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Sample records for dry matter intake

  1. Dry matter intake and digestibility of temperate pastures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on total and forage dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility of wethers and heifers consuming temperate pasture. Twenty four Corriedale x Milchschaf wethers and 24 crossbred heifers fed temperate pasture were non-supplemented or ...

  2. Oesophageal fistula/tritium-labelled water technique for determining dry matter intake and saliva secretion rates of grazing herbivores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luick, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Seven assumptions on which the use of tritium-labelled water and oesophageal fistula depend, for determining the dry matter intake and saliva secretion rates of grazing herbivores, were tested experimentally. It is concluded that many of the possible sources of error can be ignored, but that a correction is necessary for the saliva dry matter content when calculating the dry matter of ingested food from fistula samples. (author)

  3. Genomic predictions for dry matter intake using the international reference population of gDMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Y.; Pryce, J.E.; Calus, M.P.L.; Hulsegge, B.; Spurlock, D.M.; Berry, D.P.; Wall, E.; Lovendahl, P.; Weigel, K.; MacDonald, K.; Miglior, F.; Krattenmacher, N.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated that using dry matter intake (DMI) phenotypes from multiplecountries increases the accuracy of genomic breeding values for this important trait, provided a multi-trait approach is used. Data from Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands,New

  4. Urinary purine derivatives as a tool to estimate dry matter intake in cattle: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate the relationship between dry matter intake (DMI) and urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion in order to develop equations to predict DMI, and 2) to determine the endogenous excretion of PD for beef and dairy cattle using a meta-analytic approac...

  5. Dry matter intake, performance and carcass characteristics of hair sheep reared under different grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Rodrigues Ventolin dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different grazing systems: isolated, alternate and simultaneous, on feed intake, performance and carcass characteristics of sheep. About 5.2 ha area of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximun Jacq cultivate Tanzania was divided into 13 paddocks. This area was used as a stocking rate of two animal units (AU per ha for 7 days’ occupation and 21 days rest. A total number of 58 animals were used consisting of 12 heifers and 30 Santa Ines lambs with the addition of 16 adult ewes that were used to stabilize grazing pressure in the isolated system. The sheep were fed on 200 g per head per day of concentrate and cattle 2 kg per head per day. The parameters determined were the following: weekly weight (WW, total live weight gain (LWG and mean daily weight gain (MDW. Also dry matter intake was estimated 84 days after the start of the experiment using external indicators (Purified and Enriched Lignin in addition to carcass traits and composition which were also estimated. The result obtained for carcass composition revealed that the muscle:bone ratio and bone percentage were better in the alternate system. Moreover, the simultaneous and isolated systems showed higher lamb performance than the alternate system, while there was no effect on dry matter intake. Furthermore, there was no difference of the different systems on carcass traits and feed intake of sheep. Nevertheless, the simultaneous grazing system showed better sheep performance than the alternate grazing system.

  6. Random variation in voluntary dry matter intake and effect of day length on feed intake capacity in growing cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Andersen, Refsgaard; Foldager, John

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the random variation in voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI) and to discuss the application of the results for monitoring purposes. Furthermore, the objective is to review and quantify the influence of day length or photoperiod on VDMI. VDMI was recorded...... was increased by 0.32% per hour increase in day length. This is in agreement with the increase found in reviewed literature when photoperiod was manipulated artificially. Practical application of the results for monitoring purposes are exemplified and discussed....

  7. Genetic covariance functioners for live weight, condition score, and dry-matter intake measured at different lactations stages of Holstein-Friesian heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic parameters for live weight, body condition score and dry-matter intake of dairy heifers were estimated using covariance function methodology. Data were from 469 heifers of the Langhill Dairy Cattle Research Centre and included observations during the first 25 weeks in lactation. Genetic

  8. Restricting access time at pasture and time of grazing allocation for Holstein dairy cows: Ingestive behaviour, dry matter intake and milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiauda, D.A.; Tamminga, S.; Gibb, M.J.; Soca, P.; Bentancur, O.; Chilibroste, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of restricting access time to pasture and time of grazing allocation on grazing behaviour, daily dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation, milk production and composition in dairy cows. Twenty-one autumn-calving Holstein cows were assigned to

  9. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake and blood parameters of Holstein cows fed ensiled apple pomace co-ensiled with broiler litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman Azizi, Osman; Karimi, Shahram; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ensiled mixed apple pomace and broiler litter (EAPBL) on milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI) and blood parameters at early lactation cow. Four multiparous early-lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4×4 Latin...

  10. Production of volatile fatty acid in the rumen and its relationship with their concentration, intake of dry matter and digestible organic matter in buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1979-01-01

    The production rates of total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) in the rumen of buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves were estimated using a single injection isotope dilution technique. A series of twelve experiments were done with animals given wheat straw and concentrate mixture. The production rate of TVFA ranged from 19.77 to 24.84 moles/d depending upon the amount of food consumed by the animals. Highly significant correlations were observed between TVFA production and their concentration, dry matter and digestible organic matter intake. (auth.)

  11. Impact of mild heat stress on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorniak, Tobias; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of summer temperatures in a temperate climate on mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. Therefore, a data set was examined comprising five trials with dairy cows conducted at the experimental station of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute in Braunschweig, Germany. The temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated using temperature and humidity data from the barns recorded between January 2010 and July 2012. By using a generalised additive mixed model, the impact of increasing THI on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition was evaluated. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased when THI rose above 60, whilst water intake increased in a linear manner beyond THI 30. Furthermore, milk protein and milk fat content decreased continuously with increasing THI. The present results revealed that heat stress exists in Lower Saxony, Germany. However, further research is necessary to describe the mode of action of heat stress. Especially, mild heat stress has to be investigated in more detail and appropriate heat stress thresholds for temperate climates have to be developed.

  12. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of

  13. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a......NDFom concentration and aNDFom digestibility are key determinants of the nutritive value of a diet. Therefore, the importance of maize silage aNDFom digestibility on nutritive value, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and milk production was investigated in a literature review across a wide range of studies varying...

  14. Comparison between grass-silages of different dry matter content fed to reindeer during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of whether the dry matter content of silage influenced performance when 17-month-old male reindeer were fed solely silage outdoor during winter. Two kinds of round-baled silages with different wilting times were offered to the animals; low dry matter (LDM silage with a mean of 39% DM, or high dry matter (HDM silage with a mean of 53% DM. The 115 reindeer were allotted to slaughter at the start of the experiment in October or to be fed until slaughter in January or March. During the first three weeks of the experiment small amounts of lichens were mixed with the silages and the reindeer adapted to the feeding without problems. The daily intake of DM did not differ significantly between reindeer fed the LDM or the HDM silage despite a highly significant difference in daily silage intake. This resulted in small but significantly higher gains in live weight for animals fed the LDM silage, caused by increased weight of the rumen content. All groups of reindeer either retained or lost carcass weight during the experiment, and no improvements or differences were obtained between the kinds of silages in carcass assessment or gains in fat in the abdominal cavity. Animals slaughtered in January had a lower carcass weight and dressing percentage than reindeer slaughtered in October and March. Environmental conditions during the experiment were good but nonetheless mobbing and illness still occurred. The present results concur with those of earlier studies suggesting that it seems to be the bulk of the ration rather than the dry matter content of the silage that limits the intake.

  15. Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH. The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP concentration of AH was 534.7 g kg-1 fresh sample and 141 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The average DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample of HMM and LMM were 795.9 and 915.1 g kg-1 fresh sample, respectively, while the average CP concentration (g kg-1 DM were 116.8 and 106.0, respectively. The study consisted of five feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMM or LMM d-1 kg-1 wether body weight. The inclusion of HMM (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in higher diet DM digestibility (P<0.05 in comparison with LMM inclusion (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1. Higher daily fresh matter intake (FMI (P<0.05, dry matter intake (DMI (P<0.05 and water intake (P<0.05 was achieved with LMM inclusion in comparison with HMM inclusion. The conclusion was that HMM is superior over LMM as supplement to AH in terms of DM digestibility, while LMM has advantages over HMM in the intake characteristics measured.

  16. The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Sunagawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of NaHCO3 due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h

  17. Performance, dry matter digestibility and feeding behavior of Holstein steers fed different diets in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Neumann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance, apparent digestibility of dry matter and feeding behavior of Dutch steers fed different diets in feedlot. Were used 36 Holstein calves, from the same herd, with an average of 192 days and an average body weight of 221kg age. The experimental diets consisted of: T1: 100% concentrate diet; T2: 55% concentrate diet + corn silage; and T3: 55% concentrate diet + oat hay, and six replicates, where each replicate was a stall with two animals. Was no significant difference between treatments, and the treatment consists of the 100% concentrate diet had higher performance results with an average daily gain of 1.350 kg day-1; and feed conversion of 5.28 dry matter intake of 6.84. We evaluated also the 100% diet also influenced the feeding behavior, and the time for rumination, food consumption and water intake are respectively 2.75; 1.14; 0.15 hours day-1. The digestibility of dry matter was also a significant difference to the diet 100%, and this was around 76.37%. The diet showed 100% concentrate in terms of performance, an interesting alternative for termination of Holstein steers.

  18. Santa Inês sheep supplementation on urochloa grass pasture during the dry season: intake, nutrient digestibility and performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo José Presídio Almeida

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the effect of concentrate supplementation, formulated with different ingredients (Mesquite pod meal, sorghum meal or wheat meal and mineral supplementation on performance, intake and digestibility of nutrients in Santa Inês lambs grazing on urochloa grass during the dry season. Twenty-four uncastrated weaned Santa Inês sheep, with average body weight (BW 20±2 kg with an average of 120 days of age were used in the assay. The experiment lasted 75 days. The animals grazing deferred Urochloa grass (Urochloa mosambicensis (Hack Daudy were distributed into four treatments consisting of mineral supplementation provided ad libitum and concentrated supplements containing mesquite pod meal, sorghum meal or wheat meal, supplied 10 g /kg BW on dry matter basis. The intakes of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP were affected by the intake of concentrate supplement, regardless of the ingredients used in the supplements, compared with the mineral supplementation treatment, since the consumption of forage was reduced in 30% with mesquite pod meal supplement, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF intake was not affected in relation to treatments. The digestibility of DM and CP were higher for treatments with supplements, and NDF digestibility did not differ between treatments. A significant difference was observed in the values of average daily gain for the treatments with concentrate supplementation compared with the one of mineral supplementation. The supplementation with concentrate in grazing enables improvement of performance, intake and digestibility of nutrients regardless of the ingredient used in the supplement.

  19. Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregiorgis, Feleke; Negesse, Tegene; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8 ± 0.12 kg). Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay + 150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay + 300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay + 450 g moringa leaf (T4) were offered daily. A 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth experiments were conducted. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P moringa leaf in the diets. Sheep fed T2, T3 and T4 diets gained (P  0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary CP increased (P moringa leaf, but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 diets. The nitrogen (N) intake and urinary N excretion increased (P moringa leaf. The N retention was highest (P moringa leaf supplementation. The control group was in a negative N balance. Supplementing a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay with dried moringa leaves improved DM intake, BWG and N retention. It is concluded that M. stenopetala can serve as a protein supplement to low-quality grass during the dry season under smallholder sheep production system.

  20. Fecal bulk, energy intake, and serum cholesterol: regression response of serum cholesterol to apparent digestibility of dry matter and suboptimal energy intake in rats on fiber-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normani, M Z; Hussain, S S; Lim, J K; Albrink, M J; Gunnells, C K; Davis, G K

    1981-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted in the rat to determine the relationships of serum cholesterol (SC, mg/dl), apparent digestibility of dry matter (DDM, %), and digested energy intake (DE, kcal/day) at suboptimal level of energy. The energies in diet and feces were determined by calorimetry. DE as percentage of the National Research Council requirement (DE%) was suboptimal (70 to 85%). The experiments had four to five isofibrous diets, and no fiber diets, supplemented with 0.2% crystalline cholesterol (CChol). Animals in experiment 1 were fed varying amounts of feed with 18% coconut oil in the diets where as these in experiment 2 were given fixed amounts of feed with either 6 or 18% oil. The following regressions (p less than 0.001) for SC were found: experiment 1: -1157.7 -5.97 DDM +105.5 CCI -1.48 CCI2 (r2 0.35), where CCI = CChol, mg/day; -1888.4 -2.66 DE +120.97 CCI -1.62 CCI2 (r2 0.37). Experiment 2: 762.99 -6.15 DDM -0.8 fat cal % -0.87DE% (r2 0.31), where fat cal % = fat calories % of DE. Data indicate that at suboptimal energy intake, SC was inversely related to (1) DDM, (2) fat cal, and (3) total energy intake. Liver cholesterol lowering effect of the dietary fiber was also observed. The above findings help to elucidate various conflicting reports related to diet and blood cholesterol.

  1. Disponibilidade, composição bromatológica e consumo de matéria seca em pastagem consorciada de Brachiaria decumbens com Stylosanthes guianensis Herbage availability, chemical composition and dry matter intake in mixed pasture of Brachiaria decumbens with Stylosanthes guianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Januário Magalhães Aroeira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a disponibilidade de forragem, a composição bromatológica, o consumo de matéria seca e a proporção de gramínea e leguminosa na dieta de vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu, em pastagem consorciada de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris cv. Mineirão e leguminosas arbóreas. Para estimativa da produção fecal, foram usados 10 g vaca-1 dia-1 de óxido crômico, durante dez dias. Amostras de extrusa foram usadas para determinação da composição bromatológica e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca. A disponibilidade de matéria seca de forragem de B. decumbens variou com as condições climáticas, enquanto a de S. guianensis decresceu linearmente ao longo do período experimental. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior em maio de 2001 (1,9% do peso do animal vivo e não diferiu entre os demais meses (1,5% do peso do animal vivo. Os baixos índices de consumo de matéria seca refletiram altos teores de fibra em detergente neutro (70,2% a 79,4% e baixos coeficientes de digestibilidade in vitro de matéria seca (42,1% a 48,0% da forragem. O consumo de leguminosa variou entre 8,7% e 24,1% do total ingerido. O consumo de matéria seca esteve diretamente relacionado à porcentagem de leguminosa na pastagem, o que evidencia o potencial de uso de pastagens consorciadas para vacas leiteiras.The objective of this work was to evaluate the herbage availability, nutritive value, dry matter intake and grass and legume percentage in diet of crossbred Holstein-Zebu cows, in pasture with Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris cv. Mineirão and tree legumes. To estimate the fecal output, it was used 10 g cow-1 day-1 of chromium oxide during ten consecutive days. Extrusa samples were used to determine the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility. B. decumbens availability varied with climatic conditions, while S. guianensis

  2. Effects of dietary energy allowance and decline in dry matter intake during the dry period on responses to glucose and insulin in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salin, S; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K; Taponen, J; Boston, R C; Kokkonen, T

    2017-07-01

    We assessed whether high energy intake during the early dry period [144% of metabolizable energy (ME) requirements/d] followed by a gradual restriction of energy intake in the close-up dry period (119% of ME/d; HEI) impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity compared with a controlled energy intake (100% of ME/d; CEI) throughout the 6-wk dry period. Multiparous Ayrshire dairy cows (n = 16) were blocked by body weight, body condition score, and expected date of parturition and were used in a randomized complete block design until 10 d after parturition. Cows were fed either HEI or CEI diets based on grass silage during the first 3 wk of the dry period and grass silage supplemented with a commercial concentrate (30% of ME intake) during the final 3 wk of gestation. After calving, all cows were fed grass silage ad libitum and an increasing amount of commercial concentrate (maximum 9 kg at d 10 postpartum). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and intravenous insulin challenges were performed -10 ± 5 d (n = 15) and +10 ± 1 d (n = 14) relative to parturition. Following glucose injection, we did not find any treatment effects on glucose and insulin responses. The prepartal nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) response of the HEI group was blunted, basal NEFA and the decrement of NEFA were smaller, and the area under the response curve (AUC) of NEFA was less negative in HEI cows than in CEI cows. The NEFA response reversed after parturition; the NEFA AUC of the HEI group was more negative than that of the CEI group. We did not find similar responses after insulin injection. Across the treatments, NEFA AUC correlated strongly with the basal NEFA concentration during the IVGTT pre- and postpartum. Calculated and model-based indices characterizing the overall glucose tolerance and β-cell function and the insulin sensitivity were higher after parturition than during the dry period. Consistent with the lower basal insulin, the acute insulin release after the glucose infusion

  3. [Influence of an elevation of the temperature of water on the digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and energy of food distributed to the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Rich)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubert, G; Fauconneau, B; Luquet, P

    1982-01-01

    Rainbow trout adapted to a water temperature of 10 degrees C were subjected to an abrupt rise in temperature (from 10 to 18 degrees C) in a 24-h period. Fish maintained in recirculated water were fed to satiation twice a day and their feed intakes were recorded. Changes in dry matter, nitrogen and energy digestibility were measured each day at 10 degrees C and during the course of acclimatation to 18 degrees C. Low water temperature (10 degrees C) was characterized by a feed intake of 1.84 g (DM)/fish/day; digestibility values were as follows: dry matter 62.15 p. 100, nitrogen 86.91 p. 100, energy 70.60 p. 100. High water temperature (18 degrees C) was characterized by a feed intake of 3.75 g (DM)/fish/day; digestibility values were as follows: dry matter 66.08 p. 100, nitrogen 89.57 p. 100, energy 73.52 p. 100. The daily patterns in digestibility were affected by the rise in temperature. The digestibility values were stabilized by day 7 after the positive thermal shock.

  4. Dry matter intake, body condition score, and grazing behavior of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows fed kale or grass once versus twice daily during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugoho, I; Edwards, G R

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of wintering pregnant, nonlactating dairy cows outdoors on either kale or grass, fed in 1 [11 kg dry matter (DM) of kale or grass + 3 kg DM of baled barley straw offered in the morning] or 2 allocations (5.5 kg DM of kale or grass grazed + 1.5 kg DM of barley straw offered morning and afternoon) per day. The body condition score (BCS) gain over the 47-d winter feeding period was higher for grass-fed (0.5 BCS units) than kale-fed cows (0.3 BCS units), but was unaffected by feeding frequency. Forage DM utilization was higher for kale-fed (97%) than grass-fed cows (76%), leading to higher estimated dry matter intake (DMI) in kale-fed (10.7 kg of DM/cow per day) than grass-fed cows (7.7 kg of DM/cow per day). Forage DM utilization and estimated DMI were not affected by feeding frequency. Prehension bite rate was greater for grass-fed (37.3 bites/min) than kale-fed cows (7.6 bites/min), but more mastication bites were required for kale-fed cows. Cumulative DMI after 2, 3, and 6 h was greater in cows allocated forage once than twice a day and for kale than grass after 3 and 6 h. Mean eating time was greater for cows offered forage once (477 min) than twice (414 min) per day. In conclusion, increasing feeding frequency from once to twice per day decreased the intake rate within the first 6 h after allocation, but did not affect total daily DMI, DM utilization or BCS gain. Thus, moving cows more frequently would not have any significant advantage. It may increase labor requirements, thereby creating a more challenging wintering management than feeding once per day. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between liver lipid and liver dry matter in slaughtered ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Eftekhari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipids in liver wet and dry matter, liver moist and dry matter and their relationships were investigated based on species, sex and age in cows, buffaloes, sheep and goats. Mean percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter and liver dry matter in cows were 3.60%, 1.10%, 29.70%, and for buffaloes were 5.30%, 1.55%, 29.20%, sheep 3.00%, 0.83%, 27.90%, and goats 2.910%, 1.55% and 28.40%, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter was observed in buffaloes and sheep, and for the liver dry matter was recorded in cows and sheep, respectively. Analyses showed significant differences in liver parameters among ruminants (p < 0.01. Gender, except for goats, did not affect the animals' liver parameters. In overall 15.00% of buffaloes and 3.50% of cows showed over 10.00% lipids in liver, while none of small ruminants appeared to have over 6.00% lipids in liver. There was no correlation between liver lipid and liver dry matter. In conclusion mean percentage of lipid in liver dry matter in small ruminants was less than large ruminants. Liver dry matter was high in cows and low in sheep. Mean differences in liver parameters was significant, while the age and sex of the animals were not. Liver lipidosis in buffaloes seems greater than in cows, and in small ruminants it was negligible. No correlation was expected between liver parameters. Finally, on the basis of liver dry matter, the liver in ruminants ranked from cows to buffaloes, goats and sheep.

  6. Dielectric spectroscopy for evaluating dry matter content of potato tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glenn G. B.; Kjaer, Anders; Klösgen, Beate

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the application of dielectric spectroscopy as a method for evaluating the dry matter content of potato tubers. Sample specific factors determining the precision of this application were investigated by studying the prediction of the dry material content in agar gel...... of the predicted dry matter content was observed in chemically and spatially uniform systems, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of the predicted dry-matter content of 0.64 percentage points observed in agar gels containing refined potato starch. A marked decrease in precision is observed in model systems which...... include chemical variations between potato tuber samples. The added dry material content was predicted with a RMSE of 0.94 percentage points in agar gels with added dried material extracted from separate potato tubers. The local dry matter content from a region within 2 cm of the center location...

  7. The Main Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake in Large-type Goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tran Van Thang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In large-type goats that were fed on dry forage twice daily, dry forage intake was markedly suppressed after 40 min of feeding had elapsed. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are mainly caused by the two factors, that is, ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality induced thirst produced by dry forage feeding. Six large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 2 to 6 years, weighing 85.1±4.89 kg were used in two experiments. The animals were fed ad libitum a diet of roughly crushed alfalfa hay cubes for 2 h from 10:00 to 12:00 am during two experiments. Water was withheld during feeding in both experiments but was available for a period of 30 min after completion of the 2 h feeding period. In experiment 1, saliva lost via the esophageal fistula was replenished by an intraruminal infusion of artificial parotid saliva (RIAPS in sham feeding conditions (SFC control, and the treatment was maintained under normal feeding conditions (NFC. In experiment 2, a RIAPS and non-insertion of a balloon (RIAPS-NB control was conducted in the same manner as the SFC control of experiment 1. The intraruminal infusion of hypertonic solution and insertion of a balloon (RIHS-IB treatment was carried out simultaneously to reproduce the effects of changing salt content and ruminal distension due to feed entering the rumen. The results of experiment 1 showed that due to the effects of multiple dry forage suppressing factors when feed boluses entered the rumen, eating rates in the NFC treatment decreased (p<0.05 after 40 min of feeding and cumulative dry forage intake for the 2 h feeding period reduced to 43.8% of the SFC control (p<0.01. The results of experiment 2 indicated that due to the two suppressing factors of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality induced thirst, eating rates in the RIHS-IB treatment were

  8. Gray matter alterations and correlation of nutritional intake with the gray matter volume in prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The neurophysiology of prediabetes plays an important role in preventive medicine. The dysregulation of glucose metabolism is likely linked to changes in neuron-related gray matter. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate gray matter alterations in medication-naive prediabetic patients. We expected to find alterations in the gray matter of prediabetic patients. A total of 64 prediabetic patients and 54 controls were enrolled. All subjects received T1 scans using a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging machine. Subjects also completed nutritional intake records at the 24-hour and 3-day time points to determine their carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake. We utilized optimized voxel-based morphometry to estimate the gray matter differences between the patients and controls. In addition, the preprandial serum glucose level and the carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake levels were tested to determine whether these parameters were correlated with the gray matter volume. Prediabetic patients had lower gray matter volumes than controls in the right anterior cingulate gyrus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, left super temporal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus (corrected P prediabetic patients. PMID:27336893

  9. [Dry matter intake of South American camelids and its effects on the composition of feed rations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Moors, Eva; Stiehl, Jennifer; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American camelids (SAC) is increasing in Germany since decades. Due to a lack of scientifically based publications the knowledge about feeding SACs is still poor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the dry matter intake (DMI) of SACs as a basis for calculations of feed rations. Previous studies proposed a DMI of up to 3% of the body weight (BW) (Vaughan und Gauly, 2011). In the present study, eight llamas (Llama glama) were allocated to two groups of four animals each. The two groups were fed with hay of different qualities over a total period often weeks, which was divided into two runs of five weeks each. During the first run, group 1 was fed with hay 1 (15.1% crude protein; 8.5% crude ash; 3.1% crude fat; 52.6% NDF per kg DM) and group 2 with hay 2 (6.6% crude protein; 6.2% crude ash; 2.1% crude fat; 64.3% NDF per kg DM). After five weeks the groups were changed and group 1 received hay 2 and group 2 received hay 1. BW was measured at the start and end of each run (week zero, five and ten). The hay quality affected the DMI, but the animals did not compensate a lower feed quality with an increased DMI. The total DMI was 1.26% and 0.89% of the BW for hay 1 and hay 2, respectively, which was lower than expected in both groups. In conclusion, calculations of feed rations for SACs should be adjusted to the present findings of a lower DMI capability.

  10. Feed intake and growth performance of goats supplemented with soy waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Mijanur Rahman

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplemental feeding of soy waste on the feed intake and growth rate of goats. Twenty male crossbred (Boer x local goats were assigned to two isonitrogenous diet groups: one of commercial pellet and the other of soy waste. The commercial pellet (1.0% and soy waste (0.8% were provided on the dry matter basis of body weight (BW per day, to the respective group of each diet. The soy waste group had lower daily intakes of total dry matter (0.79 vs. 0.88 kg and organic matter (665.71 vs. 790.44 g than the group fed pellet; however, the differences on daily intakes for grass (0.62 vs. 0.64 kg, crude protein (96.81 vs. 96.83 g, and neutral detergent fibre (483.70 vs. 499.86 g were not significant. No differences were observed between groups for BW gain. The feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kilogram of BW gain were lower for the group fed soy waste than for the one fed pellet. Goats fed supplemental soy waste have a lower total dry matter intake, feed conversion ratio, and feed cost per kilogram of body weight gain than those fed commercial pellets.

  11. Effect of oversowing leguminous species on dry matter yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven years after oversowing, forage dry matter yield and chemical composition were estimated both in the dryand wet seasons. Mean values of forage dry matter yieid in the dry season were 1.75, 1.69, 1.62, 1.51 and, 0.94 t/ha for the plots oversown, with, S. hamata, M atropurpureum, C. ternatea and C. pubescence and ...

  12. Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites in bulls fed rice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nutrient intake, digestibility and rumen metabolites were determined in rumen - cannulated bulls fed rice straw or straw supplemented with urea, groundnut hay or cotton seed cake. Total dry matter intake (DMI) ranged from 7.55 Lo 8.29kg/d or 3.66 to 4.04% of liveweight and from 6.48 to 7. 21 kg/d for organic matter.

  13. Effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber content on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in Korean native goats ( fed with total mixed ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Young Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was to determine proper physical traits in the diet for goats by investigating the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF content on dry matter intake (DMI, digestibility, and chewing activity in black goats fed with total mixed ration (TMR. Methods Six growing wethers of Korean native black goats (Capra hircus coreanae aged 8 months and weighing between 26.9 kg and 27.1 kg (27.03±5.05 kg were used in this experiment. Three diets of varying peNDF content were obtained by original TMR (T1, 12,000 rpm grinding (T2, and 15,500 rpm grinding (T3 of the same TMR diet. The peNDF1.18 content of the experimental diets was 23.85%, 21.71%, and 16.22% for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Results Average daily gain (ADG was higher in T2 group compared to those of the control and T3 groups, but ADG and DMI were not affected by the dietary particle size and peNDF content. Also, there was no difference between apparent nutrient digestibility of dry matter, crude fiber, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. Although there was no significant difference, rumination and total chewing time were associated with decreased peNDF content. Conclusion The feeding of peNDF-based TMR showed no impact on apparent nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Further studies are required with a wider range of dietary peNDF level and particle size to better identify the effect of dietary peNDF and particle size on chewing activity and performance in goats.

  14. Estimativa do consumo de matéria seca de vacas em lactação em pastejo rotativo em capim coastcross (Cynodon dactylon, (L. Pers cv. coast-cross Estimative of the dry matter intake of lactating cows in intensive grazing coastcross grass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. coastcross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Januário Magalhães Aroeira

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve como objetivo estimar o consumo total de MS de vacas das raças gir e girolanda, em pastagem de capim coastcross [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. coastcross]. Foram utilizadas oito vacas gir e oito girolanda com 30 a 90 dias de lactação. Foi utilizada uma área de cinco hectares (ha, dividida em 10 piquetes de um hectare, e a pastagem manejada em pastejo rotacionado, com três dias de ocupação e 27 dias de descanso e taxa de lotação de 1,6 animais/ha no final da seca e 3,2 animais/ha nas demais épocas experimentais. Para a estimativa do consumo, foi utilizado o marcador cromo mordente. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com dois tratamentos (gir e girolanda, oito repetições e quatro blocos (épocas. O consumo total médio foi de 7,68kg de MS/animal/dia para a raça girolanda e 5,71kg de MS/animal/dia para a raça gir, correspondentes a 1,58% e 1,38% do peso vivo, respectivamente. Os consumos médios de capim coastcross estimados foram de 2,70kg e 4,68kg de MS/animal/dia para a raça gir e girolanda, correspondendo a 0,66 e 1,16% de PV, respectivamente.The objective of this experiment was to estimate the total dry matter intake of gir and girolanda breed cows kept in coastcross pasture [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. coastcross]. Eight gir and eight girolanda cows were used, all between 30 and 90 days of lactation period. The pasture (five ha was divided in 10 paddocks, grazed for three days with 27 days of resting period with stocking rate of 1.6 cows/ha at the end of the dry season and 3.2 cows/ha in the other experimental periods. Chromic mordant marker was used to estimate dry matter intake. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with two treatments (gir and girolanda, eight replications and four blocks (seasons. The total mean dry matter intake for girolanda cows was of 7.68 kg DM/cow/day and 5.71 kg DM/cow/day for gir cows, corresponding to 1.58% and 1.38% live weight

  15. The effect of feeding bull Bali cattle kept in extensive husbandry system with concentrates contained gliricidia sepium leaf meal and banana strach tuber meal on their feed consumption and dried organic matter digestability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, S.; Sobang, Y. U. L.; Samba, F. D.; Hartati, E.; Kapa, M. M. J.; Henuk, Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding bull Bali Cattle kept in extensive husbnadry system with concentrates contained gliricidia sepium leaf meal and banana strach tuber meal in their feed consumptions and dried organic matter digestibility. Three bull Bali cattle aged 1 - 2 years old with an initial body weight of 135.5 kg - 168.0 kg were used in this study. The three treatments used were T0 = local feeds (consisted of Leucaena leucocephala, Acasia leochophloea, and Ficus sp. leaves as commonly used by local farmers); T1 = T0 + 1 kg concentrate (contained banana strach tuber meal + gliricidia sepium leaf meal); T2 = T1 +2 kg concentrate (contained banana strach tuber meal + gliricidia sepium leaf meal). The results showed that the dry matter intake were: 2.40, 3.52, and 4.14; organic matter intake were: 2.17, 3.32, and 3.62; dry matter digestible was 64.63%, 72.45%, 77.28% and organic matter digestible was 66.79%, 74.66%, 79.33% for T0, T1, and T2, respectively. There was no effect (P>0.05) of treatments on the three parameters observed on bull Bali cattle kept in extensive husbandry system and fed with concentrates contained leaf gliricidia sepium meal and banana starch tuber meal.

  16. Dietary intake in head and neck irradiated patients with permanent dry mouth symptoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeckstroem, I.; Funegard, U.; Andersson, I.; Franzen, L.; Johansson, I. [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

    1995-07-01

    Radiotherapy of the head and neck region, which includes the major and minor salivary glands in the radiation field, usually leads to temporary or permanent xerostomia. This may affect eating and increase the risk of inadequate intake of energy and nutrients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of radiotherapy-induced xerostomia on energy and nutrient intake in individuals treated for malignancies in the head and neck region. The dietary intake of 24 patients with a low chewing stimulated whole saliva flow rate (< 0.5 ml/min) and in age and sex matched controls with normal flow rate (>1.0 ml/min) was recorded for 7 days. The average daily energy intake was nearly 300 kcal lower in the irradiated patients with dry mouth symptoms than in the control group. The mean intake in the former group was 1925 kcal per day whereas the control group had an intake of 2219 kcal per day. Irradiated patients with dry mouth symptoms had significantly lower mean intakes of vitamin A, {beta}-carotene, vitamin E, vitamin B{sub 6}, folacine, iron and zinc than those in the control group. There was also a lower intake of vitamin C, but this was not statistically significant. The intake of vitamins A and C exceeded or reached the levels recommended in the Swedish Nutritional recommendations, but the average intakes of fibre, iron, {beta}-carotene, vitamin E, zinc, selenium, and iron did not reach recommended levels, in neither the experimental nor the control group. (Author).

  17. Adjusting for heterogeneity of experimental data in genetic evaluation of dry matter intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M E; Meuwissen, T; Veerkamp, R F

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were (i) to find the best fitted model for repeatedly measured daily dry matter intake (DMI) data obtained from different herds and experiments across lactations and (ii) to get better estimates of the genetic parameters and better genetic evaluations. After editing, there were 572,512 daily DMI records of 3,495 animals (Holstein cows) from 11 different herds across 13 lactations and the animals were under 110 different nutritional experiments. The fitted model for this data set was a univariate repeated-measure animal model (called model 1) in which additive genetic and permanent environmental (within and across lactations) effects were fitted as random. Model 1 was fitted as two distinct models (called models 2 and 3) based on alternative fixed effect corrections. For unscaled data, each model (models 2 and 3) was fitted as a homoscedastic (HOM) model first and then as a heteroscedastic (HET) model. Then, data were scaled by multiplying with particular herd-scaling factors, which were calculated by accounting for heterogeneity of phenotypic within-herd variances. Models were selected based on cross-validation and prediction accuracy results. Scaling factors were re-estimated to determine the effectiveness of accounting for herd heterogeneity. Variance components and respective heritability and repeatability were estimated based on a pedigree-based relationship matrix. Results indicated that the model fitted for scaled data showed better fit than the models (HOM or HET) fitted for unscaled data. The heritability estimates of the models 2 and 3 fitted for scaled data were 0.30 and 0.08, respectively. The repeatability estimates of the model fitted for scaled data ranged from 0.51 to 0.63. The re-estimated scaling factor after accounting for heterogeneity of residual variances was close to 1.0, indicating the stabilization of residual variances and herd accounted for most of the heterogeneity. The rank correlation of EBVs between

  18. Perennial ryegrass for dairy cows: Intake, milk production and nitrogen utilization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tas, B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Keywords: perennial ryegrass, dairy cows, intake, digestibility milk production, nitrogen utilisation.In the Netherlands, grass is one of the main roughages in the diet of high productive dairy cows. Grass is associated with two main problems: the limited dry matter intake (DMI)

  19. Feasibility of DEXA prediction of dry matter and mass for horticultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartle, C.M.; West, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Previously the DEXA system used in this research has been deployed commercially in meat processing plants with the objective of accurately determining the fat content of bulk and packaged meat, through a JV with ANZCO Foods and a partnership with Smiths Detection. This present research is aimed at demonstrating an ability to measure the dry matter distribution and in turn the net dry matter for individual horticultural products using DEXA. The DEXA images are obtained while scanning the products on a conveyor belt running at speeds representative of production grading situations. The products reported on here are primarily potatoes (because of a direct commercial interest), but also a butternut pumpkin and two rock melons. The grading and dry matter measurement capability is based on detecting change in the effective atomic number (EAN) with change in the elemental proportions within the product and there being effectively a binary mixture (e.g dry matter and water) present. Grading of fruit and vegetables on this basis is expected to be challenging. The commercial meat/fat grading already commercialised as a DEXA system is associated with 1.8 EAN units difference between fat (carbon rich Z eff =5.8) and fully-lean meat (oxygen rich Z eff =7.6) but this range is large compared to what is expected for horticultural products. The dry matter in horticultural products is primarily starch (plus minerals) and the EAN difference between starch (and minerals) and water is unknown here but calculations give the difference as little as 0.2 EAN units, dependant on the mineral content in the product. In this work we show that the dry matter sensitivities of the DEXA technology for horticultural products is discernable allowing measurement of dry matter distributions, and net dry matter values. The EAN range is indeed much smaller than for fat/meat mixtures, and consistent differences are yet to be demonstrated for an assembly of product, except for potatoes where consistency

  20. INTAKE AND APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY OF Andropogon gayanus HAY AT THREE DIFFERENT AGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Cayô Cavalcanti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the voluntary intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, fiber fractions, energy, and the nitrogen balance of Andropogon gayanus hay at three different stages (56, 84 and 112 days. The statistical design was completely randomized, with three treatments and six replicates. Dry matter, fiber fractions, and energy apparent digestibility were higher (P<0.05 for hay harvested at 56 and 84 days. Crude protein intake and apparent digestibility of A. gayanus hay harvested at 56 days of growth were greater (P<0.05 than the hay harvested at 84 and 112 days. The A. gayanus hay showed the best voluntary intake and digestibility at 56 and 84 days of age. Keywords: forage; nutritive value; sheep.

  1. Dry matter genotypes of Cynodon by microwave and conventional oven methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this work was to comparing the drying process in a microwave oven and forced air ventilation, as well as their effects on the chemical composition of different genotypes of the genus Cynodon (Tifton 85, Jiggs, Russell, Tifton 68 and Vaquero collected at different ages cutting (28, 48, 63 and 79 days. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split-plot design, with 4 replicates. There was no difference (P>0.05 between the methods analyzed on the chemical composition of the genotypes studied. Increasing age cutoff negatively influenced (P<0.05 the crude protein content of the different plant parts. A significant increase (P<0.05 of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and dry matter production was observed with increasing age cut. The use of the microwave oven is a quick and precise method obtain the dry matter content of the fodder showing efficiency similar to the method of drying in an oven with forced air circulation. The genotypes showed better chemical composition results when handled at age 28 days.

  2. Consumo e digestibilidade de subprodutos do processamento de frutas em ovinos Intake and dry matter digestibility of by-products of fruit processer in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edilton Lousada Junior

    2005-04-01

    of 34.5 kg, were assigned to a completely randomized design with five treatments (byproducts and four replications. Dry matter intakes (DMI of byproducts of guava, passion fruit and melon by the animals were similar but higher than WIC byproduct. The highest crude protein intake (CPI (g/animal/day, g/BW0.75 was observed in passion fruit and melon byproducts, while WIC byproduct the lowest CPI. Guava byproduct showed the higher intakes of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF and passion fruit byproduct showed the highest apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM coefficient. Guava and WIC byproducts showed ADMS lower than the others. The coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP of passion fruit and melon byproducts were higher than the others byproducts. As for, the coefficients of apparent digestibility of NDF (ADNDF and ADF (ADADF, WIC and guava byproducts were lower while passion fruit byproduct showed ADNDF and ADADF higher than the others. No difference among evaluates byproducts for nitrogen balance was observed. Results showed that; pineapple, passion fruit and melon byproducts could be used in ruminant diets. However, WIC and guava byproducts showed low nutrient digestibility coefficients, restricting their use in ruminant diets.

  3. Multiple supplements for beef heifers on pasture during the dry season: nutritional characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pereira da Silva-Marques

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate levels of multiple supplements supplied to beef heifers in low supply of pasture on intake and nutrients digestibility, pH and concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen, nitrogen balance, synthesis and microbial efficiency. Five Nellore heifers with initial body weight of 344.00 ± 21.10 kg and average initial age of 22 months were used. The following supplements were evaluated as fed to the animals: control (mineral supplement and supplementation levels of 2, 4, 6 and 8 kg/animal/day, composing the following percentages of body weight (BW: 0.55, 1.11, 1.66 and 2.22%, respectively. The experimental design was a Latin square with five replications and five supplements. Intakes of total dry matter, crude protein (CP and total digestible nutrients, and total apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, total carbohydrates and no fiber carbohydrates increased linearly (P <0.0001 and dry matter intake of forage decreased (P <0.0001 with supplementation levels. Supplementation strategies promoted reduction on ruminal pH (P = 0.0343 and increased concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N (P = 0.0004 before the supply of supplements, and after, this NH3-N presented quadratic behavior (P = 0.0023. Nitrogen intake, excretion of urea in urine and nitrogen excretion in feces increased linearly (P <0.0001 according to supplementation levels. The supply of high levels of multiple supplements reduces forage intake and presents itself as an alternative to cattle maintained in a systems with low supply of pasture in the dry season.

  4. Yield, yield components and dry matter digestibility of alfalfa experimental populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the most important forage crop grown in the temperate regions. It is cultivated for production of vegetative aerial mass used fresh or as hay, and recently as haylage and silage. In many centres worldwide, efforts are made to breed and create new alfalfa cultivars with both higher yields and of higher nutritional value. The aim of this paper was to determine yield and digestibility of 12 experimental populations of alfalfa, and to compare their results to the yields of well-known domestic alfalfa commercial cultivars. The results show significant differences in yield of green forage and dry matter among alfalfa populations, as well as in yield components, height, proportion of leaves in yield and growth rate (tab. 1, 2 and 3. Differences between in vitro digestible dry matter (% and yields of in vitro digestible dry matter (t ha-1 were also significant (tab. 5 and 6. Yield and quality of experimental populations were at the same level or higher than of control cultivars. Synthetic SINUSA exceeded the control cutivars (NS Mediana ZMS V and Banat VS in yield and quality of dry matter. .

  5. Intake, Rumen Degradation and Utilisation of Urea-Ammoniated Grass Hay by Kacang Goats as Affected by Supplementation of Sun-dried Fish or Fishmeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Weibsjerg

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Six mature male Kacang goats were involved in an experiment arranged following a duplicate 3 x 3 Latin Square Design. The objectives of this experiment was to study the effect of supplementation of dried fish as compared to fishmeal on intake, digestion, rumen environment and nitrogen used by the local meat type Kacang goats maintained on urea-treated low quality grass hay. The treatments were G: goats were fed with ad libitum access of urea treated grass hay and 100 g/d putak, SDF: G plus 18.4 g sun dried fish, and FM: G plus 19.7 g/d fishmeal. The supplement in SDF and FM were at equal CP level. Intake of urea treated grass hay tended to increase (P=0.08 with supplementation. Dry matter digestibility particularly that of CP was improved by supplementation. Rumen environment was slightly modified by supplementation. Rumen pH was reduced while ammonia concentration was increased. Rumen degradation of the treated grass hay did not differ when incubated in the rumen of goats with different diets. Nitrogen balance was significantly improved (P<0.05 by fishmeal supplementation. In all parameters measured in this experiment, the incremental effects did not differ between fishmeal type. This indicate that there is no further advantage of preparing fishmeal other than sun-drying in improving the utilisation of low quality urea-treated grass hay.

  6. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter in relation to root yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava an important staple food is grown both in upland and inland valley in the tropics. A trial to assess dry matter production and partitioning in relation to root yield was conducted in 3 positions along inland valley toposequence using 4 x 4 Latin square design. Dry matter partitioning differed among cultivars, ...

  7. Performance of dairy goats fed diets with dry yeast from sugar cane as protein source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Soares de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inactive dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae from sugar cane were studied in 18 primiparus Saanen dairy goats (51.07±1.43 on dry matter intake and digestibility, milk production and quality. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design during 90 days (from day 60 of milking. Diets were composed of soybean meal; soybean meal + dry yeast; or dry yeast, as protein sources, and ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage (40%. Animals fed the dry yeast diet showed lower intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber. Diets did not influence milk yield; however the milk production efficiency (kg of milk produced/kg of crude protein ingested was better in goats fed the dry yeast diet. Acidity, somatic cell counts and milk urea nitrogen values were not affected by treatments. Animals fed the soybean + dry yeast diet had higher fat and total solids than those fed the dry yeast diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and total carbohydrate was lower for soybean only and soybean + dry yeast diets. Total digestible nutrients were higher for dry yeast and soy bean diets than soybean + dry yeast diet. Dry yeast from sugar cane is a good alternative protein source for feeding lactating dairy goats and can be recommended because it maintains the production performance.

  8. Effects of shading on dry matter partitioning and yield of field-grown sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos, F.J.; Soriano, A.; Fereres, E.

    1992-01-01

    Crop simulation models require quantitative descriptions of the effects of irradiance on dry matter partition and yield. The objective of this work was to quantify the effects of reduced radiation intensity during different phenological stages on the growth, dry matter partitioning and grain numbers of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, L.). A field experiment was carried out in 1990 with 50 per cent shading treatments. The earliest treatment began at crop emergence while the latest ended at first anthesis. Shading had little effect on plant leaf area growth but reduced biomass and yield. The dry matter: radiation quotient and specific leaf area increased with shading. Grain number per head was decreased by shading, with the greatest effect occurring when shading was applied prior to anthesis. All shading treatments increased dry matter partitioning to stems, decreased assimilate partitioning to the heads and had no effect on the partitioning to leaves. (author)

  9. Photosynthetic rate, dry matter accumulation and yield inter-relationships jn genotypes of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, R.; Udaya Kumar, M.; Krishna Sastry, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthetic efficiency, dry matter accumulation and yield in five genotypes of paddy derived from a single cross between Jaya X Halubbalu was studied. Photosynthetic efficiency of younger leaves, on the main tiller was higher than in the older leaves. A significant positive correlation between RuDPcase activity and photosynthetic efficiency was observed in these genotypes. Also a similar positive correlation between dry matter production and photosynthetic efficiency during vegetative period but not during post-anthesis period was observed. Genotypes with high photosynthetic efficiency and also the genotypes with high LAD produced higher dry matter. A reduction in LAD or in photosynthetic efficiency during the post-anthesis period and thus a reduction in source capacity which occurred specially in late types resulted in a lesser ratio between productive and total tillers and also higher percent sterility. Differences in yield amongst the genotypes were not significant, since in the late types MR. 333 and MR. 335, the post-anthesis dry matter production was low due to lesser source capacity. But in the early types, though the total dry matter was less, the post-anthesis source capacity was high. The importance of post-anthesis leaf area of photo-synthetic efficiency in productivity in genotypes of rice is highlighted. (author)

  10. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Del Bianco Benedeti

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05 intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P 0.05. These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics.

  11. Cell wall content and rumen dry matter disappearance of γ-irradiated wood by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachowsky, G.; Baer, M.; Zuber, S.; Tiroke, K.

    1990-01-01

    Spruce sawdust and barks of spruce, pine and larch were irradiated with various doses of γ-rays (0; 0.1; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 MGy). Cell wall constituents and rumen dry-matter disappearance (incubation time: 48 h) were determined. γ-Irradiation significantly reduced neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre content of all by-products. The crude lignin of the wood by-products was not significantly influenced by γ-irradiation. Rumen dry-matter loss of untreated sawdust was 5.6%, that of barks between 18.2 (pine) and 64.6% (spruce). γ-Irradiation significantly increased rumen dry-matter loss. Increased washout due to solubilization and particle breakdown was mainly responsible for the higher dry-matter losses in the rumen after irradiation. The results do not justify practical use because of the high dose of irradiation required. (author)

  12. The effect of age on in sacco estimates of rumen dry matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine whether rumen dry matter and crude protein degradability in calves aged 8-10 weeks differs from that in mature cows. Five Holstein bull calves were rumen-fistulated at six weeks of age and were used in consecutive weekly 24 h trials from 8-20 weeks of age. Dry matter and crude ...

  13. Intravenous lipid infusion affects dry matter intake, methane yield, and rumen bacteria structure in late-lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Ole; Reyer, Henry; Otten, Winfried; Nürnberg, Gerd; Derno, Michael; Wimmers, Klaus; Metges, Cornelia C; Kuhla, Björn

    2018-03-28

    Increasing the dietary fat content of ruminant diets decreases methane (CH 4 ) production. This effect is caused by the toxic properties of fatty acids on rumen microbial populations, coating of feed particles diminishing the accessibility for microbes, and a reduction in dry matter intake (DMI). The latter effect is caused by postabsorptive long-chain fatty acids eliciting anorexic signaling; however, whether circulating long-chain fatty acids affect rumen CH 4 production alike is unknown. To approach this question, 5 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows in late lactation received 2 jugular catheters and were kept in respiration chambers to measure CH 4 production and DMI for 48 h. In a crossover design, cows were intravenously infused with a 20% lipid emulsion (LIPO) or 0.9% NaCl (CON). The LIPO cows received 2.1 kg of triglycerides/d [0.152 ± 0.007 g of triglycerides/(kg of BW × h) -1 ] consisting of 12.1% palmitic acid, 4.2% stearic acid, 31.1% oleic acid, and 52.7% linoleic acid. Blood and rumen fluid samples were taken hourly during the day. Results showed that LIPO compared with CON infusion increased plasma triglyceride as well as free fatty acid and serotonin concentrations but reduced the proportion of de novo synthesized milk fatty acids (sum of C6 to C16). Daily CH 4 production and DMI were lower, whereas daily CH 4 yield (CH 4 /DMI) was greater in LIPO than CON cows, although CH 4 yield decreased from d 1 to d 2 by 2 to 14% in LIPO-infused cows only. This effect was associated with a higher (acetate + butyrate)/propionate ratio, tending lower propionate concentrations between 24 and 34 h of infusion, reduced relative abundances of genera belonging to Succinivibrio, Ruminococcaceae, and Ruminiclostridium, and greater relative Bacteroidetes genus abundances in the rumen. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dry matter production, radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of potato in response to temperature and nitrogen application regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Plauborg, Finn; Kristensen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    while N rate varied from 0 to 180 kg ha−1. Statistical analysis using mixed modelling detected two clear features: Both temperature and N supply were important factors for dry matter production. Higher temperatures were associated with decreased dry matter production mainly through its negative effect...... on radiation use efficiency (RUE) when comparing inter-annual variation in dry matter production. The loss of tuber dry matter was c. 10% per °C, which is higher than estimated in previous studies. Specifically, compared to mean air temperature from end of tuber initiation to maturity, mean air temperature...... from emergence to end of tuber initiation was more important for dry matter production. N supply promoted dry matter production (p

  15. Partial Replacement of Ground Corn with Glycerol in Beef Cattle Diets: Intake, Digestibility, Performance, and Carcass Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bianco Benedeti, Pedro; Paulino, Pedro Veiga Rodrigues; Marcondes, Marcos Inácio; Maciel, Ivan França Smith; da Silva, Matheus Custódio; Faciola, Antonio Pinheiro

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of replacing dry ground corn with crude glycerol on intake, apparent digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of finishing beef bulls. A completely randomized block design experiment with 25 d for adaptation and 100 d for data collection was conducted, in which 3,640 Nellore bulls (367 ± 36.8 kg; 18 ± 3 mo) were blocked by body weight and assigned to 20 pens. Bulls were randomly assigned to one of four treatments: 0, 5, 10, and 15% (dry matter basis) of crude glycerol in the diet. Initially, 20 bulls were slaughtered to serve as a reference to estimate initial empty body weight, which allowed for carcass gain calculation. Bulls were weighed at the beginning, at two-thirds, and at the end of the experiment for performance calculations. Carcass measurements were obtained by ultrasound. Fecal output was estimated using indigestible neutral detergent fiber as an internal marker. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedures in SAS 9.2 (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Intake of dry matter, organic matter, and neutral detergent fiber decreased linearly (P 0.05) intakes of crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients. Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and total digestible nutrients increased quadratically (P carcass gain, carcass dressing, gain-to-feed ratio, Longissimus thoracis muscle area, and back and rump fat thicknesses (P > 0.05). These results suggest that crude glycerol may be included in finishing beef diets at levels up to 15% without impairing performance and carcass characteristics. PMID:26820725

  16. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína e energia bruta, e balanço de nitrogênio das silagens de cinco genótipos de milho Consumption and apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy, and balance of nitrogen of silages of five maize genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.R. Freitas

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantificaram-se o consumo voluntário e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta, energia bruta e balanço de nitrogênio das silagens de cinco genótipos de milho (HT01, HT47C, HT129, AG 5011 e BR 3123. Foram utilizados 15 carneiros alojados em gaiolas metabólicas para coleta total de fezes e urina. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os genótipos quanto ao consumo e digestibilidade da MS, da EB e da PB (P>0,05. Os consumos de MS, EB e PB digestíveis e energia metabolizável também não foram diferentes entre os híbridos (P>0,05. Quanto às relações consumo de energia digestível/consumo de MS e consumo de energia metabolizável/consumo de MS, o genótipo AG5011 foi semelhante ao HT01 (P>0,05 e superior aos demais (P0,05. Todos os genótipos produziram silagens de bom valor nutritivo, entretanto o genótipo AG5011 apresentou maior eficiência na utilização da energia (PThe voluntary intake and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy and the nitrogen balance, of silages of five maize genotypes (HT01, HT47C, HT129, AG5011 and BR3123 were quantified. Fifteen sheep were stored in metabolic cages for total collection of feces and urine. A complete randomized design, with five treatments and six repetitions was used. The intake and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy did not differ (P>0.05 among treatments. The intake of digestible dry matter, crude protein, crude energy and metabolic energy did not differ (P>0.05 among the genotypes. The ratios of digestible energy intake/dry matter intake and metabolic energy intake/dry matter intake of the genotype AG5011 silage was similar (P>0.05 to HT01, and higher than the other genotypes (P<0.05. All genotypes showed similar and positive nitrogen balance, and all of them produced silages of good nutritional value

  17. Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge was evaluated in a sewage sludge disposal center in Beijing, China. The results showed most of solid matters could be retained in the dried sludge after drying. Just about 3.1% of solid matters were evaporated with steam mainly by the form of volatile fatty acids. Zn was the dominant heavy metal in the sludge, followed by Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, and Cd. The heavy metals in the condensate were all below the detection limit except Hg. Hg in the condensate accounted for less than 0.1% of the total Hg. It can be concluded that most of the heavy metals are also retained in the dried sludge during the drying process, but their bioavailability could be changed significantly. The results are useful for sewage sludge utilization and its condensate treatment.

  18. Intake, digestion and nitrogen balance of diets blended with urea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The diet blended with 3% urea treated cowpea husk gave the highest dry matter intake, growth rate and .... total collection of faeces and urine during the last five days of the trial. .... tissue synthesis of non-essential amino acids from absorbed ...

  19. The chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean IVDMD of maize residues obtained by means of a whole plant maize harvester was found to be relatively high (IVDMD = 55.6±7.0%) while the crude protein (CP) (46±10 g/kg dry matter (DM)) and phosphorus (P) (1.2±0.5 g/kg DM) concentrations were below the maintenance requirement for dry gestating beef ...

  20. Food and snow intake, body mass and rumen function in reindeer fed lichen and subsequently starved for 4 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.H. Aagnes

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Food and snow intake, body mass, rumen fluid volume, rumen fluid turnover time and ruminal dry matter content were examined in four female rumen fistulated reindeer which were first fed lichen ad libitum in 14 days and then starved for 4 days in March. When the animals were eating lichen median daily dry matter food intake was 15.7 g/kg (range 12.2-19.9 g/kg, while median daily snow intake only amounted to 0.6 g/kg (range 0-3.3 g/kg. The median body mass decreased from 67.5 kg (range 62.5-69.5 kg to 63.5 kg (range 60.5-68.5 kg during this period, and dropped further to 62.5 kg (range 57.5-66.0 kg after four days of starvation. Rumen fluid volume and fluid turnover time were fairly constant in individual animals, but varied between animals fed lichen ad libitum. Neither of these parameters changed significantly (P>0.05, but ruminal dry matter decreased, while snow intake rose conspicuously in reponse to starvation. Thus, aside from the latter, which mitigate the reduction of total rumen volume, we have failed to expose any special adaptions aimed at the maintenance of ruminal integrity in starving reindeer.

  1. Compost amendment, enhanced nutrient uptake and dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trial was conducted to assess the influence of Compost and inorganic fertilizer as well as plant growth stage on growth, nutrient uptake, dry matter accumulation and partitioning in maize crop grown on the battery waste contaminated site. Two types of compost (Mexican Sunflower (MSC) and Cassava peels (CPC) ...

  2. Evaluation of a microwave method for dry matter determination in faecal samples from weaned pigs with or without clinical diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ken Steen; Stege, Helle; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    2011-07-01

    Microwave drying as a procedure for determination of faecal dry matter in weaned pigs was evaluated and clinical relevant cut-off values between faecal consistency scores were determined. Repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated. Overall coefficient of variation was 0.03. The 95% confidence limits for any future faecal subsample examined by any operator in any replica were ± 0.85% faecal dry matter. Robustness in relation to weight of wet faeces was evaluated. The weight categories were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 g. Samples of 0.5 g gave significantly different mean faecal dry matter content compared to weighing of 1.0-3.0 g. Agreement with freeze-drying was evaluated. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.94. On average the faecal dry matter values was 1.7% (SD=1.99%) higher in freeze dried compared to micro waved samples. Non-parametric ROC analyses were used to determine optimal faecal dry matter cut-off values for clinical faecal consistency scores. The 4 consistency scores were score 1=firm and shaped, score 2=soft and shaped, score 3=loose and score 4=watery. The cut-off values were score 1: faecal dry matter content >19.5%, score 2: faecal dry matter content ≤ 19.5% and >18.0%, score 3: faecal dry matter content ≤ 18.0% and >11.3%, score 4: faecal dry matter content ≤ 11.3%. In conclusion, the microwave procedure has an acceptable repeatability/reproducibility and good agreement with freeze drying can be expected. A minimum of 1.0 g of wet faeces must be used for analyses. Faecal dry matter cut-off values between 4 different clinical consistency scores were determined. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Ruminal degradation of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber of banana peel treated with limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Pinto Monção

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the kinetics of dry matter degradation and neutral detergent fiber of banana peel treated with limestone. The banana peel has been acquired from a candy manufacturer that after washing with chlorinated water to 1% and pulp removal was discarded. The banana peel in nature was treated with 1, 2, 3 and 4% of limestone in the natural matter, homogenized and pre-dried in the sun for 120 hours. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments (0 (control, 1, 2, 3 and 4% inclusion of limestone with 3 repetitions. The dry matter potential degradability, showed no difference (P>0.05 in the levels compared to the control with an average of 67.58%. The insoluble degradation fraction rate of dry matter and the fiber fraction did not differ (P> 0.05 between levels and control. In relation to effective degradability of neutral detergent fiber, there was an increase of 3.47% for each percentage unit increased limestone. In relation to the ruminal degradation parameters of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber is not recommended the utilization of limestone as an additive in the treatment of banana peel.

  4. Development of a model for predicting the dry matter production of mulberry [Morus alba] based on meteorological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, K.; Ito, D.

    1999-01-01

    It is necessary to predict mulberry growth and yield precisely at any time during the growing period, since mulberry trees are cut anytime along with the increase of the frequency of silkworm rearing per year. Therefore, in this study, attempts were made to develop a model to predict the dry matter production in mulberry fields with standard density with the cooperation of the prefectural experimental stations of Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, Saitama, Tokyo and Gifu. To construct the model, we conducted three experiments. In the first year, we estimated the dry weight of mulberry new shoots based on the length and base width. Logarithm of leaf dry weight of a new shoot was regressed linearly on the logarithm of the product of length and base width. Stem dry weight was estimated with a linear regression of the logarithm on the logarithm of the product of length and base square width. In the next year, we evaluated the maximal effective radiation (Smax) of mulberry, over which mulberry cannot use radiation to produce dry matter. This experiment included shaded and control (non-shaded) plots, and the difference between these plots was analyzed. Shading treatment decreased the dry matter production, but did not affect the radiation conversion efficiency. Shoot dry matter production increased almost proportionally with intercepted radiation except for the later growth periods. Therefore, no Smax was revealed in mulberry fields with standard density. The effect of temperature and growth stage on the radiation conversion efficiency was investigated last year. Relation of temperature and radiation conversion efficiency was not clear for shoot dry matter production. However, there was a positive relation for stem dry mater production. Although the efficiency decreased with mulberry growth for leaf dry matter production, it increased at the early growth stage and decreased at the late stage for stem dry matter production

  5. Digestive physiology of captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla): determinants of faecal dry matter content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, J M; Stahl, M; Osmann, C; Ortmann, S; Kreuzer, M; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2015-06-01

    Giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) are specialized insectivores and consume mainly ants and termites in the wild. In captivity, giant anteaters are either fed a complete diet, or a combination of a domestic carnivore diet with leaf eater pellets, or a traditional gruel-type diet. Soft faeces are a frequently encountered problem with this type of feeding. In the present study, we analysed diet and faeces composition, calculated digestibility and measured mean retention time on various diets in eight giant anteaters (total of n = 64 experiments). The results suggest that the digestive physiology of giant anteaters is similar to that of domestic dogs and cats in terms of nutrient digestibility and digesta retention. When testing correlations between faecal dry matter content and other variables, no relationship with dietary crude fibre content or mean digesta retention time could be detected. However, acid insoluble ash intake was significantly and positively correlated with faecal dry matter content. The amount of acid insoluble ash excreted with the faeces was higher than that ingested with the diet offered, indicating that the giant anteaters ingested soil from their enclosure of up to 93 g per day. This finding is consistent with observation of faeces of wild giant anteaters that contain soil or sand most likely due to indiscriminate feeding. It also corresponds to reports that indigestible materials such as peat, soil, chitin or cellulose contribute to a firmer faecal consistency in various carnivore species. Therefore, offering giant anteaters the opportunity to voluntarily ingest soil from their enclosure might be beneficial. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. Wound healing and dry matter content of orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivars as influenced by curing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atuna Richard A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Curing in sweetpotato is a crucial pre- or postharvest practice that could guarantee improved shelf life,but rarely practised by sweetpotato farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, principally due to lack of knowledge. Wound healing ability of cultivars has been associated with good root storability. In this study, two orange fleshed sweetpotato cultivars (Apomuden and Nane were either cured in-ground by dehaulming prior to harvest or field-piled over a seven-day period to study their responses to wound healing and changes in dry matter content. Apomuden is a low dry matter content(19% variety in Ghana while Nane is a high dry matter content (27% farmer cultivar under evaluation for formal release. A potato peeler was used to deliberately create the wounds on 21 storage roots. The curing treatment was applied and the subsequent post-treatment quality status of the storage roots was monitored daily over a seven-day period. Wound healing ability was scored as follows: 0 = no lignification, 0.5 = patchy lignification and1= complete lignification. Wound healing ability score was not significantly different for Apomuden and Nane (0.83,0.78, respectively; p = 0.120. However, storage roots curedby field-piled curing method resulted in significantly better wound healing ability than dehaulming (0.86, 0.75,respectively, p = 0.001. Over the seven-day curing period,Nane had a significantly higher and stable dry mattercontent compared with Apomuden (p = 0.008, whose dry matter content was lower and fluctuating. The field-piled curing resulted in higher (p = 0.020 dry matter content,24%, compared with in-ground curing (22%. The field piled curing method, which can easily be adopted by sweetpotato farmers, increased the dry matter content of the storage roots; therefore, it could potentially reduce the post-harvest losses in sweetpotato. The high dry matter content of Nane is a desirable root quality attribute for orange-fleshed cultivars and could augment existing

  7. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  8. Accuracies of breeding values for dry matter intake using nongenotyped animals and predictor traits in different lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla-Pech, C I V; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Calus, M P L; Ten Napel, J

    2017-11-01

    Given the interest of including dry matter intake (DMI) in the breeding goal, accurate estimated breeding values (EBV) for DMI are needed, preferably for separate lactations. Due to the limited amount of records available on DMI, 2 main approaches have been suggested to compute those EBV: (1) the inclusion of predictor traits, such as fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and live weight (LW), and (2) the addition of genomic information of animals using what is called genomic prediction. Recently, several methodologies to estimate EBV utilizing genomic information (EBV) have become available. In this study, a new method known as single-step ridge-regression BLUP (SSRR-BLUP) is suggested. The SSRR-BLUP method does not have an imposed limit on the number of genotyped animals, as the commonly used methods do. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters using a relatively large data set with DMI records, as well as compare the accuracies of the EBV for DMI. These accuracies were obtained using 4 different methods: BLUP (using pedigree for all animals with phenotypes), genomic BLUP (GBLUP; only for genotyped animals), single-step GBLUP (SS-GBLUP), and SSRR-BLUP (for genotyped and nongenotyped animals). Records from different lactations, with or without predictor traits (FPCM and LW), were used in the model. Accuracies of EBV for DMI (defined as the correlation between the EBV and pre-adjusted DMI phenotypes divided by the average accuracy of those phenotypes) ranged between 0.21 and 0.38 across methods and scenarios. Accuracies of EBV for DMI using BLUP were the lowest accuracies obtained across methods. Meanwhile, accuracies of EBV for DMI were similar in SS-GBLUP and SSRR-BLUP, and lower for the GBLUP method. Hence, SSRR-BLUP could be used when the number of genotyped animals is large, avoiding the construction of the inverse genomic relationship matrix. Adding information on DMI from different lactations in the reference population gave higher

  9. Nutrient Intake and Digestibility in Merino Sheep Fed Peanut Straw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanim, C.; Muhlisin

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to compare nutrient intake and digestibility between male and female Merino fed peanut straw as sole feed. Four male and five female Merino sheep ages 10 to 12 month with average weight of 40 kg were used in this study. All animals were confined in individual metabolism cages and nylon nets were fitted bellow the cages for faecal collection. This experiment was done with 14 d adaptation period and 7 d collection period. Representative sample of feed, refusal feed, and faeces were analysed proximate including dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF), ether extract (EE), and extract-free nitrogen (EFN). Data collected were used to calculate nutrient intake and digestibility. All nutrient intake in male Merino was higher (Pdigestibility of DM, CP, and CF in male Merino sheep were higher (Pdigestibility.

  10. Correlation between intake and ingestive behavior of pasture-grazed heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermógenes Almeida Santana Junior

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the correlation between intake and ingestive behavior of crossbred heifers in grazing tropical. The experiment was conducted on the Princesa do Mateiro Farm, in the city of Ribeirão do Largo, Bahia. A total of 20 heifers with genetic makeup 5/8 dairy Guzerá and 3/8 Holstein, average age of 18 months and body weight of 187 ± 13.1 kg have been used. The experiment lasted 224 days and involved animals raised in a rotational grazing system with Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandú. Grazing time was not correlated with any of the variables associated with intake. Rumination time showed positive correlations with the intake of forage dry matter (DMIF and neutral detergent fiber (NDFI. Variables associated with the time spent on feeding at the trough, overall feeding and total chewing were not correlated with intake (P>0.05. There have been positive correlations between the number of grazing periods (NGP and rumination periods (NRP and total DM intake (TDMI, organic matter (OMI, forage (DMIF, neutral detergent fiber (NDFI, total carbohydrates (TCHI and ether extract (EEI. Crude protein intake (CPI was positively correlated with NGP and NRP. The mouthful rate was positively correlated with TDMI, OMI, DMIF, NDFI, TCHI, EEI and CPI. Average time per swallow was negatively correlated with TDMI, OMI, NDFI, TCHI and EEI. Positive correlations have been observed between the number of mouthfuls per day and TDMI, OMI, DMIF, NDFI, TCHI, EEI. The number of chews per bolus showed negative correlations with DMIS and CPI. The time per cake ruminated has correlated negatively with the intake of crude protein. The number of chews per bolus showed positive correlations with the intakes of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber. The number of boli per day showed positive correlations with DMIF and TCHI. The time spent on chewing showed no significant correlation with intake. In conflict with the national and international

  11. Nitrogen deficiency in maize. I. Effects on crop growth, development, dry matter partitioning, and kernel set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhart, S.A.; Andrade, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in N availability affect growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.) and may lead to changes in crop physiological conditions at flowering and in kernel set. The objectives of this study were (i) to establish the effect of N availability on crop development, crop radiation interception, radiation use efficiency, and dry matter partitioning; and (ii) to study the relationship between kernel number and crop growth at flowering and between kernel number and crop N accumulation at flowering. Three experiments with a commercial hybrid (DK636) were carried out under field conditions at the INTA Balcarce Experimental Station, Argentina, without water limitations. The treatments consisted of different radiation levels, obtained by shading, combined with different levels of N availability obtained by the addition of N fertilizer or organic matter to immobilize N. Nitrogen deficiencies delayed both vegetative and reproductive phenological development, slightly reduced leaf emergence rate, and strongly diminished leaf expansion rate and leaf area duration. Nitrogen deficiencies reduced radiation interception as much as radiation use efficiency and their effects on the ear dry mater/total dry matter ratio at harvest were associated with crop growth rate reductions at flowering. Dry matter partitioning to reproductive sinks at flowering and the ear dry matter/total dry matter ratio at harvest were reduced by N shortages. Significant relationships between kernel number and N accumulation rate or crop growth rate at flowering were fitted by linear + plateau functions with thresholds above which kernel number and grain yield did not increase

  12. The amount of food ingested in a single meal by rainbow trout offered chopped herring, dry and wet diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohonen; Grove; McIlroy

    1997-07-01

    Two-year-old 1·5-kg rainbow trout were held in cages and conditioned by feeding either on low-fat chopped herring (H trout) or dry pellets (P trout) for 15 weeks. Their satiation amounts were then determined under standard conditions. On a wet weight basis H trout ate 2·5-3·5 times more food than P trout; this was sufficient to compensate for the high water content of herring and thereby maintain the dry matter intake. When P trout were offered herring (PH trout) they consumed more food than when offered dry pellets but not as much as H trout. Stomach capacity restricted the intake and their dry matter intake was reduced by c. 40%. When H trout were offered dry pellets (HP trout) they adjusted their intake immediately close to the level of P trout although their larger stomachs could have accommodated more than twice this volume of dry food. The return of appetite after a satiation meal was almost linear with time. Appetite increased at c. 556 mg g-1 body weight h-1 for H trout and at 142 mg g-1 bw h-1 for P trout. The return of appetite in PH trout was significantly slower (c. 370 mg g-1 bw h-1) than in H trout; the previous dietary history of the PH trout limited their capacity to process larger volumes of wet food in a single meal. Fish offered dry diet (P and HP trout) had similar rates of appetite return despite their previous feeding history suggesting that the property of the dry feed itself might limit meal size. The total gastric emptying time of diets of similar dry matter content (with and without large amounts of water) was similar, but the delay time before gastric emptying starts tended to be longer for dry diets. Dry pellets appear to impose a demand for water that prolongs the gastric delay. This water demand is met partly by drinking since the trout fed on dry pellets drank significantly more (436±189 mg kg-1 h-1) than unfed and herring-fed trout which drank little or not at all (65±113 and 70±66 mg kg-1 h-1 respectively). Dietary water

  13. Using carbon emissions, oxygen consumption, and energy retention estimates to calculate dietary energy partitioning and estimate forage intake by beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Take home Message: Estimating ME intake by grazing cattle seems possible using respiration gas exchange estimates. Introduction: We hypothesized that carbon dioxide, methane, and oxigen exchange estimates in breath clouds could be used as biomarkers to ultimately estimate dry matter intake in grazi...

  14. Rumen dry matter degradability of fresh and ensiled sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and in situ ruminal degradability of fresh (FSC) and ensiled (ESC) sugarcane. In situ dry matter degradability (DMD) was determined using the nylon bag technique with four cows equipped ruminal fistulas. Cows were fed with fresh or ensiled sugarcane and ...

  15. Dewatering treatments to increase dry matter content of the brown seaweed, kelp (Laminaria digitata ((Hudson) JV Lamouroux)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joe A; Turner, Lesley B; Adams, Jessica M M; Dyer, Philip W; Theodorou, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Macroalgal water content is an on-going problem for the use of readily accessible seaweeds in sustainable biorefining, including fuel production. Silage is a reduced-water, compactable, easily stored, transportable material. Ensiling could establish a non-seasonal supply of preserved algal biomass, but requires high initial dry matter content to mitigate environmental pollution risks from effluent. This study investigated potential dewatering methods for kelp harvested throughout the year. Treatments included air-drying, osmotic media and acids. Significant interactions between treatment and harvest-time were observed for traits of interest. Fresh weight loss during treatment was composed of changes in water and dry matter content. Air-drying gave reliable increase in final dry matter content; in summer and autumn 30% dry matter content was reached after 24h. Dilute hydrochloric acid reduced stickiness and rendered material suitable for dewatering by screw-pressing; it may be possible to use the consequent pH reduction to promote efficient preservation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Relationship between rumen protozoal growth, intake of DM, TDN, N, DOM and VFA production rate in buffalo calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1981-01-01

    Relationships between in vivo rumen protozoal growth and intakes of dry matter (DM), nitrogen, digestible organic matter (DOM), total digestible nutrients (TDN) and volatile fatty acid (VFA) production have been studied. Isotope dilution technique and 14 C-labelled rumen protozoa were used in the studies. (author)

  17. Standing crop dry matter accumulation and quality patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine-week production curves and quality values of eight subtropical pasture species were studied under supplemental spray irrigation to characterize their productive capacity, periodicity and quality.All species exhibited a slow dry matter regrowth rate for two to three weeks after defoliation to 7,5 or 10 cm height. Thereafter ...

  18. Genotype x Environment Interaction for Tuber Yield, Dry Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine stability of tuber yield, dry matter content and specific gravity, and the nature and magnitude of genotype x environment (G x E) interaction in elite tetraploid potato genotypes. Eleven potato genotypes including two standard checks were evaluated in the eastern part of Ethiopia at ...

  19. The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter, shoot P and Zn concentrations in wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.)wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) grown in a calcareous soil.

  20. A Physiological Stimulating Factor of Water Intake during and after Dry Forage Feeding in Large-type Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Thang, Tran; Sunagawa, Katsunori; Nagamine, Itsuki; Kishi, Tetsuya; Ogura, Go

    2012-04-01

    When ruminants consume dry forage, they also drink large volumes of water. The objective of this study was to clarify which factor produced when feed boluses enter the rumen is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period in large-type goats fed on dry forage for 2 h twice daily. Six large-type male esophageal- and ruminal-fistulated goats (crossbred Japanese Saanen/Nubian, aged 2 to 6 years, weighing 85.1±4.89 kg) were used in two experiments. In experiment 1, the water deprivation (WD) control and the water availability (WA) treatment were conducted to compare changes in water intake during and after dry forage feeding. In experiment 2, a normal feeding conditions (NFC) control and a feed bolus removal (FBR) treatment were carried out to investigate whether decrease in circulating plasma volume or increase in plasma osmolality is mainly responsible for the marked increase in water intake in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. The results of experiment 1 showed that in the WA treatment, small amounts of water were consumed during the first hour of feeding while the majority of water intake was observed during the second hour of the 2 h feeding period. Therefore, the amounts of water consumed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period accounted for 82.8% of the total water intake. The results of experiment 2 indicated that in comparison with the NFC control, decrease in plasma volume in the FBR treatment, which was indicated by increase in hematocrit and plasma total protein concentrations, was higher (pforage feeding in large-type goats.

  1. Determination of the minimum dry matter index for the optimum harvest of 'Hass' avocado fruits in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Pedro Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has become an important producer of 'Hass' avocado in the last three years; however, a minimum dry matter content has not been established as a maturity index for harvest. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between oil percentage and dry matter content in order to establish a minimum harvest index for 'Hass' avocado fruits grown in Colombia. Samples were collected for maturity determinations over three years of 'Hass' avocado fruit cultivation from fifteen different orchards in the department of Antioquia in order to determine the dry matter and oil percentage of fruits throughout the season. A simple linear relationship between oil content and dry matter was thus established. The equations for all of the studied orchards presented a good correlation coefficient, ranging between 0.70 on the Cartucho orchard in the municipality of Retiro and 0.99 on the Gacamayas and Paraiso orchards in the municipality of Entrerrios and Retiro. Using the minimal oil standard of 11.2% as a reference, the orchards that were found to have a high dry matter percentage at harvest were Cartucho in Retiro (26%, followed by Piedras Blancas and Santa Cruz in the municipality of Venecia (25%; while the 'Hass' avocado fruit from the Cebadero orchard in Retiro, Coconi in the municipality of La Ceja and Guacamayas in Entrerrios reached this oil standard at 22% dry matter, which could be a commercial advantage. Based on these oil content results, a minimal dry matter index of 23.5% was proposed as a harvest maturity indicator for 'Hass' avocado grown in Colombia. This harvesting index will need to be refined over time and with the addition of samples from more regions and climatic data profiles.

  2. Forage selection and performance of sheep grazing dry annual range.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de N.; Benjamin, R.W.; Keulen, van H.

    1986-01-01

    During 114 days of grazing, sheep grazing a dry annual pasture in Israel selected the fine fraction available with a higher nutritive value. As this fraction became depleted and feed quality dropped, organic matter intake dropped from 1.73 to 0.75 kg/sheep/d. Sheep lost weight, body condition and

  3. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal stimulant affect dry matter and nutrient accumulation in bean and soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Henrique Moreira Salgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of biological resources in agriculture may allow less dependence and better use of finite resources. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native to the Brazilian Savannah associated with the application of mycorrhizal stimulant (7-hydroxy, 4'-methoxy-isoflavone, in the early growth of common bean and soybean. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design, with a 7 x 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of five arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species, joint inoculation (junction of all species in equal proportions and native fungi (without inoculation, in the presence and absence of stimulant. The following traits were evaluated: shoot dry matter, root dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, nodules dry matter and accumulation of calcium, zinc and phosphorus in the shoot dry matter. The increase provided by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the use of stimulant reached over 200 % in bean and over 80 % in soybean plants. The fungi Acaulospora scrobiculata, Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora margarita and Rhizophagus clarus, for bean, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Dentiscutata heterogama, Rhizophagus clarus and the joint inoculation, for soybean, increased the dry matter and nutrients accumulation.

  4. Decoupling Seasonal Changes in Water Content and Dry Matter to Predict Live Conifer Foliar Moisture Content.

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, W. M.; Hadlow, A. M.; Huguet, K.

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples fromPinus contorta for two growing seasons and quantified their LFMC, relative water content (RWC) and dry matter chemistry. LFMC quantifies the amou...

  5. Intake and ingestive behavior in lambs fed low-digestibility forages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Antônio E; Carvalho, Gleidson G P; Pires, Aureliano J V; Silva, Robério R; Santos, Paulo E F; Murta, Rogério M; Pereira, Fabiano M; Carvalho, Bruna M A; Maranhão, Camila M A; Rufino, Luana M A; Santos, Stefanie A; Pina, Douglas S

    2016-10-01

    Ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets consisting of fresh sugarcane with urea, bagasse treated with calcium oxide, and urea ammoniated sugarcane bagasse supplemented with concentrate mixture in 50:50 ratio were evaluated. For this, 34 wethers Santa Inês in their growing phase, with an average age of 3.0 ± 0.6 months and a mean initial live weight of 17.8± 5.2 kg were used. The animals were distributed in a completely randomized design and subjected to visual observation periods of 5 days, for 24 h a day, during the experimental period. Dry matter (DM) intake and intake efficiency of DM were higher (P  0.05). Grams of dry matter per ruminated bolus were similar among animals fed with fresh sugarcane and ammoniated bagasse (P > 0.05) but lower (P  0.05) to those found for feeding efficiency. The number of feeding and rumination periods was not affected (P > 0.05) by diet. Based on the intake and ingestive behavior responses, the fresh sugarcane with urea compared to bagasse treated with calcium oxide and ammoniated bagasse was found to be the better alternative feed for use in lamb diets.

  6. Feed intake, digestibility and energy partitioning in beef cattle fed diets with cassava pulp instead of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongphitee, Kanokwan; Sommart, Kritapon; Phonbumrung, Thamrongsak; Gunha, Thidarat; Suzuki, Tomoyuki

    2018-03-13

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of replacing rice straw with different proportions of cassava pulp on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial population, energy partitioning and efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization in beef cattle. Eighteen yearling Thai native beef cattle (Bos indicus) with an average initial body weight of 98.3 ± 12.8 kg were allocated to one of three dietary treatments and fed ad libitum for 149 days in a randomized complete block design. Three dietary treatments using different proportions of cassava pulp (100, 300 and 500 g/kg dry matter basis) instead of rice straw as a base in a fermented total mixed ration were applied. Animals were placed in a metabolic pen equipped with a ventilated head box respiration system to determine total digestibility and energy balance. The average daily weight gain, digestible intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and non-fiber carbohydrate, total protozoa, energy intake, energy retention and energy efficiency increased linearly (p energy excretion in the urine (p energy requirement for the maintenance of yearling Thai native cattle, determined by a linear regression analysis, was 399 kJ/kg BW0.75, with an efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for growth of 0.86. Our results demonstrated that increasing the proportion of cassava pulp up to 500 g/kg of dry matter as a base in a fermented total mixed ration is an effective strategy for improving productivity in zebu cattle.

  7. Assimilation and Translocation of Dry Matter and Phosphorus in Rice Genotypes Affected by Salt-Alkaline Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt-alkaline stress generally leads to soil compaction and fertility decline. It also restricts rice growth and phosphorus acquisition. In this pot experiment, two relatively salt-alkaline tolerant (Dongdao-4 and Changbai-9 and sensitive (Changbai-25 and Tongyu-315 rice genotypes were planted in sandy (control and salt-alkaline soil to evaluate the characteristics of dry matter and phosphorus assimilation and translocation in rice. The results showed that dry matter and phosphorus assimilation in rice greatly decreased under salt-alkaline stress as the plants grew. The translocation and contribution of dry matter and phosphorus to the grains also increased markedly; different performances were observed between genotypes under salt-alkaline stress. D4 and C9 showed higher dry matter translocation, translocation efficiency and contribution of dry matter assimilation to panicles than those of C25 and T315. These changes in D4 and C9 indexes occurred at low levels of salt-alkaline treatment. Higher phosphorus acquisition efficiency of D4 and C9 were also found under salt-alkaline conditions. Additionally, the phosphorus translocation significantly decreased in C25 and T315 in the stress treatment. In conclusion, the results indicated that salt-alkaline-tolerant rice genotypes may have stronger abilities to assimilate and transfer biomass and phosphorus than sensitive genotypes, especially in salt-alkaline conditions.

  8. Possible reasons for differences in residual feed intake: An overview ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low-RFI animals tend to digest feed better than high-RFI animals, and as intake increases there is a tendency for digestion to decrease. The correlation between RFI and dry matter (DM) digestibility has been determined to be r = –0.33. A positive correlation exists between metabolisable energy for maintenance (ME) and ...

  9. Genetic by environment interaction on fresh root yield, dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes and two released white-fleshed clones (check) were evaluated in five locations representing the major cassava growing agroecological zones of Nigeria to access their performance for fresh root yield, dry matter content, total carotene content and genotypes by environment ...

  10. Photoperiod and growing degree days effect on dry matter partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of photoperiod and growing degree days (GDD) on dry matter and dry partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke was investigated during 2008-09 and 2009-10. Three Jerusalem artichoke genotypes (CN-52867, JA-89 and HEL-65) were planted in 15 day-intervals between with thirteen different dates (Sep...

  11. Comparison of in situ dry matter degradation parameters with in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adem Kamalak

    grains on rumen fermentation characteristics using the in vitro gas ..... Effect of chemical content and physical characteristics on nutritional value ... properties and in vitro dry matter on starch digestion of eight sorghum grain hybrids and maize.

  12. Relationship between incident radiation, leaf area and dry-matter yield in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, A.D.; Nanda, R.

    1986-01-01

    Light-utilization efficiency was evaluated between 20 and 50 days of crop growth period in 'Kalyansona', 'Sonalika' (semi-dwarf), 'Hindi 62' (tall) varieties of bread-wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. emend., Fiori and Paol.) and semi-dwarf 'HD 4502' variety of macaroni wheat (T. durum Desf.). In the first model, the relationship between absorbed photosynthetic radiation and crop growth rates showed above-ground dry matter of 2.9 g in 'Sonalika', 2.5 g each in 'Kalyansona' and 'HD 4502' and 1.8 g in 'Hindi 62' were produced for each megajoule of absorbed photosynthetic radiation corresponding to the growth efficiency of 5.1, 4.4 and 3.1% respectively. In the second model of partial regression analysis, the rate of change in dry matter due to mean green area index as well as photosynthetic radiation was low in 'Hindi 62'. However, the dry matter changes due to mean green area index were similar in 'Kalyansona', 'HD4502' and 'Sonalika', but was high due to photosynthetic radiation in 'Sonalika' only. Both models gave similar conclusion

  13. Effect of stage of maturity on dry matter yield, morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment evaluated effect of stage of maturity on dry matter yield, morphological characteristics and nutritive value of burgundy bean (Macroptilium bracteatum) at the screen house of Department of Agronomy, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. The treatments were 3 stages of growth repeated 3 times in a completely ...

  14. Preliminary Results of Clover and Grass Coverage and Total Dry Matter Estimation in Clover-Grass Crops Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Mortensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clover-grass ratio is an important factor in composing feed ratios for livestock. Cameras in the field allow the user to estimate the clover-grass ratio using image analysis; however, current methods assume the total dry matter is known. This paper presents the preliminary results of an image analysis method for non-destructively estimating the total dry matter of clover-grass. The presented method includes three steps: (1 classification of image illumination using a histogram of the difference in excess green and excess red; (2 segmentation of clover and grass using edge detection and morphology; and (3 estimation of total dry matter using grass coverage derived from the segmentation and climate parameters. The method was developed and evaluated on images captured in a clover-grass plot experiment during the spring growing season. The preliminary results are promising and show a high correlation between the image-based total dry matter estimate and the harvested dry matter ( R 2 = 0.93 with an RMSE of 210 kg ha − 1 .

  15. Chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of caecal inoculum of rabbit on in vitro gas production and dry matter digestibility of Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica and Aspilia africana leaf meals at different levels of 0%, 15% and 30%. Leave samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP), lignin (ADL), acid (ADF) and neutral (NDF) detergent fibres.

  16. Intake and nutrient digestibilies of all-concentrate diet form forage ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total or 20 animals comprising 10 rams and 10 bucks were involved in a digestibility study to assess the nutritive value of a combination of yam peel, ... The dry matter intakes in the all-concentrate diet by the sheep and goat ( > 4% of body weight) were higher (p<0.05) than obtained for the conventional diet of grass hay ...

  17. The Effect of Silage and Concentrate Type on Intake Behavior, Rumen Function, and Milk Production in Dairy Cows in Early and Late Lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, P.A.; Vlaeminck, B.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of feeding total mixed rations (TMR) that differ in structural and nonstructural carbohydrates to dairy cows in early and late lactation on short-term feed intake, dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation variables, and milk yield. A 5 x

  18. Growth and dry matter accumulation in drought resistant maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth, dry matter accumulation and yield characters of maize planted under the same environmental conditions. The trial was conducted during the 2010 wet season at Bagauda the Kano University of Technology (KUST) temporary research farm (11° 39° N, 08° 20° E).The treatments consisted of three sowing dates ...

  19. Genetic variations in the dynamics of dry matter accumulation, nitrogen assimilation and translocation in new T. aestivum L. varieties. I. Dynamics of dry matter accumulation. Grain yield and structural elements of yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadin, K.; Nonkova, M.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    The genotype peculiarities in the translocation dynamics of dry matter in relation to wheat yield were studied under vegetation-laboratory and field conditions. The new wheat varieties Enola, Karat and Svilena created at the Institute for Wheat and Sunflower 'Dobroudja' have a high production potential due to their high intensity of dry matter accumulation in grain during the second half of maturation. It was established that in the standard variety Pliska the intensity of dry matter accumulation in reproductive parts was higher during heading-grain filling and then sharply decreased during maturation. This variety was characterized with high translocation of vegetation mass eventually leading to grain yield decrease. Significant genotype variations were established in the vegetation mass translocation in the respective parts during the stages of development. The contribution of the individual organs concerning carbohydrate reutilization to grain was mainly due to stems. An especially important peculiarity of the leaves of cv. Svilena was established: they ensured over 30 of grain yield at optimal nutrition. The complex evaluation of the new varieties revealed their high plasticity, the cultivar Karat showing the best characteristics. Refs. 13 (author)

  20. Individual and population intake fractions of diesel particulate matter (DPM) in bus stop microenvironments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jia; Jin, Taosheng; Miao, Yaning; Han, Bin; Gao, Jiajia; Bai, Zhipeng; Xu, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is associated with adverse human health effects. This study aims to investigate the relationship between DPM exposure and emissions by estimating the individual intake fraction (iF_i) and population intake fraction (iF_p) of DPM. Daily average concentrations of particulate matter at two bus stops during rush hours were measured, and then they were apportioned to DPM due to heavy-duty diesel bus emissions using Chemical Mass Balance Model. The DPM emissions of diesel buses for different driving conditions (idling, creeping and traveling) were estimated on the basis of field observations and published emission factors. The median iF_i of DPM was 0.67 and 1.39 per million for commuters standing at the bus stop and pedestrians/cyclists passing through the bus stop during rush hours, respectively. The median iF_p of DPM was 94 per million. Estimations of iF_i and iF_p of DPM are potentially significant for exposure assessment and risk management. - Highlights: • Methods to estimate the individual and population intake fraction in bus stop microenvironments were established. • Source apportionment was performed to estimate the DPM due to diesel bus emissions in bus stop microenvironments. • The DPM emission in bus stop microenvironments rather than in the entire urban area was considered. • The movement of people and their exposure duration were introduced in the estimation of population intake fraction. - This work established a method to estimate the individual and population intake fraction in transportation microenvironments on the basis of PM source apportionment.

  1. Monitoring and assessment of ingestive chewing sounds for prediction of herbage intake rate in grazing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, J R; Cangiano, C A; Pece, M A; Larripa, M J; Milone, D H; Utsumi, S A; Laca, E A

    2018-05-01

    Accurate measurement of herbage intake rate is critical to advance knowledge of the ecology of grazing ruminants. This experiment tested the integration of behavioral and acoustic measurements of chewing and biting to estimate herbage dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows offered micro-swards of contrasting plant structure. Micro-swards constructed with plastic pots were offered to three lactating Holstein cows (608±24.9 kg of BW) in individual grazing sessions (n=48). Treatments were a factorial combination of two forage species (alfalfa and fescue) and two plant heights (tall=25±3.8 cm and short=12±1.9 cm) and were offered on a gradient of increasing herbage mass (10 to 30 pots) and number of bites (~10 to 40 bites). During each grazing session, sounds of biting and chewing were recorded with a wireless microphone placed on the cows' foreheads and a digital video camera to allow synchronized audio and video recordings. Dry matter intake rate was higher in tall alfalfa than in the other three treatments (32±1.6 v. 19±1.2 g/min). A high proportion of jaw movements in every grazing session (23 to 36%) were compound jaw movements (chew-bites) that appeared to be a key component of chewing and biting efficiency and of the ability of cows to regulate intake rate. Dry matter intake was accurately predicted based on easily observable behavioral and acoustic variables. Chewing sound energy measured as energy flux density (EFD) was linearly related to DMI, with 74% of EFD variation explained by DMI. Total chewing EFD, number of chew-bites and plant height (tall v. short) were the most important predictors of DMI. The best model explained 91% of the variation in DMI with a coefficient of variation of 17%. Ingestive sounds integrate valuable information to remotely monitor feeding behavior and predict DMI in grazing cows.

  2. Indoor inhalation intake fractions of fine particulate matter: Review of influencing factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodas, Natasha; Loh, Miranda; Shin, Hyeong-Moo

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a major contributor to the global human disease burden. The indoor environment is of particular importance when considering the health effects associated with PM2.5 exposures because people spend the majority of their time indoors and PM2.5 exposures...... per unit mass emitted indoors are two to three orders of magnitude larger than exposures to outdoor emissions. Variability in indoor PM2.5 intake fraction (iFin,total), which is defined as the integrated cumulative intake of PM2.5 per unit of emission, is driven by a combination of building......-specific, human-specific, and pollutant-specific factors. Due to a limited availability of data characterizing these factors, however, indoor emissions and intake of PM2.5 are not commonly considered when evaluating the environmental performance of product life cycles. With the aim of addressing this barrier...

  3. [Effects of different colored plastic film mulching and planting density on dry matter accumulation and yield of spring maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin Lin; Sun, Shi Jun; Chen, Zhi Jun; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Xu Dong; Chi, Dao Cai

    2018-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of different colored plastic film mulching and planting density on spring maize dry matter accumulation and yield in the rain-fed area of the Northeast China, a complete combination field experiment which was comprised by three types of mulching (non-mulching, transparent plastic film mulching and black plastic film mulching) and five densities (60000, 67500, 75000, 82500 and 90000 plants·hm -2 ), was conducted to analyze the water and heat effect, dry matter accumulation and yield of spring maize (Liangyu 99). The results showed that, compared with the other mulching treatments, the black plastic film mulching treatment significantly increased the maize dry matter accumulation and maize biomass by 3.2%-8.2%. In mature stage, the biomass increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing plant density. When planting density was 82500 plants·hm -2 , the biomass was the highest, which was 5.2%-28.3% higher than that of other plant density treatments. The mean soil temperature in prophase of transparent plastic film mulching treatment was 0.4-2.7 ℃ higher than that of other treatments, which accelerated the maize growth process and augmented the dry matter transportation amount (T), dry matter transportation efficiency (TE) and contribution rate of dry matter transportation to the grain yield (TC) of maize stalk and leaf. The T, TE, TC of leaf and leaf-stalk under 60000 plants·hm -2 treatment were the highest. The highest T, TE, TC of stalk were observed under 75000 plants·hm -2 treatment. In heading period, the water consumption and daily water consumption intensity of maize under the treatment of black film mulching were the largest, which were 9.4%-10.6% and 10.6%-24.5% higher than that of other mulching treatments, respectively. The highest water consumption and daily water consumption intensity were both obtained under 90000 plants·hm -2 treatment, which increased by 6.8%-15.7% and 7.0%-20.0% compared with other

  4. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter in relation to root yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Cassava an important staple food is grown both in upland and inland valley in the tropics. A trial to ... high dry matter also produce high leaf area index and root yield ..... Proportion (%) of DM accumulated in root stock.

  5. Nitrogen and dry matter dynamics in linseed as affected by the nitrogen level and genotype in a Mediterranean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dordas, Christos A.

    2012-01-01

    Linseed or oilseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of edible and industrial vegetable oil and is grown widely in temperate regions around the world. Nitrogen, one of the most important nutrients for linseed, is often applied for higher yield and better quality. However, the effects of N level on dry matter and N accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation have not yet been identified in linseed. A two-year field study was therefore conducted to determine the effects of N level on dry matter, N accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation of three linseed cultivars (Livia, Lirina, Creola) grown in a Mediterranean environment under rain-fed conditions. It was found that N fertilization increased biomass at anthesis by an average of 47% and at maturity by an average of 38%, compared with the control. N fertilization increased the dry matter partitioning in leaves + flowers and stems at anthesis, and also in leaves + capsule vegetative components, stems, and seeds at maturity. Dry matter translocation was affected by N fertilization, growing season, and by the interaction between growing season and N treatment. In addition, N fertilization increased N retranslocation from the vegetative parts of the plant to the seed. Moreover, the N uptake by seeds was more affected by the seed yield and less affected by the seed N concentration. The present study indicates that N fertilization affects dry matter and N translocation in linseed. -- Highlights: ► Dry matter translocation was affected by N fertilization, year, and their interaction. ► HI was affected by N fertilization while NHI was not. ► N fertilization increased N retranslocation from the vegetative parts to the seed.

  6. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  7. The Effects of Different Energy and Protein Ratio to Sheep’s Nutrient Intake and Digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mawati

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} The objective of this research was to study the effects of different energy and protein ratio towards sheep’s nutrient intake and digestibility. Twenty four male sheep’s, 6 – 7 months old with initial average live weight 13+1.56 kg, coefficient variant11.78% were used in this research. The complete feed ration which consisted of King Grass (Pennisetum purpureum, soybean powder, rice bran, dried cassava and molasses was used in this research. Protein content on each component was 10, 12 and 14% and total digestible nutrients (TDN 60 and 65%, respectively. Dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM intake, DM and OM digestibility were studied in this research. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was employed to analyze the data. Test of Small Difference (P<0.05 was then carried out if significant different occurred. The research results showed that Dry matter and OM ration intake showed significant different among treatments (P<0.05. The highest DM intake was obtained at crude protein (CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 695.54 g while the lowest value was CP 14% and TDN 65% i.e. 462.11 g. Thus different DM and OM intake were caused by different ration ingredients composition. Dry matter and OM ration digestibility were not show

  8. Relationships of feeding behaviors with average daily gain, dry matter intake, and residual feed intake in Red Angus-sired cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, M; Welch, C M; Ramirez, J A; Carstens, G E; Price, W J; Hall, J B; Hill, R A

    2014-11-01

    Feeding behavior has the potential to enhance prediction of feed intake and to improve understanding of the relationships between behavior, DMI, ADG, and residual feed intake (RFI) in beef cattle. Two cohorts, born in 2009 and 2010, the progeny of Red Angus bulls (n = 58 heifers and n = 53 steers), were evaluated during the growing phase, and the latter group of steers was also evaluated during the finishing phase. All behavior analyses were based on 7 feeding behavior traits (bunk visit frequency, bunk visit duration [BVDUR], feed bout frequency, feed bout duration, meal frequency, meal duration, and average meal intake) and their relationships with ADG, DMI, and RFI. During the growing phase, feeding duration traits were most indicative of DMI with positive correlations between BVDUR and DMI for cohort 1 steers, growing phase (n = 28, r = 0.52, P = 0.00); cohort 2 steers, growing phase (n = 25, r = 0.44, P = 0.01); and cohort 2 heifers, growing phase (n = 29, r = 0.28 P = 0.05). There were similar trends toward correlation of BVDUR and RFI for both steer groups and cohort 1 heifers, growing phase (C1HG; n = 29; r = 0.27, P = 0.06; r = 0.30, P = 0.07; and r = 0.26, P = 0.08, respectively). Feed bout frequency was correlated with ADG in C1HG and in cohort 2 steers, finishing phase (r = -0.31, P = 0.04, and r = 0.43, P = 0.01, respectively). Feed bout duration was correlated with ADG in heifer groups (r = 0.29 and r = 0.28, P = 0.05 for both groups) and DMI for all growing phase animals (r = 0.29 to 0.55, P ≤ 0.05 for all groups). Evaluation of growing vs. finishing phase steer groups suggests that all behaviors, RFI, and DMI, but not ADG, are correlated through the growing and finishing phases (P ≤ 0.01 for all variables excluding ADG), implying that feeding behaviors determined during the growing phase are strong predictors of DMI in either life stage. Sire maintenance energy EPD effects (measured as high or low groups) on progeny feeding behaviors revealed a

  9. Comparison of in situ dry matter degradation parameters with in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adem Kamalak

    The rate and extent of fermentation of dry matter (DM) in the rumen are very important determinants ... kinetics of forages obtained by the in situ nylon bag technique and the in vitro gas production technique. (Blummel & Ørskov ..... not find any correlation between these parameters in barley and wheat straw. Beuvinik et al.

  10. Comparison between in situ dry matter degradation and in vitro gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry matter (DM) degradation of Glycrrhiza glabra L, Arbutus andrachne, Juniperus communis, and Pistica lentiscus was determined using two different techniques: (i) the in vitro gas production and (ii) the in situ nylon bag degradability technique. Samples were incubated in situ and in vitro for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h.

  11. Intake and performance of steers fed with soybean dreg in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álisson Marian Callegaro

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility of using soybean dreg in finishing of confined steers, with age and initial body weight of 20 months and 328.3 kg, respectively. Each treatment consisted of six experimental animals, which were fed with forage: concentrate ratio, 40:60 (dry matter basis, being bulky corn silage and concentrate based of bark, chaff and soybean dreg, corn, sodium chloride and calcium limestone. The steers were distributed in the treatments: 00, 30, 60, 90 and 120 g of soybean dreg per kg of dry matter in the diet, which contained 29.0, 47.3, 66.7, 86.8 and 106.8 g of ether extract, respectively. The dry matter intake was similar (P> 0.05 among the studied treatments with an average of 9.71 kg day-1. Similarly, no differences were observed (P> 0.05 in crude protein intake with anaverage of 1.36 kg day-1. However, there were differences in the consumption of ether extract and neutral and acid detergent fibre, which decreased linearly with the increase in the inclusion of dreg in the diet (CEE=0,305+0,0061SD; CFDN=5.71–0,011SD; CFDA=3.89–0.008SD kg day-1, respectively. The performance of steers was similar (P>0.05 between treatments, being the average daily gain of 1.542 kg, the fed conversion of 6.35 kg DM kg-1 weight gain and slaughter weight of 457.95 kg. The use of soybean dreg until the limit of 120 g kg-1 in the diet of confined cattle is feasible.

  12. Locational variation in green fodder yield, dry matter yield, and forage quality of sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Khan, S.; Mohammad, D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to find out the variations in for- age yield and quality of sorghum as affected by different environments. The three agroecological zones viz., Agricultural Research Institute (ARI), Sariab, Quetta, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad and National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad were selected on the basis of different physiography, geology, temperature, and climate and water availability. Crude protein contents, varied from 6.98 to 8.02 percent, crude fibre contents from 30.84 to 31.68 percent, green fodder yield from 38.91 to 50.64 t/ha and dry matter yield from 8.92 to 10.17 t/ha at the three diverse locations. Maximum crude protein and crude fibre contents were obtained at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. Maximum green fodder and dry matter yields were also observed at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. It was also noted that the same genotypes showed differential response when planted under the diverse environments for green fodder yield, dry matter yield, crude protein and crude fibre contents. Therefore, it was concluded that these differences in forage yield and quality traits under diverse environments were due to differences in soil types, soil fertility, temperature, rain- fall and other climatic conditions. (author)

  13. NITROGEN CONTENT AND DRY-MATTER DIGESTIBILITY OF GUINEA AND SABI GRASSES AS INFLUENCED BY TREE LEGUME CANOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Lagaligo Amar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A research study was undertaken to study the grass layer across a mini landscape dominated by tree legume Albizia lebbeck to explore the nutritional differences of two introduced grasses, guinea grass (Panicum maximum and sabi grass (Urochloa mosambicensis, paying particular attention to the presence or absence of tree legume canopy of Albizia lebbeck. The two grass species showed a tendency to replace the native spear grass (Heteropogon contortus; their dominance was more or less complete under tree canopies but was increasing in open areas between trees. Nutritional differences were examined by nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility. For comparison, Heteropogon contortus, a native species only found in the open, was included in the nutritional determination using the same methods as the guinea and sabi grasses. The quality parameters of the pasture species were statistically compared (LSD, P=0.05. The quality of herbage was different between the species. Urochloa mosambicensis was better than Panicum maximum. In the open, sabi grass has higher N content (0.62% than guinea grass (0.55%, but they were similar when grown under the canopy (0.69% and 0.72%, respectively. Sabi grass has consistently higher dry matter digestibility (41.39% and 36.83%, respectively under the canopy and in the open, than guinea grass (27.78% and 24.77%. These two species are much higher in both N concentration and dry matter digestibility than the native spear grass. The native species has contained 0.28% N, and 17.65% digestible dry matter. The feeding values of herbage were influenced by the canopy factor. Both guinea and sabi grasses have better quality when grown under the tree canopies than in between canopies. Nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility of the guinea grass under canopy were, 0.72% and 27.78%, respectively, significantly higher than those from the open area, 0.55% and 24.77%. Similarly, herbage of sabi grass under canopy has 0

  14. Dry Matter Losses and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Outside Storage of Short Rotation Coppice Willow Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    This study examined the dry matter losses and the greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations within two short rotation coppice (SRC) willow wood chip storage heaps. One heap was built on a grassland area (East Midlands) and the other (Rothamsted) on a concrete hard standing. A series of 1- and 3-m probes were embedded in the heaps in order to retrieve gas samples for analysis, and pre-weighed net bags were positioned in the core of the heap to detect dry matter losses. The bagged samples showed dry matter losses of 18 and 19 % in the East Midlands and Rothamsted heaps after 210 and 97 days storage, respectively. The Rothamsted heap showed a whole-heap dry matter loss of 21 %. During this time, the wood chips dried from 54 to 39 % moisture content in the East Midlands heap and 50 to 43 % at Rothamsted. The results from analysing the whole Rothamsted heap indicated an overall loss of 1.5 GJ per tonne stored, although measurements from bagged samples in the core suggested that the chips dried sufficiently to have a minimal energy loss from storage. The process of mixing the heap, however, led to incorporation of wet outer layers and hence the average moisture content was higher in an average sample of chip. After establishment of the heaps, the temperature rose rapidly and this correlated with a peak in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration within the heap. A peak in methane (CH 4 ) concentration was also detected in both heaps, though more noticeably in the East Midlands heap after around 55 days. In both instances, the peak CH 4 concentration occurred as CO 2 concentrations dropped, suggesting that after an active period of aerobic decomposition in the first 2 months of storage, the conditions in the heap became anaerobic. The results from this study suggest that outside wood chip storage is not an efficient method of storing biomass, though this may be location-specific as there are some studies showing lower dry matter losses. It is necessary to explore other

  15. Mesquite pod meal in sheep diet: intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients and nitrogen balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edileusa de Jesus do Santos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Eight Santa Ines sheep were assigned to two 4 x 4 Latin squares, to evaluate the effects of replacing elephant grass silage with different levels of mesquite pod meal (MDM (15, 30 and 45% DM on intake, apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, acid detergent fiber (ADF, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, total carbohydrates (TC and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC and the nitrogen balance. There was a linear increase (p < 0.05 in the intake of DM, OM, CP, ADF, NDF, NFC and TC according to the addition of MPM to the diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and CP increased (p < 0.05 with the addition of MDM. We observed a positive linear effect (p < 0.05 for the nitrogen intake. The addition of mesquite pod meal up to 45% increased the intake of DM, NDF, ADF, CP, OM, NFC and TC but reduced the digestibility of EE and NDF. MPM at 30 and 45% propitiated a positive nitrogen balance.

  16. Efeito do estradiol, dietas e duração do período seco sobre o consumo de matéria seca de vacas holandesas Effect of estradiol, diets and lenght of the dry period on feed intake of holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia De Fátima Andrade Correia Teixeira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de dietas aniônicas (DA e catiônicas (DC, associadas ou não ao uso de estradiol em dois períodos secos: período seco curto (30 dias (PSC e período seco regular (60 dias (PSR sobre o consumo de matéria seca (MS de 40 vacas Holandesas, nos períodos pré-parto (PREP e pós-parto (PP, distribuídas aleatoriamente em esquema fatorial 2x2+2. As dietas foram fornecidas por 21 dias no período pré-parto, após o qual, as vacas passaram a receber uma dieta de lactação. As DA não tiveram efeito sobre o consumo de MS no PREP; entretanto, resultaram em maior consumo quando comparadas à DC no pós-parto. Os contrastes entre tratamentos mostraram que DA fornecidas no PREP produziram aumento no consumo PP, PSR e no PSC associadas ao estradiol (P0,05. Quando se comparam dietas com estradiol associado ao PSC com as demais, as primeiras apresentaram menores consumos, o que significa que a utilização de estrógenos exógenos pode reduzir o consumo no pós-parto. Não foram observadas diferenças entre consumo no PSC sem estradiol quando comparado ao PSR. O número de dias que antecederam o parto produziram efeito cúbico sobre o consumo (PThe effects of anionic and cationic diets, associated or not with estradiol injection, and two dry periods (30 days and 60 days, were evaluated in dry matter intake in prepartum and postpartum. The trial was undertaken at Dairy Research Unit of Florida University, in Gainesville, USA. Forty Holstein cows were randomly assigned to the treatments in a factorial design: 1. anionic diet, 30 days dry period (AD30 2. cationic diet, 30 days dry period (CD30, 3. anionic diet, 30 days dry period plus estradiol (AD30E 4. cationic diet, 30 days dry period plus estradiol (CD30E; 5.anionic diet, 60 days dry period (AD60; 6. cationic diet, 60 days dry period (CD60. After calving, a standard early lactation diet was fed to all cows for 21 days. The cows were under two different range of temperatures: up

  17. Ingestive behavior, performance and forage intake by beef heifers on tropical pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Alves de Oliveira Neto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out to evaluate forage intake, performance and ingestive behavior of beef heifers. Productive, structural and chemical characteristics of the pasture were also evaluated. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three pasture systems (Alexandergrass [Urochloa plantaginea Link.] with and without supplement to heifers and Coastcross [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers.] and two phenological stages: vegetative and flowering. The grazing method was put-and-take stocking. Grazing, ruminating and idle activities, feeding stations, displacement patterns, bite mass and bite rate were evaluated. The forage intake was estimated using chromic oxide as an indicator of fecal output. The heifers modified the use of feeding stations and displacement patterns between phenological stages and pasture systems. Heifers consumed more forage in the vegetative stage (2.81% of body weight in dry matter than in the flowering stage (1.92% of body weight in dry matter. Average daily gain, body condition and stocking rate were similar for heifers in the evaluated systems. Beef heifers receiving protein supplement on Alexandergrass pasture consumed more forage than heifers fed Coastcross exclusively. Regardless of the species, no difference was observed when the heifers were exclusively on pasture. Pasture systems on Alexandergrass or Coastcross provide suitable nutrient intake for heifers to be mated at 18 months of age.

  18. Effect of pre-grazing herbage mass on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wims, C M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2014-01-01

    A grazing study was undertaken to examine the effect of maintaining three levels of pre-grazing herbage mass (HM) on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter (DM) production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three pre-grazing HM treatments: 1150 - Low HM (L), 1400 - Medium HM (M) or 2000 kg DM/ha - High HM (H). Herbage accumulation under grazing was lowest (Ppastures required more grass silage supplementation during the grazing season (+73 kg DM/cow) to overcome pasture deficits due to lower pasture growth rates (Ppasture intake, although cows grazing the L pastures had to graze a greater daily area (Ppasture reduces pasture DM production and at a system level may increase the requirement for imported feed.

  19. Digestibilidade total e balanço de nitrogênio em cabritos recebendo rações contendo levedura seca = Total digestibility and nitrogen balance in kid goats receiving diets containing dry yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudete Regina Alcalde

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido com o objetivo de avaliar a ingestão,digestibilidade da matéria seca e dos nutrientes, o balanço de nitrogênio e estimar os nutrientes digestíveis totais de rações com a inclusão da levedura seca (0, 25, 50, 75 e 100% da MS em substituição ao farelo de soja nas rações para cabritos. Foram utilizados cinco cabritos SRD alojados em gaiolas metabólicas distribuídos em delineamento quadrado latino 5 x 5. As ingestões de matéria seca e de carboidratos totais não foram alteradas com ainclusão de levedura, no entanto, para a ingestão de matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo e fibra em detergente neutro foi observado efeito quadrático. A digestibilidade do extrato etéreo apresentou efeito linear decrescente, porém, para digestibilidade da matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, carboidratos totais, fibra em detergente neutro e nutrientes digestíveis totais houve efeito quadrático. O balanço de nitrogênio não foi alterado em função da substituição do farelo de soja. A levedura seca pode ser incluída nas rações de cabritos como fonte proteica sem alterar a ingestão de matéria seca e o balanço de nitrogênio, porém, a inclusão acima de 5,9% de levedura seca nas rações reduz a digestibilidade da matéria seca.The assay was carried out to evaluate feed intake, dry matter andnutrient digestibility, nitrogen balance, and to estimate total digestible nutrients of diets with inclusion of dry yeast (0, 25, 50, 75, 100% of DM replacing soybean meal in diets for kid goats. Five goats were allotted in a 5 x 5 Latin square design and housed in digestibility cages. Dry matter intake and total carbohydrates were unchanged with inclusion of dry yeast; however, for organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber, intake showed a quadratic effect. The digestibility of ether extract showed decreasing linear effect; however, for dry matter, organic matter

  20. Sensitivity of various bone parameters of laying hens to different daily calcium intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T K; Coon, C N

    1990-12-01

    Experiments were designed to examine the sensitivity of various bone parameters of laying hens to different levels of calcium intake (2.0, 2.5, 3.0, 3.5, 4.0, and 4.5 g/day). All birds were individually fed 85 g of feed daily. Dry femur weight (DW) and absolute ash weight (AW) of the whole bone (WB), cortical bone (CB), or medullary bone (MB) were reliable indicators of bone status affected by changes in calcium intake. Expressing AW as a percentage of fat-free dry matter (AW/FFDM) or a percentage of dry weight (AW/DW) showed no effect due to different levels of calcium intake. The correlations between CB-AW/FFDM or CB-AW/DW with calcium intake were .05 and -.07, respectively. Bone ash concentration and bone ash per unit volume (AW/VOL, mg/mL) was very sensitive to different levels of calcium intake; the values increased linearly as calcium intake increased from 2 to 4.5 g/day (WB = 316 to 403; CB = 479 to 571; MB = 133 to 213). Bone-breaking force (BBF), bone-bending moment (BBM), bone stress, and BBF/100 g body weight were equally sensitive in indicating bone mineral reserves due to different levels of calcium intake. Regression equations showed that AW/VOL alone (true for WB, CB, and MB) was capable of predicting BBM well (all with R2 greater than .82). However, AW/FFDM did not have predictive power over BBM (CB-AW/FFDM:R2 less than .001). Using daily calcium intake as the predictor, regression lines for BBM, WB-AW, WB-AW/VOL, CB-AW/VOL, and MB-AW/VOL yielded significant slopes of 1.24 kg.cm, .01 g, 17.11 mg/mL, 16.34 mg/mL, and 16.42 mg/mL, respectively.

  1. Effect of mosaic virus diseases on dry matter content and starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of mosaic virus diseases on dry matter content and starch yield of five local accessions of cassava, “Ankrah”, “AW/17, “Tomfa”, “Dagarti” and “Tuaka” was evaluated. Tomfa showed the highest (95%) incidence of the disease, index of severity of symptoms for all plants (ISSAP) of 3.70, as well as, for diseased plants ...

  2. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner dos Reis; Ciniro Costa; Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles; Marina Gabriela Berchiol da Silva; Marco Aurélio Factori; Janaína Conte Hadlich; Kátia de Oliveira; Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana; Cristiano Magalhães Pariz; Josineudson Augusto II de Vasconcelos Silva

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter) of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms ...

  3. Intake, physiological parameters and behavior of Angus and Nellore bulls subjected to heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ériton Egidio Lisboa Valente

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetics differences between breeds may determine the tolerance to high temperature, effect dry matter intake and consequently cattle performance. The effect of temperature and humidity index (THI on diurnal, nocturnal and daily intake, water intake, physiologic parameters and behavior of Nellore (B. indicus and Angus (B. taurus bulls were evaluated. Eight Angus and eight Nellore young bulls (337±7.4 kg and 16 months of age were allocated in two climate-controlled rooms for 32 days. In the period 1, all bulls were housed in thermoneutral conditions (TN, THI = 72.6 for 10 days. In period 2 (10 days, four Angus and four Nellore bulls were subjected to low heat stress (LHS, THI = 76.4 in daytime, and four Angus and four Nellore bulls were subjected to high heat stress (HHS, THI = 81.5 in daytime. The diurnal and daily dry matter intake (DMI of Nellore were not affected (P>0.05 by heat stress. However, Angus bulls decreased diurnal DMI by 24% and daily DMI decreased (P<0.05 by 15% on HHS. In TN Angus bulls had higher (P<0.05 daily DMI (36.2 g/kg of BW than Nellore (29.1 g/kg of BW, but in HHS they had similar (P>0.05 daily DMI (31.6 and 30.2 g/kg of BW, respectively. We observed an increase (P<0.05 in respiratory frequency, but water intake was not affected (P>0.05 by heat stress. The heart rate decreased (P<0.05 with heat stress. No differences were found (P>0.05 in feeding behavior. Therefore, THI stress threshold should distinct for Angus and Nellore bulls. The use of feed intake information may improve the prediction of thermic discomfort on specific climate condition. 

  4. Intake and total apparent digestibility in lambs fed six maize varieties in the Brazilian Semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Dantas dos Santos

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the daily intake and total apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, gross energy, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, total and non-fibrous carbohydrates, total digestible nutrients, energy intake and nitrogen balance of silages of six maize varieties with early or super early cycles recommended to Northeast Brazil. Twenty-four male castrated lambs were lodged in metabolic cages. A completely randomized design with six treatments and four replications was used, with means compared by Tukey test at 5%. There were no differences among varieties for any of the evaluated variables regarding intake and apparent digestibility. Concerning the intake of digestible energy, metabolizable energy and the ratio content of digestible and metabolizable energy, significant differences were observed between varieties and BRS Assum Preto showed highest values of metabolizable energy (2.650,8 kcal/day. All of the treatments presented positive nitrogen balance and did not differ among themselves. The varieties asessed can be an additional option to the semiarid regions in Brazil.

  5. Individual and population intake fractions of diesel particulate matter (DPM) in bus stop microenvironments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Jin, Taosheng; Miao, Yaning; Han, Bin; Gao, Jiajia; Bai, Zhipeng; Xu, Xiaohong

    2015-12-01

    Diesel particulate matter (DPM) is associated with adverse human health effects. This study aims to investigate the relationship between DPM exposure and emissions by estimating the individual intake fraction (iFi) and population intake fraction (iFp) of DPM. Daily average concentrations of particulate matter at two bus stops during rush hours were measured, and then they were apportioned to DPM due to heavy-duty diesel bus emissions using Chemical Mass Balance Model. The DPM emissions of diesel buses for different driving conditions (idling, creeping and traveling) were estimated on the basis of field observations and published emission factors. The median iFi of DPM was 0.67 and 1.39 per million for commuters standing at the bus stop and pedestrians/cyclists passing through the bus stop during rush hours, respectively. The median iFp of DPM was 94 per million. Estimations of iFi and iFp of DPM are potentially significant for exposure assessment and risk management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Responses of young tea (Camellia sinensis) clones to drought and temperature. II. Dry matter production and partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.J.; Carr, M.K.V.

    1996-01-01

    The physiological basis for differences in yields from well-watered and draughted plants of four contrasting clones of tea was studied in terms of light interception, dry matter production and partitioning at a high altitude site in Southern Tanzania where there are marked seasonal variations in rainfall and temperature. The plant dry weights, including roots, were measured eight months after field planting and subsequently at intervals of three to four months, corresponding to the different seasons, during the following two years. Fully irrigated plants of one clone (S15/10) were also harvested after four years in the field. Clones differed in the rates of canopy spread and hence in their capacity to intercept solar radiation. The ‘radiation use efficiency’ (the net total dry matter production per unit of intercepted short-wave radiation) was similar for the four well-watered clones and ranged from 0.40 to 0.66 g MJ −1 , which corresponds closely to values reported for other woody tropical plants. A 16-week drought treatment imposed two years after planting reduced the mean light interception of the four clones by about 25% and the mean radiation use efficiency by 78% to 0.09 g MJ −1 . Clone S15/10, a cultivar from Kenya which produces large yields, partitioned a greater proportion of dry matter to leaves and harvested shoots than the other clones, and correspondingly less to large structural roots. This resulted in a maximum harvest index of 24%, substantially greater than other values reported in the literature. There were seasonal differences in partitioning, with more dry matter being diverted to roots and less to shoots during the cool season. Although the drought treatments had no significant effect on root growth, the amount of dry matter partitioned to leaves, stems and harvested shoots declined by 80–95%. The roots of all four clones extended in depth at similar rates (about 2 mm d −1 ), those of Clone S15/10 reaching 2.8m after four years

  7. External validation of the GrazeIn model of pasture dry matter intake and milk yield prediction for cows managed at different calving dates and stocking rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca-Fernández, A.I.; González-Rodríguez, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the prediction accuracy of pasture dry matter intake (PDMI) and milk yield (MY) predicted by the GrazeIn model using a database representing 124 PDMI measurements at paddock level and 2232 MY measurements at cow level. External validation of the model was conducted using data collected from a trial carried out with Holstein-Friesian cows (n=72) while grazed 28 paddocks and were managed in a 2×2 factorial design by considering two calving dates (CD), with different number of days in milk (DIM), early (E, 29 DIM) vs. middle (M, 167 DIM), and two stocking rates (SR), medium (M, 3.9 cows ha-1) vs. high (H, 4.8 cows ha-1), under a rotational grazing system. Cows were randomly assigned to four grazing scenarios (EM, EH, MM and MH). The mean observed PDMI of the total database was 14.2 kg DM cow-1 day-1 while GrazeIn predicted a mean PDMI for the database of 13.8 kg DM cow-1 day-1. The mean bias was −0.4 kg DM cow-1 day-1. GrazeIn predicted PDMI for the total database with a relative prediction error (RPE) of 10.0% at paddock level. The mean observed MY of the database was 23.2 kg cow-1 day-1 while GrazeIn predicted a MY for the database of 23.1 kg cow-1 day-1. The mean bias was –0.1 kg cow-1 day-1. GrazeIn predicted MY for the total database with a mean RPE of 17.3% at cow level. For the scenarios investigated, GrazeIn predicted PDMI and MY with a low level of error which made it a suitable tool for decision support systems.

  8. External validation of the GrazeIn model of pasture dry matter intake and milk yield prediction for cows managed at different calving dates and stocking rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca-Fernández, A.I.; González-Rodríguez, A.

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to evaluate the prediction accuracy of pasture dry matter intake (PDMI) and milk yield (MY) predicted by the GrazeIn model using a database representing 124 PDMI measurements at paddock level and 2232 MY measurements at cow level. External validation of the model was conducted using data collected from a trial carried out with Holstein-Friesian cows (n=72) while grazed 28 paddocks and were managed in a 2×2 factorial design by considering two calving dates (CD), with different number of days in milk (DIM), early (E, 29 DIM) vs. middle (M, 167 DIM), and two stocking rates (SR), medium (M, 3.9 cows ha-1) vs. high (H, 4.8 cows ha-1), under a rotational grazing system. Cows were randomly assigned to four grazing scenarios (EM, EH, MM and MH). The mean observed PDMI of the total database was 14.2 kg DM cow-1 day-1 while GrazeIn predicted a mean PDMI for the database of 13.8 kg DM cow-1 day-1. The mean bias was −0.4 kg DM cow-1 day-1. GrazeIn predicted PDMI for the total database with a relative prediction error (RPE) of 10.0% at paddock level. The mean observed MY of the database was 23.2 kg cow-1 day-1 while GrazeIn predicted a MY for the database of 23.1 kg cow-1 day-1. The mean bias was –0.1 kg cow-1 day-1. GrazeIn predicted MY for the total database with a mean RPE of 17.3% at cow level. For the scenarios investigated, GrazeIn predicted PDMI and MY with a low level of error which made it a suitable tool for decision support systems.

  9. Dry matter losses and quality changes during short rotation coppice willow storage in chip or rod form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    2018-05-01

    This study compares dry matter losses and quality changes during the storage of SRC willow as chips and as rods. A wood chip stack consisting of approximately 74 tonnes of fresh biomass, or 31 tonnes dry matter (DM) was built after harvesting in the spring. Three weeks later, four smaller stacks of rods with an average weight of 0.8 tonnes, or 0.4 tonnes DM were built. During the course of the experiment temperature recorders placed in the stacks found that the wood chip pile reached 60 °C within 10 days of construction, but the piles of rods remained mostly at ambient temperatures. Dry matter losses were calculated by using pre-weighed independent samples within the stacks and by weighing the whole stack before and after storage. After 6 months the wood chip stack showed a DM loss of between 19.8 and 22.6%, and mean losses of 23.1% were measured from the 17 independent samples. In comparison, the rod stacks showed an average stack DM loss of between 0 and 9%, and between 1.4% and 10.6% loss from the independent samples. Analysis of the stored material suggests that storing willow in small piles of rods produces a higher quality fuel in terms of lower moisture and ash content; however, it has a higher fine content compared to storage in chip form. Therefore, according to the two storage methods tested here, there may be a compromise between maximising the net dry matter yield from SRC willow and the final fine content of the fuel.

  10. Consumo, produção de leite e estresse térmico em vacas da raça Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju Dry mater intake, milk yield, and heat stress indicators of dairy cows fed diets with cashew nut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Pimentel

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo de matéria seca, a produção de leite e os indicadores de estresse térmico de vacas Pardo-Suíça alimentadas com castanha de caju no semi-árido do Nordeste do Brasil. Doze animais foram distribuídos em um ensaio de reversão, com quatro tratamentos: 0, 8, 16 e 24% de castanha no concentrado. As vacas receberam cana-de-açúcar à vontade e sete quilos de concentrado por dia. Maior consumo de matéria seca de cana-de-açúcar foi observado no tratamento com concentrado sem castanha (7,70kgMS/dia em relação aos tratamentos com 16% e 24% de castanha (7,35 e 7,05kgMS/dia, respectivamente. O consumo no tratamento com concentrado sem castanha não diferiu do consumo no tratamento com 8% (7,59kgMS/dia. Não houve efeito dos tratamentos sobre a produção de leite e sobre as variáveis indicativas de estresse térmico (P>0,05.A study was carried out to evaluate dry matter intake, milk yield, and heat stress parameters in Brown Swiss cows fed diets with cashew nut. Animals were raised in the semi-arid region of the Brazilian Northeast. Twelve cows were subjected to a switch back experimental design, with four treatments: 0, 8, 16, and 24% of cashew nut in the concentrate. Each cow received 7kg of concentrate per day and had free access to sugar cane. Dry matter (DM intake and milk yield were daily taken as well as measurements of rectal and milk temperature; and cardiac and respiratory rates. The highest intake of forage (sugar cane was obtained when the concentrate had no cashew nut (7.7kgDM/day. This value was not different when the concentrate contained 8% of cashew nut (7.59kgDM/day but greater than dry matter intake of cows receiving diets with 16% of cashew nut (7.35kgDM/day; P0.05. Such low variability in daily milk yield could be associated with the higher energy density of diets containing more cashew nut. Finally, indicators of heat stress were not influenced by changes in the diets, given the air temperatures and

  11. Dry period management and optimization of post-partum reproductive management in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumen, A; Keskin, A; Yilmazbas-Mecitoglu, G; Karakaya, E; Wiltbank, Mc

    2011-09-01

    Dry period and early post-partum management are decisive factors for fertility in lactating dairy cows. Previous studies have shown that decreased dry matter intake (DMI) and increased non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) negatively affect fertility and subsequent milk production. The traditional dry period decreases DMI prior to parturition, resulting in a decrease in energy intake. A negative energy balance increases NEFA concentration, and increased NEFA may impair the immune system, especially by decreasing neutrophil function prior to parturition. Earlier studies have shown that post-partum health disorders, including retained placenta and metritis, were correlated with periparturient neutrophil function. In addition, decreased DMI is also linked to a reduced body condition score (BCS) in dairy cows. These events in the periparturient period negatively affect fertility. Some manipulation, such as shortening the dry period, may be a solution to increased DMI in the periparturient period, preventing post-partum disorders and subsequent fertility issues. This article aims to explain the effects of shortening the dry period on reproduction and early post-partum treatments to improve fertility. In addition, timed artificial insemination protocols will be discussed for use during the post-partum period to improve fertility in dairy cows. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Effects of diet composition on intake by adult wild European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, K A

    1989-12-01

    The voluntary dry matter intake (DMI) of several grass and legume diets, and the amount of dry matter (DM), nitrogen, fibre, and energy assimilated from each diet (i.e. the digestibility coefficients) are presented for the wild European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus. The DMI may be predicted from DM% and percentage of total nitrogen (on a DM basis) for a high DM diet (90-95%) but the general relationship may stand for fresh forage also. The metabolizable energy of a diet is correlated with DMI through the DM% and the percentage of nitrogen and fibre in the diet on a DM basis. The DM digestibility coefficient is correlated with fibre content. The wild rabbit's high efficiency of protein digestibility and low fibre digestibility compared with ruminants is also a characteristic of the domestic rabbit. It is suggested that the proportions of different nutrients required by wild rabbits are similar to those required by domestic animals.

  13. Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Degradability Coefficients and Ruminalpostruminal Digestibility of Dry Matter and Crude Protein of some Plant Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gasem tahan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of electron beam irradiation on degradability coefficients and ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of soybean meal, canola meal and Lathyrus sativus seed, irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150 kGy was investigated. Ruminal degradability of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ method using two cannulated Holstein heifers. Ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ (nylon bag-in vitro (daisy digestor techniques. Data analyzed using SAS software as randomized completely design and the treatment means were compared using Tukey test. The results indicated that irradiation had no effect on dry matter, ether extract and ash content of feeds. In soybean meal, washout fraction and potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was higher and lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than other treatments, respectively, and degradation rate constant and ruminal effective degradability of dry matter and crude protein was lower at all doses of irradiation than untreated soybean meal. In canola meal, irradiation at doses of 50 and 100 kGy decreased washout fraction and increased potentially degradable fraction of crude protein compared with untreated canola meal. In Lathyrus sativus seed, only potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than untreated Lathyrus sativus seed. Ruminal digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. Total tract digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at dose of 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. In Lathyrus sativus seed, ruminal-postruminal digestibility and total tract digestibility of dry matter increased at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation than untreated

  14. Effect of defoliation frequency and height of cutting on growth, dry matter yield and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (L.) Schumach)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessema, Z.K.; Mihret, J.; Solomon, M.

    2010-01-01

    Growth characteristics, dry-matter (DM) yield, chemical components and in vitro dry-matter digestibility (IVDMD) of Napier grass were studied in a randomized complete block design with three replications at Haramaya University, Ethiopia. The treatments were three defoliation frequencies (60, 90 and

  15. Effect of water content in a canned food on voluntary food intake and body weight in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Alfreda; Fascetti, Andrea J; Villaverde, Cecilia; Wong, Raymond K; Ramsey, Jon J

    2011-07-01

    To determine whether water content in a canned food diet induces decreases in voluntary energy intake (EI) or body weight (BW) in cats fed ad libitum. 16 sexually intact male domestic shorthair cats. Maintenance EI was determined for 2 months in 10 weight-stable cats consuming a control diet (typical colony diet). Cats were allocated into 2 groups of equal BW and fed a canned diet (with-water [WW] diet) or a freeze-dried version of the canned diet (low-water [LW] diet) twice daily. Diets were identical in nutrient profile on a dry-matter basis. Each dietary treatment period of the crossover experiment lasted 3 weeks, with a 3-week washout period between diets. Body composition measurements were determined by use of deuterium oxide at the end of each dietary treatment. Daily food intake was measured for determination of dry-matter intake and EI. Six other cats were used in preference tests for the 3 diets. EI was significantly decreased for the WW diet (mean ± SD, 1,053.0 ± 274.9 kJ/d), compared with EI for the LW diet (1,413.8 ± 345.8 kJ/d). Cats had a significant decrease in BW during consumption of the WW diet. Body composition was unaltered by diet. In short-term preference tests, cats ate significantly more of the WW than the LW diet. Bulk water in the WW diet stimulated decreases in EI and BW in cats. The impact of water content on energy density and food consumption may help promote weight loss in cats.

  16. Categorization of endometritis and its association with ovarian follicular growth and ovulation, reproductive performance, dry matter intake, and milk yield in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobikrushanth, M; Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Colazo, M G

    2016-10-15

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of different categories of endometritis on follicular growth and ovulation, reproductive performance, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield (MY) in dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 126) were examined for endometritis on 25 ± 1 day postpartum (DPP) using vaginoscopy, transrectal ultrasonography, and endometrial cytology to determine the presence and type of vaginal discharge, uterine fluid, and proportion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, respectively. Cows that had mucopurulent vaginal discharge and/or presence of uterine fluid, no mucopurulent vaginal discharge or uterine fluid but 8% or more PMN, and mucopurulent vaginal discharge and/or uterine fluid and 8% or more of PMN were defined as having clinical (CLIN; n = 45), cytological (CYTO; n = 15), and clinical and cytological (CLINCYTO; n = 30) endometritis, respectively. Cows that had none of the above pathological conditions were classified as unaffected (UNAF; n = 36). The diameter of the largest follicle at first examination, intervals from calving to first dominant (diameter = 10 mm) follicle, preovulatory size (diameter = 16 mm) follicle, ovulation, presence of follicular cyst, and proportion of ovular cows at 35 and 65 DPP were recorded as the measures of follicular growth and ovulation. None of the ovarian follicular parameters analyzed was affected by categories of endometritis. The first service conception rate tended (P = 0.06) to differ among categories of endometritis; cows that had CLIN and CLINCYTO endometritis were four times less likely to conceive to the first insemination compared to UNAF cows. Cows that had CLIN (hazard ratio: 0.52) and CLINCYTO (hazard ratio: 0.40) endometritis had decreased likelihood of pregnancy at 150 DPP compared to UNAF cows. Similarly, cows diagnosed as having CLINCYTO endometritis had decreased likelihood (hazard ratio: 0.48) of pregnancy at 250 DPP compared to UNAF cows. The DMI and MY up to 5

  17. Remobilization of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Durum Wheat as Affected by Genotype and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pampana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out to determine dry matter (DM, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P assimilation until anthesis and DM, N and P remobilization during grain filling in wheat. Twentyfive durum wheat (Triticum durum L. varieties were grown in Tuscany at Grosseto and at Arezzo. At Grosseto 76% of DM was assimilated during pre-anthesis while at Arezzo the amount was 81%. At Grosseto 44% and at Arezzo 35% of N was accumulated until anthesis, while 33% of P was stored until anthesis in both localities. Cultivar differences in DM and N remobilization were positively related to pre-anthesis dry matter and N content at anthesis (r > 0.74. Environmental contraints on carbon, N and P availability in the plant are crucial factors in determining grain yield and N and P content in grain, affecting both accumulation and remobilization. In the low rainfall site of Grosseto, most of the grain yield originated from dry matter accumulation, while in the wetter environment of Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally to grain yield. Conversely, at Grosseto grain N content relied most on remobilization and at Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally. Finally, at Grosseto and at Arezzo accumulation of P was the main source of grain P content.

  18. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Leaf Number, Leaf Area and Leaf Dry Matter in Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of phenylureas (CPPU and brassinosteriod (BR along with GA (gibberellic acid were studied on seedless grape vegetative characteristics like leaf number, leaf area and leaf dry matter. Growth regulators were sprayed on the vines either once (7 days after fruit set or 15 days after fruit set or twice (7+15 days after fruit set. CPPU 2 ppm+BR 0.4 ppm+GA 25 ppm produced maximum number of leaves (18.78 while as untreated vines produced least leaf number (16.22 per shoot. Maximum leaf area (129.70 cm2 and dry matter content (26.51% was obtained with higher CPPU (3 ppm and BR (0.4 ppm combination along with GA 25 ppm. Plant growth regulators whether naturally derived or synthetic are used to improve the productivity and quality of grapes. The relatively high value of grapes justifies more expensive inputs. A relatively small improvement in yield or fruit quality can justify the field application of a very costly product. Application of new generation growth regulators like brassinosteroids and phenylureas like CPPU have been reported to increase the leaf number as well as leaf area and dry matter thereby indirectly influencing the fruit yield and quality in grapes.

  19. Response of barley to grasshopper defoliation in interior Alaska: dry matter and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begna, Sultan H; Fielding, Dennis J

    2005-12-01

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., is well adapted to subarctic Alaska growing conditions, but little is known about its response to grasshopper defoliation. A field experiment was conducted to study dry matter and grain yield in response to a combination of grasshopper defoliation and weeds in 2002 and 2003 near Delta Junction, AK (63 degrees 55' N, 145 degrees 20' W). Barley plants at third to fourth leaf stage were exposed to a combination of two levels of weeds (present or absent) and four densities of grasshoppers (equivalent to 0, 25, 50, and 75 grasshoppers per m2) of third to fourth instars of Melanoplus sanguinipes (F). Dry matter accumulation by the barley plants was determined at three times during the growing seasons: approximately 10 d after introduction of the grasshoppers, shortly after anthesis, and at maturity. Dry matter accumulation and grain yield were much lower in 2003 than in 2002, probably due to very low levels of soil moisture early in the growing season of 2003. Head clipping accounted for a greater portion of yield loss in 2003 than in 2002. The percentage of reduction in harvestable yield due to grasshoppers remained fairly constant between years (1.9 and 1.4 g per grasshopper per m2 in 2002 and 2003, respectively) despite a large difference in overall yield. Examination of the yield components suggest that yields were reduced by the early season drought in 2003 primarily through fewer seeds per head, whereas grasshoppers in both years reduced average seed weight, but not numbers of seeds.

  20. De-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow; Kathleen Huguet

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples from Pinus contorta for...

  1. Effects of phosphorus and sulphur on dry matter yield of maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A screen-house experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) on maize dry-matter yield (MDY) in soils of five locations (Obantoko I, II, Alabata I, II, and III) in Abeokuta, Ogun State of Nigeria. Three levels of sulphur (0, 10 and 20 kg S ha–1) and phosphorus (0, 30 and 45 kg P ha–1) ...

  2. In take, performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens fed diets containing dried cassava peel meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Juliano Valério Geron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of inclusion of 0, 10, 20 and 30% dried cassava peel meal (DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens over the period from 1 to 42 days of age on nutrient intake, animal performance, and carcass yield. Two hundred Cobb broiler chickens (1 day old were allocated in a completely randomized design consisting of four inclusion levels of DCPM (treatment, with 10 animals per box and 5 boxes per treatment. The different levels of DCPM did not alter (P>0.05 dietary dry matter (DM or organic matter intake, expressed as g/animal/day, kg DMS/kg0.75, and percentage of body weight. However, the addition of DCPM resulted in a linear increase (P<0.05 in crude protein intake and in a quadratic increase (P<0.05 in neutral detergent fiber intake. Furthermore, the different DCPM levels led to a linear decrease (P<0.05 in average daily gain, average total gain, and feed efficiency of broiler chickens during the period studied. Feed conversion increased linearly (P<0.05 in broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age with inclusion of DCPM in the diets. The inclusion of increasing levels of DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens slaughtered at 42 days of age exerted a linear decreasing effect (P<0.05 on slaughter weight, hot carcass weight, and chest, wing, thigh and back weight. The inclusion of more than 10% DCPM in the diet of broiler chickens from 1 to 42 days of age reduces feed and nutrient intake, weight gain, and carcass and noble cut yield.

  3. A simple enzyme assay for dry matter digestibility and its value in studying food selection by generalist herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Gillian M; Waterman, Peter G; McKey, Doyle B; Gartlan, J Stephen

    1981-05-01

    The dry matter digestibility of 94 species of leaf was assayed by a simple method involving sequential treatment with pepsin and fungal cellulase enzymes. It was demonstrated that for foliage from rainforest trees of a wide range of dicotyledonous plant families the assay showed high positive correlation with estimates of dry matter digestibility obtained using rumenliquor from a fistulated steer. Both assays were found to reflect negative correlates of digestibility, notably fibre and condensed tannin, rather than the nutritional value of an item. The higher dry matter digestibility of immature leaves relative to mature leaves appeared to be accounted for by their lower fibre content. It is suggested that the pepsin/cellulase assay offers a cheap, quick, routine method of gaining information on the effects of some types of plant secondary compounds (digestibility reducers) on the 'food potential' of different kinds of foliage to herbivores. Its use in studies of herbivory in rainforest areas in relation to analyses for plant secondary compounds and food selection by herbivores is discussed.

  4. Intake and feeding efficiency in feed-lot lambs Consumo e Eficiência Alimentar em Cordeiros Confinados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joadil Gonçalves Abreu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment was carried out in order to evaluate the intake and feed efficiency in fed-lot sheep as function of the body weight (BW variation. Data from three experiments with 50 feedlot lambs maintained in individual metabolic cages and fed diets composed of 50:50 roughage:concentrate were used. The experiment lasted 120 days; every 21 days the animals were weighed and the dry matter intake and body weight change were daily done. The intake was determined by checking daily the feed offer level and orts. The increased in animals body weight incremented the dry matter intake in 30.8g/kg of body weight/day, but promoted reduction of 0.0318% when the intake was expressed as percentage of BW. In addition, the advance of body weight affected negatively the feed conversion (FC, where animals with BW of 30 kg showed estimated FC of 4.55 of dry matter/kg of BW gain, while animals with BW of 45 kg have would food conversion of 7.03 kg of DM/kg of BW gain.Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar o consumo e a eficiência alimentar em ovinos confinados em função da variação no peso vivo (PV. Foram utilizados dados de três experimentos com cordeiros em confinamento, 50 animais no total, mantidos em gaiolas individuais para estudos de metabolismo, alimentados com dietas de relação volumoso: concentrado 50:50. Durante o experimento (120 dias, os animais foram monitorados quanto ao consumo diário de matéria seca e à variação de peso vivo, por meio de pesagens realizadas a cada 21 dias. O consumo foi determinado pelo monitoramento diário da oferta de alimento e das sobras. Com o do peso vivo dos animais aumentou o consumo de matéria seca em 29,38g/kg de PV/dia, mas promoveu redução de 0,0318% quando expresso em porcentagem do PV. Além disso, o avanço do PV afetou negativamente a conversão alimentar (CA, de modo que animais com 30kg de PV apresentaram CA estimada de 4,55kg de MS/kg de PV ganho, enquanto animais com peso

  5. Bromatological composition and dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars subjected to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H.D. Buso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars were assessed for different nitrogen doses and two sowing seasons in the Ceres municipality of Goiás state, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three millet cultivars (ADR-7010, ADR-500 and BRS-1501, four nitrogen (N doses (0, 50, 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N and two sowing seasons. Three replicates and a randomised block design with a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial scheme were used. Two cuttings were performed in each season when plants reached an average height of 0.70 cm. No significant interactions were observed between or among cultivars for N doses and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF contents. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF contents were significantly different between N doses. The DM and CP contents increased as the N dose increased to 100kg ha-1. The maximum DM and CP contents were 11.14 and 22.53%, respectively. The NDF and ADF contents were higher in the control treatment (60.11 and 30.01%, respectively. In addition, the lowest ADF and NDF concentrations occurred at an N dose of 50kg ha-1 (56.33 and 30.23%, respectively. The DM contents were higher for the February sowing, with an average of 10.59%. The highest CP and ADF contents were found for the December sowing (22.46 and 31.58%, respectively. No significant differences were found for millet cultivars, N doses or sowing seasons. A significant interaction was found between sowing season and millet cultivar. The BRS-1501 cultivar had a higher in vitro dry matter digestibility in the December/2010 sowing (73.88%.

  6. Real-time dry matter content of corn silage by a microwave sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Perricone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Daily dry matter (DM intake in dairy cow is a central point to meet nutritional requirements and optimal performance, reducing the incidence of metabolic diseases. DM content of some forages, such as silages, can undergo huge variations during storing, affecting the total daily DM consumed. Reference laboratory method is time consuming and cannot be applied to daily changes in diet composition. Currently, new promising real-time technologies are available to monitor the DM content of feeds. The aim of the study was to test and calibrate a portable microwave sensor (MS for DM content in corn silage samples. Twenty-two samples were collected from a corn silage front; sampling procedure was optimized to collect as much as DM content variability as possible within the samples. MS readings were performed with 3 different methods for each samples: 1 directly on the silage front, 2 with the MS over the collected sample and 3 with MS placed under the sample. After the first MS reading, a correspondent silage sample was obtained by a silage corer for readings 2 and 3 and the laboratory DM content assay. A simple regression analysis was performed (JMP, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, 2015 over obtained data. Results evidences as the best MS reading method is represented by the probe burdening on the sample (R2=0.75 with respect to the other methods. The obtained results outlined as, with a correct reading method, MS can be valuable tool to determine DM content of corn silage directly at farm level.

  7. Biochemical components and dry matter of lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V. da S. Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to study the biochemical changes and dry matter content in lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress during rootstock formation. For this, a study was conducted in randomized complete block, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with two salinity levels (0.3 and 4.0 dS m-1 applied in five citrus rootstock genotypes (1. TSKC x CTARG - 019; 2. LRF; 3. TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040; 4. LCRSTC and 5. LVK, with three replicates and four plants per plot. At 90 days after sowing, saline treatments started to be applied and continued until 120 days after sowing, the moment in which the plants were collected for evaluation of biochemical characteristics and phytomass accumulation. The increase in water salinity negatively affected the biochemical components and dry matter accumulation of citrus genotypes. The genotypes TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040, LCRSTC and LVK were the least affected by salt stress, standing out as the materials most tolerant to salinity.

  8. Shoot growth, radiation interception and dry matter production and partitioning during the establishment phase of Miscanthus sinensis 'Giganteus' grown at two densities in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullard, M.J.; Heath, M.C.; Nixon, P.M.I.

    1995-01-01

    Photosynthetic area index (PAI), radiation interception (I) and dry matter partitioning between shoots and roots were measured for Miscanthus sinensis‘Giganteus' grown from micro-propagated transplants on a fertile peaty loam soil in eastern England. In the establishment year, Miscanthus plants produced 35 and 70 shoots plant -1 at densities of 4.0 and 1.8 plants m -2 respectively. At the higher density, there were 140 shoots m -2 with the largest reaching a height of 1.8 m; these canopies attained a maximum PAI of 5.45, intercepting 94% of incident radiation. Leaf lamina contributed c. 90% of total photosynthetic area with stems contributing the remainder. At the lower density, maximum PAI and I values were 2.88 and 86% respectively. PAI was related to I by calculating attenuation coefficients (k); these indicated that Miscanthus canopies were more effective at intercepting radiation per unit PAI at the lower density (k= -0.31) compared with the higher density (k= -0.20). Radiation interception was related to dry matter accumulated by calculating conversion efficiencies (e). At 4 plants m -2 , × for shoot dry matter production was 1.17g MJ -1 . Miscanthus partitioned a relatively large amount of total dry matter into below-ground biomass. By plant senescence, c. 30% of total dry matter had been partitioned into root and rhizome; rhizome biomass contributed 80% of below-ground dry matter, × increased to 1.62 g MJ -1 when calculated on a total dry matter basis (shoot + root + rhizome). Total dry matter production was increased 68% by a 2.2-fold increase in plant density. (author)

  9. Influence of diesel contamination in soil on growth and dry matter partitioning of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Kayode; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-09-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil was investigated on growth and dry matter partitioning in Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas in greenhouse pot experiment at two concentration range (0-30 ml and 0-6 ml diesel kg(-1) soil) for 14 weeks. The results indicated thatwhole plant biomass, stem length, root length, number of leaves and leaf chlorophyll in two plants were negatively correlated with increasing diesel concentrations. The critical concentration of diesel associated with 10% decrease in plant growth was 0.33 ml for lettuce and 1.50 ml for sweet potato. Thus, growth of lettuce in diesel contaminated soil was more sensitive than sweet potato. The pattern of dry matter partitioning between root and shoot in both plants were similar. In 0-6 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to shoot system was favoured resulting in high shoot: root ratio of 4.54 and 12.91 for lettuce and sweet potato respectively. However, in 0-30 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to root was favoured, which may have been an adaptive mechanism in which the root system was used for storage in addition to increasing the capacity for foraging for mineral nutrients and water. Although lettuce accumulated more metals in its tissue than sweet potato, the tissue mineral nutrients in both species did not vary to great extent. The critical diesel concentration for toxicity suggested that the cause of mortality and poor growth of sweet potato and lettuce grown in diesel contaminated soil was due to presence of hydrocarbons in diesel.

  10. Evaluation of hyperspectral reflectance for estimating dry matter and sugar concentration in processing potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of sugar concentration and dry matter in processing potatoes is a time and resource intensive activity, cannot be performed in the field, and does not easily measure within tuber variation. A proposed method to improve the phenotyping of processing potatoes is to employ hyperspectral...

  11. Improvement of cassava for high dry matter, starch and low cyanogenic glucoside content by mutation induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, E C; Mbanaso, E N.A.; Ene, L S.O. [Plant Breeding Div., National Root Crops Research Inst., Umudike, Umuahia (Nigeria)

    1997-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food in Nigeria. One drawback in its use as a staple food is the presence of cyanogenic glucosides which on hydrolysis produce the very toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). To reduce the cyanogenic levels by mutation induction, three locally adopted and high yielding varieties of cassava, TMS 30572, NR 8817 and NR 84111 were irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 Gy gamma rays. There were a wide variation in HCN, dry matter and starch content of irradiated cassava plants, screened in the MV{sub 2} propagation. Fourteen cassavavariant lines were selected for low HCN content, and 22 lines for high dry matter content. These will be further tested for yield in replicated field trials. (author). 7 refs, 3 tabs.

  12. Improvement of cassava for high dry matter, starch and low cyanogenic glucoside content by mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwachukwu, E.C.; Mbanaso, E.N.A.; Ene, L.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food in Nigeria. One drawback in its use as a staple food is the presence of cyanogenic glucosides which on hydrolysis produce the very toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). To reduce the cyanogenic levels by mutation induction, three locally adopted and high yielding varieties of cassava, TMS 30572, NR 8817 and NR 84111 were irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 Gy gamma rays. There were a wide variation in HCN, dry matter and starch content of irradiated cassava plants, screened in the MV 2 propagation. Fourteen cassavavariant lines were selected for low HCN content, and 22 lines for high dry matter content. These will be further tested for yield in replicated field trials. (author). 7 refs, 3 tabs

  13. Effect of N-fertilizer rates on Dry Matter Yield (DMY) and quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of N-fertilizer rates on Dry Matter Yield (DMY) and quality of pinapple propagules (Ananas comosus) in the acid sands of cross river. W Ubi, M W Ubi, VE Osedeke. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Physics Vol. 14 (1) 2008 pp. 1-4. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  14. Effects of feeding alfalfa stemlage or wheat straw for dietary energy dilution on nutrient intake and digestibility, growth performance and feeding behavior of holstein dairy heifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding high-quality forage diets may lead to excessive weight gains and over-conditioning for dairy heifers. Restriction of energy density and dry matter intake by using low-energy forages, such as straw, is a good approach for controlling this problem. Alfalfa ...

  15. Early pair housing increases solid feed intake and weight gains in dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, J H C; Meagher, R K; von Keyserlingk, M A G; Weary, D M

    2015-09-01

    Dairy calves have traditionally been kept in individual pens throughout the milk-feeding period. Social rearing is associated with increased solid feed intake and, hence, higher weight gains before and after weaning. Little is known about the effect of the age at which social housing begins. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of early versus late pairing on feeding behavior and weight gain before and after weaning. Holstein bull calves were reared individually (n=8 calves) or paired with another calf at 6±3 d (n=8 pairs) or 43±3 d of age (n=8 pairs). All calves were fed 8 L of milk/d for 4 wk, 6 L/d from 4 to 7 wk, and then milk was reduced by 20%/d until calves were completely weaned at 8 wk of age. Calves were provided ad libitumaccess to calf starter and a total mixed ration (TMR). Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly from 3 to 10 wk of age.Intake of calf starter was significantly higher for the early-paired calves than for individually reared and late-paired calves throughout the experimental period. At 10 wk of age, starter dry matter intake averaged 2.20±0.22, 1.09±0.25, and 1.26±0.33kg/d for early-paired, late-paired, and individually housed calves, respectively. Intake of TMR did not differ among treatments, TMR dry matter intake averaged 3.27±0.72, 3.08±0.46, and 2.89±0.54kg/d for the same 3 treatments. Calves in the early paired treatment also showed significantly higher average daily gain over the experimental period (0.89±0.04 vs. 0.76±0.04 and 0.73±0.04kg/d for the early-paired, individual, and late-paired calves, respectively). These results indicate that social housing soon after birth can increase weight gains and intake of solid feed. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dry Matter Production and Leaf Elemental Concentrations of Rambutan Grown on an Acid Ultisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the adaptability of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) to highly acidic soils rich in aluminum (Al). A 2-yr field study was conducted to determine the effects of various levels of soil Al on dry matter production, plant growth, and nutrient concentration in the leaves of four cult...

  17. Effect of substituting soybean meal and canola cake with grain-based dried distillers grains with solubles as a protein source on feed intake, milk production, and milk quality in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2017-01-01

    corn) appear to be relevant sources of feed and protein for dairy cows. To date, most of the studies investigating DDGS have been performed with corn-based DDGS. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of the proportion of gDDGS in the diet on feed intake, milk production, and milk...... of soybean meal, canola cake, and beet pulp. Dry matter intake and energy-corrected milk yield were not affected by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet. Daily milk yield decreased with the H diet compared with the L and M diets. The percentage of fat in milk was higher when cows were fed the H diet compared...... by the proportion of gDDGS in the diet or when milk was stored for 7 d. Linoleic acid and conjugated linoleic acid cis-9,trans-11 in milk increased with increasing proportion of gDDGS. To conclude, gDDGS can replace soybean meal and canola cake as a protein source in the diet of dairy cows. Up to 13.5% of the diet...

  18. Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation are not affected by superoptimal concentration of ammonium in flowing solution culture with pH control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, J. W.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    While it is known that superoptimal concentrations of the nitrate (NO3-) ion in solution culture do not increase NO3- uptake or dry matter accumulation, the same is not known for the ammonium (NH4+) ion. An experiment was conducted utilizing flowing solution culture with pH control to investigate the influence of superoptimal NH4+ concentrations on dry matter, nitrogen (N), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) accumulation by nonnodulated soybean plants. Increasing the NH4+ concentration in solution from 1 to 10 mM did not affect dry matter or N accumulation. Accumulations of K, Ca, and Mg were slightly decreased with increased NH4+ concentration. The NH4+ uptake system, which is saturated at less than 1mM NH4+, is able to regulate uptake of NH4+ at concentrations as high as 10 mM.

  19. Accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in the developing seeds of high protein mutant lines of Triticum Aestivum (L.) produced by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Ali, N.; Nabulsi, I.

    1993-03-01

    Accumulation patterns of dry matter and nitrogen in the developing seeds of nine mutant lines produced by the IAEA and their mother Triticum Aestivum (L.) line were studied. The experiments lasted 2 years under rain fed conditions. Significant differences were found among the lines in dry matter and nitrogen rates, and periods of accumulation, whereas no significant differences were found in the final seed weight of the lines. The highest rates of accumulation for dry matter and nitrogen were accompanied with the shortest period of accumulation in two late flowering mutant lines. However, these two lines were the lowest in their yield per plot. The other mutant lines achieved the high nitrogen percentage in their seeds through the relative reduction in dry matter accumulation rate compared to their mother line rather than through higher rate of nitrogen accumulation. This study revealed some of the potential reasons behind the higher percentage of protein in the seeds of the mutant lines under investigation. (author). 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Effect of feed type and method of presentation on feeding behavior, intake, and growth of dairy calves fed a high level of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overvest, M A; Bergeron, R; Haley, D B; DeVries, T J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of different feed types and method of feed presentation in the first 12 wk of life on the feeding behavior, intake, and growth of calves fed a high milk level. Forty-eight neonatal Holstein calves were individually housed and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments and fed solid feed ad libitum: silage-based total mixed ration (TMR), concentrate (CON), and chopped hay and concentrate presented in 2 manners: mixed (MIX) or separate (SEP). All calves were offered 12 L/d of acidified milk replacer (1.8 kg of dry matter) until d 38 at which time step-down weaning by 1 L/d began. At d 50 calves no longer received milk, and all calves on SEP and CON treatments were offered the MIX diet until the end of the trial, whereas TMR and MIX calves did not change feeds. Feed intakes were recorded daily, and calves were weighed twice per week. Rumination time was observed on the last 3 d of alternate weeks (wk 3, 5, 7, 9, and 11) for 1h beginning at 1500 h. Time spent feeding was determined for the last 2 d of alternate weeks. In the preweaning stage (d 1-37) average daily gain was similar for all calves (1.1 kg/d). The TMR calves had lower average daily gain than calves on the other 3 treatments during both the weaning (d 38-49; 0.2 vs. 0.7 kg/d) and postweaning (d 50-84; 0.5 vs. 1.2 kg/d) stages. This result is related to the lower dry matter intake of calves fed TMR in comparison with MIX, SEP, and CON calves in the weaning (0.2 vs. 0.5 kg/d) and postweaning (1.8 vs. 2.8 kg/d) stages. Given dry matter content of the feeds (TMR=52%, other diets=89%), the as-fed intake of the calves was similar across treatments in all 3 stages. Calves offered hay in addition to concentrate showed no difference in concentrate intake in the first 7 wk of life. Interestingly, TMR calves spent more time feeding during the postweaning stage than MIX, SEP, and CON calves (308 vs. 194 min/d) and exhibited a slower feeding rate postweaning (5.9 vs. 14

  1. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  2. Dry matter yield and forage quality traits of oat (Avena sativa L. under integrative use of microbial and synthetic source of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bilal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural microbes are potential contributor to build up soil nitrogen through transformation of molecular nitrogen to plant available forms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the contribution of biofertilizer to reduce the synthetic nitrogen application without deteriorating the yield and forage quality. The supplementary nitrogen rates included 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1 and the seed inoculation was carried out with the mixture of Azospirillum + Azotobacter spp. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. The results indicated that organic matter contents and ether extractable fat were negatively associated with both nitrogen and inoculation factors. The inoculation produced 6.58%, 9.58%, 2.51%, 16.94%, 10.26%, 17.59%, 14.02%, 33.81% and 66.18% more No. tillers, plant height, leaf to stem ratio, dry matter yield, mineral matter contents, crude fibre, crude protein, crude protein yield and total digestible crude protein yield, respectively over uninoculation. The interactive effects indicated that inoculation alone without nitrogen application produced 19.16% and 6.87% more dry matter yield and crude protein (%, respectively. The beneficiary effects of biofertilizers on growth and dry matter of oat were more pronounced at intermediate level of inorganic nitrogen which was gradually decreased at higher nitrogen levels. The CP, CPY and DCPY achieved with inoculation alone were statistically equivalent to plots fertilized with 0 and 40 kg N ha−1. It is clear that plots sown with inoculated seeds must be fertilized with 80 kg N to produce higher dry matter and economic returns. However, the highest protein contents in dry matter were recorded with highest fertilization level along with inoculation. By giving due attention to stimulatory effects of bacterial species in the present study, it is therefore, recommended to integrate the use of biofertilizers with supplemental

  3. Effect of green manure crops and nitrogen fertilizer levels on dry matter remobilization efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. internodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen rates and green manure crops on dry matter mobilization and mobilization efficiency indices of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. a field experiment was conducted in Agricultural Faculty of Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz during growing season of 2010-2011. The experimental design was split-plot based on randomized complete block with three replications. Main plot included four nitrogen rates (i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 kgN.ha-1 and sub-plot included six green manure crops containing millet (Pennisetum sp., amaranth (Amaranthus sp., sesbania (Sesbania sp., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and fallow. This experiment was done at two stages. First, planting and turn down of green manure crops and then planting of wheat. The results showed that the maximum weight and specific weight of all stem internodes obtained from 0 to 20 days after wheat anthesis. Then, this trend decreased from 20 to 50 days after wheat anthesis due to remobilization of dry matter to grain. Mobilized dry matter was more in control (0 kg.N.h-1 than in high N application for peduncle (219 vs. 181 mg and penultimate (203 vs. 165 mg, while, was less in the lower internodes (403 vs. 407 mg. Generally, with increasing of nitrogen levels, dry matter mobilization efficiency was decreased by. So, the effect of green manure crops not limited only by soil properties, while influences the relationship between physiological sources and sink.

  4. Effects of Protein Supplementation During the Dry Season on Feed Intake and the Performance of Borgou Cows in Benin Republic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkoiret, I.T.; Akouedegni, G.C.; Toukourou, Y.; Bosma, R.H.; Mensah, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dry season protein supplementation of Borgou cows on feed intake, milk production, body weight and calves growth performance. Animals (24 cows) were all given a basal diet of straw bush ad libitum. Cows of 1st group (8 cows in each group) were

  5. Effect of N, P and K Humates on Dry Matter of Zea mays and Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sharjeel Ahmad

    may only be applicable to similar acid soils. The outcome of this study may contribute to the improvement of urea N use efficiency as well as reducing environmental pollution. Key words: Humic acids, fulvic acids, triple superphosphate, muriate of potash, soil exchangeable ammonium, available nitrate, Zea mays, dry matter.

  6. Nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of greenhouse tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattin Jorge E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of a greenhouse tomato crop was determined. Plants of hybrid Monte Carlo were grown in 4.5 L bags, using a commercial substrate, in a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. A nutrient solution containing, in mmol L-1: KNO3, 4.0; K2SO4, 0.9; Ca(NO32, 3.75; KH2PO4, 1.5; MgSO4, 1.0; iron chelate 19. 10³, was used as reference. Microelements were added by a commercial mixture. The T3 treatment was equal to the reference nutrient solution, whereas in treatments T1, T2, T4 and T5 quantities of all nutrients from T3 were multiplied by 0.25, 0.50, 1.25 and 1.50, respectively. In each treatment, the volume of 1 L of nutrient solution was supplied to each plant once a week by fertigation. Periodically destructive measurements were made from anthesis to ripening of the first truss, to determine dry matter and N concentration in shoot and in fifth leaf tissues, counted from the apex to the bottom of the plant. Five dilution curves were fitted from data of N concentration in the fifth leaf and shoot dry matter accumulation during growth of plants. A general relationship was adjusted between actual N concentration in shoot (Nt and in the fifth leaf (Nf: Nt = 1.287 Nf (R² = 0.80. This relationship could be used to estimate the N status of plants by means of a nitrogen nutrition index (NNI, from analysis of the fifth leaf sap.

  7. Silagens de girassol e de milho em dietas de vacas leiteiras: consumo e digestibilidade aparente Sunflower and corn silages in lactating cow diets: intake and digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Leite

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente de dietas, contendo diferentes proporções de silagem de girassol em substituição à silagem de milho, para vacas leiteiras em lactação. Foram utilizadas cinco vacas da raça Holandesa, que produziam 25kg leite/dia, distribuídas em um delineamento em quadrado latino 5´5. Os tratamentos foram compostos por: 100% de silagem de girassol e concentrado (100SG, 66% de silagem de girassol mais 34% de silagem de milho e concentrado (66SG, 34% de silagem de girassol mais 66% de silagem de milho e concentrado (34SG, 100% de silagem de milho e concentrado (100SM e 100% de silagem de milho mais caroço de algodão (16,5% da matéria seca e concentrado (SM+CA. A ingestão de matéria seca (17,8kg para 100SG e 21,6kg para 100SM, a ingestão de matéria orgânica (15,5kg para 100SG e 20,2kg para 100SM, a ingestão de fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (8,1kg para 100SG e 9,9kg para 100SM, a digestibilidade aparente da fibra insolúvel em detergente neutro (30,7% para 100SG e 51,4% para 100SM e da fibra insolúvel em detergente ácido (28,4% para 100SG e 49,4% para 100SM foram menores para a dieta 100SG comparada à dieta 100SM (PThe intake and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and the intake of crude protein were evaluated in lactating Holstein cows fed sunflower silage (SS in replacement of corn silage (CS in their diets. Five ruminal cannulated cows, 60 to 82 days in milk, were arranged in a 5 x 5 latin square design. The treatments werethe following: 100% corn silage (100CS and concentrate; 34% sunflower silage plus 66% corn silage (34SS and concentrate; 66% sunflower silage plus 34% corn silage (66SS and concentrate; 100% sunflower silage (100SS and concentrate;and 100% corn silage plus whole cotton seed (CS-WCS and concentrate. Dry matter (17.86kg for 100SS and 21.62kg for 100CS and organic matter intake (17.5kg for 100SS and

  8. Shredded beet pulp substituted for corn silage in diets fed to dairy cows under ambient heat stress: Feed intake, total-tract digestibility, plasma metabolites, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, N; Ghorbani, G R; Sadeghi-Sefidmazgi, A; Nasrollahi, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2016-11-01

    The effects of substituting increasing concentrations of dried, shredded beet pulp for corn silage on dry matter intake, nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and milk production of lactating dairy cows was evaluated under conditions of ambient heat stress. Four multiparous (126±13d in milk) and 4 primiparous (121±11d in milk) Holstein cows were used in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 4 periods of 21d. Each period had 14d of adaptation and 7d of sampling, and parity was the square. Dietary treatments were (dry matter basis): 16% of dietary dry matter as corn silage without BP (0BP, control diet); 8% corn silage and 8% beet pulp (8BP); 4% corn silage and 12% beet pulp (12BP); and 0% corn silage and 16% beet pulp (16BP). Alfalfa hay was included in all diets (24% dietary dry matter). Dietary concentrations of forage neutral detergent fiber and nonfiber carbohydrates were 21.3 and 39.2% (0BP), 16.5 and 40.9% (8BP), 14.1 and 42.2% (12BP), and 11.7 and 43.4% (16BP), respectively (dry matter basis). The ambient temperature-humidity index indicated that the cows were in heat stress for almost the entire duration of the study. Dry matter intake and nutrient digestibilities were similar across treatments and between multi- and primiparous cows. Mean rumen pH tended to decrease with increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet. Also, increasing proportions of beet pulp in the diet linearly decreased acetate and butyrate concentrations in the rumen and increased propionate concentrations, leading to a linear decrease in acetate:propionate ratio. Milk yield linearly increased (38.5, 39.3, 40.9, and 39.6kg/d for 0BP, 8BP, 12BP, and 16BP, respectively), but fat content linearly decreased (3.46, 3.47, 3.27, and 2.99), such that we observed no effect on fat-corrected milk. Substituting beet pulp for corn silage increased the neutral detergent insoluble crude protein content of the diet, leading to a decrease in rumen concentration of

  9. Voluntary intake, digestibility and nitrogen utilization by sheep fed ensiled grass clover mixture harvested at three stages of maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of grass maturity at harvest on silage ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention in wether sheep. The sward was harvested at the stem elongation, tasseling and flowering growth stages of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata. Three silages were offered to four Charolais wether sheep in an incomplete change over design with four periods. As the crop matured, there was an increase (P<0.001 in dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and acid detergent fiber (ADF concentration and a decrease in crude protein (CP concentration (P<0.001. Increasing maturity of grass ensiled showed a linear decrease (P<0.01 in voluntary silage intake of DM, OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, a linear decrease (P<0.01 in digestibility of silage DM, OM, NDF, ADF, CP, and a linear decrease in nitrogen balance (P<0.01. No quadratic response was recorded in silage intake, digestibility or N balance. The results suggest that grass maturity at harvest influences the nutritive value of grass silage, in terms of ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and N retention in sheep, as a result of changes in chemical composition.

  10. Effect of incorporation of walnut cake (Juglans regia in concentrate mixture on degradation of dry matter, organic matter and production of microbial biomass in vitro in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Ahmad Mir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of incorporation of different level of walnut cake in concentrate mixture on in vitro dry matter degradation in order to determine its level of supplementation in ruminant ration. Materials and Methods: Walnut cake was used @ 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% level to formulate an iso-nitrogenous concentrate mixtures and designated as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 respectively. The different formulae of concentrate mixtures were used for in vitro gas production studies using goat rumen liquor with wheat straw in 40:60 ratio. Proximate composition, fiber fractionation and calcium and phosphrous content of walnut cake were estimated. Result: The per cent IVDMD value of T1 and T2 diets was 68.42 ± 1.20 and 67.25 ± 1.37 respectively which was found highest (P<0.05 T3, T4, T5 and T6. Similar trend was also found for TDOM and MBP. Inclusion of walnut cake at 10% level in the concentrate mixture does not affect in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, truly degradable organic matter (TDOM, mg/200 mg DM, total gas production, microbial biomass production (MBP and efficiency of microbial biomass production (EMP. Conclusion: It is concluded that walnut cake incorporation up to 10% level in the iso -nitrogenous concentrate mixture has no any negative effect on in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DM, TDOM, MBP, EMP and total gas production in goat.

  11. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingxin; Zheng, Youfei; He, Yuhong; Wu, Rongjun; Mai, Boru; Kang, Hanqing

    2016-01-01

    Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L.) at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system). These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2) = 0.85 & T2: R(2) = 0.89) of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2) of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter loss in winter

  12. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Xu

    Full Text Available Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L. at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system. These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2 = 0.85 & T2: R(2 = 0.89 of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2 of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter

  13. Effects of feed intake and dietary urea concentration on ruminal dilution rate and efficiency of bacteria growth in steers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firkins, J.L.; Lewis, S.M.; Montgomery, L.; Berger, L.L.; Merchen, N.R.; Fahey, G.C. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Four multiple-fistulated steers (340 kg) were fed a diet containing 50% ground grass hay, 20% dry distillers grains, and 30% concentrate at two intakes (7.2 or 4.8 kg DM/d). Urea (.4 or 1.2% of the diet) was infused continuously into the steers' rumens. The experimental design was a 4 x 4 Latin square with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Infusing urea at .4 or 1.2% of the diet resulted in ruminal NH 3 N concentration of 4.97 and 9.10 mg/dl, respectively. Feeding steers at high rather than low intake decreased ruminal and total tract digestibilities of organic matter, NDF, and ADF but did not increase ruminal escape of N. However, apparent N escape from the rumen calculated using purines, but not 15 N, as a bacterial marker was higher when 1.2 vs. .4% urea was infused. Feeding at high rather than at low intake increased the total pool of viable bacteria per gram organic matter fermented in the rumen. Although ruminal fluid outflows and particulate dilution rates were greater when steers were fed at high than low intakes, efficiencies of bacterial protein synthesis were unaffected by intake. The possibility of increased N recycling within the rumen with feeding at the higher intake is discussed

  14. ORGANIC MATTER AND CRUDE PROTEIN DEGRADATION SYNCHRONY IN DIETS SELECTED BY RANGE GOATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ramírez Orduña

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out with the aim to asses the synchrony of organic matter and crude protein degradation in the rumen of diets selected by range goats through two years. Five esophageal cannulated adult male goats were used to collect extrusa samples during summer (August 9–13 and autumn (November 29 –December 3 of 2006, winter (February 20 – 24, spring (April 29 –May 5, summer (September 10–15 and autumn (December 4–8 of 2007 and winter (February 20 – 25 and spring (May 9 –13 of 2008. Extrusa samples were subjected to chemical analysis to determine organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP in situ and in vitro true digestibility of dry matter. OM and CP intake were estimated by total fecal collection. Effective extent of degradation of the OM and CP was calculated hourly and total 24 hours. From the hourly quantity of OM and CP degraded, a synchrony index of CP to OM was calculated, and from the total 24 hours degradation, degraded organic matter intake and crude protein intake were also estimated. Sampling date was the main effect that determined the variation of diet OM and CP degradation parameters. Degraded crude protein intake as a proportion of degraded OM was affected by sampling date and was correlated to rainfall. During winter of the first year degraded crude protein intake was below the requirements for maintenance or to promote growth for range goats weighing 40 kg. Even though, synchrony index between OM and CP degradation was affected by sampling date goats maintained a high synchrony index throughout the years.

  15. Comparative analysis of wood chips and bundles - Costs, carbon dioxide emissions, dry-matter losses and allergic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    There are multiple systems for the collection, processing, and transport of forest residues for use as a fuel. We compare two systems in use in Sweden to analyze differences in fuel cost, CO{sub 2} emissions, dry-matter loss, and potential for allergic reactions. We compare a bundle system with the traditional Swedish chip system, and then do an in-depth comparison of a Finnish bundle system with the Swedish bundle system. Bundle systems have lower costs, while the allergic reactions do not differ significantly between the systems. The bundle machine is expensive, but results in high productivity and in an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system has higher primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions, but the lower dry-matter losses in the bundle system chain give CO{sub 2} emissions per delivered MWh almost as low as for the chip system. Also, lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the clear-cut area. This leads to a higher possible substitution of fossil fuels per hectare with the bundle system, and that more CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel can be avoided per hectare than in the chip system. The Finnish bundle system with its more effective compressing and forwarding is more cost- and energy-effective than the Swedish bundle system, but Swedish bundle systems can be adapted to be more effective in both aspects. (author)

  16. Effects of Physically Effective Neutral Detergent Fiber Content on Intake, Digestibility, and Chewing Activity in Fattening Heifer Fed Total Mixed Ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi Rae Oh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF content in total mixed ration (TMR on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in fattening Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae heifers. The experiment was designed as a replicated 3×3 Latin square using 12 heifers. Fattening heifers were offered one of three diets [high (T1, medium (T2, and low (T3 peNDF] obtained by different mixing times (3, 10, and 25 min for the same TMR feed. The peNDF content of TMR was determined by multiplying the proportion of dry matter retained by a 1.18 mm-screen in a Penn State Particle Separator by the dietary NDF content. The peNDF1.18 content was 30.36%, 29.20%, and 27.50% for the T1, T2, and T3 diets, respectively (p<0.05. Dry matter intake was not affected by peNDF content in TMR. Total weight gain in T1 group was significantly higher (p<0.05 than in T2 and T3 groups. However, weight gain did not differ between T2 and T3 groups. The feed conversion ratio decreased with an increase in the peNDF content (T1: 12.18, T2: 14.17, and T3: 14.01 g/g. An increase in the peNDF content of TMR was associated with a linear increase in the digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber (p<0.05. Also, an increase in peNDF content of the TMR resulted in a linear increase in the number of chews in eating and ruminating (p<0.05, and consequently in the number of total chews (p<0.05. These results indicate that peNDF content affects digestibility and chewing activity. Consequently, the peNDF content of TMR should be considered for improving feed efficiency, digestibility, body weight gain, and performance in fattening heifers.

  17. Feed, energy and protein intakes of horses - A review of Finnish feeding trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Saastamoinen

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the feed, energy and protein intakes of horses engaged in different performances by reviewing results and data concerning feed consumption in 17 feeding trials with a total 356 horses, conducted between 1972 and 1992. The dry matter intake was found to average 1.6-1.8% of body weight for working horses and pregnant mares, and 2-3.5% for lactating mares. According to the results most of the exercising horses could be fed with energy and protein amounts currently recommended for moderate work. In Standardbred trotters, the average energy intake corresponded to the current requirements for light work. The individual variation in energy consumption among horses engaged in work of the same intensity was considerable, and seemed to be larger for Finnhorses than for warmblooded horses. The establishment of new nutrient requirements and feeding recommendations separately for trotters and riding horses of these two breeds, i.e. Finnhorses and warmblooded horses, seems justified.

  18. Analysis and modeling of dry matter production rate by soybean [Glycine max] community: Curvilinear response to radiation intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameshima, R.

    1996-01-01

    The linear relationship between the amount of absorbed radiation and dry matter production by crop communities has long been known, and the proportionality constant between them is known as the radiation use efficiency (RUE). To analyze and predict crop production using RUE, the assumption is often made that RUE is not sensitive to radiation intensity and that dry matter production rate (DMPR) is a linear function of radiation intensity.However, there is evidence in opposition to this assumption, including reports of increasing RUE in shade tests, and hyperbolic response of photosynthetic rate to radiation intensity. The following model was developed and used to analyze the response of DMPR and RUE to daily radiation R S : DMPR = DMPR max (R S ) * g(α) where DMPR max (R S ) is the DMPR of a hypothetical soybean community absorbing all radiation, and g(α) represents the effect of radiation absorptivity (α). A hyperbolic curve and a straight line were employed for DMPR max (R S ) and g(α), respectively. Field experimental data including shade tests were used to determine the parameters for the model. Two sets of parameters were required to cover the entire experimental period. DMPR max (R S ) had an apparent curvilinear relationship with R S . The model successfully described dry matter production under successive low radiation conditions, which could not be estimated by a model with RUE insensitive to radiation. (author)

  19. Intake, digestibility and performance of lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Alana Batista; Pereira, Mara Lúcia Albuquerque; de Oliveira Silva, Herymá Giovane; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; de Jesus Pereira, Taiala Cristina; Ribeiro, Leandro Sampaio Oliveira; Azevêdo, José Augusto Gomes; das Graças Conceição Parada Costa Silva, Maria; Sousa, Larisse Borges; Sousa, Leandro Borges; de Oliveira Alencar, Daiane

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients, performance, and plasma glucose concentration of ram lambs fed diets containing peach palm meal substituting maize (0, 10, 40, 60, and 85 % dry matter (DM)). Thirty Santa Inês rams with an average initial body weight of 21.6 ± 0.87 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with five diets and six replicates. The substitution of the maize for the peach palm meal affected (P < 0.05) the intakes of DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap), total carbohydrates (TC), total digestible nutrients (TDN), and metabolizable energy (ME), which decreased linearly (P < 0.05); the intake of ether extract (EE), however, fit an increasing linear equation (P < 0.05). The apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, NDFap, and TC decreased linearly (P < 0.05) as the level of peach palm meal in the concentrate was increased. The total weight gain and the average daily gain decreased by 0.09 and 0.001 kg with each level of substitution of the maize for peach palm meal, respectively. It is recommended to substitute 40 % of the maize for peach palm meal.

  20. Consumo e digestibilidade de novilhos Nelore sob pastagem suplementados com misturas múltiplas Intake and digestibility of Nelore steers grazing pasture and supplemented with multiple mixture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.O.F. Oliveira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito da suplementação com misturas múltiplas sobre o consumo, digestibilidade e desempenho de novilhos Nelore, em pastagens de Brachiaria brizantha Cv. Marandu, submetidos a quatro tratamentos. No tratamento um (T1, cada animal recebeu 800g/dia de suplemento contendo uréia como fonte de nitrogênio não protéico (NNP; no tratamento dois (T2, recebeu 800g/dia de mistura na qual a uréia foi substituída por amiréia como fonte de NNP; no tratamento três (T3, recebeu 1500g/dia de uma mistura com amiréia; e no tratamento quatro (T4= controle, recebeu sal mineral. Seis animais por tratamento foram utilizados para se medir o consumo pela técnica de indicador externo (óxido crômico, e 10 animais foram usados na avaliação de ganho de peso. Foram utilizados dois animais canulados no esôfago para coleta de amostra de extrusa. Os animais suplementados obtiveram ganhos de peso superiores (PThe effect of three multiple mixtures supplementation on intake, digestibility and performance of Nelore steers grazing pasture of Brachiaria decumbens CV Marandu was studied. The multiple mixtures (treatments - T were defined as: T1 - 800g of supplement with urea as crude protein source, T2 - 800g of mixture in which urea was replaced by starea, T3 - 1500g of starea, and T4 - mineral salt fed ad libitum as a control group. Six animals per treatment were given chromic oxide as a marker to measure intake and 10 animals per treatment were used to evaluate their performance. Two esophageal fistulated steers were used to collect samples of extruse. The animals fed on supplement diets showed higher weight gains (335, 419, 467g/animal than those from the control group (271g/animal. Dry matter digestibility were 56.7, 49.8, 48.9 and 45.5%, respectively, for T1, T2, T3 and T4. A positive correlation between dry matter digestibility and in vitro dry matter digestibility (P<0.05 was observed. Supplementation with multiple mixtures increased dry matter

  1. Using the Small Ruminant Nutrition System to develop and evaluate an alternative approach to estimating the dry matter intake of goats when accounting for ruminal fiber stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regadas Filho, J G L; Tedeschi, L O; Cannas, A; Vieira, R A M; Rodrigues, M T

    2014-11-01

    The first objective of this research was to assess the ability of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS) mechanistic model to predict metabolizable energy intake (MEI) and milk yield (MY) when using a heterogeneous fiber pool scenario (GnG1), compared with a traditional, homogeneous scenario (G1). The second objective was to evaluate an alternative approach to estimating the dry matter intake (DMI) of goats to be used in the SRNS model. The GnG1 scenario considers an age-dependent fractional transference rate for fiber particles from the first ruminal fiber pool (raft) to an escapable pool (λr), and that this second ruminal fiber pool (i.e., escapable pool) follows an age-independent fractional escape rate for fiber particles (ke). Scenario G1 adopted only a single fractional passage rate (kp). All parameters were estimated individually by using equations published in the literature, except for 2 passage rate equations in the G1 scenario: 1 developed with sheep data (G1-S) and another developed with goat data (G1-G). The alternative approach to estimating DMI was based on an optimization process using a series of dietary constraints. The DMI, MEI, and MY estimated for the GnG1 and G1 scenarios were compared with the results of an independent dataset (n=327) that contained information regarding DMI, MEI, MY, and milk and dietary compositions. The evaluation of the scenarios was performed using the coefficient of determination (R(2)) between the observed and predicted values, mean bias (MB), bias correction factor (Cb), and concordance correlation coefficient. The MEI estimated by the GnG1 scenario yielded precise and accurate values (R(2) = 082; MB = 0.21 Mcal/d; Cb = 0.98) similar to those of the G1-S (R(2) = 0.85; MB = 0.10 Mcal/d; Cb=0.99) and G1-G (R(2) = 0.84; MB = 0.18 Mcal/d; Cb = 0.98) scenarios. The results were also similar for the MY, but a substantial MB was found as follows: GnG1 (R(2) = 0.74; MB = 0.70 kg/d; Cb = 0.79), G1-S (R(2) = 0.71; MB = 0

  2. EFFECTS OF FEEDING Moringa stenopetala LEAF MEAL ON NUTRIENT INTAKE AND GROWTH PERFORMANCE OF RHODE ISLAND RED CHICKS UNDER TROPICAL CLIMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aberra Melesse

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Moringa stenopetala leaf meal (MSLM on nutrient intake and weight gain (WG were evaluated. Forty unsexed Rhode Island Red chicks were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups. The control diet (T1 (MSLM 0%, the experimental diets contained MSML at a rate of 2% (T2, 4% (T3, and 6% (T4 of the diets (as fed basis to replace 3%, 5.9% and 8.8% of the crude protein (CP of the control diet. Daily feed, dry matter and CP intake of the chicks fed MSLM diets were higher (p

  3. Dry Matter Accumulation and Remobilization in Grain Sorghum Genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (underNormal and Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Beheshti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Production, remobilization and accumulation of assimilates in crops especially under water stress are essential factors for determination and studying the yield differences of species and cultivars. Field experiment was conducted using a split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replication s during 2007 growing season in agricultural research station (Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Main plots were consisted of 2 levels of water, water deficit after anthesis and normal condition (with out water stress and factorial arrangement of photosynthesis status (non desiccation and chemical desiccation with potassium iodide and 3 grain sorghum genotypes (Sepide, M5 and M2 promising lines were assigned to sub plots. Results of variance analysis showed, that the effects of water stress on dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization (REE, percent of remobilization (REP, biologic yield were significant in (p≤0.01 (and grain yield (economic yield was significant in p≤0.05, respectively. Water deficit caused an increase of 10.08%, 24.45 % and 12.43% in dry matter accumulation, percent of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization, respectively as compared to normal conditions. This in turn was led to decrease in seed yield, biological yield and harvest index by 36.38%, 5.43% and 31.60%, respectively. The effect of disturbance in current photosynthesis was significant in all of traits and caused the increase of 15.58%, 17.5% and 36.62% in dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization and percent of remobilization, respectively. The role of remobilization was crucial in sorghum genotypes. Interaction between factors showed that highest dry matter accumulation, percentage of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization was in drought stress and disturbance in current photosynthesis and was 16.62%, 62.54 and 24.60%, respectively and was significantly

  4. Dry season supplementation of dairy cows with urea molasses mineral blocks and molasses-urea mix in the Morogoro region in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaizier, J.C.B.; McBride, B.W.; Nkya, R.; Shem, M.N.; Urio, N.A.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of supplementation with urea molasses mineral blocks and molasses-urea mix during and immediately prior to the dry season on the production of dairy cows were studied on-station and on small holder peri-urban farms near Morogoro, Tanzania. Supplementation of on-station cows receiving ad libitum grass hay and 6 kg/d of maize bran with urea molasses mineral blocks (UMMB), increased milk production from 6.7 L/d to 11.2 L/d (P <0.05) and dry matter intake from 10.1 kg/d to 12.0 kg/d (P <0.05), but did not significantly affect milk composition, intake of hay and live weight change. This increase in milk yield is mainly explained by increased intakes of energy and nitrogen. Supplementation with the molasses urea mix increased daily milk yield from 6.7 L/d to 8.8 L/d (P <0.05), but did not significantly affect the other measured production parameters. The on-farm supplementation with blocks increased daily milk yield by 1.7 L/d in the dry season (P <0.01). This supplementation did not increase milk yields prior to the dry season, since quality forage was still available. Taking the production costs into account, supplementation with the blocks and supplementation with molasses mix was cost effective if milk yields increased by 0.7 L/d. (author)

  5. Secretion of glucagon-like peptide-2 responds to nutrient intake but not glucose provision in milk-fed calves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, J.J.; Morrison, S.Y.; Hosseinni, A.

    2016-01-01

    concentrations in plasma and intestinal development in Holstein calves. In the first experiment, 48 newborn calves were assigned to 12 treatments (n = 4) corresponding to the factorial combination of 4 milk feeding amounts [1.75, 1.32, 0.88, and 0.44% of body weight (BW) as dry matter (DM)] and 3 oral...... fashion to milk intake but not to glucose supplementation, even at milk consumption levels of only 0.4% of BW as DM....

  6. Effects of sawdust bedding dry matter on lying behavior of dairy cows: a dose-dependent response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, L J; Weary, D M; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2010-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of sawdust bedding dry matter on the lying behavior of Holstein cows. Dry matter (DM) was varied systematically over 5 treatment levels to test how cows respond to damp bedding. This experiment was repeated during summer and winter to test if the effects of damp bedding varied with season. The 5 bedding treatments averaged (+/-SD) 89.8+/-3.7, 74.2+/-6.4, 62.2+/-6.3, 43.9+/-4.0, and 34.7+/-3.8% DM. Over the course of the trial, minimum and maximum temperatures in the barn were 2.6+/-2.0 and 6.8+/-2.2 degrees C in the winter and 13.3+/-2.5 and 22.6+/-4.1 degrees C in the summer. In both seasons, 5 groups of 3 nonlactating cows were housed in free stalls bedded with sawdust. Following a 5-d acclimation period on dry bedding, groups were exposed to the 5 bedding treatments in a 5 x 5 Latin square. Each treatment lasted 4 d, followed by 1 d when the cows were provided with dry bedding. Stall usage was assessed by 24-h video scanned at 5-min intervals. Responses were analyzed within group (n=5) as the observational unit. Bedding DM affected lying time, averaging 10.4+/-0.4 h/d on the wettest treatment and increasing to 11.5+/-0.4 h/d on the driest bedding. Lying time varied with season, averaging 12.1+/-0.4 h/d across treatments during the winter and 9.9+/-0.6 h/d during the summer, but season and bedding DM did not interact. These results indicate that access to dry bedding is important for dairy cows. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake stability in rabbit males reduce sperm abnormalities and improve fertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, J J; Marco-Jiménez, F; Martínez-Paredes, E; Ródenas, L; Fabre, C; Juvero, M A; Cano, J L

    2016-08-01

    Feeding programs promoting daily feed intake (DFI) stability in rabbit males could be useful to ensure successful coverage of their nutritional requirements and for continued production of quality semen. To evaluate two feeding systems designed to reduce DFI variability, 115 rabbit males at age 1.2 years were randomly assigned to three different treatments for 294 days: CS, animals fed ad libitum with a control diet (127-g starch and 281-g total soluble fiber [hemicellulose + soluble fiber] kg(-1) dry matter); SF, males fed ad libitum with diet enriched in soluble fiber (86-g starch and 330-g total soluble fiber kg(-1) dry matter); and R, animals fed with CS diet but daily restricted to maintenance requirements. Feed intake, body weight, body condition, and variability of DFI were controlled every 42 days, and individual semen volume and sperm motility, concentration, acrosome status, and abnormalities every 15 days. In six commercial farms, the number of females inseminated, pregnant and kindling, as well as the number of kits born alive, was registered for 15,893 inseminations with pooled semen from each treatment. DFI was significantly lower for R males than for the other treatments (on average, -12 ± 4 g/day; P fertility of their pooled semen. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Weather influences feed intake and feed efficiency in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Davina L; Wall, Eileen

    2017-03-01

    A key goal for livestock science is to ensure that food production meets the needs of an increasing global population. Climate change may heighten this challenge through increases in mean temperatures and in the intensity, duration, and spatial distribution of extreme weather events, such as heat waves. Under high ambient temperatures, livestock are expected to decrease dry matter intake (DMI) to reduce their metabolic heat production. High yielding dairy cows require high DMI to support their levels of milk production, but this may increase susceptibility to heat stress. Here, we tested how feed intake and the rate of converting dry matter to milk (feed efficiency, FE) vary in response to natural fluctuations in weather conditions in a housed experimental herd of lactating Holstein Friesians in the United Kingdom. Cows belonged to 2 lines: those selected for high genetic merit for milk traits (select) and those at the UK average (control). We predicted that (1) feed intake and FE would vary with an index of temperature and humidity (THI), wind speed, and the number of hours of sunshine, and that (2) the effects of (1) would depend on the cows' genetic merit. Animals received a mixed ration, available ad libitum, from automatic feed measurement gates. Using >73,000 daily feed intake and FE records from 328 cows over 8 yr, we found that select cows produced more fat- and protein-corrected milk, and had higher DMI and FE than controls. Cows of both lines decreased DMI and fat- and protein-corrected milk but, importantly, increased FE as THI increased. This suggests that improvements in the efficiency of converting feed to milk may partially offset the costs of reduced milk yield owing to a warmer climate, at least under conditions of mild heat stress. The rate of increase in FE with THI was steeper in select cows than in controls, which raises the possibility that select cows use more effective coping tactics. This is, to our knowledge, the first longitudinal study

  9. Tenor of macro nutrients and dry matter productivity of covering crops in function of the potassium doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Ferreira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of the system of direct sowing it is necessary the formation of a straw layer in the surface of the soils. In this sense, some species of grass can be used for that goal, besides; those plants can act in the recycling for the accumulation of nutrients in the aerial part, and its readiness for the subsequent culture. The potassium is one of the most accumulated nutrients for many of those plants. The objective of this work was to quantify the macronutrients tenor and the productivity of dry matter of Penisetum glaucum L. and Panicum miliaceum L. under different potassium doses. A blocks at random design, with the treatments disposed in factorial 3x2, was used, being the factors: covering cultures (P.glaucum and P. miliaceum and potassium doses (0; 50 and 100 kg ha-1 of K2 O, with four repetitions. The matter dries was evaluated and the tenors of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S in them, at 50 days after sowing covering cultures. P.glaucum produced larger dry matter content and tenor of N, K and Mg in the aerial part, independently of the K dose applied, while the tenor of P decreased with the application of high dose of K in the soil. The application of K influenced on the tenors of Ca and S in the two covering cultures, nevertheless P.glaucum accumulated higher tenor of those macronutrients in the absence of application of K.

  10. Drying characteristics and nitrogen loss of biogas digestate during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, C.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

    2010-07-01

    The cost of transporting biogas digestate can be decreased by reducing its water content. However, the digestate emits volatile compounds during drying. This study investigated the drying behaviour and the change of digestate composition. Drying took place in a hybrid solar/waste-heat dryer that used solar energy as well as waste heat from a combined heat and power unit (CHP) and the exhaust air of a microturbine. The experiment involved the use of 60 t of liquid digestate. Climatic conditions were measured inside and outside the drying hall. Dry matter (DM) and organic dry matter (ODM) were also measured on a daily basis. In addition, the energy consumption of waste and solar heat were recorded and related to the quantity of dried feedstock. The total nitrogen, ammonium, phosphate, potassium oxide, magnesium oxide and calcium oxide in the digestate were subjected to chemical analysis before and after the drying process. Losses of nitrogen were calculated. Specific energy consumption depended on the climatic condition. Most of the energy consumption was covered by the waste heat of the CHP. A considerable amount of nitrogen was lost during the drying process.

  11. Determination of selenium in cereals, legumes and dry fruits from southeastern Spain for calculation of daily dietary intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Alarcon, J.P.; Navarro-Alarcon, M.; Lopez-Garcia de la Serrana, H.; Lopez-Martinez, M.C.

    1996-01-01

    Hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine selenium content in cereals, legumes and dry fruits from the coast of the province of Granada (southeastern Spain). Accuracy was assured using both a NIST SRM 1572 and recovery experiments. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD) varied between 6.50% for seeds and 15.98% for bread. The highest selenium concentrations were found for dry fruits (294.6 ng/g), followed by legumes (111.8 ng/g), and the lowest for cereals (27.8 ng/g). Considering the average daily individual consumption of these foods in Andalusia (southern Spain), the daily dietary intake of selenium supplied by this source is 15.36 μg/day for an adult. The content of total selenium in corn samples taken from the zone is independent of both human and industrial activities (P 0.05)

  12. Intake and digestibility in cattle under grazing supplemented with nitrogenous compounds during dry season Consumo e digestibilidade em bovinos em pastejo durante o período seco recebendo suplementação com compostos nitrogenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janderson Florencio Figueiras

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with nitrogenous compounds on intake and digestibility in cattle under grazing during dry season. It was used five Holstein × Zebu steers with average initial live weight of 236 kg, kept in five Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. paddocks (0.34 ha. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five supplementation levels and five experimental periods. The supplementation levels were the following: 0; 0.35; 0.70; 1.05, and 1.40 g of crude protein/kg live weight. A mixture of urea, ammonium sulfate and albumin (4.5:0.5:1.0, respectively was used as nitrogen supplement. The average crude protein levels in the diet were 7.39; 8.92; 10.98; 12.55; and 13.62%, as dry matter basis, for the respective supplementation levels. Linear-response-plateau relationships were observed between intake estimates and diet crude protein levels. The linear-response-plateau pattern showed that intake was increased up to crude protein levels close to 9%, as dry matter basis. The estimates became unchangeable from this level. The total and ruminal digestibility coefficients of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber, and diet level of total digestible nutrients presented a positive linear pattern according to diet crude protein levels. The rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration was linearly increased by diet crude protein levels. This variable assumed the value of 8.00 mg/dL when the intake estimates reached the maximum values. Supplementation with nitrogen compounds in quantities that raise the crude protein content in the diet to levels close to 9% optimizes the use of low-quality forage by cattle under grazing.Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da suplementação com compostos nitrogenados sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade em bovinos em pastejo durante o período seco do ano. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos mestiços Holandês × Zebu, com peso vivo (PV médio inicial de

  13. Correlations of intake, digestibility and performance with the ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing ammoniated buffel grass hay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fernandes Perazzo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the correlations of intake, digestibility and performance with the ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing ammoniated buffel grass hay. Buffel grass hay was treated with four levels of urea (0, 18, 36 and 54 g/kg DM basis and eight repetitions. Thirty-two sheep with no defined breed and an average body weight of 17.7 ± 1.8 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. It was observed positive correlations were found between the feeding time and the intake of dry matter (r = 0.3120, organic matter (r = 0.3242, neutral detergent fiber (r = 0.3800, total carbohydrates (r = 0.3343 and total digestible nutrients (r = 0.3233. Positive correlations (P < 0.05 were found among the rumination efficiencies, g of DM/h and g of NDF/h with nutrient intake variables, except for ether extract intake. Positive correlations were observed (P < 0.05 between both total weight gain (TWG and average daily gain (ADG and the rumination efficiency, g of DM/h (r = 0.3330 and g of NDF/h (r = 0.3304. The feeding and rumination efficiencies have a positive relationship with the total digestible nutrients. The correlation among intake, digestibility and performance variables with the ingestive behavior, it was important for the understanding of diet containing ammoniated buffel grass hay, in which the positive correlation of rumination efficiency with intake and weight gain explained the favorable effect on productive performance of feedlot sheep.

  14. Relationship between level of forage intake, blood flow and oxygen consumption by splanchnic tissues of sheep fed a tropical grass forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentz, F; Kozloski, G V; Zeni, D; Brun, M V; Stefanello, S

    2017-02-01

    Four Polwarth castrated male sheep (42 ± 4.4 kg live weight (LW) surgically implanted with chronic indwelling catheters into the mesenteric, portal and hepatic veins, housed in metabolism cages and offered Cynodon sp. hay at rates (g of dry matter (DM)/kg LW) of 7, 14, 21 or ad libitum, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the effect of the level of forage intake on blood flow and oxygen consumption by the portal-drained viscera (PDV), liver and total splanchnic tissues (ST). The portal blood flow and the oxygen consumption by PDV linearly increased at increased organic matter (OM) intake. No effect of level of OM intake was obtained for the hepatic artery blood flow and oxygen consumption by liver. As a consequence, the level of OM intake only tended to directly affect hepatic blood flow and oxygen consumption by total ST. Oxygen consumption was linearly and positively related to blood flow across PDV, liver and total ST. The heat production by PDV and total ST, as proportion of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, decreased curvilinearly at increased ME intake. In conclusion, the oxygen consumption by PDV, but not by liver, was directly related to the level of forage intake by sheep. Moreover, when ingested at levels below maintenance, most of ME was spent as heat produced by ST. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. The impact of dry matter loss during herbaceous biomass storage on net greenhouse gas emissions from biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, Isaac R.; Mosier, Nathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle inventory models of greenhouse gas emissions from biofuel production have become tightly integrated into government mandates and other policies to encourage biofuel production. Current models do not include life cycle impacts of biomass storage or reflect current literature on emissions from soil and biomass decomposition. In this study, the GREET model framework was used to determine net greenhouse gas emissions during ethanol production from corn and switchgrass via three biomass storage systems: wet ensiling of whole corn, and indoor and outdoor dry bale storage of corn stover and switchgrass. Dry matter losses during storage were estimated from the literature and used to modify GREET inventory analysis. Results showed that biomass stability is a key parameter affecting fuel production per farmed hectare and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Corn silage may generate 5358 L/ha of ethanol at 26.5 g CO 2 eq/MJ, relative to 5654 L/ha at 52.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from combined corn stover and conventional grain corn ethanol production, or 3919 L/ha at 21.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from switchgrass. Dry matter losses can increase net emissions by 3–25% (ensiling), 5–53% (bales outdoors), or 1–12% (bales indoors), decreasing the net GHG reduction of ethanol over gasoline by up to 10.9%. Greater understanding of biomass storage losses and greenhouse gas fluxes during storage is necessary to accurately assess biomass storage options to ensure that the design of biomass supply logistics systems meet GHG reduction mandates for biofuel production. -- Highlights: ► Analyzed the impact of biomass loss during storage. ► Probable dry matter losses strongly depend on storage method and infrastructure. ► Assessed impact of storage losses on LCA for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Storage losses increase GHG emissions by 1–53% depending upon storage conditions.

  16. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner dos Reis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms (whole, coarsely and finely ground, with five times of incubation (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. The fraction A in SDC (silage of dent corn of DM was superior to GDC (grain of dent corn in all of the particles size. The ensiling process increased the DM solubility, reducing the fraction B in comparison to dry grain. The values regarding the fractions DP and DE the 5% per hour of the protein, were larger for SDC and GDC, it presents a decreasing when the incubation time advances. The fermentation rate was superior for SDC and GDC. The ensiling process has positive effect in the decreasing of DM and CP in comparison to GDC.

  17. Organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor in dry fish: Traditional washing and cooking effect on dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matiur Rahim

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor were investigated to estimate the effect of various washing and boiling/cooking to elucidate the concentration level we intake actually. For this study five most popular dry fish samples namely bombay duck (loittya, ribbon fish (chhuri, shrimp (chingri, chinese pomfret (rupchanda and Indian salmon (lakhua were analyzed. The highest concentrations of DDT and heptachlor were found 737.238 ppb (Indian salmon, normal and 44.806 ppb (shrimp, normal respectively; after boiling treatment a big amount was washed out and remained only 135.516 ppb and 16.868 ppb respectively. Boiling treatment was found more effective than the others.

  18. Organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor in dry fish: traditional washing and cooking effect on dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MD. Nurul Huda Bhuiyan

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The concentrations of organochlorine insecticides (DDT and heptachlor were investigated to estimate the effect of various washing and boiling/cooking to elucidate the concentration level we intake actually. For this study five most popular dry fish samples namely bombay duck (loittya, ribbon fish (chhuri, shrimp (chingri, chinese pomfret (rupchanda and Indian salmon (lakhua were analyzed. The highest concentrations of DDT and heptachlor were found 737.238 ppb (Indian salmon, normal and 44.806 ppb (shrimp, normal respectively; after boiling treatment a big amount was washed out and remained only 135.516 ppb and 16.868 ppb respectively. Boiling treatment was found more effective than the others.

  19. Changes in feedwater organic matter concentrations based on intake type and pretreatment processes at SWRO facilities, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2015-03-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), natural organic matter, and bacterial concentrations in feedwater are important factors that can lead to membrane biofouling in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems. Two methods for controlling these concentrations in the feedwater prior to pretreatment have been suggested; use of subsurface intake systems or placement of the intake at a greater depth in the sea. These proposed solutions were tested at two SWRO facilities located along the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia. A shallow well intake system was very effective in reducing the algae and bacterial concentrations and somewhat effective in reducing TEP concentrations. An intake placed at a depth of 9. m below the surface was found to have limited impact on improving water quality compared to a surface intake. The algae and bacteria concentration in the feedwater (deep) was lower compared to the surface seawater, but the overall TEP concentration was higher. Bacteria and TEP measurements made in the pretreatment process train in the plant and after the cartridge filters suggest that regrowth of bacteria is occurring within the cartridge filters.

  20. Changes in feedwater organic matter concentrations based on intake type and pretreatment processes at SWRO facilities, Red Sea, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Li, Sheng; Almashharawi, Samir; Winters, Harvey; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP), natural organic matter, and bacterial concentrations in feedwater are important factors that can lead to membrane biofouling in seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) systems. Two methods for controlling these concentrations in the feedwater prior to pretreatment have been suggested; use of subsurface intake systems or placement of the intake at a greater depth in the sea. These proposed solutions were tested at two SWRO facilities located along the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia. A shallow well intake system was very effective in reducing the algae and bacterial concentrations and somewhat effective in reducing TEP concentrations. An intake placed at a depth of 9. m below the surface was found to have limited impact on improving water quality compared to a surface intake. The algae and bacteria concentration in the feedwater (deep) was lower compared to the surface seawater, but the overall TEP concentration was higher. Bacteria and TEP measurements made in the pretreatment process train in the plant and after the cartridge filters suggest that regrowth of bacteria is occurring within the cartridge filters.

  1. The fate of the dry matter, carbohydrates and 14C lost from the leaves and stems of wheat during grain filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, R.B.; Edrich, J.A.; Ford, M.A.; Blackwell, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    In a field study with six winter wheat genotypes losses of dry matter from the stems between 30 June and maturity averaged 172 g m - 2 (range 82 to 256), there being significant differences in loss between genotypes. Respiration from the stems during the same period was estimated to amount to 106 g m -2 (range 104 to 225). The amount of dry matter mobilized from the stems, calculated by difference, was estimated as 66 g m -2 . The loss of ethanol- and water-soluble carbohydrate from the stems (170 g m -2 ; range 124 to 215) was very similar to the dry weight loss. Carbon-14 labelling was used to trace the time course and the amount of the movement of assimilates from the vegetative organs to the grain. Only 14.3 per cent (range 10.3 to 21.0) of the products of photosynthesis over the period 21 May to 20 June were relocated to the grains. This relocation amounted to an average of 7 per cent (range 5.7 to 11.4) of the final grain weight. It was estimated that during the 18 days following anthesis on 20 June photosynthesis contributed 48 per cent (range 39 to 55) of the final grain dry weight. Of this, about half was translocated to the grain within 10 days of initial assimilation. The remainder appeared to be stored temporarily in the stems and leaves and translocated to the grains during the period 17 to 29 July. In general, relocation of dry matter from the vegetative organs to the grains, assessed by carbon-14 labelling, was greatest in those genotypes (Hobbit and Sportsman) which lost most dry weight from the stems and leaves. (author)

  2. Evaluation of energy and macronutrient intake of black women in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Macronutrient intake was determined using a validated Quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (QFFQ). Median macronutrient intake was compared with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) as applicable. Median energy, macronutrient and cholesterol intake of younger and older women was compared using ...

  3. How does the suppression of energy supplementation affect herbage intake, performance and parasitism in lactating saddle mares?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collas, C; Fleurance, G; Cabaret, J; Martin-Rosset, W; Wimel, L; Cortet, J; Dumont, B

    2014-08-01

    Agroecology opens up new perspectives for the design of sustainable farming systems by using the stimulation of natural processes to reduce the inputs needed for production. In horse farming systems, the challenge is to maximize the proportion of forages in the diet, and to develop alternatives to synthetic chemical drugs for controlling gastrointestinal nematodes. Lactating saddle mares, with high nutritional requirements, are commonly supplemented with concentrates at pasture, although the influence of energy supplementation on voluntary intake, performance and immune response against parasites has not yet been quantified. In a 4-month study, 16 lactating mares experimentally infected with cyathostome larvae either received a daily supplement of barley (60% of energy requirements for lactation) or were non-supplemented. The mares were rotationally grazed on permanent pastures over three vegetation cycles. All the mares met their energy requirements and maintained their body condition score higher than 3. In both treatments, they produced foals with a satisfying growth rate (cycle 1: 1293 g/day; cycle 2: 1029 g/day; cycle 3: 559 g/day) and conformation (according to measurements of height at withers and cannon bone width at 11 months). Parasite egg excretion by mares increased in both groups during the grazing season (from 150 to 2011 epg), independently of whether they were supplemented or not. This suggests that energy supplementation did not improve mare ability to regulate parasite burden. Under unlimited herbage conditions, grass dry matter intake by supplemented mares remained stable around 22.6 g DM/kg LW per day (i.e. 13.5 kg DM/al per day), whereas non-supplemented mares increased voluntary intake from 22.6 to 28.0 g DM/kg LW per day (13.5 to 17.2 kg DM/al per day) between mid-June and the end of August. Hence total digestible dry matter intake and net energy intake did not significantly differ between supplemented and non-supplemented mares during the

  4. Dry matter production of perennial pasture Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different doses of fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlize Prigol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is an activity that provides the small rural farmer the opportunity to earn income in small areas of land. The perennial pastures represent a source for a cheap and nutritious diet for the animals. The correct management of perennial pastures can be the key to sustainability in the dairy business, resulting in the preservation or recovery of the balance of a pasture system, starting with the pursuit of production with low costs and good pasture production per unit area. The correct choice of fertilizer is of great importance to ensure the continuous production of pasture both in quantity and in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter production of perennial pasture consisting of Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different nutrient sources on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol, presents in a region where the climate is characterized as humid-mesothermic with a hot summer, Cfa according to Köppen, with an average annual rainfall of 2039 mm, well distributed throughout the year and average annual temperatures around 18 º C, varying monthly from 14.1 to 23 º C. The treatments consisted of three nutrient sources: 1 organic manure, a base of chicken bedding (average values of reference NPK (02/03/02, 2 organic manure + mineral - organic mineral, with application of 606 kg ha-1 (04/10/10 Formula, aiming to adjust the same amounts of NPK supplied by mineral fertilizer and, 3 Mineral. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with nine replications. We collected five samples of each pasture treatment for determination of the average. After cutting the pasture of Tifton 85, the samples were subjected to weighing for determination of wet weight and then taken to the drying oven (temperature 65 ° C for 72 hours to determine dry matter production. The statistical analysis was performed with SAS for Windows computer system (SAS and the results submitted to the Tukey test at 5%. The highest dry matter yield (kg ha-1 was

  5. Whole grain intakes in Irish adults: findings from the National Adults Nutrition Survey (NANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Clare B; Devlin, Niamh F; Buffini, Maria; Walton, Janette; Flynn, Albert; Gibney, Michael J; Nugent, Anne P; McNulty, Breige A

    2018-01-20

    Observational studies link high whole grain intakes to reduced risk of many chronic diseases. This study quantified whole grain intakes in the Irish adult population and examined the major contributing sources. It also investigated potential dietary strategies to improve whole grain intakes. Whole grain intakes were calculated in a nationally representative sample of 1500 Irish adults using data from the most recent national food survey, the National Adult Nutrition Survey (NANS). Food consumption was assessed, at brand level where possible, using a 4-day semi-weighed food diary with whole grain content estimated from labels on a dry matter basis. Mean daily whole grain intakes were 27.8 ± 29.4 g/day, with only 19% of the population meeting the quantity-specific recommendation of 48 g per day. Wheat was the highest contributor to whole grain intake at 66%, followed by oats at 26%. High whole grain intakes were associated with higher dietary intakes of fibre, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and a higher alternative Mediterranean Diet Score. Whole grain foods were most frequently eaten at breakfast time. Regression analysis revealed that consumption of an additional 10 g of whole grain containing 'ready-to-eat breakfast cereals', 'rice or pastas', or 'breads' each day would increase intake of whole grains by an extra 5, 3.5, and 2.7 g, respectively. This study reveals low intakes of whole grains in Irish adults. Recommending cereals, breads, and grains with higher whole grain content as part of public health campaigns could improve whole grain intakes.

  6. NUMBER OF COWS AND BAGS NEEDED TO ESTIMATE in situ DRY MATTER DEGRADATION OF KINGGRASS (Pennisetum purpureum) LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Epigmenio Castillo-Gallegos; Jesús Jarillo-Rodríguez; Ismael Cortes-Salazar; Braulio Valles-De la Mora; Eliazar Ocaña-Zavaleta

    2012-01-01

    The number of bags to be incubated per sample, and the number of fistulated cows needed to estimate in situ ruminal degradation of Kinggrass (Pennisetum purpureum) dry matter (DMD %) were determined. Three rumen-fistulated cows and 10 bags per incubation time (3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h) were used. Five grams of dried leaves were weighed per bag. Variance components for cows (Vc) and bags (Vb) per incubation time were estimated and used to calculate the standard error (SE) of mean DMD. The ...

  7. Effects of a wax organogel and alginate gel complex on holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, James R; Rogers, Michael A; Cant, John P; McBride, Brian W; Osborne, Vern R

    2018-02-20

    The objectives of this study were to: (a) select an ideal organogel for the oil phase of a novel gel encapsulation technology, (b) optimize the formulation of an organogel and sodium alginate-based gel complex, and (c) examine the rumen protective ability of the gel by measuring 48-h in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production from encapsulated dried and ground holy basil leaves. A rice-bran wax and canola oil organogel was selected for the oil phase of the gel complex as this combination had a 48-h dry matter disappearance of 6%, the lowest of all organogels analyzed. The gel complex was formulated by homogenizing the organogel with a sodium alginate solution to create a low-viscosity oil-in-water emulsion. Average dry matter disappearance of gel-encapsulated holy basil was 19%, compared to 42% for the free, unprotected holy basil. However, gel encapsulation of holy basil stimulated gas production. Specifically, gas production of encapsulated holy basil was four times higher than the treatment with holy basil added on top of the gel prior to incubation rather than encapsulated within the gel. Although the gel itself was highly degradable, it is speculated encapsulation thwarted holy basil's antimicrobial activity. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Beef steers with average dry matter intake and divergent average daily gain have altered gene expression in the jejunum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine the association of differentially expressed genes (DEG) in the jejunum of steers with average DMI and high or low ADG. Feed intake and growth were measured in a cohort of 144 commercial Angus steers consuming a finishing diet containing (on a DM basis) 67...

  9. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P feed efficiency.

  10. Effectiveness of neutral detergent fiber in whole cottonseed and dried distillers grains compared with alfalfa haylage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, P W; Armentano, L E

    1993-09-01

    Sixteen Holstein cows in midlactation were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the effect of replacing alfalfa NDF with NDF from whole, linted cottonseed or dried distillers grains. Low and high fiber control diets (13 and 19% of dietary DM from alfalfa haylage NDF, respectively) were compared with diets designed to contain 13% of DM from alfalfa haylage NDF plus 6% of DM from either cottonseed NDF or distillers grains NDF. Dry matter intake, milk yield, and milk protein yield were lower from the high fiber control diet. Milk fat percentage was lower for the low fiber control diet. The cottonseed diet was equal to the high fiber control diet in stimulating rumination. Rumen acetate to propionate ratio was higher for the high fiber control and cottonseed diets. Replacing alfalfa with either of these high fiber by-product feeds increased feed intake and yields of milk fat and protein. The effectiveness of the NDF in distillers grains and cottonseed was not significantly different from that of alfalfa NDF for maintaining milk fat yield. Whole cottonseed and dried distillers grains appear to be good sources of effective fiber for maintaining milk fat test when they are substituted for alfalfa haylage fiber in lactating cow rations.

  11. Ensiling as biological pretreatment of grass (Festulolium Hykor): The effect of composition, dry matter, and inocula on cellulose convertibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Grass biomass is a prospective type of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy and fuel production, but the low dry matter in grass at harvest calls for new pretreatment strategies for cellulosic conversion. In this study, ensiling was tested as a biological pretreatment method of the high yielding...... grass variety Festulolium Hykor. The biomass was harvested in four cuts over a growing season. Three important factors of ensiling: biomass composition, dry matter (DM) at ensiling, and inoculation of lactic acid bacteria, were assessed in relation to subsequent enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis....... The organic acid profile after ensiling was dependant on the composition of the grass and the DM, rather than on the inocula. High levels of organic acids, notably lactic acid, produced during ensiling improved enzymatic cellulose convertibility in the grass biomass. Ensiling of less mature grass gave higher...

  12. Holstein-Friesian calves selected for divergence in residual feed intake during growth exhibited significant but reduced residual feed intake divergence in their first lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, K A; Pryce, J E; Spelman, R J; Davis, S R; Wales, W J; Waghorn, G C; Williams, Y J; Marett, L C; Hayes, B J

    2014-03-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), as a measure of feed conversion during growth, was estimated for around 2,000 growing Holstein-Friesian heifer calves aged 6 to 9 mo in New Zealand and Australia, and individuals from the most and least efficient deciles (low and high RFI phenotypes) were retained. These animals (78 New Zealand cows, 105 Australian cows) were reevaluated during their first lactation to determine if divergence for RFI observed during growth was maintained during lactation. Mean daily body weight (BW) gain during assessment as calves had been 0.86 and 1.15 kg for the respective countries, and the divergence in RFI between most and least efficient deciles for growth was 21% (1.39 and 1.42 kg of dry matter, for New Zealand and Australia, respectively). At the commencement of evaluation during lactation, the cows were aged 26 to 29 mo. All were fed alfalfa and grass cubes; it was the sole diet in New Zealand, whereas 6 kg of crushed wheat/d was also fed in Australia. Measurements of RFI during lactation occurred for 34 to 37 d with measurements of milk production (daily), milk composition (2 to 3 times per week), BW and BW change (1 to 3 times per week), as well as body condition score (BCS). Daily milk production averaged 13.8 kg for New Zealand cows and 20.0 kg in Australia. No statistically significant differences were observed between calf RFI decile groups for dry matter intake, milk production, BW change, or BCS; however a significant difference was noted between groups for lactating RFI. Residual feed intake was about 3% lower for lactating cows identified as most efficient as growing calves, and no negative effects on production were observed. These results support the hypothesis that calves divergent for RFI during growth are also divergent for RFI when lactating. The causes for this reduced divergence need to be investigated to ensure that genetic selection programs based on low RFI (better efficiency) are robust. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy

  13. Estimated Bioaccessibility to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from Frequently Consumed Dried Fruits in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Rahimzadeh

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine levels of oral bioaccessibility of hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF from frequently consumed dried fruits in Iran. Fifty samples from frequently consumed types of dried fruits were analyzed for moisture, acidity and HMF content before and after in vitro digestion. Besides, bioaccessibility of HMF in dried fruits using an in vitro gastrointestinal digestive model and HMF intake from dried fruits based on consumption of each dried fruit groups wasdetermined. The mean estimated intake of HMF was 72.90 mg/kg and the maximum intake was 240.23 mg/kg for fruit bread. The mean bioaccessibility was 60.26%. There was a correlation between HMF and acid content of fruit bread (r= 0.98, P<0.05. In conclusion, the HMF levels in dried fruits remains high even after the in vitro digestion.

  14. Mercury in Orange Birch Bolete Leccinum versipelle and soil substratum: bioconcentration by mushroom and probable dietary intake by consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasińska, Grażyna; Falandysz, Jerzy

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the contamination, accumulation, and distribution of mercury in fruiting bodies by Leccinum versipelle fungus collected from distant sites across Poland. Mercury was determined using validated method by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy after direct sample matrix combustion. A large set of data gained using 371 fruiting bodies and 204 soil samples revealed the susceptibility of L. versipelle to Hg contamination and permitted the estimation of probable intake of Hg contaminant by consumers foraging for this species. The range of median values of Hg determined in caps of L. versipelle was from 0.20 to 2.0 mg kg(-1) dry biomass, and the median for 19 localities was 0.65 mg kg(-1) dry biomass. The values of the Hg bioconcentration factor (BCF) determined for L. versipelle correlated negatively with Hg contents. Mercury in topsoil beneath L. versipelle ranged from 0.019 to 0.041 mg kg(-1) dry matter for less-contaminated locations (BCF of 17 to 65 for caps) and from 0.076 to 0.39 mg kg(-1) dry matter for more contaminated locations (BCF of 1.9 to 22). Fruiting bodies of L. versipelle collected in some regions of Poland if consumed in amount of 300 g in one meal in a week could provide Hg doses above the provisionally tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) value of 0.004 mg Hg kg(-1) body mass, while regular consumptions for most of the locations were below the limit even with more frequent consumption. Also summarized are available data on Hg for three species of fungi of genus Leccinum foraged in Europe.

  15. Using ground-based spectral reflectance sensors and photography to estimate shoot N concentration and dry matter of potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Jabloun, Mohamed; Plauborg, Finn

    2018-01-01

    Two years experiments were set up to evaluate the performance of different vegetation indices (VI) to estimate shoot N concentration (Nc) and shoot dry matter (DM) for a potato crop grown under different nitrogen (N) treatments. Possibilities to improve the performance of VI using normalization b...

  16. Forage digestibility and intake by lesser snow geese: effects of dominance and resource heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupp, Jerry W.; White, Robert G.; Sedinger, James S.; Robertson, Donna G.

    1996-01-01

    We measured forage intake, digestibility, and retention time for 11 free-ranging, human-imprinted lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) as they consumed underground stembases of tall cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium) on an arctic staging area in northeastern Alaska. Geese fed in small patches (x̄=21.5 m2) of forage that made up ≤3% of the study area and consisted of high-quality “aquatic graminoid” and intermediate-quality “wet sedge” vegetation types. Dominant geese spent more time feeding in aquatic graminoid areas (r=0.61), but less total time feeding and more time resting than subdominant geese. Subdominant geese were displaced to areas of wet sedge where cotton-grass was a smaller proportion of underground biomass. Geese metabolized an average of 48% of the organic matter in stembases and there was a positive correlation between dominance and organic matter metabolizability (r=0.61). Total mean retention time of forage was 1.37 h and dry matter intake was 14.3 g/h. Snow geese that stage on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea likely use an extensive area because they consume a large mass of forage and exploit habitats that are patchily distributed and make up a small percentage of the landscape. Individual variation in nutrient absorption may result from agonistic interactions in an environment where resources are heterogeneously distributed.

  17. Texture of cooked potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). 1. Relationships between dry matter content, sensory-perceived texture and near-infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.; Fischer, M.; Holm, J.; Beekhuizen, J.G.; Stolle-Smits, T.; Boeriu, C.

    2002-01-01

    Properties of fresh potatoes, including dry matter (DM) content, starch content, and near-infrared (NIR) spectra, were determined and related to the sensory-perceived texture of the steam-cooked samples. To quantify these relationships, three potato cultivars, respectively representing a firm

  18. Novel approaches to the estimation of intake and bioavailability of radiocaesium in ruminants grazing forested areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayes, R.W.; Lamb, C.S.; Beresford, N.A.

    1994-01-01

    It is difficult to measure transfer of radiocaesium to the tissues of forest ruminants because they can potentially ingest a wide range of plant types. Measurements on undomesticated forest ruminants incur further difficulties. Existing techniques of estimating radiocaesium intake are imprecise when applied to forest systems. New approaches to measure this parameter are discussed. Two methods of intake estimation are described and evaluated. In the first method, radiocaesium intake is estimated from the radiocaesium activity concentrations of plants, combined with estimates of dry-matter (DM) intake and plant species composition of the diet, using plant and orally-dosed hydrocarbons (n-alkanes) as markers. The second approach estimates the total radiocaesium intake of an animal from the rate of excretion of radiocaesium in the faeces and an assumed value for the apparent absorption coefficient. Estimates of radiocaesium intake, using these approaches, in lactating goats and adult sheep were used to calculate transfer coefficients for milk and muscle; these compared favourably with transfer coefficients previously obtained under controlled experimental conditions. Potential variations in bioavailability of dietary radiocaesium sources to forest ruminants have rarely been considered. Approaches that can be used to describe bioavailability, including the true absorption coefficient and in vitro extractability, are outlined

  19. RUMINAL DRY MATTER DEGRADABILITY OF HIGH CONCENTRATE DIETS WITH INCREASING LEVELS OF CALCIUM SOAPS OF TALLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Salinas-Chavira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study measured the in situ digestibility and ruminal degradability of dry matter of rations with different levels of calcium soaps of tallow (CST. The samples of the four rations with CST at levels of 0% (T1, 1.5% (T2, 3.0% (T3 or 4.5% (T4 were incubated in the rumen of a fistulated yearling steer. The nylon bag technique was used to determine the in situ digestibility and ruminal dry matter degradability. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatment diets and 4 repetitions. Rapidly-soluble fraction (a or in situ digestibility of DM at 0 h of incubation was higher in T1 than T3 (P0.05. Potential (a+b degradability was similar (P>0.05 between treatments. Effective degradation modeled at low ruminal turnover (1%/h was lower in T4 than T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, CST in the ration influenced ruminal fermentation during the first hours of incubation. However, effective degradability at medium and high ruminal turnover was not affected by CST level in diets.

  20. Effect of weaning age on feed intake and ruminal fermentation patterns of calves fed a dry total mixed ration with ad libitum access to grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ackeren, Caroline; Steingass, Herbert; Hartung, Karin; Funk, Rainer; Drochner, Winfried

    2010-08-01

    To study the effect of weaning age on average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI) and ruminal fermentation, 10 rumen-cannulated male Holstein calves were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: (i) early weaned at 8 weeks of age (235 l milk); (ii) conventionally weaned at 12 weeks of age (347 l milk). Twice daily grass hay (9.0 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) and a dry total mixed ration (TMR) (11.6 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) containing 15% alfalfa hay and 85% concentrates were offered separately. Water was available ad libitum. Ruminal fluid was collected via cannulas at weeks 9, 11, 13 and 15, twice weekly just prior to as well as 1, 3, 5 and 7 h after morning feeding. Calves of both treatments achieved adequate ADG (947 vs. 959 g; p > 0.05). Just-weaned calves rapidly increased DMI (1.1-2.5 kg TMR and 2.4-3.6 kg TMR for early- and conventionally-weaned calves, respectively). From weeks 10-12 early-weaned calves consumed significantly more dry feed than conventionally-weaned calves (week 10: 2.5 vs. 1.6 kg/d; week 12: 3.4 vs. 2.4 kg/d). Early weaning stimulates DMI supporting ruminal fermentation intensity, indicated by lower ruminal pH. After weaning, only early-weaned calves achieved critical average ruminal pH (week 9: 5.7 vs. 6.0, p = 0.017; week 11: 5.9 vs. 6.2, p = 0.007). Experimental treatment did not affect the concentration of ruminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). For all calves, the effects of the concentrate-rich TMR were shown by a high SCFA level (daily average: 137-152 mmol x l(-1)) and an acetate to propionate to butyrate ratio between 51:36:9 and 54:33:10.

  1. Investigation the Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L., Borage (Borago officinalis L. and Cover Crops in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zeinab shirzadi margavi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Distribution of leaf area and dry matter are the effective factors that influence on absorption the radiation, evaporation and transpiration of canopy and eventually dry matter accumulation and grain yield in plants. Plant canopy is the spatial arrangement of shoots in a plant population. In plant canopy, leaves are responsible for radiation absorption and gas exchange with the outside. Stem and branches arrange photosynthetic organs somehow, which gas exchange and light distribution best done. The effect of canopy structure on gas exchange and absorption of radiation in plant communities caused detailed study of the canopy structure to be more important. Materials and methods In order to investigate the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of borage and sweet basil in competition with weeds by cover crops treatments, a field experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with 8 treatments and 3 replications in Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Sari in 2013. Treatments were cover crops mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L. in the rows between the sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L.. Moreover, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of cover crops to control weeds, pure stand of sweet basil and borage in terms of weeding and no weed controls per replicates were used. Each plot was included 5 rows of medicinal plants. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Estimation of leaf area and dry matter of each plant in different canopy layers (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 80.100, 100-120 and 120-140 cm were done after 75 planting days, with 1 m × 1 m quadrate per plot. For this purpose a vertical card board frame marked in 20-cm increments was used in the field as a guide to cut standing plants (crops, cover crops and weeds into 20-cm strata increments (Mosier & Oliver, 1995. All samples were transferred to the

  2. EFFECT OF UREA-MOLASSES BLOCK SUPPLEMENTATION ON NUTRIENT DIGESTIBILITY AND INTAKE OF AMMONIATED MAIZE STOVERS IN COW -CALVES

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    M. Usman Faizi, M.M. Siddiqui and G. Habib

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted in a 4x4 Latin square design with four cow-calves {Holstein Friesian, aged' 6-8 months to investigate the effect of supplementing molasses-urea block {MUB to untreated or ammoniated maize stovers on feed intake and in viva digestibility of nutrients. Each period consisted of 10 days adaptation, followed by five days data collection. The four diets were untreated maize stovers {Diet A, untreated maize stovers with MUB {Diet B, ammoniated maize stovers {Diet 'C and ammoniated maize stovers with MUB {Diet D. Daily consumption of maize stovers and total feed by the calves were higher {P< 0.01 on the diets containing ammoniated maize stovers than those containing untreated maize stovers. Ammoniation increased the intake of maize stovers by 61 %. Supplementary feeding of MUB did not change the daily intake of both untreated and ammoniated maize stovers. Calves receiving untreated maize stovers consumed more MUB {P< 0.01 than those given ammoniated maize stovers {496.40 vs 180.20g DM/d. Daily water consumption was affected {P< 0.01 by diets and was lowest on Diet A. Calves receiving ammoniated maize stovers consumed more water than those given untreated maize stovers. MUB increased {P<0.01 the water consumption only on untreated maize stovers. Mean water consumption was 13.93, 15.91, 15.07 and 15.60 lit/d on diet A, B, C and D, respectively. In vivo digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein were Influenced {P<0.01 by diet composition. I Among the four diets, dry matter digestibility was minimum (P< 0.01 on Diet A and remained the same on diets B, C and D {55.82, 58.02 and 58.14%, respectively. Organic matter and crude protein digestibility were higher in the claves receiving ammoniated maize stovers. Supplementation of MUB increased (P< 0.01 the digestibility of all the three nutrients in untreated maize stovers but did not affect the digestibility of ammoniated maize stovers. The results demonstrated

  3. Oral intake of encapsulated dried ginger root powder hardly affects human thermoregulatory function, but appears to facilitate fat utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Mayumi; Matsuzaki, Kentaro; Katakura, Masanori; Hara, Toshiko; Tanabe, Yoko; Shido, Osamu

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the impact of a single oral ingestion of ginger on thermoregulatory function and fat oxidation in humans. Morning and afternoon oral intake of 1.0 g dried ginger root powder did not alter rectal temperature, skin blood flow, O2 consumption, CO2 production, and thermal sensation and comfort, or induce sweating at an ambient temperature of 28 °C. Ginger ingestion had no effect on threshold temperatures for skin blood flow or thermal sweating. Serum levels of free fatty acids were significantly elevated at 120 min after ginger ingestion in both the morning and afternoon. Morning ginger intake significantly reduced respiratory exchange ratios and elevated fat oxidation by 13.5 % at 120 min after ingestion. This was not the case in the afternoon. These results suggest that the effect of a single oral ginger administration on the peripheral and central thermoregulatory function is miniscule, but does facilitate fat utilization although the timing of the administration may be relevant.

  4. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energ...... silage aNDFom digestibility improved daily milk yield with 82 g (P = 0.04) and daily weight gain with 12 g (P = 0.03). Therefore, aNDFom digestibility is an important trait in maize used as whole crop silage for dairy cows.......The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a...

  5. Effect of zinc and phosphorus on dry matter yield, uptake and utilization of 65Zn on Maize (Zea Mays L.) grown in a molli-soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Megha; Shri Ram; Joshi, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc uptake and its utilization by Maize (Zea mays L.) variety Pragati using radiotracer 65 Zn technique along with varying levels of phosphorus treatments on dry matter yield was studied. The gamma activity was measured by calibrated NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer. It was observed that zinc uptake in treatment T 2 found to be higher. However, treatment T 6 showed good growth parameters and dry matter yield. The 65 Zn activity was found maximum in roots and minimum in the leaves of maize plant. (author)

  6. In situ degradability of dry matter and fibrous fraction of sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Ferreira Costa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate in situ degradability and degradation kinetics of DM, NDF and ADF of silage, with or without tannin in the grains. Two isogenic lines of grain sorghum (CMS-XS 114 with tannin and CMS-XS 165 without tannin and two sorghum hybrids (BR-700 dual purpose with tannin and BR-601 forage without tannin were ensiled; dried and ground silage samples were placed in nylon bags and introduced through the fistulas. After incubation for 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, bags were taken for subsequent analysis of fibrous fractions. The experimental design was completely randomized with 4 replicates and 4 treatments and means compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. As for the DM degradation rate, silage of CMSXS165without tannin was superior. Silages of genotypes BR700 and CMSXS 114 with tannin showed the highest values of indigestible ADF (59.54 and 43.09%. Regarding the NDF, the potential degradation of silage of CMSXS165 line without tannin was superior. Tannin can reduce ruminal degradability of the dry matter and fibrous fractions.

  7. Effect of curing methods, packaging and gamma irradiation on the weight loss and dry matter percent of garlic during curing and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.; El-Oksh, I.I.; Farag, S.E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Egyptian garlic plants, showed higher percent of weight loss at 17 or 27 days from curing compared to those of Chinese plants. The curing period of 17 days seemed satisfactory for the Egyptian cultivar, whereas, 27 days seemed to be enough for the Chinese garlic. No significant differences were observed between common and shaded curing methods in weight loss per cent. The Chinese garlic contained higher dry matter percentage than those of the Egyptian cultivar. Shaded cured plants of the two cultivars contained higher dry matter percent than those subjected to the common curing methods. Irradiation of garlic bulbs, shaded curing method and sack packaging decreased, in general the weight loss during storage in comparison with other treatments

  8. Forage intake, feeding behavior and bio-climatological indices of pasture grass, under the influence of trees, in a silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F Sousa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare a silvopastoral system with a control (pasture only in the Brazilian Cerrado. The silvopastoral system consisted of a tropical grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pasture and trees (Zeyheria tuberculosa, while the control was a Marandu pasture without trees. Sheep intake, feeding behavior and microclimatic conditions were the variables evaluated. Temperatures within the silvopastoral system were lower than in the control (maximum temperature of 28 and 33.5 °C, temperature and humidity index of 74.0 and 79.2 for the silvopastoral system and control, respectively. There was increased dry matter intake (88.2 vs. 79.9 g DM/kg0.75 LW/d, P<0.05, organic matter intake (89.6 vs. 81.1 g OM/kg0.75 LW/d, P<0.05 and grazing time (572 vs. 288 min/d, P<0.05, and reduced total water intake (430 vs. 474 mL/kg0.75 LW/d, P<0.05 and walking time (30 vs. 89 min/d, P<0.05 in grazing sheep in the silvopastoral system relative to the control. The results suggest that a silvopastoral system would provide a more favorable environment than a straight pasture for sheep performance in a tropical grazing situation.Keywords: Animal behavior, microclimate, shade, sheep.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(3129-141

  9. Protein and energy supplementation for growing steers, in dry season Suplementação proteica e energética para novilhos em recria, durante o período da seca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorismar David Alves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Dry matter intake, ruminal pH and ammonia concentration of grazing growing steers during the dry period, receiving different supplementation levels, were evaluated. Five rumen fistulated steers, with 18 months of age, 322kg average body weight were used in a 5x5 Latin Square design. The treatments used were based on the daily supplement supply of 0 (control - without supplementation; 0.125; 0.25; 0.5 and 1.0% of body weight. The dry matter intake was determined by the relationship between the fecal dry matter excreted estimated with external (Cr2O3 and internal (iADF markers. The rumen fluid was sampled at 0, 3, 6 and 9 hours after feeding the supplement for pH and ammonia determination. The forage intake by the control group was of 4.81kg DM/day; equivalent at 0.244% of available forage. The reduction of forage intake was more evident for the supplementation level of 1.0% of BW (1.44 kg/day, without affecting the average daily gain of the animals. Ruminal pH was higher for control treatment, averaging 7.3. The smallest value observed was 6.38 for 1.0% of BW supplementation level. The ammonia nitrogen presented higher averages at 3 hours after supplementation for level 0.5% of BW (21.53 mg/dL. Protein supply and protein-energy supplementation does not reduce the total dry matter intake of animals, but dry matter intake of herbage.Avaliou-se a suplementação proteica e proteica energética no consumo de matéria seca e nos parâmetros ruminais (pH e N-NH3 de novilhos recriados a pasto, durante a seca. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos providos de cânulas ruminais, com 18 meses de idade e peso inicial de 322kg, distribuídos em esquema de quadrado latino 5x5. Os tratamentos utilizados foram 0,00 (controle; 0,125; 0,250; 0,500; 1,00% do peso vivo (PV de quantidade de suplementos. O consumo de matéria seca foi determinado por meio da relação entre a quantidade de matéria seca fecal excretada, com o uso de indicador externo (Cr2O3 e interno (FDAi

  10. Effect of Foliar Application of Micro Nutrients on Physiological Growth Indices and Total Dry Matter Yield of Forage Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soleymani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of foliar application of micro nutrients on physiological growth indices and total dry matter yield of forage corn. Field experiment was conducted in 2006 at Bersian village Isfahan. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Plant treated with 8 foliar application treatments (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe + Mn, Cu + Zn, Fe + Mn + Cu + Zn and control. The responses to foliar application in total dry weight, LAI and CGR appeared to differ between the treatments, but there is no significant difference in NAR between the treatments. Maximum leaf area index gained in foliar application of Fe but there is significant difference between this treatment and other treatments except foliar application of Zn and Fe + Mn. Foliar application of Fe and Fe + Mn result to maximum total dry weight, but there is no significant difference between these treatments and foliar application of Zn, Mn, Mn + Cu and Fe + Zn + Cu +Mn. Maximum and minimum NAR gained in foliar application of Mn and control treatments respectively. Maximum CGR gained in foliar application of Zn, there is significant difference between this treatment and others. Control treatment in comparison with others shows minimum value in all measured factors. The results indicate that foliar application of micro nutrients particularly Fe and Fe+Mn may be suitable to product maximum total dry matter yield under similar condition.

  11. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwasi Adu Obirikorang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of the inclusion of three oilseed by-products (soybean, copra and palm kernel meals on some physical characteristics of pelletized feeds as well as on voluntary feed intake and faecal matter production by the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. The dietary inclusion of soybean meal resulted in a significantly higher feed bulk density relative to the fishmeal control diet. The inclusions of copra and palm kernel meals, however, resulted in lower feed bulk densities. Sinking rates, water stabilities and nutrient retention efficiencies of feed pellets were directly related to feed bulk densities. The soybean meal diet had the fastest sinking velocities, greatest water stability and highest nutrient retention rates. The dietary inclusion of soybean meal, however, significantly impaired feed intake compared to the other three diets. Mean daily feed intakes of the control, palm kernel meal and copra meal diets corresponded to 28.88, 27.01 and 28.31 g during the experimental period and varied significantly from the mean daily intake of the soybean meal diet which corresponded to 20.01 g. Faecal matter production (g dry mass kg−1 ingested feed was significantly higher in the tilapia groups fed the copra and palm kernel meals. The results obtained from this study show that 30% inclusions of unrefined forms of copra and palm kernel meal in Nile tilapia diets is possible, without adversely affecting feed intake or pellet nutrient losses prior to ingestion.

  12. Effect of Cover Crops on Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Soybean (Glycine max L. in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyyedeh samaneh hashemi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Amount and vertical distribution of leaf area are essential for estimating interception and utilization of solar radiation of crop canopies and, consequently dry matter accumulation (Valentinuz & Tollenaar, 2006. Vertical distribution of leaf area is leaf areas per horizontal layers, based on height (Boedhram et al., 2001. Above-ground biomass is one of the central traits in functional plant ecology and growth analysis. It is a key parameter in many allometric relationships (Niklas & Enquist, 2002. The vertical biomass distribution is considered to be the main determinant of competitive strength in plant species. The presence of weeds intensifies competition for light, with the effect being determined by plant height, position of the branches, and location of the maximum leaf area. So, this experiment was conducted to study the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of soybean canopy in competition with weeds and cover crops. Materials and methods This experiment was performed based on complete randomized block design with 3 replications in center of Agriculture of Joybar in 2013. Soybean was considered as main crop and soybean and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L., fenugreek (Trigonella foenum–graecum L., chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus L. and winter vetch (Vicia sativa L. were the cover crops. Treatments were included cover crops (Persian clover, fenugreek, chickling pea and winter vetch and cover crop planting times (simultaneous planting of soybean with cover crops and planting cover crops three weeks after planting of soybeans and also monoculture of soybeans both in weedy and weed free conditions were considered as controls. Soybean planted in 50 cm row spacing with 5 cm between plants in the same row. Each plot was included 5 rows soybeans. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Crops were planted on 19 May 2013 for simultaneous planting of soybean. The dominant weed species were green

  13. Milk intake in kits: not only the total amount matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Arnau Bonachera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to identify milk intake variation patterns in kits throughout lactation, to evaluate their permanent maternal component and their relationships with the performance of kits before and after weaning. To achieve this goal, we used 73 rabbit does, controlled between the 1st and the 4th lactation, which kindled 229 litters with a total of 2225 kits. The daily milk intake records per young rabbit were analysed using a principal component analysis (PCA. We found that 72.3% of the variability was explained by the first 3 principal components (PCs. PC1 explained 46.4% of the total variability, was associated with the total amount of milk intake during lactation and presented a repeatability of 0.27 (P0.05. This component was little related to performance traits. Therefore, it seems that milk plays 2 different roles at the beginning of feed intake; the most important would affect development of the kits and thus is related with high intake. The second one, for a given total amount of milk intake during lactation, would create a kind of competition between milk and feed intake at the end of lactation. The effects of both components still persist during the growing period and seem to be moderately affected by the mother.

  14. Change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Brachiaria humidicola grown in Ban Thon soil series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeerasak Chobtang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Humidicola grass (Brachiaria humidicola grown in Ban Thon soil series (infertility soil as a function of growth age. One rai (0.16 ha of two-year-old pasture of fertilised Humidicola grass was uniformly cut and the regrowth samples were collected every twenty days. The samples were subjected to analysis for dry matter content and nutritive composition, i.e. crude protein, ash, calcium, phosphorus, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, and acid detergent lignin. The results showed that while the yields of available forage and leaves increased curvilinearly (quadratic, p<0.05, the stem yield increased linearly (p<0.05 over sampling dates. The highest biomass accumulation rate was numerically observed between 40-60 days of regrowth. The concentrations of crude protein, ash, calcium and phosphorus decreased curvilinearly (quadratic, p<0.05 with advancing maturity and reached the lowest flat after 60 days of regrowth. The cell wall components, i.e. NDF, ADF and ADL, increased over the experimental period and reached the highest plateau at 40 days of regrowth. It was concluded that Humidicola grass should be grazed or preserved at the regrowth age of not over 60 days to maximise the utilisation of the grass.

  15. Maize dry matter production and macronutrient extraction model as a new approach for fertilizer rate estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARLA V. MARTINS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Decision support for nutrient application remains an enigma if based on soil nutrient analysis. If the crop could be used as an auxiliary indicator, the plant nutrient status during different growth stages could complement the soil test, improving the fertilizer recommendation. Nutrient absorption and partitioning in the plant are here studied and described with mathematical models. The objective of this study considers the temporal variation of the nutrient uptake rate, which should define crop needs as compared to the critical content in soil solution. A uniform maize crop was grown to observe dry matter accumulation and nutrient content in the plant. The dry matter accumulation followed a sigmoidal model and the macronutrient content a power model. The maximum nutrient absorption occurred at the R4 growth stage, for which the sap concentration was successfully calculated. It is hoped that this new approach of evaluating nutrient sap concentration will help to develop more rational ways to estimate crop fertilizer needs. This new approach has great potential for on-the-go crop sensor-based nutrient application methods and its sensitivity to soil tillage and management systems need to be examined in following studies. If mathematical model reflects management impact adequately, resources for experiments can be saved.

  16. Nutrient utilisation and methane emissions in Sahiwal calves differing in residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vimlesh C; Mahesh, Munnurpal S; Mohini, Madhu; Datt, Chander; Nampoothiri, Vinu M

    2014-01-01

    The presented study aimed at investigating the residual feed intake (RFI) of Sahiwal calves, nutrient utilisation as affected by RFI and its relationship with methane (CH4) emissions and some blood metabolites. Eighteen male Sahiwal calves (10-18 months of age; mean body weight 133 kg) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration. After calculating RFI for individual calves (-0.40 to +0.34 kg DM/d), they were divided into three groups with low, medium and high RFI, respectively. Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher (p feed conversion ratio were similar among the groups. With exception of glucose, concentrations of all measured blood metabolites were higher in Group High RFI (p feed efficiency and less CH4 production were observed in Group Low RFI, it was concluded that RFI can be used as a measure of feed efficiency, which has a potential to select Sahiwal calves for lowered CH4 emissions.

  17. The dynamics of dry matter accumulation in the initial period of growth of four varieties of the "stay-green"type of maize (zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulc, P.; Michalski, T.; Bocianowski, J.; Nowosad, K.; Zajac, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of weather conditions (temperature, precipitation) on the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen nutritional status of maize plants in the type of "stay-green"Four varieties were evaluated: NK Cooler, Delitop, NK Gazelle, NK Ravello. Thermal conditions and humidity in the period from sowing to the phase of 5-6 leaves (BBCH 15/16) shaped the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen nutritional status of plants. The differences were found in tested varieties of "stay-green"in terms of the dynamics of initial growth, expressed by the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and their nitrogen nutritional status. In most of the analyzed characteristics, the variety of NK Cooler was characterized by favorable values of these characteristics, as compared to other varieties. The genetic variation of tested varieties is derived from the heterosis cultivation process of F1 hybrids. Currently, cultivated maize varieties (including "stay-green") are F1 hybrids characterized by identical genotype and varietal differences arise from components of parental hybrid genotype (paternal and maternal), as presented in the paper

  18. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  19. Responses of dairy cows with divergent residual feed intake as calves to metabolic challenges during midlactation and the nonlactating period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, K; Norris, E; Dunshea, F R; Hayes, B J; Marett, L C; Wales, W J; Leury, B J

    2018-03-28

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is defined as the difference between the actual and expected feed intake required to support animal maintenance and growth. Thus, a cow with a low RFI can obtain nutrients for maintenance and growth from a reduced amount of feed compared with a cow with a high RFI. Variation in RFI is underpinned by a combination of factors, including genetics, metabolism, thermoregulation and body composition; hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness is also a possible contributor. Responses to 3 metabolic challenges were measured in lactating and nonlactating dairy cattle. Sixteen Holstein Friesian cows with phenotypic RFI measurements that were obtained during the growth period (188-220 d old) were grouped as either low-calfhood RFI (n = 8) or high-calfhood RFI (n = 8). An ACTH (2 µg/kg of body weight), insulin (0.12 U/kg), and epinephrine (a low dose of 0.1 µg/kg and a high dose of 1.6 µg/kg of epinephrine) challenge were each conducted during both midlactation (122 ± 23.4 d in milk) and the nonlactating period (dry period; approximately 38 d after cessation of milking). Cows were housed in metabolism stalls for the challenges and were fed a diet of alfalfa cubes ad libitum for at least 10 d before the experiment (lactating cows also were offered a total of 6 kg of dry matter/d of crushed wheat grain plus minerals fed as 3 kg of dry matter at each milking) and were fasted for 12 h before the challenges. The efficiency of conversion of feed into milk (the ratio of feed consumed to milk produced over the 7 d before the experiment) during midlactation was better (lower) in low-calfhood RFI cows, although dry matter intake did not differ between RFI groups. Low-calfhood RFI cows exhibited a lower plasma cortisol response to the ACTH challenge than high-calfhood RFI cows, particularly in midlactation (-15%). The low-calfhood RFI cows had a greater plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 response to the insulin challenge and plasma fatty

  20. REPRODUCTIVE AND METABOLIC RESPONSES IN EWES TO DIETARY PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT DURING MATING PERIOD IN DRY SEASON OF NORTHEAST BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of food supplements with different levels of protein on reproductive and metabolic response of ewes during the mating period. Forty-one ewes were supplemented during 43 days with amount protein to meet 1.0 (diet I; n = 14, 1.7 (diet II; n = 13 and 2.1 (diet III; n = 14 times the maintenance requirements. Dry matter (DM intake was higher (P < 0.01 in diet III when compared to diets I and II. Orts were lesser in diets II and III (P < 0.05 when compared to diet I. Intake of organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP and ether extract (EE was higher in diet III (P < 0.05, but NDF and ADF intake was superior in diet I (P < 0.05. In diet III, a higher frequency of female mated was observed (P < 0.05. The prolificity and twinning rate was higher in ewes of diet II (P < 0.05. Greater birth weight of lambs (P < 0.05 was verified in diet III. The progesterone levels were affected by diets II and III (P < 0.05. In conclusion, the supplementation of ewes with intermediate level of protein improves their reproductive response.

  1. Nodulation, dry matter production and N2 fixation by fababean and chickpea as affected by soil moisture and potassium fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Al-Ain, F.; Al-Ahamma, M.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of three rates of K-fertilizer (0, 75, and 150 kg K 2 O/ha)on nodulation, dry matter production and N 2 fixation by fababean (Vicia faba L.) and chickpea (Cirer arietinum L.) was evaluated in a pot experiment. The plants were subjected to three soil moisture regimes (low, 45-50%; moderate, 55-60% and high 75-80% of field capacity). 15 N-isotope dilution method was employed to evaluate N 2 fixation using a non-fixing chickpea genotype as a reference crop. Water restriction drastically affected dry matter production, nodulation and N 2 fixation by both plant species. The negative effect of water stress on %N 2 fixed was more prominent in chickpea (11-58%) than in fababean (68-81%) under low and high % of field capacity, respectively. Plant species differed in their response to K-fertilizer as a mean to enhance growth and overcome the stress conditions. The higher level of K fertilizer increased both dry matter production and total N 2 fixed in fababean, but did not have any impact on chickpea. %N 2 fixed, however, appeared to be unaffected by K fertilizer as a mean of alleviating drought stress in both plant species. Therefore, it appears that, under the experimental conditions, the beneficial effect of potassium on water-stressed fababean resulted from stimulation the growth rather than improving the N 2 -fixation efficiency. However, under well-watered plants, a high requirement of the symbiotic system to potassium is needed to ensure and optimal growth and N 2 -fixation. (author)

  2. Evaluation of manure drying tunnels to serve as dust filters in the exhaust of laying hen houses: Emissions of particulate matter, ammonia, and odour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Aarnink, André J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G.; Ogink, Nico W.M.

    2017-01-01

    IAgrE Poultry houses are important emission sources of ammonia, odour, and particulate matter (PM). Manure drying tunnels (MDTs) might act as ‘end of pipe’ PM filters, but might also emit additional ammonia and odour. This study aimed to gain insight into this matter (parts A and B) and into the

  3. Effect of drinking water temperature on water intake and performance of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huuskonen, A; Tuomisto, L; Kauppinen, R

    2011-05-01

    Very limited information is available on the effects of drinking water temperature on dairy calves. Therefore, the present experiment was designed to study the effects on performance, health, and water consumption of dairy calves offered drinking water either warm (16 to 18 °C) or cold (6 to 8 °C). The calves (60 calves/treatment) were housed in an insulated barn in pens (3.0 × 3.5m; 5 calves in each) providing 2.1m(2)/calf. During the experimental period (20 to 195 d of age), the calves had free access to water from an open water bowl (depth 80 mm, diameter 220 mm, 2-L capacity, 1 bowl/pen). During the preweaning period (20 to 75 d of age), all calves received milk replacer (7.5L/calf daily) and had free access to commercial starter, grass silage, and hay. During the postweaning period (75 to 195 d), the weaned calves had free access to grass silage and hay and were given 3 kg/d (air-dry basis) of a commercial concentrate mixture. During the preweaning period, the water intake of the calves offered warm water was 47% higher than that of the calves offered cold water. Water intake in both treatments increased rapidly during weaning and for a few days following weaning. At 180 to 195 d of age, the calves consumed approximately 18 to 20 L of water daily. Calves offered warm water drank 7 and 8% more water during the postweaning period and overall during the experimental period, respectively, compared with those offered cold water. No treatment differences were observed in dry matter or energy intakes, body weight gains, or feed conversion rates. Furthermore, total serum IgG concentrations of the calves did not differ during the preweaning or postweaning periods. Dairy calves consumed more warm than cold water, but the increase in water intake did not influence feed intake, body weight gain, or health parameters. Copyright © 2011 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of canopy structural variables on retrieval of leaf dry matter content and specific leaf area from remotely sensed data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, A.M.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Skidmore, A.K.; van Duren, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA) are two important traits in measuring biodiversity. To use remote sensing for the estimation of these traits, it is essential to understand the underlying factors that influence their relationships with canopy reflectance. The effect of

  5. Effects of dietary inclusions of oilseed meals on physical characteristics and feed intake of diets for the Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obirikorang, Kwasi Adu; Amisah, Stephen; Fialor, Simon Cudjoe

    2015-01-01

    . The dietary inclusion of soybean meal resulted in a significantly higher feed bulk density relative to the fishmeal control diet. The inclusions of copra and palm kernel meals, however, resulted in lower feed bulk densities. Sinking rates, water stabilities and nutrient retention efficiencies of feed pellets...... were directly related to feed bulk densities. The soybean meal diet had the fastest sinking velocities, greatest water stability and highest nutrient retention rates. The dietary inclusion of soybean meal, however, significantly impaired feed intake compared to the other three diets. Mean daily feed...... intakes of the control, palm kernel meal and copra meal diets corresponded to 28.88, 27.01 and 28.31g during the experimental period and varied significantly from the mean daily intake of the soybean meal diet which corresponded to 20.01g. Faecal matter production (g dry mass kg−1 ingested feed...

  6. Sheep numbers required for dry matter digestibility evaluations when fed fresh perennial ryegrass or forage rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuezhao; Krijgsman, Linda; Waghorn, Garry C; Kjestrup, Holly; Koolaard, John; Pacheco, David

    2017-03-01

    Research trials with fresh forages often require accurate and precise measurement of digestibility and variation in digestion between individuals, and the duration of measurement periods needs to be established to ensure reliable data are obtained. The variation is likely to be greater when freshly harvested feeds are given, such as perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and forage rape ( Brassica napus L.), because the nutrient composition changes over time and in response to weather conditions. Daily feed intake and faeces output data from a digestibility trial with these forages were used to calculate the effects of differing lengths of the measurement period and differing numbers of sheep, on the precision of digestibility, with a view towards development of a protocol. Sixteen lambs aged 8 months and weighing 33 kg at the commencement of the trial were fed either perennial ryegrass or forage rape (8/treatment group) over 2 periods with 35 d between measurements. They had been acclimatised to the diets, having grazed them for 42 d prior to 11 days of indoor measurements. The sheep numbers required for a digestibility trial with different combinations of acclimatisation and measurement period lengths were subsequently calculated for 3 levels of imposed precision upon the estimate of mean dry matter (DM) digestibility. It is recommended that if the standard error of the mean for digestibility is equal to or higher than 5 g/kg DM, and if sheep are already used to a fresh perennial ryegrass or forage rape diet, then a minimum of 6 animals are needed and 4 acclimatisation days being fed individually in metabolic crates followed by 7 days of measurement.

  7. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic......, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively...

  8. Herbage intake, methane emissions and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass v. dwarf elephant grass and peanut pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E A; Almeida, E X; Raupp, G T; Miguel, M F; de Liz, D M; Carvalho, P C F; Bayer, C; Ribeiro-Filho, H M N

    2016-10-01

    Management strategies for increasing ruminant legume consumption and mitigating methane emissions from tropical livestock production systems require further study. The aim of this work was to evaluate the herbage intake, animal performance and enteric methane emissions of cattle grazing dwarf elephant grass (DEG) (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) alone or DEG with peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo). The experimental treatments were the following: DEG pastures receiving nitrogen fertilization (150 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate) and DEG intercropped with peanut plus an adjacent area of peanut that was accessible to grazing animals for 5 h/day (from 0700 to 1200 h). The animals grazing legume pastures showed greater average daily gain and herbage intake, and shorter morning and total grazing times. Daily methane emissions were greater from the animals grazing legume pastures, whereas methane emissions per unit of herbage intake did not differ between treatments. Allowing animals access to an exclusive area of legumes in a tropical grass-pasture-based system can improve animal performance without increasing methane production per kg of dry matter intake.

  9. Using eastern gamagrass to construct diets that limit intake and caloric density for dairy replacement heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G

    2012-10-01

    Previous research has shown that eastern gamagrass (EGG; Tripsacum dactyloides L.) will survive winter climatic conditions common throughout central Wisconsin, and will produce yields of dry matter (DM) ranging approximately from 7,000 to 10,000 kg/ha annually when managed with a 1-cut harvest system. The objective of this research was to determine whether the fibrous nature of this perennial warm-season grass could be effective in reducing the caloric density and DMI of corn silage/alfalfa haylage diets for replacement dairy heifers. A total of 120 Holstein dairy heifers were blocked by body weight (heavy, 424 ± 15.9 kg; medium, 369 ± 11.8 kg; light, 324 ± 22.4 kg), and then assigned to 15 individual pens containing 8heifers each. Eastern gamagrass forage was harvested, ensiled, and subsequently incorporated into blended corn silage/alfalfa haylage diets at rates of 0, 9.1, 18.3, or 27.4% of the total dietary DM (EGG0, EGG9, EGG18, and EGG27, respectively). These diets were offered during a 105-d evaluation period for ad libitum intake; however, the EGG0 diet also was offered on a limit-fed basis (LF), which was set at 85% of the voluntary intake of EGG0. Serial additions of EGG increased concentrations of neutral detergent fiber in blended diets from 39.6 (EGG0) to 48.7% (EGG27), and simultaneously reduced corresponding estimates of total digestible nutrients (TDN) from 68.2 to 61.3%, and net energy for gain from 1.07 to 0.83 Mcal/kg. Dry matter intakes for all diets offered ad libitum were greater than observed for LF (9.06 vs. 8.07 kg/d); however, DM intakes for diets containing EGG were reduced relative to EGG0 (9.40 vs. 8.94 kg/d). Similarly, intakes of TDN were greater for diets offered for ad libitum intake than for LF (5.84 vs. 5.50 kg/d); however, inclusion of EGG reduced TDN intakes relative to EGG0 (6.41 vs. 5.65 kg/d). This reduction was explained by both linear and quadratic effects of the inclusion rate of EGG in the diet. Over the 105-d trial

  10. Supplementation of beef cattle grazing Brachiariabrizantha during the dry and rainy seasons: performance and carcass ultrasound prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisi Loures Guerra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic group, sex and level of protein-energy supplementation on the performance and carcass traitsultrasound prediction of weaned calves Nellore and crossbred animals ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus. A completely randomized design in a factorial 2x2x2, were used, with two levels of protein-energy supplementation, two sex and two genetic groups. Fifty-six animals were used (28 Nellore and 28 crossbred ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus, equally divided between males and females, maintained on grazing Brachiariabrizanthacv. Marandu and evaluated in three experimental periods: period 1 = protein-energy supplementation in the dry season; period 2 = protein-energy supplementation during the rainy season; period 3 = only mineral supplementation. In the dry season, they were supplemented with levels of 0.5 and 1% of body weight (BW and in the rainy season with 0 and 1% BW. Dry matter intake (kg day-1, % BW, g kgBW0.75-1 was estimated. In vivo ultrasound measurements of carcass were: loin eye area (LEA, fat thickness (FT and rump fat thickness (RFT. There was influence of genetic group and protein-energy supplementation levels on average daily gain (ADG of animals in period 1 and 2 (P < 0.05. Sex affected the ADG only in period 2, and the males had 754 gday-1 and females, 582 g day-1. There was no interaction of genetic group x sex x supplementation level. At the end of the experimental period (end of period 3, it was found that male animals and crossbred animals ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus had higher ADG (716 and 748 g day-1, respectively. The values of dry matter intake (DMI were influenced by genetic group and sex, in all periods, verifying highest intake in crossbred animals ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus, with better feed conversion for crossbred animals. Regarding ultrasound measurements taken on the carcass, the influence of sex on FT and RFT, it was observed, and the males showed higher

  11. Efeito da combinação de óleo de soja e monensina na dieta sobre o consumo de matéria seca e a digestão em vacas lactantes Effect of monensin and soybean oil combination on dry matter intake and digestibility in diets fed to lactating cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo da Costa Eifert

    2005-02-01

    digestibilidade da FDN ou pelo incremento energético, não justifica a redução no consumo de matéria seca nas dietas com óleo, indicando que fatores metabólicos podem estar envolvidos.Four rumen fistulated lactating dairy cows were assigned to a Latin Square (4x4, with 21 days of experimental period, being the last three days for evaluation, to evaluate the effects of the combination of soybean oil and monensin in lactating dairy cow diets on dry matter intake, total and partial digestibility of the nutrients and ruminal fermentation and microbial synthesis. The animals were assigned to a factorial arrangement (2x2: presence (4% in total DM or absence of soybean oil and presence (33 ppm or monensin absence and were fed diets with 55% corn silage and 45% concentrate. For evaluation of the total and partial digestibility, feces samples and omasal digesta were collected, using ADFi and Cr2O3 as markers. The oil presence reduced dry matter intake, but allowed similar TND intake. The total digestibility of nutrients was not affected by treatments. The NDF ruminal digestibility was similar in the oil presence and in the monensin presence, but it was reduced in the combination of the two. The pH, the efficiency of microbial synthesis and the total of VFA of the rumen liquor were similar among the treatments. Interaction was observed between oil and monensin for N-NH3 concentration, being verified smaller value for the diets with oil only. The proportion of acetate was reduced either in the oil presence or in the monensin presence, but in different magnitudes, as well as in the combination of the two. The propionic acid concentration increased with monensin and with oil, and butyric acid decreased with oil. Acetate:propionate ratio was reduced either in the oil presence or in the monensin presence. The synthesis of microbial protein was reduced in the oil presence and still more when oil was associated to monensin. The soybean oil and monensin combination act about the same

  12. Digestive efficiency in rabbit does according to environment and genetic type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Savietto, D; Blas, E; Cervera, C

    2012-01-01

    (443 g NDF/kg DM). The apparent digestible coefficients of dry matter (DMd), organic matter, crude protein (CPd), gross energy, NDF (NDFd) and acid detergent fibre, as well as the daily intake of dry matter (DM), digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE), were determined (14 to 18 d post......-partum). The environment affected all variables analysed. In general, heat conditions reduced the daily feed intake (around -30%; Pdigestible coefficients (+4.5 percentage points for DMd). In contrast, the use of a fibrous diet led to lower DE intake (-217 kJ/d; P... digestibility coefficients (-13.5 percentage points for DMd). Females from line V, regardless of generation, showed lower daily DM intake (-19.2 g/d; P

  13. Dry matter production, seed yield and water use efficiency of some grain legumes grown under different water regimes using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, O.M.S.; Salem, M.S.A.; Abdalla, A.A.; Abd-Elwahed, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Two field experiments were performed in the experimental farm at the Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt, during 2002 and 2004 growing seasons to evaluate the responses of dry matter production, seed yield, water use efficiency and root characteristics for three legumes species, i.e. soybean (Glycine max cv. clark), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Kafr El-Sheikh) and mungbean (Vigna radiate cv. kawmy 1) grown on a new reclaimed sandy soil under different water regimes. The experiments were laid out using a single line source sprinkler irrigation system which allows a gradual variation of irrigation water, i.e. full irrigation (W1), medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). The obtained results indicated that normal irrigation (W1) gave the highest above ground dry matter production at flowering stage and total dry matter yield at maturity for the tested legumes. Water stress decreased significantly seed yields for all the tested legume seeds. The seed yield of normal watering condition treatment (W1) out yielded seed yield of those irrigated with medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). Mungbean and cowpea were more adapted to severe water stress than soybean. Most of the reduction in yield arose from a decrease in pod number. Pod number, number of seeds per pod and the thousand seed weight were significantly affected by water stress. The highest water use efficiency based on seed yield or dry matter yield were obtained by exposing the legume plants to medium water stress (W2), while the lowest value was obtained by exposing the plants to severe water stress (W3). There were significant differences in WUE among the tested species, whereas, mungbean showed the highest value in response to water stress, followed by soybean while cowpea showed the lowest value of water use efficiency. Rooting depth was increased under the severe water stress treatment as compared with well watered condition in the tested legume plants. Mungbean had the

  14. Performance of cotton crop grown under surface irrigation and drip fertigation. I. seed cotton yield, dry matter production, and lint properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Somi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Drip fertigation is a key factor in modern irrigated agriculture, where water and fertilizers are the most expensive inputs for this irrigation method. Drip fertigation experiments were carried out a Hama, north of Syria (Tezeen's Irrigation Research Station), for four consecutive years 1995 - 1998. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutim L.) variety Aleppo 33/1 was planted after unfertilized maize in order to deplete as much as possible the available N and reduce the field variability on the corresponding experimental units and irrigated thereafter. Treatments consisted of two irrigation methods (Surface irrigation and drip fertigation) and five N rates within drip fertigated cotton, including the control (N 0 = 0, N 1 = 60, N 2 = 120, N 3 = 180, N 4 240 kg N ha -1 ). The N fertilizer treatment for surface irrigated cotton was 180 kg N ha -1 in accordance with the recommended rate of ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. The experimental design was randomized block design with six replicates. Fertigation resulted in large water saving, and highly improved field water-use efficiency. Further, increasing N application rates under drip fertigation increased dry matter yield. The principal benefit of drip fertigation was the achievement of higher field water-use efficiencies, which were increased more than three-fold for both dry matter and seed cotton yield, relative to surface irrigation. The highest water-use efficiencies were obtained with the addition of 180 and 240 kg N ha -1 in 1995 and 1996 and 120 kg N ha -1 in 1997 and 1998. Dry matter production and partitioning among different plant parts at physiological maturity stage varied due to N input and irrigation methods. The overall dry matter distribution among different plant structures for drip fertigated-treatments was: Stems, 20.3 - 21.3%; leaves 26.3 - 28.7%; and fruiting forms, 50 - 53.2%. For the surface-irrigated treatment, the partitioning was stems, 23.1%; leaves, 28.3%; and fruiting form, 48.6%. The

  15. Amino acid profile of metabolisable protein in lactating dairy cows is affected by dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    Our previous study showed that supply of metabolisable protein (MP) to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage. The aim of this study was to examine how amino acid (AA) profile of MP was affected by silage DM concentration. Eight grass-c...

  16. The endogenous plant hormones and ratios regulate sugar and dry matter accumulation in Jerusalem artichoke in salt-soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Shao, Tianyun; Yang, Hui; Chen, Manxia; Gao, Xiumei; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2017-02-01

    The changes in content of endogenous hormones in stolons and tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) regulate tuber growth, but the specific knowledge about the importance of balance among the endogenous hormones is lacking. Two varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (NY-1 and QY-2) were tested for the endogenous zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA 3 ) and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers. The dry matter content and sugar accumulation in tubers were correlated positively with endogenous ZT and negatively with GA 3 content and GA 3 /ABA and IAA/ABA content ratios. Throughout the tuber formation, ZT content was higher in NY-1 than QY-2 tubers, whereas ABA content was higher in QY-2 than NY-1 tubers. The content ratios GA 3 /ABA and IAA/ABA were greater in NY-1 than QY-2 before tuber initiation, but QY-2 surpassed NY-1 during the tuber growth stage. The GA 3 /ABA and IAA/ABA content ratios declined during tuber growth. The results suggested that a dynamic balance of endogenous hormones played an important role in tuber development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of non-protein nitrogen and fodder legumes on the intake, digestibility and growth parameters of buffaloes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Premaratne, S.

    1990-01-01

    Two in vivo digestibility studies and three nylon bag studies were conducted using four rumen fistulated male buffaloes to investigate the role of supplements of tree legumes and non-protein nitrogen on the feed intake, rumen function and growth of buffaloes given a basal diet of rice straw. Straw dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility were increased by urea treatment compared with urea supplementation. Inclusion of legume tree leaves in the diet increased the in vivo DM digestibility of both untreated and treated straw, but the increment was much higher for untreated straw. A supplementation of legumes also increased the in vivo nitrogen (N) digestibility of the diet of buffaloes. A trend towards an increase in straw intake with legume supplementation was also observed. Of the tree fodder legumes tested, Erythrina lithosperma had the highest potential for providing protein. Inclusion of legumes in the diet increased the DM and N degradation rates of feedstuff. In a growth trial of grazing female buffalo calves, the inclusion of fodder legumes increased the weight gain when compared with grazing alone. (author). 6 refs, 5 tabs

  18. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  19. Intake and digestibility of untreated and urea treated rice straw base diet fed to sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Yulistiani

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Rice straw as one of agricultural by-products has low quality due to low content of essensial nutrients like protein, energy, minerals and vitamin as well as poor palatability and digestibility. Therefore, the quality of rice straw needs to be improved in order to increase its utilization by gastrointestinal tract of ruminants. The purpose of this study is to compare untreated and urea treated rice straw as basal diets for sheep. Twelve mature Merino wethers (average body weight 53.62 + 3.44 kg were separated into 4 groups based on their live weight with each groups assigned three diets, that are: diet 1 untreated rice straw with high forage legume content, diet 2 urea ensiled rice straw and diet 3 rice straw sprayed with urea solution at feeding time. Diets were allocated based on a randomized complete block design. Urea ensiled rice straw was prepared by spraying chopped straw with urea solution to yield straw containing 4% urea and 40% moisture, then kept in air tight polythylene bags for 6 weeks. The untreated, ensiled and urea supplemented rice straw were mixed with other feed ingredients to provide isoenergetic and isonitrogenous diets. Diets were formulated to meet maintenance requirement according to NRC. Sheep were adapted to experimental diets for 15 days, and after adaptation period, a metabolism trial was conducted. Results reveal that dry matter intake permetabolic body weight (DMI/W0.75, DE (digestible energi intake and apparent digestibility of NDF (neutral detergent fibre were not significantly different between diet 1 and diet 2. Apparent digestibility of DM (dry matter, OM (organic matter, and ADF (acid detergent fibre, as well as N retention were not significantly different between three diets. Positive result in N retention was only observed in diet 2, while others were negative. It may be concluded from this study that untreated rice straw basal diet supplemented with forage legume offer an alternative method other than urea

  20. Effect of harvest period on foliage production and dry matter distribution in five cassava cultivars during the second plant cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Sagrilo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the leaf production pattern and dry matter distribution in cassava during the second plant cycle. The completely randomized experimental design with four replications was used, with five cultivars in the main plots and ten harvest times in the sub-plots. Foliage production was affected by plant age, being higher in hot periods. Leaf blades and petioles dry matter content presented a linear increase due to a progressive decrease in the amount of young leaves and ontogenetic factors. The stems provided, temporarily, carbohydrates to the plant re-growth, delaying the availability and use of storage roots dry matter. The dry matter content in the storage roots was lower during the vegetative and higher during rest period. The storage roots diameter increased considerably when the amount of leaves was higher, indicating the importance of leaf area in the cassava plant production.O experimento foi conduzido de outubro de 1997 a maio de 1999, no Noroeste do Paraná, Brasil, com o objetivo de avaliar o padrão de produção de folhas e distribuição de massa seca em 5 cultivares de mandioca, durante o segundo ciclo vegetativo. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, estando as cultivares nas parcelas e as épocas de colheita nas subparcelas. A produção de folhas foi afetada pela idade das plantas, sendo maior nos períodos de temperatura elevada. Os teores de massa seca nos limbos foliares e pecíolos aumentaram linearmente com a idade das plantas, devido à menor proporção de folhas jovens e a fatores ontogênicos inerentes à planta. As hastes proporcionaram, temporariamente, os assimilados necessários para a reestruturação vegetativa das plantas, protelando a disponibilidade e uso dos carboidratos armazenados nas raízes. O teor de massa seca nas raízes foi menor durante o período de crescimento vegetativo e maior

  1. Effect of the type of silage on milk yield, intake and rumen metabolism of dairy cows grazing swards with low herbage mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Albarrán, Miguel; Balocchi, Oscar A; Noro, Mirela; Wittwer, Fernando; Pulido, Rubén G

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of herbage allowance (HA) and type of silage supplemented (TS) on milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI) and metabolism of dairy cows in early lactation. Thirty-six Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to four treatments derived from an arrangement of two HA (LHA = 17 or HHA = 25 kg of DM/cow/day) and two TS (grass (GS) or maize (MS)). Herbage allowance had no effect on DMI or milk yield. Rumen pH and NH3 -N concentration were not affected by HA. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen (microbial protein (MP)) was affected by HA with 21.5 and 23.9 g microbial nitrogen per kg ruminal digestible organic matter for LHA and HHA, respectively (P content by 0.10 % (P < 0.023) and herbage DMI by 2.2 kg/cow/day, and showed lower values for milk urea compared to GS (P < 0.001). The former results suggest that TS had a greater effect on milk yield, total feed intake and energy intake than increase in herbage allowance; however, increase in HA had greater effects on MP than TS. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12°C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na

  3. Protein-energy supplementation for lambs: feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmila Carolini Gonçalves da Silva

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the effects of dietary protein-energy supplementation on feed intake, ingestive behavior, rumen parameters and nutrient digestibility in lambs. Four castrated lambs with 31.9 kg mean body weight and fistulated rumen were tested. distributed into latin square design (4x4, four treatments were tested over four periods of time: no supplementation (control or with supplementation at 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 body weight. The supplement (soybean meal, soybean hulls, ground corn and minerals was provided with roughage (Tifton Bermudagrass, Cynodon spp., hay, which was offered ad libitum once a day, at 8h00. In treatments receiving 0 (control, 8, 16 and 24 g kg-1 supplementation, dry matter intake was 685.26, 742.86, 842.51 and 1013.33 g day-1, crude protein intake was 80.18, 95.98, 118.64, 150.14 g day-1 and metabolizable energy intake 1.55, 1.91, 2.31 and 2.98 g day-1, respectively. Treatments receiving the highest supplementation levels spent less time with rumination and feeding and rested for longer (P < 0.05. Protein-energy supplementation level did not affect rumen parameters. Average rumen pH was 6.3 and rumen ammonia nitrogen 165 mg dL-1; both were affected by sampling time. Supplementation levels until 24 g kg-1 BW improves feed intake and nutrient digestibility linearly and changes ingestive behavior, lowering rumination time without affecting rumen parameters.

  4. Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravleen Kour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fruit processing and consumption yield a significant amount of by-products as waste, which can be used as potential nutrient suppliers for livestock. “Kinnow” (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora is one of the most important citrus fruit crops of North Indian States. Its residues are rich in carbohydrates but poor in protein and account for approximately 55-60% of the raw weight of the fruit. Present study assessed the chemical composition and anti-oxidative activity of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW and scrutinized the impact of dietary incorporation of variable levels of KMW on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. Materials and Methods: Sun dried and ground KMW was analyzed for proximate composition, fibre fractions and calcium and phosphorus content. Antioxidant potential of KMW as total phenolic count and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity was assayed in an alcoholic extract of KMW. The effect of inclusion of KMW at variable levels (0-40% in the isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures on in vitro degradability of composite feed (concentrate mixture:Wheat straw; 40:60 was also carried out. Results: KMW after sun-drying contained 92.05% dry matter. The crude protein content of 7.60% indicates it being marginal in protein content, whereas nitrogen free extract content of 73.69% suggests that it is primarily a carbonaceous feedstuff. This observation was also supported by low neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content of 26.35% and 19.50%, respectively. High calcium content (0.92% vis-à-vis low phosphorus content (0.08%, resulted in wide Ca:P ratio (11.5 in KMW. High anti-oxidative potential of KMW is indicated by total phenolic content values of 17.1±1.04 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and DPPH free radicle scavenging activity 96.2 μg/ml (effective concentration 50. Mean IVDMD% of all the composite rations was found to be comparable (p>0.05 irrespective of the level of KMW inclusion

  5. Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    to a mycorrhizal mycelium network (no-tillage treatments). Maize yield and harvest index were lower after cropping With canola. The yield for conventional tillage was higher than that for no-tillage but the harvest index was lower. The hypothesis was supported at early stages of maize growth by the effect...... was used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased......We conducted a field experiment to test the hypothesis that improved phosphorus nutrition occurs in maize plants with rapid arbuscular (AM) mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages and that this also is reflected in dry matter allocation and final yield. A split-split plot design...

  6. Effect of K-N-humates on dry matter production and nutrient use efficiency of maize in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrus, Auldry Chaddy; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Muhamad, Ab Majid Nik; Nasir, Hassan Mohammad; Jiwan, Make

    2010-07-06

    Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW), is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer), which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS), but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots) were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6) showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials) causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from fertilizer to

  7. Effect of K-N-Humates on Dry Matter Production and Nutrient Use Efficiency of Maize in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auldry Chaddy Petrus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW, is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer, which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS, but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6 showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from

  8. Effect of aditive supplementation to ensiled red clover on voluntary intake, digestibility and N balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine effect of additive supplementation to red clover silage on ad libitum intake of fresh silage and dry matter (DM, in vivo digestibility of DM, organic matter (OM, OM in DM (D-value, crude protein (CP and nitrogen (N balance. Red clover was harvested at 60% bloom stage. It was ensiled into round bales without an additive (CD and with an additive supplementation (CDA in the amount of 2 L t-1 fresh material. Statistically lower (P<0.001 DM content was recorded in CD (405 g kg-1 fresh sample in comparison with CDA (665 g ST kg-1 fresh sample. Statistically higher CP content (P<0.001 was recorded in CD (127 g kg-1 ST in comparison with CDA (110 g SP kg-1 ST. CD had lower pH (P<0.001 (4.9 in comparison with CDA (5.2. No differences were recorded in NH3 between treatments. Ad libitum intake of fresh silage and silage DM was higher (P<0.001 and P<0.01, respectively in CD in comparison with CDA. Digestibility of DM, OM, CP, D-value and N balance were not different between treatments. It was concluded that the positive effect of additive supplementation to red clover silage on chemical composition, ad libitum intake, digestibility and N balance was not recorded due to applied ensiling technology as additive can improve feeding value of roughage, but it is not a replacement for good management practices.

  9. Dry Matter Yield And Competitiveness Of Alang-alang (Imperata Cylindrica) And Guinea Grass (Panicum Maximum) In Intercropping

    OpenAIRE

    Rusdy, M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine dry matter yield and competitiveness of alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) in intercropping. The experiment was arranged in factorial combinations of four planting proportions, two levels of nitrogen fertilization and three harvesting intervals with three replications. Planting proportions were 0, 33.3, 66.7, and 100% of alang-alang (planting densities of 0, 1, 2 and 3 plants/pot) combined with 100, 66.7, 33...

  10. Effect of spray-dried bovine serum on intake, health, and growth of broilers housed in different environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, J M; Quigley, J D; Russell, L E; Kidd, M T

    2003-11-01

    Three experiments utilizing broilers were conducted in different environments to evaluate the effects of Innavax (INX; spray-dried serum) administered in drinking water on broiler performance. In Exp. 1 (1 to 42 d), 252 Ross x Cobb male broilers were assigned randomly to one of six treatments consisting of tap water mixed with 0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, or 1.25% (wt/wt) INX. Broilers (six broilers per pen; seven pens per treatment) were housed in Petersime battery cages (raised wire flooring) in temperature-controlled rooms. Average daily gain, and feed and water intake (as-fed) were not affected (P > 0.05) by experimental treatments. Feed efficiency tended to improve linearly (P = 0.076) from d 0 to 7 with increasing levels of INX, but was unaffected (P > 0.05) during the remaining periods. In Exp. 2 and 3, 800 Ross x Ross 308 male broilers (400 broilers in each trial; 10 broilers per pen; 10 pens per treatment) in two 21-d experiments were assigned randomly to one of four treatments consisting of tap water mixed with 0, 0.45, 0.90, or 1.35% (wt/wt) INX. Broilers were housed in floor pens containing clean (Exp. 2) or used (Exp. 3) litter. In Exp. 2, intake, ADG, and feed efficiency were linearly improved (P 0.10) by level of INX. Overall (d 0 to 21), ADG, intake, and feed efficiency were linearly improved (P 0.05) by experimental treatment during d 0 to 7, but was linearly increased (P broilers to INX was observed when broilers were housed in floor pens with used litter, followed by floor pens with clean litter and battery pens. Further research on the relationship between the response to INX and housing conditions seems warranted.

  11. Impact of US Brown Swiss genetics on milk quality from low-input herds in Switzerland: interactions with grazing intake and pasture type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiadis, S; Bieber, A; Franceschin, E; Isensee, A; Eyre, M D; Maurer, V; Chatzidimitriou, E; Cozzi, G; Bapst, B; Stewart, G; Gordon, A; Butler, G

    2015-05-15

    This study investigated the effect of, and interactions between, contrasting crossbreed genetics (US Brown Swiss [BS] × Improved Braunvieh [BV] × Original Braunvieh [OB]) and feeding regimes (especially grazing intake and pasture type) on milk fatty acid (FA) profiles. Concentrations of total polyunsaturated FAs, total omega-3 FAs and trans palmitoleic, vaccenic, α-linolenic, eicosapentaenoic and docosapentaenoic acids were higher in cows with a low proportion of BS genetics. Highest concentrations of the nutritionally desirable FAs, trans palmitoleic, vaccenic and eicosapentaenoic acids were found for cows with a low proportion of BS genetics (0-24% and/or 25-49%) on high grazing intake (75-100% of dry matter intake) diets. Multivariate analysis indicated that the proportion of OB genetics is a positive driver for nutritionally desirable monounsaturated and polyunsaturated FAs while BS genetics proportion was positive driver for total and undesirable individual saturated FAs. Significant genetics × feeding regime interactions were also detected for a range of FAs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of anionic salts in concentrate mixture and magnesium intake on some blood and urine minerals and acid-base balance of dry pregnant cows on grass silage based feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAURIAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Friesian cows were randomly assigned to one of four prepartum diets in a 2 x 2 factorially designed experiment to determine the effect of anionic salts contained in a concentrate mixture and magnesium (Mg intake on some blood and urine minerals in cows fed a grass silage based diet. Four diets provided either 16 g or 33 g total dietary Mg/day, and had either a low or high cation-anion difference. Dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB of the diets, calculated as milliequivalents [(Na+ + K+ - (Cl- + S2-], was +31 mEq/kg dry matter (DM in the low DCAB group and +340 mEq/kg DM in the high DCAB group. DCAB was formulated using NH4Cl, (NH42SO4 and MgCl2 as anionic salts. Cows received grass silage (5.2 kg DM, hay (1.0 kg DM and concentrate mixture (1.5 kg DM until calving. Blood and urine samples were collected 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before the expected calving date, at calving, the day after calving and 1 week following calving. Cows fed the low DCAB diet had a lower urinary pH (P

  13. On-line near infrared monitoring of ammonium and dry matter in biosturry for robust biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Ihunegbo, Felicia N.; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2012-01-01

    was applied on-line in a re-circulating loop configuration operating identically as a full-scale setup. Ammonium could be modelled in the industrially relevant range 2.42 – 8.52 g L-1 with an excellent accuracy and precision, slope ~1.0, r2 = 0.97, corresponding toa relative Root Mean Square Error......Heterogeneous substrates fed into agricultural biogas plants originate from many sources with resulting quality fluctuations potentially inhibiting the process. Biogas yield can be substantially increased by optimisation of the organic dry matter load. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy...

  14. Measurement of rumen dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradability of feeds by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanche, A.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Allison, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the potential of partial least squares (PLS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to predict rumen dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation parameters of a wide range of feeds for ruminants, as an alternative to the in situ method. In total...... components, such as cellulose, pectin, lignin, cutin, and suberin, but also with nonstructural carbohydrates and certain active compounds. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy could be considered a low-cost alternative to in situ measurements in feed evaluation....

  15. Morphological characteristics, dry matter production, and nutritional value of winter forage and grains under grazing and split nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreno Egidio Taffarel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics, dry matter production, and nutritional values of winter forage and grains were evaluated. This study was conducted from April 24, 2012 to November 7, 2013 in the Western Paraná State University (UNIOESTE, Marechal Cândido Rondon, Brazil. Pastures under one grazing and non-grazing conditions were evaluated under 120 kg N ha-1 fertilization split into two 60 kg N ha-1 treatments. Two pastures received 40 kg N ha-1 three times. IPR 126 oat, BRS Tarumã wheat, and IPR 111 triticale were the test crops. Topdressing with 40 or 60 kg N ha-1 did not change morphological characteristics until 60 d after sowing. Pastures under non-grazing that received 120 kg N ha-1 treatments were taller than the controls, whereas those under grazing that received 80 or 120 kg N ha-1 presented with higher leaf production than did the controls. Total average dry matter (DM production in 2012 and 2013 was, respectively, 5,275 kg ha-1 and 6,270 kg ha-1 for oat, 3,166 kg ha-1 and 7,423 kg ha-1 for wheat, and 4,552 kg ha-1 and 7,603 kg ha-1 for triticale. Split N fertilization did not cause differences in the levels of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF in the forage. Nevertheless, increases in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD were observed in oat and wheat receiving 60 kg N ha-1 during the first graze. IVDMD did not change in oat, wheat, and triticale forages receiving 80 or 120 kg N ha-1 during the second graze. Grazing did not affect the nutritional values of wheat and triticale grains, but reduced those of oat. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that grazing lengthens the crop cycles, and so allow the staggered sowing of summer crops.

  16. Effect of maturity at harvest for whole-crop barley and oat on dry matter intake, sorting, and digestibility when fed to beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosser, C L; Beattie, A D; Block, H C; McKinnon, J J; Lardner, H A; Górka, P; Penner, G B

    2016-02-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of harvest maturity of whole-crop oat (Study 1) and whole-crop barley (Study 2) on forage intake and sorting, ruminal fermentation, ruminal digestibility, and total tract digestibility when fed to beef heifers. In Study 1, 3 ruminally cannulated heifers (417 ± 5 kg) were used in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with 24-d periods. Whole-crop oat forage harvested at the late milk (LMILK), hard dough (HD), or ripe (RP) stages was fed for ad libitum intake and heifers were supplemented (1% of BW) with alfalfa pellets, barley grain, canola meal, and a mineral and vitamin pellet. Maturity at harvest for whole-crop oat did not affect ( ≥ 0.058) forage intake, DE intake, amount of forage refused, ruminal short-chain fatty acid concentration, or digestibility of DM, OM, NDF, and ADF. Ruminal starch digestibility decreased ( digestibility decreasing ( = 0.043) from 95.8% at the LMILK stage to 94.8% at the RP stage. Ruminal CP digestibility was reduced at the HD stage compared with the LMILK and RP stages ( digestibility of DM, OM, and NDF observed at the HD stage compared with the LMILK and RP stages ( ≤ 0.004). Ruminal NDF digestibility decreased from 69.7% at the LMILK stage to 54.4% at the HD stage and 54.9% at the RP stage ( = 0.001), whereas ruminal ADF digestibility decreased from 70.0% at the LMILK stage to 44.4% at the HD stage and 42.5% at the RP stage ( = 0.002). Minimum and mean ruminal pH were least for the LMILK stage, intermediate at the RP stage, and greatest at the HD stage ( = 0.016 and = 0.031, respectively). These data suggest that despite reductions in ruminal digestibility of NDF and ADF with advancing maturity, harvesting whole-crop oat and barley forage at the HD and RP stages of maturity did not negatively affect DMI, fermentation characteristics, or DE relative to whole-crop cereal forage harvested at the LMILK stage.

  17. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, M; Herrera, E; Ruiz, O; Reyes, O; Carrete, F O; Gutierrez, H

    2016-05-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with

  18. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Murillo

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW] were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers, which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May. Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size. Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G, urea-nitrogen (UN and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05.The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05. In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW, and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI, apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, crude protein (ADCP and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05. The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP, NDF (kdNDF and passage rate (kp also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05. Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and propionate concentrations also increased with

  19. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, M.; Herrera, E.; Ruiz, O.; Reyes, O.; Carrete, F. O.; Gutierrez, H.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with

  20. Acúmulo de massa seca em três cultivares de arroz irrigado com diferentes arquiteturas de plantas Dry matter accumulation by three flooded rice cultivars with different plant canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juçara Terezinha Paranhos

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em Planossolo da Unidade de Mapeamento Vacacaí, com o ohjetivo de estudar o acúmulo de massa seca nos diversos órgãos da planta de três cultivares de arroz irrigado (EEA 406, Bluebelle e BR-IRGA 409, utilizando-se delineamento de blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. A massa seca foi obtida em sete estádios fenológicos da cultura. Desconsiderando os grãos e panículas, a EEA 406 possui maior capacidade produtiva de fitomassa, sendo a Bluebelle menos produtiva. Na maturação, a cultivar BR-IRGA 409 apresentou maior massa seca total, demonstrando maior capacidade de alocar assimilados nos grãos e maior eficiência de conversão de energia solar em fitomassa, sendo a Bluebelle menos eficiente. Para as três cultivares, até a floração, o colmo acumulou a maior percentagem de massa seca sendo, a partir daí, substituído pelas panículas e grãos. O máximo acúmulo de massa seca nas raízes ocorreu por ocasião da floração, cerca de 80 dias após a emergência.This experiment was carried out in an Halbaqualf soil to study the dry matter accumulation of three flooded rice cultivars. A complete randomized block design was used, with tive replication. Plant dry matter was measured in seven different growth stages. The cultivar EEA 406 had a higherdry matter accumulation than the cultivar Bluebelle without including grain and panicle. At maturity, the BR-IRGA 409 cultivar showed higher total dry matter. This demonstrate a better capacity of this variety in alocating assimilates into grains a higher effíciency in converting solar energy into plant biomass. The Bluebelle had lower efficiency. The dry matter accumulation increased for the three varieties from seeding to flowering into colm and, from flowering to harvest into panicles and grain. The maximum dry matter accumulation in roots was observed at flowering, eighty days after emergency.

  1. Effects of partial replacement of corn grain with lactose in calf starters on ruminal fermentation and growth performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saegusa, A; Inouchi, K; Ueno, M; Inabu, Y; Koike, S; Sugino, T; Oba, M

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of partial replacement of dry ground corn with lactose in calf starters on dry matter intake, growth rate, ruminal pH, and volatile fatty acid profile. Sixty Holstein bull calves were raised on a high plane of nutrition program until 55 d of age. Calves were fed texturized calf starters containing 30.1% steam-flaked grains and lactose at 0 (control), 5, or 10% (n = 20 for each treatment) on a dry matter basis. All calves were fed treatment calf starters ad libitum from d 7 and kleingrass hay from d 35. Ruminal pH was measured continuously immediately after weaning (d 55-62) for 15 calves (n = 5 per treatment), and 3 wk after weaning (d 77 to 80) for the other 45 calves (n = 15 per treatment). Dry matter intake, growth performance, and ruminal pH variables were not affected by treatment. However, according to Spearman's correlation coefficient (r s ) analyses, lactose intake was positively correlated with dairy minimum ruminal pH (r s = 0.306) for the data collected from d 77 to 80. Similarly, hay intake was not affected by treatment, but positively correlated with daily mean (r s = 0.338) and maximum ruminal pH (r s = 0.408) and negatively correlated with duration pH lactose than control (35.3 vs. 40.2%) for ruminal fluid collected on d 80; however, molar ratio of butyrate was not affected by treatment. These results indicate that lactose inclusion in calf starters up to 10% of dry matter might not affect dry matter intake and growth performance of calves, but that greater lactose and hay intake might be associated with higher ruminal pH. The Authors. Published by the Federation of Animal Science Societies and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  2. Effects of season and inclusion of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in creep feed on intake, microbial protein synthesis and efficiency, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and performance of nursing calves grazing native range in southeastern North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J J; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Gibson, M; Caton, J S

    2006-08-01

    Nine ruminally and duodenally cannulated (145 +/- 21 kg of initial BW; Exp. 1) and sixteen intact (181 +/- 36 kg of initial BW; Exp. 2), commercial, Angus, nursing, steer calves were used to evaluate the effects of advancing season and corn distillers dried grains with solubles in creep feed on intake, digestion, microbial efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and performance while grazing native rangeland. Calves were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a supplement containing 41% soybean meal, 26.25% wheat middlings, 26.25% soybean hulls, 5% molasses, and 1.5% limestone (control) or a supplement containing 50% corn distillers dried grains with solubles, 14.25% wheat middlings, 14.25% soybean hulls, 14% soybean meal, 5% molasses, and 1.5% limestone (CDDGS). Calves were offered supplement individually (0.45% of BW) once daily. Three 15-d collection periods occurred in June, July, and August. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in OM intake, or OM, N, NDF, or ADF digestion between control calves and those fed CDDGS. Forage and total OM intake increased (P Calves consuming CDDGS had decreased (P intake (% of BW) was less for CDDGS compared with control calves, but there were no differences in performance or subsequent carcass composition between treatments. Inclusion of 50% corn distillers dried grains with solubles in a creep supplement for nursing calves produced similar results compared with a control creep feed based on soybean meal, soybean hulls, and wheat middlings.

  3. Predicting pear (cv. Clara Frijs) dry matter and soluble solids content with near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, Sylvia; Bertelsen, Marianne; Petersen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Regression models for predicting preharvest dry matter (DM) and soluble solids content (SSC), based on two spectral ranges (680-1000 nm and 1100-2350 nm), were compared. Models based on longer NIR spectra were more successful for both parameters (DM/SSC: R2 = 0.78-0.84; RMECV = 0.78/0.44; LVs = 6....../7). SSC prediction was better than expected considering the presence of starch in fruit. Generally poor SSC prediction in the presence of starch could be related to the inability of models to distinguish between forms of carbohydrate. Variable selection and regression coefficients highlighted...... fruit. Further research is needed to qualify and build on the results presented here....

  4. Height, leaf nymber, chemical composition and dry matter production of Stylosanthes Campo Grande at different levels of potassium and zinco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Mara Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine plant height, total number of leaves, number of live leaves, chemical composition and dry mass production of Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande at first cut and after 21 days of regrowth at different levels of potassium (K2O with and without zinc (Zn. The experiment was conducted using a randomized block design in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme consisting of four repetitions. Four levels of K2O (0, 120, 240 and 360 mg/dm3 with and without Zn (0 and 6 mg/dm3 were used. There was no effect of the interaction between K2O and Zn levels on the structural characteristics of Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande, and no independent effects of the different levels of K2O and Zn were observed. The mean plant height, total number of leaves and number of live leaves were 21.2 cm, 30.2 and 27.2, respectively. Dry mass production did not differ between K2O and Zn levels, with a mean production of 3.7 g/pot. There was also no effect of the interaction between K2O and Zn levels on dry matter and neutral detergent fiber content, and no independent effects of the different levels of K2O and Zn were observed, with mean values of 29.3% and 46.9% dry matter, respectively. However, an effect of the interaction between K2O and Zn levels was observed for crude protein content, which exhibited a quadratic response. Re2growth increased linearly with increasing K2O levels. Although the highest crude protein content was obtained at zero levels of potassium and zinc, potassium fertilization is advantageous since it increases the regrowth of Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande in 21 days.

  5. Intake and digestion of wethers fed with dwarf elephant grass hay with or without the inclusion of peanut hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaider, Maria Alice; Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique Mendonça Nunes; Vilmar Kozloski, Gilberto; Reiter, Tatiana; Dall Orsoletta, Aline Cristina; Dallabrida, Ademar Luiz

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo) hay in diets based on dwarf elephant grass (DEG, Pennisetum purpureum Schum cv. Kurumi) hay of different regrowth ages on forage intake and digestibility in wether lambs. The experimental treatments consisted of DEG hay with an interval of regrowth of 30 or 45 days offered as the only feed or in mixture with peanut hay (300 g/kg of total dry matter (DM)), which were tested in eight Texel × Suffolk crossbred wethers in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square experiment. Both organic matter (OM) and digestible OM intakes were higher (P < 0.05) in animals receiving the legume forage. Total apparent OM digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) at an increased grass regrowth age. Ruminal OM digestibility increased (P < 0.05) with legume inclusion and at a higher grass regrowth age. The nitrogen (N) intake was higher (P < 0.05) in legume treatments and lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased, but retention of N was not affected by treatments. Duodenal flow of both, non-ammonia N and microbial N, were not affected by legume inclusion and were lower (P < 0.05) as grass regrowth age increased. The efficiency of rumen microbial protein synthesis (ERMPS) was negatively affected (P < 0.05) by legume inclusion and was lower (P < 0.05) as the grass regrowth age increased. Supplementation of dwarf elephant grass hay cut at the vegetative stage with peanut legume hay improves nutritional supply to wethers due to an increase in the forage intake.

  6. Transport and solubility of Hetero-disperse dry deposition particulate matter subject to urban source area rainfall-runoff processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G.; Sansalone, J.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWith respect to hydrologic processes, the impervious pavement interface significantly alters relationships between rainfall and runoff. Commensurate with alteration of hydrologic processes the pavement also facilitates transport and solubility of dry deposition particulate matter (PM) in runoff. This study examines dry depositional flux rates, granulometric modification by runoff transport, as well as generation of total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and conductivity in source area runoff resulting from PM solubility. PM is collected from a paved source area transportation corridor (I-10) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana encompassing 17 dry deposition and 8 runoff events. The mass-based granulometric particle size distribution (PSD) is measured and modeled through a cumulative gamma function, while PM surface area distributions across the PSD follow a log-normal distribution. Dry deposition flux rates are modeled as separate first-order exponential functions of previous dry hours (PDH) for PM and suspended, settleable and sediment fractions. When trans-located from dry deposition into runoff, PSDs are modified, with a d50m decreasing from 331 to 14 μm after transport and 60 min of settling. Solubility experiments as a function of pH, contact time and particle size using source area rainfall generate constitutive models to reproduce pH, alkalinity, TDS and alkalinity for historical events. Equilibrium pH, alkalinity and TDS are strongly influenced by particle size and contact times. The constitutive leaching models are combined with measured PSDs from a series of rainfall-runoff events to demonstrate that the model results replicate alkalinity and TDS in runoff from the subject watershed. Results illustrate the granulometry of dry deposition PM, modification of PSDs along the drainage pathway, and the role of PM solubility for generation of TDS, alkalinity and conductivity in urban source area rainfall-runoff.

  7. Heterofermentative process in dry fermented sausages - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Kameník

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain circumstances the fermentation process in dry fermented sausages converts to heterofermentation pathway leading to acetic acid and carbon dioxide beside lactic acid. The study describes two cases of undesirable heterofermentation in dry sausages from two different producers. In the sausage samples (n = 7 the pH value and the content of lactic and acetic acids were measured. Microbial analysis focused on quantitative and qualitative detection of lactic acid bacteria. The acetic acid content varied from 24.28 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter, in the case of samples from the second producer the content of acetic acid (48.45 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter was higher than the lactic acid content (20.98 to 29.02 µmol·g-1 dry matter. The lactobacilli strains from the sausages were assigned to the corresponding species by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization – Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and classified to three groups according to the sugar fermentation pattern (obligately homofermentative, facultatively heterofermentative and obligately heterofermentative and they caused the heterofermentation process in the samples of dry fermented sausages. The description of the case of heterofermentation process in dry sausages is unique and there is little information about this topic.

  8. Intake, milk yield, and physiological parameters of lactating cows fed on diets containing different quantities of xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Nogueira Furtado

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of substituting Tifton-85 grass hay with different quantities of xiquexique (Pilosocereus gounellei (0, 12, 24, and 36% on the nutrient intake and physiological responses of lactating dairy cows. Eight multiparous crossbred cows at approximately 100 days in milk, with an average milk yield of 15 kg of milk per day-1, and an average body weight (BW of 465.20 ± 39.37 kg, were distributed in a 4 × 4 double Latin square design. Each experimental period lasted 16 days, consisting of 10 days for adaptation and 6 days for data collection, giving a total of 64 experimental days. The roughage: concentrate ratio was 60:40, on a dry matter (DM basis. The DM intake, expressed in kg day-1, was affected quadratically by the levels of xiquexique in the diets. The intakes of DM, expressed in % BW and g kg-0.75, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF in the three units analyzed (kg day-1, % BW, and g kg-0.75, as well as the intakes of organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, and total carbohydrates (TC, expressed in kg/day-1, decreased linearly with the levels of xiquexique in the diet. Milk yield (kg day-1 was reduced by the addition of xiquexique into the diet, but feed efficiency was not influenced. Water intake from feed (WIFeed, expressed in kg day-1 and % BW, incresed linearly with increasing levels of xiquexique in the total diet, while voluntary water intake, expressed in kg day-1 and % BW (WIVoluntary, decreased linearly. The total water intake (WITotal was not affected by experimental treatments. Participation of WIVoluntary in the WITotal linearly reduced with Xiquexique levels in the diet. The respiratory rate and surface temperature during both periods of the day (morning and afternoon, and rectal temperature during the morning were not influenced by the levels of xiquexique in the diet. Therefore, xiquexique can be utilized in the feeding of medium and high producing dairy cows

  9. The efficiency of utilization of metabolizable energy and apparent absorption of amino acids in sheep given spring- and autumn-harvested dried grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macrae, J C; Smith, J S; Dewey, P J; Brewer, A C; Brown, D S; Walker, A

    1985-07-01

    Three experiments were conducted with sheep given spring-harvested dried grass (SHG) and autumn-harvested dried grass (AHG). The first was a calorimetric trial to determine the metabolizable energy (ME) content of each grass and the efficiency with which sheep utilize their extra ME intakes above the maintenance level of intake. The second examined the relative amounts of extra non-ammonia-nitrogen (NAN) and individual amino acids absorbed from the small intestine per unit extra ME intake as the level of feeding was raised from energy equilibrium (M) to approximately 1.5 M. The third was a further calorimetric trial to investigate the effect of an abomasal infusion of 30 g casein/d on the efficiency of utilization of AHG. The ME content of the SHG (11.8 MJ/kg dry matter (DM] was higher than that of AHG (10.0 MJ/kg DM). The efficiency of utilization of ME for productive purposes (i.e. above the M level of intake; kf) was higher when given SHG (kf 0.54 between M and 2 M) than when given AHG (kf 0.43 between M and 2 M). As the level of intake of each grass was raised from M to 1.5 M there was a greater increment in the amounts of NAN (P less than 0.001) and the total amino acid (P less than 0.05) absorbed from the small intestines when sheep were given the SHG (NAN absorption, SHG 5.4 g/d, AHG 1.5 g/d, SED 0.54; total amino acid absorption SHG 31.5 g/d, AHG 14.3 g/d, SED 5.24). Infusion of 30 g casein/d per abomasum of sheep given AHG at M and 1.5 M levels of intake increased (P less than 0.05) the efficiency of utilization of the herbage from kf 0.45 to kf 0.57. Consideration is given to the possibility that the higher efficiency of utilization of ME in sheep given SHG may be related to the amounts of extra glucogenic amino acids absorbed from the small intestine which provide extra reducing equivalents (NADPH) and glycerol phosphate necessary for the conversion of acetate into fatty acids.

  10. Effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrient intake and growth performance in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ntiranyibagira Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of urea in camels has beneficial and negative effects. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of different levels of urea supplementation on nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance, feed efficiency and economics in growing camels fed roughage based complete pellet diets. In the present study, eighteen growing camels with an average live body weight of 306.17 ± 2.05 kg were randomly assigned in three treatments: T1 = roughage complete pellet diet without urea, T2 = T1 plus 1% urea, and T3 = T1 plus 2% urea. The results showed that the urea supplementation significantly affected average daily feed and nutrient intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF (P  0.05. Similarly, digestion coefficient of DM, CP, ether extract (EE, crude fiber (CF and ADF was influenced by increasing urea level (P  0.05. The intake of digestive nutrients was similar among all treatment groups. Total body live weight gain and average daily gain were significantly higher in urea supplemented groups (P < 0.05 than in the control group. The supplementation of urea at 1% in low quality roughage complete pellet diets significantly improved (P < 0.05 the feed efficiency. In conclusion, these results indicated that the incorporation of urea at 1% in roughage based complete pellet diets could positively improve nutrients intake, digestibility, growth performance and feed conversion efficiency of growing camels.

  11. The transfer of radiocaesium to ewes through a breeding cycle - an illustration of the pitfalls of the transfer coefficient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beresford, N.A.; Mayes, R.W.; Barnett, C.L.; Howard, B.J.

    2007-01-01

    A study to measure the transfer of radiocaesium to adult female sheep through a breeding cycle is described. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle (estimated as the equilibrium transfer coefficient) was significantly lower to pregnant, and especially lactating, animals compared to non-lactating and barren animals. High dry matter intake rates were also associated with significantly lower transfer coefficients. Known relationships between dry matter intake rates and protein turnover could credibly explain some of these differences. However, when described as the concentration ratio, radiocaesium transfer to meat was apparently highest during lactation. The apparent difference in results obtained by the two approaches of determining transfer is the consequence of daily dry matter intake being a denominator within the estimation of transfer coefficient. A wider discussion of transfer coefficients and concentration ratios leads us to suggest that the concentration ratio is the more robust and potentially generic parameter

  12. The transfer of radiocaesium to ewes through a breeding cycle - an illustration of the pitfalls of the transfer coefficient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)], E-mail: nab@ceh.ac.uk; Mayes, R.W. [Macaulay Land Use Research Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen AB15 8QH (United Kingdom); Barnett, C.L.; Howard, B.J. [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, CEH-Lancaster, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    A study to measure the transfer of radiocaesium to adult female sheep through a breeding cycle is described. The transfer of radiocaesium from the diet to muscle (estimated as the equilibrium transfer coefficient) was significantly lower to pregnant, and especially lactating, animals compared to non-lactating and barren animals. High dry matter intake rates were also associated with significantly lower transfer coefficients. Known relationships between dry matter intake rates and protein turnover could credibly explain some of these differences. However, when described as the concentration ratio, radiocaesium transfer to meat was apparently highest during lactation. The apparent difference in results obtained by the two approaches of determining transfer is the consequence of daily dry matter intake being a denominator within the estimation of transfer coefficient. A wider discussion of transfer coefficients and concentration ratios leads us to suggest that the concentration ratio is the more robust and potentially generic parameter.

  13. Effects of nitrogen supply on inter-organ fluxes of urea-N and renal urea-N kinetics in lactating Holstein cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, Betina Amdisen; Theil, Peter Kappel; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2011-01-01

    The effects of decreasing ruminal urea infusion in lactating dairy cows fed a basal diet deficient in rumen degradable protein on inter-organ urea-N fluxes, epithelial urea-N extraction, and renal urea-N kinetics were investigated. Eight Danish Holstein cows fitted with a ruminal cannula...... and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels and the gastrosplenic vein were used. The cows were randomly allocated to a triplicate incomplete 3 × 3 Latin square design with 14-d periods. Treatments were continuous ventral ruminal infusion of water, 4.1 g of feed urea/kg of dry...... matter intake, and 8.5 g of feed urea/kg of dry matter intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. Arterial blood urea-N and ruminal ammonia concentrations decreased linearly with decreasing urea infusion. In absolute amounts, the urea-N recycling did...

  14. Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of high dry matter wet-exploded wheat straw at low enzyme loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, T.I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels

    2008-01-01

    was the most efficient in enhancing overall convertibility of the raw material to sugars and minimizing generation of furfural as a by-product. For scale-up of the process, high dry matter (DM) concentrations of 15-20% will be necessary. However, high DM hydrolysis and fermentation are limited by high...... and a low enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g cellulose in an industrial acceptable time frame of 96 h. Cellulose and hemicellulose conversion from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70 and 68%, respectively, and an overall ethanol yield from SSF was 68%....

  15. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da proteína bruta e da energia de silagens de quatro genótipos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench por ovinos Voluntary intake and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and energy of silages of four sorghum genotype in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G.R. Martins

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da proteína bruta e da energia e o balanço de nitrogênio de silagens dos sorgos BR601, BR700, BR701 e AG2002 em ovinos. O consumo de matéria seca e de energia bruta não diferiu entre os híbridos. Quanto à digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e da energia bruta e ao consumo de matéria seca digestível e de energia digestível, observaram-se maiores valores para o BR601. O maior consumo de proteína bruta foi observado no BR700 e o menor no AG2002. A maior digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta ocorreu para o BR601 e a menor para o BR701. O consumo de proteína digestível foi maior para os híbridos BR601 e BR700. Todos os tratamentos apresentaram balanço de nitrogênio positivo e não diferiram entre si.The nitrogen balance, the consumption and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and the energy of the silages of four genotypes of sorghum were evaluated. The consumption of dry matter and crude energy did not differ among the hibrids. The largest apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude energy and the consumption of digestible dry matter and energy, were observed for BR601 genotype. The largest consumption of crude protein, was observed for BR700 and the smalest for AG2002 genotypes (P<0.05. The largest apparent digestibility of protein was observed for BR601 and the smalest one for BR701 (P<0.05 genotype. The consumption of digestible protein was larger for BR601 and BR700. All treatments showed positive nitrogen balance and did not differ among them.

  16. Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

    2009-04-01

    The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not

  17. Consumo voluntário de forragem de três cultivares de Panicum maximum sob pastejo Voluntary intake of three cultivars of Panicum maximum under grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Pacheco Batista Euclides

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram estimar o consumo de matéria seca de animais pastejando três cultivares de Panicum maximum e relacioná-lo com ganho de peso, tempo de pastejo (TP e algumas características químicas e estruturais do pasto. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com três tratamentos e três repetições. O consumo voluntário de matéria seca (CVMS foi estimado em quatro ocasiões (maio, setembro, novembro e fevereiro. Para calcular a produção de fezes, foi usado o óxido crômico como marcador externo. Foram estimados a digestibilidade in situ da matéria seca e o tempo de pastejo, respectivamente, por intermédio de extrusas e tacógrafos. Foram estimadas as disponibilidades da forragem e dos componentes da planta. Apesar de os CVMS pelos animais terem sido semelhantes entre as cultivares, foram observadas maiores diferenças nos ganhos de peso, para os animais pastejando o capim Tanzânia, seguidos daqueles pastejando os capins Colonião e Tobiatã. Diferenças também foram observadas entre as cultivares para TP, que foi menor para os animais em pasto de Tobiatã, quando comparados aos que pastejaram as outras duas cultivares. O aumento no TP observado durante o período da seca não foi suficiente para impedir queda no consumo de forragem neste período. O CVMS foi correlacionado (r² = 0,77 com ganho diário de peso. As características estruturais das pastagens, disponibilidade de folhas e relação material verde:material morto, influenciaram mais o CVMS, ganho de peso diário e TP que os valores nutritivos das mesmas.The objectives of this work were to estimate the dry matter intake by animals grazing three cultivars of Panicum maximum, and to relate it to live weight gain, grazing time (GT and some structural and chemical characteristics of the pastures. The experimental design was the randomized block with three treatments and three replicates. The dry matter voluntary intake (DMVI was

  18. INTAKE OF TROPICAL TANNINIFEROUS PLANTS BY GOATS AND SHEEP WHEN OFFERED AS A SOLE FEED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. Alonso-Díaz

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The intake of tropical tanniniferous plants (TTP (Lysiloma latisiliquum, Piscidia piscipula and Acacia pennatula when offered as a single feed to small ruminants could help to design a supplementation strategy looking for an anthelmintic effect. The objectives of the current study were: i to determine the chemical composition of TTP offered to goats and sheep, ii to determine and compare the total intake of TTP when offered as a single feed to goats and sheep. Adult sheep and goats, with experience in the intake of TTP, were allocated to individual pens. Three consecutive experimental period (15 d separated by seven days were used. Each period consisted of 10 d adaptation and 5 days of experiment. During adaptation animals received 40 g of leaves of each TTP plant, fresh grass and concentrate feed on a daily basis. During the experimental period animals were fed ad libitum only with the fodder of a sole TTP. Between each period, animals were fed with fresh grass (ad libitum and concentrate (200 g-1 day. Crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and lignin (L were determined from each TTP. Total polyphenols (TP, total tannins (TT and condensed tannins (CT were also determined. During each experimental period, refused fodder and intake were measured every 24 h. A multivariate analysis was used in order to determine the effect of factors (animal species, plant species and individual animal within specie on the dry matter intake. Factors with statistical effect (P

  19. Evaluation of the effect of alternative measurements of body weight gain and dry matter intake for the calculation of residual feed intake in growing purebred Charolais and Red Angus cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, W; Glaze, J B; Welch, C M; Kerley, M; Hill, R A

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of alternative-measurements of body weight and DMI used to evaluate residual feed intake (RFI). Weaning weight (WW), ADG, and DMI were recorded on 970 growing purebred Charolais bulls (n = 519) and heifers (n = 451) and 153 Red Angus growing steers (n = 69) and heifers (n = 84) using a GrowSafe (GrowSafe, Airdrie, Alberta, Canada) system. Averages of individual DMI were calculated in 10-d increments and compared to the overall DMI to identify the magnitude of the errors associated with measuring DMI. These incremental measurements were also used in calculation of RFI, computed from the linear regression of DMI on ADG and midtest body weight0.75 (MMWT). RFI_Regress was calculated using ADG_Regress (ADG calculated as the response of BW gain and DOF) and MMWT_PWG (metabolic midweight calculated throughout the postweaning gain test), considered the control in Red Angus. A similar calculation served as control for Charolais; RFI was calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weights (RFI_Calc). The RFI weaning weight (RFI_WW) was calculated using ADG_WW (ADG from weaning till the final out weight of the postweaning gain test) and MMWT_WW, calculated similarly. Overall average estimated DMI was highly correlated to the measurements derived over shorter periods, with 10 d being the least correlated and 60 d being the most correlated. The ADG_Calc (calculated using 2-d consecutive start and finish weight/DOF) and ADG_WW were highly correlated in Charolais. The ADG_Regress and ADG_Calc were highly correlated, and ADG_Regress and ADG_WW were moderately correlated in Red Angus. The control measures of RFI were highly correlated with the RFI_WW in Charolais and Red Angus. The outcomes of including abbreviated period DMI in the model with the weaning weight gain measurements showed that the model using 10 d of intake (RFI WW_10) was the least correlated with the control measures. The model with 60 d of intake had

  20. Replacement of soybean meal by soybean in multiple supplements for beef heifers grazing Urochloa decumbens during the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Mageste de Almeida

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of replacing soybean meal with soybean in multiple supplements on nutritional parameters, microbial efficiency and productive and reproductive performance of heifers grazing in Urochloa decumbens during the drought period. Were used 39 crossbred heifers of initial age and initial weight of 21 months and 309.5±7 kg, respectively. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments with eight replicates, and a control treatment with seven replications. Two treatments had soybean meal as the protein source and two treatments had soybean as the protein source, containing 25% and 40% crude protein. The amount of supplement offered was 1.0 kg/animal/day. The animals of the control group received only mineral salt ad libitum. The supplemented animals had higher average daily gain (ADG than control animals (P<0.10, and there was no difference in ADG among the supplements (P>0.10. There was an effect of supplementation (P <0.10 on intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC, total digestible nutrients (TDN and neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDF. There were no differences (P>0.10 on intake of OM and DM grazing between the supplemented and non-supplemented. Supplementation improved DM digestibility and all constituents of the diet (P<0.10. It was found that the provision of multiple supplements optimizes the performance of heifers grazing during the dry season, and that the substitution of soybean meal by soybean did not improve productive performance of animals.

  1. Estimating and Up-Scaling Fuel Moisture and Leaf Dry Matter Content of a Temperate Humid Forest Using Multi Resolution Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Adab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation moisture and dry matter content are important indicators in predicting the behavior of fire and it is widely used in fire spread models. In this study, leaf fuel moisture content such as Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC, Leaf Relative Water Content (RWC, Dead Fuel Moisture Content (DFMC, and Leaf Dry Matter Content (LDMC (hereinafter known as moisture content indices (MCI were calculated in the field for different forest species at 32 sites in a temperate humid forest (Zaringol forest located in northeastern Iran. These data and several relevant vegetation-biophysical indices and atmospheric variables calculated using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ data with moderate spatial resolution (30 m were used to estimate MCI of the Zaringol forest using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR methods. The prediction of MCI using ANN showed that ETM+ predicted MCI slightly better (Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE of 6%–12% than MLR (MAPE between 8% and 17%. Once satisfactory results in estimating MCI were obtained by using ANN from ETM+ data, these data were then upscaled to estimate MCI using MODIS data for daily monitoring of leaf water and leaf dry matter content at 500 m spatial resolution. For MODIS derived LFMC, LDMC, RWC, and DLMC, the ANN produced a MAPE between 11% and 29% for the indices compared to MLR which produced an MAPE of 14%–33%. In conclusion, we suggest that upscaling is necessary for solving the scale discrepancy problems between the indicators and low spatial resolution MODIS data. The scaling up of MCI could be used for pre-fire alert system and thereby can detect fire prone areas in near real time for fire-fighting operations.

  2. feed intake of non.pregnant, pregnant and lactating ewes on native ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Die invloed v,an dragtigheid en laktasie op die vrywillige inname en verteerbaarheid von voere deur Merinoooie. M. Sc. (Land) Tesis Univ. Stellenbosch. HADJIPIERES, G. & HOLMES, W., 1966. Studies on feed intake and feed utilization by sheep. I. The voluntary feed intake of dry, pregnant and lactating ewes. J. agric Sci.

  3. Determinação da matéria seca e teores de macronutrientes em folhas de frutíferas usando diferentes métodos de secagem Determination of dry matter and macronutrient content in leaves of fruit trees using different drying methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nericlenes Chaves Marcante

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar diferentes métodos de secagem de folhas para três diferentes frutíferas (maracujá, pêssego e abacate, com relação à determinação da matéria seca e os teores foliares de macronutrientes. Foram coletadas amostras de folhas recém expandida de três culturas, do pomar da fazenda de ensino e pesquisa da FCAV-UNESP, câmpus de Jaboticabal, no mês de janeiro de 2010, coletando-se para cada cultura 12 amostras com 25 folhas cada. Os tratamentos constituíram-se por dois métodos de secagem, estufa de circulação de ar forçada regulada a uma temperatura de 70°C e o forno microondas (FMO. Avaliou-se a massa da matéria seca e os teores foliares de macronutrientes. Os resultados sugerem que os dois métodos de secagem testados se assemelham na determinação de matéria seca e nos teores foliares de macronutrientes para as culturas análisadas, exceto os teores de cálcio na cultura do pêssego.The objective of this study was to evaluate different methods of drying of leaves for three different fruit (passion fruit, peach and avocado, with respect to the determination of dry matter and foliar nutrients. Samples were collected from recently expanded leaves of three crops orchard Farm education and research FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal campus, in January 2010, by collecting 12 samples for each culture with 25 leaves. The treatments consisted of two drying methods, greenhouse circulation of air regulated to a temperature of 70°C and FMO. We evaluated the mass of dry matter and foliar nutrients. The results suggest that the two drying methods tested did not interfere in the determination of dry matter and foliar nutrients to crops analyzed, except the calcium levels in peach.

  4. Penambahan Urea atau DL-Metionina ke dalam Ransum Komplit Biomassa Ubi Jalar pada Kelinci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Khotijah

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Twenty male cross-breed weanling rabbits were used to study the effect of urea or DL-methionine addition in sweet potatoes biomass complete diets. Completely randomized design was used in this experiment with four treatments and five replications. The treatments consisted of A (comercial diet; B (sweet potatoes biomass diet; BU (B + 0.5% urea and BM (B + 0.5% DL-methionine. The dry matter intake, average daily gain (AVG, feed conversion ratio, dry matter and protein digestibility and nitrogen retention were measured in this experiment. The result showed that the treatments did not significantly affect dry matter intake and feed conversion ratio, digestibility of dry matter and protein, but supplementation of DL-methionine significantly affected average daily gain and nitrogen retention (P<0.05. It was concluded that urea or DL-methionine supplementation in sweet potatoes biomass diets could support good performance of rabbits and it could be used as an alternative source of feed for rabbits.

  5. Quantifying particulate matter deposition in Niwot Ridge, Colorado: Collection of dry deposition using marble inserts and particle imaging using the FlowCAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Natasha R.; Mladenov, Natalie; Seibold, Christine M.; Chowanski, Kurt; Seitz, Leslie; Wellemeyer, T. Barret; Williams, Mark W.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric wet and dry deposition are important sources of carbon for remote alpine lakes and soils. The carbon inputs from dry deposition in alpine National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) collectors, including aeolian dust and biological material, are not well constrained due to difficulties in retaining particulate matter in the collectors. Here, we developed and tested a marble insert for dry deposition collection at the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research Station (NWT LTER) Soddie site (3345 m) between 24 May and 8 November 2011. We conducted laboratory tests of the insert's effect on particulate matter (PM) mass and non-purgeable organic carbon (DOC) and found that the insert did not significantly change either measurement. Thus, the insert may enable dry deposition collection of PM and DOC at NADP sites. We then developed a method for enumerating the collected wet and dry deposition with the Flow Cytometer and Microscope (FlowCAM), a dynamic-image particle analysis tool. The FlowCAM has the potential to establish morphology, which affects particle settling and retention, through particle diameter and aspect ratio. Particle images were used to track the abundance of pollen grains over time. Qualitative image examination revealed that most particles were biological in nature, such as intact algal cells and pollen. Dry deposition loading to the Soddie site as determined by FlowCAM measurements was highly variable, ranging from 100 to >230 g ha-1 d-1 in June-August 2011 and peaking in late June. No significant difference in diameter or aspect ratio was found between wet and dry deposition, suggesting fundamental similarities between those deposition types. Although FlowCAM statistics and identification of particle types proved insightful, our total-particle enumeration method had a high variance and underestimated the total number of particles when compared to imaging of relatively large volumes (60-125 mL) from a single sample. We recommend use of

  6. Effects of preweaning total plane of milk intake and weaning age on intake, growth performance, and blood metabolites of dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, M; Dadkhah, N; Baghbanzadeh-Nobari, B; Agha-Tehrani, A; Eshraghi, M; Imani, M; Shiasi-Sardoabi, R; Ghaffari, M H

    2018-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preweaning total plane of milk intake and weaning age on intake, growth performance, and blood metabolites of dairy calves. A total of 48 Holstein calves (40 ± 1.6 kg of body weight) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with the factors of weaning age (d 60 vs. 75) and the total plane of milk intake (medium vs. high) during the preweaning period. Calves were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (1) calves fed medium plane of milk (MPM) intake and weaned on d 60 of age (MPM-60d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 55, and 3 L/d of milk from d 56 to 60 of age; total milk intake = 317 L), (2) calves fed MPM intake and weaned on d 75 of age (MPM-75d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10 and 4.5 L/d of milk from d 11 to 70 of age followed by feeding 2.25 L/d of milk from d 71 to 75 of age; total milk intake = 313 L), (3) calves fed high plane of milk (HPM) intake and weaned on d 60 of age (HPM-60d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 20, and 8.5 L/d of milk from d 21 to 55 followed by feeding 4.25 L/d of milk from d 56 to 60 of age; total milk intake = ∼411 L); and (4) calves fed HPM intake and weaned on d 75 (HPM-75d, 4 L/d of milk from d 3 to 10, and 6 L/d of milk from d 11 to 70 of age followed by feeding 3 L/d of milk from d 71 to 75 of age; total milk intake = 407 L) with no milk refusals. All of the calves were monitored up to d 90 of age. Regardless of weaning age, starter feed intake and dry matter intake (% of body weight) were lower in calves fed HPM compared with those receiving MPM. A tendency for the plane of milk intake × weaning age interaction was observed for metabolizable energy intake with the highest value was recorded with the HPM-75d calves. The lowest efficiency of metabolizable energy intake and average feed efficiency was observed in HPM-60d calves throughout the experimental period as compared with the other groups. An interaction was found between

  7. Strategies to gain body condition score in pasture-based dairy cows during late lactation and the far-off nonlactating period and their interaction with close-up dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Crookenden, M A; Walker, C G; Kay, J K; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Meier, S

    2017-03-01

    In pasture-based systems, cows are generally thinner at the end of lactation than cows fed total mixed rations and, as a result, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off nonlactating period is a standard management policy to achieve optimum calving body condition score (BCS). An alternative would be to manage cows to gain BCS through late lactation, such that cows ended lactation close to optimum calving BCS and maintenance of BCS through to calving. We sought to quantify the effect of moderate or excessive ME intakes during the far-off nonlactating period in cows that had been managed to gain or maintain BCS through late lactation and whether the far-off management strategy interacted with close-up level of feeding. Effects on milk production and circulating indicators of energy balance and metabolic health in early lactation were evaluated. A herd of 150 cows was randomly assigned to 1 of 2 feeding levels in late lactation to achieve a low and high BCS at the time of dry-off (approximately 4.25 and 5.0 on a 10-point scale). Following dry-off, both herds were managed to achieve a BCS of 5.0 one month before calving; this involved controlled feeding (i.e., maintenance) and over-feeding of ME during the far-off dry period. Within each far-off feeding-level treatment, cows were offered 65, 90, or 120% of their pre-calving ME requirements for 3 wk pre-calving in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (i.e., 25 cows/treatment). Body weight and BCS were measured weekly before and after calving, and milk production was measured weekly until wk 7 postcalving. Blood samples were collected weekly for 4 wk pre-calving and 5 wk postcalving, and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 relative to calving, and analyzed for indicators of energy balance (e.g., blood fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate), calcium status, and inflammatory state. No interaction was observed between far-off and close-up feeding levels. Over-feeding of ME to low BCS cows during the far-off nonlactating period

  8. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Aodong; Zhang, Bowen; Kong, Ping; Liu, Chenli; Zhao, Jie

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID) of dry matter, crude protein (CP), and amino acids (AA) of cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower seed meal (SFSM) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA) varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP) content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01). The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01). Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance.

  9. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafilzadeh, F.; Piri, V.; Karami-Shabankareh, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30) were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5). Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01) in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively). While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09). The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001). Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01) for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period. (Author)

  10. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh Kafilzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30 were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5. Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01 in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively. While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09. The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001. Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01 for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period.

  11. Pre-rigor temperature and the relationship between lamb tenderisation, free water production, bound water and dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick; Wells, Robyn; Lowe, Tim; Waller, John

    2014-01-01

    The M. longissimus from lambs electrically stimulated at 15 min post-mortem were removed after grading, wrapped in polythene film and held at 4 (n=6), 7 (n=6), 15 (n=6, n=8) and 35°C (n=6), until rigor mortis then aged at 15°C for 0, 4, 24 and 72 h post-rigor. Centrifuged free water increased exponentially, and bound water, dry matter and shear force decreased exponentially over time. Decreases in shear force and increases in free water were closely related (r(2)=0.52) and were unaffected by pre-rigor temperatures. © 2013.

  12. Effect Of Feeding Hordeum jabatum Hay Supplemented With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no differences (P>0.05) in the dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and hemicellulose intake among treatments. There were however, significant (P<0.05) differences in the digestibility of nutrients among treatments. It was concluded that dried leaves of Leucaena leucocephala ...

  13. Simulating the effects of grassland management and grass ensiling on methane emission from lactating cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannink, A.; Smits, M.C.J.; Kebreab, E.; Mills, J.A.N.; Ellis, J.L.; Klop, A.; France, J.; Dijkstra, J.

    2010-01-01

    A dynamic, mechanistic model of enteric fermentation was used to investigate the effect of type and quality of grass forage, dry matter intake (DMI) and proportion of concentrates in dietary dry matter (DM) on variation in methane (CH4) emission from enteric fermentation in dairy cows. The model

  14. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  15. Intake, digestibility and ruminal parameters of dairy cows fed pelleted diets and treated with lignosulfonate-containing sunflower seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francilaine Eloise De Marchi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate intake, in vitro and apparent digestibility and ruminal parameters of Holstein cows that were confined and fed corn silage and concentrate containing: ground sunflower seeds (GS; ground sunflower seeds treated with 5% lignosulfonate (GSL; pelleted sunflower seeds (PS; or ground and pelleted sunflower seeds treated with lignosulfonate (PSL. Four lactating cows with 130±28 days of lactation and body weights of 569±63 kg were used. These animals were distributed in a Latin square design with four diets and four periods of 21 days each. There were no differences in the intakes (% body weight of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, mineral matter (MM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF or acid detergent fiber (ADF. The apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF and NFC were similar for all the diets, with a tendency towards decreased CP digestibility for all the pelleted diets (65.79% compared with the non-pelleted diets (69.66%. A negative effect of lignosulfonate was observed for the in vitro digestibility (IVD of DM, and a negative tendency was observed for the IVD of OM. Pelleting decreased the concentration of acetic acid (55.95 × 58.82 mM in rumen fluid. There was no effect of diet on pH (6.17 or ammonia nitrogen concentration (18.19 mg/dL. Pelleting and lignosulfonate do not promote the protective effect of sunflower seed nutrients as expected, and it may be more feasible to provide ground sunflower seed.

  16. Rate of Decomposition of Organic Matter in Soil as Influenced by Repeated Air Drying-Rewetting and Repeated Additions of Organic Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1974-01-01

    Repeated air drying and rewetting of three soils followed by incubation at 20°C resulted in an increase in the rate of decomposition of a fraction of 14C labeled organic matter in the soils. The labeled organic matter originated from labeled glucose, cellulose and straw, respectively, metabolized...... of the treatment was least in the soil which had been incubated with the labeled material for the longest time. Additions of unlabeled, decomposable organic material also increased the rate of decomposition of the labeled organic matter. The evolution of labeled CO2 during the 1st month of incubation after...... addition was in some cases 4–10 times larger than the evolution from the controls. During the continued incubation the evolution decreased almost to the level of the controls, indicating that the effect was related to the increased biological activity in the soils during decomposition of the added material...

  17. Sand intake by laying hens and its effect on egg production parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meulen, J; Kwakernaak, C; Kan, C A

    2008-08-01

    Soil intake may be the most prominent source of environmental contaminants for free range and organic hens, but there are no quantitative data concerning soil intake by domestic hens. Consumption of soil of 14-32 g a day can be estimated from literature, but such a dilution of nutrient intake seems incompatible with high productivity. In this study laying hens were fed pelleted diets with 0%, 10%, 20%, 25% and 30% of sand addition to determine its effect on productivity. Feed intake, feed and nutrient (feed minus sand) conversion ratio, egg production, egg weight and body weight gain were measured over a 4-week period. Acid insoluble ash concentration in the faeces was measured to determine the accuracy of estimating the soil ingestion by the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife as a way to determine soil ingestion of free range and organic hens under practical circumstances. The hens were able to compensate the dilution of the diet with 20%, 25% and 30% of sand by increasing their feed intake. Feed intake increased significantly and feed to egg conversion ratio decreased significantly with increasing sand levels in the diet. The nutrient to egg conversion ratio of the diet without sand tended to be worse than for the diets with sand, presumably due to the total absence of coarse material in the diet. There were no differences in egg production and egg weight between hens fed the different diets but body weight gain was significantly lower for the hens fed the diets with 20%, 25% and 30% of sand. Estimation of sand ingestion was done by the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife. Provided that the actual dry matter digestibility coefficient of the nutrient part of the diet is taken into account, estimating the soil ingestion according to the soil-ingestion equation for wildlife seems an appropriate way to determine soil ingestion for free range and organic hens under practical circumstances.

  18. Effects of additive application upon ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Knežević

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The research objective was to determine the effect of the additive Sill-All application on ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance of alfalfa haylage. About 40 % alfalfa plants was ensiled at the phonological flowering stage into plastic foil-wrapped bales without or with additive (2 L t-1 plant mass. No statistically significant differences were found between alfalfa ensiled without additive and alfalfa ensiled with additive for the content of dry matter (DM (632 g and 631 g DM kg-1 fresh sample, respectively. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 921 g organic matter (OM kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (902 g OM kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled without additive contained 141 g crude proteins (CP kg-1 DM, which was significantly higher (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled with additive (139 g CP kg-1 DM. Alfalfa ensiled with additive contained significantly less acid detergent fibers (ADF (P<0.001 compared to alfalfa ensiled without additive (445 g kg-1 DM and 456 g kg-1 DM, respectively and had a lower pH value (P<0.001 (5.29 and 5.56, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found between the studied feeding treatments for ad libitum intake of fresh ration and DM ration, for the measured parameters of digestibility and N balance. It was concluded that addition of the additive to alfalfa haylage led to significant changes in chemical composition; however, changes in chemical composition had no impact on measured biological parameters (ad libitum intake, in vivo digestibility and nitrogen balance.

  19. Effects of dietary replacement of maize grain with popcorn waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of dietary replacement of maize grain with popcorn waste products on nutrient digestibility and performance by lambs. ... The diets had similar intake and nutrient digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). Lambs fed the 25 and 50% PW diets had higher intakes of crude ...

  20. The effect of gamma irradiation on the digestibility of organic matter of poultry excreta (In vitro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1993-07-01

    The changes in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter by enzyme (in vitro) for two types of the excreta of laying hens were studied. In type I, excreta were dried at 170-180 C for 10 minutes whereas in type II dried at 55-60 C for several days. Each type was divided into two parts, the first stored for 3 months with the control. The second part was irradiated by gamma irradiation at 100 KGy and stored for 3 months with the control. The results indicated that there was significant (0.05) difference in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter and the percentage of crude fibre between samples and the control for the types I and II before and after storage. The dry matter digestibility for types I and II increased by 7%, and the organic matter digestibility increased by 17% for type I and by 11% for type II before and after storage. The increase in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter is attributed to the decrease in crude fibre obtained by irradiation. The storage of excreta after drying has no effects on the rate of increase in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter due to irradiation in both types (I and II). (author). 19 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Dry matter losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in bunker silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Koehler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient feed management is important for a sustainable and economic agricultural production. One of the main points for improving the efficiency is the reduction of feed losses. In the present investigation the dry matter (DM losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in farm scaled bunker silos were analysed. The method of determining DM losses was the total-in versus total-out DM mass flow of the silos, including the determination of DM content and other silage parameters via manual sampling. The results taken from 48 silos showed on average for all investigated crops 9–12% of DM losses. Density and feed out rate showed a negative correlation to DM losses in maize silages. According to the applied method for determining DM losses on farm scale, a guideline of 8% can be suggested for maximum DM losses in bunker silos for grass and maize silages. The described method seems to be applicable for improving the feed management by using largely automated measurements on the harvest and feeding side.

  2. Effect of reducing dietary forage in lower starch diets on performance, ruminal characteristics, and nutrient digestibility in lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, E R; Tucker, H A; Dann, H M; Cotanch, K W; Mooney, C S; Lock, A L; Yagi, K; Grant, R J

    2014-09-01

    This experiment evaluated the effect of feeding a lower starch diet (21% of dry matter) with different amounts of forage (52, 47, 43, and 39% of dry matter) on lactational performance, chewing activity, ruminal fermentation and turnover, microbial N yield, and total-tract nutrient digestibility. Dietary forage consisted of a mixture of corn and haycrop silages, and as dietary forage content was reduced, chopped wheat straw (0-10% of dry matter) was added in an effort to maintain chewing activity. Dietary concentrate was adjusted (corn meal, nonforage fiber sources, and protein sources) to maintain similar amounts of starch and other carbohydrate and protein fractions among the diets. Sixteen lactating Holstein cows were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Dry matter intake increased while physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF1.18) intake was reduced as forage content decreased from 52 to 39%. However, reducing dietary forage did not influence milk yield or composition, although we observed changes in dry matter intake. Time spent chewing, eating, and ruminating (expressed as minutes per day or as minutes per kilogram of NDF intake) were not affected by reducing dietary forage. However, addition of chopped wheat straw to the diets resulted in greater time spent chewing and eating per kilogram of peNDF1.18 consumed. Reducing dietary forage from 52 to 39% did not affect ruminal pH, ruminal digesta volume and mass, ruminal pool size of NDF or starch, ruminal digesta mat consistency, or microbial N yield. Ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio was reduced, ruminal turnover rates of NDF and starch were greater, and total-tract digestibility of fiber diminished as dietary forage content decreased. Reducing the dietary forage content from 52 to 39% of dry matter, while increasing wheat straw inclusion to maintain chewing and rumen function, resulted in similar milk yield and composition although feed intake increased. With the lower starch

  3. Effects of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil supplementation on feed intake, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen utilization of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanjula, Pin; Pongprayoon, Sahutaya; Kongpan, Sirichai; Cherdthong, Anusorn

    2016-06-01

    This experiment was evaluation of the effects of increasing concentrations of crude glycerin from waste vegetable oil (CGWVO) in diets on feed intake, digestibility, ruminal fermentation characteristics, and nitrogen balance of goats. Four crossbred male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) goats, with an average initial body weight (BW) of 31.5 ± 1.90 kg, were randomly assigned according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments contained 0, 2, 4, and 6 % of dietary dry matter (DM) of CGWVO. Based on this experiment, there were significantly different (P > 0.05) among treatment groups regarding DM intake and digestion coefficients of nutrients (DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, and ADF), which goats receiving 6 % of CGWVO had lower daily DMI and nutrient intake than those fed on 0, 2, and 4 % of CGWVO. Ruminal pH, NH3-N, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration were unchanged by dietary treatments, except that for 6 % of CGWVO supplementation, NH3-N, and BUN were lower (P goats. This study was a good approach in exploiting the use of biodiesel production from waste vegetable oil for goat production.

  4. Dry matter production and chemical composition of Massai grass submitted to nitrogen rates and cutting heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Abadia Campos Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in a greenhouse with a 4X4 factorial arrangement randomized block design in order to evaluate the effects of nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg dm-3 associated with cutting heights (10, 15, 20 and 25 cm on dry matter production and the chemical composition of Massai grass. The seeding was done in pots with 11 kg of soil. 10 plants were kept per pot, and there were two cuts every 35 days. Nitrogen fertilization was split between the two cuts, where the first N application occurred after the uniformity cut and the second after the first cut. In each cut the plants were separated and weighed for botanical component evaluation: leaf blade and stem + sheath. After this, the samples were homogenized and analysed for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fibre (NDF content. In the first cut, the N fertilization caused a linear increase in DM production of 0.058 g pot-1 per each 1 mg dm-3 of N applied, as well as causing an increase of 0.549% in CP percentage, a 0.0124 pot-1 g increase in CP production and a reduction of 0.055% in NDF. In the second cut, N rates promoted a quadratic effect on DM production. A maximum DM production of 16.48 g pot-1 with 107.27 mg dm-3 of N was observed while CP production content was increased by 0.0092 g pot-1 for each 1 mg dm-3 N applied. In terms of linear responses to DM and PB, as well as the use efficiency calculated for Massai grass, recommended N doses range between 50 and 100 g dm-3.

  5. An enzyme complex increases in vitro dry matter digestibility of corn and wheat in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu Ree; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility for feed ingredients. The objective of experiment 1 was to screen feed ingredients that can be effective substrates for an enzyme complex, mainly consisted of β-pentosanase, β-glucanase and α-amylase, using in vitro digestibility methods. In experiment 1, the test ingredients were three grain sources (barley, corn and wheat) and six protein supplements (canola meal, copra expellers, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, palm kernel expellers and soybean meal). In vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM for test ingredients were determined. In vitro digestibility methods consisted of two- or three-step procedure simulating in vivo digestion in the pig gastrointestinal tracts with or without enzyme complex. As the enzyme complex added, the IVID of DM for corn and wheat increased (p digestibility, corn grains were selected to determine the in vitro digestibility of the fractions (starch, germ, hull and gluten) that maximally respond to the enzyme complex in experiment 2. The IVID of DM for corn starch, germ and hull increased (p digestibility of corn and wheat, and the digestibility increments of corn are mainly attributed to the increased digestibility of corn starch.

  6. Micronutrient Intake and the Contribution of Dietary Supplements in Hispanic Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro-Rivera, Kiara; López-Cepero, Andrea; Diaz, Beatriz; Lee, Jae Eun; Palacios, Cristina

    2018-03-04

    To calculate micronutrient adequacy among infants and toddlers and to determine the contribution of dietary supplements to this adequacy, micronutrient intake was assessed using two nonconsecutive 24-hour recalls in a sample of 296 infants aged 0-24 months. Micronutrient intake was calculated from foods and beverages and from supplements and compared between nonusers and users of supplements. Percentages of children below the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) and above the tolerable upper limit intake (UL) were also compared between groups. A total of 241 participants had complete data. The prevalence of dietary supplement use among the sample was 15%. Mean intake of all micronutrients from foods and beverages was similar between nonusers and users of supplements (p > .05) but significantly higher for the following vitamins when supplements were included: D, E, B1, B2, B3, and B6 (p supplements were included, this percentage significantly decreased among users compared to nonusers (p supplements were added. Supplements significantly increased the intake of some vitamins. Vitamins D and E had the highest percentage of children below the DRI, which was partly corrected with the use of supplements. The UL was exceeded for magnesium, zinc, and vitamin B3 in many children. It is important to understand these patterns as they may be indicative of future nutritional deficiencies and excesses.

  7. Performance and carcass yield of crossbred dairy steers fed diets with different levels of concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Gabriel Santana; Chaves Véras, Antônia Sherlanea; de Andrade Ferreira, Marcelo; Moreira Dutra, Wilson; Menezes Wanderley Neves, Maria Luciana; Oliveira Souza, Evaristo Jorge; Ramos de Carvalho, Francisco Fernando; de Lima, Dorgival Morais

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of diets with increasing concentrate levels (170, 340, 510 and 680 g/kg of total dry matter) on dry matter intake, digestibility, performance and carcass characteristics of 25 Holstein-Zebu crossbred dairy steers in a feedlot. A completely randomized design was used, and data were submitted to analysis of variance and regression. The dry matter intake and digestibility coefficients of all nutrients increased linearly. The total weight gain and average daily gain added 1.16 kg and 9.90 g, respectively, for each 10 g/kg increase in concentrate. The empty body weight, hot carcass weight and cold carcass weight responded linearly to increasing concentrate. The hot carcass yield and cold carcass yield, gains in empty body weight and carcass gain were also influenced, as were the efficiencies of carcass deposition and carcass deposition rate. It is concluded that increasing concentrate levels in feedlot diets increase the intake and digestibility of dry matter and other nutrients, improving the feed efficiency, performance and physical characteristics of the carcass. Furthermore and of importance concerning the climate change debate, evidence from the literature indicates that enteric methane production would be reduced with increasing concentrate levels such as those used.

  8. The effects of season and diet composition on the radiocaesium intake by sheep grazing on heather moorland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salt, C.A.; Mayes, R.W.; Colgrove, P.M.; Lamb, C.S.

    1994-01-01

    In north-east Scotland on a mixed heather and grassland pasture grazed by sheep, 2 x 2 m areas of Calluna vulgaris heath and Deschampsia flexuosa grassland were artificially contaminated with 134 Cs by soil injection. Estimates of the 134 Cs intake by sheep were made on the basis of measurements of dry matter intake, diet composition and 134 Cs concentrations in diet components, assuming that the whole pasture had been contaminated. It was calculated that between May and September the sheep had utilized 72% of herbage produced on the grassland and 29% of heather shoots produced on the heath. Assuming that the whole pasture had been contaminated, this was equivalent to a removal through grazing of 0.9% on the grassland and 2% on the heath of the 134 Cs injected into the soil. By taking the sheep off the pasture at the end of September approximately 0.08% of the injected 134 Cs would be removed from the site via the body tissues of the sheep. (author)

  9. Differing effects of 2 active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) strains on ruminal acidosis and methane production in nonlactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y-H; Walker, N D; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2011-05-01

    Fifteen ruminally cannulated, nonlactating Holstein cows were used to measure the effects of 2 strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, fed as active dried yeasts, on ruminal pH and fermentation and enteric methane (CH(4)) emissions. Nonlactating cows were blocked by total duration (h) that their ruminal pH was below 5.8 during a 6-d pre-experimental period. Within each block, cows were randomly assigned to control (no yeast), yeast strain 1 (Levucell SC), or yeast strain 2 (a novel strain selected for enhanced in vitro fiber degradation), with both strains (Lallemand Animal Nutrition, Montréal, QC, Canada) providing 1 × 10(10) cfu/head per day. Cows were fed once daily a total mixed ration consisting of a 50:50 forage to concentrate ratio (dry matter basis). The yeast strains were dosed via the rumen cannula daily at the time of feeding. During the 35-d experiment, ruminal pH was measured continuously for 7 d (d 22 to 28) by using an indwelling system, and CH(4) gas was measured for 4 d (d 32 to 35) using the sulfur hexafluoride tracer gas technique (with halters and yokes). Rumen contents were sampled on 2 d (d 22 and 26) at 0, 3, and 6h after feeding. Dry matter intake, body weight, and apparent total-tract digestibility of nutrients were not affected by yeast feeding. Strain 2 decreased the average daily minimum (5.35 vs. 5.65 or 5.66), mean (5.98 vs. 6.24 or 6.34), and maximum ruminal pH (6.71 vs. 6.86 or 6.86), and prolonged the time that ruminal pH was below 5.8 (7.5 vs. 3.3 or 1.0 h/d) compared with the control or strain 1, respectively. The molar percentage of acetate was lower and that of propionate was greater in the ruminal fluid of cows receiving strain 2 compared with cows receiving no yeast or strain 1. Enteric CH(4) production adjusted for intake of dry matter or gross energy, however, did not differ between either yeast strain compared with the control but it tended to be reduced by 10% when strain 2 was compared with strain 1. The study shows that

  10. Dry matter yield and Carbon partitioning in the aboveground part of switchgrass ( panicum virgatum l.) germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkutė, B.; Lemežien ė, N.; Cesevičienė, J.; Liaudanskienė, I., E-mail: brone@lzi.lt [Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr. (Lithuania)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon (C) accumulated in biomass can be converted into usable forms of energy like methane, bioethanol or solid fuel. Understanding the partitioning of aboveground biomass and C plays an important role in optimizing its pre-treatment technologies. Our objectives were to determine dry matter yield (DMY) and C partitioning in switch grass germplasm. Plants were sampled at heading (HS) and seed filling (SFS) stages. The biomass of the SFS-sampled plants was separated into leaves (blades+sheaths), stems, and panicles. C content was determined by dry combustion. C yield per plant (CY) at HS ranged from 25.9 to 171 g (37.3 g on average for plants in the first harvest year, and 147 for those in the second harvest year), at SFS CY varied within a range of 79.8 ‒ 295g and averaged 119 and 252g depending on the year of growth. DMY was a weighted factor for such results. At SFS, DMY of stems accounted on average for 46.3%, leaves for 40.5%, and panicles for 13.2% of the aboveground biomass of whole plant with respective C concentrations of 462, 439 and 459 g kg -1 DM. (author)

  11. Influência do teor de água e da digestibilidade de alimentos industrializados sobre o balanço hídrico de gatas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aulus Cavalieri Carciofi

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Dietary adjustment has been studied for the control and prevention of the Feline Lower Urinary Tract Disease. This work studied the influence of the amount of water and food digestibility on water intake and excretion (urinary and fecal. Ten adult female cats housed in metabolic cages were used. Four treatments were tested: low price dry food, low price dry food with 50% added water, super-premium dry food and canned food. Water intake with food and by drinking, fecal and urinary water excretion and food's digestibility coefficient were determined, in a Latin square experimental design with repetitions over time. The results were submitted to variance analysis; to Tukey's test to compare means and to Pearson's Correlation to test the association between variables (p<0.05. Moist food led to the highest water intake and the largest urine volume with the lowest density. The cats balanced the higher water intake with food by drinking less water. Adding 50% water to the food did not result in a higher total water intake and urine excretion. The lowest consumption of dry matter and highest food digestibility resulted in lower fecal water excretion. Dry foods with high and low digestibility had a urine:feces water excretion rate of 0.7:1 and 1.6:1, respectively. Among the nutrients, fat intake had a positive correlation with the urine volume. Foods with higher digestibility resulted in lower fecal water loss. Canned food (high water:dry matter ratio led to the highest total water intake and urinary volume excretion, and lower urinary density.

  12. Nutrient intake, digestibility and performance of Gaddi kids supplemented with tea seed or tea seed saponin extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective An experiment was conducted to determine the nutrient intake, digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, haemato-biochemical attributes, immune response and growth performance of Gaddi kids fed with oat fodder based basal diet supplemented with either tea seed or tea seed saponin (TSS extract. Methods Eighteen male kids, 7.03±0.16 months of age and 19.72±0.64 kg body weight, were distributed into three groups, T0 (control, T1, and T2, consisting of 6 animals each in a completely randomized design. The kids were fed a basal diet consisting of concentrate mixture and oat fodder (50:50. Animals in group III (T2 were supplemented with TSS at 0.4% of dry matter intake (DMI, and group II (T1 were supplemented with tea seed at 2.6% of DMI to provide equivalent dose of TSS as in T2. Two metabolism trials were conducted, 1st after 21 days and 2nd after 90 days of feeding to evaluate the short term and long term effects of supplementation. Results The tea seed (T1 or TSS (T2 supplementation did not affect DMI as well as the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fibre, and acid detergent fibre. Nutritive value of diet and plane of nutrition were also comparable for both the periods. However, the average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR were improved (p<0.05 for T1 and T2 as compared to T0. The microbial protein supply was also higher (p<0.05 for T1 and T2 for both the periods. There was no effect of supplementation on most blood parameters. However, the triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels decreased (p<0.05 and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol level increased (p<0.05 in T2 as compared with T0 and T1. Supplementation also did not affect the cell mediated and humoral immune response in goats. Conclusion Tea seed at 2.6% of DMI and TSS at 0.4% DMI can be fed to Gaddi goats to improve growth rate, FCR and microbial protein synthesis.

  13. Gray matter alterations and correlation of nutritional intake with the gray matter volume in prediabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The neurophysiology of prediabetes plays an important role in preventive medicine. The dysregulation of glucose metabolism is likely linked to changes in neuron-related gray matter. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate gray matter alterations in medication-naive prediabetic patients. We expected to find alterations in the gray matter of prediabetic patients. A total of 64 prediabetic patients and 54 controls were enrolled. All subjects received T1 scans using a 3-T magnet...

  14. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID of dry matter, crude protein (CP, and amino acids (AA of cottonseed meal (CSM, sunflower seed meal (SFSM and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01. The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01. Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance.

  15. SODIUM BICARBONATE AND YEAST AS DIET ADDITIVES FOR CROSSBRED DAIRY COWS BICARBONATO DE SÓDIO E LEVEDURAS COMO ADITIVOS DE DIETAS PARA VACAS LEITEIRAS MESTIÇAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Rodrigues de Carvalho

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective in Experiment 1 was to evaluate the effect of the pH rise in sorghum silage through adding NaHCO3 on the milk yield and composition of crossbred primiparous cows (½ Holandesa ½ Jersey. The Experiment lasted 30 days divided in two periods of 15 days. The two treatments were sorghum silage plus 1.3% NaHCO3 (dry matter basis and sorghum silage without additive. The experimental design was completely randomized in a single crossing-over scheme. Twelve lactating cows were assigned in two groups of six animals each, with average production of 15.7 liters/day ± 2.4 and 122 days ± 60 days in milking. The milk yield and composition were evaluated from the 13th to 15th days of each experimental period in four consecutive milkings. The objective in Experiment 2 was to study the addition of 2.2% NaHCO3 (dry matter basis, or yeast (20 g/cow/day or 0.2% dry matter basis or the association of both in the same diet (sorghum silage + concentrates offered to rumen cannulated dry cows. The following parameters were evaluated: dry matter intake, organic matter intake, NDF intake, dry matter in situ degradability, NDF in situ degradability (both at 30 hours, rumen pH, ruminal digesta dry matter, organic matter and NDF disappearance (Kd, ruminal digesta dry matter, organic matter and NDF turnover (Kt and solid, liquid and total ruminal digesta. The Experiment lasted 56 days divided in four periods of 14 days. The treatments were the following: T1 = sorghum silage + concentrates; T2 = sorghum silage + concentrates + NaHCO3 (2.2% dry matter basis, T3 = sorghum silage + concentrates + yeast (20 g/cow/day or 0.2% dry matter basis and T4 = sorghum silage + concentrates + NaHCO3 (2.2% dry matter basis + yeast (20 g/cow/day or 0.2% dry matter basis. The experimental design was a 4x4 Latin Square and four crossbred rumen cannulated dry cows were utilized. In Experiment 1, there was no difference (P>0.05 on the milk yield, 3.5% fat corrected milk yield, milk

  16. Intake and digestibility of diets containing castor bean meal detoxified to finish of sheep Consumo e digestibilidade de dietas contendo farelo de mamona destoxificado para ovinos em terminação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcônio Martins Rodrigues

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of including detoxified castor bean meal to substitute soy bean meal was evaluated to sheep finishing diets on intake, digestibility and energy value of the diets. A positive linear effect was verified for ether extract intake and acid detergent fiber with an intake raise of 0.015 g/BW0.75 in ether extract and 0.090 g/BW0.75 in acid detergent fiber per each unit percentage of detoxified castor bean meal added to the diet. There was maximun value in hemicellulose intake when included 39.55% of detoxified castor bean meal to the diet. Negative linear effect was verified for dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, total carbohydrates digestibility, respectively, with 0.0536, 0.0507, 0.0705 and 0.0572% decreases per unit percentage of detoxified castor bean meal added. Positive quadratic effect was verified for neutral detergent fiber and hemicellulose digestibility with 54.93 and 64.53% maximum in levels of the 38.6 and 31.4, respectively. Detoxified castor bean meal inclusion does not influence dry matter and nutrients intake, attending these animal class nutritional requirements. Including detoxified castor bean meal decreases dry mater, organic matter, crude protein, total carbohydrates digestibility, being in this situation recommended the inclusion of to 33% in the diet by allowing high neutral detergent fiber and hemicellulose digestibility. Despite these effects, the energy value of the diets is not influenced by the inclusion of detoxified castor bean meal.Avaliou-se a substituição do farelo de soja pelo farelo de mamona destoxificado em dietas para ovinos em terminação. O consumo de extrato etéreo e fibra em detergente ácido foi linear positivo, com aumento de 0,015 e 0,090g/UTM por unidade percentual de inclusão de farelo de mamona destoxificado, respectivamente. O consumo máximo de hemicelulose ocorreu para dietas que continham 39,55% de farelo de mamona destoxificado. A digestibilidade da matéria seca, mat

  17. Effect of feeding a high-carbohydrate or a high-fat diet on subsequent food intake and blood concentration of satiety-related hormones in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauf, S; Salas-Mani, A; Torre, C; Jimenez, E; Latorre, M A; Castrillo, C

    2018-02-01

    Although studies in rodents and humans have evidenced a weaker effect of fat in comparison to carbohydrates on the suppression of food intake, very few studies have been carried out in this field in dogs. This study investigates the effects of a high-carbohydrate (HC) and a high-fat (HF) diets on subsequent food intake and blood satiety-related hormones in dogs. Diets differed mainly in their starch (442 vs. 271 g/kg dry matter) and fat (99.3 vs. 214 g/kg dry matter) contents. Twelve Beagle dogs received the experimental diets at maintenance energy requirements in two experimental periods, following a cross-over arrangement. In week 7 of each period, blood concentrations of active ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide (GLP-1), peptide YY, insulin, and glucose were determined before and at 30, 60, 120, 180, and 360 min post-feeding. The following week, intake of a challenge food offered 180 min after the HC and HF diets was recorded over two days. In comparison to the dogs on the HC diet, those on the HF diet had a higher basal concentration of GLP-1 (p = .010) and a higher total area under the curve over 180 min post-prandial (tAUC 0-180 ) (p = .031). Dogs on the HC diet showed a higher elevation of ghrelin at 180 min (p = .033) and of insulin at 360 min (p = .041), although ghrelin and insulin tAUC 0-180 did not differ between the two diets (p ˃ .10). Diet had no effect on challenge food intake (p ˃ .10), which correlated with the tAUC 0-180 of ghrelin (r = .514, p = .010), insulin (r = -.595, p = .002), and glucose (r = -.516, p = .010). Feeding a diet high in carbohydrate or fat at these inclusion levels does not affect the feeding response at 180 min post-prandial, suggesting a similar short-term satiating capacity. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  18. The Influence of Seasonal Frugivory on Nutrient and Energy Intake in Wild Western Gorillas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masi, Shelly; Mundry, Roger; Ortmann, Sylvia; Cipolletta, Chloé; Boitani, Luigi; Robbins, Martha M

    2015-01-01

    The daily energy requirements of animals are determined by a combination of physical and physiological factors, but food availability may challenge the capacity to meet nutritional needs. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are an interesting model for investigating this topic because they are folivore-frugivores that adjust their diet and activities to seasonal variation in fruit availability. Observations of one habituated group of western gorillas in Bai-Hokou, Central African Republic (December 2004-December 2005) were used to examine seasonal variation in diet quality and nutritional intake. We tested if during the high fruit season the food consumed by western gorillas was higher in quality (higher in energy, sugar, fat but lower in fibre and antifeedants) than during the low fruit season. Food consumed during the high fruit season was higher in digestible energy, but not any other macronutrients. Second, we investigated whether the gorillas increased their daily intake of carbohydrates, metabolizable energy (KCal/g OM), or other nutrients during the high fruit season. Intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and the majority of minerals and phenols decreased with increased frugivory and there was some indication of seasonal variation in intake of energy (KCal/g OM), tannins, protein/fiber ratio, and iron. Intake of non-structural carbohydrates and sugars was not influenced by fruit availability. Gorillas are probably able to extract large quantities of energy via fermentation since they rely on proteinaceous leaves during the low fruit season. Macronutrients and micronutrients, but not digestible energy, may be limited for them during times of low fruit availability because they are hind-gut fermenters. We discuss the advantages of seasonal frugivores having large dietary breath and flexibility, significant characteristics to consider in the conservation strategies of endangered species.

  19. The Influence of Seasonal Frugivory on Nutrient and Energy Intake in Wild Western Gorillas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelly Masi

    Full Text Available The daily energy requirements of animals are determined by a combination of physical and physiological factors, but food availability may challenge the capacity to meet nutritional needs. Western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla are an interesting model for investigating this topic because they are folivore-frugivores that adjust their diet and activities to seasonal variation in fruit availability. Observations of one habituated group of western gorillas in Bai-Hokou, Central African Republic (December 2004-December 2005 were used to examine seasonal variation in diet quality and nutritional intake. We tested if during the high fruit season the food consumed by western gorillas was higher in quality (higher in energy, sugar, fat but lower in fibre and antifeedants than during the low fruit season. Food consumed during the high fruit season was higher in digestible energy, but not any other macronutrients. Second, we investigated whether the gorillas increased their daily intake of carbohydrates, metabolizable energy (KCal/g OM, or other nutrients during the high fruit season. Intake of dry matter, fibers, fat, protein and the majority of minerals and phenols decreased with increased frugivory and there was some indication of seasonal variation in intake of energy (KCal/g OM, tannins, protein/fiber ratio, and iron. Intake of non-structural carbohydrates and sugars was not influenced by fruit availability. Gorillas are probably able to extract large quantities of energy via fermentation since they rely on proteinaceous leaves during the low fruit season. Macronutrients and micronutrients, but not digestible energy, may be limited for them during times of low fruit availability because they are hind-gut fermenters. We discuss the advantages of seasonal frugivores having large dietary breath and flexibility, significant characteristics to consider in the conservation strategies of endangered species.

  20. Seasonal Variations in Voluntary Intake and Apparent Digestibility of Forages in Goats Grazing on Introduced Pasture

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    Zewei Sun

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutrient composition of pasture, voluntary intake and digestibility of diet ingested by goats grazing on an introduced Leymus chinensis pasture were measured across spring (May, summer (July, autumn (October and winter (March. In each season, 12 Inner Mongolian Cashmere goats (6 wethers and 6 does with an average live weight of 22.2±1.3 kg and 19.5±0.8 kg, respectively were used to graze on a 2 hectares size paddock. Diet selection was observed and the plant parts selected by grazing goats and whole plant L. chinensis were sampled simultaneously. The alkane pair C32:C33 and C36 were used to estimate intake and digestibility, respectively. The results showed that the plant parts selected by goats had higher crude protein (CP and lower acid detergent fiber (ADF and neutral detergent fiber (NDF than the whole plant, especially in the autumn and winter. The voluntary intake of dry matter (DM, CP, ADF, NDF, and metabolizable energy (ME by goats was highest in summer (p<0.05. The goats ingested more CP, ME, and less ADF in spring than in autumn (p<0.05. The intakes of DM, CP, and ME were lowest in winter (p<0.05. There were significant differences in nutrient intake between wethers and does in each season, except for the ADF and ME intake per metabolic weight (LW0.75. The nutrient digestibilities were higher in spring and summer, and decreased significantly during the autumn and winter (p<0.05. Goats, especially wethers, had a relative constant NDF digestibility across seasons, however, the apparent digestibility of CP in both wethers and does, decreased to negative values in winter. The grazing goats experienced relatively sufficient nutrients supply in spring and summer, and a severe deficiency of CP and ME in winter.

  1. Silage review: Factors affecting dry matter and quality losses in silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E; Schmidt, R J; Holmes, B J; Muck, R E

    2018-05-01

    An overview was made of dry matter (DM) and quality losses that occur during the ensiling process from the field through the feeding phase. The aim was to review the relevant published literature of the last 15 yr focusing on developments achieved after the publication of the book Silage Science and Technology. This review discusses the factors affecting DM and quality losses in terms of field and pre-ensiling conditions, respiration and temperature at ensiling, fermentation patterns, methods of covering and weighting the silage cover, and management of aerobic deterioration. The possibility of reducing DM and quality losses during the ensiling process requires knowledge of how to measure losses on farm and establish the status of the silage during the feed-out phase, implementing the most effective management practices to avoid air exposure during conservation and reduce silage aerobic deterioration during feeding. The paper concludes with future perspectives and recommended management practices to reduce losses and increase efficiency over the whole ensiling process in view of increasing sustainability of the livestock production chain. The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  2. Substituição da silagem de milho pela silagem de rama de mandioca na alimentação de vacas leiteiras: consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.990 Replacing corn silage with cassava foliage silage as feed for dairy cattle: intake and nutrient digestibility - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v29i4.990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio César Damasceno

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do experimento foi estudar os efeitos da substituição da silagem de milho (SML pela silagem do terço superior da rama de mandioca (SRM no consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes de vacas em lactação. Doze vacas em lactação foram alocadas em um delineamento em blocos casualizados. Os níveis de substituição da SML pela SRM foram 0, 20, 40 e 60%. Os parâmetros analisados foram: consumo de matéria seca (CMS, matéria orgânica (CMO, fibra em detergente neutro (CFDN, fibra em detergente neutro indigestível (CFDNi, digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (DAMS, matéria orgânica (DAMO, proteína bruta (DAPB, fibra detergente neutro (DAFDN, carboidratos totais (DACT, carboidratos não fibrosos (DACNF. Foi observado que o nível de substituição da SML pela SRM não teve efeito significativo para a maioria das variáveis avaliadas (p > 0,05. No entanto, a DAPB (p The objective of the experiment was to study the effects of replacing corn silage (CS with cassava foliage silage (CFS – using the upper third of the foliage – on intake and nutrient digestibility. Twelve lactating dairy cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluated intake and digestibility. The levels of replacement of CS with CFS were 0, 20, 40 and 60%. The parameters studied were: dry matter intake (DMI, organic matter intake (OMI, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI, indigestible neutral detergent fiber intake (INDFI, apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM, apparent digestibility of organic matter (ADOM, apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP, apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF, apparent digestibility of total carbohydrates (ADTC and apparent digestibility of non-fiber carbohydrates (ADNFC. The replacement of CS with different levels of the upper third of cassava foliage silage (CFS had no effect in practically any of evaluated variables (p > 0.05. However, ADCP (p < 0.01 decreased as the levels of replacement

  3. Effect of Varieties and Plant Population Densities on Dry Matter Production, Radiation Interception and Radiation Energy Conversion in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    agus suprapto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The solar radiation is one of the major criteria to obtaining advantages on peanuts (Arachishypogaea L.. Although various combinations of crops have been reported, but variety association and plant population densities (PPD during the periodically stage of growth on peanuts have yet to be analyzed. Dry matter production (DM, radiation energy interception, and radiation energy conversions were monitored over the growth period of two varieties of peanut. An experiment was conducted in Jambegede Research Farm, Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute, Malang, East Java, Indonesia, from July until October 2011. The experiment was arranged in a Split Plot Design with three replications. Peanut varieties, as the main plot consisted of two treatments: Kelinci andKancil variety. In addition, five PPD variations as sub plot consisted of 8.1, 11.1, 16.0, 25.0 and 44.4 plant m-2 were arranged in a square spacing. The results showed that DM production from high PPD increased gradually to lower PPD in all varieties. Interception efficiency (IE increased in all varieties from early sowing. A plant population density of 25.0 m-2 and 44.4 plants m-2 intercepted more radiation over 11.1 or 16.0 plants m-2. Conversion efficiency of radiation energy (CE to total dry matter production on Kelinci variety (1.52% indicated a slight higher percentage than on Kancil variety (1.41%. Moreover, the CE and IE values indicated a decrease as the PPD increased on maximum DM.

  4. Dry matter yield, chemical composition and estimated extractable protein of legume and grass species during the spring growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solati, Zeinab; Jørgensen, Uffe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrate and Protein System across six harvests during the spring growth. RESULTS The estimated extractable protein [g kg−1 dry matter (DM)] defined as the easily available fractions B1+B2 was significantly higher in white clover and lucerne at all harvests while, if the more cell wall attached fraction B3...... for protein production purpose in a biorefinery due to its high extractable protein content per kg DM. In order to maximise the protein production capacity, harvest should take place during early growth due to a decline in protein extractability with maturity. The final economy of the concept will depend...

  5. White clover fractions as protein source for monogastrics - Dry matter digestibility and Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stødkilde, Lene; Damborg, Vinni K; Jørgensen, Henry

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to evaluate white clover as an alternative protein source for monogastrics. White clover plant and leaves were processed using a screw-press resulting in a solid pulp and a juice from which protein was acid-precipitated. The chemical composition of all fractions...... was determined and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and protein was assessed in an experiment with growing rats. RESULTS: Protein concentrates were produced with crude protein (CP) content of 451 g/kg DM and 530 g/kg DM for white clover plant and leaves, respectively and a pulp with CP content of 313 and 374 g...

  6. Effect of feeding cassava bioethanol waste on nutrient intake, digestibility, and rumen fermentation in growing goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdthong, Anusorn; Pornjantuek, Boonserm; Wachirapakorn, Chalong

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various levels of cassava bioethanol waste (CBW) on nutrient intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolites in growing goats. Twelve crossbred, male (Thai Native × Anglo Nubian) growing goats with initial body weight (BW) of 20±3 kg were randomly assigned according to a completely randomized design (CRD). The dietary treatments were total mixed ration (TMR) containing various levels of CBW at 0, 10, and 20 % dry matter (DM). CBW contained crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), and acid detergent lignin (ADL) at 11, 69, 47, and 23 % DM, respectively. The TMR diets were offered ad libitum and contained CP at 15 % DM. Inclusion of CBW at 10 % DM in TMR did not alter feed intake (g DM and g/kg BW(0.75)) and CP intake when compared to the control fed group (0 % CBW). Total OM intake was lower in the 20 % CBW group than in the others (P  0.05) whereas when 20 % CBW was incorporated to diet, intermediate digestibility coefficients were decreased. Average ruminal pH values ranged from 6-7. Rumen NH3-N and PUN concentration at 0, 3, and 6 h post-feeding were not significantly different among treatments (P > 0.05). Thus, inclusion of 10 % CBW in TMR diets does not adversely affect nutrient intake, digestibility, rumen fermentation, and blood metabolite in fattening goats, and CBW may be effectively used as an alternative roughage source in the diets of goats.

  7. Type of corn and grinding degree in a concentrate supplied to suckling calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Santos Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to assess the effects of a concentrate consisting of two types of corn: flint and dent, with three different grinding degrees (1, 3 and 5 mm, as a function of intake, performance and digestibility of three crossbred dairy suckling heifers. A randomized block design involving 54 crossbred heifers in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement was used to assess intake and performance patterns. In order to assess digestibility, the experimental design was completely randomized, consisting of 24 crossbred heifers. Weighting and measurements of height at withers and thoracic perimeter were performed. There was no significant interaction between grinding degree and corn type for any of the studied variables. The daily intake of concentrate dry matter was higher for flint corn (243 g/day as compared with dent corn (160 g/day. The grinding degree caused difference in the dry matter, crude protein and ether extract intake, with higher intake when 3 and 5 mm sieves were used in the process. There was no difference regarding average daily gain and increased withers, croup and thoracic perimeter. Likewise, feed conversion did not differ. Regarding dry matter digestibility, there was an effect resulting from the hardness of corn (78.9% for dent, and 84.3% and for flint corn. As for the grinding degree, the highest value of dry matter digestibility was found when using 5 mm sieves (84.2%, whereas the percentage values found for 1 mm and 3 mm mesh sieves were 79.1% and 78.1%, respectively. It is recommended that heifer calves in the early stage of growth be fed flint corn ground through 3 or 5 mm mesh sieves.

  8. Relationship between residual feed intake and daily methane emission in young Nellore bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Melo Caliman

    2012-12-01

    20.2 gCH4/day, respectively. RFI32 class had significant effect (p=0.02 in CH4 daily emission. More efficient animals (low RFI32 emitted almost 12% less CH4 (g/day than less efficient animals (high RFI32, with average CH4 daily emissions of 144.0±6.1 g/day and 163.0±4.9 g/day. This fact could be explained by the difference (p<0.01 of 12.5% less daily dry matter intake of animals classified as low RFI32 (7.099 ± 0.167 kg/day from animals classified as high RFI32 (8.120 ± 0.141 kg/day. Although this difference in dry matter intake, there were no differences between the animals of both classes in average daily gain (p=0.73 and metabolic body weight (p=0.61 obtained during the 32 days. These results are consistent with those reported for Bos taurus and indicate the selection of beef cattle based on RFI can be an effective way of reducing the CH4 daily emission without affecting meat production. Thus, the selection of low RFI cattle may contribute to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from cattle without affecting production. However, studies on genetic parameters for RFI and CH4 daily emission are necessary to strongly recommend the use of RFI in Nelore breeding programs to mitigate greenhouse gas emission.

  9. Natural radionuclides in Syrian diet and their daily intake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.S.; Mukallati, H.; Al-Hamwi, A.; Khalili, H.; Hassan, M.; Assaf, H.; Amin, Y.; Nashawati, A.

    2004-01-01

    More than one hundred different food stuffs (meat, vegetables cereals, seafood,..) have been collected during 1998, 1999 and 2000 and analyzed for radioactivity as part of the National Food Monitoring Program in Syria. Results have shown that most of the observed concentrations were within the range of the worldwide values with the exception of relatively high levels of 210 Po being observed in fish, vegetables, mushrooms, herbs and flowers. The daily intakes of the radionuclides studied have been evaluated. Relatively high values, in comparison with some countries, were found for 210 Po (1.9 Bq/day). This is due to high content of 210 Po in wheat (2.3 Bq/kg) consumed by Syrians, the daily consumption of wheat by Syrians is about 526 g. In addition, natural and artificial radionuclides in some manufactured food of Syrian infant and their intake rates have been determined. Seventeen manufactured food and eleven types of canned milk were collected from the local market and their radioactivity analyzed. 210 Po activity concentration varied between 0.38 and 2.89 Bq/kg dry wt. in canned milk while the highest concentration in infant food was found to be 1.69 Bq/kg dry wt. Other radionuclide concentrations were below the limit of detection of 3 Bq/kg dry wt. and 4 Bq/kg dry wt. for 22' 6Ra and 228 Ra, respectively, while uranium concentration varied between 2.2 and 10.5 μg/kg dry wt. in milk samples and 0.78-6.0 μg/kg dry wt. in other food samples. (author)

  10. The importance of ingestion rates for estimating food quality and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schülke, Oliver; Chalise, Mukesh K; Koenig, Andreas

    2006-10-01

    Testing ecological or socioecological models in primatology often requires estimates of individual energy intake. It is a well established fact that the nutrient content (and hence the energy content) of primate food items is highly variable. The second variable in determining primate energy intake, i.e., the ingestion rate, has often been ignored, and few studies have attempted to estimate the relative importance of the two predictors. In the present study individual ingestion rates were measured in two ecologically very different populations of Hanuman langurs (Semnopithecus entellus) at Jodhpur, India, and Ramnagar, Nepal. Protein and soluble sugar concentrations in 50 and 100 food items. respectively, were measured using standardized methods. Variation in ingestion rates (gram of dry matter per minute) was markedly greater among food items than among langur individuals in both populations, but did not differ systematically among food item categories defined according to plant part and age. General linear models (GLMs) with ingestion rate, protein, and soluble sugar content explained 40-80% of the variation in energy intake rates (kJ/min). The relative importance of ingestion rates was either similar (Ramnagar) or much greater (Jodhpur) than the role of sugar and/or protein content in determining the energy intake rates of different items. These results may impact socioecological studies of variation in individual energy budgets, investigations of food choice in relation to chemical composition or sensory characteristics, and research into habitat preferences that measures habitat quality in terms of abundance of important food sources. We suggest a definition of food quality that includes not only the amount of valuable food contents (energy, vitamins, and minerals) and the digestibility of different foods, but also the rate at which the food can be harvested and processed. Such an extended definition seems necessary because time may constrain primates when

  11. Urea levels in multiple supplement for lambs grazing on buffelgrass - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.7829 Urea levels in multiple supplement for lambs grazing on buffelgrass - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.7829

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Leal Teixeira de Oliveira

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of present trial was to evaluate the intake of supplement dry matter, productive performance, carcass traits, and weight and yields of commercial meat cuts of lambs grazing on dormant buffelgrass pastures and receiving multiple supplementation containing different urea levels. Urea levels used were: 5, 8, 11 and 14% on dry matter. Thirty-six male lambs were used, nine animals per treatment, with 18.0 ± 2.0 kg initial body weight, distributed into four groups. The experimental design was completely randomized with nine replications. Urea levels in supplement did not influence productive performance, cold and hot carcass weight and yield and commercial meat cuts weight and yield (leg, shoulder, rib and brisket. Use of multiple supplements containing 11 and 14% of urea levels for lambs in dormant grazing pastures during the dry season may increase bioeconomic performance of this activity, as they promoted lower supplement intake and similar productive performance.The objective of present trial was to evaluate the intake of supplement dry matter, productive performance, carcass traits, and weight and yields of commercial meat cuts of lambs grazing on dormant buffelgrass pastures and receiving multiple supplementation containing different urea levels. Urea levels used were: 5, 8, 11 and 14% on dry matter. Thirty-six male lambs were used, nine animals per treatment, with 18.0 ± 2.0 kg initial body weight, distributed into four groups. The experimental design was completely randomized with nine replications. Urea levels in supplement did not influence productive performance, cold and hot carcass weight and yield and commercial meat cuts weight and yield (leg, shoulder, rib and brisket. Use of multiple supplements containing 11 and 14% of urea levels for lambs in dormant grazing pastures during the dry season may increase bioeconomic performance of this activity, as they promoted lower supplement intake and similar productive performance.

  12. Dietary intake in the dependent elderly: evaluation of the risk of nutritional deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Barrés, S; Martín, N; Canela, T; García-Barco, M; Basora, J; Arija, V

    2016-04-01

    Malnutrition is a frequent problem in elderly dependent patients and their prognosis is adversely affected. Assessment of food consumption and adequacy of energy and nutrient intake of dependent elderly is needed to plan any selected actions for this population. The study comprised a multicentre cross-sectional study of 190 users (≥65 years) of a home care programme provided by primary care centers in Tarragona (Spain), at nutritional risk (Mini Nutritional Assessment: 17-23.5 points). Food consumption was assessed using a semiquantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Energy intake was compared with the Spanish dietary reference intake (DRI) and nutritional intakes with the DRI of the American Institute of Medicine. Mean (SD) age was 85.0 (7.2) years (67.5% female). The food items consumed were varied but lower than the recommended portions for cereals, fruits, vegetables and legumes. Energy intake was 7454.2 (1553.9 kJ day(-1)) [1781.6 (371.4) kcal day(-1)] (97.7% of recommended dietary allowance; RDA) and protein intake was 1.0 (0.4) g kg(-1) of weight (121.4% of RDA). Proteins provided 13.3%, carbohydrates provided 39.9% and fats provided 45.8% of energy intake. The intakes of calcium, vitamin D, vitamin E and folates were less than two-thirds of the RDA and their probability of inadequate intake was >85%. Dietary intakes of elderly dependent patients at nutritional risk were well balanced. In general, energy and protein intakes meet the recommendations. The diet was high in energy density, low in complex carbohydrates, high in simple carbohydrates and excessive in fats. The dependent elderly had inadequate intake of micronutrients often related to fragility, such as calcium, vitamin D, vitamin E and folates. © 2015 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  13. Flemingia macrophylla in goat feeding

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    Isabel das Neves Oiticica

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe objective of this work was to evaluate the inclusion of Fabaceae Flemingia macrophylla (Willd. Kuntze ex Merr. in the diet of lactating dairy goats arranged in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The diets were composed of 40% of concentrate and 60% of roughage, and the dietary treatments were defined by the level of Flemingia hay inclusion (0%, 8%, 16%, 24%, and 32% in the diet dry matter replacing Cynodon dactyloncv. Tifton 85 hay. The diets were isonitrogenous, with 14% crude protein. Feed intake, nutrient digestibility, feeding behavior, and ruminal pH and ammonia nitrogen were evaluated. There was no difference in dry matter intake with the inclusion of Flemingia hay in the diet. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, and total carbohydrates decreased with the inclusion of Flemingia in the diet. The diet did not change rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration or ruminal pH. There were no differences in the feeding behavior or feed and rumination efficiencies. Flemingia macrophylla can be used up to the level of 32% in the dry matter in diets for lactating goats.

  14. Consumption, nutrient digestibility and lactation performance of dairy cows fed soybeans in different forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria de Vasconcelos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Twelve Holstein cows were given diets containing soybean supplied in different ways in order to identify possible changes in lactation performance and evaluate the economic feasibility of the diets. The diets included: soybean meal only (SM-control; raw soybean (RaS; roasted soybean (RoS and soybean meal plus 5% urea (SMU. The forage consisted of corn silage. We analyzed the dry matter intake, milk production and collected milk samples. To estimate digestibility, we collected six samples of feces over a period of six consecutive days. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC did not differ among treatments. On the other hand, crude protein (CP intake was influenced by the diets, and the highest mean values of ether extract (EE were found with the RaS and RoS diets. The intake of total digestible nutrients (TDN was lower in the RaS and RoS diets compared to the control diet. DM, OM, CP, EE, and NDF digestibility were not affected by the different diets, while NFCs were reduced in the RoS diet and TDN decreased with both the RaS and RoS diets. There were also no differences observed across diets for total milk production, production corrected to 3.5% fat, diet efficiency, or milk per kilogram of dry matter and/or crude protein. We conclude that raw and roasted soybeans as well as concentrate plus 5% urea in dry matter may be used instead of soybean meal as feed for high-producing cows, without affecting milk production and composition. We also observed that the SMU diet was the least costly.

  15. Hydro-Priming and Re-Drying Effects on Germination, Emergence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrated seeds can be re-dried for four hours without loss of physiological ..... nature of the variety as it displays heterosis, the ... characters and hence dry matter production and yield. .... effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in melon.

  16. Evaluation of palm kernel meal as a major source of energy and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Average daily gains (119-136g/day), dry matter intake (855.897g/day), feed efficiency (6.59-7.19) dry matter digestibility (70.56-77.23%) were not significantly affected by the treatments. However, crude protein digestibility (69.39-76.32%) was significantly (P< 0.01) affected by the treatment, with treatment 4 giving the ...

  17. Optical crop sensor for variable-rate nitrogen fertilization in corn: i - plant nutrition and dry matter production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardes Bragagnolo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variable-rate nitrogen fertilization (VRF based on optical spectrometry sensors of crops is a technological innovation capable of improving the nutrient use efficiency (NUE and mitigate environmental impacts. However, studies addressing fertilization based on crop sensors are still scarce in Brazilian agriculture. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of an optical crop sensor to assess the nutritional status of corn and compare VRF with the standard strategy of traditional single-rate N fertilization (TSF used by farmers. With this purpose, three experiments were conducted at different locations in Southern Brazil, in the growing seasons 2008/09 and 2010/11. The following crop properties were evaluated: above-ground dry matter production, nitrogen (N content, N uptake, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD reading, and a vegetation index measured by the optical sensor N-Sensor® ALS. The plants were evaluated in the stages V4, V6, V8, V10, V12 and at corn flowering. The experiments had a completely randomized design at three different sites that were analyzed separately. The vegetation index was directly related to above-ground dry matter production (R² = 0.91; p<0.0001, total N uptake (R² = 0.87; p<0.0001 and SPAD reading (R² = 0.63; p<0.0001 and inversely related to plant N content (R² = 0.53; p<0.0001. The efficiency of VRF for plant nutrition was influenced by the specific climatic conditions of each site. Therefore, the efficiency of the VRF strategy was similar to that of the standard farmer fertilizer strategy at sites 1 and 2. However, at site 3 where the climatic conditions were favorable for corn growth, the use of optical sensors to determine VRF resulted in a 12 % increase in N plant uptake in relation to the standard fertilization, indicating the potential of this technology to improve NUE.

  18. Different measures of energetic efficiency and their phenotypic relationships with growth, feed intake, and ultrasound and carcass merit in hybrid cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkrumah, J D; Basarab, J A; Price, M A; Okine, E K; Ammoura, A; Guercio, S; Hansen, C; Li, C; Benkel, B; Murdoch, B; Moore, S S

    2004-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) has been proposed as an index for determining beef cattle energetic efficiency. Although the relationship of RFI with feed conversion ratio (FCR) is well established, little is known about how RFI compares to other measures of efficiency. This study examined the phenotypic relationships among different measures of energetic efficiency with growth, feed intake, and ultrasound and carcass merit of hybrid cattle (n = 150). Dry matter intake, ME intake (MEI), ADG, metabolic weight (MWT), and FCR during the test averaged 10.29 kg/d (SD = 1.62), 1,185.45 kJ/(kg0.75 x d) (SD = 114.69), 1.42 kg/d (SD = 0.25), 86.67 kg0.75 (SD = 10.21), and 7.27 kg of DM/kg of gain (SD = 1.00), respectively. Residual feed intake averaged 0.00 kg/d and ranged from -2.25 kg/d (most efficient) to 2.61 kg/d (least efficient). Dry matter intake (r = 0.75), MEI (r = 0.83), and FCR (r = 0.62) were correlated with RFI (P 0.5 SD) RFI vs. those with medium (+/-0.5 SD) or low (<0.5 SD) RFI (P < 0.001). Partial efficiency of growth (PEG; energetic efficiency for ADG) was correlated with RFI (r = -0.89, P < 0.001) and was lower (P < 0.001) for high- vs. medium- or low-RFI animals. However, RFI was not related to ADG (r = -0.03), MWT (r = -0.02), relative growth rate (RGR; growth relative to instantaneous body size; r = -0.04), or Kleiber ratio (KR; ADG per unit of MWT; r = -0.004). Also, DMI was correlated (P < 0.01) with ADG (r = 0.66), MWT (r = 0.49), FCR (r = 0.49), PEG (r = -0.52), RGR (r = 0.18), and KR (r = 0.36). Additionally, FCR was correlated (P < 0.001) with ADG (r = -0.63), PEG (r = -0.83), RGR (r = -0.75), and KR (r = -0.73), but not with MWT (r = 0.07). Correlations of measures of efficiency with ultrasound or carcass traits generally were not different from zero except for correlations of RFI, FCR, and PEG, respectively, with backfat gain (r = 0.30, 0.20, and -0.30), ultrasound backfat (r = 0.19, 0.21, and -0.25), grade fat (r = 0.25, 0.19, and -0.27), lean meat

  19. Dry matter yield and nitrogen-15 uptake by tomatoes under sodium chloride stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessarakli, M.; Tucker, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    An absorption study was conducted in nutrient solution with seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill; cv. Columbia) to observe the effects of NaCl on ( 15 N) uptake and distribution in plant roots and shoots. The 14-d-old seedlings were grown for 16 d in complete Hoagland solution no. 1, then salinized (except the controls, -0.03 MPa) to -0.3, -0.6, and -0.9 MPa osmotic potentials with NaCl. Nutrient solutions were sampled daily for N loss after addition of 15 NH 4 15 NO 3 to the pots. The cumulative 15 N loss was considered to be absorbed by plants. Lowering the osmotic potential of the culture solution decreased total N uptake at all salinity levels, and 15 N uptake of the plants at medium and high salinity levels. A low level of salinity did not affect 15 N uptake compared with the control. Water uptake and dry matter yield were affected to a greater extent than 15 N absorption. Nitrogen-15 concentration was slightly higher in roots than in shoots

  20. Effects of training distance on feed intake, growth, body condition and muscle glycogen content in young Standardbred horses fed a forage-only diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringmark, S; Revold, T; Jansson, A

    2017-10-01

    This study examined feed intake, growth, body condition, muscle glycogen content and nutrition-related health in 16 Standardbred horses fed a high-energy, forage-only diet ad libitum and allocated to either a control training programme (C-group) or a training programme with the high-intensity training distance reduced by 30% (R-group), from January as 2-year olds until December as 3-year olds. Feed intake was recorded on 10 occasions during 3 consecutive days. Body weight was recorded once in a week and height, body condition score (BCS), rump fat thickness and thickness of the m. longissimus dorsi were measured at 7±3-week intervals throughout the study. Muscle biopsies of the m. gluteus medius were taken in December as 2-year olds and in November as 3-year olds and analysed for glycogen content. Nutrition-related health disorders were noted when they occurred. Horses consumed 1.7% to 2.6% dry matter of BW, corresponding to 19 to 28 MJ metabolisable energy/100 kg BW. There were no differences between training groups in feed intake or any of the body measurements. The pooled weekly BCS was maintained between 4.8 and 5.1 (root mean square error (RMSE)=0.4). Muscle glycogen content was 587 and 623 mmol/kg dry weight (RMSE=68) as 2- and 3-year olds, respectively, and there was no difference between training groups. When managed under normal conditions, no nutrition-related health disorders or stereotypic behaviours were observed. It was concluded that the training programme did not affect feed intake, growth, BCS or muscle glycogen content. In addition, the forage-only diet did not appear to prohibit muscle glycogen storage, growth or maintenance of body condition, and seemed to promote good nutrition-related health.

  1. Effective rumen degradation of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre in forage determined by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlsson, C; Houmøller, L P; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine if near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) could be used to predict degradation parameters and effective degradation from scans of original forage samples. Degradability of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF......) of 61 samples of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) was tested by using the in situ technique. The grass samples were harvested at three different stages, early vegetative growth, early reproductive growth and late reproductive growth. Degradability...

  2. Glycerin in cattle feed: intake, digestibility, and ruminal and blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ruiz Fávaro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of glycerin supplements in the diet of beef cattle by assessing intake, apparent nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH, ruminal ammonia concentrations, and blood parameters. The study was conducted at the São Paulo State University (UNESP, Jaboticabal campus using five crossbred cattle in an experiment employing a 5 x 5 Latin square design. Cattle diet treatments included zero, 50, 100, 150, and 200 g kg-1 dry matter of glycerin. Feed, leftover feed, and faeces were collected to determine intake and digestibility. Samples of ruminal liquid were collected at –1, 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after feeding to determine pH and ruminal ammonia. Blood was collected four hours after the morning feeding from the coccygeal vein. Replacing maize with glycerin resulted in lower concentrations of ether extract and non-fibre carbohydrates in the diets, leading to a linear decrease in the intake of these nutrients (P<0.05. The digestibility of neutral detergent fibre and non-fibre carbohydrates also decreased linearly with increasing dietary glycerin concentrations (P<0.05. The results for ruminal fermentation parameters showed a linear decrease (P<0.05 in the ruminal concentration of N-NH3 with increasing dietary levels of glycerin; however, ruminal pH was not affected (P<0.05. Serum concentrations of urea, triglycerides, cholesterol, and plasma glucose concentrations were within normal ranges based on the literature. The inclusion of glycerin in the cattle diet altered rumen fermentation, reducing the concentration of N-NH 3, the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and non-fiber carbohydrates.

  3. Intake, digestibility, ruminal parameters, and microbial protein synthesis in crossbred steers fed diets based on Brachiaria grass silage and sorghum silage Consumo, digestibilidade, parâmetros ruminais e síntese de proteína microbiana em novilhos cruzados alimentados com dietas a base de silagem de braquiária e silagem de sorgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.H.M. Chizzotti

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A trial was carried out with four Holstein x Nellore crossbred steers (225±22kg of BW fitted with ruminal and abomasal cannulaes in a 4 x 4 Latin Square design to evaluate the intake and the total and partial apparent digestibilities of nutrients, ruminal parameters, and microbial synthesis. Diets consisted of 60% silage and 40% concentrate formulated to be isonitrogenous (12.5% of crude protein, dry matter basis. Treatments consisted of different proportions of Brachiaria brizantha grass silage and sorghum silage: 100:0; 67:33; 33:67, and 0:100%, respectively, on dry matter basis. The intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, non-fiber carbohydrates, and total digestible nutrients linearly increased (P0.05 by the treatments. The use of 67% of sorghum silage and 33% of grass silage increased intake and digestibility of nutrients without affecting ruminal pH, ruminal NH3-N, and microbial efficiency.Realizou-se um estudo com quatro novilhos cruzados Holandês x Nelore (225±22kg de peso vivo, canulados no rúmen e abomaso, distribuídos em quadrado latino 4 x 4 para avaliar o efeito de diferentes proporções de silagem de Braquiária brizantha e silagem de sorgo sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes no trato digestório total e parcial, sobre os parâmetros ruminais e sobre a eficiência microbiana. As dietas continham 60% de volumoso e 40% de concentrado e foram formuladas para serem isonitrogenadas (12,5% de proteína bruta na matéria seca. Os tratamentos consistiram em diferentes proporções de silagens de Brachiaria brizantha e de sorgo: 100:0; 67:33; 33:67 e 0:100%, respectivamente (% da matéria seca. O consumo de matéria seca, matéria orgânica, proteína bruta, extrato etéreo, carboidratos não-fibrosos e nutrientes digestíveis totais aumentou linearmente (P0,05. O uso de 67% de silagem de sorgo com 33% de silagem de braquiária aumentou o consumo e a digestibilidade dos nutrientes sem afetar

  4. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan K. Raatz

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  5. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-05-15

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011-2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1-3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps.

  6. Not Simply a Matter of Fish Intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherr, Carlos; Figueiredo, Valeria N; Moura, Filipe A; Sposito, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Recent findings have highlighted enhanced fish consumption as a potential measure to increase intake of healthy fatty acids, particularly omega-3. The generalizability of this recommendation, however, may fall short of differences in fish species and cooking techniques. Hence, we investigated how these 2 variables affect the lipid content in fish flesh. Nine species of freshwater, deep sea or shore fish were grilled, steamed or fried with or without the addition of soybean oil, olive oil or butter. The lipid composition was analysed and a significant difference was observed in cholesterol, saturated fatty acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 fatty acids and omega-6 fatty acids contents between species (pfish species and cooking techniques.

  7. Effects of the dietary ratio of ruminal degraded to undegraded protein and feed intake on intestinal flows of endogenous nitrogen and amino acids in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuanshe; Chen, Liang; Tan, Zhiliang; Tang, Shaoxun; Han, Xuefeng; Wang, Min; Kang, Jinhe; Yan, Qiongxian

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the dietary ratio of ruminal degraded protein (RDP) to ruminal undegraded protein (RUP) and the dry matter intake (DMI) on the intestinal flows of endogenous nitrogen (N) and amino acids (AA) in goats. The experiment was designed as a 4×4 Latin square using four ruminally, duodenally and ileally cannulated goats. The treatments were arranged in a 2×2 factorial design; two ratios of RDP to RUP (65:35 and 45:55, RDP1 and RDP2, respectively) and two levels at 95% and 75% of voluntary feed intake (DMI1 and DMI2, respectively) were fed to the goats. There were no significant differences in the N intake, duodenal flow of total N, undegraded feed N, microbial N, endogenous N or ileal flow of endogenous N, but the duodenal and ileal flow of endogenous N numerically decreased by approximately 22% and 9%, respectively, when the feed intake changed from DMI1 (0.63 kg/d) to DMI2 (0.50 kg/d). The dietary ratio of RDP to RUP had significant effects (pRUP ratio and DMI decreased, and the flow of endogenous AA at the ileum also decreased when the DMI decreased but increased with decreasing RDP to RUP ratios.

  8. Fiber-bound nitrogen in gorilla diets: implications for estimating dietary protein intake of primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, Jessica M; Chapman, Colin A; Pell, Alice N

    2008-07-01

    Protein is essential for living organisms, but digestibility of crude protein is poorly understood and difficult to predict. Nitrogen is used to estimate protein content because nitrogen is a component of the amino acids that comprise protein, but a substantial portion of the nitrogen in plants may be bound to fiber in an indigestible form. To estimate the amount of crude protein that is unavailable in the diets of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei) in Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda, foods routinely eaten were analyzed to determine the amount of nitrogen bound to the acid-detergent fiber residue. The amount of fiber-bound nitrogen varied among plant parts: herbaceous leaves 14.5+/-8.9% (reported as a percentage of crude protein on a dry matter (DM) basis), tree leaves (16.1+/-6.7% DM), pith/herbaceous peel (26.2+/-8.9% DM), fruit (34.7+/-17.8% DM), bark (43.8+/-15.6% DM), and decaying wood (85.2+/-14.6% DM). When crude protein and available protein intake of adult gorillas was estimated over a year, 15.1% of the dietary crude protein was indigestible. These results indicate that the proportion of fiber-bound protein in primate diets should be considered when estimating protein intake, food selection, and food/habitat quality.

  9. Nutrient utilisation, growth performance and blood metabolites in Murrah buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay K; Kundu, Shivlal S; Prusty, Sonali; Datt, Chander; Kumar, Muneendra

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in efficiency of feed utilisation between buffalo calves with low and high residual feed intake (RFI) by comparing feed intake, nutrient digestibility, growth traits and blood metabolites. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves (aged 4-6 months; 70 ± 1.0 kg body weight) were fed ad libitum with a total mixed ration for 120 d. Based on linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body size, calves were assigned into low and high RFI groups. The RFI varied from -0.33 to +0.28 kg DM/d with an average RFI of -0.14 and 0.14 kg DM/d in low and high RFI calves, respectively. Calves had a mean DMI of 1.9 and 2.4 kg/d and an ADG of 0.5 and 0.6 kg/d in low and high RFI groups, respectively. Low RFI calves ate 19.0% less DM each day and required significantly less metabolisable energy for maintenance compared with high RFI calves (12.5 vs. 16.7 MJ/d). Nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance did not differ among low and high RFI calves. In more efficient animals (low RFI calves) higher (p calves are more efficient in feed utilisation and the differences in blood metabolites are probably due to differences in feed intake and body metabolism.

  10. Nutrient intake, productive performance and body measurements of dairy heifers fed with different sources of protein - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i3.18749

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Fereirra Ribeiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of different protein sources (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, peanut meal and sunflower meal on dry matter and nutrient intake, productive performance and body measurements of dairy heifers, Holstein x Zebu, recreated in confinement. The experiment consisted in a randomized complete block design made up by 6 replications and 4 treatments. The mean values of ingestion of ether extract (EEI, kg day-1 were statistically different (p -1 to the diet with sunflower meal (0.82 kg day-1, and considering the final body weight, the diet with soybean meal was superior to the other treatments (p  

  11. Biological implications of longevity in dairy cows: 1. Changes in feed intake, feeding behavior, and digestion with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandl, F; Luzi, S P; Furger, M; Zeitz, J O; Leiber, F; Ortmann, S; Clauss, M; Kreuzer, M; Schwarm, A

    2016-05-01

    Milk production strategies focusing on longevity and limited use of concentrate are receiving increasing attention. To evaluate such strategies, knowledge of the development with age of animal characteristics, particularly digestion, is indispensable. We therefore investigated the development of feed intake, chewing activity, and digestion in 30 lactating Brown Swiss cows (876-3,648 d old) and 12 heifers (199-778 d old). We also studied whether age effects were exhibited differently in animals selected from herds subjected for 11 yr either to a forage-only or to a forage-concentrate feeding regimen. Forages consisted of grass hay (the only feed for heifers), corn silage, and grass pellets. Measurements lasted for 8 d, where amounts and composition of feeds, feces, and milk were recorded and analyzed. Ruminal pH data and eating and rumination activity were assessed by pH sensors put into the rumen and halter-mounted noseband sensors. The mean retention time of feed particles was assessed using Cr-mordanted fiber and data were used to calculate dry matter gut fill. Data were subjected to regression analyses with age and feeding regimen as explanatory variables, and body weight, milk yield, and proportion of hay in forage as covariates. This allowed separating age-related changes of body weight and milk yield from independent age effects and correcting for differences in preference for individual forages. In cows, organic matter intake increased with age (from slightly below to above 20kg/d), as did mean retention time and gut fill. Digestibility of organic matter did not show a clear age dependency, but fiber digestibility had a maximum in cows of around 4 to 6 yr of age. Ruminal pH and absolute eating and rumination times did not vary with cow age. Young and old cows chewed regurgitated boluses more intensively (60-70 times) than middle-aged cows (about 50 times). Effects of feeding regimen were small, except for fiber intake and rumination time per unit of intake

  12. Effects of replacing wheat bran by pistachio skins on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naserian, A A; Staples, C R; Ghaffari, M H

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of pistachio skins (PiS) as a replacement of wheat bran on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, milk yield, milk composition and blood metabolites of dairy Saanen goats. Eight multiparous lactating Saanen goats (55 ± 7.2 days post-partum, 45 ± 2 kg body weight) were randomly assigned to one of the four dietary treatments arranged in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were 1) 0 g/kg PiS and 210 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (0PiS), 2) 70 g/kg PiS and 140 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (7PiS), 3) 140 g/kg PiS and 70 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (14PiS) and 4) 210 g/kg PiS and 0 g/kg wheat bran in the TMR (21PiS). The trial consisted of four 21-day periods, each composed of 14 days adaptation and 7 days data collection. Dry matter intake (p < 0.05) and crude protein digestibility (p < 0.01) increased linearly with increasing PiS proportions in the diet. Increasing the proportion of PiS in the diet caused a quadratic increase in apparent digestibility of dry matter (p < 0.05), and tended (p = 0.05) to increase quadratically organic matter, and ether extract digestibility. Replacing wheat bran with PiS in the diet had no effects on milk yield, whereas milk fat concentration increased linearly (p < 0.01) with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. As the dietary proportion of PiS increased, ruminal pH tended (p = 0.07) to increase linearly, whereas ammonia-N concentration declined in the rumen. Plasma concentrations of glucose and BUN remained unaffected, whereas triglycerides (p < 0.05) and cholesterol (p < 0.01) concentrations increased linearly with increasing inclusion of PiS in the diet. It was concluded that PiS based on local ingredients can successfully replace wheat bran in diets of dairy goats without detrimental effects on feed intake, nutrient digestibility and milk production. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell

  13. Dietary intake of Croatian lactating women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greta Krešić

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritional inadequacies during lactation may affect the well-being of both the mother and the infant. For this reason, breast-feeding women usually pay attention to their dietary practice during the breast-feeding period. The aim of this study was to examine changes in dietary intake of Croatian lactating women during six months postpartum. The study sample consisted of 83 lactating women whose diet records were collected at three measurements rounds: at 1 ± 0.25, 3 ± 0.25 and 6 ± 0.25 months postpartum. The mothers´ diets were investigated using two consecutive 24-hour dietary recalls. Energy and nutrient intakes were estimated using a nutritional database. The obtained results have shown that the diet of Croatian lactating women is hypocaloric (65.73 – 79.52 % DRI, p < 0.001 and deficient in magnesium, zinc, vitamins A, B1, B6, D and folate. Also evident was a moderate imbalance in the distribution of energy percentages from macronutrients. During six months postpartum, lactating women continuously decreased food intake resulting in a gradual decrease in energy intake (p < 0.001 and in the intake of all micronutrients. However, during six months postpartum, lactating women increased the share of total fat in energy intake (p = 0.006 and the share of saturated fatty acids (p = 0.048, while the share of monounsaturated fatty acids in total energy intake decreased (p = 0.004. It could be concluded that it is worthwhile to further study the nutritional status of Croatian lactating women during this vulnerable period especially regarding their micronutrients intake in order to achieve the recommended dietary requirements.

  14. Effect of undigested neutral detergent fiber content of alfalfa hay on lactating dairy cows: Feeding behavior, fiber digestibility, and lactation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustini, M; Palmonari, A; Canestrari, G; Bonfante, E; Mammi, L; Pacchioli, M T; Sniffen, G C J; Grant, R J; Cotanch, K W; Formigoni, A

    2017-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 alfalfa hays differing in undigested neutral detergent fiber content and digestibility used as the main forage source in diets fed to high producing cows for Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese production. Diets were designed to have 2 different amounts of undigestible NDF [high (Hu) and low (Lu)], as determined by 240-h in vitro analysis (uNDF 240 ). Alfalfa hay in vitro digestibility [% of amylase- and sodium sulfite-treated NDF with ash correction (aNDFom)] at 24 and 240 h was 40.2 and 31.2% and 53.6 and 45.7% for low- (LD) and high-digestibility (HD) hays, respectively. The 4 experimental diets (Hu-HD, Lu-HD, Hu-LD, and Lu-LD) contained 46.8, 36.8, 38.8, and 30.1% of alfalfa hay, respectively, 8.6% wheat straw, and 35.3% corn (50% flake and 50% meal; DM basis). Soy hulls and soybean meal were used to replace hay to balance protein and energy among diets. Eight multiparous Holstein cows (average milk production = 46.0 ± 5.2 kg/d, 101 ± 38 d in milk, and 662 ± 42 kg of average body weight) were assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design, with 2 wk of adaptation and a 1-wk collection period. Dry matter and water intake, rumination time, ruminal pH, and milk production and composition were measured. Diets and feces were analyzed for NDF on an organic matter basis (aNDFom), acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, and uNDF 240 to estimate total-tract fiber digestibility. Dry matter intake and rumination times were higher in HD diets compared with LD diets, regardless of forage amount. Rumination time was constant per unit of dry matter intake but differed when expressed as a function of uNDF 240 , aNDFom, or physically effective NDF intake. No differences were found among treatments on average ruminal pH, but the amount of time with pH digestible neutral detergent fiber fraction digestibility was higher for the LD diets (88.3 versus 85.8% aNDFom in HD), for which lower feed intakes were also observed. The

  15. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm ( larva on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Jin

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01, average daily gain (ADG (p<0.01 and average daily feed intake (ADFI (p<0.01. During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08. In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01, ADFI (p<0.05 and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07 during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05. In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05 and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03 were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs’ diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses.

  16. Short communication: Use of fecal starch concentration as an indicator of dry feed digestion in preweaned dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, T S; Hu, W; Suarez-Mena, F X; Hill, T M; Quigley, J D; Schlotterbeck, R L

    2017-08-01

    Fecal starch (FS) has been used as a tool to evaluate starch and diet digestibility in lactating dairy cows and feedlot steers. Some on-farm advisors also use FS to evaluate calf starter digestibility in preweaned dairy calves. Our objective was to evaluate the influence of starter intake (SI), starch and organic matter digestibility, milk replacer (MR) feeding rate, and age on FS concentrations in preweaned dairy calves. Male Holstein calves (43 ± 2.9 kg of body weight; n = 35) from a single farm were fed different amounts of MR ranging from 0.44 to 1.10 kg of dry matter (DM) daily (27% crude protein, 17% fat) and weaned by 7 wk of age. Starter ingredient composition was 37% whole corn, 20% whole oats, 35% protein pellet, and 3% molasses and contained 43 ± 1.9% starch. Fecal grab samples were taken at 3 (n = 20), 6 (n = 20), and 8 wk (n = 35) of age. Twelve fecal samples per calf were taken via rectal palpation over a 5-d period each week, frozen daily, combined on an equal wet-weight basis, and subsampled for analysis. Chromic oxide was used as an external digestibility marker at 3 and 6 wk (included in MR), whereas acid-insoluble ash was used as an internal marker at 8 wk. Milk replacer and starter intakes (offered and refused) were recorded daily during collection periods. Multiple and linear regression of organic matter digestibility (% of DM), total-tract starch digestibility (TTSD; % of DM), MR intake (kg/d), SI (kg/d), and age (week) versus FS (% of fecal DM) were determined using PROC REG of SAS (version 9.2, SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). Prior to weaning, SI, age, and MR rate explained 89% of the variation in TTSD, where TTSD = [19.7 × SI (±4.25)] + [3.8 × age (±0.79)] - [24.8 × MR (±3.19)] + 56.2 (±3.39). At 3 wk of age, TTSD increased (coefficient of determination = 0.53) and SI decreased (coefficient of determination = 0.20) with increasing FS. At 6 wk of age, TTSD and SI were unrelated to FS. In 8-wk-old calves (with 2 trials), SI, MR rate

  17. Substance use and regional gray matter volume in individuals at high risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James M; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Barker, Gareth J; McGuire, Philip K

    2012-02-01

    Individuals with an at risk mental state (ARMS) are at greatly increased risk of developing a psychotic illness. Risk of transition to psychosis is associated with regionally reduced cortical gray matter volume. There has been considerable interest in the interaction between psychosis risk and substance use. In this study we investigate the relationship between alcohol, cannabis and nicotine use with gray matter volume in ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers. Twenty seven ARMS subjects and 27 healthy volunteers took part in the study. All subjects underwent volumetric MRI imaging. The relationship between regional gray matter volume and cannabis use, smoking, and alcohol use in controls and ARMS subjects was analysed using voxel-based morphometry. In any region where a significant relationship with drug was present, data were analysed to determine if there was any group difference in this relationship. Alcohol intake was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in cerebellum, cannabis intake was use was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in prefrontal cortex and tobacco intake was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in left temporal cortex. There were no significant interactions by group in any region. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis of increased susceptibility to harmful effects of drugs and alcohol on regional gray matter in ARMS subjects. However, alcohol, tobacco and cannabis at low to moderate intake may be associated with lower gray matter in both ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers-possibly representing low-level cortical damage or change in neural plasticity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Smokers report lower intake of key nutrients than nonsmokers, yet both fall short of meeting recommended intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Scheett, Angela; Carriquiry, Alicia; Lemieux, Andrine; Nakajima, Motohiro; al'Absi, Mustafa

    2017-09-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor in the development of preventable disease which may be due to a poorer diet and the reduced nutrient intake of smokers. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the reported intake of current smokers with that of nonsmokers among participants of a study evaluating stress and smoking. We hypothesized (1) that overall energy and nutrient intake would be reduced in smokers compared with nonsmokers and (2) that smokers would have increased noncompliance with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). Men and women (smokers n=138, nonsmokers n=46) completed a 3-day diet record at baseline. Mean energy and nutrient intakes were stratified by smoking status and compared with DRI levels. The mean body mass index was 28.3±0.5kg/m 2 for smokers and 27.2±1.0kg/m 2 for nonsmokers. Compared with nonsmokers, the smokers reported lower intakes of energy, total polyunsaturated fatty acids, linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, total sugars, calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, vitamin C, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, vitamin B6, folate, vitamin A, and vitamin E. Smokers reported reduced compliance with the DRIs for iron, phosphorus, vitamin C, riboflavin, and folate compared with nonsmokers. Unlike other evaluations of smokers vs nonsmokers, we observed no difference in body weight between groups. Smokers and nonsmokers alike reported dietary intakes lower than the DRIs for many nutrients. However, the reported nutrient intake of the smokers was substantially lower than nonsmokers for key nutrients, and they were more likely to not comply with the DRIs for essential nutrients, placing them at increased risk of chronic disease. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Mushroom drying with solar assisted heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şevik, Seyfi; Aktaş, Mustafa; Doğan, Hikmet; Koçak, Saim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of a simple and cost effective solar assisted heat pump system. • Developing of a computer program for a drying system with different scenarios by using PLC. • Obtained less energy input with high coefficients of performance of system and more quality products. • Determination of mushroom drying properties such as moisture content, moisture ratio and drying ratio. - Abstract: In this study, a simple and cost effective solar assisted heat pump system (SAHP) with flat plate collectors and a water source heat pump has been proposed. Mushroom drying was examined experimentally in the drying system. Solar energy (SE) system and heat pump (HP) system can be used separately or together. A computer program has been developed for the system. Drying air temperature, relative humidity, weight of product values, etc. were monitored and controlled with different scenarios by using PLC. This system is cheap, good quality and sustainable and it is modeled for good quality product and increased efficiency. Thus, products could be dried with less energy input and more controlled conditions. Mushrooms were dried at 45 °C and 55 °C drying air temperature and 310 kg/h mass flow rate. Mushrooms were dried from initial moisture content 13.24 g water/g dry matter (dry basis) to final moisture content 0.07 g water/g dry matter (dry basis). Mushrooms were dried by using HP system, SE system and SAHP system respectively at 250–220 min, at 270–165 min and at 230–190 min. The coefficients of performance of system (COP) are calculated in a range from 2.1 to 3.1 with respect to the results of experiments. The energy utilization ratios (EURs) were found to vary between 0.42 and 0.66. Specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) values were found to vary between 0.26 and 0.92 kg/kW h

  20. Quality of fresh and dry onion (Аllium cepa L. products for different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. Ф. Скалецька

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article features results of studying suitability to processing for various varieties of onion as grown in the conditions of Ukrainian Forest-Steppe. A complex assessment has been completed for fresh products of onion for 9 different varieties by the content of basic biochemical, biological, economic, organoleptic characteristics with the view of determining the most suitable for drying. Varieties are singled out , which bulbs accumulate the biggest dry matter, sugar, C vitamin content and display the highest yield of consumable products. Assessment of dry products against the set of organoleptic and technological indicators has been completed. This revealed loss of basic biochemical components of onions during drying and long-term storage of dried products, as well as established increasing of the content of dry matters and acids and decreasing of that of sugars and vitamin C while storing the dried onion. The set of examined parameters

  1. FORAGING BY THE STOPLIGHT-PARROTFISH SPARISOMA-VIRIDE .2. INTAKE AND ASSIMILATION OF FOOD, PROTEIN AND ENERGY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BRUGGEMANN, JH; BEGEMAN, J; BOSMA, EM; VERBURG, P; BREEMAN, AM

    Daily food intake by the herbivorous parrotfish Sparisoma viride, as well as assimilation efficiencies of algal food, protein and energy, were quantified through a combination of laboratory feeding trials and field observations. The intake of algal ash-free dry wt (AFDW) per bite increases linearly

  2. Effect of substituting barley with glycerol as energy feed on feed intake, milk production and milk quality in dairy cows in mid or late lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaillard, Charlotte; Sørensen, Martin Tang; Vestergaard, Mogens

    2018-01-01

    intake, and milking frequency were recorded daily, while milk composition and milk FA daily were analyzed weekly. Milk sensory analysis was performed on fresh and 7 d stored samples for the four diets. The PMR intake increased almost 1 kg from Gly0 to Gly12, and decreased by approximately 1 kg from Gly12......The experiment reported in this research paper aimed to determine the level at which glycerol can substitute barley in grass-clover silage-based ration for dairy cows in mid or late lactation, without affecting milk production, milk composition, milk free fatty acid (FFA) profile, and milk sensory...... quality. Forty Holstein cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experimental design. Crude glycerol substituted barley in the partially mixed ration (PMR) of the cows at inclusion levels of 0% (Gly0), 6% (Gly6), 12% (Gly12), and 18% (Gly18) of dietary dry matter (DM). Individual milk production, feed...

  3. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  4. Dry technologies and community bureaucracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation channels criss-cross the Andes, bringing water to the dry soils of the peasants' fields. To obtain water, people must deal not only with the amount of water and the physical terrain, but also with concerns of others and matters of the social terrain....

  5. Intake and ingestive behavior of lambs fed diets containing ammoniated buffel grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perazzo, Alexandre Fernandes; de Paula Homem Neto, Sansão; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Santos, Edson Mauro; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; de Oliveira, Juliana Silva; Bezerra, Higor Fábio Carvalho; Campos, Fleming Sena; de Freitas Junior, José Esler

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of diets with ammoniated buffel grass hay on the ingestive behavior of feedlot lambs. Thirty-two sheep of no defined breed with an average body weight of 17.7 ± 1.8 kg were used. A completely randomized design with four treatments (0, 18, 36, and 54 g/kg dry matter (DM) basis) and eight repetitions was used. Ingestive behavior, rumination, and idle time were similar (P > 0.05) among the diets containing ammoniated buffel grass hay, with mean values of 294.5, 554.44, and 594.25 min per day, respectively. Regarding the chews, all of the variables resulted in similar behavior (P > 0.05). The quadratic effect (P  0.05) on the efficiency of DM and NDF consumption. However, the rumination efficiency of DM and NDF showed a quadratic effect (P ingestive behavior by increasing the rumination efficiency, increased intake, and feed utilization.

  6. A mouse dry eye model induced by topical administration of the air pollutant particulate matter 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Tan, Gang; Ding, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yahong; Wu, Anhua; Yang, Qichen; Ye, Lei; Shao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    To introduce a novel dry eye mouse model induced by topical administration of the air pollutant particulate matter 10 (PM 10 ). A total of 60 male BALB/c mice were used in this study and divided into two groups: group A (PBS eye drops, n=30) and group B (PM 10 eye drop group, n=30). Each treatment was dosed four times a day, every time 50ul with the concentration of 5mg/ml PM10, for 14 consecutive days in the right eye. The clinical manifestations of dry eye were measured before therapy and 4, 7 and 14days post-treatment respectively, which included the tear volume, tear break-up (BUT) time, corneal fluorescein staining, rose bengal staining, Lissamine Green staining and inflammatory index. Eye samples were collected on D14 and examined by histologic light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), corneal cytokeration 10 (K10) immunnostaining, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB Western Blot analysis. At 0d, 7d and 14d, there were no statistical changes in tear volume, BUT after treatment (P>0.05) with PBS in group A. In group B, all items showed statistical differences at each time point (Plevels of K10 and reduced number of goblet cells in the conjunctival fornix in group B. PM 10 significantly increased the levels of TNF-α, NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB in the cornea. PM 10 can damage the tear film function and cause the destruction of the structural organization of ocular surface in mice. Topical administration of PM 10 in mice induces ocular surface changes that are similar to those of dry eye in humans, representing a novel model of DES. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  7. Cassava varietal screening for cooking quality: relationship between dry matter, starch content, mealiness and certain microscopic observations of the raw and cooked tuber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safo-Kantanka, O.; Owusu-Nipah, J.

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen cassava (Manihot esculenta L Crantz) varieties from three successive annual harvests were screened for the mealiness of the cooked tuber, and the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Six were selected for further studies based on their mealiness and the starch and dry matter contents were determined. The diameter of the starch granules of the selected varieties and those of an irradiated M1V2 population were measured. Microscopic examinations of the raw and cooked cells of the irradiated M1V2 population were made. Correlations among all the parameters were studied. Varietal and seasonal differences in cooking quality were observed. There was no consistent relationship between mealiness of the boiled tuber and the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Varieties that were mealy were high in dry matter and starch content. The starch granules of mealy varieties were larger than those of nonmealy ones. There were no differences between mealy and non-mealy varieties in the arrangement of the cells or ‘cell condition’, of the raw tubers. However, the cells of the cooked tubers were held less cohesively, ie there was more ‘cell disorganisation’, in mealy varieties than in non-mealy ones

  8. Effects of dietary brown propolis on nutrient intake and digestibility in feedlot lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonilson Araújo da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested brown propolis in crude or extract form as a feed supplement for feedlot lambs to identify the type that most improves in vivo nutrient digestibility. Digestibility was assessed by both total fecal collection and internal markers and the results obtained by these techniques were compared. The completely randomized design was used to compare feed intake and nutrient digestibility of 24 male lambs aged seven months among four dietary treatments (crude brown propolis, propolis ethanol extract, monensin sodium, and control. Methods of feces collection were compared using a completely randomized split-plot design, with experimental diets corresponding to the main factor and the methods to estimate fecal production as the sub-factor. The diets had a roughage:concentrate ratio of 50:50, with Tifton-85 bermudagrass hay (Cynodon spp. as roughage, and ground corn, soybean meal and minerals as concentrate. The lambs fed diets with crude propolis had higher feed intake than those fed diets containing monensin sodium. The different diets did not affect dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, or acid detergent fiber digestibility, but crude propolis supplementation provided higher ether extract digestibility than monensin sodium. Nutrient digestibility, as indicated by indigestible neutral detergent fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber and sequentially-determined indigestible acid detergent fiber, was lower than that found with the fecal collection method. The addition of brown propolis has the same effect as monensin, but neither maximized nutrient availability in the diet of feedlot lambs at 7 months of age. Digestibility assessment using the internal markers indigestible neutral detergent fiber, indigestible acid detergent fiber and sequentially-determined indigestible acid detergent fiber is not an efficient method compared with total feces collection.

  9. Effects of animal type (wild vs. domestic) and diet alfalfa level on intake and digestibility of European adult rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, V; Outor-Monteiro, D; Mourão, J L; Cone, J W; Lourenço, A L

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the level of alfalfa in the diet on feed intake and digestibility of two types of rabbits, wild (Oryctolagus cuniculus algirus) vs. domestic (O. cuniculus cuniculus). Ten wild (W; mean LW = 927 g) and 10 domestic (D; mean LW = 4,645 g) adult rabbit does were fed ad libitum two pelleted diets: a control diet (C) with 15% of dehydrated alfalfa hay (as feed basis) and a test diet (A) with 36% of dehydrated alfalfa hay (as feed basis), according to a change-over design. Wild does dry matter (DM) intake per kg live weight (BW) was 55% higher (p  .05) was found when intake was expressed per kg 0.75 BW (ca. 56 g DM) and tended to be higher (p = .07) in D does when expressed per kg 0.67 BW (62 g vs. 55 g DM). Domestic does showed a higher (p digestibility (3; 2; 3; 3 percentage points respectively) than W does. The amount of nutrients and energy digested by D does was lower per kg BW (p  .05) and tended to be higher per kg 0.67 BW (p  .05) the feed intake nor the diet digestibility. This study suggests that W rabbits exhibit a higher intake per kg BW and a lower digestibility than their D counterparts, which results in similar digestible nutrient and energy intake per kg BW powered to 0.75. The nutritive value of dehydrated alfalfa for rabbits, evaluated through intake and digestibility, seems to be equivalent to their base diets (forage plus concentrate). © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. INTAKE, DIGESTIBILITY AND PERFORMANCE OF BEEF CATTLE RECEIVING DIETS CONTAINING UREA IN DIFFERENT PROPORTIONS CONSUMO E DIGESTIBILIDADE DOS NUTRIENTES E DESEMPENHO DE BOVINOS DE CORTE RECEBENDO DIETAS COM DIFERENTES NÍVEIS DE URÉIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião de Campos Valadares Filho

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Intake, apparent digestibility of nutrients, daily gain, feed conversion and the carcass yield in beef cattle receiving diets containing 0; 0.5; 1.0 e 1.5% of urea in total dry matter were evaluated. Twenty four crossed steers Holstein x Zebu (HxZ, castrated, with initial mean body weight of 290 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. Sorghum silage was used as roughage adopting relation roughage:concentrate of 70:30 in dry matter basis. In order to determine the fecal excretion, indigestible acid detergent fiber was used as a marker. Intake and digestibility of nutrients were not influenced (P>0.05 by the proportions of urea in the diets. For intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, mean values of 8.42 kg/day or 2.33% of BW and 64.52% were registered, respectively. Mean daily gain (1.05kg, feed conversion (8.07 and carcass yield (48.72% were not influenced (P>0.05 by the proportions of urea in the diets. Levels of 1.5% of urea in dry matter of total diet can be used in the preparation of diets for finishing beef cattle (HxZ, without compromising intake and digestibility of nutrients and the animal performance as well.

    KEY WORDS: Carcass yield, feed conversion, feedlot, sorghum silage.

    Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente dos nutrientes, o ganho de peso, a conversão alimentar e o rendimento de carcaça em bovinos de corte recebendo dietas contendo 0%; 0,5%; 1,0% e 1,5% de uréia na matéria seca total. Foram utilizados 24 animais mestiços Holandês x Zebu (HxZ, castrados, com peso vivo inicial médio de 290 kg, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Utilizou-se a silagem de sorgo como volumoso numa relação volumoso:concentrado de 70:30, com base na matéria seca. Para determinação da excreção fecal, utilizou-se a fibra em detergente ácido indigestível como indicador. O consumo e a

  11. Short communication: Effect of fatty acid supplements on apparent ruminal synthesis of B vitamins in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnino, D S; Harvatine, K J; Allen, M S; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Girard, C L

    2017-10-01

    The effect of fat supplements (FS) providing different proportions of saturated (SFA) and unsaturated (UFA) fatty acids on supply, apparent ruminal synthesis (ARS), and duodenal flow (DF) of some B vitamins (thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B 6 , folates, and vitamin B 12 ) were evaluated in an experiment using 8 ruminally and duodenally cannulated lactating Holstein cows. The experiment was a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 21-d treatment periods. The 4 treatments were a control diet without fatty acid supplement and 3 diets with 2.5% additional fatty acids from supplements containing (1) SFA, (2) an intermediate mixture of SFA and UFA, or (3) UFA. All diets were served as a total mixed ration once daily at 115% of the expected intake. B-vitamin concentrations were analyzed in feed and duodenal digesta. Apparent ruminal synthesis of each B vitamin was calculated as the DF minus the intake. B-vitamin concentrations were similar among the 4 treatments; consequently, daily intake of the vitamins followed the same pattern as dry matter intake. Adding FS decreased B-vitamin intakes (except vitamin B 12 ), as did increasing the proportion of UFA. Riboflavin and niacin DF and ARS, expressed as total daily amount or per unit of dry matter intake, were not affected by FS, but increasing the proportion of UFA decreased riboflavin and niacin DF and ARS. Fat supplements decreased DF of vitamin B 6 , expressed either as total daily amount or per unit of dry matter intake. No treatment effects were observed on total daily folate DF and ARS. However, when expressed per unit of dry matter intake, folate DF and ARS were greater when cows were fed FS and they increased linearly with the proportion of UFA in the supplement. Inclusion of fat supplements into the dairy cow diet had a limited effect on the fate of most B vitamins in the rumen although increasing the proportion of UFA in the FS linearly decreased apparent synthesis of riboflavin and niacin in the rumen

  12. Impact of total substitution of corn for soybean hulls in diets for lambs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Patricia Viana Bastos

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to assess the effect of substituting corn for soybean hulls on the apparent digestibility of nutrients, carcass performance and characteristics, and yield of cuts of 25 non-castrated male Santa Ines lambs with an initial body weight of 20±2 kg, at approximately 6 months of age, sheltered individually in stalls (1.10 × 1.0 m, considering a totally randomized design, fed 600 g/kg of forage and 400 g/kg of concentrate. Soybean hulls replaced corn at 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 g/kg of dry matter. The intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF, NDF corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, total carbohydrates (TC, non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFC and total digestible nutrients (TDN in g/day, and the digestibility of NFC increased linearly with the soybean hull replacement. Crude protein intake displayed a quadratic response, whereas the intake of EE in g/day, the apparent digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF, NDFap and TC, TDN, average daily gain, carcass characteristics, and yield of cuts were not affected by the soybean hull levels. Soybean hull substitution increased the intake of DM and nutrients, making it possible to replace up to 1,000 g/kg of dry matter in the diets for confined sheep, as it does not compromise performance, digestibility, carcass characteristics, or yield of cuts when used in sheep nutrition.

  13. Acúmulo de matéria seca e de macronutrientes em cultivares de bananeira irrigada Accumulation of dry matter and macronutrient in cultivars of irrigated banana tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bezerra Hoffmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das quantidades de matéria seca e de nutrientes acumulados e exportados por cultivares de bananeira é importante para o desenvolvimento de uma recomendação de adubação para esta cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as quantidades de matéria seca e de macronutrientes acumuladas e exportadas por seis cultivares de bananeiras irrigadas. Foram amostradas plantas das cultivares Grande Naine, Pacovan, Pacovan-Apodi, Prata-Anã, Terrinha e Gross Michel, em uma área de plantio comercial de bananeira irrigada, no município de Limoeiro do Norte - CE. Na colheita, foram escolhidas quatro famílias de cada cultivar para amostragem. A "planta-mãe" foi dividida em rizoma, pseudocaule, pecíolo, limbo, engaço e frutos. Na matéria seca dessas partes das plantas, determinaram-se os teores dos macronutrientes. As cultivares Pacovan, Prata-Anã e Pacovan-Apodi que, de modo geral, extraíram do solo as maiores quantidades de macronutrientes, foram as que acumularam quantidades mais elevadas de matéria seca. O potássio e o nitrogênio foram os macronutrientes mais acumulados e exportados pelas seis cultivares de bananeira irrigada, seguidos pelo enxofre, cálcio, magnésio e fósforo.The knowledge about the quantity of dry matter and nutrients accumulated and exported by banana is important for the development of fertilizer recommendations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of dry matter and macronutrients by six cultivars of irrigated banana crop. Plants of Grande Naine, Pacovan, Pacovan-Apodi, Prata-Anã, Terrinha and Gross Michel cultivars were sampled in a commercial plantation in the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte, state of Ceará, Brazil. At harvest, four plants of each cultivar were selected for sampling. The "mother-plant" was divided into rhizome, pseudo stem, petiole, leaf blade, stalk and fruits. In the dry matter of these parts, the contents of macronutrients were determined. The

  14. Effects of exogenous ABA application on post-anthesis dry matter redistribution and grain starch accumulation of winter wheat with different staygreen characteristics

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    Dongqing Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether and how exogenous abscisic acid (ABA is involved in mediating starch accumulation in the grain and redistribution of carbohydrates during grain filling of two wheat cultivars with different staygreen characteristics. At blooming stage, plants of Wennong 6 (a staygreen cultivar and Jimai 20 (control were sprayed with 10 mg L− 1 abscisic acid (ABA for 3 days. The application of ABA significantly (P < 0.05 increased grain filling rate, starch accumulation rate and content, remobilization of dry matters to kernels, and 1000-grain weight of the two cultivars. Exogenous ABA markedly (P < 0.05 increased grain yield at maturity, and Wennong 6 and Jiami 20 showed 14.14% and 4.86% higher compared yield than the control. Dry matter accumulation after anthesis of Wennong 6 was also significantly (P < 0.05 influenced by exogenous ABA, whereas that of Jimai 20 was unchanged. Application of ABA increased endogenous zeatin riboside (ZR content 7 days after anthesis (DAA, and spraying ABA significantly increased endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and ABA contents from 7 to 21 DAA and decreased gibberellin (GA3 content at 14 DAA, but increased GA3 content from 21 to 35 DAA. The results suggested that increased yield of staygreen was due to greater starch assimilation owing to a higher filling rate and longer grain-filling duration.

  15. Organic and inorganic sources of zinc, copper and selenium in diets for dairy cows: intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Simões Cortinhas

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective of evaluating the effects of feeding dairy cows with organic or inorganic sources of zinc (Zn, copper (Cu and selenium (Se on blood concentrations of these minerals, blood metabolic profiles, nutrient intake and milk yield and composition. Nineteen Holstein cows were selected and randomly assigned to two groups for receiving organic (n = 9 or inorganic (n = 10 sources of Zn, Cu and Se from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. Samples of feed, orts and milk were collected for analysis. Body condition score (BCS was determined and blood samples were collected for analysis of Zn, Cu and Se concentrations, as well as for metabolic profile. Supplying organic or inorganic sources of Zn, Cu, and Se did not affect dry matter and nutrient intake, blood metabolic profile, milk yield and composition, plasma concentration of these minerals, and BCS or change the BCS in cows from 60 days before the expected date of calving to 80 days of lactation. An effect of time was observed on all feed intake variables, plasma concentrations of Zn and Se, milk yield, milk protein content, BCS and change in BCS.

  16. Amino Acid Composition of Protein-Enriched Dried Pasta: Is It Suitable for a Low-Carbohydrate Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajko Vidrih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Today, obesity is one of the major health problems, a so-called epidemic of the developed world. Obesity arises through an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, so it is important for products to have a balanced nutritional composition. The aim of this study is to prepare high-protein pasta with high nutritional quality, with emphasis on its amino acid composition, as ordinary durum pasta lacks lysine and threonine. Ordinary durum wheat pasta contains, on average, 77 % carbohydrate, and can have even less than 10 % protein. It is therefore oft en excluded from normal energy-restricted diets, and especially from low-carbohydrate diets. In this study pasta that can satisfy the nutritional requirements of a low-carbohydrate diet and is suitable for daily use was developed and evaluated. Protein-enhanced pasta was produced by adding high amounts of plant protein extract (40 % dry matter without (plain high-protein pasta or with 3 % dried spinach powder (high-protein spinach pasta to durum wheat semolina. According to the sensory analysis data, the addition of 40 % of plant protein extract satisfied sensory and nutritional requirements, allowing further development and evaluation for possible marketing. This analysis shows that these high-protein neutral and spinach pasta contain 36.4 and 39.6 g of protein per 100 g of dry mass, 12.07 and 14.70 g of total essential amino acids per 100 g of dry mass, and a high content of branched-chain amino acids, i.e. 5.54 and 6.65 g per 100 g of dry mass, respectively. This therefore represents a true alternative to durum wheat pasta for low-carbohydrate diets.

  17. Apparent in vivo nutrient digestibility of maize silages in horses

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    Adriana PÍŠOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to analyzed coefficients of digestibility of the maize silage nutrients in horse feeding. Horses of Slovak warmblood breed engaged in the research were 2.5 ± 0.5 years old. Horses in boxes without bedding to avoid eating it and excrement contamination were stabled. Horses individually with ad libitum access to water were housed. The boxes with trough for corn silage were equiped. The corn silage contained 362.3 g of dry matter, 74.1 g of crude protein, 27.1 g of crude fat and 948.2 g of organic matter in kg of dry matter. The feed twice a day, in the morning and in the evening was given. The feed intake and leftovers were weighed every day. Excrements immediately after excreting to avoid urine contamination into plastic containers were collected and weighed. The content of nutrients in the feed intake and in the excrements were analysed. In analysed samples the gravimetric dry matter amount by drying at 103 ± 2 °C, crude protein content by Kjeldahl method, fat content by extraction method according to Soxhlett – Henkel, ash content by burning the sample at 530 ± 20 °C in muffle furnace and organic matter content by calculation were determined. Coefficients of apparent digestibility in percent from taken in and excreted nutrients were calculated. In maize silage for horse feeding an average coefficient of digestibility of dry matter 61.94%, of crude protein 56.03%, of crude fat 72.34% and of organic matter 65.19% was found.

  18. Daily mineral intakes for Japanese

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, Kunio

    1990-01-01

    Recently it became necessary to assess the dietary intake of both stable and radioactive elements for non-radiation workers. But data of mineral intake in the literature are not good enough for this assessment. ICRP Pub. 23 in 'Reference Man' is one of the best references in this field. ICRP Reference Man was selected as the standard for Caucasian by using values reported during early 1970s or before. Moreover it seems not to be suitable for Japanese (Mongolian). In this report, analytical methods of minerals in total diet samples for Japanese were described. Furthermore, daily intakes for Japanese (Reference Japanese Man) and ICRP Reference Man were compared. After collected by a duplicate portion study and a model diet study, diet samples were dry-ashed followed by wet-digestion with a mixture of HNO 3 and HClO 4 . Diet sample solutions thus prepared were analysed by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), inductively-coupled plasma atomic-emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Matrix effects of major elements (Na, K, P, Ca and Mg) in diet samples were compensated by a matrix-matching method. About 20 elements were simultaneously determined by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, more easily than by AAS. Most of dietary mineral intakes, except for Na, Mn, and Sr, for Japanese were lower than those of ICRP Reference Man. But, dietary intakes were found to be different depending on countries, even among European and American countries. New representative data for as many elements as possible are necessary now. (author)

  19. STOCHASTIC SIMULATION FOR BUFFELGRASS (Cenchrus ciliaris L. PASTURES IN MARIN, N. L., MEXICO

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    José Romualdo Martínez-López

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A stochastic simulation model was constructed to determine the response of net primary production of buffelgrass (Cenchrus ciliaris L. and its dry matter intake by cattle, in Marín, NL, México. Buffelgrass is very important for extensive livestock industry in arid and semiarid areas of northeastern Mexico. To evaluate the behavior of the model by comparing the model results with those reported in the literature was the objective in this experiment. Model simulates the monthly production of dry matter of green grass, as well as its conversion to senescence and dry grass and eventually to mulch, depending on precipitation and temperature. Model also simulates consumption of green and dry grass for cattle. The stocking rate used in the model simulation was 2 hectares per animal unit. Annual production ranged from 4.5 to 10.2 t of dry matter per hectare with annual rainfall of 300 to 704 mm, respectively. Total annual intake required per animal unit was estimated at 3.6 ton. Simulated net primary production coincides with reports in the literature, so the model was evaluated successfully.

  20. Penampilan Kelinci Persilangan Lepas Sapih yang Mendapat Ransum dengan Beberapa Tingkat Penggunaan Ampas Teh

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    R. G. Pratas

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Tea waste is by-product of tea manufacturer that is potential as an alternative of protein source. Twenty male cross-breed weanling rabbits were used to investigate the optimum utilization of tea waste in ration of rabbit. Completely randomized design was used with four treatments and five replications. The levels of tea waste in pellet rations as the treatment consisted of 0% (AT0, 10% (AT10, 20% (AT20, and 30% (AT30 of dry matter. The dry matter intake, average daily gain (AVG, ration conversion, mortality, and economical value were measured in this experiment. The result showed that the treatments did not significantly affect dry matter intake, average daily gain, and ration conversion. The mortality was 0 percent and the profit increased in ration containing tea waste. It was concluded that tea waste could support good performance of the rabbits and it could be used as an alternative of protein sources until 30% in ration.

  1. Supplementation of Dried Mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Profiles in Weaning Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, X. H.; Heo, P. S.; Hong, J. S.; Kim, N. J.; Kim, Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dried mealworm (Tenebrio molitor larva) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and blood profiles in weaning pigs. A total of 120 weaning pigs (28±3 days and 8.04±0.08 kg of body weight) were allotted to one of five treatments, based on sex and body weight, in 6 replicates with 4 pigs per pen by a randomized complete block design. Supplementation level of dried mealworm was 0%, 1.5%, 3.0%, 4.5%, or 6.0% in experimental diet as treatment. Two phase feeding programs (phase I from 0 day to 14 day, phase II from 14 day to 35 day) were used in this experiment. All animals were allowed to access diet and water ad libitum. During phase I, increasing level of dried mealworm in diet linearly improved the body weight (p<0.01), average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.01) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) (p<0.01). During phase II, ADG also tended to increase linearly when pigs were fed higher level of dried mealworm (p = 0.08). In addition, increasing level of dried mealworm improved the ADG (p<0.01), ADFI (p<0.05) and tended to increase gain to feed ratio (p = 0.07) during the whole experimental period. As dried mealworm level was increased, nitrogen retention and digestibility of dry matter as well as crude protein were linearly increased (p = 0.05). In the results of blood profiles, decrease of blood urea nitrogen (linear, p = 0.05) and increase of insulin-like growth factor (linear, p = 0.03) were observed as dried mealworm was increased in diet during phase II. However, there were no significant differences in immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgG concentration by addition of dried mealworm in the growth trial. Consequently, supplementation of dried mealworm up to 6% in weaning pigs’ diet improves growth performance and nutrient digestibility without any detrimental effect on immune responses. PMID:27282974

  2. Protein requirements of finishing paca (Cuniculus paca).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira-Filho, Sérgio Luiz Gama; Bastos, Ivanise da Hora; Mendes, Alcester; Nogueira, Selene Siqueira da Cunha

    2016-06-01

    We conducted a nitrogen balance digestion trial to determine the crude protein requirements of paca (Cuniculus paca) during the last growth phase. In a 4 × 4 Latin square design, four young captive male pacas, aged 5 months, were fed four isoenergetic diets containing four different levels of nitrogen (N) (11.3, 16.6, 21.4, and 26.6 g N/kg of dry matter). After 15 days of adaptation, we collected all feces and urine for five consecutive days. By regression analysis between N intake and N in feces and urine, the metabolic fecal nitrogen (MFN = 4.2 g/kg of dry matter intake) and daily endogenous urinary N (EUN = 91.6 mg/kg(0.75)) were determined. Likewise, by regression analyses between nitrogen intake and nitrogen retention [NR = N intake-(fecal N + urine N)], we estimated the daily requirement of 280.5 mg N/kg(0.75). Therefore, a minimum of 55 g crude protein per kilogram dry matter and 13 MJ/kg of digestible energy are required by finishing paca on unrestricted diets. Such values are similar to those of other wild frugivores and below those of growing rabbits. The data confirm that farmers overfeed protein, and similar growth can be more economically achieved on lower protein diets.

  3. Effect of water addition to a total mixed ration on feed temperature, feed intake, sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, C A; DeVries, T J

    2010-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of water addition to a high-moisture total mixed ration (TMR) on feed temperature, feed intake, feed sorting behavior, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (155.8+/-60.1 DIM), individually fed once daily at 1000 h, were exposed to 3 diets in a Latin square design with 28-d treatment periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition [30.9% corn silage, 30.3% alfalfa haylage, 21.2% high-moisture corn, and 17.6% protein supplement; dry matter (DM) basis] and differed only in DM concentration, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets averaged 56.3, 50.8, and 44.1% DM. The study was conducted between May and August when environmental temperature was 18.2+/-3.6 degrees C and ambient temperature in the barn was 24.4+/-3.3 degrees C. Dry matter intake (DMI) was monitored for each animal for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 7 d of each period, milk production was monitored, feed temperature and ambient temperature and humidity were recorded (daily at 1000, 1300, and 1600 h), and fresh feed and orts were sampled for determination of sorting. For the final 4 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis. Samples taken for determining sorting were separated using a Penn State Particle Separator that had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, and fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Greater amounts of water added to the TMR resulted in greater increases in feed temperature in the hours after feed delivery, greater sorting against long particles, and decreased DMI, reducing the overall intake of starch and neutral detergent fiber. Milk production and composition were not affected by the addition of water to the TMR. Efficiency of production of milk was, however

  4. Micronutrient mineral and folate content of Australian and imported dried fruit products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Louise E; Singh, Davinder P; Clingeleffer, Peter R

    2011-01-01

    A selection of Australian and imported fresh and dried fruit products, including sultanas, Sunmuscats, Carina currants, Zante currants, apricots, and prunes, were analyzed for selected minerals (Ca, Mg, Na, S, B, Al, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, and Se), folate and vitamin C, and the capacity of dried fruits for dietary provision of these micronutrients evaluated. Micro-nutrients were concentrated by a factor of 3-5 in dried fruits compared with their fresh fruit counterparts and were consequently present in nutritionally significant levels, in contrast to fresh fruit. Australian dried sultanas, Carina currant, Zante currant, apricots, and prunes contained Cu, Fe, K, and Mn at levels of >20% of daily Required Dietary Intake (RDI, taken as the average for adult men and women as nominated by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council) and Sunmuscats contained Cu, Fe, and K at >20% of RDI. All dried fruits studied contained boron in the range of 1.5 to 5.4 mg per 100 g; however, the RDI for boron has not been defined by the NHMRC at the present time. All sultanas and currants studied contained folate at levels of 10-20% of RDI per 100 g. Experimental drying methods significantly affected folate levels with higher folate content in non-ground versus ground-based drying methods. Of the micro-nutrients supplying >20% of RDI, folate represents a particular nutrient for which the mean daily intake of adult Australians is typically inadequate. This study shows that dried fruit consumption, in contrast with fresh fruit, can provide significant proportions of daily requirements of several micronutrients, particularly folate.

  5. Calcium Intake and Nutritional Adequacy in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria Rubio-López

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Calcium is an important nutrient for child development. The main objective of this study was to assess calcium intake and its adequacy with dietary reference intake (DRI in Spanish children. The ANIVA (Antropometría y Nutrición Infantil de Valencia study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During two academic years 2013–2014 and 2014–2015, 1176 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from 14 primary schools in Valencia (Spain. Three-day food records were used to assess dietary intake, completed by parents/guardian. Anthropometric data (weight and height were evaluated in all subjects. Nutritional intake was compared to estimated average requirements (EARs and adequate intake (AI values to determine nutritional adequacy. A percentage of 25.77% had inadequate calcium intake, and a significantly higher prevalence was observed in girls (p = 0.006. Adequate calcium intake showed a positive association with the height z-score (p = 0.032. When assessing dietary patterns, schoolchildren with adequate calcium intakes had better nutritional adequacy in all nutrients, except cholesterol (p = 0.086 and fluorine (p = 0.503. These results suggest a public health problem that must be addressed through nutrition education programs to increase intake of calcium-rich food and to correct the associated dietary pattern.

  6. Amino Acid Composition of Protein-Enriched Dried Pasta:
Is It Suitable for a Low-Carbohydrate Diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filip, Sebastjan; Vidrih, Rajko

    2015-09-01

    Today, obesity is one of the major health problems, a so-called epidemic of the developed world. Obesity arises through an imbalance between energy intake and energy expenditure, so it is important for products to have a balanced nutritional composition. The aim of this study is to prepare high-protein pasta with high nutritional quality, with emphasis on its amino acid composition, as ordinary durum pasta lacks lysine and threonine. Ordinary durum wheat pasta contains, on average, 77% carbohydrate, and can have even less than 10% protein. It is therefore often excluded from normal energy-restricted diets, and especially from low-carbohydrate diets. In this study pasta that can satisfy the nutritional requirements of a low-carbohydrate diet and is suitable for daily use was developed and evaluated. Protein-enhanced pasta was produced by adding high amounts of plant protein extract (40% dry matter) without (plain high-protein pasta) or with 3% dried spinach powder (high-protein spinach pasta) to durum wheat semolina. According to the sensory analysis data, the addition of 40% of plant protein extract satisfied sensory and nutritional requirements, allowing further development and evaluation for possible marketing. This analysis shows that these high-protein neutral and spinach pasta contain 36.4 and 39.6 g of protein per 100 g of dry mass, 12.07 and 14.70 g of total essential amino acids per 100 g of dry mass, and a high content of branched-chain amino acids, i.e. 5.54 and 6.65 g per 100 g of dry mass, respectively. This therefore represents a true alternative to durum wheat pasta for low-carbohydrate diets.

  7. Drying-induced physico-chemical changes in cranberry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Honke, Joanna; Ciska, Ewa; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2018-02-01

    Sugar-free cranberry juice (XAD) and juice with 15% of maltodextrin were dried by freeze-, vacuum and spray drying methods. Total phenolics (589-6435mg/kg dry matter) including 5 flavonols, 3 phenolic acids, 2 procyanidins and 5 anthocyanins were stronger affected by juice formulation than by drying methods. Spray drying of juice, regardless of its formulation, was competitive to freeze drying in terms of polyphenols' retention. Increase in temperature up to 100°C during vacuum drying of XAD extracts resulted in degradation of polyphenolics (down to 4%), except chlorogenic acid. Its content increased with rise in temperature and accelerated hydroxymethylfurfural formation. The stronger the impact of drying, the more chlorogenic acid is present in cranberry products. In all powders analysed, formation of furoylmethyl amino acids was noted. Antioxidant capacity of cranberry products was influenced by juice formulation and was linked to content of polyphenols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. State of polyphenols in the drying process of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, M; Seetharaman, K

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of drying technologies and its impact on the polyphenol content of vegetables and fruits. Polyphenols contribute to many health benefits and can act as antioxidants. Specifically an increased intake of polyphenols has been shown to decrease the incidence of cardiovascular disease; furthermore, it has been shown to help reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Many researchers have reported on the effect of different drying techniques on the polyphenol content in fruits and vegetables. Polyphenol degradation mechanisms proposed in literature and pretreatments that potentially lead to higher retention of polyphenols during drying are also discussed.

  9. Restoration of Tear Secretion in a Murine Dry Eye Model by Oral Administration of Palmitoleic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuki; Mori, Daisuke; Imada, Toshihiro; Izuta, Yusuke; Shibuya, Michiko; Sakaguchi, Hisayo; Oonishi, Erina; Okada, Naoko; Matsumoto, Kenji; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-04-05

    Sea buckthorn ( Hippophae rhamnoides ) -derived products have traditionally been used as food and medicinal ingredients in Eastern countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of oral intake of sea buckthorn oil products on tear secretion using a murine dry eye model. Orally administered sea buckthorn pulp oil (not seed oil) restored aqueous tear secretion to its normal value under a dry eye condition. Palmitoleate (C16:1), a fatty acid present in sea buckthorn pulp oil, preserved tear secretion and suppressed inflammatory cytokines in the lacrimal gland to the same extent as that by pulp oil. These results suggest that an oral intake of sea buckthorn pulp oil has a potency to preserve tear secretion capacity in the dry eye state and palmitoleate, its main constituent fatty acid, is an active component of the oil. This effect may enable a potent diet-based treatment for the prevention of dry eye.

  10. Restoration of Tear Secretion in a Murine Dry Eye Model by Oral Administration of Palmitoleic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Nakamura

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides–derived products have traditionally been used as food and medicinal ingredients in Eastern countries. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of oral intake of sea buckthorn oil products on tear secretion using a murine dry eye model. Orally administered sea buckthorn pulp oil (not seed oil restored aqueous tear secretion to its normal value under a dry eye condition. Palmitoleate (C16:1, a fatty acid present in sea buckthorn pulp oil, preserved tear secretion and suppressed inflammatory cytokines in the lacrimal gland to the same extent as that by pulp oil. These results suggest that an oral intake of sea buckthorn pulp oil has a potency to preserve tear secretion capacity in the dry eye state and palmitoleate, its main constituent fatty acid, is an active component of the oil. This effect may enable a potent diet-based treatment for the prevention of dry eye.

  11. Dissecting grain yield pathways and their interactions with grain dry matter content by a two-step correlation approach with maize seedling transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchinger Albrecht E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of maize for human and animal nutrition, but also as a source for bio-energy is rapidly increasing. Maize yield is a quantitative trait controlled by many genes with small effects, spread throughout the genome. The precise location of the genes and the identity of the gene networks underlying maize grain yield is unknown. The objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge of these genes and gene networks by transcription profiling with microarrays. Results We assessed the grain yield and grain dry matter content (an indicator for early maturity of 98 maize hybrids in multi-environment field trials. The gene expression in seedlings of the parental inbred lines, which have four different genetic backgrounds, was assessed with genome-scale oligonucleotide arrays. We identified genes associated with grain yield and grain dry matter content using a newly developed two-step correlation approach and found overlapping gene networks for both traits. The underlying metabolic pathways and biological processes were elucidated. Genes involved in sucrose degradation and glycolysis, as well as genes involved in cell expansion and endocycle were found to be associated with grain yield. Conclusions Our results indicate that the capability of providing energy and substrates, as well as expanding the cell at the seedling stage, highly influences the grain yield of hybrids. Knowledge of these genes underlying grain yield in maize can contribute to the development of new high yielding varieties.

  12. Energy efficiency and its relationship with milk, body, and intake traits and energy status among primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäntysaari, P; Liinamo, A-E; Mäntysaari, E A

    2012-06-01

    Existing variation in energy efficiency and its relationship with milk yield and milk composition, body weight and body condition, feed intake, and energy status was studied in primiparous Nordic Red dairy cattle with data including 3,752 weekly records from 145 cows. Energy efficiency was defined as energy conversion efficiency (ECE) and as residual energy intake (REI) estimated based on Finnish feeding standards (REI₁) or from the current data (REI₂). The results indicated true phenotypic variation in energy efficiency of the cows. The proportion of total variance due to the animal was 0.35 for REI₁, 0.30 for REI₂, and 0.50 for ECE. The high efficiency based on ECE was associated with increased mobilization of body reserves (r = -0.50) and decreased dry matter intake (r = -0.51). With REI as an energy efficiency measure, the increased efficiency was associated with a large decrease in feed intake (REI₁: r = 0.60; REI2: r = 0.74) without any effect on body weight change (REI₁: r = 0.13; REI2: r = 0.00). Increased efficiency based on ECE and REI₁ was associated with increased milk yield (ECE: r = 0.58; REI₁: r = -0.41). A clear effect of stage of lactation on REI was found, which could be caused by true differences in utilization of metabolizable energy during lactation. However, it might also be related, in part, to the lack of knowledge of the composition of body weight change in the beginning of lactation. Copyright © 2012 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of Cultural Practices in Night on Weed Density and Weed Dry Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Rashed Mohasel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the response of weed seeds to light, two experiments, at two different locations were conducted at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad in 2009. At the first experiment, field was ploughed in day and night. Weed density was evaluated 70 d after plough, with 1×1 quadrate. At the second experiment, at night treatment, ploughing, potato planting and weeding with cultivator were done at night. Weed sampling was done twice at 43 and 130 days after planting with 1×1 quadrate and weeds were identified and counted. Result showed pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L., crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. scop, jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L. and mallow (Hibiscus trionum L. did not observed at night plough, in contrast, night plough has no significance influence on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.. Only common lambsquarters had similar appearance in two treatments, indicating insusceptibility of this weed to time of plough. Interestingly, at the second experiment, result was very similar. Potato yield was higher at night treatment, but not significant. This research showed that some cultural practice like plough, planting and weeding with cultivator in night can reduce weed density and weed dry matter. Keywords: Germination, Time of plough, Sustainable weeds management, Light

  14. Flow intake control using dry-weather forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icke, Otto; van Schagen, Kim; Huising, Christian; Wuister, Jasper; van Dijk, Edward; Budding, Arjan

    2017-08-01

    Level-based control of the influent flow causes peak discharges at a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) after rainfall events. Furthermore, the capacity of the post-treatment is in general smaller than the maximum hydraulic capacity of the WWTP. This results in a significant bypass of the post-treatment during peak discharge. The optimisation of influent flow reduces peak discharge, and increases the treatment efficiency of the whole water cycle, which benefits the surface water quality. In this paper, it is shown that half of the bypasses of the post-treatment can be prevented by predictive control. A predictive controller for influent flow is implemented using the Aquasuitetext">® Advanced Monitoring and Control platform. Based on real-time measured water levels in the sewerage and both rainfall and dry-weather flow (DWF) predictions, a discharge limitation is determined by a volume optimisation technique. For the analysed period (February-September 2016) results at WWTP Bennekom show that about 50 % of bypass volume can be prevented. Analysis of single rainfall events shows that the used approach is still conservative and that the bypass can be even further decreased by allowing discharge limitation during precipitation.

  15. Models to quantify excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in growing pigs fed regional diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn

    2013-01-01

    used in a digestibility and balance experiment. Excretion of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) of the experimental diets were determined. Due to the highest dietary fibre content, VN had the lowest digestibility of N, P and C (73, 49, and 73%, respectively) compared......Modern pig production contributes to many environmental problems that relate to manure, especially in areas with highly intensive production systems and in regions like Asia where the regulative control is not effective. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use three different pig diets...... varying in dietary protein, fibre and fat as representative for Danish (DK), Thai (TH) and Vietnamese (VN) pig production to develop and evaluate different approaches to predict/calculate excretion from growing pigs in comparison with the experimentally determined values. Nine female growing pigs were...

  16. Intake and digestibility of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench silages with different tannin contents in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex de Matos Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the voluntary intake and digestibility of three sorghum (Sorghum bicolor, L. Moench hybrid silages in sheep. The hybrids used were H1 -BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R, with tannin; H2 -(ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R, without tannin; and H3 -BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R, without tannin. The intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM, gross energy (GE, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and crude protein (CP were measured. Eighteen crossbred sheep weighing 59.4 kg (±8.3 were used in the trial. A completely randomized design with three treatments (hybrids and six repetitions (sheep was used. There were no differences in the DM intake or apparent digestibility among the hybrids. Silage of hybrid BRS 610 displayed higher digestibility coefficients for CP, NDF, ADF, and GE compared with the other silages, which did not differ from each other. The neutral detergent fiber, ADF and digestible energy (DE intakes were similar among the hybrids silages. All of the hybrids resulted in a positive N balance in sheep. The levels of DE were superior in hybrid silage BRS 610 in comparison with the other hybrids. Sorghum hybrid BRS 610 silage exhibited superior nutritional value compared with the other hybrids, which is most likely in part due to the absence of tannins. Sorghum silage made with hybrid BRS 610 (CMSXS 232 A × CMSXS 234 R presents superior gross energy, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber digestibility coefficients, as well as greater digestible energy levels than BRS 655 (CMSXS 222 A × CMSXS 235 R and (ATF54 A × CMSXS 235 R.

  17. Prediction of feed intake in the Italian dairy sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Avondo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recommendations on feed intake for sheep are based on assessments of genetic types, feeding systems and environ-  mental conditions that are very different from Italian ones. These considerations underline the need for intake data or  models that derive from local trials. For this reason intake data of lactating and dry ewes, pregnant ewes, rams and  growing lambs have been collected from selected literature based on sheep feeding trials mainly conducted on dairy  breeds in Italy or in other Mediterranean countries. Equations and intake tables differentiated according to the physio-  logical and productive categories, as well as feeding typology are reported. Particular consideration is given to pasture  intake with supplementation, reporting three equations developed for three qualitative levels of the pasture, recogniz-  able from the CP content of herbage: 16% DM. The equations include animal and  pasture variables and supplementation, expressed as grams of CP given with feeds other than pasture. Only when pas-  ture CP content is lower than 10% DM, supplement is not included in the equation, as no or negative substitution effect  is expected. 

  18. HVAC--the importance of clean intake section and dry air filter in cold climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssen, S O

    2004-01-01

    HVAC systems, if properly designed, installed, operated and maintained, will improve thermal conditions and air quality indoors. However, the success strongly depends on the design of the system and the quality of the components we use in our HVAC installations. Regrettably, several investigations have revealed that many HVAC installations have a lot of operational and maintenance problems, especially related to moisture, rain and snow entrainment. In short, it seems that too little attention is placed on the design of the intake section, despite the fact that there exists a large number of national and international guidelines and recommendations. This is a serious problem because the air intake is the initial component of the ventilation plant and as such the first line of defense against debris and other outdoor air pollutants. Unfortunately, the design is often an argued compromise between the architect, the civil engineer and the HVAC engineer. In the future, the technical, hygienic and microbiological feature of air intakes must be better ensured in order to avoid the air intake becoming a risk component as regards contamination and indoor air quality. Further, it seems that the magnitude of the problem is not well known, or recognized, by the building designers, engineers and professionals involved in the construction and operation of buildings. This fact needs to be addressed more seriously, because obviously there is a big difference between the idealistic architectonic design, engineering intentions and the real life situation. Several practical recommendations for design and operation of HVAC systems are presented. Following the recommendations will result in less pollution from the HVAC-system and increased indoor environmental quality.

  19. Dry season mapping of savanna forage quality, using the hyperspectral Carnegie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knox, N.; Skidmore, A.K.; Prins, H.H.T.; Asner, P.; Werff, van der H.M.A.; Boer, de W.F.; Waal, van der C.; Knegt, de H.J.; Kohi, E.; Slotow, R.; Grant, R.C.

    2011-01-01

    Forage quality within an African savanna depends upon limiting nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) and nutrients that constrain the intake rates (non-digestible fibre) of herbivores. These forage quality nutrients are particularly crucial in the dry season when concentrations of limiting nutrients

  20. Intake, selection, digesta retention, digestion and gut fill of two coprophageous species, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), on a hay-only diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, R; Kreuzer, M; Hummel, J; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2011-10-01

    A colonic separation mechanism (CSM) is the prerequisite for the digestive strategy of coprophagy. Two different CSM are known in small herbivores, the 'wash-back' CSM of lagomorphs and the 'mucous-trap' CSM of rodents. Differences between these groups in their digestive pattern when fed exclusively hay were investigated in six rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and six guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Intake, digestibility (by total faecal collection), solute and particle mean retention times (MRT, using Co-EDTA and Cr-mordanted fibres) were measured. Rabbits selected less fibrous parts of the hay than guinea pigs, leaving orts with higher content of neutral detergent fibre [NDF; 721 ± 21 vs. 642 ± 31 g/kg dry matter (DM) in guinea pigs]. They also expressed a lower NDF digestibility (0.44 ± 0.10 vs. 0.55 ± 0.05 of total), a similar particle MRT (15 ± 3 vs. 18 ± 6 h), a longer solute MRT (51 ± 9 vs. 16 ± 4 h), and a lower calculated dry matter gut fill (19.6 ± 4.7 vs. 29.7 ± 4.1 g DM/kg body mass) than guinea pigs (p bacterial matter from the colonic digesta plug than the 'mucous-trap' CSM found in the guinea pigs. Related to metabolic body mass, rabbits therefore need a less capacious colon for their CSM where a more efficient bacteria wash-out is reflected in the lower fibre digestibility. A lighter digestive tract could contribute to a peculiarity of lagomorphs: their ability to run faster than other similar-sized mammals. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  1. Construction of water intake facilities from partially drying up watercourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    Full Text Available Partially ephemeral streams are complex objects that can still be used for water supply or irrigation of agricultural land. The problem of such streams is poorly studied, because the influence of various environmental factors complicates carrying out any experiments. Also it is not possible to make their full classification due to their very strong variability not only on a particular geographical belt, but also within separate areas of the river. All this undoubtedly complicates the task of the designers when designing the system. Creation of laboratory models, allowing us to evaluate the possibilities of a spring use for the purpose of water supply, is very promising. These watercourses have a large amount of suspended sediments, so it is not possible to use the standard scheme of water using of the coastal and fluvial water intake structures. It is proposed to organize the fight with the sediments in the flow chart of primary clarifiers, which will perform the function of settling suspensions, to facilitate the work of water treatment facilities. Also the creation of artificial prop is useful in order to achieve the required level of water in a watercourse for water organization. If under the bottom of the river there is underground water, and the permeability of the soil is good, it is possible to arrange the withdrawal of water through infiltration intakes, by setting the filter under the bottom of the watercourse with its connection to filter, from which the water will climb to submersible pumps. Additional filtration through the soil of the river bottom allows not using the scheme sumps, which significantly reduces the cost of epy incoming water treatment.

  2. Effect of environmental factors on the digestibility and voluntary feed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... to the digestion and intake trials at Cedara were pooled, analysed using multiple regression techniques, and regressed on dry matter digestibilty and VFI, to examine the influence of environment on the nutritive value of the herbage and to develop simple linear regression models for predicting kikuyu quality and intake.

  3. Effect of urea treatment on digestibility and utilization of sorghum straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nianogo A.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine male goats and nine castrated lambs were randomly divided into three groups of six animals to receive one of three experimental diets in a digestion trial. Diet S, provided chopped sorghum straw (SS, 28/ concentrate (C and 10/ Dolichos lablab hay (D. Diet Su1 provided SS containing 2/ urea, 24/ C and 12/ D, and diet Sue1 provided SS treated to contain 2/ urea and ensiled for 28 days, plus 25/ C and 14/ D. Twenty four lambs were randomly divided into three groups of eight animals to receive one of three diets in a 56-day growth trial; diet S2 provided SS plus 60/ C; diet Su2 provided SS containing 2/ urea plus 60/ C, and diet Sue2 provided SS treated to contain 2/ urea and ensiled for 28 days, plus 60/ C. The digestion trial showed higher (P<.05 daily intake of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fiber for S, than for Sue1 and Su1. Dry matter intake was 55.93; 39.42 and 42.34 g[kgE0.75E-1 for S1, Su1 and Sue1, respectively. Dry matter intake was slightly higher for lambs [50 g[kgE0.75E-1] than for goats [42 g[kE0.75E-1]. There was no effect of dietary treatments on apparent nutrient digestibility. During the growth trial, intake of straw varied from 17.97 (S2 to 24.78 g[kgE0.75E-1 (Sue2, but differences were not significant. Daily gain did not differ between treatments. Total feed intake and feed efficiency were only slightly affected by dietary treatments. Average feed intake was 4.36/ of body weight. High concentrate intakes may have upset the effect of urea treatment and silo fermentation in this study.

  4. Lecithin: a by-product of biodiesel production and a source of choline for dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of soy lecithins (L, a by-product of the biodiesel production process, and choline chloride microencapsulated with hydrogenated vegetable oils (C on dry matter intake, milk yield,  milk quality traits, milk choline and haematological profile of dairy cows. A total of 12 mid-lactating Holstein Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to cross-over design (2 diets x 2 periods. Diets were isoenergetic, isofibrous and isonitrogenous and had the same content of choline. Dry matter intake was not affected by the diet, but L led to lower milk choline (P

  5. Chemical composition of culinary wastes and their potential as a feed for ruminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, J.D.; MacLeod, G.K.; Warner, W.C.

    1980-09-01

    Culinary wastes were collected from three different sources, namely, institutional, restaurant and household. As dry matter content of the food wastes increased, protein level (on a dry weight basis) remained relatively constant, whereas fat content markedly increased. Sheep readily adapted to a diet containing 35% of dry matter as food wastes, their daily dry matter intake being 4.5% of body weight; this suggested that palatability was no problem. Digestibility values of 76, 68, 73 and 99% were calculated for dry matter, protein ether extract and acid detergent fibre fractions of garbage, indicating that the material had a high nutritive value for sheep. The culinary wastes had a low count of harmful bacteria. Storage of the material at room temperature resulted in molds and odours after a week, indicating that the material deteriorated quite rapidly. The addition of organic acids or formaldehyde kept the material quite stable for several weeks.

  6. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) and groundnut (Arachis hypogea L.) haulms as supplements to sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) stover : intake, digestibility and optimum feeding levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savadogo, M.; Zemmelink, G.; Nianogo, A.J.; Keulen, van H.

    2000-01-01

    Two feeding trials were conducted to study the combined effects of (i) varying degrees of selective consumption and (ii) supplementation with cowpea (Trail 1) or groundnut haulms (Trial 2), on intake of organic matter (IOM) from sorghum stover, and total intake of digestible organic matter (IDOM).

  7. Variations in automatically recorded rumination time as explained by variations in intake of dietary fractions and milk production, and between-cow variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byskov, M V; Nadeau, E; Johansson, B E O; Nørgaard, P

    2015-06-01

    Individual recording of rumination time (RT) is now possible in commercial dairy herds, through development of a microphone-based sensor, which is able to record RT by the sound of rumination activity. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between daily RT and intakes of different dietary fractions, the relationship between RT in minutes per kilogram of dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production, and to examine the variation in RT within and between mid-lactating dairy cows. Data from 3 production trials were used in which a total of 27 different diets were fed. The data contained 761, 290, and 203 daily recordings of RT, milk yield, milk components, DMI, and intake of dietary fractions recorded on 29, 26, and 24 Holstein and Swedish Red cows from trials 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The dietary fractions included forage neutral detergent fiber (NDF), concentrate NDF, crude protein, sugar, starch, and the remaining fraction represented by organic matter--(forage NDF+concentrate NDF+crude protein+sugar+starch). The relationship between the dietary fractions and RT was analyzed in 2 steps. In step 1, the dietary fractions, which were significantly related to RT, were selected and simultaneously checked for multicollinearity between the dietary components; in step 2, a multivariate model, including the effect of repeated measurements, the main effect of the selected dietary fractions from step 1, random effects of cow(trial) and trial, and information on breed, days in milk, and parity was used to analyze the relationship between RT and the selected dietary fractions. Relationships between RT in minutes per kilogram of DMI and milk yield and milk components were analyzed, using the same multivariate model as in step 2. Approximately 32% of the variation in daily RT could be explained by variations in intakes of the dietary fractions, whereas 48% of the total variation in RT was accounted for by individual variations between cows. Intakes of

  8. Effect of drying on the desorption of diuron and terbuthylazine from natural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartz, Bernd [Institute for Land Use, Rostock University, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)]. E-mail: bernd.lennartz@uni-rostock.de; Louchart, Xavier [Laboratory on Interactions between Soils, Agrosystems and Hydrosystems (LISAH), National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1 (France)

    2007-03-15

    This work was initiated to study the effects of climate induced soil water status variations which can reach extreme values under natural conditions on the sorption process of hydrophobic organic compounds. Based on the classical slurry batch methodology an approach is developed that allows the fast and careful complete drying of soil suspensions (microwave technique). Classical adsorption experiments were followed by three desorption steps with and without drying cycles. Drying and re-wetting enhanced the sorption-desorption hysteresis and Freundlich adsorption coefficients increased from 5.9 to 16 and 5.2 to 21 over three drying cycles for diuron and terbuthylazine respectively. Assuming the validity of a dual stage adsorption process, model evaluation suggests that drying is as a shrinking-like process leading to conformational changes of the dominant sorbent (soil organic matter) which restrict the intra-micro-particle diffusion. Rewetting only leads to a partial recovery of the diffusional pore space. - Drying of soil samples increased the binding of herbicidal compounds which is interpreted as a reduction of diffusional mass transfer into and out of the soil organic matter.

  9. Effect of drying on the desorption of diuron and terbuthylazine from natural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennartz, Bernd; Louchart, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    This work was initiated to study the effects of climate induced soil water status variations which can reach extreme values under natural conditions on the sorption process of hydrophobic organic compounds. Based on the classical slurry batch methodology an approach is developed that allows the fast and careful complete drying of soil suspensions (microwave technique). Classical adsorption experiments were followed by three desorption steps with and without drying cycles. Drying and re-wetting enhanced the sorption-desorption hysteresis and Freundlich adsorption coefficients increased from 5.9 to 16 and 5.2 to 21 over three drying cycles for diuron and terbuthylazine respectively. Assuming the validity of a dual stage adsorption process, model evaluation suggests that drying is as a shrinking-like process leading to conformational changes of the dominant sorbent (soil organic matter) which restrict the intra-micro-particle diffusion. Rewetting only leads to a partial recovery of the diffusional pore space. - Drying of soil samples increased the binding of herbicidal compounds which is interpreted as a reduction of diffusional mass transfer into and out of the soil organic matter

  10. Post-partum reproductive activity and estrus synchronization responsiveness in anglonubian x sprd fed with dried carnauba wax palm fruit (Copernicia prunifera long term

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Maia Silva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the use of dried carnauba wax palm fruit in 28 postpartum goats fed diets containing Bermudagrass hay and either corn (WCWP or carnauba-based (CWP concentrated feed. Estrus synchronization was performed 90 days postpartum, and the goats were mated. In the CWP group, compared to the WCWP group, the daily dry matter intake was significantly reduced (646.48 ± 11.03 g vs. 739.29 ± 3.24 g, respectively; P < 0.01. The time to the first functional corpus luteum was similar between the groups, occurring a mean 66 days postpartum. During estrus synchronization, the CWP group had a decreased sternal subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness when compared to the WCWP group (11.93 ± 0.45 mm vs. 13.69 ± 0.57 mm, respectively; P < 0.05 and a lower pregnancy rate (86.67% vs. 46.15%, respectively; P < 0.02. The embryonic vesicle and crown-rump length growth rates, and the biparietal, thoracic, and abdominal diameters at 45 days of pregnancy were within normal range for goats in both groups. Litter size at birth was similar between the groups at a mean 1.39 ± 0.11. In conclusion, the substitution of corn with dehydrated carnauba wax palm fruit in concentrated feed for postpartum goats showed no positive effects. Reduced feed intake in the does consuming the carnauba diet caused decreased body reserves, which probably resulted in a decreased pregnancy rate in the affected does.

  11. UTILIZATION OF MEXICAN SUNFLOWER LEAF MEAL-BASED DIETS BY PRE WEANED WEST AFRICAN DWARF LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Henry Ekeocha

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted using 16 West African Dwarf (WAD lambs selected from 16 ewes brought to heat (Oestrus by synchronization and served by 2 rams. The experimental animals were placed at 6 weeks of age and were fed with Panicum maximum plus concentrate diet mixture of Mexican Sunflower Leaves (MSL and Wheat Bran (WB such that 0, 15, 30 and 45% of wheat bran was replaced by weight with MSL gravimetrically in diets A, B, C and D respectively. The experiment lasted for seven weeks. Feed and water were provided ad libitum and routine vaccination and medication were administered. Parameters measured were weight gain, dry matter intake, weaning weight and Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR. The Dry Matter Intake - DMI (g/day was highest for lambs on diet C (156.94 followed by B (156.53, A (154.29 and D (152.04 g/day respectively. This increase was numerically higher than observed values for animals on treatments A and B but statistically significant (P0.05. Results from this study showed that 30% MSLM-based diet was acceptable to the pre-weaned lambs as it supported dry matter intake, optimum weight gain, weaning weight and feed conversion ratio before diminishing return sets in.

  12. Effects of canopy light distribution characteristics and leaf nitrogen content on efficiency of radiation use in dry matter accumulation of soybean [Glycine max] cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraiwa, T.; Hashikawa, U.; Taka, S.; Sakai, A.

    1994-01-01

    The amount of dry matter produced per photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intercepted by the canopy (EPAR) and factors which might affect EPAR were determined for various soybean cultivars, and their relationships were also analyzed in two field experiments. In 1989 and 1990, 11 cultivars and 27 cultivars respectively, were grown on an experimental field in shiga Prefectural Junior College. Changes of intercepted PAR, top dry matter weight, light extinction coefficient (KPAR), nitrogen content per leaf area (SLN) and nitrogen accumulation in the top (1990 only) were measured. EPAR averaged for all the cultivars was 2.48g MJ(-1) in both years and its coefficient of variance among cultivars was +- 9% in 1989 and +- 17% in 1990. In general, recent cultivars showed greater EPAR than older ones. The correlation coefficients between SLN and EPAR were 0.548 in 1989 and 0.651-- in 1990, while there was no correlation between KPAR and EPAR. Since SLN showed close correlation with SLW (r = 0.954 in 1989, r = 0.170-- in 1990), the difference in EPAR between old and new cultivars was considered to be attributable mainly to the improved leaf morphological trait and consequently greater leaf photosynthesis of newer cultivars. SLN further correlated with total top nitrogen content (r = 0.736-- in 1990) thus seemed to be limited by nitrogen accumulation

  13. Brown midrib corn silage fed during the peripartal period increased intake and resulted in a persistent increase in milk solids yield of Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W C; Chase, L E; Overton, T R; Nestor, K E

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate transition cow performance when brown midrib corn silage (BMRCS; Mycogen F2F444) was included in the diet during the transition period, and to determine if any production response occurring during the first 3 wk of lactation would persist from wk 4 to 15 when a common diet was fed. Seventy Holstein dairy cows were blocked by parity (either second or third and greater) and calving date and randomly assigned to the CCS (a mixture of varieties of conventional corn silage) or BMRCS treatment. Diets were formulated with the objective of keeping all ration parameters the same, with the exception of neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Neutral detergent fiber digestibility values (30 h) for CCS and BMRCS averaged 56.8 and 73.8%, respectively. Prepartum rations contained 47% corn silage, 18% wheat straw, 7% alfalfa haylage, and 28% concentrate, and averaged 45% neutral detergent fiber (DM basis). Postpartum rations contained 40% corn silage, 15% alfalfa haylage, 1% straw, and 44% concentrate. Milk weights (3×/d) and dry matter intake were recorded daily, and milk composition was measured weekly. Cows fed BMRCS had higher dry matter intake during the 2-wk period before calving (14.3 vs. 13.2 kg/d) and the 3-wk period after calving (20.1 vs. 18.1 kg/d) than did cows fed CCS. Yields of milk, solids, and lactose were increased, whereas a trend was observed for a reduction in somatic cell counts and linear scores in the postpartum period for cows receiving BMRCS during the transition. A significant carryover effect of BMRCS was observed on production from wk 4 to 15 when the common diet was fed, with yields of protein (1.36 vs. 1.30 kg/d), lactose (2.24 vs. 2.12 kg/d), and solids (5.82 vs. 5.51 kg/d) increasing significantly, and yields of fat-corrected milk, energy-corrected milk, and fat tending to increase during this period for cows that had been fed BMRCS. The increased intakes during the last 2 wk of the prepartum period in

  14. Digestibility, productive performance, and egg quality of laying hens as affected by dried cassava pulp replacement with corn and enzyme supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khempaka, Sutisa; Maliwan, Prapot; Okrathok, Supattra; Molee, Wittawat

    2018-02-24

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate the potential use of dried cassava pulp (DCP) supplemented with enzymes as an alternative feed ingredient in laying hen diets. In experiment 1, 45 laying hens (Isa Brown) aged 45 weeks were placed in individual cages to measure nutrient digestibility for 10 days. Nine dietary treatments were control and DCP as a replacement for corn at 20, 25, 30, and 35% supplemented with mixed enzymes (cellulase, glucanase, and xylanase) at 0.10 and 0.15%. Results showed that the use of DCP at 20-35% added with mixed enzymes had no negative effects on dry matter digestibility, while organic matter digestibility and nitrogen retention decreased with increased DCP up to 30-35% in diets. Both enzyme levels (0.10 and 0.15%) showed similar results on nutrient digestibility and retention. In experiment 2, a total of 336 laying hens aged 32 weeks were randomly allocated to seven dietary treatments (control and DCP-substituted diets at 20, 25, and 30%) supplemented with mixed enzymes (0.10 and 0.15%). Diets incorporated with 20-30% of DCP and supplemented with mixed enzymes at both levels had no significant effects on egg production, egg weight, feed intake, egg mass, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, or egg quality, except for egg yolk color being decreased with an increase of DCP in diets (P digestibility, productive performance, or egg quality.

  15. Sodium intake of elementary school children in Bandung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endah Damastuti; Muhayatun Santoso; Natalia Adventini; Katherina Oginawati

    2010-01-01

    Sodium is essential micro nutrient which is needed by human body such as in regulating body fluids balance, maintaining the normal pH of blood, transmitting nerve signal, and helping cells in metabolism of other essential nutrients. The changes of modern life style at the moment, had lead people tend to consume fast foods and processed foods which have high sodium content that apprehensively increasing prevalence of hypertension. In this research, the determination of sodium intake of elementary school children in Bandung and the contribution of street foods to sodium intake was conducted. Food sampling was done by duplicate diet method of 19 elementary school children and 24 kinds of street foods often consumed by children in Bandung. The samples were analysed using neutron activation analysis technique. The results showed that sodium intake of elementary school children was ranging from 228 to 7019 mg/day with approximately 47 % of children have sodium intake above the upper intake level, 2200 mg/day. While the estimation of sodium intake from street foods, assuming that 1 portion of street food consumed in 1 day, was ranging from 53 to 3750 mg/day with average sodium intake contribution was about 65 % of adequate intake value. It could be generally concluded that present dietary pattern of children tends to over consumed of sodium and this matter could apprehensively impact to the increasing of future prevalence of hypertension as well as hypertension probability at age < 20 years old. From this research, it was expected to encourage all societies in giving more attention at dietary pattern and nutrient intake of their children for better quality human resources in the future. (author)

  16. Oral intake of beet extract provides protection against skin barrier impairment in hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Ken-Ichi; Umemura, Kazuo

    2013-05-01

    The epidermis acts as a functional barrier against the external environment. Disturbances in the function of this barrier cause water loss and increase the chances of penetration by various irritable stimuli, leading to skin diseases such as dry skin, atopic dermatitis, and psoriasis. Ceramides are a critical natural element of the protective epidermal barrier. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the oral intake of beet (Beta vulgaris) extract, a natural product rich in glucosylceramide (GlcCer), may prevent disturbance in skin barrier function. When HR-1 hairless mice were fed a special diet (HR-AD), transepidermal water loss (TEWL) from the dorsal skin increased, with a compensatory increase in water intake after 5 weeks. Mice fed with HR-AD had dry skin with erythema and showed increased scratching behaviour. Histological examinations revealed a remarkable increase in the thickness of the skin at 8 weeks. Supplemental addition of beet extract, which contained GlcCer at a final concentration of 0.1%, significantly prevented an increase TEWL, water intake, cumulative scratching time, and epidermal thickness at 8 weeks. These results indicate that oral intake of beet extract shows potential for preventing skin diseases associated with impaired skin barrier function. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Metabolisable protein supply to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of increased dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage, obtained by extending the pre-wilting period before ensiling, on the amount of metabolisable protein (MP) supplied to lactating dairy cows. Spring growth and first regrowth of grass...... and faeces, respectively, were collected over 94 h to cover the diurnal variation, pooled, and subsequently analysed. Rumen fluid was collected in same sampling procedure. To estimate the duodenal flow of microbial protein, microbes were isolated from the rumen and analysed for amino acids (AA) and purines...... flow of AA. The higher duodenal flow of AA derived from a lower rumen degradation of feed protein and a tendency towards a higher microbial synthesis in the rumen. Fibre digestibility and CH4 production were not affected by silage DM concentration. In conclusion, MP concentration in grass-clover silage...

  18. Influence of weaning regimen on intake, growth characteristics and plasma blood metabolites in male buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M A; Pasha, T N; Jabbar, M A; Ijaz, A; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S

    2013-09-01

    Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and blood metabolites in Nili-Ravi male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF) and early weaning (EW), and weaned off milk at 12, 10 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. For the first 3 days after birth, calves in all three treatments were fed colostrum, and were then moved to individual milk feeding at 10% of BW for the next 6 weeks. Thereafter, the provision of milk to the CMF group was gradually tapered to zero through week 12, using week 6 intakes as a base. The LMF calves were fed milk at 7.5%, 5.0%, 3.5%, and 1.5% of BW during weeks 7 to 10, respectively. Lastly, calves in the EW group were fed milk at 5.0% and 2.5% of BW at weeks 7 and 8, respectively. Calf starter (CS) feed was also provided ad libitum from weeks 2 to 12 and individual intakes were recorded on a daily basis. Blood samples were taken from weeks 6 to 12, on a weekly basis; whereas, the BW, heart girth, withers height and hip width were measured at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. Weight gain, average daily gain, and body measurements were the same across all three groups. Milk intake was lower (P intake was greater (P calves compared with the other treatment groups. Dry matter intake was greater (P calves compared with the CMF calves. The FE was greater (P calves compared with the LMF and EW treatment groups. Blood glucose concentration was similar among the treatments; however, blood urea nitrogen was greater (P calves compared with the CMF and LMF groups. Plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher (P calves compared with the CMF calves. In light of these results, it is evident that buffalo calves can be successfully weaned as early as 8 weeks of age without negatively affecting their growth performance.

  19. Genetic variation of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation of double haploid wheat lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nankova, M.; Milkova, V.; Ivanov, P.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    The study considers the genotype peculiarities in the dynamics of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation in plant parts during the different stages of 10 DH wheat lines characterized as initial breeding material of high quality. These were obtained from 2 crosses - 7-P 2 - 11 x H-81/32-4 and 7-P 2 - 11 x H-81/32-24. Considerable genotype variations were established both between the lines and the parental forms, and in comparison to the standard quality variety Slavyanka-196. Lines 41-191 and 41-344 are of special interest because of their high grain yield and high intensity of biomass accumulation (kg/dka/day) and high intensity of nitrogen uptake (g/dka/day) mainly in the second half of the grain filling period. These fines stand out among the new DH fines with their high protein yields. In line 41-181 the ratio NHI/GHI changes positively with a high degree of certainty in both phases of grain maturity. This line is characterized with the highest value of nitrogen (mg) in vegetation mass per unit mature grain. A positive correlation was established between the NHI/GHI ratio and protein content in grain. Line 41-344 is the most economic one with regard to nitrogen formation per 100 kg grain with the lowest expense for formation of the respective quantity of straw. Refs. 5 (author)

  20. [Circadian energy intake evaluation of a group of office workers in Porto].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setas, Cristiana D; Pinhão, Sílvia C; Carvalho, Davide M; Correia, Flora C; Medina, José L

    2004-01-01

    The importance of food in health promotion and disease prevention is well known. The aims of our study were to evaluate the daily energy intake of an adult group; to study the association of a 24 hour recall (R24h) and a Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ); to analyse energy intake variation with obesity and to verify if our sample had an ingestion according to DRI's. We studied a convenience sample of Portuguese adult population of 154 office workers (121 women), with a mean of ages of 44.2 +/- 12.1 years. We used a self administered FFQ and a R24h to evaluate food habits. Middle number of meals was 4.8 +/- 1.0 meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner were the most frequent). Middle daily ingestion was 1908 +/- 559 kcal. Men had a superior energy intake at all meals, except at afternoon snack and supper. We did not find any relation between BMI and food intake, BMI is only related with age. We compared our sample ingestion with DRI's and verified that vitamins B1, B2, B12, B6, C, niacin, Fe and P, were totally reached, and the inverse was obtained in Zn, folate, vitamin D and E, pantothenic acid and biotin. We conclude that our sample ingestion of protein is higher than the recommended, carbohydrates is less consume than the recommended and only recommendations of fat and alcohol consumption were in agreement with WHO recommendations.

  1. Variation in residual feed intake in Holstein-Friesian dairy heifers in southern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Y J; Pryce, J E; Grainger, C; Wales, W J; Linden, N; Porker, M; Hayes, B J

    2011-09-01

    Feed conversion efficiency of dairy cattle is an important component of the profitability of dairying, given that the cost of feed accounts for much of total farm expenses. Residual feed intake (RFI) is a useful measure of feed conversion efficiency, as it can be used to compare individuals with the same or differing levels of production during the period of measurement. If genetic variation exists in RFI among dairy cattle, selection for lower RFI could improve profitability. In this experiment, RFI was defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, which was determined by regression of dry matter (DM) intake against mean body weight (BW) and growth rate. Nine hundred and three Holstein-Friesian heifer calves, aged between 5 and 7 mo, were measured for RFI in 3 cohorts of approximately 300 animals. Calves were housed under feedlot style conditions in groups of 15 to 20 for 85 to 95 d and had ad libitum access to a cubed alfalfa hay. Intakes of individual animals were recorded via an electronic feed recording system and BW gain was determined by weighing animals once or twice weekly, over a period of 60 to 70 d. Calves had DM intake (mean ± SD) of 8.3±1.37 kg of DM/d over the measurement period with BW gains of 1.1±0.17 kg/d. In terms of converting feed energy for maintenance and growth, the 10% most efficient calves (lowest RFI) ate 1.7 kg of DM less each day than the 10% least efficient calves (highest RFI) for the same rate of growth. Low-RFI heifers also had a significantly lower rate of intake (g/min) than high-RFI heifers. The heritability estimate of RFI (mean ± SE) was 0.27 (±0.12). These results indicate that substantial genetic variation in RFI exists, and that the magnitude of this variation is large enough to enable this trait to be considered as a candidate trait for future dairy breeding goals. A primary focus of future research should be to ensure that calves that are efficient at converting feed

  2. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah

    2015-10-25

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  3. Subsurface intake systems: Green choice for improving feed water quality at SWRO desalination plants, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    KAUST Repository

    Dehwah, Abdullah; Missimer, Thomas M.

    2015-01-01

    An investigation of three seawater reverse osmosis facilities located along the shoreline of the Red Sea of Saudi Arabia that use well intake systems showed that the pumping-induced flow of raw seawater through a coastal aquifer significantly improves feed water quality. A comparison between the surface seawater and the discharge from the wells shows that turbidity, algae, bacteria, total organic carbon, most fractions of natural organic matter (NOM), and particulate and colloidal transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) have significant reductions in concentration. Nearly all of the algae, up to 99% of the bacteria, between 84 and 100% of the biopolymer fraction of NOM, and a high percentage of the TEP were removed during transport. The data suggest that the flowpath length and hydraulic retention time in the aquifer play the most important roles in removal of the organic matter. Since the collective concentrations of bacteria, biopolymers, and TEP in the intake seawater play important roles in the biofouling of SWRO membranes, the observed reductions suggest that the desalination facilities that use well intakes systems will have a potentially lower fouling rate compared to open-ocean intake systems. Furthermore, well intake system intakes also reduce the need for chemical usage during complex pretreatment systems required for operation of SWRO facilities using open-ocean intakes and reduce environmental impacts.

  4. Effects of plane of nutrition on growth, feed intake, digestibility and nitrogen balance in Murrah graded male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Hajime; Baral, Bodh R; Shiino, Tatsu; Devkota, Naba R; Oishi, Kazato; Hirooka, Hiroyuki; Kolachhapati, Mana R; Tiwari, Ishwor C P

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted using 17 male buffalo calves to assess the effects of plane of nutrition on dry matter intake (DMI), daily gain (DG), body size measurement, apparent digestibility and nitrogen (N) balance. To attain 250kg BW, the calves were allocated into three groups: H, L-H and L, receiving the concentrate at 1.50% of BW, 0.75% of BW until 190kg BW and 1.50% thereafter and 0.75% of BW, respectively. The animals had ad libitum access to urea-treated rice straw (UTRS). The DMI of UTRS through the experiment was higher in L and L-H than H, showing 3.52, 2.90 and 2.62kg/day, respectively (Pcalves in Nepal. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Herbage intake and milk yield in Comisana ewes as effect of 4 vs 7 h of grazing during late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Bernardo; Marletta, Donata; De Angelis, Anna; Di Paola, Fortunato; Bordonaro, Salvatore; Avondo, Marcella

    2017-06-01

    Thirty-two Comisana ewes at late lactation were used in two trials carried out during late spring in 2 consecutive years, with the aim to evaluate the effect of the duration of grazing on herbage intake and performance. In each trial, 16 pluriparous Comisana lactating ewes were equally divided into two groups which grazed in two separate areas of natural pasture from 11:00 to 15:00 h (group 4H) or from 10:00 to 17:00 (group 7H). A concentrate mixture (500 g/day) was also offered to each ewe. The mean maximum temperature was, respectively, 23.5 ± 3.8 °C during experiment 1 and 27.0 ± 3.1 °C during experiment 2. Probably as a consequence of the differences in climatic conditions, the results on herbage intake and milk production were different during the two trials. Herbage dry matter intake was not affected by the duration of grazing during trial 1, whereas it was significantly lower in 4H group compared to that in 7H group (0.67 vs 1.02 kg/day; P ewes were able to reach good intake levels despite grazing during the hottest hours; with higher temperatures throughout the trial (trial 2), the 4H ewes reduced ingestion. Milk production was higher in 4H group during trial 1 (778 vs 707 g/day; P = 0.006), whereas it was not affected by the number of hours of grazing during trial 2, despite the higher intake levels reached by the 7H group. In conclusion, 3 extra hours of grazing for ewes at late lactation on a low quality pasture could be nullified in terms of yield response.

  6. The effect of dietary garlic supplementation on body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency, faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost in crossbred dairy calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Sudipta; Mehla, Ram K; Sirohi, S K; Roy, Biswajit

    2010-06-01

    Thirty-six crossbred calves (Holstein cross) of 5 days of age were used to study the effect of garlic extract feeding on their performance up to the age of 2 months (pre-ruminant stage). They were randomly allotted into treatment and control groups (18 numbers in each group). Performance was evaluated by measuring average body weight (BW) gain, feed intake (dry matter (DM), total digestible nutrient (TDN) and crude protein (CP)), feed conversion efficiency (FCE; DM, TDN and CP), faecal score, faecal coliform count and feeding cost. Diets were the same for the both groups. In addition, treatment group received garlic extract supplementation at 250 mg/kg BW per day per calf. Body weight measured weekly, feed intake measured twice daily, proximate analysis of feeds and fodders analysed weekly, faecal scores monitored daily and faecal coliform count done weekly. There was significant increase in average body weight gain, feed intake and FCE and significant decrease in severity of scours as measured by faecal score and faecal coliform count in the treatment group compared to the control group (P Feed cost per kilogramme BW gain was significantly lower in the treatment group compared to control group (P calves for better performance.

  7. Urea levels in multiple supplement for lambs grazing on buffelgrass - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.7829 Urea levels in multiple supplement for lambs grazing on buffelgrass - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i4.7829

    OpenAIRE

    Pablo Leal Teixeira de Oliveira; Gherman Garcia Leal de Araújo; Salete Alves de Moraes; Tadeu Vinhas Voltolini; Luiz Gustavo Ribeiro Pereira

    2010-01-01

    The objective of present trial was to evaluate the intake of supplement dry matter, productive performance, carcass traits, and weight and yields of commercial meat cuts of lambs grazing on dormant buffelgrass pastures and receiving multiple supplementation containing different urea levels. Urea levels used were: 5, 8, 11 and 14% on dry matter. Thirty-six male lambs were used, nine animals per treatment, with 18.0 ± 2.0 kg initial body weight, distributed into four groups. The experime...

  8. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended.

  9. Performance of Sandy Dry Beds for sludge dewatering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Muzaini, S.

    2003-01-01

    Sludge produced by the Jahra treatment plant was assessed. The assessment was directed at determining the performance of sand drying beds. The assessment of quality of the sludge produced was based on the standards for land application of sewage sludge. Analyses were carried out for trace heavy metals and bacteria. The results of analyses showed that the sludge produced was high in organic matter and sand content but low in heavy metals. The collected data indicated that the sand drying beds at the Jahra treatment plant are at present inadequate to handle the projected sludge production. The investigation showed that the sand drying beds are fully used and the plant will require 3-4 times the capacity of the existing drying beds when the plant becomes fully operational. In addition, these sand drying beds are subjected to uncontrollable conditions such as temperature, rainfall and sludge drainage rate. Thus, sand drying beds have become less popular as a dewatering system. This paper evaluates the performance of the existing sand drying beds and suggests the most appropriate technology to alleviate the above mentioned problems. (author)

  10. The effect of drying and urea treatment on nutritional and anti-nutritional components of browses collected during wet and dry seasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitti, D.M.S.S. [Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: dovitti@cena.usp.br; Nozella, E.F.; Abdalla, A.L.; Bueno, I.C.S.; Longo, C.; Cabral Filho, S.L.S.; Godoy, P.B. [Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Silva Filho, J.C. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Costa, C. [Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Bueno, M.S. [Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil); Vieira, M.E.Q. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Mueller-Harvey, I. [Agriculture Department, University of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-19

    Fibre, crude protein and tannin concentrations were measured in browse species from the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil during the dry and wet seasons. The effects of oven-, sun- and shade-drying and of urea treatment were also determined. Crude protein (CP) content varied from 103 to 161 g/kg dry matter (DM) and the browses had similar CP content in the two seasons (during 2002) (102-161 and 107-153 g/kg DM in the wet and dry seasons, respectively). Total tannin concentrations ranged from 13 to 201 g/kg DM amongst the browses and were higher in the dry season. A 30-d treatment with urea reduced extractable tannins significantly (P < 0.05). The urea treatment was also most effective at reducing the in vitro effects of tannins compared to the other drying treatments. This was demonstrated by measuring the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on gas production. Addition of PEG increased gas production of oven- (81.4%), sun- (78.5%) and shade-dried (76.7%) samples much more compared to urea treated samples (10.9%). (author)

  11. The effect of drying and urea treatment on nutritional and anti-nutritional components of browses collected during wet and dry seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, D.M.S.S.; Nozella, E.F.; Abdalla, A.L.; Bueno, I.C.S.; Longo, C.; Cabral Filho, S.L.S.; Godoy, P.B.; Silva Filho, J.C.; Costa, C.; Bueno, M.S.; Vieira, M.E.Q.; Mueller-Harvey, I.

    2005-01-01

    Fibre, crude protein and tannin concentrations were measured in browse species from the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil during the dry and wet seasons. The effects of oven-, sun- and shade-drying and of urea treatment were also determined. Crude protein (CP) content varied from 103 to 161 g/kg dry matter (DM) and the browses had similar CP content in the two seasons (during 2002) (102-161 and 107-153 g/kg DM in the wet and dry seasons, respectively). Total tannin concentrations ranged from 13 to 201 g/kg DM amongst the browses and were higher in the dry season. A 30-d treatment with urea reduced extractable tannins significantly (P < 0.05). The urea treatment was also most effective at reducing the in vitro effects of tannins compared to the other drying treatments. This was demonstrated by measuring the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on gas production. Addition of PEG increased gas production of oven- (81.4%), sun- (78.5%) and shade-dried (76.7%) samples much more compared to urea treated samples (10.9%). (author)

  12. Effect of white kabesak (Acacia leucophloea Roxb leaves level in the diet on feed intake and body weight gain of Kacang goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. W. Lawa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analysis the effect of levels of white kabesak (Acacia leucophloea Roxb. Willd. leaves in the diet on feed intake, digestibility and body weight gain of Kacang goats. The completely randomized block design using 5 treatments and 5 replications was used in this experiment. The treatments were 5 concentrate feeds containing different levels of white kabesak leaves i.e. 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% in the dry matter (DM basis (representing T0, T1, T2, T3 and T4 treatments, respectively. The feeds were set up to contain 11.5-12.5% of crude protein (CP. Concentrate feed and native grass was fed at ratio of 60 : 40 was fed to 5 local male goats (age 1-1.5 years old and initial weight of 16.7±5.0 kg. The results showed that DM, organic matter (OM, and CP intake of T0 was not significantly different from those of T1 goats, but it was significantly higher (P<0.05 than those of T2, T3 and T4. The DM, OM, CP, and crude fiber (CF digestibility as well as body weight gain in T2 goats were significantly higher (P<0.05 and had feed conversion ratio that was significantly better (P<0.05 compared to those of the other feed treatments. In conclusion, the most optimum level of white kabesak (Acacia leucophloea Roxb. Willd. leaves used in concentrate feed for goat was 20 %.

  13. Lactation curves and economic results of Saanen goats fed increasing dietary energy levels obtained by the addition of calcium salts of fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Souza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of calcium salts of fatty acids (CSFA to increase the dietary energy levels for Saanen goats and their effects on the lactation curve, dry matter intake, body weight, and economic results of the goats. Twenty multiparous goats, weighing an average of 63.5±10.3 kg, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups, each receiving one of the following dietary energy levels: a control diet consisting of 2.6 Mcal of metabolizable energy per kg of dry matter (Mcal ME/kg DM or a test diet supplemented with CSFA (Lactoplus® to obtain 2.7, 2.8, or 2.9 Mcal ME/kg DM. Goats were housed in individual stalls and were fed and milked twice daily. The animals were evaluated until 180 days in milk by measuring dry matter intake and milk yield. These measurements were used to calculate feed efficiencies and the cost-benefit ratio of diet and lactation curves using Wood's nonlinear model. Increasing dietary energy levels showed no effect on body weight. Supplementation with CSFA did not limit dry matter intake; however, it changed the shape of the lactation curve by promoting a late peak lactation with a longer duration. Milk yields at 180 days in milk had a quadratic increase with a maximum energy level at 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM. Increasing the dietary energy level for Saanen goats using CSFA changes their lactation curves, with the best milk production achieved with a 2.85 Mcal ME/kg DM diet; however, the greatest economic results were obtained with a 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM diet.

  14. Proportional relationship between intercepted solar radiation and dry matter production in a mulberry [Morus] field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueel, S.A.; Ito, D.; Naoi, T.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between dry matter production (DMP) and the amount of intercepted solar radiation (S), and to analyze the fluctuations in the radiation conversion efficiency (DMP/S), summer-pruned mulberry (Morus alba L.) trees under a standard planting density were subjected to a shading treatment using a cheesecloth. Then, using a non-destructive method, DMP was examined for 5 plants from each plot every 15 days from July to September. DMP was also examined for mulberry trees under a high planting density. Rates of radiation that penetrated onto the ground and beneath the cheesecloth were measured to calculate S from the incoming solar radiation. In the shading plots, DMP decreased depending on the degree of shading throughout the experimental period. Compared with the control plot, 70 and 60 % DMP were produced finally under 71 and 53 % S. Therefore, DMP was considered to be almost proportional to S even in a broad-leaf population like mulberry. Radiation conversion efficiency gradually decreased with growth regardless of the planting density. At the late growth stage, radi