Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Athmaselvi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the physical properties of freeze dried tropical (guava, sapota, and papaya fruit powders. Thermal stability and weight loss were evaluated using TGA-DSC and IR, which showed pectin as the main solid constituent. LCR meter measured electrical conductivity, dielectric constant, and dielectric loss factor. Functional groups assessed by FTIR showed presence of chlorides, and O–H and N–H bonds in guava, chloride and C–H bond in papaya, and chlorides, and C=O and C–H bonds in sapota. Particle size and type of starch were evaluated by X-ray diffraction and microstructure through scanning electronic microscopy. A semicrystalline profile and average particle size of the fruit powders were evidenced by X-ray diffraction and lamellar/spherical morphologies by SEM. Presence of A-type starch was observed in all three fruits. Dependence of electric and dielectric properties on frequency and temperature was observed.

  3. Preparation of redispersible liposomal dry powder using an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying technique for transdermal delivery of human epithelial growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin F

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fei Yin,1 Shiyan Guo,2 Yong Gan,2 Xinxin Zhang21Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shenyang, 2Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: In this work, an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying (USFD technique was used to prepare a stable liposomal dry powder for transdermal delivery of recombinant human epithelial growth factor (rhEGF. Morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and skin permeability were systematically compared between rhEGF liposomal dry powder prepared using USFD and that prepared using a conventional lyophilization process. Porous and spherical particles with high specific area were produced under USFD conditions. USFD effectively avoided formation of ice crystals, disruption of the bilayer structure, and drug leakage during the liposome drying process, and maintained the stability of the rhEGF liposomal formulation during storage. The reconstituted rhEGF liposomes prepared from USFD powder did not show significant changes in morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, or in vitro release characteristics compared with those of rhEGF liposomes before drying. Moreover, the rhEGF liposomal powder prepared with USFD exhibited excellent enhanced penetration in ex vivo mouse skin compared with that for powder prepared via conventional lyophilization. The results suggest that ultrasonic USFD is a promising technique for the production of stable protein-loaded liposomal dry powder for application to the skin.Keywords: spray freeze-drying, recombinant human epithelial growth factor, liposomes, skin permeability, transdermal drug delivery

  4. Dust inhalation exposures from the handling of small volumes of powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowherd, C; Grelinger, M A; Wong, K F

    1989-03-01

    Worker exposure to airborne particulates was stimulated in a laboratory under controlled conditions. Small volumes, 3.8 L (1 gal.), of finely divided powders were transferred at 1-min intervals to 23-L (6-gal.) containers over 30-min time intervals. A high-volume filter array in the exit vent of the specially designed exposure laboratory was used both to control the ventilation rate and to determine the emission factor of the pouring operation. The room ventilation rate, method of transfer, and drop height were varied, and the resulting particulate concentrations were monitored by personal and area samplers. The four powders studied were talc, sodium chloride, Portland cement, and Direct Yellow 4 dye. Based on this study, a model was developed to predict potential worker exposure from the pouring of small volumes of powders. The model is based on the following major conclusions. First, the space- and time-averaged concentration of suspended particulate matter at breathing height agrees well with the mean concentration of suspended particulate matter in the room air effluent. Second, material-specific suspended particulate emission factors vary approximately in direct proportion to the drop height. Third, emission factors for scooping/dumping operations agree well with factors for pouring operations for a given drop height. Fourth, emission factors compare well with dustiness indexes that were determined using a bench-scale dustiness test chamber described in a companion paper. Parameters of the exposure model include dustiness index, drop height of the pouring operation, total quantity of material poured, averaging time, and the fraction of respirable material. For the validation of the model, additional data would be necessary.

  5. Pulmonary delivery of therapeutic peptides via dry powder inhalation : effects of micronisation and manufacturing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Irngartinger, M.; Camuglia, V.; Damm, M.; Goede, J.; Frijlink, H.W.

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary drug delivery is increasingly appreciated as a route of administration for systemically acting proteins and peptides. A respirable particle size of the drug is a key requirement, but the fragile nature of many proteins may be a limitation for the application of conventional production proc

  6. An investigation into the predictive value of cascade impactor results for side effects of inhaled salbutamol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weda, M; Zanen, P; de Boer, A H; Barends, D M; Frijlink, H W

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the Multistage Liquid Impinger (MSLI) and the Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI) with respect to their power to predict differences in side effects of salbutamol delivered by a dry powder inhaler. Three preparations with the same nominal dose and the same inhaler de

  7. Retail sales of inhalation devices in European countries: so much for a global policy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lavorini, F.; Corrigan, C.J.; Barnes, P.J.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.; Levy, M.L.; Pedersen, S.; Roche, N.; Vincken, W.; Crompton, G.K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the retail sales of pressurised metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs), dry-powder inhalers (DPIs) and liquids for nebulisation in 16 European countries. METHODS: Retail sales data relating to pMDIs, DPIs and liquids for nebulisation delivering short- and long-acting bronchodilators, c

  8. The influence of crystallization conditions on the morphology of lactose intended for use as a carrier for dry powder aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X M; Martin, G P; Marriott, C; Pritchard, J

    2000-06-01

    Lactose has been widely used as a carrier for inhalation aerosols. The carrier morphology is believed to affect the delivery of the drug. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of crystallization conditions on the morphology of alpha-lactose monohydrate intended for use as the carrier for dry powder aerosols. The crystallization of lactose was carried out from aqueous solutions at different supersaturations, temperatures, different stages of crystallization and in the presence of different water-miscible organic solvents. The majority of lactose crystals were found to be either tomahawk-shaped or pyramidal after crystallization at an initial lactose concentration between 33-43% w/w, but these became prismatic if the lactose concentration was increased to 50% w/w. A further increase in the lactose concentration to 60% w/w led to the preparation of elongated cuboidal crystals. Higher initial lactose concentrations tended to result in the crystallization of more elongated particles. Crystallization at 40 degrees C was shown to prepare lactose crystals with a more regular shape and a smoother surface than those crystallized at 0 degrees C. Lactose particles generated during the later stage of crystallization were found to be more regular in shape with a smoother surface than those prepared in the earlier stage. The addition of 10% (v/v) methanol or ethanol or acetone to the mother liquor increased the growth rate of lactose particles whereas addition of propanol or glycerine inhibited the rate of crystal growth. Lactose crystals prepared in the presence of glycerine were more regularly shaped with a smoother surface than those prepared in the presence of ethanol or acetone. All the resultant crystals were shown to comprise alpha-lactose monohydrate. Lactose crystals could be prepared with a precisely defined morphology by means of carefully controlling the crystallization conditions.

  9. Dry oil powders and oil foams stabilised by fluorinated clay platelet particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Bernard P; Sekine, Tomoko; Tyowua, Andrew T

    2014-01-28

    A series of platelet sericite particles coated to different extents with a fluorinating agent has been characterised and their behaviour in mixtures with air and oil studied. The material which forms by vigorous shaking depends on both the surface tension of the oil and the surface energy of the particles which control their degree of wetting. Oil dispersions are formed in liquids of relatively low tension (cyclomethicone, for all particles. Particle-stabilised air-in-oil foams form in liquids of higher tension, e.g. dodecane and phenyl silicone, where the advancing three-phase contact angle θ, measured on a planar substrate composed of the particles into the liquid, lies between ca. 65° and 120°. For oils of tension above 27 mN m(-1) like squalane and liquid paraffin with particles for which θ > 70°, we have discovered that dry oil powders in which oil drops stabilised by particles dispersed in air (oil-in-air) can be prepared by gentle mixing up to a critical oil : particle ratio (COPR) and do not leak oil. These powders, containing up to 80 wt% oil, release the encapsulated oil when sheared on a substrate. For many of the systems forming oil powders, stable liquid oil marbles can also be prepared. Above the COPR, catastrophic phase inversion occurs yielding an ultra-stable air-in-oil foam. We thus demonstrate the ability to disperse oil drops or air bubbles coated with particles within novel materials.

  10. Structural, physicochemical and biological properties of spray-dried wine powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkowska, Agnieszka; Czyżowska, Agata; Ambroziak, Wojciech; Adamiec, Janusz

    2017-08-01

    Different fruit wines, chokeberry, blackcurrant and blueberry, were spray-dried using hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and inulin (IN). The structural, physicochemical, and biological properties of the spray-dried wine powders were studied over 12months of storage in darkness at 8°C. Identification and quantification of single phenolic compounds before and after storage revealed that HP-β-CD had a positive effect on anthocyanin retention during storage for all microcapsules tested. Similar decreases in anthocyanin were found for blackcurrant and chokeberry powders, ranging from 7.3 to 8.9% with HP-β-CD and 12.3 to 12.5% with IN. Levels of anthocyanin losses in blueberry wine microcapsules were much greater: 19.9% (HP-β-CD) and 22.7% (IN). The high antiradical activities of blackcurrant and chokeberry wine microcapsules were stable and remained unchanged during storage. All wine microcapsules revealed significant activity against medically important bacterial strains. The HP-β-CD samples showed generally higher activity against the test microorganisms compared to IN microcapsules, especially at concentrations of 100mg/mL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of a freeze-dried fungal wettable powder preparation able to biodegrade chlorpyrifos on vegetables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available Continuous use of the pesticide chlorpyrifos has resulted in harmful contaminations in environment and species. Based on a chlorpyrifos-degrading fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides strain Hu-01 (collection number: CCTCC M 20711, a fungal wettable powder preparation was developed aiming to efficiently remove chlorpyrifos residues from vegetables. The formula was determined to be 11.0% of carboxymethyl cellulose-Na, 9.0% of polyethylene glycol 6000, 5.0% of primary alcohol ethoxylate, 2.5% of glycine, 5.0% of fucose, 27.5% of kaolin and 40% of freeze dried fungi by response surface methodology (RSM. The results of quality inspection indicated that the fungal preparation could reach manufacturing standards. Finally, the degradation of chlorpyrifos by this fungal preparation was determined on pre-harvest cabbage. Compared to the controls without fungal preparation, the degradation of chlorpyrifos on cabbages, which was sprayed with the fungal preparation, was up to 91% after 7 d. These results suggested this freeze-dried fungal wettable powder may possess potential for biodegradation of chlorpyrifos residues on vegetables and provide a potential strategy for food and environment safety against pesticide residues.

  12. Production of grape juice powder obtained by freeze-drying after concentration by reverse osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana Deyse Gurak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the freeze-drying process for obtaining grape juice powder by reverse osmosis using 50% grape juice pre-concentrated (28.5 °Brix and 50% hydrocolloids (37.5% maltodextrin and 12.5% arabic gum. The morphology of the glassy food showed the absence of crystalline structure, which was the amorphous wall that protected the contents of the powder. The samples were stored in clear and dark containers at room temperature, evaluated for their physical (X-ray diffraction for 65 days and chemical (polyphenol content stability for 120 days. During the storage time in plastic vessels, samples remained physically stable (amorphous and the phenolic concentration was constant, indicating the potentiality of this technique to obtain a stable product with a high concentration of phenolic compounds. Therefore, the freeze-drying process promoted the encapsulation of concentrated grape juice increasing its stability and shelf life, as well as proving to be an applicable process to food industry

  13. Evolution of antioxidants in dietary fiber powder produced from white cabbage outer leaves: effects of blanching and drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanongkankit, Yardfon; Chiewchan, Naphaporn; Devahastin, Sakamon

    2015-04-01

    White cabbage outer leaves, which are usually discarded both during industrial processing and selling in a consumer market, have proven to be a good source of dietary fiber (DF) as well as antioxidants and can be effectively transformed into functional DF powder. In the past, however, only hot air drying was used to prepare DF powder from cabbage outer leaves although it is well recognized that this drying technique could lead to much quality degradation of a dried product. This work was therefore aimed at studying the evolution of selected important antioxidants, e.g., phenolic compounds and vitamin C, in white cabbage outer leaves during vacuum drying at 60, 70 and 80 °C. The effect of pretreatment viz. steam blanching was also evaluated. The results showed that there were losses of antioxidants during steam blanching; vacuum dried blanched leaves nevertheless contained higher antioxidant contents and activity than dried unblanched leaves. Losses of antioxidants during vacuum drying were also noted to be less than those during hot air drying. Overall, the results showed that there were no differences in the antioxidants retention among all the tested conditions performed in this study. Therefore, the most suitable condition for the production of antioxidant DF powder from cabbage outer leaves is vacuum drying at 80 °C as this condition requires the minimum specific energy consumption.

  14. Effect of pre-treatments and drying methods on quality attributes of sweet bell-pepper (Capsicum annum) powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Joshi, V K; Kaushal, M

    2015-06-01

    Pre-treatments and methods of drying for producing good quality dried bell pepper powder for use in the ready-to-eat (RTE) food products were optimized. Out of various pre-treatments used (blanching in boiling water, KMS, CA and combination of KMS + CA at different concentrations), soaking of bell pepper shreds in KMS@ 0.20 % + CA@ 0.50 % after blanching fasten the drying process (19.75 h) compared to control (22.60 h), when dried in mechanical dehydrator at 58 ± 2 °C. Blanching prior to drying improved the rate of drying and produced product with lower acidity (1.25 %). The samples (T7) treated with KMS@ 0.20 % + CA@ 0.50 % significantly (p drying, pre-treated bell peppers dried in solar poly tunnel drier produced bright red coloured powder with relatively higher amounts of sugars and ascorbic acid content, hence was optimized. Visual lump formation was observed at 19.75 % and 18.50 % critical moisture contents, which equilibrated at 42 % and 45 % RH for bell pepper powders dried in a mechanical dehydrator and solar poly tunnel drier, respectively.

  15. Reactive Airways Dysfunction Syndrome from Acute Inhalation of Dishwasher Detergent Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo J Hannu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome, a type of occupational asthma without a latency period, is induced by irritating vapour, fumes or smoke. The present report is the first to describe a case of reactive airway dysfunction syndrome caused by acute exposure to dishwater detergent containing sodium metasilicate and sodium dichloroisocyanurate. The diagnosis was based on exposure data, clinical symptoms and signs, as well as respiratory function tests. A 43-year-old nonatopic male apprentice cook developed respiratory symptoms immediately after exposure to a cloud of detergent powder that was made airborne by vigorous shaking of the package. In spirometry, combined obstructive and restrictive ventilatory impairment developed, and the histamine challenge test revealed bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Even routine handling of a strongly caustic detergent, such as filling a dishwasher container, is not entirely risk free and should be performed with caution.

  16. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome from acute inhalation of dishwasher detergent powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannu, Timo J; Riihimäki, Vesa E; Piirilä, Päivi L

    2012-01-01

    Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome, a type of occupational asthma without a latency period, is induced by irritating vapour, fumes or smoke. The present report is the first to describe a case of reactive airway dysfunction syndrome caused by acute exposure to dishwater detergent containing sodium metasilicate and sodium dichloroisocyanurate. The diagnosis was based on exposure data, clinical symptoms and signs, as well as respiratory function tests. A 43-year-old nonatopic male apprentice cook developed respiratory symptoms immediately after exposure to a cloud of detergent powder that was made airborne by vigorous shaking of the package. In spirometry, combined obstructive and restrictive ventilatory impairment developed, and the histamine challenge test revealed bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Even routine handling of a strongly caustic detergent, such as filling a dishwasher container, is not entirely risk free and should be performed with caution. PMID:22679618

  17. Reactive airways dysfunction syndrome from acute inhalation of a dishwasher detergent powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannu, Timo J; Riihimäki, Vesa E; Piirilä, Päivi L

    2012-01-01

    Reactive airway dysfunction syndrome, a type of occupational asthma without a latency period, is induced by irritating vapour, fumes or smoke. The present report is the first to describe a case of reactive airway dysfunction syndrome caused by acute exposure to dishwater detergent containing sodium metasilicate and sodium dichloroisocyanurate. The diagnosis was based on exposure data, clinical symptoms and signs, as well as respiratory function tests. A 43-year-old nonatopic male apprentice cook developed respiratory symptoms immediately after exposure to a cloud of detergent powder that was made airborne by vigorous shaking of the package. In spirometry, combined obstructive and restrictive ventilatory impairment developed, and the histamine challenge test revealed bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Even routine handling of a strongly caustic detergent, such as filling a dishwasher container, is not entirely risk free and should be performed with caution.

  18. Intranasal delivery of Norwalk virus-like particles formulated in an in situ gelling, dry powder vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasquez, Lissette S; Shira, Samantha; Berta, Alice N; Kilbourne, Jacquelyn; Medi, Babu M; Tizard, Ian; Ni, Yawei; Arntzen, Charles J; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2011-07-18

    The development of a vaccine to prevent norovirus infections has been focused on immunization at a mucosal surface, but has been limited by the low immunogenicity of self-assembling Norwalk virus-like particles (NV VLPs) delivered enterically or at nasal surfaces. Nasal immunization, which offers the advantage of ease of immunization, faces obstacles imposed by the normal process of mucociliary clearance, which limits residence time of applied antigens. Herein, we describe the use of a dry powder formulation (GelVac) of an inert in situ gelling polysaccharide (GelSite) extracted from Aloe vera for nasal delivery of NV VLP antigen. Powder formulations, with or without NV VLP antigen, were similar in structure in dry form or when rehydrated in simulated nasal fluids. Immunogenicity of the dry powder VLP formulation was compared to equivalent antigen/adjuvant liquid formulations in animals. For the GelVac powder, we observed superior NV-specific serum and mucosal (aerodigestive and reproductive tracts) antibody responses relative to liquid formulations. Incorporation of the TLR7 agonist gardiquimod in dry powder formulations did not enhance antibody responses, although its inclusion in liquid formulations did enhance VLP immunogenicity irrespective of the presence or absence of GelSite. We interpret these data as showing that GelSite-based dry powder formulations (1) stabilize the immunogenic structural properties of VLPs and (2) induce systemic and mucosal antibody titers which are equal or greater than those achieved by VLPs plus adjuvant in a liquid formulation. We conclude that in situ gelation of the GelVac dry powder formulation at nasal mucosal surfaces delays mucociliary clearance and thereby prolongs VLP antigen exposure to immune effector sites.

  19. Investigation of the potential for direct compaction of a fine ibuprofen powder dry-coated with magnesium stearate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Li; Zhou, Qi Tony; Gengenbach, Thomas; Denman, John A; Stewart, Peter J; Hapgood, Karen P; Gamlen, Michael; Morton, David A V

    2015-05-01

    Intensive dry powder coating (mechanofusion) with tablet lubricants has previously been shown to give substantial powder flow improvement. This study explores whether the mechanofusion of magnesium stearate (MgSt), on a fine drug powder can substantially improve flow, without preventing the powder from being directly compacted into tablets. A fine ibuprofen powder, which is both cohesive and possesses a low-melting point, was dry coated via mechanofusion with between 0.1% and 5% (w/w) MgSt. Traditional low-shear blending was also employed as a comparison. No significant difference in particle size or shape was measured following mechanofusion. For the low-shear blended powders, only marginal improvement in flowability was obtained. However, after mechanofusion, substantial improvements in the flow properties were demonstrated. Both XPS and ToF-SIMS demonstrated high degrees of a nano-scale coating coverage of MgSt on the particle surfaces from optimized mechanofusion. The study showed that robust tablets were produced from the selected mechanofused powders, at high-dose concentration and tablet tensile strength was further optimized via addition of a Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) binder (10% w/w). The tablets with the mechanofused powder (with or without PVP) also exhibited significantly lower ejection stress than those made of the raw powder, demonstrating good lubrication. Surprisingly, the release rate of drug from the tablets made with the mechanofused powder was not retarded. This is the first study to demonstrate such a single-step dry coating of model drug with MgSt, with promising flow improvement, flow-aid and lubrication effects, tabletability and also non-inhibited dissolution rate.

  20. Spray drying technique: II. Current applications in pharmaceutical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollohub, Krzysztof; Cal, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    This review presents current applications of spray drying in pharmaceutical technology. The topics discussed include the obtention of excipients and cospray dried composites, methods for increasing the aqueous solubility and bioavailability of active substances, and modified release profiles from spray-dried particles. This review also describes the use of the spray drying technique in the context of biological therapies, such as the spray drying of proteins, inhalable powders, and viable organisms, and the modification of the physical properties of dry plant extracts.

  1. Inhaled medication and inhalation devices for lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis: A European consensus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heijerman, Harry; Westerman, Elsbeth; Conway, Steven;

    2009-01-01

    , mucolytics/mucous mobilizers, anti-inflammatory drugs, bronchodilators and combinations of solutions. Additionally, we review the current knowledge on devices for inhalation therapy with regard to optimal particle sizes and characteristics of wet nebulisers, dry powder and metered dose inhalers. Finally, we...... review the current status of inhaled medication in CF, including the mechanisms of action of the various drugs, their modes of administration and indications, their effects on lung function, exacerbation rates, survival and quality of life, as well as side effects. Specifically we address antibiotics...

  2. Dry coating of micronized API powders for improved dissolution of directly compacted tablets with high drug loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xi; Ghoroi, Chinmay; Davé, Rajesh

    2013-02-14

    Motivated by our recent study showing improved flow and dissolution rate of the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) powders (20 μm) produced via simultaneous micronization and surface modification through continuous fluid energy milling (FEM) process, the performance of blends and direct compacted tablets with high drug loading is examined. Performance of 50 μm API powders dry coated without micronization is also considered for comparison. Blends of micronized, non-micronized, dry coated or uncoated API powders at 30, 60 and 70% drug loading, are examined. The results show that the blends containing dry coated API powders, even micronized ones, have excellent flowability and high bulk density compared to the blends containing uncoated API, which are required for direct compaction. As the drug loading increases, the difference between dry coated and uncoated blends is more pronounced, as seen in the proposed bulk density-FFC phase map. Dry coating led to improved tablet compactibility profiles, corresponding with the improvements in blend compressibility. The most significant advantage is in tablet dissolution where for all drug loadings, the t(80) for the tablets with dry coated APIs was well under 5 min, indicating that this approach can produce nearly instant release direct compacted tablets at high drug loadings.

  3. Spray-dried powders enhance vaginal siRNA delivery by potentially modulating the mucus molecular sieve structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu N

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Na Wu,1,2,* Xinxin Zhang,2,* Feifei Li,2 Tao Zhang,2 Yong Gan,2 Juan Li1 1School of Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China; 2Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Vaginal small interfering RNA (siRNA delivery provides a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of vaginal diseases. However, the densely cross-linked mucus layer on the vaginal wall severely restricts nanoparticle-mediated siRNA delivery to the vaginal epithelium. In order to overcome this barrier and enhance vaginal mucus penetration, we prepared spray-dried powders containing siRNA-loaded nanoparticles. Powders with Pluronic F127 (F127, hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC, and mannitol as carriers were obtained using an ultrasound-assisted spray-drying technique. Highly dispersed dry powders with diameters of 5–15 µm were produced. These powders showed effective siRNA protection and sustained release. The mucus-penetrating properties of the powders differed depending on their compositions. They exhibited different potential of opening mesh size of molecular sieve in simulated vaginal mucus system. A powder formulation with 0.6% F127 and 0.1% HPMC produced the maximum increase in the pore size of the model gel used to simulate vaginal mucus by rapidly extracting water from the gel and interacting with the gel; the resulting modulation of the molecular sieve effect achieved a 17.8-fold improvement of siRNA delivery in vaginal tract and effective siRNA delivery to the epithelium. This study suggests that powder formulations with optimized compositions have the potential to alter the steric barrier posed by mucus and hold promise for effective vaginal siRNA delivery. Keywords: siRNA delivery, vaginal administration, spray-dried powders, mucus penetration, molecular sieve effect

  4. [Inhaled treatments in cystic fibrosis: what's new in 2013?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubus, J-C; Bassinet, L; Chedevergne, F; Delaisi, B; Desmazes-Dufeu, N; Reychler, G; Vecellio, L

    2014-04-01

    In the past few years some new inhaled drugs and inhalation devices have been proposed for the treatment of cystic fibrosis. Breath-controlled nebulizers allow increased pulmonary deposition, with a lower variability and a shorter delivery time. The new dry powder formulations of tobramycin, colistine and mannitol require a change in the inhalation technique which must be slow and deep. In the field of the inhaled mucolytic drugs, hypertonic saline and mannitol have an indication in some patients. With regard to antibiotics, dry-powder tobramycin and colistine can be substituted for the same drug delivered by nebulization. Nebulized aztreonam needs more studies to determine its place. These new treatments represent a definite advance for cystic fibrosis patients and need to be known by all practitioners. Their position in our therapeutic arsenal remains to be accurately defined. Copyright © 2013 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Physicochemical and thermal properties of taro (Colocasia esculenta sp) powders as affected by state of maturity and drying method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeda, M; Njintang, Y N; Gaiani, C; Nguimbou, R M; Scher, J; Facho, B; Mbofung, C M F

    2014-09-01

    The study was aimed at determining the effect of harvesting time and drying method on the thermal and physicochemical properties of taro powder, Sosso ecotype. A 5 × 2 factorial experiment with 5 harvesting times (6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 months after planting) and 2 drying methods (sun and electric oven drying) was used for this purpose. The variance component analysis revealed harvesting time as the most important factor affecting all the variables measured. In particular the proteins and available sugar contents of the powders increased significantly with increase in harvesting time. The same was true of the gelling property and water absorption capacity of the powders. It was equally observed that the temperatures (start, peak and end) and enthalpy of gelatinization of the powders increased with harvesting time. It is concluded that harvesting sosso-taro at full maturity (10 months after planting) and sun-drying produces food powders with excellent gelling properties among others.

  6. Determination of production efficiency, color, glass transition, and sticky point temperature of spray-dried pomegranate juice powder

    OpenAIRE

    Khalid Muzaffar; Sajad Ahmad Wani; Bijamwar Vilas Dinkarrao; Pradyuman Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the powder recovery, color characteristics, glass transition temperature (Tg), and sticky point (Ts) temperature of spray-dried pomegranate juice powder as affected by different concentrations of maltodextrin (DE 20). Five different combinations of pomegranate juice and maltodextrin (95:5, 90:10, 85:15, 80:20 and 75:25 v/w) were prepared and spray dried in a laboratory-type spray dryer. Increase in concentration of maltodextrin significantly increased the...

  7. Analysis and simulation of the drying-air heating system of a Brazilian powdered milk plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. P. Ribeiro Jr.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at simulating air-heating systems, two algorithms were developed for the calculation of finned elliptical-tube heat exchangers, whose basic difference lies in the kind of hot fluid employed: saturated steam or hot liquid. In both cases, a crossflow unit, in which the cold fluid is mixed and always flows on the shell side, is considered. The hot fluid may exhibit multiple passes in the tubes and is assumed unmixed, except for the region between the passes. A comparison between calculated results and operating data on industrial exchangers indicated the adequacy of the algorithms developed. The codes were then introduced into the ASPEN Plus shell, enabling simulation of the steady-state operation of the whole drying-air heating system of a powdered milk plant. Moreover, a sensitivity analysis of this system was conducted for one of its operating parameters and the existence of an optimal value for this variable was clearly shown.

  8. Functional effects of dried okra powder on reconstituted dried yam flake and sensory properties of ojojo-a fried yam (Dioscorea alata L.) snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shittu, Taofik Akinyemi; Olaitan, Ololade Funke

    2014-02-01

    Processing of raw yam (D. alata) tuber (RY) to more stable and instant form could ease the tedium in preparation, increase popularity and commercial potential of ojojo-a fried yam snack. In this study, the potential of dried okra powder (1%-5%) to reduce the sensory quality impairment in ojojo made from instant yam (D. alata) flake (YF) was tested. Inclusion of okra powder significantly increased the viscosity and increased dispersibility of reconstituted yam flour. Addition of okra powder significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the fat and increased the moisture content of ojojo. Furthermore, increasing addition of okra consistently improved the sensory acceptability of ojojo by increasing the product's moistness and fluffiness with reduced crispiness and roughness. In conclusion, addition of 0%-2% of okra powder to reconstituted YF produced ojojo samples which compared favourably with those made from RY in terms of colour, flavour and taste.

  9. Prevalence of thermoduric bacteria and spores in nonfat dry milk powders of Midwest origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buehner, Kimberly P; Anand, Sanjeev; Djira, Gemechis D

    2015-05-01

    Samples of nonfat dry milk powder were analyzed for the presence of heat-resistant bacteria. The samples were collected from Midwest manufacturing companies and were evaluated for the presence of spores, thermoduric bacteria, and the total bacterial count. Three companies were included in this study, and results showed differences between each of the companies in the heat-resistant microbial groups tested. Company 3 had the highest levels of total spores and thermoduric bacteria: 3.6±0.14 and 3.5±0.13 log cfu/g, respectively. Interestingly, this company did not have the highest total bacterial count but rather the second lowest total bacterial count for the group, perhaps because of the higher proportion of thermophiles present in the powders from this company. The average level of total bacterial counts was 2.57±0.07 log cfu/g. Isolates obtained from the samples were identified by mass spectrometry, and all of the companies showed Bacillus licheniformis as the most prevalent bacterial species identified.

  10. Effect of blanching and drying temperatures on the physicochemical characteristics, dietary fiber composition and antioxidant-related parameters of dried persimmons peel powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Mst Sorifa; Ahmed, Maruf; Eun, Jong-Bang

    2010-11-01

    The effects of blanching with hot water at 90°C for 2 min and hot-air drying temperatures (50°C, 60°C and 70°C) on the physicochemical properties, dietary fiber compositions, antioxidant activity and hydration properties of ripe, soft persimmon peels were investigated. Blanching and drying significantly reduced the retention of antioxidant-related parameters. Although there were no significant differences in total phenolics and ß-carotene content at different drying temperatures for both dried unblanched and blanched peels, dried blanched peels had higher dietary fiber compositions and swelling capacity than those of dried unblanched peels at all drying conditions. In addition, blanched peels dried at 50°C had the highest dietary fiber compositions, swelling capacity and antioxidant activity compared with those at high drying temperatures (60°C and 70°C). Therefore, blanched peels dried at 50°C is suggested to obtain better quality dietary fiber powder from persimmon peel for use in food applications or in fiber-fortified foods for health promotion.

  11. Acute Inhalation Toxicity Test of Ivermectin Raw Powder%伊维菌素原粉急性吸入毒性试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡成云; 林师道; 纪磊; 汪建良; 张武; 岑江杰

    2016-01-01

    To study the acute inhalation toxicity of Ivermectin raw powder and provide the basis for safe use,limit test,the dose group was 2000 mg/m3 ,dynamic nose-only exposure,effective exposure time for 2 h.The results showed that ivermectin raw powder in male and female rats acute inhalation median lethal concentration (LC50 ) were more than 2089 mg/m3 .The acute inhalation toxicity was low toxicity.%对伊维菌素原粉急性吸入毒性进行研究,采用限量试验,设定2000 mg/m3一个剂量组,动式口鼻式染毒,有效染毒时间2h.结果显示,伊维菌素原粉对雌雄大鼠的急性吸入半数致死浓度(LC50)均大于2089 mg/m3.伊维菌素原粉急性吸入毒性属低毒,该结论为安全使用提供了依据.

  12. Electrochemical properties of MnS-C and MnO-C composite powders prepared via spray drying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Kyung Min; Cho, Jung Sang; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-11-01

    Spherical micron-sized MnS-C and MnO-C composite powders are successfully prepared by post-treating the spray-dried precursor powders. Dextrin, which is used as the carbon source material, plays a key role in the preparation of the composite powders with regular morphologies; the bare MnS and MnO powders prepared from the spray solution without dextrin have irregular morphologies. The MnS-C composite powders prepared from the spray solution containing 17 g L-1 of dextrin have mixed crystal structures of α- and γ-MnS phases. These powders exhibit superior electrochemical properties compared with those of their MnS and MnO-C counterparts. For example, at a current density of 0.5 A g-1, the MnO-C powders have a 100th-cycle discharge capacity of 321 mA h g-1; the corresponding discharge capacities of the MnS powders prepared from spray solutions containing 0, 17, and 50 g L-1 of dextrin are 501, 786, and 636 mA h g-1, respectively.

  13. Production of Nigella sativa Beverage Powder under Foam Mat Drying Using Egg Albumen as a Foaming Agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norhazirah Affandi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of producing Nigella sativa powder under a foam mat drying technique. A central, composite design of experiments was used to optimize the drying condition and compare the solubility, the antioxidant and mineral content of roasted Nigella sativa, and the foam mat dried Nigella sativa powder. Foams were prepared from Nigella sativa solution by adding different concentrations of egg albumen (2.5%, 8.75%, and 15% w/w and methyl cellulose (0, 0.5% and 1% w/w, using whipping times of 2, 5, and 8 min. The drying temperature was set at 50–70 °C, with a foam thickness of 1, 2, and 3 mm. The optimum recorded conditions for the foaming process were 15% of egg albumen concentration, 0.69% of methyl cellulose concentration, and a whipping time of 8 min. Thus, the optimum conditions for the drying process were 60 °C, with 2 mm of foam thickness. The results showed that there were significant differences in DPPH inhibition, the total phenolic content, and mineral content, whereas no significant differences were recorded in the water solubility index between the roasted Nigella sativa and the foam mat dried Nigella sativa powder.

  14. Application of spray granulation for conversion of a nanosuspension into a dry powder form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Sonali; Schenck, Daniel; Ghosh, Indrajit; Hollywood, Al; Maulit, Ester; Ruegger, Colleen

    2012-08-30

    The in vivo effect of particle agglomeration after drying of nanoparticles has not been extensively studied till date based on current literature review. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of spray granulation as a processing method to convert a nanosuspension of a poorly water soluble drug into a solid dosage form and to evaluate the effect of the transformation into a solid powder on the in vivo exposure in beagle dogs. Formulation variables like the level of stabilizer in the nanosuspension formulation, granulation substrate and drug loading in the granulation were evaluated. The granules were characterized for moisture content, drug content, particle size, crystallinity and in vitro dissolution rate. Granulations with 10% drug loading showed dissolution profiles comparable to the nanosuspension, slightly slower dissolution profiles were observed at 20% drug loading. This can be attributed to an increase in the surface hydrophobicity at a higher drug loading and the formation of agglomerates that were harder to disintegrate, thereby compromising the dissolution rate. An in vivo PK study in beagle dogs showed an 8-fold increase and a 6-fold increase in the AUC(0-48) from the nanosuspension and dried nanosuspension formulations respectively compared to the coarse suspension. Also, the nanosuspension and dried nanosuspension formulations showed a 12-fold and 8-fold increase in the C(max) respectively compared to the coarse suspension. This shows the feasibility of using spray granulation as a processing method to convert a nanosuspension into a solid dosage form with improved in vivo exposure compared to the coarse suspension formulation.

  15. Effects of Surface Composition on the Aerosolisation and Dissolution of Inhaled Antibiotic Combination Powders Consisting of Colistin and Rifampicin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenbo; Zhou, Qi Tony; Sun, Si-Ping; Denman, John A; Gengenbach, Thomas R; Barraud, Nicolas; Rice, Scott A; Li, Jian; Yang, Mingshi; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-03-01

    Colistin is often the only effective antibiotic against the respiratory infections caused by multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria. However, colistin-resistant multidrug-resistant isolates have been increasingly reported and combination therapy is preferred to combat resistance. In this study, five combination formulations containing colistin (COL) and rifampicin (RIF) were prepared by spray drying. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was measured for the formulation of COL/RIF = 4:1 with relatively high emitted doses (over 80%) and satisfactory fine particle fractions (over 60%). Data from X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and nano-time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) showed the surfaces of particles were mainly covered by rifampicin even for the formulation with a mass ratio of COL/RIF = 4:1. Because colistin is hygroscopic and rifampicin is hydrophobic, moisture absorption of combination formulations was significantly lower than the pure colistin formulation in the dynamic vapour sorption results. To investigate the dissolution characteristics, four dissolution test methods (diffusion Franz cell, modified Franz cell, flow-through and beaker methods) were employed and compared. The modified Franz cell method was selected to test the dissolution behaviour of aerosolised powder formulations to eliminate the effect of membrane on dissolution. The results showed that surface enrichment of hydrophobic rifampicin neither affected aerosolisation nor retarded dissolution rate of colistin in the combination formulations. For the first time, advanced surface characterisation techniques of XPS and ToF-SIMS have shown their capability to understand the effect of surface composition on the aerosolisation and dissolution of combination powders.

  16. The effect of vehicles on spray drying of rifampicin inhalable microparticles: In vitro and in vivo evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Backgrond and the purpose of the study: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of solvents used in the spray drying and the aerodynamic properties of the rifampicin microparticles and pulmonary absorption of the microparticles. Methods: Different mixtures of dichloromethane and water were used as solvents for spray drying of rifampicin microparticles. The water to dichloromethane ratios were 25:75, 50:50, 75:25, 80:20, 90:10 and 100:0.   The solutions were dried at inlet temperature of 70 °C. The powder properties of the samples were examined by laser diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, helium densitometer and infrared spectroscopy (IR. The aerosolization performance of these formulations was investigated using an Andersen cascade impactor. Pulmonary absorptions of formulations were examined by the in situ pulmonary absorption described by Enna and Schanker method. The plasma concentration time profiles of rifampicin were constructed 8 hours following the intravenous and the intrapulmonary administrations. The pharmacokinetics parameters, Cmax, Tmax, t1/2, AUC, mean residence time (MRT, Ka and Ke were determined for each formulations. Results and major conclusions: The Tmax values for the samples decreased by increase in the amount of water in the initial feed. The Tmax values for the spray dried samples from the different mixtures of   dichloromethane and water were 60(min and 30(min respectively. The solvent mixture as the spray drying vehicle played an important role in the in vitro and in vivo lung deposition. The type of spray drying vehicle showed significant effect on the aerodynamic behavior and pharmacokinetic parameters of the particles. The pulmonary absorption of drug revealed the possibility of achieving the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of the antibiotics. The spray drying vehicle only affected absorption patterns of the formulations and it did not have any effect on the elimination rat of

  17. Single step spray drying method to develop proliposomes for inhalation: a systematic study based on quality by design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil-Gadhe, Arpana; Pokharkar, Varsha

    2014-04-01

    Quality by Design (QbD) is a systematic approach to develop drug products which includes evaluation of formulation parameters to achieve defined final product quality. In the present study principles of QbD were extended to the preparation, in-vitro and in-vivo performance of rifapentine-loaded proliposomes for pulmonary inhalation where final product needs to comply with specific properties. The rifapentine-loaded proliposomes for the treatment of tuberculosis were prepared in single step by spray drying method and independent variables were optimized using factorial design approach. Contour plots and multiple regression analysis were used to study the effect of selected independent variables on dependent variables. The effect of presence of drug: hydrogenated soya phosphatidylcholine (HSPC) and type of charged lipid in the formulation at three levels were studied on mass median diameter (MMD), liposomal vesicle size, % encapsulation efficiency (% EE), mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and fine particle fraction (FPF) as critical quality attributes. Optimized formulation (R-LDPI-7) with drug: HSPC ratio of 1:2 and stearyl amine as charged lipid were found to give respirable proliposomes with MMAD of 1.56 ± 0.16 μm and FPF of 92.5 ± 1.5%. Sustained drug release with Higuchi diffusion kinetics was achieved from liposomally encapsulated rifapentine. Pulmonary pharmacokinetics of optimized batch R-LDPI-7 revealed longer retention of drug in lungs with 7 fold increase in both, the mean residence time and t1/2 as compared to R-DPI-0. The study results demonstrated the application of QbD principles and design of experiment (DOE) approach to develop drug encapsulated proliposomes for inhalation by spray drying in single step.

  18. Thermal ink-jet spray freeze-drying for preparation of excipient-free salbutamol sulphate for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueannoom, Wunlapa; Srisongphan, Amon; Taylor, Kevin M G; Hauschild, Stephan; Gaisford, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The use of thermal ink-jet spray freeze-drying (TIJ-SFD) to engineer inhalable, excipient-free salbutamol sulphate (SS) particles was assessed. A modified Hewlett-Packard printer was used to atomise aqueous SS solutions into liquid nitrogen. The frozen droplets were freeze-dried. It was found that TIJ-SFD could process SS solutions up to 15%w/v; the porous particles produced had a physical diameter of ca. 35 μm. Next generation impactor (NGI) analysis indicated that the particles had a smaller aerodynamic size (MMAD ranging from 6 to 8.7 μm). Particles prepared from the lowest concentration SS solution were too fragile to withstand aerosolisation, but the 5%w/v solution yielded particles having the best combination of strength and aerodynamic properties. Comparison with a commercial SS formulation (Cyclocap®) showed that the SFD preparation had an almost equivalent FPF (6.4 μm) when analysed with a twin-stage impinger (TSI; 24.0 ± 1.2% and 26.4 ± 2.2%, respectively) and good performance when analysed with NGI (FPF (4.46 μm):16.5 ± 2.0 and 27.7 ± 1.7, respectively). TIJ-SFD appears to be an excellent method to prepare inhalable particles. It is scalable yet allows assessment of the viability of the pulmonary route early in the development since it can be used with very small volumes (<0.5 mL) of solution.

  19. Processing of Polysulfone to Free Flowing Powder by Mechanical Milling and Spray Drying Techniques for Use in Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Mys

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polysulfone (PSU has been processed into powder form by ball milling, rotor milling, and spray drying technique in an attempt to produce new materials for Selective Laser Sintering purposes. Both rotor milling and spray drying were adept to make spherical particles that can be used for this aim. Processing PSU pellets by rotor milling in a three-step process resulted in particles of 51.8 μm mean diameter, whereas spray drying could only manage a mean diameter of 26.1 μm. The resulting powders were characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and X-ray Diffraction measurements (XRD. DSC measurements revealed an influence of all processing techniques on the thermal behavior of the material. Glass transitions remained unaffected by spray drying and rotor milling, yet a clear shift was observed for ball milling, along with a large endothermic peak in the high temperature region. This was ascribed to the imparting of an orientation into the polymer chains due to the processing method and was confirmed by XRD measurements. Of all processed powder samples, the ball milled sample was unable to dissolve for GPC measurements, suggesting degradation by chain scission and subsequent crosslinking. Spray drying and rotor milling did not cause significant degradation.

  20. Spray-dried powders containing tretinoin-loaded engineered lipid-core nanocapsules: development and photostability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiori, M C L; Ourique, A F; da Silva, C de B; Raffin, R P; Pohlmann, A R; Guterres, S S; Beck, R C R

    2012-03-01

    The influence of the spray-drying process on the ability of engineered lipid-core nanocapsules to protect tretinoin against UV degradation was evaluated. This approach represents a technological alternative to improve the microbiological stability, storage and transport properties of such formulations. Tretinoin-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules or tretinoin-loaded nanoemulsion were dispersed in lactose (10% w/v) and fed in the spray-drier to obtain a solid product (spray-dried powder containing tretinoin-loaded nanocapsules or nanoemulsion--SD-TTN-NCL or SD-TTN-NE, respectively). SD-TTN-NE showed a lower (p encapsulation (89 +/- 1%) compared to SD-TTN-NCL (94 +/- 2%). Redispersed SD-TTN-NCL and SD-TTN-NE showed z-average sizes of 204 +/- 2 nm and 251 +/- 9 nm, which were close to those of the original suspensions (220 +/- 3 nm and 239 +/- 14 nm, respectively). Similar percentage of photodegradation were determined for tretinoin loaded in nanocapsules (26.15 +/- 4.34%) or in the respective redispersed spray-dried powder (28.73 +/- 6.19 min) after 60 min of UVA radiation exposure (p > 0.05). Our experimental design showed for the first time that spray-dried lipid-core nanocapsules are able to protect tretinoin against UVA radiation, suggesting that the drying process did not alter the supramolecular structure of the lipid-core nanocapsules. Such powders are potential intermediate products for the development of nanomedicines containing tretinoin.

  1. Preclinical dose-ranging studies of a novel dry powder norovirus vaccine formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Michael J; Ni, Yawei; Finger-Baker, Isaac; Ball, Jordan P; Hahn, Jessica; DiMarco, Ashley V; Kobs, Dean; Horne, Bobbi; Talton, James D; Cobb, Ronald R

    2016-03-14

    Norovirus is the primary cause of viral gastroenteritis in humans with multiple genotypes currently circulating worldwide. The development of a successful norovirus vaccine is contingent on its ability to induce both systemic and mucosal antibody responses against a wide range of norovirus genotypes. Norovirus virus-like particles (VLPs) are known to elicit systemic and mucosal immune responses when delivered intranasally. Incorporation of these VLPs into an intranasal powder vaccine offers the advantage of simplicity and induction of neutralizing systemic and mucosal antibodies. Nasal immunization, which provides the advantage of ease of administration and a mucosal delivery mechanism, faces the real issue of limited nasal residence time due to mucociliary clearance. Herein, we describe a novel dry powder (GelVac™) formulation of GI or GII.4 norovirus VLPs, two dominant circulating genotypes, to identify the optimal antigen dosages based on systemic and mucosal immune responses in guinea pigs. Systemic and mucosal immunogenicity of each of the VLPs was observed in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, a boosting effect was observed after the second dosing of each VLP antigen. With the GelVac™ formulation, a total antigen dose of ≥ 15 μg was determined to be the maximally immunogenic dose for both GI and GII.4 norovirus VLPs based on evaluation for 56 days. Taken together, these results indicate that norovirus VLPs could be used as potential vaccine candidates without using an immunostimulatory adjuvant and provide a basis for the development of a GelVac™ bivalent GI/GII.4 norovirus VLP vaccine.

  2. A review of factors affecting electrostatic charging of pharmaceuticals and adhesive mixtures for inhalation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaialy, Waseem

    2016-04-30

    Pharmaceutical powders are typically insulators consisting of relatively small particles and thus they usually exhibit significant electrostatic charging behaviours. In the inhalation field, the measurement of electrostatic charge is an imperative stage during pharmaceutical formulation development. The electrostatic charge is affected by the interplay of many factors. This article reviews the factors affecting the electrostatic charging of pharmaceutical powders with a focus on dry powder inhalations. The influences of particle resistivity, size distribution, shape distribution, surface roughness, polymorphic form and hygroscopicity, as well as the effects of moisture uptake, environmental conditions, pharmaceutical processing (i.e., milling, sieving, spray drying and blending), and storage on the electrostatic charge behaviours of pharmaceuticals, with focus on inhalation powders, were reviewed. The influence of electrostatic charge on the performance of dry powder inhaler formulations in terms of drug content homogeneity, the passage of drug through the inhaler device, drug-carrier adhesion/detachment, and drug deposition on the respiratory airways were discussed. The understanding gained is crucial to improving the safety, quality, and efficiency of the pharmaceutical inhalation products.

  3. Green ambrosia for Soil- Dry Cow Dung Powder: Rhexistasy to Biostasy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Barot, Nisha

    2013-04-01

    "Greener ambrosia for Soil - Dry cow dung powder: Rhexistasy to Biostasy" Pedosphere, the soil with its biotic and abiotic component, is produced by lithosphere`s interactions with atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. The theory of Biorhexistasy proposed by pedologist H. Erhart [1], describes two crucial climatic phases of soil i.e. Biostasy, period of soil formation and Rhexistasy, periods of soil erosion. Humus, the organic matter in soil, permits better aeration, enhances the absorption and releases nutrients, and makes the soil less susceptible to leaching and erosion [2], thus the agent of soil`s vitality. Mismanagement of soil, leads to the degradation of millions of acres of land through erosion, compaction, salinization and acidification. Among these threats salinity is a major abiotic stress reducing the yield of wide variety of crops all over the world [3]. It is been proved that Humic Acid (HA) treatment can ameliorate the deleterious effects of salt stress by increasing root growth, altering mineral uptake, and decreasing membrane damage, thus inducing salt tolerance in plants [4]. HA can be inexpensively incorporated into soils via different biowastes. Dry cow dung powder (DCP), is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter, enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as HA, Fulvic Acid (FA) etc [5]. The microbial consortium enables DCP with considerable potentials for biodegradation and biotransformation of even saline soil and further contributes to many biogeochemical processes, boosting humus content of soil. Due to unambiguous biological, microbiological as well as chemical inert properties of DCP, it has been successfully utilized as a fertilizer and soil conditioner since ages in India, one of the leading agrarian countries of the world. Thus we summarize that DCP is one of the best contenders for the biostasy and desaliner of soil, aptly, soil

  4. The suppression of enhanced bitterness intensity of macrolide dry syrup mixed with an acidic powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishizaka, Toshihiko; Okada, Sachie; Takemoto, Eri; Tokuyama, Emi; Tsuji, Eriko; Mukai, Junji; Uchida, Takahiro

    2007-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify a medicine which strongly enhanced the bitterness of clarithromycin dry syrup (CAMD) when administered concomitantly and to develop a method to suppress this enhanced bitterness. The bitterness enhancement was evaluated not only by gustatory sensation tests but also using pH and taste sensor measurements of the mixed sample. A remarkable bitterness enhancement was found when CAMD was mixed with the acidic powder L-carbocysteine. The acidic pH (pH 3.40) of the suspension made from these two preparations, seemed to be due to enhanced release of clarithromycin caused by the dissolution of the alkaline polymer film-coating. Several methods for preventing this bitterness enhancement were investigated. Neither increasing the volume of water taken with the mixture, nor changing the ratio of CAMD:L-carbocysteine in the mixture, were effective in reducing the bitterness intensity of the CAMD/L-carbocysteine mixture. The best way to achieve taste masking was to first administer CAMD mixed with chocolate jelly, which has a neutral pH, followed by the L-carbocysteine suspension. Similar results were obtained for the bitterness suppression of azithromycin fine granules with L-carbocysteine. The chocolate jelly will be useful for taste masking of bitter macrolide drug formulations, when they need to be administered together with acidic drug formulations.

  5. THERMAL AND THERMODYNAMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF A DYE POWDER FROM LIQUID TURMERIC EXTRACTS BY SPRAY DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura Yazmin Coronel Delgado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the thermodynamic properties of sorption isotherms and glass transition temperature (Tg and the thermal properties of a dye powder obtained from turmeric extracts using spray drying. The sorption isotherms were evaluated at 15, 25 and 35 ºC using the dynamic gravimetric method, wherein the isotherm data of the experiment were fit to GAB and BET models. Likewise, the Tg was measured using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA was used to determine the mass loss, and the thermal properties (heat capacity, diffusivity and thermal conductivity were determined using transient flow method. The results demonstrated that the GAB model best fit the adsorption data. The DSC analysis presented a glass transition temperature of 65.35 ºC and a loss of volatiles at 178.07 ºC. The TGA analysis indicated a considerable mass loss starting at 193 ºC, resulting in degradation of the product. The thermal properties demonstrated a heat capacity of 2.45 J/g ºC, a thermal conductivity of 0.164 ±0.001 W/mK and a thermal diffusivity of 8.7x10-8 ± 0.000 m2/s

  6. Optimization of the drying parameters for the short-form spray dryer producing powdered egg with 20% tapioca starch additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Tess Masilungan-Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is one of the common methods of preserving eggs. A study had shown that addition of 20% tapioca starch to liquid egg prior to drying increases the shelf-life of the powdered product. However, although the said factor has been identified, production in a larger capacity is still a problem. One way to solve this predicament is to identify the optimum drying parameter that would produce a higher yield of dried eggs but retain the quality of the desired product such as the moisture content and water activity. The key issue in optimizing the dryer operation is flow stability wherein the airflow patterns, such as velocity, temperature, and relative humidity, existing inside the drying chamber are considered as the primary factor that influences the histories of the droplets produced. In this article, the author used ANSYS-Fluent version 14.5, a computational fluid dynamics software, to analyze the flow pattern of the continuous phase and to track the particle histories of the disperse phase inside the short-form drying chamber that produces powdered egg with 20% tapioca starch additive. Simulations for the short-form dryer showed that the optimized inlet air temperature and outlet particle temperature were 438 and 385 K, respectively. Based on the results, the calculated moisture content and water activity are 4.55% and 0.02 a w , respectively. Note that the critical moisture content and water activity for powdered eggs are 5% and 0.4 a w , respectively. The values beyond these limits will cause abrupt spoilage of the dried egg.

  7. Synthesis of Al[2]O[3]-ZrO[2] powders from differently concentrated suspensions with a spray drying technique

    OpenAIRE

    Lyamina, Galina Vladimirovna; Ilela, Alfa; Khasanov, Oleg Leonidovich; Petyukevich, Mariya Stanislavovna; Vaytulevich (Vaitulevich), Elena Anatolievna

    2016-01-01

    The composite powders of aluminium and zirconium oxides containing 10, 50 and 90 mol % Al{3+} without a stabilizer have been obtained from suspensions using a spray drying method. The powders obtained at equal mole ratios of zirconium and aluminum in the original solution (0.5:0.5 mol/l) have the largest contents of cubic and tetragonal phases of ZrO[2], strictly uniform distribution of phases and the largest value of the specific surface area. The particles with two different morphologies ha...

  8. Applying Spray Drying to Customized Powder Manufacture%用喷雾干燥方法制造具有指定特性的颗粒

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keith Masters

    2004-01-01

    Spray drying is an important continuous industrial process for drying pumpable liquid formulations irrespective of their heat sensitivity, rheology, solids content and processing rate. Furthermore spray drying has the capability through drying chamber design, plant layout and mode of operation to produce dried products of specific particulate size and morphology. These are important aspects when spray drying technology is applied to the needs of customized powder manufacture. There are many examples in industry where spray dried powders have to meet stringent specifications set by such factors as end-product powder quality standards dictated by global competition,dry raw material characteristics required for optimum downstream processing, and dry materials handling to comply with environmental, health and safety issues. Spray drying is no longer regarded just as a convective industrial drying concept, but also as an integral part of modern manufacturing practices applying powder technology. This paper reviews the aspects of spray dryer design and operation for consideration when customized powder manufacture is involved.

  9. Superiority of wet-milled over dry-milled superfine powdered activated carbon for adsorptive 2-methylisoborneol removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Long; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Shirasaki, Nobutaka

    2016-10-01

    Superfine powdered activated carbon (SPAC), which is produced from conventionally sized powdered activated carbon (PAC) by wet milling in a bead mill, has attracted attention for its high adsorptive removal ability in both research and practice. In this study, the performance of dry-milled SPAC was investigated. 2-Methylisoborneol (MIB), an earthy-musty compound commonly targeted by water treatment systems, was used as the target adsorbate. Dry-milled SPAC exhibited lower adsorptive removal of MIB than wet-milled SPAC, even when both SPACs were produced from the same PAC and were composed of particles of the same size. One reason for the lower removal of MIB by the dry-milled SPAC was a higher degree of aggregation in the dry-milled SPAC after production; as a result the apparent particle size of dry-milled SPAC was larger than that of wet-milled SPAC. The dry-milled SPAC was also more negatively charged than the wet-milled SPAC, and, owing to its higher repulsion, it was more amenable to dispersion by ultrasonication. However, even after the dry-milled SPAC was ultrasonicated so that its apparent particle size was similar to or less than that of the wet-milled SPAC, the dry-milled SPAC was still inferior in adsorptive removal to the wet-milled SPAC. Therefore, another reason for the lower adsorptive removal of dry-milled SPAC was its lower equilibrium adsorption capacity due to the oxidation during the milling. The adsorption kinetics by SPACs with different degrees of particle aggregation were successfully simulated by a pore diffusion model and a fractal aggregation model.

  10. Effect of freeze-dried leek powder (FDLP) and nitrite level on processing and quality characteristics of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukalas, D S; Katsanidis, E; Marantidou, S; Bloukas, J G

    2011-02-01

    Fermented sausages were produced with 0.84% and 1.68% freeze-dried leek powder (FDLP), providing 75 and 150 mg/kg NaNO(3), respectively, and three levels of added nitrite (0, 75, and 150 mg/kg NaNO(2). A control treatment was also produced with 150 mg/kg NaNO(2). Sausages with FDLP were darker and yellower (psausages (pfermented sausages, as it results in a 50% reduction in added nitrite.

  11. Efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) spray dried powder for controlling zebra mussels adhering to test substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Severson, Todd J.; Weber, Kerry L.; Mayer, Denise A.

    2015-01-01

    A mobile bioassay trailer was used to assess the efficacy of Pseudomonas fluorescens (Pf-CL145A) spray dried powder (SDP) formulation for controlling zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) from two midwestern lakes: Lake Carlos (Alexandria, Minnesota) and Shawano Lake (Shawano, Wisconsin). The effects of SDP exposure concentration and exposure duration on zebra mussel survival were evaluated along with the evaluation of a benthic injection application technique to reduce the amount of SDP required to induce zebra mortality.

  12. Evaluation of Genotoxicity and 28-day Oral Dose Toxicity on Freeze-dried Powder of Tenebrio molitor Larvae (Yellow Mealworm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, So-Ri; Yun, Eun-Young; Kim, Ji-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Jeong, Eun Ju; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2014-06-01

    The larval form of Tenebrio molitor (T. molitor) has been eaten in many countries and provides benefits as a new food source of protein for humans. However, no information exists regarding its safety for humans. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the genotoxicity and repeated dose oral toxicity of the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae. The genotoxic potential was evaluated by a standard battery testing: bacterial reverse mutation test, in vitro chromosome aberration test, and in vivo micronucleus test. To assess the repeated dose toxicity, the powder was administered once daily by oral gavage to Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 28 days. The parameters which were applied to the study were mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings and histopathologic examination. The freezedried powder of T. molitor larvae was not mutagenic or clastogenic based on results of in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity assays. Furthermore, no treatment-related changes or findings were observed in any parameters in rats after 28 days oral administration. In conclusion, the freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae was considered to be non-genotoxic and the NOAEL (No Observed Adverse Effect Level) was determined to be 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of SD rats under our experimental conditions.

  13. Sustained release coating of tablets with Eudragit(®) RS/RL using a novel electrostatic dry powder coating process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Mingxi; Luo, Yanfeng; Zhang, Liqiang; Ma, Yingliang; Stephenson, Tyler Shawn; Zhu, Jesse

    2010-10-31

    The objectives of this study were to develop an electrostatic dry powder coating process for sustained coating tablets with Eudragit(®) RS/RL and to investigate the effects of various factors and operating conditions on the coating process and drug release profile. A liquid plasticizer (triethyl citrate) was sprayed onto the surface of the tablets followed by spraying coating powder by an electrostatic spray gun. The powder coated tablets were cured at elevated temperature for a film formation. Liquid plasticizer played important roles in lowering down the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of the coating polymer and increasing the surface electrical conduction of tablet cores. Electrostatic assisted coating deposition was confirmed by the fact that higher coating level was obtained with electrical charging than the ones without it. The micrographs of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of coated tablets showed that the film formation mainly occurred during the curing step. Higher curing temperature and longer curing time help enhance the film formation. The in vitro drug release profiles indicated that curing time, temperature, coating level and ratio of Eudragit(®) RS/RL were the main factors affecting the sustained release profile. The electrostatic dry powder coating process has been demonstrated to be an alternative for tablet sustained release coating with Eudragit(®) RS and RL.

  14. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano ( L. Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP, antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol, 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP, 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP, and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP. Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05. Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05. These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  15. Fine particle mass from the Diskus inhaler and Turbuhaler inhaler in children with asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, H; Klug, B; Sumby, B S;

    1998-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate dose consistency and particle distribution from the dry powder inhalers Diskus and Turbuhaler. Full profiles of inhalation pressure versus time were recorded in 18 4 yr old and 18 8 yr old asthmatic children through Diskus and Turbuhaler inhalers. These data were used...... is a determinant of the quality of the aerosol. The mean (SD) amount of drug in large particles (>4.7 microm), fine particles (children and 71 (3), 18 (2) and 2...... (1) from the 8 yr old children, respectively. Similar particle fractions from the Budesonide Turbuhaler were 35 (9), 21 (10) and 7 (5) from 4 yr old children and 30 (7), 32 (9) and 12 (6) from 8 yr old children. In conclusion, the Diskus inhaler provides an improved dose consistency through...

  16. Inhaled medication and inhalation devices for lung disease in patients with cystic fibrosis: A European consensus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heijerman, Harry; Westerman, Elsbeth; Conway, Steven; Touw, Daan; Döring, Gerd

    2009-09-01

    In cystic fibrosis inhalation of drugs for the treatment of CF related lung disease has been proven to be highly effective. Consequently, an increasing number of drugs and devices have been developed for CF lung disease or are currently under development. In this European consensus document we review the current status of inhaled medication in CF, including the mechanisms of action of the various drugs, their modes of administration and indications, their effects on lung function, exacerbation rates, survival and quality of life, as well as side effects. Specifically we address antibiotics, mucolytics/mucous mobilizers, anti-inflammatory drugs, bronchodilators and combinations of solutions. Additionally, we review the current knowledge on devices for inhalation therapy with regard to optimal particle sizes and characteristics of wet nebulisers, dry powder and metered dose inhalers. Finally, we address the subject of testing new devices before market introduction.

  17. Optimization of the general acceptability though affective tests and response surface methodology of a dry cacao powder mixture based beverage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Chau Loo Kung

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This research work had as main objective optimizing the general acceptability though affective tests and response surface methodology of a dry cacao powder mixture based beverage. We obtained formulations of mixtures of cacao powder with different concentrations of 15%, 17.5% and 20%, as well as lecithin concentrations of 0.1%; 0.3%; and 0.5% maintaining a constant content of sugar (25 %, Vanillin (1% that included cacao powder with different pH values: natural (pH 5 and alkalinized (pH 6.5 and pH 8 and water by difference to 100%, generating a total of fifteen treatments to be evaluated, according to the Box-Behnen design for three factors. The treatments underwent satisfaction level tests to establish the general acceptability. The treatment that included cacao powder with a concentration of 17.5 %, pH 6.5 and lecithin concentration of 0.3 % obtained the best levels of acceptability. The software Statgraphics Plus 5.1 was used to obtain the treatment with maximum acceptability that corresponded to cacao powder with pH 6.81, with a concentration of 18.24 % and soy lecithin in 0.28% with a tendency to what was obtained in the satisfaction levels tests. Finally we characterized in a physical-chemistry and microbiological way the optimum formulation as well as evaluated sensitively obtaining an acceptability of 6.17.

  18. Dry powders based on PLGA nanoparticles for pulmonary delivery of antibiotics: modulation of encapsulation efficiency, release rate and lung deposition pattern by hydrophilic polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungaro, Francesca; d'Angelo, Ivana; Coletta, Ciro; d'Emmanuele di Villa Bianca, Roberta; Sorrentino, Raffaella; Perfetto, Brunella; Tufano, Maria Antonietta; Miro, Agnese; La Rotonda, Maria Immacolata; Quaglia, Fabiana

    2012-01-10

    Although few experimental studies have been handled so far to exploit the potential of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) in the production of dry powders for antibiotic inhalation, there has been no comprehensive study on the role played by NP composition. In this work, we try to shed light on this aspect by designing and developing a pulmonary delivery system for antibiotics, such as tobramycin (Tb), based on PLGA NPs embedded in an inert microcarrier made of lactose, referred to as nano-embedded micro-particles (NEM). At nanosize level, helper hydrophilic polymers were used to impart the desired surface, bulk and release properties to PLGA NPs prepared by a modified emulsion-solvent diffusion technique. Results showed that poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and chitosan (CS) are essential to optimise the size and modulate the surface properties of Tb-loaded PLGA NPs, whereas the use of alginate (Alg) allows efficient Tb entrapment within NPs and its release up to one month. Optimized formulations display good in vitro antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa planktonic cells. Furthermore, spray-drying of the NPs with lactose yielded NEM with peculiar but promising flow and aerosolization properties, while preserving the peculiar NP features. Nonetheless, in vivo biodistribution studies showed that PVA-modified Alg/PLGA NPs reached the deep lung, while CS-modified NPs were found in great amounts in the upper airways, lining lung epithelial surfaces. In conclusion, PLGA NP composition appears to play a crucial role in determining not only the technological features of NPs but, once processed in the form of NEM, also their in vitro/in vivo deposition pattern.

  19. Preparation of ultra-fine powders from polysaccharide-coated solid lipid nanoparticles and nanostructured lipid carriers by innovative nano spray drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Taoran; Hu, Qiaobin; Zhou, Mingyong; Xue, Jingyi; Luo, Yangchao

    2016-09-10

    In this study, five polysaccharides were applied as natural polymeric coating materials to prepare solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructure lipid carriers (NLC), and then the obtained lipid colloidal particles were transformed to solid powders by the innovative nano spray drying technology. The feasibility and suitability of this new technology to generate ultra-fine lipid powder particles were evaluated and the formulation was optimized. The spray dried SLN powder exhibited the aggregated and irregular shape and dimension, but small, uniform, well-separated spherical powder particles of was obtained from NLC. The optimal formulation of NLC was prepared by a 20-30% oleic acid content with carrageenan or pectin as coating material. Therefore, nano spray drying technology has a potential application to produce uniform, spherical, and sub-microscale lipid powder particles when the formulation of lipid delivery system is appropriately designed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Two Cases of Tsunami Dust Pneumonia: Organizing Pneumonia Caused by the Inhalation of Dried Tsunami Sludge after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanda, Shinsuke; Kobayashi, Seiichi; Hanagama, Masakazu; Sato, Hikari; Suzuki, Satoshi; Ueda, Shinsaku; Takahashi, Toru; Yanai, Masaru

    We report two cases of organizing pneumonia (OP) secondary to the inhalation of the dried tsunami sludge which formed during the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and the consequent tsunami. After the disaster, both of these patients had been engaged in the restoration work. About half a month later, they developed shortness of breath and pulmonary infiltrates. These patients were diagnosed with interstitial pneumonia. Their biopsy specimens revealed multifocal peribronchiolitis and OP. An electron probe microanalysis of these specimens demonstrated the presence of elements from the earth's crust in the inflammatory lesions. These two cases indicate that exposure to dried tsunami sludge can cause OP.

  1. Statistical tools and control of internal lubricant content of inhalation grade HPMC capsules during manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Guillermo; Díez, Fernando; Gassó, María T; Jones, Brian E; Martín-Portugués, Rafael; Ramiro-Aparicio, Juan

    2016-04-30

    The internal lubricant content (ILC) of inhalation grade HPMC capsules is a key factor to ensure good powder release when the patient inhales a medicine from a dry powder inhaler (DPI). Powder release from capsules has been shown to be influenced by the ILC. The characteristics used to measure this are the emitted dose, fine particle fraction and mass median aerodynamic diameter. In addition the ILC level is critical for capsule shell manufacture because it is an essential part of the process that cannot work without it. An experiment has been applied to the manufacture of inhalation capsules with the required ILC. A full factorial model was used to identify the controlling factors and from this a linear model has been proposed to improve control of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of freeze dried powdered probiotics on gingival status and plaque inhibition: A randomized, double-blind, parallel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Yousuf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of freeze dried powdered probiotics on gingival status and plaque inhibition among 12–15-year-old schoolchildren. Materials and Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted among 12–15-year-old schoolchildren in Jaipur. Commercially available freeze dried probiotics containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium longum, Bifidobacterium bifidum and Bifidobacterium lactis (Prowel, Alkem Laboratories, lactic acid bacillus only (Sporolac, Sangyo, and a placebo powder calcium carbonate 250 g (Calcium Sandoz, Novartis were assigned to two intervention groups and a placebo group each comprising 11 schoolchildren. All subjects were instructed to mix the powder in 30 ml of water and swish once daily for 3 min, for 3 weeks. Periodontal clinical parameters were assessed by examining the subjects for Turesky-Gilmore-Glickman plaque index (PI (Modification of Quigley-Hein PI and gingival index at baseline, 7th day, 14th day, and 21st day. Results: For both the probiotic groups, a statistically significant reduction (P < 0.05 in gingival status and plaque inhibition was recorded up to 2nd week of probiotic ingestion. However, no significant difference was observed in the placebo group. Conclusion: The use of probiotic mouth rinses improves the oral health in children by significantly reducing the plaque and gingival scores. Further studies are warranted to prove or refute the long-term effects, means of administering probiotics and the dosages needed to achieve different preventive or therapeutic purposes.

  3. Enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. DNA fingerprint revealed in naturally contaminated nonfat dry milk powder using rep-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Robin M; McKillip, John L

    2006-01-01

    Dry milk powders and functional ingredients frequently contain high levels of viable bacterial spores, some of which may result in growth of toxigenic Bacillus spp. in reconstituted and temperature-abused foods. Samples from nonfat dry milk (NFDM), infant milk formula (IMF), coffee creamer, lecithin, and cocoa powder were subjected to a short heat treatment followed by enrichment in tryptone phosphate glucose yeast extract (TPGY) broth at 32 degrees C for 12-25 hours to obtain cell densities of 10(6) CFU ml(-1). DNA was extracted using a modification of established protocol, leading to the development of an optimized method for each food system. Purified DNA was amplified by rep-PCR using extragenic sequence-targeting primers and optimized for each food. PCR fingerprints from each food were analyzed electrophoretically for banding patterns earlier correlated to that of enterotoxigenic Bacillus spp. and Bacillus cereus positive control DNA fingerprints. Reverse passive latex agglutination (RPLA) and Bacillus Diarrhoeal Enterotoxin Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (Tecra Diagnostics) confirmed the presence of HBL and NHE enterotoxin production in NFDM, Coffee creamer, infant milk formula, and two lecithin samples but not in cocoa powder. These results demonstrate the utility of rep-PCR not only as a tool for bacterial genotyping, but a unique means of quality control and hygiene monitoring in food microbiology.

  4. Formoterol Oral Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of lung diseases that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema) in adults. Formoterol inhalation powder is also used with another medication to treat asthma and to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise in ...

  5. Effectiveness and success factors of educational inhaler technique interventions in asthma & COPD patients: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klijn, Sven L; Hiligsmann, Mickaël; Evers, Silvia M A A; Román-Rodríguez, Miguel; van der Molen, Thys; van Boven, Job F M

    2017-04-13

    With the current wealth of new inhalers available and insurance policy driven inhaler switching, the need for insights in optimal education on inhaler use is more evident than ever. We aimed to systematically review educational inhalation technique interventions, to assess their overall effectiveness, and identify main drivers of success. Medline, Embase and CINAHL databases were searched for randomised controlled trials on educational inhalation technique interventions. Inclusion eligibility, quality appraisal (Cochrane's risk of bias tool) and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers. Regression analyses were performed to identify characteristics contributing to inhaler technique improvement. Thirty-seven of the 39 interventions included (95%) indicated statistically significant improvement of inhaler technique. However, average follow-up time was relatively short (5 months), 28% lacked clinical relevant endpoints and all lacked cost-effectiveness estimates. Poor initial technique, number of inhalation procedure steps, setting (outpatient clinics performing best), and time elapsed since intervention (all, p education group size (individual vs. group training) and inhaler type (dry powder inhalers vs. pressurised metered dose inhalers) did not play a significant role. Notably, there was a trend (p = 0.06) towards interventions in adults being more effective than those in children and the intervention effect seemed to wane over time. In conclusion, educational interventions to improve inhaler technique are effective on the short-term. Periodical intervention reinforcement and longer follow-up studies, including clinical relevant endpoints and cost-effectiveness, are recommended.

  6. Spray-drying of alumina powder for APS: effect of slurry properties and drying conditions upon particle size and morphology of feedstock

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bai Yu; Yang Jian Feng; Lee Soo Wohn; Chen Huang; Yu Fang Li; Zhang Jia

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, effects of variables concerning slurry properties and drying conditions on the particle size and morphology of feedstock were discussed. The results indicated that, the increase of powder loading increased 50 and volume content but reduced recovery rate slightly. Other variables, such as inlet temperature, showed a maximum on the desired property. The particle size of resulting feedstock increased with the rise of feeding rate of slurry, however, decreased with the increase of atomization pressure based on the premise that atomization pressure was enough to force slurry to form the liquid membrane. For preparation of spherical feedstock, optimized variables were as follows: 60 wt.% powder in slurry, 2 wt.% PVA in slurry, inlet temperature of 60°C, atomization pressure of 13 × 103 KPa and feeding rate of 12 ml min-1. The volume content of feedstocks with 10–45 m was above 65% and for 50 it was 15.42 m. In addition, according to the heat and mass transfer equation, the drying mechanism was established, which was well in agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Plant Mediated Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles by Using Dried Stem Powder of Tinospora Crispa, And Study of Its Photoluminiscence Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Sarada

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Tinospora Crispa is an important medicinal plant to synthesize silver Nanoparticles provides environmentally benign and a feasible alternative to the most of the chemical, physical and biological methods. Utilizing the reduced property of Tinospora Crispa dried stem powder from 1mM aqueous silver nitrate, the average size of 40nm silver nanoparticles were synthesized at room temperature. The stem powder extracts mixed with silver nitrate showed a gradual change in the color of the extracts from yellow to dark brown. The formation of silver nanoparticles was confirmed by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, X-Ray diffraction (XRD, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDAX and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The photoluminescence studies of silver nanoparticles shows that they are efficient fluorescence emitting probes.

  8. Dry powder aerosols generated by standardized entrainment tubes from drug blends with lactose monohydrate: 1. Albuterol sulfate and disodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Mansour, Heidi M; Mulder, Tako; McLean, Richard; Langridge, John; Hickey, Anthony J

    2010-08-01

    The major objective of this study was: discriminatory assessment of dry powder aerosol performance using standardized entrainment tubes (SETs) and lactose-based formulations with two model drugs. Drug/lactose interactive physical mixtures (2%w/w) were prepared. Their properties were measured: solid-state characterization of phase behavior and molecular interactions by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction; particle morphology and size by scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction; aerosol generation by SETs and characterization by twin-stage liquid impinger and Andersen cascade impactor operated at 60 L/min. The fine particle fraction (FPF) was correlated with SET shear stress (tau(s)), using a novel powder aerosol deaggregation equation (PADE). Drug particles were <5 microm in volume diameter with narrow unimodal distribution (Span <1). The lowest shear SET (tau(s) = 0.624 N/m(2)) gave a higher emitted dose (ED approximately 84-93%) and lower FPF (FPF(6.4) approximately 7-25%). In contrast, the highest shear SET (tau(s) = 13.143 N/m(2)) gave a lower ED (ED approximately 75-89%) and higher FPF (FPF(6.4) approximately 15-46%). The performance of disodium cromoglycate was superior to albuterol sulfate at given tau(s), as was milled with respect to sieved lactose monohydrate. Excellent correlation was observed (R(2) approximately 0.9804-0.9998) when pulmonary drug particle release from the surface of lactose carriers was interpreted by PADE linear regression for dry powder formulation evaluation and performance prediction.

  9. [Study on Xinyueshu spray drying assisted with copovidone and its effect on powder property].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan-Rong; Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Ding, Dong-Mei; Yan, Hong-Mei; Hu, Shao-Ying; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2013-12-01

    To study the application characteristics of copovidone (PVP-S630) in Xinyueshu extracts during the spray drying process, and its effect on such pharmaceutical properties as micromeritics and drug release behavior. PVP-S630 was added into Xinyueshu extracts to study on the spray drying, the effect of different dosages of PVP-S630 against the wall sticking effect of the spray drying, as well as the power property of Xinyueshu spray drying power and the dissolution in vitro behavior of the effective component of hyperoside. The results showed that PVP-S630 revealed a significant anti-wall sticking effect, with no notable change in the grain size of the spray drying power, increase in the fluidity, improvement in the moisture absorption and remarkable rise in the dissolution in vitro behavior of hyperoside. It was worth further studying the application of PVP-S630 in spray drying power of traditional Chinese medicine.

  10. Microwave Sintering of W-15Cu Ultrafine Composite Powder Prepared by Spray Drying & Calcining-continuous Reduction Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Jingping; SHI Xiaoliang; WANG Shuwei; YANG Xingyong; ZHANG Qiaoxin; WANG Yufu

    2011-01-01

    The effects of microwave sintering and conventional H2 sintering on the microstructure and properties of W-l5Cu alloy using ultrafine W-15Cu composite powder fabricated by spray drying & calcining-continuous reduction technology were investigated. In comparison to the conventional H2 sintering processing, microwave sintefing to W-15Cu can be achieved at lower sintefing temperature and shorter sintering time. Furthermore, higher performances in microwave sintered compacts were obtained, but high microwave sintering temperature or long microwave sintering time could result in coarser microstructures.

  11. Physical and immunogenic stability of spray freeze-dried influenza vaccine powder for pulmonary delivery : Comparison of inulin, dextran, or a mixture of dextran and trehalose as protectants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murugappan, Senthil; Patil, Harshad P; Kanojia, Gaurav; ter Veer, Wouter; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Frijlink, Henderik W; Huckriede, Anke; Hinrichs, Wouter L J

    2013-01-01

    One of the advantages of dry influenza vaccines over conventional liquid influenza vaccines is that they can be used for alternative routes of administration. Previous studies showed that spray freeze-drying is an excellent technique to prepare vaccine containing powders for pulmonary delivery U.P.

  12. [Did the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Primary Care center Anton de Borja correctly utilize inhalers?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Represas-Carrera, Francisco Jesús

    2015-01-01

    To determine the percentage of patients with Pulmonary Obstructive Chronic Disease who doing of incorrect form the inhaler technique. Descriptive transversal study made in the Primary Care Center "Antón de Borja" of Rubi (in Barcelona) during the period between May and December 2013, where it was studied a representative sample of 200 patients. To assess the inhaler technique was performed a personal interview with the patient in which it was requested him to carry out a demonstration of how he was using his inhaler regularly evaluating his inhaler technique by means of the regulations established by Spanish Society of Pneumology and Thoracic Surgery. 43% of the patients carry out inhaler technique incorrectly. The percentage of inadequate use of inhalers of dry powder was 26%, of the pressurized cartridge 38% and the inhaler chamber 10%. 82% of patients ≥ 65 years who have prescribed a pressurized inhaler cartridge do not perform accompanied by an inhaler chamber. A high percentage of patients do not correctly carry out inhaler technique, pointing the rare use made of the inhaler chamber despite its proven efficacy and the high number of patients with pressurized inhaler cartridge. These results reflect the need for the implementation of an educational program in our Primary Care Center to teach patients to use inhaler devices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Industrial application of model predictive control to a milk powder spray drying plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present our first results from an industrial application of model predictive control (MPC) with real-time steady-state target optimization (RTO) for control of an industrial spray dryer that produces enriched milk powder. The MPC algorithm is based on a continuous-time transfer ...

  14. Evaluation of folic acid release from spray dried powder particles of pectin-whey protein nano-capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid-Mahdi; Maghsoudlou, Yahya

    2017-02-01

    Our main goal was to evaluate release kinetics of nano-encapsulated folic acid within a double W1/O/W2 emulsion. First, W1/O nano-emulsions loaded with folic acid were prepared and re-emulsified into an aqueous phase (W2) containing single whey protein concentrate (WPC) layer or double layer complex of WPC-pectin to form W1/O/W2 emulsions. Final double emulsions were spray dried and their microstructure was analyzed in terms of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Also the release trends of folic acid were determined and fitted with experimental models of zero and first order, Higuchi, and Hixson-Crowell. It was revealed that folic acid nano-capsules made with Span as the surfactant had the lowest release rate in acidic conditions (pH=4) and highest release in the alkaline conditions (pH=11). The best model fitting for folic acid release data was observed for single layer WPC encapsulated powders with the highest R(2). Our FTIR data showed there was no chemical interaction between WPC and pectin in double layered capsules and based on SEM results, single WPC layered capsules resulted in smooth and uniform particles which by incorporating pectin, some wrinkles and shrinkage were found in the surface of spray dried powder particles.

  15. Understanding the influence of powder flowability, fluidization and de-agglomeration characteristics on the aerosolization of pharmaceutical model powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Armstrong, Brian; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2010-08-11

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the intrinsic inter-particulate cohesion of model pharmaceutical powders on their aerosolization from a dry powder inhaler. Two cohesive poly-disperse lactose powders with median particle sizes of around 4 and 20 microm were examined. The results showed that after dry coating with magnesium stearate, their flowability, fluidization and de-agglomeration behaviours could be substantially improved, as indicated by powder rheometry, shear testing and laser diffraction aerosol testing. This was achieved by reducing their cohesiveness via surface modification. In contrast to some previous reports, this study demonstrated how powder aerosolization may be improved more significantly and consistently (for widely varying air flow rates) by substantially reducing their inter-particulate cohesive forces. This study contributes to the understanding of the relationship between intrinsic cohesive nature and bulk properties such as flowability, fluidization and de-agglomeration and its impact on their aerosolization, which is fundamental and critical in the optimal design of dry powder inhaler formulations. The intensive mechanical dry coating technique also demonstrated a promising potential to improve aerosolization efficiency of fine cohesive model powders.

  16. Patient preferences for inhaler devices in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: experience with Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hodder

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Richard Hodder,1 David Price21Divisions of Pulmonary and Critical Care, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; 2Department of General Practice and Primary Care, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, ScotlandAbstract: Current guidelines for the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD recommend the regular use of inhaled bronchodilator therapy in order to relieve symptoms and prevent exacerbations. A variety of inhaler devices are currently available to COPD patients, and the choice of device is an important consideration because it can influence patients’ adherence to treatment, and thus potentially affect the long-term outcome. The Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler (SMI generates a slow-moving aerosol with a high fine particle fraction, resulting in deposition of a higher proportion of the dose in the lungs than pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs or some dry powder inhalers (DPIs. We review clinical studies of inhaler satisfaction and preference comparing Respimat® SMI against other inhalers in COPD patients. Using objective and validated patient satisfaction instruments, Respimat® SMI was consistently shown to be well accepted by COPD patients, largely due to its inhalation and handling characteristics. In comparative studies with pMDIs, the patient total satisfaction score with Respimat® SMI was statistically and clinically significantly higher than with the pMDI. In comparative studies with DPIs, the total satisfaction score was statistically significantly higher than for the Turbuhaler® DPI, but only the performance domain of satisfaction was clinically significantly higher for Respimat® SMI. Whether the observed higher levels of patient satisfaction reported with Respimat® SMI might be expected to result in improved adherence to therapy and thus provide benefits consistent with those recently shown to be associated with sustained bronchodilator treatment in patients with COPD remains to be proven

  17. The effect of acidification of liquid whey protein concentrate on the flavor of spray-dried powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Bastian, Eric; Farkas, Brian; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-07-01

    which the solutions were adjusted after spray drying. Preacidification to pH 3.5 increased recovery of D₁₂-hexanal in liquid WPC and decreased recovery of D₁₂-hexanal in the resulting powder when evaluated at pH 6.5 or 5.5. These results demonstrate that acidification of liquid WPC80 to pH 3.5 before spray drying decreases off-flavors in spray-dried WPC and suggest that the mechanism for off-flavor reduction is the decreased protein interactions with volatile compounds at low pH in liquid WPC or the increased interactions between protein and volatile compounds in the resulting powder. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of inhaled asbestos, asbestos plus cigarette smoke, asbestos-cement and talc baby powder in hamsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehner, A.P.

    1980-01-01

    Chronic exposure of hamsters to chrysotile asbestos resulted in severe asbestosis in all animals and in increased mortality; concomitant exposure to cigarette smoke did not affect type or severity of asbestotic lesions. Chronic exposure to asbestos-cement dust increased the number of macrophages and ferruginous bodies. Exposure to talc baby powder caused no significant changes. Deposition of talc particles in the lungs was demonstrated by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction and by a study with neutron-activated talc. No malignant tumours were observed in any of these studies.

  19. Effects of inhaled asbestos, asbestos plus cigarette smoke, asbestos-cement and talc baby powder in hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, A P

    1980-01-01

    Chronic exposure of hamsters to chrysotile asbestos resulted in severe asbestosis in all animals and in increased mortality; concomitant exposure to cigarette smoke did not affect type or severity of asbestotic lesions. Chronic exposure to asbestos-cement dust increased the number of macrophages and ferruginous bodies. Exposure to talc baby powder caused no significant changes. Deposition of talc particles in the lungs was demonstrated by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction and by a study with neutron-activated talc. No malignant tumours were observed in any of these studies.

  20. PENENTUAN WAKTU KADALUARSA DAN MODEL SORPSI ISOTERMIS BIJI DAN BUBUK LADA HITAM (Piper ningrum L. [Shelf Life Prediction and Isotherm Sorption Model of Dried Grain and Powdered Black Pepper (Piper ningrum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Diah2

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Black pepper is one of the most popular spice traded around the globe, either in dried grain form or in bulky powder. However, for retailing purpose both are usually packaged in plastic film. This research was conducted to predict the shelf life of packaged black pepper (both dried grain and powder by applying isotherm sorption and Labuza models. Initial moisture content of dried grain was 12.17 % d.b and for the powder was 10.27 % d.b. The shelf life of black pepper calculated for the dried grain was longer than the powder. When stored at 90 % RH, the dried grain black pepper packaged in HDPE demonstrated the longest shelf life which was equal to 2187 days and for the powder equal to 2037 days. The volatile oil loss for dried grain black pepper after 30 days of preservation was 1.36 % and for the powder was 40.82%.

  1. A Method of Lyophilizing Vaccines Containing Aluminum Salts into a Dry Powder Without Causing Particle Aggregation or Decreasing the Immunogenicity Following Reconstitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinran; Thakkar, Sachin G.; Ruwona, Tinashe B.; Williams, Robert O.; Cui, Zhengrong

    2015-01-01

    Many currently licensed and commercially available human vaccines contain aluminum salts as vaccine adjuvants. A major limitation with these vaccines is that they must not be exposed to freezing temperatures during transport or storage such that the liquid vaccine freezes, because freezing causes irreversible coagulation that damages the vaccines (e.g., loss of efficacy). Therefore, vaccines that contain aluminum salts as adjuvants are formulated as liquid suspensions and are required to be kept in cold chain (2–8°C) during transport and storage. Formulating vaccines adjuvanted with aluminum salts into dry powder that can be readily reconstituted before injection may address the limitation. Spray freeze-drying of vaccines with low concentrations of aluminum salts and high concentrations of trehalose alone, or a mixture of sugars and amino acids, as excipients can convert vaccines containing aluminum salts into dry powder, but fails to preserve the particle size and/or immunogenicity of the vaccines. In the present study, using ovalbumin as a model antigen adsorbed onto aluminum hydroxide or aluminum phosphate, a commercially available tetanus toxoid vaccine adjuvanted with potassium alum, a human hepatitis B vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, and a human papillomavirus vaccine adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxyphosphate sulfate, it was shown that vaccines containing a relatively high concentration of aluminum salts (i.e., up to ~1%, w/v, of aluminum hydroxide) can be converted into a dry powder by thin-film freezing followed by removal of the frozen solvent by lyophilization while using low levels of trehalose (i.e., as low as 2% w/v) as an excipient. Importantly, the thin-film freeze-drying process did not cause particle aggregation, nor decreased the immunogenicity of the vaccines. Moreover, repeated freezing-and-thawing of the dry vaccine powder did not cause aggregation. Thin-film freeze-drying is a viable platform technology to produce dry powders of

  2. Low hygroscopic spray-dried powders with trans-glycosylated food additives enhance the solubility and oral bioavailability of ipriflavone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Miki; Kadota, Kazunori; Kato, Kouki; Seto, Yoshiki; Onoue, Satomi; Sato, Hideyuki; Ueda, Hiroshi; Tozuka, Yuichi

    2016-01-01

    The improvement in the solubility and dissolution rate may promote a superior absorption property towards the human body. The spray-dried powders (SDPs) of ipriflavone, which was used as a model hydrophobic flavone, with trans-glycosylated rutin (Rutin-G) showed the highest solubilizing effect of ipriflavone among three types of trans-glycosylated food additives. The SDPs of ipriflavone with Rutin-G have both a significant higher dissolution rate and solubility enhancement of ipriflavone. This spray-dried formulation of ipriflavone with Rutin-G exhibited a low hygroscopicity as a critical factor in product preservation. In addition, an improvement in the oral absorption of ipriflavone was achieved by means of preparing composite particles of ipriflavone/Rutin-G via spray drying, indicating a 4.3-fold increase in the area under the plasma concentration-time curve compared with that of untreated ipriflavone. These phenomena could be applicable to food ingredients involving hydrophobic flavones for producing healthy food with a high quality.

  3. Pulmonary immunization of guinea pigs with diphtheria CRM-197 antigen as nanoparticle aggregate dry powders enhance local and systemic immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttil, Pavan; Pulliam, Brian; Garcia-Contreras, Lucila; Fallon, John Kevin; Wang, Chenchen; Hickey, Anthony James; Edwards, David A

    2010-12-01

    This study establishes the immune response elicited in guinea pigs after pulmonary and parenteral immunizations with diphtheria CRM-197 antigen (CrmAg). Several spray-dried powders of formalin-treated/untreated CrmAg nanoaggregates with L-leucine were delivered to the lungs of guinea pigs. A control group consisting of alum with adsorbed CrmAg in saline was administered by intramuscular injection. Animals received three doses of powder vaccines containing 20 or 40 μg of CrmAg. The serum IgG titers were measured for 16 weeks after the initial immunization; IgA titers were measured at the time of sacrifice in the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid. Further, toxin neutralization tests in naïve guinea pigs were performed for a few select serum samples. Histopathology of the lung tissues was conducted to evaluate inflammation or injury to the lung tissues. While the highest titer of serum IgG antibody was observed in guinea pigs immunized by the intramuscular route, those animals immunized with dry powder formulation by the pulmonary route, and without the adjuvant alum, exhibited high IgA titers. A pulmonary administered dry powder, compared to parenteral immunization, conferred complete protection in the toxin neutralization test. Mild inflammation was observed in lung tissues of animals receiving dry powder vaccines by the pulmonary route. Thus, administering novel CrmAg as dry powders to the lungs may be able to overcome some of the disadvantages observed with the existing diphtheria vaccine which is administered by the parenteral route. In addition, these powders will have the advantage of eliciting a high mucosal immune response in the lungs without using traditional adjuvants.

  4. Optimization of Drying Process of Mushroom Powder Production from Pleurotus ostreatus using Response Surface Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurcan Doğan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pleurotus ostreatus that known as poplar, beech and oyster mushrooms is second generation after Agaricus bisporus with the fungal species. Fresh and processed mushrooms products are in great demand worldwide in terms of taste and flavor. Edible mushrooms produced in the world is consumed fresh 40-50%. However, due to the high moisture content and enzyme, harvested mushrooms that can be stored for about one week and shows rapid loss of quality in the storage process. This situation limits the consumption of fresh edible fungus, so the marketing of canned mushrooms, drying and freezing and storage technology has come to the fore. In this study, besides the drying, unlike other studies it is intended to optimize the pulverization of the fungus accordingto the food processing operation. As a result of optimization, drying conditions of 50 °C and 269.02 minutes was concluded as the most suitable drying standard. EC50 value, Total Phenolic Content and desirability rate are determinated respectively; 275.464, 0.762 and 0.976 in this norm.

  5. Model to predict inhomogeneous protein-sugar distribution in powders prepared by spray drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasmeijer, Niels; Frijlink, Henderik W.; Hinrichs, Wouter L. J.

    2016-01-01

    A protein can be stabilized by spray drying an aqueous solution of the protein and a sugar, thereby incorporating the protein into a glassy sugar matrix. For optimal stability, the protein should be homogeneously distributed inside the sugar matrix. The aim of this study was to develop a model that

  6. 疫苗干粉吸入剂的研究进展%Development of Vaccine Dry Powders for Inhalation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜俊峰; 安悦; 徐恩宇; 郭静; 李浩莹

    2013-01-01

    疫苗干粉吸入剂的肺部有效沉积率及其稳定性是衡量药物可靠性的重要标准.主要介绍了相关疫苗干粉制剂的制备工艺及辅料对其疫苗干粉颗粒的物理特性包括粒径大小及分布、表面形貌、分散性、流动性、密度、水分含量以及药理活性的影响.

  7. Physicochemical evaluation and hygroscopic behavior of powdered guava obtained by spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alinne Alencar Costa dos Santos

    Full Text Available The guava is one of the most popular tropical fruits, being highly accepted all over Brazil. Many food products can be made from the fruit, such as jams, jellies, liquors and many types of juice. Given the above, the objective of this research was to characterise atomised guava pulp as to its physicochemical composition, and assess its hygroscopic behaviour by means of adsorption isotherms employing different mathematical models. The physicochemical analyses, carried out on both the whole guava pulp and on the atomised guava powder, were: moisture; pH; acidity; soluble solids and ascorbic acid, giving the following results respectively: 88.57-5.69 %; 3.76-3.88, 0.43-0.24 mg 100 g-1; 8.43 to 93.00 ºBrix and 2.77-3.79 mg 100 g-1. The adsorption isotherms were constructed adjusting the experimental data to the mathematical models of GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin. The Henderson model presented the best fit to the atomised guava powder for all temperatures tested, presenting an error ranging from 09.93 to 12.09% and a correlation coefficient ranging from 0.9900 to 0.9934.

  8. Dry stress and survival time of Enterobacter sakazakii and other Enterobacteriaceae in dehydrated powdered infant formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barron, Juncal Caubilla; Forsythe, Stephen J

    2007-09-01

    Powdered infant formula is not a sterile product, and opportunistic pathogens could multiply in the reconstituted product, resulting in neonatal infections. In this study, the generation of sublethally injured Enterobacteriaceae during desiccation and their persistence in dehydrated powdered infant formula was assessed during a 2.5-year period. The study included 27 strains of Enterobacter sakazakii, Enterobacter cloacae, Salmonella Enteritidis, Citrobacter koseri, Citrobacter freundii, Escherichia coli, Escherichia vulneris, Pantoea spp., Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The number of sublethally injured cells generated during desiccation was lower for K. oxytoca, Pantoea spp., Salmonella Enteritidis, and capsulated strains of E. sakazakii than for the other Enterobacteriaceae. The Enterobacteriaceae could be divided into three groups with respect to their long-term survival in the desiccated state. C. freundii, C. koseri, and E. cloacae were no longer recoverable after 6 months, and Salmonella Enteritidis, K. pneumoniae, and E. coli could not be recovered after 15 months. Pantoea spp., K. oxytoca, and E. vulneris persisted over 2 years, and some capsulated strains of E. sakazakii were still recoverable after 2.5 years.

  9. Effect of Maturation Degree of Areca Nut and Binder Treatment to The Physicochemical Properties and Citotoxicity of Spray-Dried Areca Nut (Areca catechu L Extracted Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yernisa Yernisa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Areca nut (Areca catechu L is a rich polyphenol source which is potential health-benefit. Polyphenol could extract from the sources and then converted to solid powder by spray drying. Polyphenol powder is easy to use and to introduce it into food (materials. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of maturation degree of areca nut (unripe, ripe and binder treatment (without a binder, arabic gum 2% w/v on the  physicochemical properties and citotoxicity of spray-dried areca nut extracted powder. This study used a completely randomized design (CRD. Data were analysed statistically used an analysis of variance. Analysis of the results exhibited unripe areca nut produced powder  with higher in yield, moisture content and total phenolic content but had no significant effect on pH and lower in bulk density and solubility than ripe areca nut. Arabic gum treatment produced powders with higher in yield, and solubility, but had no significant effect on moisture content and lower in bulk density, pH and total phenolic content than the treatment without binder. The areca nut extracted powders from all combination of treatments exhibited high cytotoxic activity against brine shrimp larvae with LC50 less than 1000 ppm, excepted the powders from ripe areca nut with arabic gum.

  10. Effect of dried pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel powder (DPPP) on textural, organoleptic and nutritional characteristics of biscuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Prateeti; Indrani, D; Singh, R P

    2014-11-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel is rich source of dietary fiber and bioactive compounds, hence could be used in the development of functional food formulations. Attempt was made to see the effect of dried pomegranate peel powder (DPPP) and emulsifiers on the rheological, nutritional and quality characteristics of biscuits. Incorporation of DPPP from 0 to 10% increased farinograph water absorption, decreased dough stability, increased amylograph pasting temperature and peak viscosity of wheat flour; increased hardness and decreased cohesiveness of biscuit dough; decreased spread ratio and increased breaking strength of biscuits. Sensory evaluation showed that biscuits incorporated with 7.5% DPPP were acceptable. Among emulsifiers, sodium stearoyl lactylate significantly improved the quality characteristics of 7.5% DPPP incorporated biscuits. Addition of 7.5% DPPP increased the protein, dietary fibre, minerals, anti-oxidant activity and β-carotene contents of biscuits. The studies indicated the possibility of utilizing DPPP to improve the nutritional characteristics of biscuits.

  11. Storage stability of a commercial hen egg yolk powder in dry and intermediate-moisture food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Fisher, Mary Catherine; Guo, Mufan; Labuza, Theodore P

    2013-09-11

    Quality loss in intermediate-moisture foods (IMF) such as high-protein nutrition bars (HPNB) in the form of hardening, nonenzymatic browning, and free amino group loss is a general concern for the manufacturers. To measure the extent of quality loss over time in terms of these negative attributes, through changing the ratio by weight between two commercial spray-dried hen egg powders, egg white (DEW) and egg yolk (DEY), the storage stability of 10 IMF systems (water activity (aw) ∼ 0.6) containing 5% glycerol, 10% shortening, 35% protein, and 50% sweetener (either maltitol or 50% high-fructose corn syrup/50% corn syrup (HFCS/CS)) were studied. Additionally, the storage stability of the DEY powder itself was investigated. Overall, during storage at different temperatures (23, 35, and 45 °C), the storage stability of DEY in dry and IMF matrices was mainly controlled by the coaction of three chemical reactions (disulfide bond interaction, Maillard reaction, and lipid oxidation). The results showed that by replacing 25% of DEW in an IMF model system with DEY, the rate of bar hardening was significantly lower than that of the models with only DEW at all temperatures due to the softening effect of the fat in DEY. Furthermore, the use of maltitol instead of HFCS/CS in all bar systems not only resulted in decreased hardness but also drastically decreased the change in the total color difference (ΔE*). Interestingly, there was no significant loss of free amino groups in the maltitol systems at any DEW/DEY ratio.

  12. Physicochemical characterization of nopal pads (Opuntia ficus indica) and dry vacuum nopal powders as a function of the maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Garcia, M E; de Lira, C; Hernández-Becerra, E; Cornejo-Villegas, M A; Palacios-Fonseca, A J; Rojas-Molina, I; Reynoso, R; Quintero, L C; Del-Real, A; Zepeda, T A; Muñoz-Torres, C

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents the physicochemical and nutrimental characterization of fresh nopal (Opuntia ficus indica, Redonda variety) and nopal powder produced at different stages of development. Nopal powder was obtained by dry vacuum technique using 10(2) Torr and low temperature (40 degrees C). The results showed that the nutrimental and mineral composition of nopal changes as a function of the maturation as follow: The ash content increases from 18.41 for nopalitos (60 g of weight) to 23.24% (nopal pads 200 g); calcium content increases from 1.52 to 3.72%, while phosphorous exhibits an opposite trend: 0.43 to 0.27%, respectively. Calcium oxalate was determined by X-ray diffraction and SEM microscopy and quantified by using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Calcium oxalate decreases from 7.95 to 3.47 mg/g and the Ca/P ratio varies from 3.6 to 11. The soluble fibre decreases from 25.22 to 14.91%, while insoluble fibre increases from 29.87 to 41.65%. These results suggest that nopal could be an important source of minerals within the diets of people in Mexico and the rest of Latin America.

  13. Effect of Polyvinyl Alcohol with a Thiol End Group on the Properties of Polyacrylic Dispersions and Spray-dried Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Jindong; QIN Shaoxiong; LAN Renhua; CHEN Huanqin

    2007-01-01

    The emulsion polymerization of highly shear-stable copolymer dispersions of methyl methacrylate and butyl acrylate were carried out using poly (vinyl alcohol) with a thiol end group (PVA-SH) as protective colloid. The dispersions can be transformed into corresponding redispersible powder via a spray dryingcooling process. On-line FT-IR monitoring shows that grafting polymer of PVA-g-PMMA was formed mainly at the stage-1 of the emulsion polymerization. TEM images show, the PVA-SH shell was fragmentary when adding SDS at initial stage and integrated when adding at particle growing or final stage. The particle size turns to be smaller when delayed adding SDS surfactant. Triethanolamine, a co-regulator of PVA-SH, controlled the Mn to 50 000-70 000 and reduced the PDI to 1.5-1.7. The acrylic dispersions with 0.8wt%-1.5wt% PVA-SH1 can be spray-dried into super dispersible polymer powder (SDPP), which can easily disperse in water and form reconstituted dispersions with an average particle size smaller than 1 micron.

  14. Evaluation of protective effect of freeze-dried strawberry, grape, and blueberry powder on acrylamide toxicity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mengyao; Liu, Xin; Luo, Yinghua; Guo, Huan; Hu, Xiaosong; Chen, Fang

    2015-04-01

    Berries are dietary plants with high antioxidant activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the protective effect of berries (strawberry, grape, and blueberry) against the acrylamide (AA)-induced general toxicity, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in mice model, respectively. Mice were treated with 50 mg/kg b.w./day AA intraperitoneal injection for 5 d after feeding control diet or diet containing freeze-dried strawberry, grape, and blueberry powder. The results showed that AA induced a significant general toxicity, genotoxicity, and reproductive toxicity in mice. Compared with the control diet, the diets containing berries could reverse the AA-induced alterations in liver antioxidant enzymes activities (P < 0.05). Moreover, the AA-induced genotoxicity could be prevented by the diet containing berries. The DNA damage in the lymphocyte and liver cells and the micronucleus formation in bone marrow cell were significantly alleviated (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the mice fed with diets containing berries showed a recovery in the sperm count, the sperm activity rate, sperm motility parameters, and the abnormal sperm rate (P < 0.05). Berry powders have remarkable intervention against the AA-induced general toxicity, genotoxicity, reproductive toxicity. Abundant phenolics, especially anthocyanins, may contribute to the intervention.

  15. Administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder reduced body fat mass in diet-induced obesity (DIO) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misawa, Eriko; Tanaka, Miyuki; Nabeshima, Kazumi; Nomaguchi, Kouji; Yamada, Muneo; Toida, Tomohiro; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effects of Aloe vera gel administration in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with diet-induced obesity (DIO). SD rats at 7 wk of age were fed either a standard diet (10 kcal% fat) (StdD) or high-fat (60 kcal% fat) diet (HFD) during the experimental period. Four weeks after of HFD-feeding, DIO rats (11 wk of age) were orally administered with two doses of Aloe vera gel powder (20 and 200 mg/kg/d) for 90 d. Body weights (g) and body fat (%) of HFD fed rats were significantly higher than those of StdD-fed rats. Although a modest decrease of body weight (g) was observed with the administration of dried Aloe vera gel powder, both subcutaneous and visceral fat weight (g) and body fat (%) were reduced significantly in Aloe vera gel-treated rats. Serum lipid parameters elevated by HFD were also improved by the Aloe vera gel treatment. The oxygen consumption (VO(2)), an index of energy expenditure, was decreased in HFD-fed rats compared with that in StdD-fed rats. Administration of Aloe vera gel reversed the change in VO(2) in the HFD-fed rats. These results suggest that intake of Aloe vera gel reduced body fat accumulation, in part, by stimulation of energy expenditure. Aloe vera gel might be beneficial for the prevention and improvement of diet-induced obesity.

  16. Study of the physicochemical characteristics of soursop powder obtained by spray-drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina de Paula da Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at contributing to the development of new foodstuffs made by soursop pulp powder obtained by spraydrying. Different concentrations of maltodextrin DE 20 (15, 30, and 45% were added to commercial soursop pulp, which was dehydrated afterwards. The following analyses were carried out: water activity, moisture, pH, soluble solids, acidity, ascorbic acid, hygroscopicity, degree of caking, and rehydration time. The results obtained for the three powder treatments (15, 30 and 45% of maltodextrin were, respectectively: water activity (0.19a±0.00; 0.20a±0.00; 0.18a±0.01; moisture (1.17c±0.12; 1.47b±0.05; 1.82a±0.06; pH (3.75a±0.05; 3.73a±0.06; 3.70a±0.03; soluble solids (89.67a±0.00; 89.84a±0.00; 90.00a±0.06; acidity (3.01a±0.02; 1.91b±0.03; 1.24c±0.03; ascorbic acid (18.90a±0.00; 14.48b±0.00; 11.26b±0.78; hygroscopicity (5.93a±0.40; 3.82b±0.16; 3.28b±0.38; degree of caking (78.36a±2.86; 35.38b±6.07; 24.77b4.89, and rehydration time (02.03a±0.46; 01.16ab±0.50; 0.59b±0.30. The soursop powders with 30 and 45% of maltodextrin had few significant differences in terms of physicochemical and hygroscopic characteristics, which allow us to consider the percentage of 30% of maltodextrin, in this study, as the best percentage for soursop pulp atomization.

  17. Encapsulation of mixtures of tuna oil, tributyrin and resveratrol in a spray dried powder formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanguansri, Luz; Day, Li; Shen, Zhiping; Fagan, Peter; Weerakkody, Rangika; Cheng, Li Jiang; Rusli, Jenny; Augustin, Mary Ann

    2013-12-01

    Spray dried emulsions are effective for carrying and stabilising combinations of fish oil and tributyrin, fish oil and resveratrol, or fish oil, tributyrin and resveratrol in one formulation. The encapsulation efficiencies were >99% for all three bioactives when a heated mixture of sodium caseinate: glucose: dried glucose syrup matrix (Encapsulant matrix 1) was used. When a heated sodium caseinate: glucose: processed starch matrix (Encapsulant matrix 2) was used, the encapsulation efficiencies were 90-92% for tributyrin and approximately 98% for resveratrol for all formulations but 79-91% for tuna oil where the efficiency was more formulation dependent. There was 84-86% remaining EPA, 85-87% remaining DHA, 85% remaining tributyrin and 94-96% remaining resveratrol after 18 months at 25 °C storage of the spray dried emulsions using Encapsulant matrix 1 across all formulations. In comparison, there was 83-87% remaining EPA and 84-89% remaining DHA, 80-82% remaining tributyrin, and 81-100% remaining resveratrol across all formulations with Encapsulant matrix 2. In vitro studies showed that on sequential exposure to simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, encapsulating the bioactives had little effect on the lipolysis of the oils but affected the amount of solvent extractable resveratrol. The ability of delivering mixtures of bioactives within one formulation was demonstrated.

  18. Preservation of the immunogenicity of dry-powder influenza H5N1 whole inactivated virus vaccine at elevated storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraedts, Felix; Saluja, Vinay; ter Veer, Wouter; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Frijlink, Henderik W; Wilschut, Jan; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Huckriede, Anke

    2010-06-01

    Stockpiling of pre-pandemic influenza vaccines guarantees immediate vaccine availability to counteract an emerging pandemic. Generally, influenza vaccines need to be stored and handled refrigerated to prevent thermal degradation of the antigenic component. Requirement of a cold-chain, however, complicates stockpiling and the logistics of vaccine distribution. We, therefore, investigated the effect of elevated storage temperatures on the immunogenicity of a pre-pandemic influenza A H5N1 whole inactivated virus vaccine. Either suspended in liquid or kept as a freeze-dried powder, vaccines could be stored for 1 year at ambient temperature (20 degrees C) with minimal loss of immunogenicity in mice. Elevation of the storage temperature to 40 degrees C, however, resulted in a significant loss of immunogenic potency within 3 months if vaccines were stored in liquid suspension. In sharp contrast, freeze-dried powder formulations were stable at 40 degrees C for at least 3 months. The presence of inulin or trehalose sugar excipients during freeze-drying of the vaccine proved to be critical to maintain its immunogenic potency during storage, and to preserve the characteristic Th1-type response to whole inactivated virus vaccine. These results indicate that whole inactivated virus vaccines may be stored and handled at room temperature in moderate climate zones for over a year with minimal decline and, if converted to dry-powder, even in hot climate zones for at least 3 months. The increased stability of dry-powder vaccine at 40 degrees C may also point to an extended shelf-life when stored at 4 degrees C. Use of the more stable dry-powder formulation could simplify stockpiling and thereby facilitating successful pandemic intervention.

  19. Design of sustained release fine particles using two-step mechanical powder processing: particle shape modification of drug crystals and dry particle coating with polymer nanoparticle agglomerate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Ito, Natsuki; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2013-09-10

    We attempted to prepare sustained release fine particles using a two-step mechanical powder processing method; particle-shape modification and dry particle coating. First, particle shape of bulk drug was modified by mechanical treatment to yield drug crystals suitable for the coating process. Drug crystals became more rounded with increasing rotation speed, which demonstrates that powerful mechanical stress yields spherical drug crystals with narrow size distribution. This process is the result of destruction, granulation and refinement of drug crystals. Second, the modified drug particles and polymer coating powder were mechanically treated to prepare composite particles. Polymer nanoparticle agglomerate obtained by drying poly(meth)acrylate aqueous dispersion was used as a coating powder. The porous nanoparticle agglomerate has superior coating performance, because it is completely deagglomerated under mechanical stress to form fine fragments that act as guest particles. As a result, spherical drug crystals treated with porous agglomerate were effectively coated by poly(meth)acrylate powder, showing sustained release after curing. From these findings, particle-shape modification of drug crystals and dry particle coating with nanoparticle agglomerate using a mechanical powder processor is expected as an innovative technique for preparing controlled-release coated particles having high drug content and size smaller than 100 μm.

  20. Dry-powder form of chitosan nanospheres containing influenza virus and adjuvants for nasal immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan, S; Tavassoti Kheiri, M; Tabatabaiean, M; Darzi, S; Tafaghodi, M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and statistically optimize chitosan nanospheres. For this purpose chitosan powder was turned into nanospheres using tripolyphosphate as a crosslinker and through ionic gelation. D-optimal response surface design was applied to optimize the nanospheres. Their size and polydispersity index (PDI) were measured as the dependant variables. Then the inactivated influenza virus and/or CpG ODN or Quillaja saponin (QS) were incorporated into the chitosan nanospheres. The release profiles of the antigen and both adjuvants were obtained. The toxicity of the formulations was tested by XTT using Calu 6 cell lines. The size distribution and PDI of plain chitosan nanospheres was 581.1 ± 32.6 and 0.478 ± 0.04. After 4 h the release of antigen, QS and CpG from the chitosan matrix were 33, 36 and 62%, respectively. The inactivated virus remained intact during preparation, as revealed by the SDS-PAGE method. Differential scanning calorimetry and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy indicated no serious structural changes in the chitosan carrier in the presence of either the antigen or the immunoadjuvants. Although the antigen loaded into chitosan nanospheres showed slight cytotoxicity on lung-cancer cells, co-encapsulation of the adjuvant (especially CpG) lowered this effect. The results demonstrated that chitosan as a carrier and immunostimulator, along with CpG or QS adjuvants, creates a potential influenza vaccine delivery system which can be administered nasally.

  1. Effects of extended dry storage of powdered infant milk formula on susceptibility of Enterobacter sakazakii to hot water and ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Ayyash, Mutamed M; Olaimat, Amin N; Al-Hasan, Ashraf S Abu; Kadora, Khaled M; Holley, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    Infant milk formula has been identified as a potential source of Enterobacter sakazakii, which has been implicated in neonatal meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study was undertaken to determine whether the length of E. sakazakii storage in powdered infant milk formula (PIMF) affected the ability of the pathogen to survive subsequent reconstitution of the powder with hot water or treatment with gamma radiation. Five E. sakazakii strains were mixed individually with PIMF and kept for up to 12 months at 25 degrees C. After storage PIMF was reconstituted with water at 60 to 100 degrees C or was exposed to radiation. Without any treatment secondary to drying, E. sakazakii counts decreased Dry storage decreased thermal resistance but increased resistance of E. sakazakii to ionizing radiation in PIMF. Reconstitution of contaminated powder with water at 70 degrees C after 1 month of dry storage reduced E. sakazakii viability slightly, > 2 log/g, and after powder was stored for 12 months all E. sakazakii strains were eliminated. In contrast, desiccation substantially increased the resistance of E. sakazakii strains to ionizing radiation. Although the D-value for E. sakazakii IMF1 following overnight storage in PIMF was 0.98 kGy, > 4 kGy was required to kill 1.5 log/g of the same strain that had survived 12 months in dry PIMF. Results suggested that low-dose irradiation will more effectively eliminate E. sakazakii from PIMF if the treatment is applied shortly after PIMF manufacture.

  2. EFFECT OF WATER CONTENT ON PROPERTIES OF MOLYBDENUM SPRAY-DRIED POWDERS%含水量对喷雾干燥钼粉性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓; 付静波; 庄飞

    2013-01-01

    After a uniform mixture of molybdenum powder and aqueous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) in a certain proportion has been prepared,the mixture was spray dryed,and the green body was mold pressed.The effects of the water content of the spray drying molybdenum powder on its characteristics was investigated,and the formability of the powder was investigated as well.The results show that with the increasing of the water content of the spray drying powder,the apparent density of it decreases and the fliuidity of it become worse; and during mold pressing,the molding pressure reduces,the strength of green body increased with the water content of the powder increases.And appropriate water content of the spray drying molybdenum powder for mold pressing is 0.08 wt%to 0.16 wt%.%将钼粉末和聚乙烯醇(PVA)水溶液按一定比例配置悬浮浆料,经喷雾造粒后进行连续自动压制成型,研究了不同含水量对喷雾干燥钼粉松装密度、流动性和成型性的影响.结果表明:随着含水量的增加,喷雾干燥钼粉松装密度减小,流动性变差;在自动压制成型过程中,随着含水量的增加,填充密度、成型压力降低,压制回弹减小,水含量为0.08% ~0.16%(质量分数)时压制效果较为理想.

  3. Syringe, pen, inhaler - the evolution of insulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsch, I A; Hahn, E G; Konturek, P C

    2001-01-01

    The therapy with inhalable insulin can be expected to change the present concepts and the market of subcutaneous insulin dramatically within the next years. Several companies are currently developing formulations of inhalable insulin. In the most advanced concept, insulin is delivered as a dry-powder insulin formulation via a special aerosol device system. The phase III studies evaluating the efficiency of the inhaled insulin are already on their way. The recent phase II studies have shown, that the lung is capable of absorbing new insulin formulation in a dose-dependent and reproducible manner. However, a relatively small number of diabetic patients have been included in these studies, yet. The therapeutic efficacy and safety of the inhaled insulin is comparable to that of the usual subcutaneous insulin treatment regimens. The most important advantage of the new therapy is the enhanced therapeutic comfort of the patient who does not need to inject insulin for meal time glucose control. Generally, in terms of glycemic control, inhalable insulin offers no advantages in type 1 diabetics in comparison to an intensified conventional insulin therapy. However, before a large-scale marketing, several open questions have to be carefully investigated, the most important being the possible long-term effects of insulin inhalation for the lung, since insulin is known to have growth-promoting properties. There is still no available clinical data concerning the efficiency of the inhaled insulin in patients with pulmonary diseases which may cause problems in absorption of inhaled insulin due to the smaller cumulative alveolar surface. In smokers without pulmonary disease seems the inhaled insulin to act stronger and faster. Since therapy with inhalable insulin requires larger doses of insulin in comparison to subcutaneous insulin to achieve the same systemic effect, the costs of this therapy need to be clarified, too.

  4. Effects of drying control chemical additive on properties of Li 4Ti 5O 12 negative powders prepared by spray pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Seo Hee; Kang, Yun Chan

    High-density Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders comprising spherical particles are prepared by spray pyrolysis from a solution containing dimethylacetamide (drying control chemical additive) and citric acid and ethylene glycol (organic additives). The prepared powders have high discharge capacities and good cycle properties. The optimum concentration of dimethylacetamide is 0.5 M. The addition of dimethylacetamide to the polymeric spray solutions containing citric acid and ethylene glycol helps in the effective control of the morphology of the Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders. At a constant current density of 0.17 mA g -1, the initial discharge capacities of the powders obtained from the spray solution with and without the organic additives are 171 and 167 mAh g -1, respectively.

  5. Sodium-ion storage properties of nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide composite powders prepared by a spray drying process and the nanoscale Kirkendall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, G. D.; Cho, J. S.; Kang, Y. C.

    2015-10-01

    Spray-drying and the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process are used to prepare nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders with excellent Na-ion storage properties. Metallic Ni nanopowder-decorated rGO powders, formed as intermediate products, are transformed into composite powders of nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/rGO with mixed crystal structures of Ni3S2 and Ni9S8 phases by the sulfidation process under H2S gas. Nickel sulfide/rGO composite powders with the main crystal structure of Ni3S2 are also prepared as comparison samples by the direct sulfidation of nickel acetate-graphene oxide (GO) composite powders obtained by spray-drying. In electrochemical properties, the discharge capacities at the 150th cycle of the nickel sulfide/rGO composite powders prepared by sulfidation of the Ni/rGO composite and nickel acetate/GO composite powders at a current density of 0.3 A g-1 are 449 and 363 mA h g-1, respectively; their capacity retentions, calculated from the tenth cycle, are 100 and 87%. The nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/rGO composite powders possess structural stability over repeated Na-ion insertion and extraction processes, and also show excellent rate performance for Na-ion storage.Spray-drying and the nanoscale Kirkendall diffusion process are used to prepare nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composite powders with excellent Na-ion storage properties. Metallic Ni nanopowder-decorated rGO powders, formed as intermediate products, are transformed into composite powders of nickel sulfide hollow nanospheres/rGO with mixed crystal structures of Ni3S2 and Ni9S8 phases by the sulfidation process under H2S gas. Nickel sulfide/rGO composite powders with the main crystal structure of Ni3S2 are also prepared as comparison samples by the direct sulfidation of nickel acetate-graphene oxide (GO) composite powders obtained by spray-drying. In electrochemical properties, the discharge capacities at the

  6. Preparation of inhalable salbutamol sulphate using reactive high gravity controlled precipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Tingting; Chiou, Herbert; Chan, Hak-Kim; Chen, Jian-Feng; Yun, Jimmy

    2008-02-01

    Reactive high gravity controlled precipitation (HGCP) was carried out to produce salbutamol sulphate (SS) particles suitable for inhalation. Aqueous solutions of free salbutamol base and sulphuric acid were mixed intensely inside a HGCP reactor to form the particles. Spray drying was employed to obtain dry powders. Physical properties of the powders were characterised by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis and dynamic water vapour sorption. Aerosol performance of the powders was measured using an Aeroliser connected to a multiple stage liquid impinger operating at 60 L/min. The results showed that the reactive HGCP powder, comprising primary SS sub-micron particles (approximately 100 nm in width and approximately 500 nm in length) packed into loose spherical agglomerates of about 2 microm in diameter, is of the same polymorphic form as the raw crystalline material, has a high specific surface area (24.7 +/- 0.1 m(2)/g), but a low moisture content (0.2%) and low moisture uptake (1.4% at RH 90%). The aerosol performance of the reactive HGCP powder is excellent, showing FPF(loaded) and FPF(emitted) of 76 +/- 5% and 83 +/- 7%, respectively, with low capsule and device retention. In conclusion, reactive HGCP followed by spray drying is suitable to produce stable crystalline powders of salbutamol with enhanced inhalation properties.

  7. The use of sodium carboxymethylcellulose in the preparation of spray-dried proteins for pulmonary drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao-Ying; Song, Xiaosong; Seville, Peter C

    2010-04-16

    The use of sodium carboxymethylcellulose (NaCMC) as a spray-drying excipient in the preparation of inhalable formulations of proteins was investigated, using alkaline phosphatase as a model functional protein. Two spray-dried powders were investigated: a control powder comprising 100% (w/w) alkaline phosphatase and a test powder comprising 67% (w/w) NaCMC and 33% (w/w) alkaline phosphatase. Following physicochemical characterisation, the powders were prepared as both dry powder inhaler (DPI) and pressurised metered dose inhaler (pMDI) formulations. The aerosolisation performance of the formulations was assessed using a Multi-Stage Liquid Impinger, both immediately after preparation and over a 16-week storage period. Formulating the control powder as a DPI resulted in a poor fine particle fraction (FPF: 10%), whereas the FPF of the NaCMC-modified DPI formulation was significantly greater (47%). When the powders were formulated as pMDI systems, the control and NaCMC-modified powders demonstrated FPFs of 52% and 55%, respectively. Following storage, reduced FPF was observed for all formulations except the NaCMC-modified pMDI system; the performance of this formulation following storage was statistically equivalent to that immediately following preparation. Co-spray-drying proteins and peptides with NaCMC may therefore offer an alternative method for the preparation of stable and respirable pMDI formulations for pulmonary delivery.

  8. The effect of pigment matrix, temperature and amount of carrier on the yield and final color properties of spray dried purple corn (Zea mays L.) cob anthocyanin powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lao, Fei; Giusti, M Monica

    2017-07-15

    Spray drying is an economic technique to produce anthocyanin-based colorants. High pigments yields with minimum color degradation are desirable to maximize quality and profits. This study evaluated the impacts of purple corncob (PCC) anthocyanin extraction matrices (hot water, 40% ethanol, C18 purified), drying inlet temperature (130, 150, 170°C) and amount of carrier (2%, 5%, 10% maltodextrin) on the yields and quality of PCC anthocyanin powders. Monomeric and polymeric anthocyanins, color properties (CIELch, haze), and pigments composition before and after spray drying were determined. The yield and final color quality of spray dried PCC anthocyanins were affected (p<0.05) by all parameters evaluated. The pigment matrix, inlet temperature, and carrier amount had biggest impacts on product water solubility, pigments degradation and yield, respectively. The optimal combination of hot water extracts spray dried with 5% maltodextrin at 150°C gave the highest pigment yield (∼90%) with good solubility with the least color loss.

  9. Comparison of Spray Drying and Decompression Drying on Hydroscopicity and Fluidity of Dry Powdered Extract of Qinxiangzhixie%喷雾与减压干燥的秦香止泻干膏粉吸湿性及流动性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何群; 膝久祥; 彭芝配; 赵碧清; 王适; 史艳霞

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To select a reasonable dry method for extracting dry powdered Qinxiangzhixie, meanwhile to provide basis for future research, we compared the influence of spray drying and decompression drying on hydroscopicity and fluidity of dry powdered extract of Qinxiangzhixie.METHODS The moisture absorption speed of dry powder extract of Qinxiangzhixie was determined.Its dynamics model was established, when the relative humidity (RH) of moisture absorption reached 2%.The parameter of moisture absorption speed was collected and compared.Its fluidity was contrasted through inspecting the angle of repose dry powdered Qinxiangzhixie.RESULTS Both of the dry methods dynamics model were conformed to log-normal model.However, the moisture absorption speed of decompression drying was quicker than spray drying.The research also demonstrated that the function of moisture absorption capacity-RH conformed to Logistic model, and the dry powder extract of decompression drying conformed to amended exponential function curve.When the moisture absorption amounts 2%, the relative humidity of the dry powdered extract of spray drying was 90.12%, and the dry powdered extract of decompression drying was 85.81%.That means the angle of repose of the dry powder extract of decompression drying was larger than spray drying and the fluidity of the dry powder extract of decompression drying was poorer than spray drying.CONCLUSION The dry powder extract by spray drying is less absorption, more stable and fluid.%目的 比较喷雾干燥法与减压干燥法时秦香止泻干浸青粉吸湿性及流动性的影响,为确定秦香止泻浓缩液(或稠浸膏)合理的干燥方法提供依据.方法 通过测定秦香止泻干浸膏粉的吸湿速度,吸湿量达2%时的相对湿度(relative humidit,RH),建立其动力学模型,提取吸湿速度参教并比较大小;通过测定秦香止泻干浸膏粉的休止角比较流动性优劣.结果 两种干燥方法制成的干浸青粉吸湿动

  10. Spray-dried Powder Granulometry: Influence on the Porous Microstructure of Polished Porcelain Tile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boschi, A. O.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The low porosity of porcelain tile is the result of strict control of the material’s processing conditions (milling of raw materials, compaction and sintering and the characteristics of the raw materials used in its formulation (formation of liquid phases. Sealed pores remaining after the manufacturing process are revealed at the surface after polishing and are the main factor responsible for staining the product. The porous microstructure of the sintered material depends on the characteristics of the porous microstructure of the green compact and on how the densification process evolves during sintering. The present work evaluated how the size distribution of spray-dried granules acts upon the porous microstructure of green compacts and of polished porcelain tile. The results revealed that minor adjustments in the granulometric distribution curve can reduce the visibility of stains on the polished surface, thus improving this property.

    La baja porosidad de los revestimientos porcelánicos, es el resultado del estricto control que se ejerce sobre los distintos parámetros que condicionan el procesamiento de los materiales ( molienda de la materias primas, compactación y sinterización y de las características de las materias primas empleadas en su formulación (formación de fases líquidas. Los poros cerrados que se generan durante la fabricación, y que se abren en la superficie durante el proceso de pulido, son los principales responsables de las manchas que aparecen en la superficie del material. La porosidad microestructural de los materiales sinterizados está condicionada por la porosidad microstrucutural de la pieza en verde y por la evolución del proceso de densificación durante la sinterización. E l trabajo presente evalúa la influencia de la distribución granulométrica del granulado procedente del atomizador sobre la porosidad granulométrica de las piezas en verde y de la pieza ya pulida. Los resultados revelan como

  11. A continuous production process for silica aerogel powders based on sodium silicate by fluidized bed drying of wet-gel slurry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Sharad D.; Park, Kyung-Tae; Kim, Yong-Ha; Kim, Jong-Soon; Han, Jong-Hun

    2008-09-01

    The present study described a continuous process for the production of hydrophobic silica aerogel powders based on an inexpensive precursor such as sodium silicate. Fluidization technique was employed for the drying of wet-gel slurry at an ambient pressure. The fluidization column was fed with the silylated wet-gel slurry in a continuous mode and the fluidization was carried out at 220 °C. The aerogel powder collected in Trap-I was fluidized twice at room temperature in order to separate the lighter aerogel particles from the first trap. The tapping density of the aerogel powder decreased from 0.09 to 0.05 g/cm 3 for Trap-II, however, the microstructure did not differ significantly. Using this process, hydrophobic silica aerogel powders exhibiting tapping density as low as 0.05 g/cm 3, high specific surface area of 783 m 2/g and cumulative pore volume of 1.79 cm 3/g have been obtained. The aerogels were characterized by Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), BET specific surface area, N 2 physisorption isotherms, pore size distribution and particle size analyses. The results have been compared with aerogel powders obtained by ambient pressure drying of the wet-gel slurry in a furnace.

  12. A continuous production process for silica aerogel powders based on sodium silicate by fluidized bed drying of wet-gel slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhagat, Sh.D.; Park, K.T.; Kim, Y.H. [Pukyong National Univ., Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Powder Technology Lab., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.S. [NGETECH Inc., Nam-Gu, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Han, J.H. [Korea Electronics Technology Institute, Seongnam, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-09-15

    The present study described a continuous process for the production of hydrophobic silica aerogel powders based on an inexpensive precursor such as sodium silicate. Fluidization technique was employed for the drying of wet-gel slurry at an ambient pressure. The fluidization column was fed with the silylated wet-gel slurry in a continuous mode and the fluidization was carried out at 220 C. The aerogel powder collected in Trap-I was fluidized twice at room temperature in order to separate the lighter aerogel particles from the first trap. The tapping density of the aerogel powder decreased from 0.09 to 0.05 g/cm{sup 3} for Trap-II, however, the microstructure did not differ significantly. Using this process, hydrophobic silica aerogel powders exhibiting tapping density as low as 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}, high specific surface area of 783 m{sup 2}/g and cumulative pore volume of 1.79 cm{sup 3}/g have been obtained. The aerogels were characterized by Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), BET specific surface area, N{sub 2} physi-sorption isotherms, pore size distribution and particle size analyses. The results have been compared with aerogel powders obtained by ambient pressure drying of the wet-gel slurry in a furnace. (authors)

  13. Studies on biosorption of Cr(VI) on a green resin: dry cow dung powder and tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barot, N.S.; Bagla, H.K. [Kishinchand Chellaram College, Mumbai (India). Nuclear and Radiochemistry Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The present investigation entails the application of dry cow dung powder (DCP) as an indigenous, inexpensive and eco-friendly material for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous medium. Batch biosorption experiments were conducted employing {sup 51}Cr(VI) as a tracer and the effect of various process parameters such as optimum pH, temperature, amount of resin, time of equilibration, agitation speed, concentration of metal ions and interfering effect of different salts etc. were studied. The kinetic studies were carried out employing various models but the best fitting was given by Lagergren Pseudo-second order model with high correlation coefficient R{sup 2} value of 0.997 and adsorption capacity of 10.20 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters for biosorption were evaluated as {Delta}G = -2.837 kJ/mol, {Delta}H = -4.757 kJ/mol and {Delta}S = 16.64 J/mol K, which indicated spontaneous and exothermic process with high affinity of DCP for Cr(VI). Many naturally available materials are used for the biosorption of heavy metal pollutants, where most of them are physically or chemically modified. In this research work, DCP has been utilized without any pre or post chemical treatment. Thus it manifests the principle of green chemistry and proves to be an eco-friendly resin. (orig.)

  14. Oral intake of encapsulated dried ginger root powder hardly affects human thermoregulatory function, but appears to facilitate fat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Hara, Toshiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Shido, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a single oral ingestion of ginger on thermoregulatory function and fat oxidation in humans. Morning and afternoon oral intake of 1.0 g dried ginger root powder did not alter rectal temperature, skin blood flow, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and thermal sensation and comfort, or induce sweating at an ambient temperature of 28 °C. Ginger ingestion had no effect on threshold temperatures for skin blood flow or thermal sweating. Serum levels of free fatty acids were significantly elevated at 120 min after ginger ingestion in both the morning and afternoon. Morning ginger intake significantly reduced respiratory exchange ratios and elevated fat oxidation by 13.5 % at 120 min after ingestion. This was not the case in the afternoon. These results suggest that the effect of a single oral ginger administration on the peripheral and central thermoregulatory function is miniscule, but does facilitate fat utilization although the timing of the administration may be relevant.

  15. Effect of Dry Goji Berry and Pumpkin Powder on Quality of Cooked and Smoked Beef with Reduced Nitrite Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira S. Serikkaisai

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The colorant and antioxidant activity of dried fruits of Goji Berry (GB (Lycium chinense and/or butternut Pumpkin Powder (PP (Cucurbita moschata can be used for reduction of part of nitrites in cooked and smoked meat products. Since many of these natural biological active substances are consumed together and probably have the potential for synergistic interactions. The objective of this study was to establishe the potential of to concentrations 0.5 and 1.0% of GB and/or PP separately or in combinations, as additives for processing of cooked and smoked beef striploin with 1/2 reduced nitrite content. The separate use of GB or PP leads to certain abnormalities in sensory quality and technological properties but the addition to the pikle a combination containing 1.0% of GB and 0.5% PP guarantee good quality, nise sensory properties and colour characteristics and inhibite the oxidative changes in cooked and smoked beef striploin with a half reduced amounts of nitrites.

  16. Bioethanol production from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Zhou; Zou, Shan-Mei; He, Mei-Lin; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2015-04-01

    It has been found that recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6525 can produce high concentration of ethanol in one-step fermentation from the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers or inulin. However, the utilization rate of raw materials was low and the fermentation process was costly and complicated. Therefore, in this study, after the optimum processing conditions for ethanol production in fed-batch fermentation were determined in flask, the recombinant S. cerevisiae 6525 was first used to produce ethanol from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in 5-L agitating fermentor. After 72 h of fermentation, around 84.3 g/L ethanol was produced in the fermentation liquids, and the conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to ethanol was 0.453, or 88.6 % of the theoretical value of 0.511. This study showed high feasibility of bioethanol industrial production from the Jerusalem artichoke tubers and provided a basis for it in the future.

  17. Immunomodulatory effects of supercritical fluid CO2 extracts from freeze-dried powder of Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    QingFeng TANG

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to take full advantage of Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm resources, the supercritical CO2 fluid freeze-dried powder of T. molitor larvae (fdTML extraction on the immune systems of mice was carried out. The results about the effects of supercritical CO2 fluid fdTML extraction on carbon expurgation and phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages experiments of mice indicated that the fdTML extraction enhanced observably carbon expurgatory index, phagocytic rate and phagocytic index. The fdTML extraction could stimulate response of delayed hypersensitivity. The proliferation of ConA-induced mitogenic reponse for spleen lymphocyte was also increased. The amount of hemolytic antibody in mice serum increased compared with those of the control group mice. The half of hemolysis values in serum of treated mice increased compared to the control group. Furthermore, serum NO content in all treatment groups was higher than that of the control group whereas acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activity was only significantly higher relative to the control group. Our findings suggest that supercritical CO2 fluid the fdTML extraction has potential as a health food supplement.

  18. Removal of Co(II) from waste water using dry cow dung powder : a green ambrosia to soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Khilnani, Roshan

    2015-04-01

    Co(II) is one of the hazardous products found in the waste streams. The anthropogenic activities are major sources of Co(II) in our environment. Some of the well-established processes such as chemical precipitation, membrane process, liquid extraction and ion exchange have been applied as a tool for the removal of this metal ion [1]. All the above methods are not considered to be greener due to some of their shortcomings such as incomplete metal ion removal, high requirement of energy and reagents, generation of toxic sludge or other waste materials which in turn require further treatments for their cautious disposal. The present investigation entails the application of dry cow dung powder (DCP) as an indigenous, inexpensive and eco-friendly material for the removal of Co(II) from aqueous medium. DCP, is naturally available bio-organic, complex, polymorphic humified fecal matter of cow and is enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic-aromatic species such as 'Humic acid' (HA), Fulvic acid, Ulmic acid [2,3]. Batch biosorption experiments were conducted employing 60Co(II) as a tracer and effect of various process parameters such as pH (1-8), temperature (283-363K), amount of biosorbent (5-40 g/L), time of equilibration (0-30 min), agitation speed (0-4000 rpm), concentration of initial metal ions (0.5-20 mg/mL) and interfering effect of different organic as well as inorganic salts were studied. The Kinetic studies were carried out employing various models but the best fitting was given by Lagergren Pseudo-second order model [4] with high correlation coefficient R2 value of 0.999 and adsorption capacity of 2.31 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters for biosorption were also evaluated which indicated spontaneous and exothermic process with high affinity of DCP for Co(II). Many naturally available materials are used for biosorption of hazardous metal pollutants, where most of them are physically or chemically modified. In this research

  19. The impact factors of compliance induced by dry power inhalant and the nursing countermeasure for COPD patients%COPD 患者使用干粉吸入剂依从性影响因素及护理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林小玉; 陈群

    2015-01-01

    Objective This article aimed to investigate the occurrence of compliance induced by powder inhalant and the influence factors , in order to find out useful nursing countermeasures .Methods by the method of questionnaire investigation on 2012 October to 2014 May in Fujian Province , a three level of first -class hospital treatment of 60 cases of the use of dry powder inhalation in patients with COPD .Results of the 42 patients with poor compliance , compliance in 10 cases, 8 cases of high compliance; influential factors have memory, method of use is not easy to master , the lack of the related knowledge of disease and medication , adverse reaction of drugs , drug use, economic causes inconvenience .Conclusions to strengthen the patients health education , medication guidance and supervision of the implementation of nursing measures can improve the compliance of patients with COPD using dry powder inhalation .%目的:调查COPD患者使用干粉吸入剂依从性情况及影响因素,以期采取有用的护理对策。方法采用问卷调查方法对2012年10月至2014年5月在福建省某三级甲等医院住院治疗的60例使用干粉吸入剂COPD患者进行调查。结果42例依从性差,10例依从性中等,8例依从性高;影响因素有记忆力减退、使用方法不容易掌握、缺乏疾病及用药相关知识、药物不良反应、经济原因、用药不便等。结论要加强对患者的健康宣教,落实用药指导及监督等护理对策可提高COPD患者使用干粉吸入剂的依从性。

  20. Inhaled formulations and pulmonary drug delivery systems for respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Tang, Patricia; Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Loh, Zhi Hui; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2015-05-01

    Respiratory infections represent a major global health problem. They are often treated by parenteral administrations of antimicrobials. Unfortunately, systemic therapies of high-dose antimicrobials can lead to severe adverse effects and this calls for a need to develop inhaled formulations that enable targeted drug delivery to the airways with minimal systemic drug exposure. Recent technological advances facilitate the development of inhaled anti-microbial therapies. The newer mesh nebulisers have achieved minimal drug residue, higher aerosolisation efficiencies and rapid administration compared to traditional jet nebulisers. Novel particle engineering and intelligent device design also make dry powder inhalers appealing for the delivery of high-dose antibiotics. In view of the fact that no new antibiotic entities against multi-drug resistant bacteria have come close to commercialisation, advanced formulation strategies are in high demand for combating respiratory 'super bugs'.

  1. 热处理对喷雾干燥钼粉的影响%EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON SPRAY DRIED Mo POWDER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    以喷雾干燥钼粉为原料,将其在不同的温度下热处理,并对热处理过的粉末进行物理性能及组织形貌的测试分析。结果表明,喷雾干燥钼粉经1500℃以上高温热处理后,粉末中有机粘结剂被去除,粉末颗粒收缩,基本上为近球形,喷雾干燥颗粒之间有微弱连接,内部小颗粒明显粘结长大,粉末流动性好、松装密度高,适合于热喷涂制备涂层。%Molybdenum powders were prepared by spray-drying technique and were heat treated in different temper-atures. Physical property and pattern of the powders were analyzed. The results show that after heat treatment at a temperature higher than 1 500 ℃, the organic binder inside spray-dryed particles was removed, the particles of the spray-dryed powder shrink, but are nearly spherical shapes. The weak connection among spray-dryed particles was formed and the growth of the internal particles of spray-dryed particles was significant. The powder has good flow a-bility and high apparent density, which is suitable for thermal spraying.

  2. Effect of Rare Earth Y on Properties of Nanosized 90W-7Ni-3Fe Composite Powder Fabricated by Spray Drying-Hydrogen Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-Z. Ma

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available (W,Ni,Fe composite oxide powder synthesized by spray drying was reduced at 700∘C for 90 minutes in H2 atmosphere. The effect of rare earth Y on H2 reduction of (W,Ni,Fe composite oxide powder was studied. Phase composition, crystalline size, and particle morphology of the reduced powder have been measured by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscope (SEM. Fsss particle size and special surface area of the reduced powder were also measured and analyzed. The result showed that new phase Y(Ni0.75W0.25O3 appeared in the reduced powder and particle morphology was nearly spherical or polyhedron by Y additions. The higher the rare earth element content was, the bigger the influencing on particle morphology was. When the rare earth Y content was under 0.8%, with the increase of the rare earth element content, dBET, Fsss, and crystal sizes of the reduced powder decreased greatly.

  3. Inhalation drug delivery devices: technology update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim M

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mariam Ibrahim, Rahul Verma, Lucila Garcia-ContrerasDepartment of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, The University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK, USAAbstract: The pulmonary route of administration has proven to be effective in local and systemic delivery of miscellaneous drugs and biopharmaceuticals to treat pulmonary and non-pulmonary diseases. A successful pulmonary administration requires a harmonic interaction between the drug formulation, the inhaler device, and the patient. However, the biggest single problem that accounts for the lack of desired effect or adverse outcomes is the incorrect use of the device due to lack of training in how to use the device or how to coordinate actuation and aerosol inhalation. This review summarizes the structural and mechanical features of aerosol delivery devices with respect to mechanisms of aerosol generation, their use with different formulations, and their advantages and limitations. A technological update of the current state-of-the-art designs proposed to overcome current challenges of existing devices is also provided.Keywords: pulmonary delivery, asthma, nebulizers, metered dose inhaler, dry powder inhaler

  4. Inhalers and nebulizers: which to choose and why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, S

    1996-02-01

    It is obvious that many factors should be considered when an inhaler is prescribed. Based upon the information discussed above, a rational inhaler strategy could be as follows: (1) Children valve system (and a face mask for the children) for the delivery of all drugs. When they are severely obstructed, some may need a nebulizer. If the patient cannot be taught the correct use of a spacer, a nebulizer should be prescribed. (2) Children > or = 5 years and adults are prescribed a spacer or a Turbuhaler for the administration of inhaled corticosteroids and a dry powder inhaler (preferably multiple dose) or a breath-actuated MDI for other drugs. If these alternatives are not available or the patient prefers, a conventional MDI can be used (preferably not for other corticosteroids than fluticasone propionate) provided that careful tuition is given. Fluticasone dipropionate may be given by DPI, Spacer or MDI. (3) Nebulizers are mainly reserved for severe acute attacks of bronchoconstriction. With this approach, most patients can be taught effective inhaler use with a minimum of instructional time. Finally, it must always be remembered to consider the patient's wish, since prescription of an inhaler which the physician likes but the patient does not is likely to reduce compliance.

  5. Inhaled medication for asthma management: evaluation of how asthma patients, medical students, and doctors use the different devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muniz Janaína Barbosa

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma results from a combination of three essential features: airflow obstruction, hyperresponsiveness of airways to endogenous or exogenous stimuli and inflammation. Inadequacy of the techniques to use different inhalation devices is one of the causes of therapeutic failure. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate how 20 medical students, 36 resident physicians of Internal Medicine/Pediatrics, and 40 asthma patients used three devices for inhalation therapy containing placebo. All patients were followed at the Pulmonary Outpatient Service of Botucatu Medical School and had been using inhaled medication for at least six months. The following devices were evaluated: metered dose inhalers (MDI, dry powder inhalers (DPI, and MDI attached to a spacer device. A single observer applied a protocol containing the main steps necessary to obtain a good inhaler technique to follow and grade the use of different devices. Health care professionals tested all three devices and patients tested only the device being used on their management. MDI was the device best known by doctors and patients. MDI use was associated with errors related to the coordination between inspiration and device activation. Failure to exhale completely before inhalation of the powder was the most frequent error observed with DPI use. In summary, patients did not receive precise instruction on how to use inhaled medication and health care professionals were not well prepared to adequately teach their patients.

  6. Application of spray granulation for conversion of mixed phospholipid-bile salt micelles to dry powder form: influence of drug hydrophobicity on nanoparticle reagglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv QY

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Qingyuan Lv,1 Xianyi Li,2 Baode Shen,1 He Xu,1 Chengying Shen,1 Ling Dai,1 Jinxia Bai,1 Hailong Yuan,1 Jin Han11Department of Pharmacy, 302 Military Hospital, 2Institute for Drug and Instrument Control, Health Department, General Logistics Department of People's Liberation Army, Beijing, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using spray granulation as a drying method to convert phospholipid (PL-sodium deoxycholate (SDC-mixed micelles (MMs containing a water-insoluble drug to a solid dosage form and to evaluate how drugs with significantly different physicochemical properties affect the spray granulation process and subsequent in vitro and in vivo processes. Cucurbitacin B (Cu B and glycyrrhizin (GL were used as the model drugs. After spray granulation, the dried Cu B-PL/SDC-MM powder was completely redispersible within 15 minutes in vitro. Meanwhile, the area under the curve during 24 hours (AUC0–24 and peak serum concentration from the dried powder were significantly (P<0.05 lower than the values from Cu B-PL/SDC-MMs in vivo. However, a better result was obtained for GL, ie, the drug was redispersed completely within 5 minutes in vitro. Further, absorption from the dried GL-PL/SDC-MM powder was increased to the same level as that for GL-PL/SDC-MMs in vivo compared with the control group. The difference in these results can be found in Cu B and GL. Cu B nanoparticles reagglomerated when released, resulting in slower redispersibility and less absorption compared with the original PL-SDC-MMs. However, no agglomeration or delay was observed for GL. A possible explanation is the difference in surface hydrophobicity between Cu B and GL. The results of this study not only show that spray granulation is an effective drying technique that can complement spray-drying and freeze-drying, but also confirm that the physicochemical properties of a drug have a significant influence on the in vitro and

  7. Fast Determination of Essential Oil from Dried Menthol Mint and Orange Peel by Solvent Free Microwave Extraction Using Carbonyl Iron Powder as the Microwave Absorption Medium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zi-Ming; DING Lan; WANG Lu; FENG Jin; LI Tie-Chun; ZHOU Xin; ZHANG Han-Qi

    2006-01-01

    An improved solvent free microwave extraction, in which a kind of microwave absorption medium (carbonyl iron powder) was used, was applied to the extraction of essential oil from dried menthol mint and orange peel without addition of any solvent and pretreatment. It took much less time of extraction (30 min) than microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (90 min) and conventional hydrodistillation (180 min). The kinds of chemical compositions in essential oil extracted by different methods were almost the same and such improved solvent free microwave extraction can be a feasible way in extraction of essential oil from dried plant materials.

  8. Spray-freeze-drying of nanosuspensions: the manufacture of insulin particles for needle-free ballistic powder delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiffter, Heiko; Condliffe, Jamie; Vonhoff, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of preparing microparticles with high insulin loading suitable for needle-free ballistic drug delivery by spray-freeze-drying (SFD) was examined in this study. The aim was to manufacture dense, robust particles with a diameter of around 50 µm, a narrow size distribution and a high content of insulin. Atomization using ultrasound atomizers showed improved handling of small liquid quantities as well as narrower droplet size distributions over conventional two-fluid nozzle atomization. Insulin nanoparticles were produced by SFD from solutions with a low solid content (300 mg ml−1) consisting of trehalose, mannitol, dextran (10 kDa) and dextran (150 kDa) (abbreviated to TMDD) in order to maximize particle robustness and density after SFD. With the increase in insulin content, the viscosity of the nanosuspensions increased. Liquid atomization was possible up to a maximum of 250 mg of nano-insulin suspended in a 1.0 g matrix. However, if a narrow size distribution with a good correlation between theoretical and measurable insulin content was desired, no more than 150 mg nano-insulin could be suspended per gram of matrix formulation. Particles were examined by laser light diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and tap density testing. Insulin stability was assessed using size exclusion chromatography (SEC), reverse phase chromatography and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Densification of the particles could be achieved during primary drying if the product temperature (Tprod) exceeded the glass transition temperature of the freeze concentrate (Tg′) of −29.4°C for TMDD (3∶3∶3∶1) formulations. Particles showed a collapsed and wrinkled morphology owing to viscous flow of the freeze concentrate. With increasing insulin loading, the d (v, 0.5) of the SFD powders increased and particle size distributions got wider. Insulin showed a good stability during the particle formation process with a maximum decrease in insulin monomer of

  9. Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Meat Quality of Meat Type Ducks Fed with Dried Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J H; Kang, S N; Shin, D; Shim, K S

    2015-01-01

    One-day-old Cherry valley meat-strain ducks were used to investigate the effect of supplemental dried oregano powder (DOP) in feed on the productivity, antioxidant enzyme activity, and breast meat quality. One hundred sixty five ducks were assigned to 5 dietary treatments for 42 days. The dietary treatment groups were control group (CON; no antibiotic, no DOP), antibiotic group (ANT; CON+0.1% Patrol), 0.1% DOP (CON+0.1% DOP), 0.5% DOP (CON+0.5% DOP), and 1.0% DOP (CON+1.0% DOP). Upon feeding, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of oregano extracts was higher than that of tocopherol, although it was less than that of ascorbic acid. As a result of in vivo study, DOP in the diet showed no effects on final body weight, feed intake, or feed conversion ratio. However, dietary 0.5% and 1% DOP supplementation caused a significant increase in the serum enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) compared with CON and ANT, while glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in tissue was increased as compared to ANT (p<0.05). Cooking loss from ducks fed with DOP decreased compared with the control ducks. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) values of duck breast meat at 5 d post slaughter was found to be significantly reduced in ducks whose diets were supplemented with 0.5% and 1% DOP (p<0.05). These results suggest that diets containing 0.5% and 1% DOP may beneficially affect antioxidant enzyme activity of GPx and SOD, improve meat cooking loss, and reduce TBARS values in breast meat at 5 d of storage in ducks.

  10. Evaluation and Optimization of Amino Acids Retention Rate of Japanese Scallop Powder with Different Food Additives in Spray-drying Process by Response Surface Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray-drying process for Japanese scallop powder can cause damage because of its heat-sensitive components such as amino acids. Therefore it is important for amino acids to be embedded with the appropriate food additives in spray-drying process. In this study, with Japanese scallop as the raw, Response Surface Method (RSM with three variables (the addition level of &beta-cyclodextrin, modified starch and CMC was used to investigate the effect of food additives on the amino acids retention rate in Japanese scallop powder in spray drying. The equation model to predict amino acids retention rate was reported. The results showed that the optimal addition level of &beta-cyclodextrin, modified starch and CMC were 25.55, 24.55 and 2.96%, respectively. And the amino acids retention rate was 56.75±0.64%. This model was testified to fit the actual situation preferably, therefore it can provide theoretical and practical basis for industrial production of Japanese scallop powder.

  11. Synthesis of high-performance Li2FeSiO4/C composite powder by spray-freezing/freeze-drying a solution with two carbon sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Yukiko; Iwase, Hiroaki; Shida, Kenji; Liao, Jinsun; Fukui, Takehisa; Matsuda, Motohide

    2017-09-01

    Li2FeSiO4 is a promising cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical capacity. Spray-freezing/freeze-drying, a practical process reported for the synthesis of various ceramic powders, is applied to the synthesis of Li2FeSiO4/C composite powders and high-performance Li2FeSiO4/C composite powders are successfully synthesized by using starting solutions containing both Indian ink and glucose as carbon sources followed by heating. The synthesized composite powders have a unique structure, composed of Li2FeSiO4 nanoparticles coated with a thin carbon layer formed by the carbonization of glucose and carbon nanoparticles from Indian ink. The carbon layer enhances the electrochemical reactivity of the Li2FeSiO4, and the carbon nanoparticles play a role in the formation of electron-conducting paths in the cathode. The composite powders deliver an initial discharge capacity of 195 and 137 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 1 C, respectively, without further addition of conductive additive. The discharge capacity at 1 C is 72 mAh g-1 after the 100th cycle, corresponding to approximately 75% of the capacity at the 2nd cycle.

  12. Spray-dried powders improve the controlled release of antifungal tioconazole-loaded polymeric nanocapsules compared to with lyophilized products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Roseane Fagundes [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Motta, Mariana Heldt [Curso de Farmácia, Centro de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Härter, Andréia Pisching Garcia; Flores, Fernanda Cramer [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); Beck, Ruy Carlos Ruver [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Ipiranga, 2752, Porto Alegre, RS, 90610-000 (Brazil); Schaffazick, Scheila Rezende [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Farmacêuticas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Av. Roraima, 1000, Santa Maria, RS, 97105-900 (Brazil); and others

    2016-02-01

    This work aimed to obtain solid formulations from polymeric nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing tioconazole, a broad spectrum antifungal drug. Two dehydration methods were used: spray-drying and freeze-drying, using lactose as adjuvant (10%, w/v). The liquid formulations had a mean particle size around 206 nm and 182 nm for nanocapsules and nanoemulsions, respectively, and an adequate polydispersity index. Tioconazole content was close to the theoretical amount (1.0 mg/mL). After drying, the content ranged between 98 and 102% with a mean nanometric size of the dried products after redispersion. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the particles are rounded, sphere-shaped for the dried products obtained by spray-drying, and shapeless and irregular shapes for those obtained by freeze-drying. In the microbiological evaluation, all dried products remained active against the yeast Candida albicans when compared to the original systems. The dried products obtained by spray-drying from nanocapsules presented better control of the tioconazole release when compared to the freeze-drying products. - Highlights: • Polymeric nanocapsule suspensions containing tioconazole were submitted to spray-drying and freeze-drying. • Dried products from nanocapsule suspensions were stable for 30 days. • Release studies showed that the dried products presented greater control of drug release compared to the original suspension.

  13. Effect of novel inhaler technique reminder labels on the retention of inhaler technique skills in asthma: a single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basheti, Iman A; Obeidat, Nathir M; Reddel, Helen K

    2017-02-09

    Inhaler technique can be corrected with training, but skills drop off quickly without repeated training. The aim of our study was to explore the effect of novel inhaler technique labels on the retention of correct inhaler technique. In this single-blind randomized parallel-group active-controlled study, clinical pharmacists enrolled asthma patients using controller medication by Accuhaler [Diskus] or Turbuhaler. Inhaler technique was assessed using published checklists (score 0-9). Symptom control was assessed by asthma control test. Patients were randomized into active (ACCa; THa) and control (ACCc; THc) groups. All patients received a "Show-and-Tell" inhaler technique counseling service. Active patients also received inhaler labels highlighting their initial errors. Baseline data were available for 95 patients, 68% females, mean age 44.9 (SD 15.2) years. Mean inhaler scores were ACCa:5.3 ± 1.0; THa:4.7 ± 0.9, ACCc:5.5 ± 1.1; THc:4.2 ± 1.0. Asthma was poorly controlled (mean ACT scores ACCa:13.9 ± 4.3; THa:12.1 ± 3.9; ACCc:12.7 ± 3.3; THc:14.3 ± 3.7). After training, all patients had correct technique (score 9/9). After 3 months, there was significantly less decline in inhaler technique scores for active than control groups (mean difference: Accuhaler -1.04 (95% confidence interval -1.92, -0.16, P = 0.022); Turbuhaler -1.61 (-2.63, -0.59, P = 0.003). Symptom control improved significantly, with no significant difference between active and control patients, but active patients used less reliever medication (active 2.19 (SD 1.78) vs. control 3.42 (1.83) puffs/day, P = 0.002). After inhaler training, novel inhaler technique labels improve retention of correct inhaler technique skills with dry powder inhalers. Inhaler technique labels represent a simple, scalable intervention that has the potential to extend the benefit of inhaler training on asthma outcomes. REMINDER LABELS IMPROVE INHALER TECHNIQUE: Personalized

  14. Study on spray drying processing technique of honey powder%固体蜂蜜粉的喷雾干燥加工工艺研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包凯; 陈文伟; 张墨楠; 洪瑶; 黄光荣

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the preparation technology of dried honey powder was studied. Core-wall ratio, solid content, spray drying inlet temperature and input quantity were optimized through evaluating the yield of dried honey powder. Results manifested that optimal preparation conditions were 0.8∶1 of core-wall ratio, 50 g/100g of solid content, 200℃of spray drying inlet temperature, and 50 mL/min of input quantity.%  对固体蜂蜜粉的制备工艺进行研究。考察了芯壁比、固形物含量、进风温度、进料量对固体蜂蜜粉得率的影响,确定最优的制备工艺条件:芯壁质量比0.8∶1,固形物含量50 g/100g,进风温度200℃,进料量50 mL/min。

  15. Review of patents and application of spray drying in pharmaceutical, food and flavor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavesh B; Patel, Jayvadan K; Chakraborty, Subhashis

    2014-04-01

    Spray drying has always remained an energetic field of innovation in pharmaceutical, food and flavor industry since last couple of decades. The current communication embodies an in-depth application of spray drying in pulmonary drug delivery for production of uniform and respirable size particles suitable for nebulizers, dry powder inhalers (DPI) and pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI). The review also highlights spray drying application in the manufacturing of mucoadhesive formulation suitable for nasal cavities to improve the drug absorption and bioavailability. Recent research works and patents filed by various researchers on spray drying technology for solubility enhancement have also been accentuated. Benefits of spray drying in production of dry flavorings to meet a product with maximum yield and least flavor loss are also discussed. The use of spray drying in production of various food products like milk or soymilk powder, tomato pulp, dry fruit juice etc, and in encapsulation of vegetable oil or fish oil and dry creamer has been discussed. Current review also highlights the application of spray drying in the biotechnology field like production of dry influenza or measles vaccine as well as application in ceramic industry. Spray drying based patents issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in the area of drug delivery have also been included in the current review to emphasize importance of spray drying in the recent research scenario.

  16. A cost-effective and fast synthesis of nanoporous SiO 2 aerogel powders using water-glass via ambient pressure drying route

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, Sharad D.; Kim, Yong-Ha; Moon, Myung-Jun; Ahn, Young-Soo; Yeo, Jeong-Gu

    2007-07-01

    Considering the need for large-scale production of silica aerogel powders, the present research was aimed to develop a simple, cost-effective and rapid process based on water-glass precursor via ambient pressure drying (APD) route. It has been shown that the surface chemical modification of hydrogels can rapidly be carried out with extremely low doses (e.g. 5 g of hexamethyldisilazane ( HMDS) for 100 g of hydrogel) of HMDS by a co-precursor method which makes this process quite cost-effective. The surface modification in the aqueous phase essentially resulted in the displacement of the pore water and the simultaneous one-step solvent exchange using n-hexane converted the hydrogel into an organo-gel in 3 h and thus the total processing time of the aerogel powder production via APD could drastically be reduced to 5 h. The solvent n-hexane could be recollected during the drying stage and it does not add much to the material cost. The aerogel powders with tapping densities and specific surface areas in the range of 0.100-0.309 g/cm 3 and 473-776 m 2/g, respectively, could be synthesized using this novel route. The surface modification of the aerogel powders was explored by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in conjunction with the Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The textural investigations revealed that the aerogel powders with a wide variation in their pore size distributions and average pore diameters can easily be synthesized by varying the silica content in the sol.

  17. 荔枝粉的喷雾干燥工艺优化%Optimization of Spray Drying Processing Technology of Litchi Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海金萍; 吴豪廸; 徐国祥; 张钟

    2015-01-01

    Litchi fruit pulp was made into dry powder by spray drying method. The influence of the type and dosage of dry aid, the inlet temperature, inlet flow rate, inlet concentration and inlet air temperature on the effects of spray drying was studied. The spray drying processing conditions of litchi powder were optimized by L9 (33) orthogonal test on the basis of single factor experiment. The results showed that optimum technical parameters to make litchi fruit power were: maltodextrin as dry aid with dosage of 45 g/100 mL , inlet air temperature of 170 ℃, inlet flow rate of 7 mL/min, inlet mass fraction of 25%. The litchi fruit powder under this optimum process conditions kept the original color, flavor and fibre quality of litchi with uniform granularity and good reconstituability. The moisture content was 3.0%, the color difference was dL+38.9 and the powder quantity was 2.45 g/20 mL.%采用喷雾干燥法将荔枝果浆干制成粉.研究助干剂的种类及用量、入料温度、入料流量、入料质量分数、进风温度等因素对喷雾干燥效果的影响.在单因素试验基础上,通过L9(33)正交试验优化了喷雾干燥法制备荔枝粉的工艺条件.结果为:以麦芽糊精为助干剂,添加量45 g/100 mL;进风温度170 ℃;入料流量7 mL/min;入料质量分数25 %.依此最佳工艺条件所制得的荔枝果粉保持了荔枝原有的色泽、风味和纤维质,粒度均匀,冲调性好,水分含量3.0%,色差值dL+38.9,该工艺条件下出粉量2.45 g/20 mL.

  18. Patients’ perspectives and preferences in the choice of inhalers: the case for Respimat® or HandiHaler®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekhuijzen PNR

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Pieter Nicolaas Richard Dekhuijzen,1 Federico Lavorini,2 Omar S Usmani3 1Department of Pulmonary Diseases, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 2Department of Experimental and Clinical Medicine, Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy; 3National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London and Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Poor inhaler technique hampers the efficacy of drug therapy in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Not only does this affect individual patient care, but it also impacts on the wider health care economics associated with these conditions. Treatment guidelines recommend a systematic approach to drug class selection; however, standardization of inhaler selection is currently difficult owing to the complexity of the interaction between the inhaler device and the patient. Specifically, individual patient preference can influence how successful a treatment is overall. This article reviews inhaler devices from the patient perspective, with a particular focus on the dry powder inhaler HandiHaler® and Respimat® Soft Mist™ Inhaler. It discusses factors that influence device preference and treatment compliance and reviews tools that can aid health care professionals to better match inhaler devices to individual patients’ needs. Keywords: asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, inhaler technique, Soft Mist™ Inhaler, tiotropium Respimat®, tiotropium HandiHaler®

  19. Application of indirect methods of {sup 99m}Tc labelling of drugs used in inhalation devices for children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roller, C.M.; Devadason, S.G.; Thompson, B.C.; Troedson, R.G.; Wildhaber, J.H. [Prince Margaret Hospital, Perth, WA (Australia)

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Radionuclide imaging has been widely used to assess pulmonary deposition of inhaled drugs used to treat airway diseases. Drug distribution patterns provide information on the clinical effectiveness of different inhalation devices and therefore provide a guide to dosage regimens. At our institution various indirect labelling procedures have been refined to evaluate lung deposition from different inhalation devices. Assessments of the output of radiolabelled budesonide from Turbuhaler, a dry powder inhaler, and radiolabelled salbutamol from a pressurised metered dose inhaler have been made in vitro by measuring the particle size distribution and total drug delivery using a multistage liquid impinger. The distribution of drug particles from the unlabelled commercial inhalation devices was compared with the distribution of drug particles from labelled devices using a spectrophotometer and the corresponding distribution of radioactivity from the labelled inhalation devices was measured using an ionisation chamber. The drug particle size distributions from commercial and labelled devices compared favorably with the distribution of radioactivity. The radiolabelling method used does not significantly change the particle size distribution of the aerosol generated by the inhalation device and therefore {sup 99m}Tc acts as a suitable marker for the drugs used in these devices. We have identified a number of technical factors which improve labelling efficiency. Indirect radiolabelling of drugs can be used to assess the effectiveness of different inhalation devices in children

  20. Cage drying and the application of a dry treatment (absorbent cornstarch powder) as a means to diminish Campylobacter on transport cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler transport cages soiled with Campylobacter-positive feces have been shown to facilitate cross contamination of broilers. Campylobacter organisms are sensitive to dry stress. Allowing feces left on transport cage flooring to dry during extended periods of nonuse would be an effective method ...

  1. Incorporation of Rubber Powder as Filler in a New Dry-Hybrid Technology: Rheological and 3D DEM Mastic Performances Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignali, Valeria; Mazzotta, Francesco; Sangiorgi, Cesare; Simone, Andrea; Lantieri, Claudio; Dondi, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the use of crumb rubber as modifier or additive within asphalt concretes has allowed obtaining mixtures able to bind high performances to recovery and reuse of discarded tires. To date, the common technologies that permit the reuse of rubber powder are the wet and dry ones. In this paper, a dry-hybrid technology for the production of Stone Mastic Asphalt mixtures is proposed. It allows the use of the rubber powder as filler, replacing part of the limestone one. Fillers are added and mixed with a high workability bitumen, modified with SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene) polymer and paraffinic wax. The role of rubber powder and limestone filler within the bituminous mastic has been investigated through two different approaches. The first one is a rheological approach, which comprises a macro-scale laboratory analysis and a micro-scale DEM simulation. The second, instead, is a performance approach at high temperatures, which includes Multiple Stress Creep Recovery tests. The obtained results show that the rubber works as filler and it improves rheological characteristics of the polymer modified bitumen. In particular, it increases stiffness and elasticity at high temperatures and it reduces complex modulus at low temperatures. PMID:28773965

  2. Incorporation of Rubber Powder as Filler in a New Dry-Hybrid Technology: Rheological and 3D DEM Mastic Performances Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Vignali

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the use of crumb rubber as modifier or additive within asphalt concretes has allowed obtaining mixtures able to bind high performances to recovery and reuse of discarded tires. To date, the common technologies that permit the reuse of rubber powder are the wet and dry ones. In this paper, a dry-hybrid technology for the production of Stone Mastic Asphalt mixtures is proposed. It allows the use of the rubber powder as filler, replacing part of the limestone one. Fillers are added and mixed with a high workability bitumen, modified with SBS (styrene-butadiene-styrene polymer and paraffinic wax. The role of rubber powder and limestone filler within the bituminous mastic has been investigated through two different approaches. The first one is a rheological approach, which comprises a macro-scale laboratory analysis and a micro-scale DEM simulation. The second, instead, is a performance approach at high temperatures, which includes Multiple Stress Creep Recovery tests. The obtained results show that the rubber works as filler and it improves rheological characteristics of the polymer modified bitumen. In particular, it increases stiffness and elasticity at high temperatures and it reduces complex modulus at low temperatures.

  3. 环境友好型干粉空气净化涂料的研制%Preparation of Environmentally Friendly Dry Powder Air-purifying Coatings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海银; 张安杰; 曾慧崇; 陈丽丽; 付燕; 李鑫哲; 韩立娟; 罗志河; 安兴才

    2016-01-01

    The novel environmentally friendly dry powder air-purifying coatings have been widely studied as an effective method for indoor air puriifcation, which could actively adsorb and decompose the pollutants in the air. This work optimized the formula of environmentally friendly dry powder air-purifying coatings. The optimal results were achieved when H-TiO2 as functional powders and the dosage at 2%~5%. Under these conditions, the removal rate of formaldehyde reached 100%after 1.5 h.%环境友好型干粉空气净化涂料是一种新型的功能涂料,能够主动吸附分解空气中的污染物。通过实验,优化了干粉空气净化涂料的基本配方,选择合作开发的H还原法制备的纳米TiO2(H-TiO2)为主要的功能粉体,粉体添加量为2%~5%(质量分数),最终确定的配方1.5 h对甲醛的总去除率为100%。

  4. 卵黄抗体鸡蛋粉喷雾干燥工艺研究%Preparation of yolk immunoglobulin-rich egg powder by spray-drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭佩毅; 黄秀锦

    2012-01-01

    以活性保留率、出粉率为指标,对影响卵黄抗体鸡蛋粉喷雾干燥效果的因素进行了考察,并通过正交实验确定了最佳工艺条件为:进料速度500mUh、蛋液质量浓度20%、进口温度160℃,此条件下出粉率达到16.23%,IgY(卵黄抗体球蛋白)活性保留率达到92.60%;各因素对出粉率的影响依次为:进口温度〉蛋液浓度〉进料速度。%The effect of reaction parameters on spray-drying of yolk immunoglobulin-rich egg powder were conducted to explore by single factor experiments and orthogonal experiment with activity assays of IgY(yolk immunoglobulin) and yield of egg powder as antigens. The optimal spray-drying conditions were obtained as follows:the feed flow rate was 500mL/h,the concentration of egg liquid was 20% and the inlet air temperature was 160℃. Under those conditions,the yield of egg powder was 16.23% and the activity assays of IgY was 92.60%. In addition,the inlet air temperature had the largest impact on the yield of egg powder followed by concentration of egg liquid and feed flow rate.

  5. 草本咖啡粉喷雾干燥工艺及配方研究%Spray Drying and Formulation Optimization of Herbal Coffee Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛焱; 郭双霜; 陈安均; 蒲彪; 曹琳

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to find the best conditions for the extraction, spray drying and formulation of herbal coffee powder. Third repeated extraction at a material/liquid ratio of 1:15 (g/L) for 20 min each time provided a high powder yield. High-quality herbal coffee powder was obtained through spray drying at an inlet temperature of 140 ℃, a feed flow rate of 350 mL/h, and a fan frequency of 55 Hz. The optimal amounts of maltodextfin, β-cyclodextrin, arboxymethylcellulose and arabic gum added to herbal coffee powder, as optimized by one-factor-at-a-time and orthogonal array design methods, were 30%, 4.5%, 0.12% and 1.5%, respectively.%通过研究草本咖啡的浸提工艺、喷雾干燥条件和辅料配方参数,确定草本咖啡粉的制备工艺。结果表明,在料液比1:15(g/L)条件下浸提3次、每次20min,所得浸提液的出粉率较高;在进风温度140℃、进料量350mL/h、风机频率55Hz条件下喷雾干燥,可得到品质较好的草本咖啡粉;采用单因素和正交试验确定的最佳辅料配方为麦芽糊精添加量30%、β-环糊精添加量4.5%、羧甲基纤维素钠添加量0.12%和阿拉伯胶添加量1.5%。

  6. Efficacy analysis of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate inhalation powder in the treatment of asthma in children%沙美特罗替卡松粉吸入剂治疗儿童哮喘的效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳冬梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨沙美特罗替卡松粉吸入剂治疗儿童哮喘的临床效果。方法:收治哮喘患儿96例,随机分两组,各48例,两组均给予与抗感染治疗,对照组在此基础上给予盐酸丙卡特罗气雾剂,1喷/次,2次/d,观察组给予沙美特罗替卡松粉吸入剂50~100μg,2喷/次,两组均连续治疗6周。结果:观察组治疗后 FEV1、FVC、FEV1/FVC、PEF高于对照组(P<0.05);观察组临床控制总有效率93.75%,高于对照组的72.9%(P<0.05)。结论:沙美特罗替卡松粉吸入剂治疗儿童哮喘治愈率高,效果显著。%Objective:To discuss the clinical effect of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate inhalation powder in the treatment of asthma in children.Methods:96 children with asthma were selected,they were randomly divided into two groups,each of 48 cases, the two groups were given with anti-inflammatory therapy,the control group was given procaterol hydrochloride aerosol,1 spray/time,2 times/d,the observation group received the salmeterol and fluticasone propionate inhalation powder 50~100 μg,2 spray/time,two groups were treated for 6 consecutive weeks.Results:After treatment,FEV1,FEV1/FVC,FVC and PEF in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group(P<0.05),and the total effective rate in the observation group was 93.75 % higher than that in the control group of 72.9%(P<0.05).Conclusion: the clinical effect of salmeterol and fluticasone propionate inhalation powder in the treatment of asthma in children is outstanding.

  7. 采用离心喷雾干燥技术制备桑葚果粉%Study on Centrifugal Spay Drying Technology in Preparing Mulberry Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔素芬; 廖芬; 何全光; 孙健; 张娥珍; 辛明; 黄茂康; 李丽

    2012-01-01

    Mulberry powder was produced by fresh mulberry and mahodextrin as wall material through Centrifugal Spay Drying technology. Through single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment, the influence of the Centrifugal Spay Drying processing parameters such as inlet air temperature, outlet air temperature, and rotation rate to the prod- uct quality were studied. The processes evaluated by the yield rate of powder, water content and vitamin C content. The optimum production conditions were : the inlet temperature was 200℃ , the outlet temperature was 100℃ , the ro- tation rate was 260 r/min, and the pump flow speed was 24 mL/min. The Centrifugal Spay Drying technology is a very useful technology which use less energy and highly efficient. It will help to broaden the comprehensive utilization of mulberry in the fields of food and medical industries and provide the guidance to the mulberry powder industrial production.%以新鲜桑葚果浆为原料,麦芽糊精为壁材,采用离心喷雾干燥技术制备桑葚果粉。通过单因素试验、正交试验,以产品得粉率、含水量、Vc含量等为考察指标,研究了进风温度、出风温度、离心泵转速等离心喷雾干燥设备工艺参数对桑葚果粉产品的影响,得到适宜的工艺条件是:进风温度为200℃,出风温度为100℃,离心泵转速为260 r/min,流量泵流速为24 mL/min。该技术制备桑葚粉效率高,耗能小,且产品风味接近原浆。

  8. Opportunities for inhaler device selection in elderly patients with asthma or COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrons R

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Robert Barrons,1 James Wheeler,2 J Andrew Woods1 1Wingate University School of Pharmacy, Wingate, NC, USA; 2University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Nashville, TN, USA Abstract: An anticipated surge in the elderly population will be accompanied by a rise in aging patients with asthma or COPD. Clinician selection of inhalers needs to address the unique challenges to elderly patients. These challenges to the use of inhalers include diminished physical and cognitive abilities, as well as cost reimbursement issues associated with polypharmacy and the Medicare gap. Clinicians should consider patient preferences for an inhaler device that provides ease of administration, and addresses conveniences such as portability, visual, and auditory indicators of dosing completion. The addition of spacer devices resolves hand-breath coordination difficulty with pressurized metered dose inhalers, but reduces overall inhaler convenience. Soft mist inhalers (Respimat® improve ease of administration, but use may be limited by cost and formulary availability. Multiple dose dry powder inhalers provide convenience and simplified use by requiring only one to two steps prior to administration, but concerns of peak inspiratory flow requirements remain among patients with advanced age and severity of COPD. If unaddressed, these challenges to inhaler selection contribute to inappropriate use of inhalers in 41% to 69% of patients, accompanied by at least 51% non-adherence to treatment. Clinicians must first avail themselves of reputable educational resources regarding new inhaler developments and administration, for competent patient instruction. Patient education should include a checklist of inhaler technique, with physical demonstration of each device by the patient and provider. Device demonstration significantly improves inhaler technique and identifies the need for nebulization therapy. Clinician and patient knowledge of available inhalers and their

  9. Safety of spray-dried powder formulated Pseudomonas fluorescens strain CL145A exposure to subadult/adult unionid mussels during simulated open-water treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, James A.; Weber, Kerry L.; Waller, Diane L.; Wise, Jeremy K.; Mayer, Denise A.; Aloisi, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    The exposure effects of a commercially prepared spray dried powder (SDP) formulation ofPseudomonas fluorescens (strain CL145A) on the survival of seven species of unionid mussels endemic to the Great Lakes and Mississippi River basins was evaluated in this study. The study exposures were completed within replicated 350-liter test tanks contained within a mobile bioassay laboratory sited on the shores of the Black River near La Crosse, Wisconsin. The test tanks were supplied with flowing, filtered river water which was interrupted during the exposure period.

  10. Inhalation Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  11. Inhaled insulin--does it become reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siekmeier, R; Scheuch, G

    2008-12-01

    , shortness of breath, sore throat and dry mouth. Physical exercise increases the transport of inhaled insulin into the circulation and in consequence the likelihood of hypoglycemia. Other problems were the inability to deliver precise insulin doses, because the smallest blister pack available contained the equivalent of 3 U of regular insulin and this dose would make it difficult for many people using insulin to achieve accurate control, which is the real goal of any insulin therapy. For example, someone on 60 U of insulin per day would lower the blood glucose about 90 mg/dl (5 mmol) per 3 U pack, while someone on 30 U a day would drop 180 mg/dl (10 mmol) per pack. Precise control was not possible, especially compared with an insulin pump that can deliver one twentieth of a unit with precision. Another disadvantage was the size of the device. The Exubera inhaler, when closed, was about the size of a 200 ml water glass. It opened to about twice the size for delivery. To our information also other companies (Eli Lilly in cooperation with ALKERMES, Novo Nordisk (AERx, Liquid), Andaris (Powder)) stopped further development and it is unclear whether an inhaled form of insulin will ever be marketed, because of the problems that have occurred. Only Mannkind (Technosphere, Powder) is still working on a Phase III trial. However, our review will briefly summarize the experience regarding inhalant administration of insulin and will describe potential future developments for this type of therapy focussing on the lung.

  12. Role of HSAB concept in understanding biosorptive behaviour of various metal ions employing green biosorbent - Dry Cow Dung Powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagla, Hemlata; Khilnani, Roshan

    2016-04-01

    Hard & Soft Acid Base concept, HSAB theory given by Pearson, elucidates the crucial role of HSAB characteristics of both pollutants as well as the aqueous milieu. This theory can also explain the biosorptive behaviour of Dry Cow dung Powder, which helps in governing the success of process. The various metal ionic species exhibit a preference for the ligand binding on the biomass based on its chemical coordination characteristics. A comparative batch equilibration biosorptive assay has been carried out employing radiotracer technique for uptake of Cr(III), Cr(VI), Cd(II), Hg(II), Sr(II), Cs(I) and Co(II) at optimum biosorption parameters. To study the effect of interference of different salts on the percentage biosorption of metal ions on DCP, different organic as well as inorganic salts with varying proportion of 10 mg, 25 mg, 50 mg and 100 mg have been studied. The dynamics of the biosorption in terms of the order of the rate constant was studied applying different kinetic models. The best fitting model was Lagergren pseudo second order model. DCP, an eco-friendly humiresin, enriched with minerals, carbohydrates, fats, proteins, bile pigments, aliphatic - aromatic species such as 'Humic acid', Fulvic acid and many naturally present functional group such as carboxyl, phenols, quinols, amide etc. of both hard and soft nature, making it 'combo' in nature sorbs both concerned metal ions as well as ligands present in the system. Thus the ligands which were masking the biosorption process of heavy metal ions in this study were treated by mere increase in the dose of DCP, which successfully solves the problem without affecting efficiency of the process. This is exemplified by three very basic interactions happening in multicomponent system i.e. Synergism: Mutual enhancement; Antagonism: Mutual decrement; Non-interaction: Neutral effect. Thus DCP has a great potential in the field of water decontamination, industrial water treatment and in abatement of water pollution. So

  13. The importance of inhaler devices: the choice of inhaler device may lead to suboptimal adherence in COPD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Gabriela Ramírez,2 Antoni Sicras,3 Pablo Francoli,4 Saku Torvinen,5 Rainel Sánchez-de la Rosa4 1Department of Economics, Universitat de Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics and Outcomes Research SL, 3Dirección de Planificación, Badalona Serveis Assistencials, SA, Barcelona, 4Medical Department, TEVA Pharmaceutical, Madrid, Spain; 5Market Access Department, TEVA Pharmaceutical Europe BV, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Objective: This study aims to identify factors associated with poor adherence to COPD treatment in patients receiving a fixed-dose combination (FDC of inhaled corticosteroids and long-acting β2-agonist (ICS/LABA, focusing on the importance of inhaler devices.Methods: We conducted a retrospective and multicenter study based on a review of medical registries between 2007 and 2012 of COPD patients (n=1,263 treated with ICS/LABA FDC, whose medical devices were either dry powder inhalers (DPIs or pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDI. Medication adherence included persistence outcomes through 18 months and medication possession ratios. Data on exacerbations, comorbidities, demographic characteristics, and health care resource utilization were also included as confounders of adherence.Results: The analyses revealed that COPD patients whose medication was delivered through a DPI were less likely to have medication adherence compared to patients with pMDI, after adjusting for confounding factors, especially active ingredients. Younger groups of patients were less likely to be adherent compared to the oldest group. Smoker men were less likely to be adherent compared to women and non-smokers. Comorbidities decreased the probability of treatment adherence. Those patients that visited their doctor once a month were more likely to adhere to their medication regimen; however, suboptimal adherence was more likely to occur among those patients who visited more than three times per month their doctor. We also found that worsening of

  14. KARAKTERISTIK PRODUK BUBUK SARI JAGUNG MANIS INSTAN HASIL PENGERINGAN METODE SPOUTED-VORTEX-BED [Characteristics of Instant Sweet Corn Extract Powders Produced by Spouted-Vortex-Bed Drying Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwan Taruna*

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of instant sweet corn extract powders produced by a spouted-vortex-bed (SVB drying method was investigated as affected by the drying conditions. The sweet corn extract was prepared from shelled corn kernels of Bisi Sweet variety through washing, blanching, grinding, extracting and separating the soluble extract from the insoluble residue using a centrifugal filter. The extract was then dried at various drying conditions including inlet temperature (100-120°C, airflow rates (245-323 m3/h, feed rates (0.6-1.5 kg/h and mass of Teflon pellets (0.7–1.3 kg. The dried products were sieved to obtain  60 mesh powders and analyzed for its moisture content, colour attributes, density, solubility index, and water absorption capacity. The results showed that an increase in inlet temperatures and mass of Teflon pellets tended to decrease the moisture content of the powders. In most cases, the inlet temperatures influenced the L, a, b values of the sweet corn extract powders colour. An increase in the inlet temperatures decreased the L and b values, but increased significantly the a value of the sweet corn extract powders. The effect of feed rates on the density of instant powders was identified only for drying temperatures between 100 and 120ºC. Increasing both airflow rates and inlet temperature at the mass of Teflon pellets of 1.3 kg decreased the solubility index of the sweet corn extract powders. Water absorption capacity of the sweet corn extract powders was influenced mainly by the airflow rate, feed rate and mass of inert particles.

  15. 喷雾干燥速溶香蕉粉制备工艺研究%Study on technique of instant banana powder by spray drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许学勤; 李丹

    2011-01-01

    从全利用香蕉可食部分出发研究喷雾干燥法制备速溶香蕉粉的工艺,主要研究了干燥前果汁的浓缩与调配.酶处理后的香蕉果浆经离心分离,上清液喷雾干燥制备速溶香蕉粉.以含水量、吸湿性、溶解性、粒径、颗粒微观结构为指标考察麦芽糊精DE值、添加量、果汁浓度及抗结剂对喷雾干燥产品的影响,得到最佳工艺为:果汁浓缩至20°Brix,添加0.6(kg/kg香蕉固形物)DE15~20麦芽糊精,0.015(kg/kg香蕉固形物)SiO2.%From the point of full utilization of banana edible part, the technique for processing instant banana powder was studied ,especially the concentration and preparation of juice before drying. Banana pulp was firstly separated into supernatant and insoluble marc by centrifugation after enzymatic treatment of fragmentized banana pulp. Then supernatant was dried by spray-drying to prepare instant banana powder. The quality of spray-drying products was evaluated by water content, hygroscopicity, dissolubility, average diameter and microstructure to study the indexes of DE value and levels of maltodextrin(MD) added to the pulp,juice concentration and anti-caking agent.The optimum conditions were : the juice was concentrated to 20° Brix, the addition of MD ( DEl 5 : 20) and SiO2 was found to be 0.6 and 0.015( kg per kg banana solids).

  16. 干粉激发煤矸石基地质聚合物的性能研究%Study on Coal Gangue Based Geopolymer Characteristics with Dry Powder Activator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张大明; 任凤玉

    2016-01-01

    Sodium hydroxide and calcium carbonate powder was mixed together to produce alkaline dry powder activator. Geopolymer cementing material was made with coal gangue, fly ash and the dry powder activator. Characteristics of the dry powder activator, setting time, absorption rate and compressive strength of the geopolymer were studied. Comparison was made with those activated by sodium hydroxide solution. The results showed that concentration of the geopolymer was adversely proportional to calcium carbonate in dry powder activator. Compared with geopolymer activated by sodium hydroxide solution, geopolymer activated by dry powder activator has shorter setting time, low absorption rate and higher compressive strength, which shows unique advantage of dry powder activator. Absorption rate of dry powder activator geopolymer increases with the increase of water cement ratio. It is necessary to control water cement ratio. Compressive strength of dry powder activator geopolymer is related to concentration of sodium hydroxide in dry powder activator, too high or low concentration leading to a decline of compressive strength.%将氢氧化钠与碳酸钙混合制备碱性干粉激发剂,并与煤矸石、粉煤灰混合制备地质聚合物胶凝材料,对碱性干粉激发剂特性,聚合物材料的凝结时间、吸水率、抗压强度等基本特性进行研究,并与采用氢氧化钠溶液激发剂的聚合物特性进行对比。结果表明:生成得到的聚合物的浓度与干粉激发剂中碳酸钙的量成反比;与采用氢氧化钠溶液激活的聚合物相比,采用干粉激发剂激发的聚合物凝结时间短、吸水率低、抗压强度高,说明干粉激发剂有独有优势。干粉激发聚合物的吸水率随水灰比的增加而增加,需注意控制水灰比;干粉激发聚合物抗压强度与干粉激发剂中的氢氧化钠浓度有关,氢氧化钠的浓度过高或过低都会导致抗压强度下降。

  17. Cumulative high doses of inhaled formoterol have less systemic effects in asthmatic children 6-11 years-old than cumulative high doses of inhaled terbutaline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaae, Rikke; Agertoft, Lone; Pedersen, Sören

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate high dose tolerability and relative systemic dose potency between inhaled clinically equipotent dose increments of formoterol and terbutaline in children. METHODS: Twenty boys and girls (6-11 years-old) with asthma and normal ECGs were studied. Ten doses of formoterol (Oxis......) 4.5 microg (F4.5) or terbutaline (Bricanyl) 500 microg (T500) were inhaled cumulatively via a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler) over 1 h (three patients) or 2.5 h (17 patients) and compared to a day of no treatment, in a randomised, double-blind (active treatments only), crossover trial. Blood...... pressure (BP), ECG, plasma potassium, glucose, lactate, and adverse events were monitored up to 10 h to assess tolerability and relative systemic dose potency. RESULTS: Formoterol and terbutaline had significant beta2-adrenergic effects on most outcomes. Apart from the effect on systolic BP, QRS duration...

  18. Open label clinical trial to study adverse effects and tolerance to dry powder of the aerial part of andrographis paniculata in patients type 2 with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Renu; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Mohamed, Mafauzy

    2005-01-01

    Adverse effects and tolerance to dry powder of aerial part of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees were studied in 20 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus for a period of 12 weeks. Patients were given powdered A. paniculata starting with 600 mg daily, gradually increasing to a maximum of 1.8 gm daily. Parameters monitored included body weight, blood pressure, liver function tests, renal function tests, cardiac enzymes, haemogram, serum electrolytes, fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, blood cholesterol, serum triglycerides and blood hormone levels (triiodotyronine, thyroxine, thyrotropin, insulin, fasting cortisol). None of the above mentioned parameters showed significant change during the study period except for a fall in HbA1c by 5.46% (p<0.01) and fasting S. insulin by 20.93% (p<0.003). In conclusion, A. paniculata powder did not induced significant adverse events based on parameters observed in our study but significantly lowered HbA1c and fasting serum insulin in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  19. Research on Foam-dry Powder Fire Extinguishing and Its Application%泡沫、干粉联用灭火的研究和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵大财; 张世凤

    2013-01-01

    泡沫-干粉联用灭火装置具有泡沫、干粉二种手段的独立作战能力,其主要功能是依靠泡沫和干粉两种手段的联合应用,以扑救易燃液体和气体的火灾,尤其适用扑救野外露天野战油库的火灾.联合使用这两种手段可以相互弥补,扬长避短,使灭火战斗力得到明显提高.%Foam-dry powder fire extinguishing device has two independent operational capabilities of foam and dry powder file fighting, and is used to put out flammable liquid or gas fire, especially the fire of wild and outdoor oil depot. The combination use of the two methods can make up for each other effectively and improve the fire fighting capacity obviously.

  20. Preparation and characterization of spray-dried powders intended for pulmonary delivery of insulin with regard to the selection of excipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi Rohani, Seyed Salman; Abnous, Khalil; Tafaghodi, Mohsen

    2014-04-25

    The aim of this study was to produce microparticles with optimal aerodynamic diameter for deep lung delivery (i.e., 1-3μm) of a protein drug intended for systemic absorption, using a combination of generally regarded as safe (GRAS) excipients. Based on the preliminary experiments, mannitol, l-alanine, sodium alginate, chitosan and dipalmitoylphosphatidilcholine (DPPC) were chosen as excipients and human insulin as a model protein drug. Dry powders were prepared by spray-drying. Powders with varying yields (29-80%) and low tapped densities (0.22-0.38 g/cm(3)) were obtained. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed distinctive particle morphologies among formulations from isolated spherical to highly folded particles. Aerodynamic properties were assessed by next generation impactor (NGI). Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and fine particle fraction (FPF) ranged from 2.1 to 4.6 μm and 46 to 81%, respectively. A comparative study of protein release from microparticles was conducted in vitro using an open membrane system with more than 50% cumulative release in all formulations which followed different kinetic models. Insulin's integrity was investigated by spectrofluorimetry and electrophoresis, and no tangible changes were observed in the structure of insulin. Of the formulations studied, the third, containing mannitol/sodium alginate/insulin/sodium citrate showed promising characteristics, optimal for systemic delivery of proteins via deep lung deposition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Preparation of silica aerogel powder by ambient pressure drying%常压干燥法制备SiO2气凝胶粉体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冬冬; 丁书强; 王自强; 王泽华; 陈伟

    2011-01-01

    Silica aerogel powder was prepared from industrial silica sols by ambient pressure drying and controlling the gelatin process and drying conditions. The effects of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) content in aging solution and the drying control chemical additive (DCCA) on the density, specific surface,and pore size distribution of the SiO2 aerogel powder were investigated. The results show that; ( 1 ) the aerogels are nano-porous net structure of the spherical primary nanoparticles of 10-25 nm and the nano-metric pores of 5-50 nm;(2)With the temperature rising from room temperature to 1 100 ℃,the silica aerogels change from the amorphous phase to cristobalite; (3)the nano-network of silica aerogel powder can be strengthened by aging in mixture of TEOS and ethanol;(4)the addition of DCCA can improve the pore size distribution and increase the specific surface area of silica aerogel powders.%以工业硅溶胶为原料,通过凝胶过程与干燥条件的控制,采用常压干燥法制备了SiO2 气凝胶粉体,并考察了老化液中正硅酸乙脂(TEOS)含量和干燥控制化学添加荆甲酰胺的添加对气凝胶粉体堆积密度、比表面积和孔径分布的影响.结果表明:所得气凝胶粉体具有纳米多孔结构,组成气凝胶结构的基本粒子呈圆球形,粒径为10~25 nm,由基本粒子连接而成的网络结构具有5~50 nm的孔径分布;随着热处理温度从常温升至1 100℃,SiO2气凝胶从最初的无定形态转化为方石英;在,TEOS的醇溶液中老化,有利于增强凝胶骨架的强度;添加甲酰胺可以改善气凝胶粉体的孔径分布,提高其比表面积.

  2. Evaluation of the degree of mixing of combinations of dry syrup, powder, and fine granule products in consideration of particle size distribution using near infrared spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Toyofumi; Matsumoto, Mika; Ohtani, Michiteru; Hayano, Shuichi; Fukami, Toshiro; Tomono, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    We used near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to evaluate the degree of mixing of blended dry syrup (DS) products whose particle sizes are not specified in the Revised 16th Edition of the Japanese Pharmacopoeia, and also evaluated the degree of mixing when powder products or fine granule products were added to DS products. The data obtained were used to investigate the relationship between the particle size distributions of the products studied and the degree of mixing. We found that the particle size distribution characteristics of the 15 DS products studied can be broadly classified into 5 types. Combinations of frequently prescribed products were selected to represent 4 of the 5 particle size distribution types and were blended with a mortar and pestle. The coefficient of variation (CV) decreased as the percent mass of Asverin® Dry Syrup 2% (Asverin-DS) increased in blends of Periactin® Powder 1% (Periactin) and Asverin-DS, indicating an improved degree of mixing (uniformity). In contrast, in blends of Periactin and Mucodyne® DS 33.3%, mixing a combination at a 1:1 mass ratio 40 times resulted in a CV of 20%. Other mixing frequencies and mass ratios resulted in a CV by 50% to 70%, indicating a very poor degree of mixing (poor uniformity). These results suggest that when combining different DSs, or a DS with a powder or fine granule product, the blending obtained with a mortar and pestle improves as the particle size distributions of the components approach each other and as the ranges of the distributions narrow.

  3. Study on processing of mung bean protein powder by spray drying%喷雾干燥法制备绿豆蛋白粉工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玉邯

    2014-01-01

    为了便于绿豆蛋白提取液的保存和运输,研究了通过喷雾干燥法将绿豆蛋白提取液制备成绿豆蛋白粉的工艺条件和最优参数。在单因素试验的基础上,以进风温度、出风温度、进料速率为影响因素,进行 L9(34)正交试验。实验结果表明,最佳工艺参数为:进风温度160℃,出风温度70℃,进料流量25 mL/min。该工艺条件所制绿豆蛋白粉色泽佳,具有绿豆特殊的清香味,且集粉率高,可达56%。为绿豆蛋白粉的工业化生产提供了相关的基础性参数。%In order to storage and transportation of mung bean protein extract,the technique and optimal parameters for spray drying process of the extract were investigated.The effects of spray drying process parameters such as inlet air temperature,outlet air temperature and feeding velocity on the physicochemi-cal properties of mung bean protein powder were explored by single factor and L9 (34 )orthogonal experi-ment.The experiment results showed that the optimization spray drying process as followed:the inlet air temperature was 160 ℃,outlet air temperature 70 ℃,feeding velocity 25 mL/min.The achieved dried mung bean protein power had the advantages of beautiful color,good taste,and the powder collection rate was 56%.The results are expected to provide some fundamental data for the industrial production of mung bean protein powder.

  4. Effect of different combined drying methods on the quality characteristics of pitaya powder%不同联合干燥方式对火龙果粉品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓旭; 易建勇; 毕金峰; 刘璇; 陈芹芹; 吴昕烨

    2015-01-01

    To study the effect of different dehydration methods on coarse powder and superfine powder for pitaya,the paper studied different dying methods on physicochemical and nutritional quality of coarse powder and superfine powder for pitaya.These methods include hot air combined with explosion puffing drying (HA-EP),short and medium-wave infrared combined with explosion puffing drying (IR-EP),short and medium-wave infrared combined with vacuum drying (IR-V).The results showed that:the color of pitaya coarse powder and superfine powder were closest to that of fresh sample after IR-EP drying ; HA-EP and IR-EP drying superfine powder had better bulk density ; IR-EP and IR-V drying superfine powder had better solubility; IR-EP drying superfine powder had better rehydration; particle size of IR-EP drying superfine powder was 10.46 μm.By three different drying methods,the nutrition quality of dehydrated products decreased.In coarse powder of IR-Ep drying and superfine powder of IR-V drying,the protein content decreased 28.34%,16.92% respectively,the Vitamin C decreased 41.67%,33.33% respectively.With comprehensive consideration,pitaya coarse and superfine powder of IR-EP drying keepbetter quality of pitaya.%为比较不同联合干燥方式对火龙果粗粉和超微粉品质的影响,研究了热风联合变温压差膨化干燥(HA-EP)、中短波红外联合变温压差膨化干燥([R-EP)和中短波红外联合真空干燥(IR-V)方式对火龙果粗粉和超微粉理化和营养品质的影响.结果表明:经IR-EP干燥制得的火龙果粗粉和超微粉色泽最接近鲜样的颜色;经HA-EP和IR-EP干燥制得的超微粉具有较好的堆积密度;经IR-EP和IR-V干燥制得的超微粉溶解性较好;经IR-EP干燥制得的超微粉具有较好的复水性;经IR-EP干燥制得的超微粉粒径最小,为10.46 μm.经3种不同方法干燥制得的火龙果超微粉,其营养成分较鲜样均有不同程度的降低,如经IR-EP和IR-V干燥制得的粗粉

  5. Particles and powders: tools of innovation for non-invasive drug administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buttini, Francesca; Colombo, Paolo; Rossi, Alessandra; Sonvico, Fabio; Colombo, Gaia

    2012-07-20

    The paper briefly illustrates several approaches applied in delivering particulate drugs as powders. Microparticulate drug powders are difficult to manipulate with respect to dosage form preparation, particularly when they have very small size as this leads to poor flow and packing properties. When the dosage form performance resides in the presence of individual intact drug particles, the particle characteristics have to be retained in their original state, i.e., not altered during manufacturing and/or within the dosage form. There are several examples of dry powder dosage forms intended for different administration routes whose performance is strictly dependent on particle characteristics. In addition, the preparation of the finished dosage form is dependent on powder properties. The paper addresses dry powder formulations with special focus on oral powders mainly for elderly people or children, nasal powders and inhalation dry powders. These dosage forms are very attractive for both researchers and companies. Their formulation requires deep investigation, mainly in order to define particle structure and performance. Indeed, this makes for a new breakthrough in pharmaceutics and may lead to innovative products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Novolizer: how does it fit into inhalation therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Helgo

    2005-01-01

    Inhalation therapy is the preferred route of administration of anti-asthmatic drugs to the lungs. However, the vast majority of patients cannot use their inhalers correctly, particularly pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). The actual proportion of patients who do not use their inhalers correctly may even be under-estimated as GPs tend to over-estimate correct inhalation technique. Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) have many advantages over pMDIs. Unlike pMDIs, they are environmentally-friendly, contain no propellant gases and, more importantly, they are breath-activated, so that the patient does not need to coordinate actuation of the inhaler with inspiration. Three key parameters for correct inhaler use should be considered when evaluating existing or future DPI devices and especially when choosing the appropriate device for the patient: (1) usability, (2) particle size distribution of the emitted drug and (3) intrinsic airflow resistance of the device. The Novolizer is a breath-activated, multidose, refillable DPI. It is easy to use correctly, has multiple feedback and control mechanisms which guide the patient through the correct inhalation manoeuvre. In addition, the Novolizer has an intelligent dose counter, which resets only after a correct inhalation and may help to monitor patient compliance. The Novolizer has a comparable or better lung deposition than the Turbuhaler at similar or higher peak inspiratory flow (PIF) rates. A flow trigger valve system ensures a clinically effective fine particle fraction (FPF) and sufficient drug delivery, which is important for a good lung deposition. The FPF produced through the Novolizer is also relatively independent of flow rate and the device shows better reproducibility of metering and delivery performance compared to the Turbuhaler. The low-to-medium airflow resistance means that the Novolizer is easy for patients to use correctly. Even children, patients with severe asthma and patients with moderate

  7. ATTITUDES OF PATIENTS WITH ASTHMA ON INHALER USE- A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY FROM SOUTH KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shajahan Purathel Sulaiman

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Asthma is an important health problem worldwide. High prevalence and poor control of asthma make its management a major public health problem with more than 5,00,000 hospital admissions and 2,50,000 deaths annually all over the world. India contribute maximum to the death toll accounting for 22.3% of all global asthma deaths. Medications in the inhaled forms are the best therapeutic options currently available for asthma. Despite this, the percentage of patients opting inhalers as the preferred modality of treatment seems to be low. The patient’s ability to use the device correctly and the adherence to the treatment regimen are likely to be influenced by their beliefs, attitudes and concerns about the use of inhalers as the preferred mode of treatment. The aim of the study is to- 1. To find out the proportion of asthmatics using inhalers as the preferred modality of treatment. 2. To bring out the various beliefs and misconceptions on inhalers among the above study group. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study subjects were asthmatics in the age group of 15 to 45 years who attended the medical camps conducted in Alappuzha and Kottayam districts of Kerala during the period 2006-2009 (n=912. A semi-structured interview schedule regarding the use of inhalers were administered to collect the data. RESULTS 52% of the study subjects accept inhaled preparations as the preferred modality of treatment (male-68%, female-35%. 48% are reluctant to take inhalers in the first step (male- 32%, female- 65%. 47% believe the term inhaler is the name of a particular drug rather than a device (male- 45%, female- 48%. 76% of inhaler users do not know how to use it properly. 7% think the powder in the dry powder inhalers can block the airways. CONCLUSION Knowledge about asthma and the importance of its proper management are poor in our population. A joint effort in the form of health awareness programmes are needed to alleviate fears and misconceptions of patients

  8. 喷雾干燥法制备牛蒡精粉工艺研究%Study on spray-drying technology of burdock powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦菲; 马乐; 李波; 刘晓林

    2014-01-01

    After fresh burdock was washed,sliced,blanched,color protected,pulped,colloid milled,spray -dried, burdock powder of rich polysaccharide and protein have been got.The results showed that the optimal technology parameters were obtained after studying the influence factors on spray-drying.After blanching,burdock slices were soaked in 1% citric acid/0.4% ascorbic acid/0.5% calcium chloride for 30 mins to keep the color.The ratio of burdock/water was 1/3,the inlet air temperature was 200 ℃ and sprayer frequency was 60 Hz.The burdock powder was white color,the yield was 7.25%,solid recovery rate was 55.77%,dissolution rate was above 85%,moisture content was 4.13%,polysaccharide content was 16.50%,protein content was 16.63%,ash content was 5.17%,and crude fiber content was 0.14%.The study shows that preparation of burdock powder by spray-drying is a potential way for deep processing of fresh burdock.%鲜牛蒡经清洗、切片、热烫、护色、打浆、胶磨后进行喷雾干燥,制备富含多糖和蛋白质等营养成分的牛蒡精粉,研究影响喷雾干燥效果的各种因素,以得到最佳工艺参数.结果表明:牛蒡切片热烫后采用1%柠檬酸+0.4%抗坏血酸+0.5%氯化钙护色液浸泡30 min,料水比1∶3,进风温度200℃,雾化器频率为60 Hz.在此条件下,牛蒡精粉为白色粉末,得率7.25%,固形物回收率55.77%,溶解率超过85%,含水量4.13%,多糖含量16.50%,精粉蛋白含量16.63%,灰分含量5.17%,粗纤维含量0.14%.采用喷雾干燥法制备牛蒡精粉,是对鲜牛蒡进行深加工的有效途径.

  9. AB034. Comparative effectiveness of prescribing similarversusdissimilar inhalers for COPD therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnic-Anticevich, Sinthia; Chrystyn, Henry; Costello, Richard; Dolovich, Myrna; Fletcher, Monica; Lavorini, Federico; Rodríguez-Roisin, Roberto; Ryan, Dermot; Ming, Simon Wan Yau; Skinner, Derek; Price, David

    2016-01-01

    Background Prescription of different inhaler types for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may lead to poorer outcomes through increased demands on patients to master dissimilar inhalation and dose preparation manoeuvres. To describe the demographic, co-morbidity, and clinical characteristics of patients with COPD prescribed ‘dissimilar’versus‘similar’ inhalers. Methods The study was a historical cohort observational design assessing a 1-year baseline period for patient characterization and categorisation of inhalers, and an index date to signal the last date of data extraction from the UK Optimum Patient Care Research Database (OPCRD). Patients had 1-year of continuous data between February 2008 and February 2015, a Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) coded diagnosis for COPD, were aged 40 and over, and had evidence of two or more inhaled respiratory treatments. Descriptive statistics included demographic, co-morbidity and clinical characteristics of patients, and comparison of patients prescribed similarversusdissimilar inhalers by GOLD group, FEV1, and number of exacerbations. Based on inhalation technique and dose preparation data in the OPCRD, two different categorisations were used to describe prescribed inhaler type: ‘similar inhalers’ included those patients prescribed either aerosols or similar dry-powder inhalers (DPIs), while ‘dissimilar inhalers’ included those prescribed both aerosols and DPIs. Results A total of 53,817 patients were selected [mean age of 71 years (SD 10.6); males: 51% in total population]. 13% were non-smokers, 30% current smokers, 52% ex-smokers and 5% with missing smoking status. In the baseline year, 39% received a QOF coded diagnosis for asthma, 36% for diabetes, 26% for ischaemic heart disease, 6% for actively treated rhinitis, and 1.3% for diagnosis for pneumonia. Patients prescribed dissimilar inhalers were of similar age to those prescribed similar inhalers (mean age of 71 in each cohort

  10. Spray washing, absorbent corn starch powder and dry time to reduce bacterial numbers on soiled boiler transport cage flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most broilers in the U.S. are transported live to slaughter facilities in cages with fiberglass floors. Cages are often used repeatedly without washing and fecal matter deposited on the floor surface can transfer Campylobacter from one flock to another. Drying feces out between uses is an effectiv...

  11. Spray washing, absorbent cornstarch powder, and dry time to reduce bacterial numbers on soiled transport cage flooring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broiler transport cages are often used repeatedly without washing and fecal matter deposited on the floor surface can transfer Campylobacter from one flock to another. Allowing feces to dry is an effective but slow and logistically impractical means to kill Campylobacter in soiled transport cages. ...

  12. Enhanced oral bioavailability of novel mucoadhesive pellets containing valsartan prepared by a dry powder-coating technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Qing-Ri; Liu, Yan; Xu, Wei-Juan;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop novel mucoadhesive pellets containing valsartan (VAL) with enhanced oral bioavailability. Two types of VAL loaded core pellets were prepared by an extrusion/spheronization method, and further dry-coated with a mixture of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and...

  13. Inhibition of murine skin carcinogenesis by freeze-dried grape powder and other grape-derived major antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanausek, Margaret; Spears, Erick; Walaszek, Zbigniew; Kowalczyk, Magdalena C; Kowalczyk, Piotr; Wendel, Courtney; Slaga, Thomas J

    2011-01-01

    Overexposure of the skin to carcinogenic insults causes a variety of adverse effects, among them the development of skin carcinomas. Since there is a need to develop efficient chemopreventive agents based on nutrition, our goal was to determine antioxidant and anti-carcinogenic properties of grapes by evaluating grape powder developed by the California Table Grape Commission. In order to elucidate the mechanism(s) of action of grape powder, three of the major antioxidant components found in grapes-resveratrol, catechin, quercetin, and grape seed extract, containing a proanthocyanidin B-2-gallate-were evaluated for their abilities to inhibit oxidative stress and to protect the immune system. Tested antioxidants given topically and/or systemically strongly inhibited 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced epidermal hyperplasia, proliferation, and inflammation. The hydroxylation of 2'-deoxyguanosine was markedly inhibited by topical and dietary administration of test variables, i.e., by approximately 40-70%. Simultaneous dietary and topical treatment with antioxidants reduced these biomarkers, showing strong additive and in some combinations synergistic effects. DMBA-mediated Ha-ras mutations in codon 61 were reduced by up to 50% with topical applications, but much higher inhibition was observed in mice treated with different combinations. The results of the present study clearly show impressive effects of combined topical and dietary treatments with above grape-derived antioxidants.

  14. Effect of device inhalational resistance on the three-dimensional configuration of the upper airway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehtezazi, Touraj; Horsfield, Mark A; Barry, Peter W; Goodenough, Paul; O'callaghan, Christopher

    2005-07-01

    Entrainment and de-aggregation of aerosol particles from dry powder inhalers (DPIs) is achieved by a forceful inhalation from the device by the patient and by the airflow resistance built into the device. The aerodynamic shear stress imposed by the upper airway also plays an important role in the de-aggregation process. In this study the effect of device airflow resistance on the upper airway shape is determined. Seven healthy subjects inhaled via a test inhaler of different resistances (0.2 x 10(5) to 2.2 x 10(5) N(0.5).s.m(-4)) while the upper airway was imaged using magnetic resonance imaging. Decreasing the test inhaler resistance led to an increase in the cross-sectional areas of the upper airway at the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx, while the cross-sectional areas of the upper trachea remained rather constant. The mean volume of the upper airway also increased from 72 (22) cm3 (mean (SD)) to 101 (25) cm3 by decreasing device airflow resistance from 2.2 x 10(5) to 0.2 x 10(5) N(0.5).s.m(-4). In conclusion, this study shows a significant variation in the shape of the upper airway during inhalation via devices with different resistances. This may aid understanding of drug deposition in the lungs from DPIs. (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Validation of scores of use of inhalation devices: valoration of errors *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli-Simões, Letícia; Martins, Maria Cleusa; Possari, Juliana Carneiro da Cunha; Carvalho, Greice Borges; Coelho, Ana Carla Carvalho; Cipriano, Sonia Lucena; de Carvalho-Pinto, Regina Maria; Cukier, Alberto; Stelmach, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To validate two scores quantifying the ability of patients to use metered dose inhalers (MDIs) or dry powder inhalers (DPIs); to identify the most common errors made during their use; and to identify the patients in need of an educational program for the use of these devices. Methods: This study was conducted in three phases: validation of the reliability of the inhaler technique scores; validation of the contents of the two scores using a convenience sample; and testing for criterion validation and discriminant validation of these instruments in patients who met the inclusion criteria. Results: The convenience sample comprised 16 patients. Interobserver disagreement was found in 19% and 25% of the DPI and MDI scores, respectively. After expert analysis on the subject, the scores were modified and were applied in 72 patients. The most relevant difficulty encountered during the use of both types of devices was the maintenance of total lung capacity after a deep inhalation. The degree of correlation of the scores by observer was 0.97 (p < 0.0001). There was good interobserver agreement in the classification of patients as able/not able to use a DPI (50%/50% and 52%/58%; p < 0.01) and an MDI (49%/51% and 54%/46%; p < 0.05). Conclusions: The validated scores allow the identification and correction of inhaler technique errors during consultations and, as a result, improvement in the management of inhalation devices. PMID:26398751

  16. Preparation of silver carp protein powder by enzymatic hydrolysis and spray drying%酶法制备白鲢鱼蛋白粉的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 姜启兴; 许艳顺; 夏文水

    2013-01-01

    Silver carp protein powder was prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis and spray drying.The effect on different temperature,papain dosage,hydrolysis time,substrate concentration and pH on the degree of hydrolysis of silver carp protein were determined.And the effects of the conditions of spray drying on the physicochemical properties and water-soluble properties of the protein powder were studied.The results showed that the optimum conditions of hydrolysis by papain were temperature 50℃,enzyme dosages 4000U/g protein,hydrolysis pH6.5,hydrolysis time 4h.The degree of hydrolysis was as high as 29.82%.The hydrolysate was concentrated to 25%~30% and it was dried to protein powder by spray drying which operating conditions were inlet air temperature t70~180℃ and outlet air temperature 80~90℃.The content of which the relative molecular weight were below 1000 accounted for 90.90%.The solubility of the fish protein powder was 98.52%.The product with high nutritional value and watersoluble properties were thus potential protein functional food ingredients.%对白鲢鱼肉进行酶水解经喷雾干燥以制备水溶性高的鱼蛋白粉.研究了木瓜蛋白酶的添加量、温度、时间、底物浓度和pH水解条件对鱼蛋白水解度的影响以及喷雾干燥条件对蛋白粉物性和水溶性的影响.结果表明:木瓜蛋白酶对鲢鱼蛋白的最适水解条件是温度50℃、加酶量4000U/g蛋白质、底物浓度为5.5%、pH6.5、时间4h,水解度达到29.82%;该水解液经浓缩至浓度25% ~30%时,通过控制进风温度170~180℃、出风温度80~90℃用喷雾干燥得到鱼蛋白水解产物,相对分子量在1000以下组分占90.90%,溶解度达98.52%,是一种营养价值高和溶解好的蛋白质功能性食品配料.

  17. 鸭蛋粉离心喷雾干燥工艺研究%Research on centrifugal spray drying of the duck egg powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵希荣; 赵立; 叶华

    2009-01-01

    The effects of several factors, which influenced the products sensitive quality, were investigated in the centrifugal spray dry process, including duck egg fluid, duck egg fluid, feeding fluid concentration, fermentation time, feed ing speed, import and export temperature of drying chamber, feeding fluid temperature, on sensory quality of product was mainly studied. By analyzing the pellet condition, color, solubility, sensory index of the product, the optimal technological parameters of the spray drying of duck egg powder was obtained, namely the duck egg fluid concentration was 250%, fermentation time 72 h, wriggles pump's rotational speed 50 r/min, import and export temperature of drying chamber 210~100℃, feeding fluid temperature 30~45 ℃. The product was powdery or extremely easy loose block-shaped, even faint yellow, had normal odor, none offflavor and impurity. The renaturation and dissolution property of duck egg powder were simultaneously studied.%主要研究在离心喷雾干燥鸭蛋液过程中,进料液浓度、发酵时间、进料速度、干燥室的进出口温度、进料液温度对产品感官质量的影响.通过分析产品的颗粒状态、色泽、溶解性等感官指标,得到喷雾干燥生产鸭蛋全蛋粉的最佳生产工艺参数:鸭蛋液浓度为25%,发酵时间为72 h,蠕动泵的转速为50 r/min,干燥室进出口温度为210~100℃,进料液温度在30~45℃.所得产品为粉末状或极易松散之块状,均匀淡黄色,具有鸭全蛋粉的正常气味,无异味和杂质.同时还研究了鸭蛋粉的复原性、冲调性等问题.

  18. The abbreviated impactor measurement (AIM) concept: part 1--Influence of particle bounce and re-entrainment-evaluation with a "dry" pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI)-based formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, J P; Nagel, M W; Avvakoumova, V; MacKay, H; Ali, R

    2009-01-01

    The abbreviated impactor measurement concept is a potential improvement to the labor-intensive full-resolution cascade impactor methodology for inhaler aerosol aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) measurement by virtue of being simpler and therefore quicker to execute. At the same time, improved measurement precision should be possible by eliminating stages upon which little or no drug mass is collected. Although several designs of abbreviated impactor systems have been developed in recent years, experimental work is lacking to validate the technique with aerosols produced by currently available inhalers. In part 1 of this two-part article that focuses on aerosols produced by pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs), the evaluation of two abbreviated impactor systems (Copley fast screening Andersen impactor and Trudell fast screening Andersen impactor), based on the full-resolution eight-stage Andersen nonviable cascade impactor (ACI) operating principle, is reported with a formulation producing dry particles. The purpose was to investigate the potential for non-ideal collection behavior associated with particle bounce in relation to internal losses to surfaces from which particles containing active pharmaceutical ingredient are not normally recovered. Both abbreviated impactors were found to be substantially equivalent to the full-resolution ACI in terms of extra-fine and fine particle and coarse mass fractions used as metrics to characterize the APSD of these pMDI-produced aerosols when sampled at 28.3 L/min, provided that precautions are taken to coat collection plates to minimize bounce and entrainment.

  19. 喷雾干燥速溶甘蓝粉的工艺研究%Study on Production Technology of Instant Cabbage Powder by Spray Drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    弓志青; 石贤权; 王文亮; 程安玮; 孙华; 陈相艳

    2013-01-01

    为研究速溶甘蓝粉的加工工艺,对影响喷雾干燥甘蓝粉品质的几个因素进行了试验,结果表明:喷雾干燥进口温度为180℃,均质压力为20 MPa,均质2次,添加总固形物含量60%的麦芽糊精作为助干剂,喷雾效果较好,进一步通过流化床造粒,可得到冲调性较好的甘蓝固体饮料.经此工艺加工的甘蓝粉营养损失小,速溶性好.%In order to study the production technology of instant cabbage powder, several factors affecting its quality were tested and analyzed. The results showed the optimum conditions were 180℃ of inlet air temperature , 20 MPa of homogenizer pressure for 2 times, 60% additive amount of maltodextrin as drying agent; and through fluided - bed agglomeration, the instant solid beverage could be produced. The obtained cabbage powder had higher nutrition and better solubility.

  20. Inhaler technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levy, M L; Dekhuijzen, P R N; Barnes, P J

    2016-01-01

    of this process: the use of inhalers is bewildering enough, particularly with regular introduction of new drugs, devices and ancillary equipment, without unnecessary and pointless adages. We review the evidence, or lack thereof, underlying ten items of inhaler 'lore' commonly passed on by health professionals...

  1. Spray Drying as a Processing Technique for Syndiotactic Polystyrene to Powder Form for Part Manufacturing Through Selective Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mys, N.; Verberckmoes, A.; Cardon, L.

    2016-11-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a rapidly expanding field of the three-dimensional printing concept. One stumbling block in the evolution of the technique is the limited range of materials available for processing with SLS making the application window small. This article aims at identifying syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) as a promising material. sPS pellets were processed into powder form with a lab-scale spray dryer with vibrating nozzle. This technique is the focus of this scope as it almost eliminates the agglomeration phenomenon often encountered with the use of solution-based processing techniques. Microspheres obtained were characterized in shape and size by scanning electron microscopy and evaluation of the particle size distribution. The effect the processing technique imparts on the intrinsic properties of the material was examined by differential scanning calorimetry analysis.

  2. Spray Drying as a Processing Technique for Syndiotactic Polystyrene to Powder Form for Part Manufacturing Through Selective Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mys, N.; Verberckmoes, A.; Cardon, L.

    2017-03-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a rapidly expanding field of the three-dimensional printing concept. One stumbling block in the evolution of the technique is the limited range of materials available for processing with SLS making the application window small. This article aims at identifying syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) as a promising material. sPS pellets were processed into powder form with a lab-scale spray dryer with vibrating nozzle. This technique is the focus of this scope as it almost eliminates the agglomeration phenomenon often encountered with the use of solution-based processing techniques. Microspheres obtained were characterized in shape and size by scanning electron microscopy and evaluation of the particle size distribution. The effect the processing technique imparts on the intrinsic properties of the material was examined by differential scanning calorimetry analysis.

  3. Tiotropium Powder Inhaler Maintenance Treatment for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease in 180 Cases%噻托溴铵粉雾剂维持治疗慢性阻塞性肺疾病180例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬梅

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the tiotroPium Powder inhaler in the maintenance treatment of COPD Patients to imProve lung function, the quality of life and reduce the role of the acute exacerbation. Methods 360 cases of Patients in the hosPital with chronic obstruc-tive Pulmonary disease were randomly divided into the control grouP and the observation grouP, 180 cases in each grouP. Both grouPs were given conventional anti-inflammatory, antitussive, exPectorant, oxygen and other treatment, if acute exacerbation aPPeared, the salbu-tamol aerosol agent for emergency treatment was aPPlied. The control grouP were treated with iPratroPium bromide aerosol inhalation ( inhaled 5 mg/time, tid. ) , the observation grouP were treated with tiotroPium Powder inhalation ( inhaled 1 Pill/time, qd. ) . Two grouPs were treated for 12 weeks as 1 course of treatment. Results ComPared with before treatment, Pulmonary function, 6 MWD and dysPnea index scores of the two grouPs after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment were imProved, the observation grouP imProved more significantly than the control grouP ( P 0. 05 ) . Conclusion TiotroPium Powder inhal in the maintenance treatment of Patients with COPD can obviously imProve the lung func-tion, reduce the airway and breathing difficulties, imProve the quality of life, has the good function to reduce the risk of Patients with a-cute aggravating, and is worth of clinical Promotion.%目的:观察噻托溴铵粉雾剂用于慢性阻塞性肺疾病( COPD )患者维持治疗,改善肺功能、提高生活质量和减少急性加重的作用。方法选择收治的COPD稳定期患者360例,随机分为观察组与对照组,各180例。两组均予抗炎、止咳、祛痰、吸氧等常规治疗,若出现急性加重情况,予沙丁胺醇气雾剂行应急治疗。对照组予异丙托溴铵气雾吸入剂雾化吸入(每次5 mg,3次/日),观察组予噻托溴铵粉雾剂经HandiHaler吸入(1粒/次,1次/日)

  4. Comminution of B4C powders with a high-energy mill operated in air in dry or wet conditions and its effect on their spark-plasma sinterability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortiz, Angel L.; Sánchez-Bajo, Florentino; Leal, Victor Manuel Candelario

    2017-01-01

    The comminution of a typical submicrometre B4C powder with a high-energy mill (i.e., a shaker mill) operated in air in either a dry or a wet environment was investigated. It was found that dry shaker milling (i.e., high-energy ball-milling) is able to progressively refine the B4C particles...... to the nanoscale. While this is accompanied by oxidation and aggregation, these are not serious drawbacks. Wet shaker milling in methanol (i.e., conventional ball-milling) resulted only in a moderate B4C particle refinement with greater contamination by the milling tools, which limits its usefulness. It was also...... found that both