WorldWideScience

Sample records for dry holes

  1. Neotropical dry forest wildlife water hole use and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vaughan

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Selected wildlife species diurnal use of a natural water hole (QD and an artificial water hole (AW were studied during 1990 dry season at Guanacaste Conservation Area, Costa Rica. In total, 919 individuals (six mammal and one game bird species consumed water from QD, while 713 individuals (four mammal species consumed water from AW. Estimated daily water consumption by selected wildlife species was 29.7 l at QD and 27.3 l at AW. Estimated 24-h water consumed by all wildlife species or evaporated was 44.6 l at QD and 41.1 l at AW. This resulted from summing: a water consumed by studied species, b estimated 24-hour water consumed by other wildlife (QD = 14.85 l, AW = 13.65 l and c daily water evaporation (QD = 0.04 l, AW = 0.10 l. During a 120-day dry season, AW required about 4 932 l of water from the park administration. Management implications for neotropical dry forest water holes are discussed.Se estudió el uso diurno de un ojo de agua natural (QD y otro artificial (AW a finales de la época seca de 1990 en el Area de Conservacion de Guanacaste, Costa Rica. En total 919 individuos (seis especies de mamíferos y una de ave cinegética consumieron agua de QD y 713 individuos (cuatro especies de mamíferos de AQ. Se estimó que en un dia, las especies de vida silvestre estudiados tomaron 29.7 l y 27.3 l de agua de QD y AW, respectivamente. El total de agua consumido o evaporado de cada ojo de agua durante 24-horas fue estimado en 44.6 l en QD y 41.1 l en AW, con base en: a agua bebida durante 12 h por las especies seleccionadas, b agua bebida por todos los otros individuos durante 24 h (QD = 14.85 l, AW = 13.65 l y c evaporación diaria (QD = 0.04 l, AW = 0.01 l. Para abastecer AW durante una epoca seca de 120 días, la administración del parque debe proveer 4 932 l de agua. Se discute las implicaciones de manejo en las regiones de bosque seco neotropical.

  2. Temporal variations in physical and chemical features of cryoconite holes on Canada Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fountain, Andrew G.; Nylen, Thomas H.; Tranter, Martyn; Bagshaw, Elizabeth

    2008-03-01

    Cryoconite holes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys are ice-lidded, thus isolating the pools of water from the atmosphere and from potential surface melt. Hourly measurements of ice and water temperature and water electrical conductivity (EC) were recorded to broadly characterize the physical and chemical changes on daily to seasonal timescales. Overall, subsurface ice/water temperatures were typically several degrees warmer than air temperatures, underscoring the importance of subsurface solar heating. At no time was surface melt observed and the holes melted from within. Detailed differences in the timing and magnitude of both temperature and EC variations during melt-out and freezeup existed between holes despite short separation distances (<1 m). We attribute these differences to small-scale changes in the optical characteristics of the ice and perhaps different efficiencies in hydrologic connections between holes. The holes melt-deepened quickly in the first half of the summer before slowing to a rate equal to the rate of surface ablation that kept hole depth constant for the remainder of the season. The relatively constant EC of the hole waters during midsummer indicates that these holes were connected to a subsurface water system that flushed the holes with fresher meltwater. The early and late season ECs are dominated by freeze-thaw effects that concentrate/dilute the solutes. We speculate that high solute concentrations imply high nutrient concentrations in early summer that may help alleviate potential stresses caused by the production of new biomass after the winter freeze.

  3. Low-activity spectrometric gamma-ray logging technique for delineation of coal/rock interfaces in dry blast holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahani, J; Borsaru, M

    2007-06-01

    A low-activity spectrometric gamma-ray logging technique is proposed in this paper as a sensitive tool for the delineation of coal/rock interfaces in dry blast holes. The advantages and superiority of this technique over traditional micro-density non-spectrometric gamma-ray tools are demonstrated.

  4. Boring of full scale deposition holes using a novel dry blind boring method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Autio, J.; Kirkkomaeki, T. [Saanio and Riekkola Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-10-01

    Three holes the size of deposition holes (depth 7.5 m and diameter 1.5 m) were bored in the Research Tunnel at Olkiluoto, Finland. A novel full-face boring technique was used based on rotary crushing of rock and removal of crushed rock by vacuum flushing through the drill string. The purpose of the work was to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. During the boring test procedures were carried out in order to determine the effect of changes in operating parameters on the performance of the boring machine and the quality of the hole. The boring method was found to be technically feasible and efficient. Evaluation of the quality of the hole included studies of the geometry of the hole, measurements of the surface roughness using a laser profilometer and study of excavation disturbances in the zone adjacent to the surface of the holes using two novel methods, He-gas diffusion and the {sup 14}C-polymethylmethacrylate methods. 43 refs.

  5. Mosquitoes of the Caatinga: 2. Species from periodic sampling of bromeliads and tree holes in a dry Brazilian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteis, Letícia Silva; Natal, Delsio; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; Corte, Roseli La

    2017-07-01

    The Caatinga is a dry tropical forest, located in the Brazilian semiarid region and rich in phytotelmata. This study investigated the culicid fauna of phytotelmata of the caatinga by sampling for 19 consecutive months aquatic immatures from tree holes and bromeliads. A total of 127L of water was taken from the plants, containing 6764 immature culicids of 16 species, of which 11 (69%) are undescribed and respond to 90% of the total abundance of the specimens collected. Epiphytic bromeliads harbor a large number of immature Culicidae, although terrestrial bromeliads are the most abundant and widely distributed in the region. The richness of culicid species was similar between terrestrial and epiphytic bromeliads and lower in habitats represented by tree hole phytotelmata. There was no similarity in the composition of culicid species that developed in bromeliads or tree holes. Temperature and humidity were the environmental parameters most strongly associated with the proportion of positive plants. The Caatinga has a great number of endemic species that remain unknown to science and many additional culicid species may await discovery from there. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Planarization and fabrication of bridges across deep grooves or holes in silicon using a dry film photoresist followed by an etch back

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiering, V.L.; Spiering, V.L.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    A technique is presented that provides planarization after a very deep etching step in silicon. This offers the possibility for not only resist spinning and layer patterning but also for realization of bridges and cantilevers across deep grooves or holes. The technique contains a standard dry film

  7. Dry Etching of GaAs to Fabricate Via-Hole Grounds in Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.S. Rawal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the dry etching of 60 mm dia, 200 mm deep holes for fabrication of through substrate via holes for grounding monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs, on 3-inch dia semiinsulating GaAs wafer using RIE and ICP processes with CFC and non-CFC gas chemistry, respectively. The effect of various process parameters on GaAs etch rate and resultant etch profile was investigated. Two kinds of masks, photoresist and Ni, were used to etch GaAs and performance was compared by investigating effect on etch rate, etch depth, etch profile, and surface morphology. The etch profile, etch depth, and surface morphology of as-etched samples were characterised by scanning electron microscopy. The desired 200 mm deep strawberry profile was obtained at 40 mTorr for both RIE and ICP processes with an etch rate of ~1.3 mm/min and ~4 mm/min respectively. Ni metal mask was used for RIE process due to poor photoresist selectivity, whereas ICP process utilised photoresist as mask. The vias were then metallised by depositing a thin seed layer of Ti/Au (1000 Å using radio frequency sputtering and Au (~5 mm electroplated to connect the frontside pad and back side ground plane. The typical parasitic inductance offered by these via for RIE and ICP processes was ~76 pH and 83 pH respectively, which is well within the acceptable limits. The developed process was finally integrated to in-house MMIC production line.Defence Science Journal, 2009, 59(4, pp.363-370, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.59.1535

  8. CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF ROTARY DRILLING HOLE DRY IN BORED FILLING PILE%钻孔灌注桩旋挖干取土成孔施工技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮

    2012-01-01

    According to the different strata and ground water level,construction of rotary drilling hole may using process with drilling pile dry and mud. Drilling pile dry without mud, hole wall do not produce sludge, thickness of waste in hole bottom is small,conducive to play the bearing capacity of pile. Meanwhile,high construction efficiency, mud - free emission,pollution of small,especially suitable for construction of urban construction foundation.%根据不同的地层及地下水位情况,旋挖钻成孔灌注桩可采用干取土成孔和泥浆护壁成孔工艺。干取土成孔工艺不需泥浆护壁,孔壁不产生泥皮,孔底渣土厚度小,利于桩基承载力的发挥。同时,施丁效率高,无泥浆排放,对环境污染小,尤其适合于城市建设基础的施工。

  9. 元谋干热河谷强侵蚀区陷穴发育特征与演化过程%Development Characteristics and Evolution Process of the Sink Holes in Yuanmou Dry-Hot Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒成强; 张斌; 蒋良群; 刘守江; 罗明良

    2014-01-01

    元谋干热河谷潜蚀地貌发育,是造成当地水土流失的重要原因之一。而陷穴属于潜蚀地貌的一种,因此有必要了解陷穴特征及演化过程。2009-2013年,通过多次现场测定陷穴形态特征、陷穴发育地地形地貌、周边植被特征等,并对土壤进行取样分析。结果表明:1)元谋陷穴主要发育于元谋组地层,土壤具有易崩解性、湿陷性等特征;2)陷穴主要分布于冲沟中上游沟底及支冲沟沟头部位;3)元谋陷穴形态规模总体不大,早期多呈近圆形,中晚期多为椭圆形,直至消失后成为沟中之沟;4)陷穴一般呈单个和串珠状分布,较少出现集群现象;5)演化过程遵循一般事物的发展规律,分为萌芽期、年轻期、成熟期、消亡期4个阶段;6)陷穴发育过程与冲沟、土桥、淘洞等地貌密切相关。%Yuanmou dry-hot valley is located in Jinsha River Basin in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. It is a typical subtropical climate area with special geographical position and geologic environment. The development of erosional landforms is one of the main reasons for water and soil loss in Yuanmou dry-hot valley. Sink hole is a type of erosional landforms. From 2009 to 2013, field survey was made on the morphological features of the sink holes, the topography and geomorphology of their surrounding areas, and the vegetation and soil around the sink holes. Also the soil of the areas was sampling and analyzed. The results show that the sink holes mainly develop in the strata of Yuanmou formation, where the soil is characterized by its easy disintegration and collapsibility. The sink holes are located at the bottom in the middle and upper reaches of gully and at the top of gully branches. The shape and scale of the sink holes in Yuanmou are generally small. In early stage they are approximately circular in shape, in middle and late stages they are elliptic, and in last stage

  10. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  11. Micro-hole and multigrain quartz luminescence dating of Paleodeltas at Lake Fryxell, McMurdo Dry Valleys (Antarctica), and relevance for lake history

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, G.W.; Doran, P.T.; Thomsen, Kristina Jørkov

    2013-01-01

    Relict (perched) lacustrine deltas around the perennially ice-covered lakes in the Taylor Valley, Antarctica, imply that these lakes were up to 40 times larger in area than at present since the last glacial maximum (LGM). These deltas have been used to constrain ice-margin positions in Taylor......-stimulated-luminescence (PSL) sediment dating to polymineral fine silt and sand-size quartz from 7 perched-delta and 3 active delta sites of different elevations along 3 major meltwater streams entering Lake Fryxell. Our PSL dating of 4 quartz-sand samples from core tops in the seasonal ice-free moat of Lake Fryxell......-age micro-hole age estimates for the deltas range from ∼50 to 100 a near the present lake level up to 13.4 ± 1.3 ka at 240 m. These are systematically younger than the comparable, reservoir-uncorrected, 14C ages that range from 7 ka (cal yr BP) to 13 ka (cal yr BP) near lake level up to 20 ka (cal yr BP...

  12. Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luminet, Jean-Pierre

    1992-09-01

    Foreword to the French edition; Foreword to the English edition; Acknowledgements; Part I. Gravitation and Light: 1. First fruits; 2. Relativity; 3. Curved space-time; Part II. Exquisite Corpses: 4. Chronicle of the twilight years; 5. Ashes and diamonds; 6. Supernovae; 7. Pulsars; 8. Gravitation triumphant; Part III. Light Assassinated: 9. The far horizon; 10. Illuminations; 11. A descent into the maelstrom; 12. Map games; 13. The black hole machine; 14. The quantum black hole; Part IV. Light Regained: 15. Primordial black holes; 16. The zoo of X-ray stars; 17. Giant black holes; 18. Gravitational light; 19. The black hole Universe; Appendices; Bibliography; Name index; Subject index.

  13. Black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chrúsciel, P T

    2002-01-01

    This paper is concerned with several not-quantum aspects of black holes, with emphasis on theoretical and mathematical issues related to numerical modeling of black hole space-times. Part of the material has a review character, but some new results or proposals are also presented. We review the experimental evidence for existence of black holes. We propose a definition of black hole region for any theory governed by a symmetric hyperbolic system of equations. Our definition reproduces the usual one for gravity, and leads to the one associated with the Unruh metric in the case of Euler equations. We review the global conditions which have been used in the Scri-based definition of a black hole and point out the deficiencies of the Scri approach. Various results on the structure of horizons and apparent horizons are presented, and a new proof of semi-convexity of horizons based on a variational principle is given. Recent results on the classification of stationary singularity-free vacuum solutions are reviewed. ...

  14. Coronal Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Cranmer

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Coronal holes are the darkest and least active regions of the Sun, as observed both on the solar disk and above the solar limb. Coronal holes are associated with rapidly expanding open magnetic fields and the acceleration of the high-speed solar wind. This paper reviews measurements of the plasma properties in coronal holes and how these measurements are used to reveal details about the physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wave-like fluctuations, and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. Evidence for both paradigms is summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is also given to spectroscopic and coronagraphic measurements that allow the highly dynamic non-equilibrium evolution of the plasma to be followed as the asymptotic conditions in interplanetary space are established in the extended corona. For example, the importance of kinetic plasma physics and turbulence in coronal holes has been affirmed by surprising measurements from the UVCS instrument on SOHO that heavy ions are heated to hundreds of times the temperatures of protons and electrons. These observations point to specific kinds of collisionless Alfvén wave damping (i.e., ion cyclotron resonance, but complete theoretical models do not yet exist. Despite our incomplete knowledge of the complex multi-scale plasma physics, however, much progress has been made toward the goal of understanding the mechanisms ultimately responsible for producing the observed properties of coronal holes.

  15. Autochthonous "Bjelovars dried cheese"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available «Dried cheese» is in autochthonous group of Bjelovar region cheeses which is still produced in rural domestic scale. The name of cheese originates from production procedure - drying for longer or shorter period in airy place after which the cheese is smoked, or is smoked only without drying. This type of cheese is produced in whole central region of Croatia which includes Međimurje, Podravina, Bilogora; Moslavina, Posavina and region around the capital. The aim of this paper is to describe and determine sensory, chemical and microbiological composition to determine its characteristics and production standards. As standards for sensory properties following characteristics can be used: a Outer shape: dimensions: diameter: 140-145 mm, height: 58-61 mm, mass: 700-750 g, equal, rounded shape, smooth skin, equal colour; b Consistency: easily cut, elastic, soft; c Cut: nicely combined white body, few improper holes of equal size; d Odour: pleasant milky acid odour, fairly smoky; e Taste: Fairly milky acidic taste, medium salty, fairly smoky taste. Depending on fat in dry matter content and water content in non fat dry matter, analyzed samples can be characterized as quarter fat, soft and semidry cheese. Higher acidity and saltiness was determined in some samples, microbiological analyses has shown that the most common contaminants are yeasts and moulds.

  16. Dry socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a complication of having a tooth pulled ( tooth extraction ). The socket is the hole in the bone ... you: Have poor oral health Have a difficult tooth extraction Use birth control pills, which may interfere with ...

  17. Coronal Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cranmer, Steven R

    2009-01-01

    Coronal holes are the darkest and least active regions of the Sun, as observed both on the solar disk and above the solar limb. Coronal holes are associated with rapidly expanding open magnetic fields and the acceleration of the high-speed solar wind. This paper reviews measurements of the plasma properties in coronal holes and how these measurements are used to reveal details about the physical processes that heat the solar corona and accelerate the solar wind. It is still unknown to what extent the solar wind is fed by flux tubes that remain open (and are energized by footpoint-driven wave-like fluctuations), and to what extent much of the mass and energy is input intermittently from closed loops into the open-field regions. Evidence for both paradigms is summarized in this paper. Special emphasis is also given to spectroscopic and coronagraphic measurements that allow the highly dynamic non-equilibrium evolution of the plasma to be followed as the asymptotic conditions in interplanetary space are establish...

  18. Dumb holes: analogues for black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, W G

    2008-08-28

    The use of sonic analogues to black and white holes, called dumb or deaf holes, to understand the particle production by black holes is reviewed. The results suggest that the black hole particle production is a low-frequency and low-wavenumber process.

  19. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    Production of large-area flat panel displays (FPDs) involves several pattern transfer and device fabrication steps that can be performed with dry etching technologies. Even though the dry etching using capacitively coupled plasma is generally used to maintain high etch uniformity, due to the need...... for the higher processing rates in FPDs, high-density plasma processing tools that can handle larger-area substrate uniformly are more intensively studied especially for the dry etching of polysilicon thin films. In the case of FPD processing, the current substrate size ranges from 730 × 920 mm (fourth...... generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  20. century drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  1. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  2. Deburring small intersecting holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1980-08-01

    Deburring intersecting holes is one of the most difficult deburring tasks faced by many industries. Only 14 of the 37 major deburring processes are applicable to most intersecting hole applications. Only five of these are normally applicable to small or miniature holes. Basic process capabilities and techniques used as a function of hole sizes and intersection depths are summarized.

  3. Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use a fluoride rinse or brush-on fluoride gel before bedtime. See your dentist at least twice yearly to have your teeth examined and plaque removed, to help prevent tooth decay. Several herbal remedies have been used historically to treat dry ...

  4. Life inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dokuchaev, V I

    2012-01-01

    We consider test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside a black hole, which are stable, periodic and neither come out of the black hole nor terminate at the singularity. Interiors of supermassive black holes may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on planets with the third-kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of black holes by observing their white hole counterparts.

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: ... your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when ...

  6. Bearing Behavior of Drilled and Molded-in Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durante, Massimo; Langella, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    Glass/epoxy composites were manufactured using RIFT (Resin Infusion under Flexible Tool), a closed mould process capable of obtaining large and complex forms, by impregnating, under a vacuum, a dry preform placed on a flat rigid mould. At certain points of these composite laminates, molded-in holes were made in the dry perform before the resin infusion phase, using two different methods: displacing or cutting the yarn of the fibers. After the resin treatment, other holes were made in the same laminates by drilling. Single-point pin-loaded specimens, cut from laminates, were tested for different values of specimen width-to-hole diameter ratio (W/D) and edge distance-to-hole diameter ratio. In the results of the experiment, the specimens with molded in holes made by displacing the fiber yarn showed higher bearing strength values.

  7. Higher spin black holes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutperle, Michael; Kraus, Per

    2011-01-01

    .... We find solutions that generalize the BTZ black hole and carry spin-3 charge. The black hole entropy formula yields a result for the asymptotic growth of the partition function at finite spin-3 chemical potential...

  8. Black hole hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  9. Black Hole Hair Removal

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-01-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair, -- degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  10. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-DomInguez, J C [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); Obregon, O [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico); RamIrez, C [Facultad de Ciencias FIsico Matematicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, PO Box 1364, 72000 Puebla (Mexico); Sabido, M [Instituto de Fisica de la Universidad de Guanajuato PO Box E-143, 37150 Leoen Gto. (Mexico)

    2007-11-15

    We study noncommutative black holes, by using a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Through the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular, we calculate Hawking's temperature and entropy for the 'noncommutative' Schwarzschild black hole.

  11. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Werner

    This chapter reviews the conceptual developments on black hole thermodynamics and the attempts to determine the origin of black hole entropy in terms of their horizon area. The brick wall model and an operational approach are discussed. An attempt to understand at the microlevel how the quantum black hole acquires its thermal properties is included. The chapter concludes with some remarks on the extension of these techniques to describing the dynamical process of black hole evaporation.

  12. Monopole black hole skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  13. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, I. G.; Shiiki, N.; Winstanley, E.

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  14. Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs. Spin-dependen

  15. Ballistic hole magnetic microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haq, E.; Banerjee, T.; Siekman, M.H.; Lodder, J.C.; Jansen, R.

    2005-01-01

    A technique to study nanoscale spin transport of holes is presented: ballistic hole magnetic microscopy. The tip of a scanning tunneling microscope is used to inject hot electrons into a ferromagnetic heterostructure, where inelastic decay creates a distribution of electron-hole pairs.

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ... your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  17. Sound Hole Sound

    CERN Document Server

    Politzer, David

    2015-01-01

    The volume of air that goes in and out of a musical instrument's sound hole is related to the sound hole's contribution to the volume of the sound. Helmholtz's result for the simplest case of steady flow through an elliptical hole is reviewed. Measurements on multiple holes in sound box geometries and scales relevant to real musical instruments demonstrate the importance of a variety of effects. Electric capacitance of single flat plates is a mathematically identical problem, offering an alternate way to understand the most important of those effects. The measurements also confirm and illuminate aspects of Helmholtz's "bottle" resonator model as applied to musical instrument sound boxes and sound holes.

  18. Black holes in binary stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijers, R.A.M.J.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction Distinguishing neutron stars and black holes Optical companions and dynamical masses X-ray signatures of the nature of a compact object Structure and evolution of black-hole binaries High-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black-hole binaries Low-mass black holes Formation of black holes

  19. On Accelerated Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Letelier, P S; Letelier, Patricio S.; Oliveira, Samuel R.

    1998-01-01

    The C-metric is revisited and global interpretation of some associated spacetimes are studied in some detail. Specially those with two event horizons, one for the black hole and another for the acceleration. We found that the spacetime fo an accelerated Schwarzschild black hole is plagued by either conical singularities or lack of smoothness and compactness of the black hole horizon. By using standard black hole thermodynamics we show that accelerated black holes have higher Hawking temperature than Unruh temperature. We also show that the usual upper bound on the product of the mass and acceleration parameters (<1/sqrt(27)) is just a coordinate artifact. The main results are extended to accelerated Kerr black holes. We found that they are not changed by the black hole rotation.

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan- ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...

  2. Braneworld Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Whisker, Richard

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis we investigate black holes in the Randall-Sundrum braneworld scenario. We begin with an overview of extra-dimensional physics, from the original proposal of Kaluza and Klein up to the modern braneworld picture of extra dimensions. A detailed description of braneworld gravity is given, with particular emphasis on its compatibility with experimental tests of gravity. We then move on to a discussion of static, spherically symmetric braneworld black hole solutions. Assuming an equation of state for the ``Weyl term'', which encodes the effects of the extra dimension, we are able to classify the general behaviour of these solutions. We then use the strong field limit approach to investigate the gravitational lensing properties of some candidate braneworld black hole solutions. It is found that braneworld black holes could have significantly different observational signatures to the Schwarzschild black hole of standard general relativity. Rotating braneworld black hole solutions are also discussed, an...

  3. Astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.

  4. Extremal Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gonzalez, P A; Saavedra, Joel; Vasquez, Yerko

    2014-01-01

    We consider a gravitating system consisting of a scalar field minimally coupled to gravity with a self-interacting potential and an U(1) electromagnetic field. Solving the coupled Einstein-Maxwell-scalar system we find exact hairy charged black hole solutions with the scalar field regular everywhere. We go to the zero temperature limit and we study the effect of the scalar field on the near horizon geometry of an extremal black hole. We find that except a critical value of the charge of the black hole there is also a critical value of the charge of the scalar field beyond of which the extremal black hole is destabilized. We study the thermodynamics of these solutions and we find that if the space is flat then at low temperature the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om black hole is thermodynamically preferred, while if the space is AdS the hairy charged black hole is thermodynamically preferred at low temperature.

  5. Charged Lifshitz Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dehghani, M. H.; Pourhasan, R.; Mann, R. B.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate modifications of the Lifshitz black hole solutions due to the presence of Maxwell charge in higher dimensions for arbitrary $z$ and any topology. We find that the behaviour of large black holes is insensitive to the topology of the solutions, whereas for small black holes significant differences emerge. We generalize a relation previously obtained for neutral Lifshitz black branes, and study more generally the thermodynamic relationship between energy, entropy, and chemical pot...

  6. Perturbations around black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, B

    2005-01-01

    Perturbations around black holes have been an intriguing topic in the last few decades. They are particularly important today, since they relate to the gravitational wave observations which may provide the unique fingerprint of black holes' existence. Besides the astrophysical interest, theoretically perturbations around black holes can be used as testing grounds to examine the proposed AdS/CFT and dS/CFT correspondence.

  7. Physics of black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Thorne, Kip S.

    1982-01-01

    The activity at the galactic center might be fuelled by energy release near a large black hole. In this talk I describe some relativistic effects which may be relevant to this process. I use Newtonian language so far as possible and illustrate the effects with simple  analogies. Specifically, I describe the gravitational field near a black hole, Lens‐Thirring and geodetic precession, electro‐magnetic energy extraction of the spin energy of a black hole and the structure of accretion tori arou...

  8. Asymptotic black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  9. Asymptotic Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Ho, Pei-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Following earlier works on the KMY model of black-hole formation and evaporation, we construct the metric for a matter sphere in gravitational collapse, with the back-reaction of pre-Hawking radiation taken into consideration. The mass distribution and collapsing velocity of the matter sphere are allowed to have an arbitrary radial dependence. We find that a generic gravitational collapse asymptote to a universal configuration which resembles a black hole but without horizon. This approach clarifies several misunderstandings about black-hole formation and evaporation, and provides a new model for black-hole-like objects in the universe.

  10. 旱地玉米少耕穴灌聚肥节水技术应用效果简析%Effect Analysis on Technology of Fertilizer Gathering and Water Saving by Conservative Tillage and Hole Irrigation in Dry Land Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宁莉; 石文廷; 张锐

    2011-01-01

    Comparison of water, fertilizer using ratio and effect to production and income improvement in various areas, terrain and under distinct cultivating modes was made. The result showed that, with the technology application, the yield improvement effect in northern hilly area was generally higher than that in the southern part; some better effect than those planting patterns of the conventional flood-irrigation film-mulching, conventional flood-irrigation open-field and dry land film-mulching; In addition, in fields sections of the technology implementation, soil moisture contents during crop growth were higher than those in conventional plastic film mulching sections, in conventional open fields, and the fertilizer utilization ratio improved than in conventional plastic film mulching fields. It was concluded that dry land corn conservative-tillage hole-irrigation technology has a broad application prospect in the arid and semi-arid land area.%不同地区、不同地形、不同种植模式下进行水肥利用率及增产增收效果的比较,结果表明,早地玉米运用少耕穴灌聚肥节水技术,北部盆地丘陵区的增产增收效果普遍高于南部丘陵区,比常规漫灌地膜覆盖种植、常规漫灌露地种植、旱地地膜覆盖等种植模式均有不同程度的增产增收效果;实施少耕穴灌聚肥节水技术的田块,作物生长期间的土壤含水量比常规地膜覆盖区、常规露地种植区高,肥料利用率比常规地膜覆盖种植区也有所提高.旱地玉米少耕穴灌技术在干旱半干旱地区具有广阔的推广应用前景.

  11. Black Hole Dynamic Potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Koustubh Ajit Kabe

    2012-09-01

    In the following paper, certain black hole dynamic potentials have been developed definitively on the lines of classical thermodynamics. These potentials have been refined in view of the small differences in the equations of the laws of black hole dynamics as given by Bekenstein and those of thermodynamics. Nine fundamental black hole dynamical relations have been developed akin to the four fundamental thermodynamic relations of Maxwell. The specific heats , and , have been defined. For a black hole, these quantities are negative. The d equation has been obtained as an application of these fundamental relations. Time reversible processes observing constancy of surface gravity are considered and an equation connecting the internal energy of the black hole , the additional available energy defined as the first free energy function , and the surface gravity , has been obtained. Finally as a further application of the fundamental relations, it has been proved for a homogeneous gravitational field in black hole space times or a de Sitter black hole that $C_{\\Omega,\\Phi}-C_{J,Q}=\\kappa \\left[\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial J}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial \\Omega}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}+\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial Q}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{\\Omega,\\Phi}\\left(\\dfrac{\\partial\\Phi}{\\partial \\kappa}\\right)_{J,Q}\\right]$. This is dubbed as the homogeneous fluid approximation in context of the black holes.

  12. Black holes matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge Stjernholm

    2016-01-01

    Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015).......Review essay, Marcia Bartusiak, Black Hole: How an Idea Abandoned by Newtonians, Hated by Einstein, and Gambled On by Hawking Became Loved (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2015)....

  13. Perturbing supersymmetric black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Onozawa, H; Mishima, T; Ishihara, H; Onozawa, Hisashi; Okamura, Takashi; Mishima, Takashi; Ishihara, Hideki

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of the perturbations of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"{o}m black hole in the N=2 supergravity is presented. In the extreme case, the black hole responds to the perturbation of each field in the same manner. This is possibly because we can match the modes of the graviton, gravitino, and photon using supersymmetry transformations.

  14. Black hole levitron

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arsiwalla, X.D.; Verlinde, E.P.

    2010-01-01

    We study the problem of spatially stabilizing four dimensional extremal black holes in background electric/magnetic fields. Whilst looking for stationary stable solutions describing black holes placed in external fields we find that taking a continuum limit of Denef et al.’s multicenter

  15. Newborn Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Scientists using NASA's Swift satellite say they have found newborn black holes, just seconds old, in a confused state of existence. The holes are consuming material falling into them while somehow propelling other material away at great speeds. "First comes a blast of gamma rays followed by intense pulses of x-rays. The energies involved are much…

  16. Scattering by Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, N

    2000-01-01

    This is a chapter on Black-hole Scattering that was commissioned for an Encyclopaedia on Scattering edited by Pike and Sabatier, to be published by Academic Press. The chapter surveys wave propagation in black-hole spacetimes, diffraction effects in wave scattering, resonances, quasinormal modes and related topics.

  17. Disregarding the 'Hole Argument'

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, Bryan W

    2014-01-01

    Jim Weatherall has suggested that Einstein's hole argument, as presented by Earman and Norton (1987), is based on a misleading use of mathematics. I argue on the contrary that Weatherall demands an implausible restriction on how mathematics is used. The hole argument, on the other hand, is in no new danger at all.

  18. Lifshitz Topological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, R B

    2009-01-01

    I find a class of black hole solutions to a (3+1) dimensional theory gravity coupled to abelian gauge fields with negative cosmological constant that has been proposed as the dual theory to a Lifshitz theory describing critical phenomena in (2+1) dimensions. These black holes are all asymptotic to a Lifshitz fixed point geometry and depend on a single parameter that determines both their area (or size) and their charge. Most of the solutions are obtained numerically, but an exact solution is also obtained for a particular value of this parameter. The thermodynamic behaviour of large black holes is almost the same regardless of genus, but differs considerably for small black holes. Screening behaviour is exhibited in the dual theory for any genus, but the critical length at which it sets in is genus-dependent for small black holes.

  19. Cosmological Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Stornaiolo, C

    2002-01-01

    In this letter we propose the existence of low density black holes and discuss its compatibility with the cosmological observations. The origin of these black holes can be traced back to the collapse of long wavelength cosmological perturbations during the matter dominated era, when the densities are low enough to neglect any internal and thermal pressure. By introducing a threshold density $\\hat{\\rho}$ above which pressure and non-gravitational interactions become effective, we find the highest wavelength for the perturbations that can reach an equilibrium state instead of collapsing to a black hole. The low density black holes introduced here, if they exist, can be observed through weak and strong gravitational lensing effects. Finally we observe that we obtained here a cosmological model which is capable to explain in a qualitative way the void formation together with the value $\\Omega=1$. But we remark that it needs to be improved by considering non spherical symmetric black holes.

  20. Primordial Black Hole Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, D; Turok, N G; Baumann, Daniel; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2007-01-01

    We reconsider the possibility that the observed baryon asymmetry was generated by the evaporation of primordial black holes that dominated the early universe. We present a simple derivation showing that the baryon asymmetry is insensitive to the initial black hole density and the cosmological model but is sensitive to the temperature-dependence of the CP and baryon-violating (or lepton-violating) interactions. We also consider the possibility that black holes stop evaporating and form Planck-mass remnants that act as dark matter. We show that primordial black holes cannot simultaneously account for both the observed baryon asymmetry and the (remnant) dark matter density unless the magnitude of CP violation is much greater than expected from most particle physics models. Finally, we apply these results to ekpyrotic/cyclic models, in which primordial black holes may form when branes collide. We find that obtaining the observed baryon asymmetry is compatible with the other known constraints on parameters.

  1. Black Hole Critical Phenomena Without Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Liebling, S L

    2000-01-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  2. Scalarized Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Yazadjiev, Stoytcho

    2015-01-01

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar-tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and ordinary hairy black holes. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  3. Primordial Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    MacGibbon, Jane H; Linnemann, J T; Marinelli, S S; Stump, D; Tollefson, K

    2015-01-01

    Primordial Black Holes (PBHs) are of interest in many cosmological contexts. PBHs lighter than about 1012 kg are predicted to be directly detectable by their Hawking radiation. This radiation should produce both a diffuse extragalactic gamma-ray background from the cosmologically-averaged distribution of PBHs and gamma-ray burst signals from individual light black holes. The Fermi, Milagro, Veritas, HESS and HAWC observatories, in combination with new burst recognition methodologies, offer the greatest sensitivity for the detection of such black holes or placing limits on their existence.

  4. Black Hole Entropy

    OpenAIRE

    P. Mitra

    1994-01-01

    In the talk different definitions of the black hole entropy are discussed and compared. It is shown that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy $S^{BH}$ (defined by the response of the free energy of a system containing a black hole on the change of the temperature) differs from the statistical- mechanical entropy $S^{SM}=-\\mbox{Tr}(\\hat{\\rho}\\ln \\hat{\\rho})$ (defined by counting internal degrees of freedom of a black hole). A simple explanation of the universality of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (...

  5. Black hole entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, V

    1994-01-01

    In the talk different definitions of the black hole entropy are discussed and compared. It is shown that the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy S^{BH} (defined by the response of the free energy of a system containing a black hole on the change of the temperature) differs from the statistical- mechanical entropy S^{SM}=-\\mbox{Tr}(\\hat{\\rho}\\ln \\hat{\\rho}) (defined by counting internal degrees of freedom of a black hole). A simple explanation of the universality of the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy (i.e. its independence of the number and properties of the fields which might contribute to S^{SM}) is given.

  6. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard, E-mail: b.kleihaus@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Kunz, Jutta [Institut für Physik, Universität Oldenburg, Postfach 2503, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany); Yazadjiev, Stoytcho [Department of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria)

    2015-05-11

    In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  7. Scalarized hairy black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burkhard Kleihaus

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of a complex scalar field scalar–tensor theory allows for scalarized rotating hairy black holes. We exhibit the domain of existence for these scalarized black holes, which is bounded by scalarized rotating boson stars and hairy black holes of General Relativity. We discuss the global properties of these solutions. Like their counterparts in general relativity, their angular momentum may exceed the Kerr bound, and their ergosurfaces may consist of a sphere and a ring, i.e., form an ergo-Saturn.

  8. Black holes new horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Hayward, Sean Alan

    2013-01-01

    Black holes, once just fascinating theoretical predictions of how gravity warps space-time according to Einstein's theory, are now generally accepted as astrophysical realities, formed by post-supernova collapse, or as supermassive black holes mysteriously found at the cores of most galaxies, powering active galactic nuclei, the most powerful objects in the universe. Theoretical understanding has progressed in recent decades with a wider realization that local concepts should characterize black holes, rather than the global concepts found in textbooks. In particular, notions such as trapping h

  9. Black Hole Thermodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Carlip, S

    2014-01-01

    The discovery in the early 1970s that black holes radiate as black bodies has radically affected our understanding of general relativity, and offered us some early hints about the nature of quantum gravity. In this chapter I will review the discovery of black hole thermodynamics and summarize the many independent ways of obtaining the thermodynamic and (perhaps) statistical mechanical properties of black holes. I will then describe some of the remaining puzzles, including the nature of the quantum microstates, the problem of universality, and the information loss paradox.

  10. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steven L Liebling

    2000-10-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  11. Black hole quantum spectrum

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Corda, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re...

  12. Holographic black hole chemistry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Karch, Andreas; Robinson, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    Thermodynamic quantities associated with black holes in Anti-de Sitter space obey an interesting identity when the cosmological constant is included as one of the dynamical variables, the generalized Smarr relation...

  13. Braneworld black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    In these lectures, I give an introduction to and overview of braneworlds and black holes in the context of warped compactifications. I first describe the general paradigm of braneworlds, and introduce the Randall-Sundrum model. I discuss braneworld gravity, both using perturbation theory, and also non perturbative results. I then discuss black holes on the brane, the obstructions to finding exact solutions, and ways of tackling these difficulties. I describe some known solutions, and conclude with some open questions and controversies.

  14. Holes in Heisenberg antiferromagnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang

    1990-05-01

    In this Brief Report we show that a recent model proposed by Shankar [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 203 (1989)], describing the motion of holes in quantum antiferromagnets is equivalent to the Schwinger model [Phys. Rev. 128, 2425 (1962)] in 1+1 dimensions. Some exact results are deduced. In addition to the superconducting long-range order found by Shankar, it is shown that there is a 2pF hole density wave existing with the superconducting pairing instability.

  15. Life Inside Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokuchaev, Vyacheslav

    2013-11-01

    It is considered the test planet and photon orbits of the third kind inside the black hole (BH), which are stable, periodic and neither come out the BH nor terminate at the central singularity. Interiors of the supermassive BHs may be inhabited by advanced civilizations living on the planets with the third kind orbits. In principle, one can get information from the interiors of BHs by observing their white hole counterparts.

  16. Modelling quantum black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Govindarajan, T R

    2016-01-01

    Novel bound states are obtained for manifolds with singular potentials. These singular potentials require proper boundary conditions across boundaries. The number of bound states match nicely with what we would expect for black holes. Also they serve to model membrane mechanism for the black hole horizons in simpler contexts. The singular potentials can also mimic expanding boundaries elegantly, there by obtaining appropriately tuned radiation rates.

  17. Hydrodynamics and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Oz, Yaron

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes how the AdS/CFT correspondence (the Holographic Principle) relates field theory hydrodynamics to perturbations of black hole (brane) gravitational backgrounds. The hydrodynamics framework is first presented from the field theory point of view, after which the dual gravitational description is outlined, first for relativistic fluids and then for the nonrelativistic case. Further details of the fluid/gravity correspondence are then discussed, including the bulk geometry and the dynamics of the black hole horizon.

  18. Black hole geometrothermodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, Hernando

    2017-03-01

    We review the main aspects of geometrothermodynamics which is a geometric formalism to describe thermodynamic systems, taking into account the invariance of classical thermodynamics with respect to Legendre transformations. We focus on the particular case of black holes, and present a Riemannian metric which describes the corresponding space of equilibrium states. We show that this metric can be used to describe the stability properties and phase transition structure of black holes in different gravity theories.

  19. Helical superconducting black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P

    2012-05-25

    We construct novel static, asymptotically five-dimensional anti-de Sitter black hole solutions with Bianchi type-VII(0) symmetry that are holographically dual to superconducting phases in four spacetime dimensions with a helical p-wave order. We calculate the precise temperature dependence of the pitch of the helical order. At zero temperature the black holes have a vanishing entropy and approach domain wall solutions that reveal homogenous, nonisotropic dual ground states with an emergent scaling symmetry.

  20. Black Hole Induced Ejections

    OpenAIRE

    Pelletier, G.

    2004-01-01

    Black Holes generate a particular kind of environments dominated by an accretion flow which concentrates a magnetic field. The interplay of gravity and magnetism creates this paradoxical situation where relativistic ejection is allowed and consequently high energy phenomena take place. Therefore Black Holes, which are very likely at the origin of powerfull astrophysical phenomena such as AGNs, micro- quasars and GRBs where relativistic ejections are observed, are at the heart of high energy a...

  1. Charged Galileon black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Eugeny; Charmousis, Christos; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-05-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematically compatible with the field equations. This opens up the possibility for novel searches of hairy black holes in a far more general setting of Horndeski theory.

  2. Ultramassive Black Hole Coalescence

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Fazeel; Berczik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Although supermassive black holes (SMBHs) correlate well with their host galaxies, there is an emerging view that outliers exist. Henize 2-10, NGC 4889, and NGC1277 are examples of SMBHs at least an order of magnitude more massive than their host galaxy suggests. The dynamical effects of such ultramassive central black holes is unclear. Here, we perform direct N-body simulations of mergers of galactic nuclei where one black hole is ultramassive to study the evolution of the remnant and the black hole dynamics in this extreme regime. We find that the merger remnant is axisymmetric near the center, while near the large SMBH influence radius, the galaxy is triaxial. The SMBH separation shrinks rapidly due to dynamical friction, and quickly forms a binary black hole; if we scale our model to the most massive estimate for the NGC1277 black hole, for example, the timescale for the SMBH separation to shrink from nearly a kiloparsec to less than a parsec is roughly 10 Myr. By the time the SMBHs form a hard binary, gr...

  3. Cosmic censorship inside black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Thorlacius, L

    2006-01-01

    A simple argument is given that a traversable Cauchy horizon inside a black hole is incompatible with unitary black hole evolution. The argument assumes the validity of black hole complementarity and applies to a generic black hole carrying angular momentum and/or charge. In the second part of the paper we review recent work on the semiclassical geometry of two-dimensional charged black holes.

  4. Black holes and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-01

    Belief in the existence of black holes is the ultimate act of faith for a physicist. First suggested by the English clergyman John Michell in the year 1784, the gravitational pull of a black hole is so strong that nothing - not even light - can escape. Gravity might be the weakest of the fundamental forces but black-hole physics is not for the faint-hearted. Black holes present obvious problems for would-be observers because they cannot, by definition, be seen with conventional telescopes - although before the end of the decade gravitational-wave detectors should be able to study collisions between black holes. Until then astronomers can only infer the existence of a black hole from its gravitational influence on other matter, or from the X-rays emitted by gas and dust as they are dragged into the black hole. However, once this material passes through the 'event horizon' that surrounds the black hole, we will never see it again - not even with X-ray specs. Despite these observational problems, most physicists and astronomers believe that black holes do exist. Small black holes a few kilometres across are thought to form when stars weighing more than about two solar masses collapse under the weight of their own gravity, while supermassive black holes weighing millions of solar masses appear to be present at the centre of most galaxies. Moreover, some brave physicists have proposed ways to make black holes - or at least event horizons - in the laboratory. The basic idea behind these 'artificial black holes' is not to compress a large amount of mass into a small volume, but to reduce the speed of light in a moving medium to less than the speed of the medium and so create an event horizon. The parallels with real black holes are not exact but the experiments could shed new light on a variety of phenomena. The first challenge, however, is to get money for the research. One year on from a high-profile meeting on artificial black holes in London, for

  5. Charged Galileon black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Babichev, Eugeny; Hassaine, Mokhtar

    2015-01-01

    We consider an Abelian gauge field coupled to a particular truncation of Horndeski theory. The Galileon field has translation symmetry and couples non minimally both to the metric and the gauge field. When the gauge-scalar coupling is zero the gauge field reduces to a standard Maxwell field. By taking into account the symmetries of the action, we construct charged black hole solutions. Allowing the scalar field to softly break symmetries of spacetime we construct black holes where the scalar field is regular on the black hole event horizon. Some of these solutions can be interpreted as the equivalent of Reissner-Nordstrom black holes of scalar tensor theories with a non trivial scalar field. A self tuning black hole solution found previously is extended to the presence of dyonic charge without affecting whatsoever the self tuning of a large positive cosmological constant. Finally, for a general shift invariant scalar tensor theory we demonstrate that the scalar field Ansatz and method we employ are mathematic...

  6. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2009-05-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest gravitational wave source for ground-based interferometers such as LIGO, VIRGO, and GEO600, as well as the space-based LISA. Observing these sources with gravitational wave detectors requires that we know the radiation waveforms they emit. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. Since these mergers take place in regions of extreme gravity, we need to solve Einstein's equations of general relativity on a computer. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new simulations that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics.

  7. Black Holes and Beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Mathur, Samir D

    2012-01-01

    The black hole information paradox forces us into a strange situation: we must find a way to break the semiclassical approximation in a domain where no quantum gravity effects would normally be expected. Traditional quantizations of gravity do not exhibit any such breakdown, and this forces us into a difficult corner: either we must give up quantum mechanics or we must accept the existence of troublesome `remnants'. In string theory, however, the fundamental quanta are extended objects, and it turns out that the bound states of such objects acquire a size that grows with the number of quanta in the bound state. The interior of the black hole gets completely altered to a `fuzzball' structure, and information is able to escape in radiation from the hole. The semiclassical approximation can break at macroscopic scales due to the large entropy of the hole: the measure in the path integral competes with the classical action, instead of giving a subleading correction. Putting this picture of black hole microstates ...

  8. Energy Efficient Textile Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Brunzell, Lena

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, textiles were dried outdoors with the wind and the sun enhancing the drying process. Tumble dryers offer a fast and convenient way of drying textiles independent of weather conditions. Tumble dryers, however, consume large amounts of electrical energy. Over 4 million tumble dryers are sold each year in Europe and a considerable amount of energy is used for drying of clothes. Increasing energy costs and the awareness about environmental problems related to a large energy use has...

  9. Black hole entropy quantization

    CERN Document Server

    Corichi, A; Fernandez-Borja, E; Corichi, Alejandro; Diaz-Polo, Jacobo; Fernandez-Borja, Enrique

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the pioneer works of Bekenstein and Hawking, black hole entropy has been known to have a quantum origin. Furthermore, it has long been argued by Bekenstein that entropy should be quantized in discrete (equidistant) steps given its identification with horizon area in (semi-)classical general relativity and the properties of area as an adiabatic invariant. This lead to the suggestion that black hole area should also be quantized in equidistant steps to account for the discrete black hole entropy. Here we shall show that loop quantum gravity, in which area is not quantized in equidistant steps can nevertheless be consistent with Bekenstein's equidistant entropy proposal in a subtle way. For that we perform a detailed analysis of the number of microstates compatible with a given area and show that an observed oscillatory behavior in the entropy-area relation, when properly interpreted yields an entropy that has discrete, equidistant values that are consistent with the Bekenstein framework.

  10. Black hole gravitohydromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Punsly, Brian

    2008-01-01

    Black hole gravitohydromagnetics (GHM) is developed from the rudiments to the frontiers of research in this book. GHM describes plasma interactions that combine the effects of gravity and a strong magnetic field, in the vicinity (ergosphere) of a rapidly rotating black hole. This topic was created in response to the astrophysical quest to understand the central engines of radio loud extragalactic radio sources. The theory describes a "torsional tug of war" between rotating ergospheric plasma and the distant asymptotic plasma that extracts the rotational inertia of the black hole. The recoil from the struggle between electromagnetic and gravitational forces near the event horizon is manifested as a powerful pair of magnetized particle beams (jets) that are ejected at nearly the speed of light. These bipolar jets feed large-scale magnetized plasmoids on scales as large as millions of light years (the radio lobes of extragalactic radio sources). This interaction can initiate jets that transport energy fluxes exc...

  11. The closest black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Fender, Rob; Heywood, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the assumption that there is a large population (> 10^8) of isolated, stellar-mass black holes (IBH) distributed throughout our galaxy, we consider the detectable signatures of accretion from the interstellar medium (ISM) that may be associated with such a population. We simulate the nearby (radius 250 pc) part of this population, corresponding to the closest ~35 000 black holes, using current best estimates of the mass distribution of stellar mass black holes combined with two models for the velocity distribution of stellar-mass IBH which bracket likely possibilities. We distribute this population of objects appropriately within the different phases of the ISM and calculate the Bondi-Hoyle accretion rate, modified by a further dimensionless efficiency parameter \\lambda. Assuming a simple prescription for radiatively inefficient accretion at low Eddington ratios, we calculate the X-ray luminosity of these objects, and similarly estimate the radio luminosity from relations found empirically for b...

  12. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  13. Merging Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The final merger of two black holes is expected to be the strongest source of gravitational waves for both ground-based detectors such as LIGO and VIRGO, as well as future. space-based detectors. Since the merger takes place in the regime of strong dynamical gravity, computing the resulting gravitational waveforms requires solving the full Einstein equations of general relativity on a computer. For many years, numerical codes designed to simulate black hole mergers were plagued by a host of instabilities. However, recent breakthroughs have conquered these instabilities and opened up this field dramatically. This talk will focus on.the resulting 'gold rush' of new results that is revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, and their applications in gravitational wave detection, testing general relativity, and astrophysics

  14. Janus black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, Dongsu; Gutperle, Michael; Janik, Romuald A.

    2011-10-01

    In this paper Janus black holes in A dS 3 are considered. These are static solutions of an Einstein-scalar system with broken translation symmetry along the horizon. These solutions are dual to interface conformal field theories at finite temperature. An approximate solution is first constructed using perturbation theory around a planar BTZ blackhole. Numerical and exact solutions valid for all sets of parameters are then found and compared. Using the exact solution the thermodynamics of the system is analyzed. The entropy associated with the Janus black hole is calculated and it is found that the entropy of the black Janus is the sum of the undeformed black hole entropy and the entanglement entropy associated with the defect.

  15. Black Hole Induced Ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Pelletier, G

    2004-01-01

    Black Holes generate a particular kind of environments dominated by an accretion flow which concentrates a magnetic field. The interplay of gravity and magnetism creates this paradoxical situation where relativistic ejection is allowed and consequently high energy phenomena take place. Therefore Black Holes, which are very likely at the origin of powerfull astrophysical phenomena such as AGNs, micro- quasars and GRBs where relativistic ejections are observed, are at the heart of high energy astrophysics. The combination of General Relativity and Magneto-HydroDynamics (MHD) makes theory difficult; however great pionneers opened beautiful tracks in the seventies and left important problems to be solved for the next decades. These lectures will present the status of these issues. They have a tutorial aspect together with critical review aspect and contain also some new issues. Most of these lectures has been presented at the "School on Black Hole in the Universe" at Cargese, in May 2003.

  16. Black hole accretion discs

    CERN Document Server

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. outbursting black-hole low-mass X-ray binaries. We then turn to the role of advection in accretion flow onto black holes illustrating its action and importance with a toy model describing both ADAFs and slim discs. We conclude with a presentation of the general-relativistic formalism describing accretion discs in the Kerr space-time.

  17. Growth of Primordial Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Tomohiro

    Primordial black holes have important observational implications through Hawking evaporation and gravitational radiation as well as being a candidate for cold dark matter. Those black holes are assumed to have formed in the early universe typically with the mass scale contained within the Hubble horizon at the formation epoch and subsequently accreted mass surrounding them. Numerical relativity simulation shows that primordial black holes of different masses do not accrete much, which contrasts with a simplistic Newtonian argument. We see that primordial black holes larger than the 'super-horizon' primordial black holes have decreasing energy and worm-hole like struture, suggesting the formation through quamtum processes.

  18. Over spinning a black hole?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Cardoso, Vitor; Nerozzi, Andrea; Rocha, Jorge V, E-mail: mariam.bouhmadi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: vitor.cardoso@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: andrea.nerozzi@ist.utl.pt, E-mail: jorge.v.rocha@ist.utl.pt [CENTRA, Department de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-09-22

    A possible process to destroy a black hole consists on throwing point particles with sufficiently large angular momentum into the black hole. In the case of Kerr black holes, it was shown by Wald that particles with dangerously large angular momentum are simply not captured by the hole, and thus the event horizon is not destroyed. Here we reconsider this gedanken experiment for black holes in higher dimensions. We show that this particular way of destroying a black hole does not succeed and that Cosmic Censorship is preserved.

  19. Superfluid Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hennigar, Robie A; Tjoa, Erickson

    2016-01-01

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "$\\lambda$-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid $^4$He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically AdS hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  20. Correlated Multiphoton Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Afek, Itai; Silberberg, Yaron

    2010-01-01

    We generate bipartite states of light which exhibit an absence of multiphoton coincidence events between two modes amid a constant background flux. These `correlated photon holes' are produced by mixing a coherent state and relatively weak spontaneous parametric down-conversion using a balanced beamsplitter. Correlated holes with arbitrarily high photon numbers may be obtained by adjusting the relative phase and amplitude of the inputs. We measure states of up to five photons and verify their nonclassicality. The scheme provides a route for observation of high-photon-number nonclassical correlations without requiring intense quantum resources.

  1. Are Black Holes Springy?

    OpenAIRE

    Good, Michael R. R.; Ong, Yen Chin

    2014-01-01

    A $(3+1)$-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed $\\Omega_+$ can be used to define an effective spring constant, $k=m\\Omega_+^2$. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, $k = \\kappa $, which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: $2\\pi T = \\kappa - k$. Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force $F = 1/4$, which is consistent with the conj...

  2. Are Black Holes Springy?

    CERN Document Server

    Good, Michael R R

    2014-01-01

    A $(3+1)$-dimensional asymptotically flat Kerr black hole angular speed $\\Omega_+$ can be used to define an effective spring constant, $k=m\\Omega_+^2$. Its maximum value is the Schwarzschild surface gravity, $k = \\kappa $, which rapidly weakens as the black hole spins down and the temperature increases. The Hawking temperature is expressed in terms of the spring constant: $2\\pi T = \\kappa - k$. Hooke's law, in the extremal limit, provides the force $F = 1/4$, which is consistent with the conjecture of maximum force in general relativity.

  3. Characterizing Black Hole Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Boggs, William Darian; Kelly, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Binary black hole mergers are a promising source of gravitational waves for interferometric gravitational wave detectors. Recent advances in numerical relativity have revealed the predictions of General Relativity for the strong burst of radiation generated in the final moments of binary coalescence. We explore features in the merger radiation which characterize the final moments of merger and ringdown. Interpreting the waveforms in terms of an rotating implicit radiation source allows a unified phenomenological description of the system from inspiral through ringdown. Common features in the waveforms allow quantitative description of the merger signal which may provide insights for observations large-mass black hole binaries.

  4. Magnonic Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Molina, A; Nunez, Alvaro S; Duine, R A

    2017-02-10

    We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons-the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.

  5. Superfluid Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigar, Robie A; Mann, Robert B; Tjoa, Erickson

    2017-01-13

    We present what we believe is the first example of a "λ-line" phase transition in black hole thermodynamics. This is a line of (continuous) second order phase transitions which in the case of liquid ^{4}He marks the onset of superfluidity. The phase transition occurs for a class of asymptotically anti-de Sitter hairy black holes in Lovelock gravity where a real scalar field is conformally coupled to gravity. We discuss the origin of this phase transition and outline the circumstances under which it (or generalizations of it) could occur.

  6. Horndeski black hole geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Tretyakova, D A

    2016-01-01

    We examine geodesics for the scalar-tensor black holes in the Horndeski-Galileon framework. Our analysis shows that first kind relativistic orbits may not be present within some model parameters range. This is a highly pathological behavior contradicting to the black hole accretion and Solar System observations. We also present a new (although very similar to those previously known) solution, which contains the orbits we expect from a compact object, admits regular scalar field at the horizon and and can fit into the known stability criteria.

  7. Magnonic Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán-Molina, A.; Nunez, Alvaro S.; Duine, R. A.

    2017-02-01

    We show that the interaction between the spin-polarized current and the magnetization dynamics can be used to implement black-hole and white-hole horizons for magnons—the quanta of oscillations in the magnetization direction in magnets. We consider three different systems: easy-plane ferromagnetic metals, isotropic antiferromagnetic metals, and easy-plane magnetic insulators. Based on available experimental data, we estimate that the Hawking temperature can be as large as 1 K. We comment on the implications of magnonic horizons for spin-wave scattering and transport experiments, and for magnon entanglement.

  8. Modeling black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Fabbri, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The scope of this book is two-fold: the first part gives a fully detailed and pedagogical presentation of the Hawking effect and its physical implications, and the second discusses the backreaction problem, especially in connection with exactly solvable semiclassical models that describe analytically the black hole evaporation process. The book aims to establish a link between the general relativistic viewpoint on black hole evaporation and the new CFT-type approaches to the subject. The detailed discussion on backreaction effects is also extremely valuable.

  9. Acoustic black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, M

    1999-01-01

    Acoustic propagation in a moving fluid provides a conceptually clean and powerful analogy for understanding black hole physics. As a teaching tool, the analogy is useful for introducing students to both General Relativity and fluid mechanics. As a research tool, the analogy helps clarify what aspects of the physics are kinematics and what aspects are dynamics. In particular, Hawking radiation is a purely kinematical effect, whereas black hole entropy is intrinsically dynamical. Finally, I discuss the fact that with present technology acoustic Hawking radiation is almost experimentally testable.

  10. Electron hole tracking PIC simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chuteng; Hutchinson, Ian

    2016-10-01

    An electron hole is a coherent BGK mode solitary wave. Electron holes are observed to travel at high velocities relative to bulk plasmas. The kinematics of a 1-D electron hole is studied using a novel Particle-In-Cell simulation code with fully kinetic ions. A hole tracking technique enables us to follow the trajectory of a fast-moving solitary hole and study quantitatively hole acceleration and coupling to ions. The electron hole signal is detected and the simulation domain moves by a carefully designed feedback control law to follow its propagation. This approach has the advantage that the length of the simulation domain can be significantly reduced to several times the hole width, which makes high resolution simulations tractable. We observe a transient at the initial stage of hole formation when the hole accelerates to several times the cold-ion sound speed. Artificially imposing slow ion speed changes on a fully formed hole causes its velocity to change even when the ion stream speed in the hole frame greatly exceeds the ion thermal speed, so there are no reflected ions. The behavior that we observe in numerical simulations agrees very well with our analytic theory of hole momentum conservation and energization effects we call ``jetting''. The work was partially supported by the NSF/DOE Basic Plasma Science Partnership under Grant DE-SC0010491. Computer simulations were carried out on the MIT PSFC parallel AMD Opteron/Infiniband cluster Loki.

  11. Dry vacuum pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuet, R.

    2008-05-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R&D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed.

  12. Rotating regular black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this letter, we apply the Newman-Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type ...

  13. Rotating black hole hair

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, Ruth; Wills, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    A Kerr black hole sporting cosmic string hair is studied in the context of the abelian Higgs model vortex. It is shown that a such a system displays much richer phenomenology than its static Schwarzschild or Reissner--Nordstrom cousins, for example, the rotation generates a near horizon `electric' field. In the case of an extremal rotating black hole, two phases of the Higgs hair are possible: Large black holes exhibit standard hair, with the vortex piercing the event horizon. Small black holes on the other hand, exhibit a flux-expelled solution, with the gauge and scalar field remaining identically in their false vacuum state on the event horizon. This solution however is extremely sensitive to confirm numerically, and we conjecture that it is unstable due to a supperradiant mechanism similar to the Kerr-adS instability. Finally, we compute the gravitational back reaction of the vortex, which turns out to be far more nuanced than a simple conical deficit. While the string produces a conical effect, it is con...

  14. Moulting Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bena, Iosif; Chowdhury, Borun D.; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2012-03-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that some of the CFT states are lifted at strong coupling. Neither the bulk nor the boundary phases are captured by the elliptic genus, which makes the coincidence of the phase boundaries particularly remarkable. Our configurations are supersymmetric, have non-Cardy-like entropy, and are the first instance of a black hole entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual. Furthermore, contrary to common lore, these objects exist in a region of parameter space (between the "cosmic censorship bound" and the "unitarity bound") where no black holes were thought to exist.

  15. Twistors and Black Holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neitzke, A.; Pioline, B.; Vandoren, S.

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by black hole physics in N = 2,D = 4 supergravity, we study the geometry of quaternionic-K¨ahler manifolds Mobtained by the c-map construction from projective special Kähler manifolds Ms. Improving on earlier treatments, we compute the Käahler potentials on the twistor space Z and Swann sp

  16. Rotating regular black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bambi, Cosimo, E-mail: bambi@fudan.edu.cn; Modesto, Leonardo, E-mail: lmodesto@fudan.edu.cn

    2013-04-25

    The formation of spacetime singularities is a quite common phenomenon in General Relativity and it is regulated by specific theorems. It is widely believed that spacetime singularities do not exist in Nature, but that they represent a limitation of the classical theory. While we do not yet have any solid theory of quantum gravity, toy models of black hole solutions without singularities have been proposed. So far, there are only non-rotating regular black holes in the literature. These metrics can be hardly tested by astrophysical observations, as the black hole spin plays a fundamental role in any astrophysical process. In this Letter, we apply the Newman–Janis algorithm to the Hayward and to the Bardeen black hole metrics. In both cases, we obtain a family of rotating solutions. Every solution corresponds to a different matter configuration. Each family has one solution with special properties, which can be written in Kerr-like form in Boyer–Lindquist coordinates. These special solutions are of Petrov type D, they are singularity free, but they violate the weak energy condition for a non-vanishing spin and their curvature invariants have different values at r=0 depending on the way one approaches the origin. We propose a natural prescription to have rotating solutions with a minimal violation of the weak energy condition and without the questionable property of the curvature invariants at the origin.

  17. When Black Holes Collide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John

    2010-01-01

    Among the fascinating phenomena predicted by General Relativity, Einstein's theory of gravity, black holes and gravitational waves, are particularly important in astronomy. Though once viewed as a mathematical oddity, black holes are now recognized as the central engines of many of astronomy's most energetic cataclysms. Gravitational waves, though weakly interacting with ordinary matter, may be observed with new gravitational wave telescopes, opening a new window to the universe. These observations promise a direct view of the strong gravitational dynamics involving dense, often dark objects, such as black holes. The most powerful of these events may be merger of two colliding black holes. Though dark, these mergers may briefly release more energy that all the stars in the visible universe, in gravitational waves. General relativity makes precise predictions for the gravitational-wave signatures of these events, predictions which we can now calculate with the aid of supercomputer simulations. These results provide a foundation for interpreting expect observations in the emerging field of gravitational wave astronomy.

  18. Nonsingular black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut (Lebanon); I.H.E.S., Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Mukhanov, Viatcheslav [Niels Bohr Institute, Niels Bohr International Academy, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ludwig-Maximilians University, Theoretical Physics, Munich (Germany); MPI for Physics, Munich (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    We consider the Schwarzschild black hole and show how, in a theory with limiting curvature, the physical singularity ''inside it'' is removed. The resulting spacetime is geodesically complete. The internal structure of this nonsingular black hole is analogous to Russian nesting dolls. Namely, after falling into the black hole of radius r{sub g}, an observer, instead of being destroyed at the singularity, gets for a short time into the region with limiting curvature. After that he re-emerges in the near horizon region of a spacetime described by the Schwarzschild metric of a gravitational radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/3}. In the next cycle, after passing the limiting curvature, the observer finds himself within a black hole of even smaller radius proportional to r{sub g}{sup 1/9}, and so on. Finally after a few cycles he will end up in the spacetime where he remains forever at limiting curvature. (orig.)

  19. "Holes": Folklore Redux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, Elizabeth G.

    2001-01-01

    Demonstrates that a careful reading of the book for young adults, "Holes" by Louis Sachar, reveals how this contemporary story is grounded in folklore, and that it is this debt to folk literature that allows readers to accept an improbable plot. Shows how the story weaves together elements from traditional folk literature and stretches them across…

  20. Laser bottom hole assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underwood, Lance D; Norton, Ryan J; McKay, Ryan P; Mesnard, David R; Fraze, Jason D; Zediker, Mark S; Faircloth, Brian O

    2014-01-14

    There is provided for laser bottom hole assembly for providing a high power laser beam having greater than 5 kW of power for a laser mechanical drilling process to advance a borehole. This assembly utilizes a reverse Moineau motor type power section and provides a self-regulating system that addresses fluid flows relating to motive force, cooling and removal of cuttings.

  1. Quantum aspects of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with an overview of the theory of black holes by the editor, this book presents a collection of ten chapters by leading physicists dealing with the variety of quantum mechanical and quantum gravitational effects pertinent to black holes. The contributions address topics such as Hawking radiation, the thermodynamics of black holes, the information paradox and firewalls, Monsters, primordial black holes, self-gravitating Bose-Einstein condensates, the formation of small black holes in high energetic collisions of particles, minimal length effects in black holes and small black holes at the Large Hadron Collider. Viewed as a whole the collection provides stimulating reading for researchers and graduate students seeking a summary of the quantum features of black holes.

  2. Towards Noncommutative Quantum Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez-Dominguez, J C; Ramírez, C; Sabido, M

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we study noncommutative black holes. We use a diffeomorphism between the Schwarzschild black hole and the Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model, which is generalized to noncommutative minisuperspace. Trough the use of the Feynman-Hibbs procedure we are able to study the thermodynamics of the black hole, in particular we calculate the Hawking's temperature and entropy for the Noncommutative Schwarzschild black hole.

  3. Black Hole: The Interior Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Ong, Yen Chin

    2016-01-01

    The information loss paradox is often discussed from the perspective of the observers who stay outside of a black hole. However, the interior spacetime of a black hole can be rather nontrivial. We discuss the open problems regarding the volume of a black hole, and whether it plays any role in information storage. We also emphasize the importance of resolving the black hole singularity, if one were to resolve the information loss paradox.

  4. Simulations of coalescing black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Janiuk, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    We describe the methods and results of numerical simulations of coalescing black holes. The simulation in dynamical spacetime covers the inspiral, merger, and ringdown phases. We analyze the emission of gravitational waves and properties of a black hole being the merger product. We discuss the results in the context of astrophysical environment of black holes that exist in the Universe.

  5. "Exotic" black holes with torsion

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In the context of three-dimensional gravity with torsion, the concepts of standard and "exotic" Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes are generalized by going over to black holes with torsion. This approach provides a unified insight into thermodynamics of black holes, with or without torsion.

  6. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  7. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  8. Ocean Dynamics: Vietnam DRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Dynamics: Vietnam DRI Robert Pinkel Marine Physical Laboratory Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla California 92093-0213 Phone: (858) 534...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ocean Dynamics: Vietnam DRI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...cycle.. The Thorpe-scale estimates are local to Site III. South China Sea Process Cruise 2014 Under Vietnam DRI funding, Researcher Drew Lucas

  9. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  10. Optical black hole lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Faccio, Daniele; Lamperti, Marco; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Using numerical simulations we show how to realise an optical black hole laser, i.e. an amplifier formed by travelling refractive index perturbations arranged so as to trap light between a white and a black hole horizon. The simulations highlight the main features of these lasers: the growth inside the cavity of positive and negative frequency modes accompanied by a weaker emission of modes that occurs in periodic bursts corresponding to the cavity round trips of the trapped modes. We then highlight a new regime in which the trapped mode spectra broaden until the zero-frequency points on the dispersion curve are reached. Amplification at the horizon is highest for zero-frequencies, therefore leading to a strong modification of the structure of the trapped light. For sufficiently long propagation times, lasing ensues only at the zero-frequency modes.

  11. Presentism meets black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Gustavo E

    2014-01-01

    Presentism is, roughly, the metaphysical doctrine that maintains that whatever exists, exists in the present. The compatibility of presentism with the theories of special and general relativity was much debated in recent years. It has been argued that at least some versions of presentism are consistent with time-orientable models of general relativity. In this paper we confront the thesis of presentism with relativistic physics, in the strong gravitational limit where black holes are formed. We conclude that the presentist position is at odds with the existence of black holes and other compact objects in the universe. A revision of the thesis is necessary, if it is intended to be consistent with the current scientific view of the universe.

  12. Photon Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hernández, X; Mendoza, S; Sussman, R A

    2005-01-01

    We study the relationship between the energy and entropy of a black body photon gas, within an idealised spherical adiabatic enclosure of radius R, as this is compressed into a self-gravitating regime. We show that this regime approximately coincides with the black hole regime for the system, i.e., R ~ R_{s}, where R_{s} denotes the Schwarzschild radius of the system. The entropy of this system is always below the suggested Holographic bound, even as R \\to R_{s}. A plausible quantum configuration for the photon gas at R \\to R_{s} is suggested, which satisfies all energy, entropy and temperature black hole conditions. Finally we examine our results from the point of view of recent Loop Quantum Gravity ideas.

  13. Philosophical Issues of Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Romero, Gustavo E

    2014-01-01

    Black holes are extremely relativistic objects. Physical processes around them occur in a regime where the gravitational field is extremely intense. Under such conditions, our representations of space, time, gravity, and thermodynamics are pushed to their limits. In such a situation philosophical issues naturally arise. In this chapter I review some philosophical questions related to black holes. In particular, the relevance of black holes for the metaphysical dispute between presentists and eternalists, the origin of the second law of thermodynamics and its relation to black holes, the problem of information, black holes and hypercomputing, the nature of determinisim, and the breakdown of predictability in black hole space-times. I maintain that black hole physics can be used to illuminate some important problems in the border between science and philosophy, either epistemology and ontology.

  14. Noncommutative Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bastos, C; Dias, N C; Prata, J N

    2010-01-01

    One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.

  15. Artificial ozone holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dolya, S. N.

    2014-01-01

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total ma...

  16. Linear dilaton black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Clément, G; Leygnac, C; Clement, Gerard; Gal'tsov, Dmitri; Leygnac, Cedric

    2003-01-01

    We present new solutions to Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton-axion (EMDA) gravity in four dimensions describing black holes which asymptote to the linear dilaton background. In the non-rotating case they can be obtained as the limiting geometry of dilaton black holes. The rotating solutions (possibly endowed with a NUT parameter) are constructed using a generating technique based on the Sp(4,R) duality of the EMDA system. In a certain limit (with no event horizon present) our rotating solutions coincide with supersymmetric Israel-Wilson-Perjes type dilaton-axion solutions. In presence of an event horizon supersymmetry is broken. The temperature of the static black holes is constant, and their mass does not depend on it, so the heat capacity is zero. We investigate geodesics and wave propagation in these spacetimes and find superradiance in the rotating case. Because of the non-asymptotically flat nature of the geometry, certain modes are reflected from infinity, in particular, all superradiant modes are confined. Thi...

  17. Moulting Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bena, Iosif; de Boer, Jan; El-Showk, Sheer; Shigemori, Masaki

    2011-01-01

    We find a family of novel supersymmetric phases of the D1-D5 CFT, which in certain ranges of charges have more entropy than all known ensembles. We also find bulk BPS configurations that exist in the same range of parameters as these phases, and have more entropy than a BMPV black hole; they can be thought of as coming from a BMPV black hole shedding a "hair" condensate outside of the horizon. The entropy of the bulk configurations is smaller than that of the CFT phases, which indicates that some of the CFT states are lifted at strong coupling. Neither the bulk nor the boundary phases are captured by the elliptic genus, which makes the coincidence of the phase boundaries particularly remarkable. Our configurations are supersymmetric, have non-Cardy-like entropy, and are the first instance of a black hole entropy enigma with a controlled CFT dual. Furthermore, contrary to common lore, these objects exist in a region of parameter space (between the "cosmic censorship bound" and the "unitarity bound") where no b...

  18. Slowly balding black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2011-01-01

    The "no hair" theorem, a key result in General Relativity, states that an isolated black hole is defined by only three parameters: mass, angular momentum, and electric charge; this asymptotic state is reached on a light-crossing time scale. We find that the "no hair" theorem is not formally applicable for black holes formed from collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively "frozen-in" the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes $N_B = e \\Phi_\\infty /(\\pi c \\hbar)$, where $\\Phi_\\infty \\approx 2 \\pi^2 B_{NS} R_{NS}^3 /(P_{\\rm NS} c)$ is the initial magnetic flux through the hemisphere...

  19. Black hole's quantum levels

    CERN Document Server

    Corda, Christian

    2012-01-01

    By introducing a black hole's effective temperature, which takes into account both of the non-strictly thermal and non-strictly continuous characters of Hawking radiation, we recently re-analyzed black hole's quasi-normal modes and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels for emissions of particles. After a careful review of previous results, in this work we improve such an analysis by removing an approximation that we implicitly used in our previous work and by obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its sub-leading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize unitary quantum gravity theory, like functions of the quantum overtone number e (emission) and, in turn,of the black hole's quantum excited level. Another approximation concerning the maximum value of e is also corrected. We also consider quasi-normal modes in terms ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  1. Dry imaging cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I K Indrajit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry imaging cameras are important hard copy devices in radiology. Using dry imaging camera, multiformat images of digital modalities in radiology are created from a sealed unit of unexposed films. The functioning of a modern dry camera, involves a blend of concurrent processes, in areas of diverse sciences like computers, mechanics, thermal, optics, electricity and radiography. Broadly, hard copy devices are classified as laser and non laser based technology. When compared with the working knowledge and technical awareness of different modalities in radiology, the understanding of a dry imaging camera is often superficial and neglected. To fill this void, this article outlines the key features of a modern dry camera and its important issues that impact radiology workflow.

  2. Method of extracting heat from dry geothermal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, R.M.; Robinson, E.S.; Smith, M.C.

    1974-01-22

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to interconnect two or more holes that penetrate a previously dry geothermal reservoir, and to produce within the reservoir a sufficiently large heat-transfer surface so that heat can be extracted from the reservoir at a usefully high rate by a fluid entering it through one hole and leaving it through another. Introduction of a fluid into the reservoir to remove heat from it and establishment of natural (unpumped) convective circulation through the reservoir to accomplish continuous heat removal are important and novel features of the method. (auth)

  3. Black Holes with Skyrme Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Shiiki, N; Shiiki, Noriko; Sawado, Nobuyuki

    2005-01-01

    This paper is intended to give a review of the recent developments on black holes with Skyrme hair. The Einstein-Skyrme system is known to possess black hole solutions with Skyrme hair. The spherically symmetric black hole skyrmion with B=1 was the first discovered counter example of the no-hair conjecture for black holes. Recently we found the B=2 axially symmetric black hole skyrmion. In this system, the black hole at the center of the skyrmion absorbs the baryon number partially, leaving fractional charge outside the horizon. Therefore the baryon number is no longer conserved. We examine the B=1, 2 black hole solutions in detail in this paper. The model has a natural extension to the gauged version which can describe monopole black hole skyrmions. Callan and Witten discussed the monopole catalysis of proton decay within the Skyrme model. We apply the idea to the Einstein-Maxwell-Skyrme system and obtain monopole black hole skyrmions. Remarkably there exist multi-black hole skyrmion solutions in which the g...

  4. Rotating "Black Holes" with Holes in the Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Burinskii, Alexander; Elizalde, Emilio; Hildebrandt, Sergi R.; Magli, Giulio

    2005-01-01

    Kerr-Schild solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell field equations, containing semi-infinite axial singular lines, are investigated. It is shown that axial singularities break up the black hole, forming holes in the horizon. As a result, a tube-like region appears which allows matter to escape from the interior without crossing the horizon. It is argued that axial singularities of this kind, leading to very narrow beams, can be created in black holes by external electromagnetic or gravitational ex...

  5. Black Holes, Worm Holes, and Future Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Chris

    2000-01-01

    NASA has begun examining the technologies needed for an Interstellar Mission. In 1998, a NASA Interstellar Mission Workshop was held at the California Institute of Technology to examine the technologies required. Since then, a spectrum of research efforts to support such a mission has been underway, including many advanced and futuristic space propulsion concepts which are being explored. The study of black holes and wormholes may provide some of the breakthrough physics needed to travel to the stars. The first black hole, CYGXI, was discovered in 1972 in the constellation Cygnus X-1. In 1993, a black hole was found in the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. In 1994, the black hole GRO J1655-40 was discovered by the NASA Marshall Space Flight center using the Gamma Ray Observatory. Today, we believe we have found evidence to support the existence of 19 black holes, but our universe may contain several thousands. This paper discusses the dead star states - - both stable and unstable, white dwarfs, neutron stars, pulsars, quasars, the basic features and types of black holes: nonspinning, nonspinning with charge, spinning, and Hawking's mini black holes. The search for black holes, gravitational waves, and Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) are reviewed. Finally, concepts of black hole powered space vehicles and wormhole concepts for rapid interstellar travel are discussed in relation to the NASA Interstellar Mission.

  6. Numerical simulation of parallel hole cut blasting with uncharged holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Qu; Xiangbin Zheng; Lihua Fan; Ying Wang

    2008-01-01

    The cavity formation and propagation process of stress wave from parallel hole cut blasting was simulated with AN-SYS/LS-DYNA 3D nonlinear dynamic finite element software. The distribution of element plastic strain, node velocity, node time-acceleration history and the blasting cartridge volume ratio during the process were analyzed. It was found that the detonation of charged holes would cause the interaction of stress wave with the wall of uncharged holes. Initial rock cracking and displacement to neighboring uncharged holes become the main mechanism of cavity formation in early stage.

  7. Black Holes, Worm Holes, and Future Space Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barret, Chris

    2000-01-01

    NASA has begun examining the technologies needed for an Interstellar Mission. In 1998, a NASA Interstellar Mission Workshop was held at the California Institute of Technology to examine the technologies required. Since then, a spectrum of research efforts to support such a mission has been underway, including many advanced and futuristic space propulsion concepts which are being explored. The study of black holes and wormholes may provide some of the breakthrough physics needed to travel to the stars. The first black hole, CYGXI, was discovered in 1972 in the constellation Cygnus X-1. In 1993, a black hole was found in the center of our Milky Way Galaxy. In 1994, the black hole GRO J1655-40 was discovered by the NASA Marshall Space Flight center using the Gamma Ray Observatory. Today, we believe we have found evidence to support the existence of 19 black holes, but our universe may contain several thousands. This paper discusses the dead star states - - both stable and unstable, white dwarfs, neutron stars, pulsars, quasars, the basic features and types of black holes: nonspinning, nonspinning with charge, spinning, and Hawking's mini black holes. The search for black holes, gravitational waves, and Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) are reviewed. Finally, concepts of black hole powered space vehicles and wormhole concepts for rapid interstellar travel are discussed in relation to the NASA Interstellar Mission.

  8. Structural Holes in Directed Fuzzy Social Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Renjie Hu; Guangyu Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The structural holes have been a key issue in fuzzy social network analysis. For undirected fuzzy social networks where edges are just present or absent undirected fuzzy relation and have no more information attached, many structural holes measures have been presented, such as key fuzzy structural holes, general fuzzy structural holes, strong fuzzy structural holes, and weak fuzzy structural holes. There has been a growing need to design structural holes measures for directed fuzzy social net...

  9. Geometry of black hole spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Lars; Blue, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    These notes, based on lectures given at the summer school on Asymptotic Analysis in General Relativity, collect material on the Einstein equations, the geometry of black hole spacetimes, and the analysis of fields on black hole backgrounds. The Kerr model of a rotating black hole in vacuum is expected to be unique and stable. The problem of proving these fundamental facts provides the background for the material presented in these notes. Among the many topics which are relevant for the uniqueness and stability problems are the theory of fields on black hole spacetimes, in particular for gravitational perturbations of the Kerr black hole, and more generally, the study of nonlinear field equations in the presence of trapping. The study of these questions requires tools from several different fields, including Lorentzian geometry, hyperbolic differential equations and spin geometry, which are all relevant to the black hole stability problem.

  10. Deep Hole in 'Clovis'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 At a rock called 'Clovis,' the rock abrasion tool on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit cut a 9-millimeter (0.35-inch) hole during the rover's 216th martian day, or sol (Aug. 11, 2004). The hole is the deepest drilled in a rock on Mars so far. This approximately true-color view was made from images taken by Spirit's panoramic camera on sol 226 (Aug. 21, 2004) at around 12:50 p.m. local true solar time -- early afternoon in Gusev Crater on Mars. To the right is a 'brush flower' of circles produced by scrubbing the surface of the rock with the abrasion tool's wire brush. Scientists used rover's Moessbauer spectrometer and alpha particle X-ray spectrometer to look for iron-bearing minerals and determine the elemental chemical composition of the rock. This composite combines images taken with the camera's 750-, 530-, and 430-nanometer filters. The grayish-blue hue in this image suggests that the interior of the rock contains iron minerals that are less oxidized than minerals on the surface. The diameter of the hole cut into the rock is 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches). Data on the graph (Figure 1) from the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer instrument on the robotic arm of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit reveal the elemental chemistry of two rocks, 'Ebenezer' and 'Clovis,' (see PIA06914) in the 'Columbia Hills.' Scientists found, through comparison of the rocks' chemistry, that Ebenezer and Clovis have very different compositions from the rocks on the Gusev plains.

  11. Artificial ozone holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dolya, S N

    2014-01-01

    This article considers an opportunity of disinfecting a part of the Earth surface, occupying a large area of ten thousand square kilometers. The sunlight will cause dissociation of molecular bromine into atoms; each bromine atom kills thirty thousand molecules of ozone. Each bromine plate has a mass of forty milligrams grams and destroys ozone in the area of hundred square meters. Thus, to form the ozone hole over the area of ten thousand square kilometers, it is required to have the total mass of bromine equal to the following four tons.

  12. Observing braneworld black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gregory, R; Beckwith, K; Done, C; Gregory, Ruth; Whisker, Richard; Beckwith, Kris; Done, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Spacetime in the vicinity of an event horizon can be probed using observations which explore the dynamics of the accretion disc. Many high energy theories of gravity lead to modifications of the near horizon regime, potentially providing a testing ground for these theories. In this paper, we explore the impact of braneworld gravity on this region by formulating a method of deriving the general behaviour of the as yet unknown braneworld black hole solution. We use simple bounds to constrain the solution close to the horizon.

  13. Thermal BEC Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Casadio

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We review some features of Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the horizon wave function formalism. We consider the Klein–Gordon equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in a spherically-symmetric setup. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with a continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, the case in which one finds that (approximately one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The horizon wave function formalism is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons, resulting in agreement with the semiclassical calculations and which does not hold for a single very massive particle. The spectrum of these systems has two components: a discrete ground state of energy m (the bosons forming the black hole and a continuous spectrum with energy ω > m (representing the Hawking radiation and modeled with a Planckian distribution at the expected Hawking temperature. Assuming the main effect of the internal scatterings is the Hawking radiation, the N-particle state can be collectively described by a single-particle wave-function given by a superposition of a total ground state with energy M = Nm and Entropy 2015, 17 6894 a Planckian distribution for E > M at the same Hawking temperature. This can be used to compute the partition function and to find the usual area law for the entropy, with a logarithmic correction related to the Hawking component. The backreaction of modes with ω > m is also shown to reduce

  14. A bottom hole motor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kibishcher, G.B.; Karpenko, V.K.; Pogorelov, V.P.

    1982-01-01

    A bottom hole motor is proposed which includes a body, a push rod with a piston, a spindle, a mechanism for converting the reciprocal movement of the piston into rotation of the shaft and pump and drain cavities. In order to simplify the design the push rod is made with radial openings above and below the piston, while the shaft is made with two longitudinal channels at the level of the radial openings of the push rod on the diametrically opposite sides. The cavity of one channel is constantly connected with the pump cavity, while the other is permanently connected with the drain cavity.

  15. Noncommutative black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, C; Bertolami, O [Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, N C; Prata, J N, E-mail: cbastos@fisica.ist.utl.p, E-mail: orfeu@cosmos.ist.utl.p, E-mail: ncdias@mail.telepac.p, E-mail: joao.prata@mail.telepac.p [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Avenida Campo Grande, 376, 1749-024 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-04-01

    One considers phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. It is shown that the potential function of the corresponding quantum cosmology problem has a local minimum. One deduces the thermodynamics and show that the Hawking temperature and entropy exhibit an explicit dependence on the momentum noncommutativity parameter, {eta}. Furthermore, the t = r = 0 singularity is analysed in the noncommutative regime and it is shown that the wave function vanishes in this limit.

  16. Black hole accretion discs

    OpenAIRE

    Lasota, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This is an introduction to models of accretion discs around black holes. After a presentation of the non-relativistic equations describing the structure and evolution of geometrically thin accretion discs we discuss their steady-state solutions and compare them to observation. Next we describe in detail the thermal-viscous disc instability model and its application to dwarf novae for which it was designed and its X-ray irradiated-disc version which explains the soft X--ray transients, i.e. ou...

  17. Surfing a Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-10-01

    Star Orbiting Massive Milky Way Centre Approaches to within 17 Light-Hours [1] Summary An international team of astronomers [2], lead by researchers at the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) , has directly observed an otherwise normal star orbiting the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Ten years of painstaking measurements have been crowned by a series of unique images obtained by the Adaptive Optics (AO) NAOS-CONICA (NACO) instrument [3] on the 8.2-m VLT YEPUN telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory. It turns out that earlier this year the star approached the central Black Hole to within 17 light-hours - only three times the distance between the Sun and planet Pluto - while travelling at no less than 5000 km/sec . Previous measurements of the velocities of stars near the center of the Milky Way and variable X-ray emission from this area have provided the strongest evidence so far of the existence of a central Black Hole in our home galaxy and, implicitly, that the dark mass concentrations seen in many nuclei of other galaxies probably are also supermassive black holes. However, it has not yet been possible to exclude several alternative configurations. In a break-through paper appearing in the research journal Nature on October 17th, 2002, the present team reports their exciting results, including high-resolution images that allow tracing two-thirds of the orbit of a star designated "S2" . It is currently the closest observable star to the compact radio source and massive black hole candidate "SgrA*" ("Sagittarius A") at the very center of the Milky Way. The orbital period is just over 15 years. The new measurements exclude with high confidence that the central dark mass consists of a cluster of unusual stars or elementary particles, and leave little doubt of the presence of a supermassive black hole at the centre of the galaxy in which we live . PR Photo 23a/02 : NACO image of the central region of the Milky Way

  18. Artificial black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, Matt; Volovik, Grigory E

    2009-01-01

    Physicists are pondering on the possibility of simulating black holes in the laboratory by means of various "analog models". These analog models, typically based on condensed matter physics, can be used to help us understand general relativity (Einstein's gravity); conversely, abstract techniques developed in general relativity can sometimes be used to help us understand certain aspects of condensed matter physics. This book contains 13 chapters - written by experts in general relativity, particle physics, and condensed matter physics - that explore various aspects of this two-way traffic.

  19. Stripping with dry ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    Mechanical-type stripping using dry ice (solid CO2) consists in blasting particles of dry ice onto the painted surface. This surface can be used alone or in duplex according to type of substrate to be treated. According to operating conditions, three physical mechanisms may be involved when blasting dry ice particles onto a paint system: thermal shock, differential thermal contraction, and mechanical shock. The blast nozzle, nozzle travel speed, blast angle, stripping distance, and compressed air pressure and media flow rate influence the stripping quality and the uniformity and efficiency obtained.

  20. Black Holes in Higher Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reall Harvey S.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We review black-hole solutions of higher-dimensional vacuum gravity and higher-dimensional supergravity theories. The discussion of vacuum gravity is pedagogical, with detailed reviews of Myers–Perry solutions, black rings, and solution-generating techniques. We discuss black-hole solutions of maximal supergravity theories, including black holes in anti-de Sitter space. General results and open problems are discussed throughout.

  1. Origin of supermassive black holes

    OpenAIRE

    Dokuchaev, V. I.; Eroshenko, Yu. N.; Rubin, S G

    2007-01-01

    The origin of supermassive black holes in the galactic nuclei is quite uncertain in spite of extensive set of observational data. We review the known scenarios of galactic and cosmological formation of supermassive black holes. The common drawback of galactic scenarios is a lack of time and shortage of matter supply for building the supermassive black holes in all galaxies by means of accretion and merging. The cosmological scenarios are only fragmentarily developed but propose and pretend to...

  2. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodukhin, S. N.

    2005-03-01

    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.

  3. How black holes saved relativity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescod-Weinstein, Chanda

    2016-02-01

    While there have been many popular-science books on the historical and scientific legacy of Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity, a gap exists in the literature for a definitive, accessible history of the theory's most famous offshoot: black holes. In Black Hole, the science writer Marcia Bartusiak aims for a discursive middle ground, writing solely about black holes at a level suitable for both high-school students and more mature readers while also giving some broader scientific context for black-hole research.

  4. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    CERN Document Server

    Solodukhin, S N

    2004-01-01

    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the worm-hole modification. In the latter case the entropy comes out correctly as well.

  5. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; Kubizňák, David

    2016-09-23

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon-even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.

  6. Black holes and the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garriga, Jaume; Vilenkin, Alexander; Zhang, Jun

    2016-02-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive black holes. The mechanism of black hole formation described in this paper is very generic and has important implications for the global structure of the universe. Baby universes inside super-critical black holes inflate eternally and nucleate bubbles of all vacua allowed by the underlying particle physics. The resulting multiverse has a very non-trivial spacetime structure, with a multitude of eternally inflating regions connected by wormholes. If a black hole population with the predicted mass spectrum is discovered, it could be regarded as evidence for inflation and for the existence of a multiverse.

  7. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Appels, Michael; Kubiznak, David

    2016-01-01

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of a charged accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon -- even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability and phase structure of these black holes.

  8. Thermodynamics of Accelerating Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appels, Michael; Gregory, Ruth; KubizÅák, David

    2016-09-01

    We address a long-standing problem of describing the thermodynamics of an accelerating black hole. We derive a standard first law of black hole thermodynamics, with the usual identification of entropy proportional to the area of the event horizon—even though the event horizon contains a conical singularity. This result not only extends the applicability of black hole thermodynamics to realms previously not anticipated, it also opens a possibility for studying novel properties of an important class of exact radiative solutions of Einstein equations describing accelerated objects. We discuss the thermodynamic volume, stability, and phase structure of these black holes.

  9. [Little Dry Creek Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map of the drainage boundary, direction of flow, canals and ditches, and streets for the drainage study plan and profile for Little Dry Creek sub area in the North...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a ... the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media ...

  11. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye ... What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Can you explain why I have halos and blurry ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide ... What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear- ... Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  16. Thermal BEC black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Casadio, Roberto; Micu, Octavian; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    We review some features of BEC models of black holes obtained by means of the HWF formalism. We consider the KG equation for a toy graviton field coupled to a static matter current in spherical symmetry. The classical field reproduces the Newtonian potential generated by the matter source, while the corresponding quantum state is given by a coherent superposition of scalar modes with continuous occupation number. An attractive self-interaction is needed for bound states to form, so that (approximately) one mode is allowed, and the system of N bosons can be self-confined in a volume of the size of the Schwarzschild radius. The HWF is then used to show that the radius of such a system corresponds to a proper horizon. The uncertainty in the size of the horizon is related to the typical energy of Hawking modes: it decreases with the increasing of the black hole mass (larger number of gravitons), in agreement with semiclassical calculations and different from a single very massive particle. The spectrum contains a...

  17. Twistors and Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Neitzke, A; Vandoren, S; Neitzke, Andrew; Pioline, Boris; Vandoren, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by black hole physics in N=2, D=4 supergravity, we study the geometry of quaternionic-Kahler manifolds M obtained by the c-map construction from projective special Kahler manifolds M_s. Improving on earlier treatments, we compute the Kahler potentials on the twistor space Z and Swann space S in the complex coordinates adapted to the Heisenberg symmetries. The results bear a simple relation to the Hesse potential \\Sigma of the special Kahler manifold M_s, and hence to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy for BPS black holes. We explicitly construct the ``covariant c-map'' and the ``twistor map'', which relate real coordinates on M x CP^1 (resp. M x R^4/Z_2) to complex coordinates on Z (resp. S). As applications, we solve for the general BPS geodesic motion on M, and provide explicit integral formulae for the quaternionic Penrose transform relating elements of H^1(Z,O(-k)) to massless fields on M annihilated by first or second order differential operators. Finally, we compute the exact radial wave function ...

  18. Transient Black Hole Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Belloni, T M

    2016-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a great improvement in our understand- ing of the complex phenomenology observed in transient black-hole binary systems, especially thanks to the activity of the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer satellite, com- plemented by observations from many other X-ray observatories and ground-based radio, optical and infrared facilities. Accretion alone cannot describe accurately the intricate behavior associated with black-hole transients and it is now clear that the role played by different kinds of (often massive) outflows seen at different phases of the outburst evolution of these systems is as fundamental as the one played by the accretion process itself. The spectral-timing states originally identified in the X-rays and fundamentally based on the observed effect of accretion, have acquired new importance as they now allow to describe within a coherent picture the phenomenology observed at other wave- length, where the effects of ejection processes are most evident. With a particular focu...

  19. Virtual Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen William

    1996-01-01

    One would expect spacetime to have a foam-like structure on the Planck scale with a very high topology. If spacetime is simply connected (which is assumed in this paper), the non-trivial homology occurs in dimension two, and spacetime can be regarded as being essentially the topological sum of S^2\\times S^2 and K3 bubbles. Comparison with the instantons for pair creation of black holes shows that the S^2\\times S^2 bubbles can be interpreted as closed loops of virtual black holes. It is shown that scattering in such topological fluctuations leads to loss of quantum coherence, or in other words, to a superscattering matrix \\ that does not factorise into an S matrix and its adjoint. This loss of quantum coherence is very small at low energies for everything except scalar fields, leading to the prediction that we may never observe the Higgs particle. Another possible observational consequence may be that the \\theta angle of QCD is zero without having to invoke the problematical existence of a light axion. The pic...

  20. Electro-dry-adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo

    2012-03-27

    This work presents novel conductive bioinspired dry adhesives with mushroom caps that enable the use of a synergistic combination of electrostatic and van der Waals forces (electro-dry-adhesion). An increase in shear adhesion bond strength of up to 2046% on a wide range of materials is measured when a maximum electrical field of 36.4 V μm(-1) is applied. A suction effect, due to the shape of the dry adhesive fibers, on overall adhesion was not noted for electro-dry-adhesives when testing was performed at both atmospheric and reduced pressure. Utilization of electrostatics to apply a preloading force to dry adhesive fiber arrays allows increased adhesion even after electrostatic force generation has been halted by ensuring the close contact necessary for van der Waals forces to be effective. A comparison is made between self-preloading of the electro-dry-adhesives and the direct application of a normal preloading pressure resulting in nearly the same shear bond strength with an applied voltage of 3.33 kV on the same sample.

  1. Long hole waterjet drilling for gas drainage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matt Stockwell; M. Gledhill; S. Hildebrand; S. Adam; Tim Meyer [CMTE (Australia)

    2003-04-01

    In-seam drilling for gas drainage is now an essential part of operations at many Australian underground coalmines. The objective of this project is to develop and trial a new drilling method for the accurate and efficient installation of long inseam boreholes (>1000 metres). This involves the integration of pure water-jet drilling technology (i.e. not water-jet assisted rotary drilling) developed by CMTE with conventional directional drilling technology. The system was similar to conventional directional drilling methods, but instead of relying on a down-hole-motor (DHM) rotating a mechanical drill bit for cutting, high pressure water-jets were used. The testing of the system did not achieve the full objectives set down in the project plan. A borehole greater than 1000 metres was not achieved. The first trial site had coal that was weathered, oxidized and dry. These conditions significantly affected the ability of the drilling tool to stay 'in-seam'. Due to the poor conditions at the first trial, many experimental objectives were forwarded to the second field trial. In the second trial drilling difficulties were experienced, this was due to the interaction between the confinement of the borehole and the dimensions of the down hole drilling assembly. This ultimately reduced the productivity of the system and the distance that could be drilled within the specified trial periods. Testing in the first field trial did not show any indication that the system would have this difficulty.

  2. Drilling miniature holes, Part III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1978-07-01

    Miniature components for precision electromechanical mechanisms such as switches, timers, and actuators typically require a number of small holes. Because of the precision required, the workpiece materials, and the geometry of the parts, most of these holes must be produced by conventional drilling techniques. The use of such techniques is tedious and often requires considerable trial and error to prevent drill breakage, minimize hole mislocation and variations in hole diameter. This study of eight commercial drill designs revealed that printed circuit board drills produced better locational and size repeatability than did other drills when centerdrilling was not used. Boring holes 1 mm in dia, or less, as a general rule did not improve hole location in brass or stainless steel. Hole locations of patterns of 0.66-mm holes can be maintained within 25.4-..mu..m diametral positional tolerance if setup misalignments can be eliminated. Size tolerances of +- 3.8 ..mu..m can be maintained under some conditions when drilling flat plates. While these levels of precision are possible with existing off-the-shelf drills, they may not be practical in many cases.

  3. Nonlinear Electrodynamics and black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Breton, N; Breton, Nora; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    It is addressed the issue of black holes with nonlinear electromagnetic field, focussing mainly in the Born-Infeld case. The main features of these systems are described, for instance, geodesics, energy conditions, thermodynamics and isolated horizon aspects. Also are revised some black hole solutions of alternative nonlinear electrodynamics and its inconveniences.

  4. ATLAS simulated black hole event

    CERN Multimedia

    Pequenão, J

    2008-01-01

    The simulated collision event shown is viewed along the beampipe. The event is one in which a microscopic-black-hole was produced in the collision of two protons (not shown). The microscopic-black-hole decayed immediately into many particles. The colors of the tracks show different types of particles emerging from the collision (at the center).

  5. Black-Hole Mass Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized.......The applicability and apparent uncertainties of the techniques currently available for measuring or estimating black-hole masses in AGNs are briefly summarized....

  6. Magnetic fields around black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garofalo, David A. G.

    Active Galactic Nuclei are the most powerful long-lived objects in the universe. They are thought to harbor supermassive black holes that range from 1 million solar masses to 1000 times that value and possibly greater. Theory and observation are converging on a model for these objects that involves the conversion of gravitational potential energy of accreting gas to radiation as well as Poynting flux produced by the interaction of the rotating spacetime and the electromagnetic fields originating in the ionized accretion flow. The presence of black holes in astrophysics is taking center stage, with the output from AGN in various forms such as winds and jets influencing the formation and evolution of the host galaxy. This dissertation addresses some of the basic unanswered questions that plague our current understanding of how rotating black holes interact with their surrounding magnetized accretion disks to produce the enormous observed energy. Two magnetic configurations are examined. The first involves magnetic fields connecting the black hole with the inner accretion disk and the other involves large scale magnetic fields threading the disk and the hole. We study the effects of the former type by establishing the consequences that magnetic torques between the black hole and the inner accretion disk have on the energy dissipation profile. We attempt a plausible explanation to the observed "Deep Minimum" state in the Seyfert galaxy MCG-6- 30-15. For the latter type of magnetic geometry, we study the effects of the strength of the magnetic field threading the black hole within the context of the cherished Blandford & Znajek mechanism for black hole spin energy extraction. We begin by addressing the problem in the non-relativistic regime where we find that the black hole-threading magnetic field is stronger for greater disk thickness, larger magnetic Prandtl number, and for a larger accretion disk. We then study the problem in full relativity where we show that our

  7. Fear of holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Geoff G; Wilkins, Arnold J

    2013-10-01

    Phobias are usually described as irrational and persistent fears of certain objects or situations, and causes of such fears are difficult to identify. We describe an unusual but common phobia (trypophobia), hitherto unreported in the scientific literature, in which sufferers are averse to images of holes. We performed a spectral analysis on a variety of images that induce trypophobia and found that the stimuli had a spectral composition typically associated with uncomfortable visual images, namely, high-contrast energy at midrange spatial frequencies. Critically, we found that a range of potentially dangerous animals also possess this spectral characteristic. We argue that although sufferers are not conscious of the association, the phobia arises in part because the inducing stimuli share basic visual characteristics with dangerous organisms, characteristics that are low level and easily computed, and therefore facilitate a rapid nonconscious response.

  8. Asymmetric black dyonic holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Cabrera-Munguia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A 6-parametric asymptotically flat exact solution, describing a two-body system of asymmetric black dyons, is studied. The system consists of two unequal counterrotating Kerr–Newman black holes, endowed with electric and magnetic charges which are equal but opposite in sign, separated by a massless strut. The Smarr formula is generalized in order to take into account their contribution to the mass. The expressions for the horizon half-length parameters σ1 and σ2, as functions of the Komar parameters and of the coordinate distance, are displayed, and the thermodynamic properties of the two-body system are studied. Furthermore, the seven physical parameters satisfy a simple algebraic relation which can be understood as a dynamical scenario, in which the physical properties of one body are affected by the ones of the other body.

  9. Black holes and the multiverse

    CERN Document Server

    Garriga, Jaume; Zhang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum bubbles may nucleate and expand during the inflationary epoch in the early universe. After inflation ends, the bubbles quickly dissipate their kinetic energy; they come to rest with respect to the Hubble flow and eventually form black holes. The fate of the bubble itself depends on the resulting black hole mass. If the mass is smaller than a certain critical value, the bubble collapses to a singularity. Otherwise, the bubble interior inflates, forming a baby universe, which is connected to the exterior FRW region by a wormhole. A similar black hole formation mechanism operates for spherical domain walls nucleating during inflation. As an illustrative example, we studied the black hole mass spectrum in the domain wall scenario, assuming that domain walls interact with matter only gravitationally. Our results indicate that, depending on the model parameters, black holes produced in this scenario can have significant astrophysical effects and can even serve as dark matter or as seeds for supermassive blac...

  10. Kerr black hole thermodynamical fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavon, D.; Rubi, J. M.

    1985-04-01

    The near-equilibrium thermodynamical (TD) fluctuations of a massive rotating uncharged Kerr black hole immersed in a uniformly corotating radiation bath at its temperature are investigated theoretically, generalizing Schwarzschild-black-hole analysis of Pavon and Rubi(1983), based on Einstein fluctuation theory. The correlations for the energy and angular moment fluctuations and the second moments of the other TD parameters are obtained, and the generalized second law of black-hole TD and the Bekenstein (1975) interpretation of black-hole entropy are seen as functioning well in this case. A local-stability criterion and relation for TD equilibrium between the Kerr hole and its own radiation in the flat-space-time limit are derived, and a restriction between C and Lambda is deduced.

  11. String-Corrected Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, Veronika; Maloney, Alexander; Rangamani, Mukund

    2005-02-07

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect -- the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive! The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  12. String-corrected black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, Veronika E. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Maloney, Alexander [SLAC and Department of Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Rangamani, Mukund [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect - the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive{exclamation_point} The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  13. Recoiling Black Holes in Quasars

    CERN Document Server

    Bonning, E W; Salviander, S

    2007-01-01

    Recent simulations of merging black holes with spin give recoil velocities from gravitational radiation up to several thousand km/s. A recoiling supermassive black hole can retain the inner part of its accretion disk, providing fuel for a continuing QSO phase lasting millions of years as the hole moves away from the galactic nucleus. One possible observational manifestation of a recoiling accretion disk is in QSO emission lines shifted in velocity from the host galaxy. We have examined QSOs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with broad emission lines substantially shifted relative to the narrow lines. We find no convincing evidence for recoiling black holes carrying accretion disks. We place an upper limit on the incidence of recoiling black holes in QSOs of 4% for kicks greater than 500 km/s and 0.35% for kicks greater than 1000 km/s line-of-sight velocity.

  14. String-Corrected Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubeny, V.

    2005-01-12

    We investigate the geometry of four dimensional black hole solutions in the presence of stringy higher curvature corrections to the low energy effective action. For certain supersymmetric two charge black holes these corrections drastically alter the causal structure of the solution, converting seemingly pathological null singularities into timelike singularities hidden behind a finite area horizon. We establish, analytically and numerically, that the string-corrected two-charge black hole metric has the same Penrose diagram as the extremal four-charge black hole. The higher derivative terms lead to another dramatic effect--the gravitational force exerted by a black hole on an inertial observer is no longer purely attractive. The magnitude of this effect is related to the size of the compactification manifold.

  15. When Charged Black Holes Merge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-08-01

    Most theoretical models assume that black holes arent charged. But a new study shows that mergers of charged black holes could explain a variety of astrophysical phenomena, from fast radio bursts to gamma-ray bursts.No HairThe black hole no hair theorem states that all black holes can be described by just three things: their mass, their spin, and their charge. Masses and spins have been observed and measured, but weve never measured the charge of a black hole and its widely believed that real black holes dont actually have any charge.That said, weve also never shown that black holes dont have charge, or set any upper limits on the charge that they might have. So lets suppose, for a moment, that its possible for a black hole to be charged. How might that affect what we know about the merger of two black holes? A recent theoretical study by Bing Zhang (University of Nevada, Las Vegas) examines this question.Intensity profile of a fast radio burst, a sudden burst of radio emission that lasts only a few milliseconds. [Swinburne Astronomy Productions]Driving TransientsZhangs work envisions a pair of black holes in a binary system. He argues that if just one of the black holes carries charge possibly retained by a rotating magnetosphere then it may be possible for the system to produce an electromagnetic signal that could accompany gravitational waves, such as a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst!In Zhangs model, the inspiral of the two black holes generates a global magnetic dipole thats perpendicular to the plane of the binarys orbit. The magnetic flux increases rapidly as the separation between the black holes decreases, generating an increasingly powerful magnetic wind. This wind, in turn, can give rise to a fast radio burst or a gamma-ray burst, depending on the value of the black holes charge.Artists illustration of a short gamma-ray burst, thought to be caused by the merger of two compact objects. [ESO/A. Roquette]Zhang calculates lower limits on the charge

  16. Area spectrum of slowly rotating black holes

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the area spectrum for rotating black holes which are Kerr and BTZ black holes. For slowly rotating black holes, we use the Maggiore's idea combined with Kunstatter's method to derive their area spectra, which are equally spaced.

  17. Black holes in an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, Gary W; Maeda, Kei-ichi

    2010-04-02

    An exact solution representing black holes in an expanding universe is found. The black holes are maximally charged and the universe is expanding with arbitrary equation of state (P = w rho with -1 black hole temperature.

  18. Astrophysical Black Holes in the Physical Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter I focus on asking and answering the following questions: (1) What is a black hole? Answer: There are three types of black holes, namely mathematical black holes, physical black holes and astrophysical black holes. An astrophysical black hole, with mass distributed within its event horizon but not concentrated at the singularity point, is not a mathematical black hole. (2) Can astrophysical black holes be formed in the physical universe? Answer: Yes, at least this can be done with gravitational collapse. (3) How can we prove that what we call astrophysical black holes are really black holes? Answer: Finding direct evidence of event horizon is not the way to go. Instead I propose five criteria which meet the highest standard for recognizing new discoveries in experimental physics and observational astronomy. (4) Do we have sufficient evidence to claim the existence of astrophysical black holes in the physical universe? Answer: Yes, astrophysical black holes have been found at least in some galac...

  19. Are LIGO's Black Holes Made From Smaller Black Holes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-05-01

    The recent successes of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) has raised hopes that several long-standing questions in black-hole physics will soon be answerable. Besides revealing how the black-hole binary pairs are built, could detections with LIGO also reveal how the black holes themselves form?Isolation or HierarchyThe first detection of gravitational waves, GW150914, was surprising for a number of reasons. One unexpected result was the mass of the two black holes that LIGO saw merging: they were a whopping 29 and 36 solar masses.On the left of this schematic, two first-generation (direct-collapse) black holes form a merging binary. The right illustrates a second-generation hierarchical merger: each black hole in the final merging binary was formed by the merger of two smaller black holes. [Adapted fromGerosa et al., a simultaneously published paper that also explores the problem of hierarchical mergers and reaches similar conclusions]How do black holes of this size form? One possibility is that they form in isolation from the collapse of a single massive star. In an alternative model, they are created through the hierarchical merger of smaller black holes, gradually building up to the size we observed.A team of scientists led by Maya Fishbach (University of Chicago) suggests that we may soon be able to tell whether or not black holes observed by LIGO formed hierarchically. Fishbach and collaborators argue that hierarchical formation leaves a distinctive signature on the spins of the final black holes and that as soon as we have enough merger detections from LIGO, we can use spin measurements to statistically determine if LIGO black holes were formed hierarchically.Spins from Major MergersWhen two black holes merge, both their original spins and the angular momentum of the pair contribute to the spin of the final black hole that results. Fishbach and collaborators calculate the expected distribution of these final spins assuming that

  20. Drying of Malaysian Capsicum annuum L. (Red Chili) Dried by Open and Solar Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Fudholi; Mohd Yusof Othman; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of solar drying in the Malaysian red chili (Capsicum annuum L.). Red chilies were dried down from approximately 80% (wb) to 10% (wb) moisture content within 33 h. The drying process was conducted during the day, and it was compared with 65 h of open sun drying. Solar drying yielded a 49% saving in drying time compared with open sun drying. At the average solar radiation of 420 W/m2 and air flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, the collector, drying system, and pickup de...

  1. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn;

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  2. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  3. Trigger Point Dry Needling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Increasingly, physical therapists in the United States and throughout the world are using dry needling to treat musculoskeletal pain, even though this treatment has been a controversial addition to practice. To better generalize to physical therapy practice the findings about dry needling thus far, the authors of a study published in the March 2017 issue of JOSPT identified the need for a systematic review examining the effectiveness of dry needling performed by physical therapists on people with musculoskeletal pain. Their review offers a meta-analysis of data from several included studies and assesses the evidence for risks of bias. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):150. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0502.

  4. VTrans Small Culvert Inventory - Access Holes

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Vermont Agency of Transportation Small Culvert Inventory: Access Holes. This data contains access hole locations along VTrans maintained roadways. The data was...

  5. Investigation of Spiral and Sweeping Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, Douglas; Poinsatte, Philip; Ameri, Ali; Culley, Dennis; Raghu, Surya; Shyam, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Surface infrared thermography, hotwire anemometry, and thermocouple surveys were performed on two new film cooling hole geometries: spiral/rifled holes and fluidic sweeping holes. The spiral holes attempt to induce large-scale vorticity to the film cooling jet as it exits the hole to prevent the formation of the kidney shaped vortices commonly associated with film cooling jets. The fluidic sweeping hole uses a passive in-hole geometry to induce jet sweeping at frequencies that scale with blowing ratios. The spiral hole performance is compared to that of round holes with and without compound angles. The fluidic hole is of the diffusion class of holes and is therefore compared to a 777 hole and Square holes. A patent-pending spiral hole design showed the highest potential of the non-diffusion type hole configurations. Velocity contours and flow temperature were acquired at discreet cross-sections of the downstream flow field. The passive fluidic sweeping hole shows the most uniform cooling distribution but suffers from low span-averaged effectiveness levels due to enhanced mixing. The data was taken at a Reynolds number of 11,000 based on hole diameter and freestream velocity. Infrared thermography was taken for blowing rations of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 at a density ration of 1.05. The flow inside the fluidic sweeping hole was studied using 3D unsteady RANS.

  6. Magnetically responsive dry fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Filipa L.; Bustamante, Rodney; Millán, Angel; Palacio, Fernando; Trindade, Tito; Silva, Nuno J. O.

    2013-07-01

    Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid.Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01784b

  7. Superconducting electron and hole lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghchi, H.; Esmailzadeh, H.; Moghaddam, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    We show how a superconducting region (S), sandwiched between two normal leads (N), in the presence of barriers, can act as a lens for propagating electron and hole waves by virtue of the so-called crossed Andreev reflection (CAR). The CAR process, which is equivalent to Cooper pair splitting into two N electrodes, provides a unique possibility of constructing entangled electrons in solid state systems. When electrons are locally injected from an N lead, due to the CAR and normal reflection of quasiparticles by the insulating barriers at the interfaces, sequences of electron and hole focuses are established inside another N electrode. This behavior originates from the change of momentum during electron-hole conversion beside the successive normal reflections of electrons and holes due to the barriers. The focusing phenomena studied here are fundamentally different from the electron focusing in other systems, such as graphene p-n junctions. In particular, due to the electron-hole symmetry of the superconducting state, the focusing of electrons and holes is robust against thermal excitations. Furthermore, the effects of the superconducting layer width, the injection point position, and barrier strength are investigated on the focusing behavior of the junction. Very intriguingly, it is shown that by varying the barrier strength, one can separately control the density of electrons or holes at the focuses.

  8. Cosmic Intelligence and Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lefebvre, V A; Lefebvre, Vladimir A.; Efremov, Yuri N.

    2000-01-01

    The paper is devoted to a new direction in SETI. After a general discussion of the field, the authors put forth the hypothesis that the black holes may serve as a physical substratum for intelligent beings. This hypothesis is based on four parallels between the brain-psyche system, on the one hand, and black holes, on the other. (1) The descriptions of brain and psyche, in the system brain-psyche, are complementary to each other, as descriptions by internal and external observers of a black hole in Susskind-t'Hooft's schema. (2) There is an aspect of the inner structure of a black hole in Kerr's model of the rotating black hole that is isomorphic to the structure of the human subjective domain in the psychological model of reflexion. (3) Both black holes and the brain-psyche system have a facet which can be represented using thermodynamic concepts. (4) The brain lends itself to a holographic description; as has been recently demonstrated by Susskind, black holes can also be described holographically. The auth...

  9. Black Holes: The Membrane Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, Kip S.

    Contents: I. Introduction: 1. Overview of the membrane viewpoint. 2. History of research on the membrane viewpoint. II. The 3+1 split of spacetime: 1. ZAMOs and the 3+1 split of the metric. 2. Gravitoelectric and gravitomagnetic fields. 3. 3+1 split of electrodynamics. III. Stretching the horizon and black-hole thermodynamics: 1. Macdonald's vibrating magnetic field problem. 2. Stretching the horizon. 3. The entropy of a black hole. 4. The thermodynamics and mechanics of a black hole. IV. Electrodynamics of the stretched horizon: 1. The laws of Gauss, Ampere, Ohm, and charge conservation. 2. Lorentz force and ohmic dissipation in the stretched horizon. V. Some electromagnetic model problems: 1. Charge separation in the stretched horizon. 2. Black hole as a resistor in an electric circuit. 3. Black hole as the rotor in an electric motor. 4. Rotating hole immersed in a time-independent, vacuum magnetic field. 5. Magnetized, rotating hole as a battery for an external circuit. VI. Astrophysical applications of the membrane formalism. VII. Conclusion.

  10. A nonsingular rotating black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematical Sciences, Durban (South Africa)

    2015-11-15

    The spacetime singularities in classical general relativity are inevitable, as predicated by the celebrated singularity theorems. However, it is a general belief that singularities do not exist in Nature and that they are the limitations of the general relativity. In the absence of a welldefined quantum gravity, models of regular black holes have been studied. We employ a probability distribution inspired mass function m(r) to replace the Kerr black hole mass M to represent a nonsingular rotating black hole that is identified asymptotically (r >> k, k > 0 constant) exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when k = 0. The radiating counterpart renders a nonsingular generalization of Carmeli's spacetime as well as Vaidya's spacetime, in the appropriate limits. The exponential correction factor changing the geometry of the classical black hole to remove the curvature singularity can also be motivated by quantum arguments. The regular rotating spacetime can also be understood as a black hole of general relativity coupled to nonlinear electrodynamics. (orig.)

  11. Rotating black hole and quintessence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Sushant G. [Jamia Millia Islamia, Centre for Theoretical Physics, New Delhi (India); University of KwaZulu-Natal, Astrophysics and Cosmology Research Unit, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science, Private Bag 54001, Durban (South Africa)

    2016-04-15

    We discuss spherically symmetric exact solutions of the Einstein equations for quintessential matter surrounding a black hole, which has an additional parameter (ω) due to the quintessential matter, apart from the mass (M). In turn, we employ the Newman-Janis complex transformation to this spherical quintessence black hole solution and present a rotating counterpart that is identified, for α = -e{sup 2} ≠ 0 and ω = 1/3, exactly as the Kerr-Newman black hole, and as the Kerr black hole when α = 0. Interestingly, for a given value of parameter ω, there exists a critical rotation parameter (a = a{sub E}), which corresponds to an extremal black hole with degenerate horizons, while for a < a{sub E}, it describes a nonextremal black hole with Cauchy and event horizons, and no black hole for a > a{sub E}. We find that the extremal value a{sub E} is also influenced by the parameter ω and so is the ergoregion. (orig.)

  12. Unveiling the edge of time black holes, white holes, wormholes

    CERN Document Server

    Gribbin, John

    1992-01-01

    Acclaimed science writer John Gribbin recounts dramatic stories that have led scientists to believe black holes and their more mysterious kin are not only real, but might actually provide a passage to other universes and travel through time.

  13. Can Black Hole Relax Unitarily?

    OpenAIRE

    Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2004-01-01

    We review the way the BTZ black hole relaxes back to thermal equilibrium after a small perturbation and how it is seen in the boundary (finite volume) CFT. The unitarity requires the relaxation to be quasi-periodic. It is preserved in the CFT but is not obvious in the case of the semiclassical black hole the relaxation of which is driven by complex quasi-normal modes. We discuss two ways of modifying the semiclassical black hole geometry to maintain unitarity: the (fractal) brick wall and the...

  14. Black holes and Higgs stability

    CERN Document Server

    Tetradis, Nikolaos

    2016-01-01

    We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.

  15. Black holes and Higgs stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tetradis, Nikolaos [Department of Physics, University of Athens,Zographou 157 84 (Greece); Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-09-20

    We study the effect of primordial black holes on the classical rate of nucleation of AdS regions within the standard electroweak vacuum. We find that the energy barrier for transitions to the new vacuum, which characterizes the exponential suppression of the nucleation rate, can be reduced significantly in the black-hole background. A precise analysis is required in order to determine whether the the existence of primordial black holes is compatible with the form of the Higgs potential at high temperature or density in the Standard Model or its extensions.

  16. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burda, Philipp [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline Street North,Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Moss, Ian G. annd [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University,Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-24

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  17. Static-Fluid Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Inyong

    2016-01-01

    We investigate black holes formed by static perfect fluid with $p=-\\rho/3$. These represent the black holes in $S_3$ and $H_3$ spatial geometries. There are three classes of black-hole solutions, two $S_3$ types and one $H_3$ type. The interesting solution is the one of $S_3$ type which possesses two singularities. The one is at the north pole behind the horizon, and the other is naked at the south pole. The observers, however, are free from falling to the naked singularity. There are also nonstatic cosmological solutions in $S_3$ and $H_3$, and a singular static solution in $H_3$.

  18. On regular rotating black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, R.; Fayos, F.

    2017-01-01

    Different proposals for regular rotating black hole spacetimes have appeared recently in the literature. However, a rigorous analysis and proof of the regularity of this kind of spacetimes is still lacking. In this note we analyze rotating Kerr-like black hole spacetimes and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the regularity of all their second order scalar invariants polynomial in the Riemann tensor. We also show that the regularity is linked to a violation of the weak energy conditions around the core of the rotating black hole.

  19. Orbital resonances around black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brink, Jeandrew; Geyer, Marisa; Hinderer, Tanja

    2015-02-27

    We compute the length and time scales associated with resonant orbits around Kerr black holes for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance-induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon Telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, when space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a compact object spiraling into the black hole, or in the frequencies of quasiperiodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.

  20. Quantum mechanics of black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Edward

    2012-08-03

    The popular conception of black holes reflects the behavior of the massive black holes found by astronomers and described by classical general relativity. These objects swallow up whatever comes near and emit nothing. Physicists who have tried to understand the behavior of black holes from a quantum mechanical point of view, however, have arrived at quite a different picture. The difference is analogous to the difference between thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. The thermodynamic description is a good approximation for a macroscopic system, but statistical mechanics describes what one will see if one looks more closely.

  1. Black Holes: A Traveler's Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickover, Clifford A.

    1998-03-01

    BLACK HOLES A TRAVELER'S GUIDE Clifford Pickover's inventive and entertaining excursion beyond the curves of space and time. "I've enjoyed Clifford Pickover's earlier books . . . now he has ventured into the exploration of black holes. All would-be tourists are strongly advised to read his traveler's guide." -Arthur C. Clarke. "Many books have been written about black holes, but none surpass this one in arousing emotions of awe and wonder towards the mysterious structure of the universe." -Martin Gardner. "Bucky Fuller thought big. Arthur C. Clarke thinks big, but Cliff Pickover outdoes them both." -Wired. "The book is fun, zany, in-your-face, and refreshingly addictive." -Times Higher Education Supplement.

  2. On regular rotating black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Torres, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Different proposals for regular rotating black hole spacetimes have appeared recently in the literature. However, a rigorous analysis and proof of the regularity of this kind of spacetimes is still lacking. In this note we analyze rotating Kerr-like black hole spacetimes and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the regularity of all their second order scalar invariants polynomial in the Riemann tensor. We also show that the regularity is linked to a violation of the weak energy conditions around the core of the rotating black hole.

  3. Hunting black holes with Gaia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashian, Natalie; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-09-01

    We predict the number of black holes with stellar companions that are potentially detectable with Gaia astrometry over the course of its 5-yr mission. Our model estimates that nearly 2 × 105 astrometric binaries hosting black holes and stellar companions brighter than Gaia's detection threshold, G ∼ 20, should be discovered with 5σ sensitivity. Among these detectable binaries, systems with longer orbital periods are favoured, and black hole and stellar companion masses in the range MBH ∼ 6-10 M⊙ and M* ∼ 1-2 M⊙, respectively, are expected to dominate.

  4. The Black Hole Information Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Polchinski, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    The black hole information problem has been a challenge since Hawking's original 1975 paper. It led to the discovery of AdS/CFT, which gave a partial resolution of the paradox. However, recent developments, in particular the firewall puzzle, show that there is much that we do not understand. I review the black hole, Hawking radiation, and the Page curve, and the classic form of the paradox. I discuss AdS/CFT as a partial resolution. I then discuss black hole complementarity and its limitations, leading to many proposals for different kinds of `drama.' I conclude with some recent ideas.

  5. Properties of Spray Dried Food and Spray Drying Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Fumio

    The following conclusions are obtained, studying properties of spray dried food and drying characteristics. (a) Dried particles are similar to spray droplets in size distribution (y=2.5), and particle count distribution is arranged as (dn/dx = ae-bx). (b) The ratio of the particle diameters before and after drying is calculated with moisture before and after drying, and porosity is given as (εp = ww4). (c) The standard drying method is presented to evaluate accurately drying problems at a certain standard. (d) Equilibrium moisture at 20 up to 100°C are summarized in terms of adsorption potential. (e) It makes clear that calulation based on the theory of residence time and drying time represents well complex spray drying characteristics.

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  7. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  8. Quality of dry ginger (Zingiber officinale) by different drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Jayashree; R, Visvanathan; T, John Zachariah

    2014-11-01

    Ginger rhizomes sliced to various lengths of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 mm and whole rhizomes were dried from an initial moisture content of 81.3 % to final moisture content of less than 10 % by various drying methods like sun drying, solar tunnel drying and cabinet tray drying at temperatures of 50, 55, 60 and 65 °C. Slicing of ginger rhizomes significantly reduced the drying time of ginger in all the drying methods. It was observed that drying of whole ginger rhizomes under sun took the maximum time (9 days) followed by solar tunnel drying (8 days). Significant reduction in essential oil and oleoresin content of dry ginger was found as the slice length decreased. The important constituents of ginger essential oil like zingiberene, limonene, linalool, geraniol and nerolidol as determined using a gas chromatography was also found to decrease during slicing and as the drying temperature increased. The pungency constituents in the oleoresin of ginger like total gingerols and total shogoals as determined using a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography also showed a decreasing trend on slicing and with the increase in drying temperature. It was observed from the drying studies that whole ginger rhizomes dried under sun drying or in a solar tunnel drier retained the maximum essential oil (13.9 mg/g) and oleoresin content (45.2 mg/g) of dry ginger. In mechanical drying, the drying temperature of 60 °C was considered optimum however there was about 12.2 % loss in essential oil at this temperature.

  9. Black Hole Meiosis

    CERN Document Server

    Van Herck, Walter

    2009-01-01

    The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, arXiv:0810.4301. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the `chromosomes' of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as `crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle'. Our results improve on hep-th/0702012, provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity...

  10. Black hole meiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herck, Walter; Wyder, Thomas

    2010-04-01

    The enumeration of BPS bound states in string theory needs refinement. Studying partition functions of particles made from D-branes wrapped on algebraic Calabi-Yau 3-folds, and classifying states using split attractor flow trees, we extend the method for computing a refined BPS index, [1]. For certain D-particles, a finite number of microstates, namely polar states, exclusively realized as bound states, determine an entire partition function (elliptic genus). This underlines their crucial importance: one might call them the ‘chromosomes’ of a D-particle or a black hole. As polar states also can be affected by our refinement, previous predictions on elliptic genera are modified. This can be metaphorically interpreted as ‘crossing-over in the meiosis of a D-particle’. Our results improve on [2], provide non-trivial evidence for a strong split attractor flow tree conjecture, and thus suggest that we indeed exhaust the BPS spectrum. In the D-brane description of a bound state, the necessity for refinement results from the fact that tachyonic strings split up constituent states into ‘generic’ and ‘special’ states. These are enumerated separately by topological invariants, which turn out to be partitions of Donaldson-Thomas invariants. As modular predictions provide a check on many of our results, we have compelling evidence that our computations are correct.

  11. How Black Holes Burn

    CERN Document Server

    Brustein, Ram

    2014-01-01

    We present a calculation of the rate of information release from a Schwarzschild BH. We have recently extended Hawking's theory of black hole (BH) evaporation to account for quantum fluctuations of the background geometry, as well as for back-reaction and time-dependence effects. Our main result has been a two-point function matrix for the radiation that consists of Hawking's thermal matrix plus off-diagonal corrections that are initially small and become more important as the evaporation proceeds. Here, we show that, if the phases and amplitudes of the radiation matrix are recorded over the lifetime of the BH, then the radiation purifies in a continuous way. We conjecture that our results establish the maximal rate at which information can be released from a semiclassical BH, to be contrasted with the minimal rate that was predicted by Page on the basis of generic unitarity arguments. When the phases of the radiation matrix are not tracked, we show that it purifies only parametrically close to the end of the...

  12. Borehole cylindrical noise during hole-surface and hole-hole resistivity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiensky, James L.; Nimmer, Robin; Binley, Andrew M.

    2004-04-01

    Drilled boreholes generally are the only feasible means to access the subsurface for the emplacement of downhole electrodes for most hole-hole and hole-surface resistivity experiments. However, the very existence of the borehole itself creates the potential for significant noise due to the inevitable conductivity contrast that develops between the borehole walls and the formation. Borehole cylindrical noise develops whenever a current source is placed in a drilled borehole. Borehole geometries may range from nearly perfect cylinders to highly, irregular, rugose holes in consolidated rock, to relatively minor, collapsed, disturbed zones in caving sediments. Boreholes in non-caving formations generally are filled with artificial, conductive materials to afford crucial, electrical continuity between downhole electrodes and the borehole walls. Filled boreholes form cylindrically shaped heterogeneities that create significant noise due to preferential current flow up and down the conductive columns. Selected conditions are simulated with a finite difference model to illustrate the significance of borehole cylindrical noise on hole-hole and hole-surface mise-à-la-masse electrical potentials near a current electrode. Mise-à-la-masse electrical potentials measured during a field tracer experiment also are presented. These measurements are used to illustrate significant errors may develop in the interpretation of apparent resistivity estimates out to a distance of several meters from the current source if borehole cylindrical noise is not recognized and accounted for in the analysis of electrical potential data.

  13. Black holes and quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooft, G. ' t, E-mail: g.thooft@uu.n [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University and Spinoza Institute, P.O. Box 80.195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-07-15

    After a brief review of quantum black hole physics, it is shown how the dynamical properties of a quantum black hole may be deduced to a large extent from Standard Model Physics, extended to scales near the Planck length, and combined with results from perturbative quantum gravity. Together, these interactions generate a Hilbert space of states on the black hole horizon, which can be investigated, displaying interesting systematics by themselves. To make such approaches more powerful, a study is made of the black hole complementarity principle, from which one may deduce the existence of a hidden form of local conformal invariance. Finally, the question is raised whether the principles underlying Quantum Mechanics are to be sharpened in this domain of physics as well. There are intriguing possibilities.

  14. Black holes by analytic continuation

    CERN Document Server

    Amati, Daniele

    1997-01-01

    In the context of a two-dimensional exactly solvable model, the dynamics of quantum black holes is obtained by analytically continuing the description of the regime where no black hole is formed. The resulting spectrum of outgoing radiation departs from the one predicted by the Hawking model in the region where the outgoing modes arise from the horizon with Planck-order frequencies. This occurs early in the evaporation process, and the resulting physical picture is unconventional. The theory predicts that black holes will only radiate out an energy of Planck mass order, stabilizing after a transitory period. The continuation from a regime without black hole formation --accessible in the 1+1 gravity theory considered-- is implicit in an S matrix approach and provides in this way a possible solution to the problem of information loss.

  15. Singularities Inside Hairy Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Gal'tsov, D. V.; Donets, E. E.; Zotov, M. Yu.

    1997-01-01

    We show that the Strong Cosmic Censorship is supported by the behavior of generic solutions on the class of static spherically symmetric black holes in gravitating gauge models and their stringy generalizations.

  16. Singularities Inside Hairy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Galtsov, D V; Zotov, M Yu

    1998-01-01

    We show that the Strong Cosmic Censorship is supported by the behavior of generic solutions on the class of static spherically symmetric black holes in gravitating gauge models and their stringy generalizations.

  17. Formation of Supermassive Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Evidence shows that massive black holes reside in most local galaxies. Studies have also established a number of relations between the MBH mass and properties of the host galaxy such as bulge mass and velocity dispersion. These results suggest that central MBHs, while much less massive than the host (~ 0.1%), are linked to the evolution of galactic structure. In hierarchical cosmologies, a single big galaxy today can be traced back to the stage when it was split up in hundreds of smaller components. Did MBH seeds form with the same efficiency in small proto-galaxies, or did their formation had to await the buildup of substantial galaxies with deeper potential wells? I briefly review here some of the physical processes that are conducive to the evolution of the massive black hole population. I will discuss black hole formation processes for `seed' black holes that are likely to place at early cosmic epochs, and possible observational tests of these scenarios.

  18. 'Black holes': escaping the void.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Sharn

    2013-02-01

    The 'black hole' is a metaphor for a reality in the psyche of many individuals who have experienced complex trauma in infancy and early childhood. The 'black hole' has been created by an absence of the object, the (m)other, so there is no internalized object, no (m)other in the psyche. Rather, there is a 'black hole' where the object should be, but the infant is drawn to it, trapped by it because of an intrinsic, instinctive need for a 'real object', an internalized (m)other. Without this, the infant cannot develop. It is only the presence of a real object that can generate the essential gravity necessary to draw the core of the self that is still in an undeveloped state from deep within the abyss. It is the moving towards a real object, a (m)other, that relativizes the absolute power of the black hole and begins a reformation of its essence within the psyche.

  19. Space, time, and black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darling, D.

    1980-10-01

    A discussion of Einstein's General Relativity and how it can explain black holes is included. The key idea of general relativity being that gravitational forces are a direct outcome of local curvature of space-time. The more mass something has the deeper the depression or well it causes in space-time. Black holes are supermassive objects, hence their gravity well is so steep even light can't escape. The three properties associated with a black hole are mass angular momentum, and electric charge. Non-rotating, Schwarzchild, and rotating, Kerr, black holes are studied. A Kruskal-Szekeres diagram for each type is given and explained. (SC)

  20. Black hole accretion disc impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Pihajoki, Pauli

    2015-01-01

    We present an analytic model for computing the luminosity and spectral evolution of flares caused by a supermassive black hole impacting the accretion disc of another supermassive black hole. Our model includes photon diffusion, emission from optically thin regions and relativistic corrections to the observed spectrum and time-scales. We test the observability of the impact scenario with a simulated population of quasars hosting supermassive black hole binaries. The results indicate that for a moderate binary mass ratio of 0.3, and impact distances of 100 primary Schwarzschild radii, the accretion disc impacts can be expected to equal or exceed the host quasar in brightness at observed wavelength {\\lambda} = 510 nm up to z = 0.6. We conclude that accretion disc impacts may function as an independent probe for supermassive black hole binaries. We release the code used for computing the model light curves to the community.

  1. Black hole information vs. locality

    CERN Document Server

    Itzhaki, N

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the limitations on space time measurement in Schwarzchild metric. We find that near the horizon the limitations on space time measurement are of the order of the black hole radius. We suggest that it indicates that a large mass black hole can not be described by means of local field theory even at macroscopic distances and that any attempt to describe black hole formation and evaporation by means of an effective local field theory will necessarily lead to information loss. We also present a new interpretation of the black hole entropy which leads to S=cA , where c is a constant of order 1 which does not depend on the number of fields.

  2. Braneworld Black Hole Gravitational Lensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jun

    2017-04-01

    A class of braneworld black holes, which I called as Bronnikov-Melnikov-Dehen (BMD) black holes, are studied as gravitational lenses. I obtain the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, and further calculate the angular positions and magnifications of relativistic images as well as the time delay between different relativistic images. I also compare the results with those obtained for Schwarzschild and two braneworld black holes, i.e., the tidal Reissner-Nordström (R-N) and the Casadio-Fabbri-Mazzacurati (CFM) black holes. Supported by Natural Science Foundation of Education Department of Shannxi Provincial Government under Grant No. 15JK1077, and Doctorial Scientific Research Starting Fund of Shannxi University of Science and Technology under Grant No. BJ12-02

  3. The Black Hole Universe Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-06-01

    The black hole universe model is a multiverse model of cosmology recently developed by the speaker. According to this new model, our universe is a fully grown extremely supermassive black hole, which originated from a hot star-like black hole with several solar masses, and gradually grew up from a supermassive black hole with million to billion solar masses to the present state with trillion-trillion solar masses by accreting ambient matter or merging with other black holes. The entire space is structured with infinite layers or universes hierarchically. The innermost three layers include the universe that we live, the inside star-like and supermassive black holes called child universes, and the outside space called mother universe. The outermost layer is infinite in mass, radius, and entropy without an edge and limits to zero for both the matter density and absolute temperature. All layers are governed by the same physics and tend to expand physically in one direction (outward or the direction of increasing entropy). The expansion of a black hole universe decreases its density and temperature but does not alter the laws of physics. The black hole universe evolves iteratively and endlessly without a beginning. When one universe expands out, a new similar one is formed from inside star-like and supermassive black holes. In each of iterations, elements are resynthesized, matter is reconfigurated, and the universe is renewed rather than a simple repeat. The black hole universe is consistent with the Mach principle, observations, and Einsteinian general relativity. It has only one postulate but is able to explain all phenomena occurred in the universe with well-developed physics. The black hole universe does not need dark energy for acceleration and an inflation epoch for flatness, and thus has a devastating impact on the big bang model. In this talk, I will present how this new cosmological model explains the various aspects of the universe, including the origin

  4. Comparison of Tensile Strength of Composite Material Elements with Drilled and Molded-in Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langella, A.; Durante, M.

    2008-11-01

    Holes are generally obtained through drilling operations; this causes a property decrease for polymer composites reinforced by fibers, brought about by damage due to fiber continuity interruption, and to delamination between the laminate layers. In this study, specimens with circular holes, both drilled and molded-in, obtained in different ways, are tested in order to investigate on whether it is possible to avoid the decrease in mechanical properties of components with holes. In particular, a number of laminates were manufactured by RIFT (Resin Infusion under Flexible Tool), a closed mold process capable of obtaining large and complex forms, impregnating, under vacuum, a dry preform placed on the rigid mold. At specific points of these laminates, molded-in holes are generated during the resin infusion phase, operating in two different ways: displacing or cutting the fibers in the dry preform. Tensile tests were carried out in order to compare the mechanical properties of elements in composite materials which have molded-in holes generated during the impregnation process, with the properties of those with holes produced after the resin cure by drill operations.

  5. Efficient Si photovoltaic devices with integrated micro/nano holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cansizoglu, Hilal; Gao, Yang; Kaya, Ahmet; Ghandiparsi, Soroush; Polat, Kazim G.; Wang, Yichuan; Zhang, Runzhou; Reggad, Hind; Mayet, Ahmed; Ponizovskaya Devine, Ekaterina; Islam, M. Saif

    2016-09-01

    Efficient light harvesting in a thin layer of crystalline Si can be realized by implementing nanoscale pillars and holes to the device structure. The major drawback of the pillars and holes based photovoltaic devices is high surface to volume ratio, contributing to an increase in surface recombination rate of the photo-generated carriers. The common techniques used in pillars/holes fabrication such as dry etching make the surface even worse by bombarding it with high energy ions. Therefore, such damaged surfaces of high aspect ratio structures need to be effectively passivated. In this study, we demonstrate a hole based thin crystalline Si photovoltaic device with enhanced open circuit voltage and short circuit current after a successful surface passivation process through a wet oxidation. In addition, the effect of passivation layer fabricated by rapid thermal oxide growth on photo response is investigated. A successful fabrication of thin crystalline Si solar cells can lead to the applications of ultra-thin, highly efficient, flexible and wearable energy sources.

  6. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Dain, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the three parameters that characterize the Kerr black hole (mass, angular momentum and horizon area) satisfy several important inequalities. Remarkably, some of these inequalities remain valid also for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this article recent results in this subject are reviewed.

  7. Are Black Holes Elementary Particles?

    CERN Document Server

    Ha, Yuan K

    2009-01-01

    Quantum black holes are the smallest and heaviest conceivable elementary particles. They have a microscopic size but a macroscopic mass. Several fundamental types have been constructed with some remarkable properties. Quantum black holes in the neighborhood of the Galaxy could resolve the paradox of ultra-high energy cosmic rays detected in Earth's atmosphere. They may also play a role as dark matter in cosmology.

  8. Tensor Network and Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Matsueda, Hiroaki; Hashizume, Yoichiro

    2012-01-01

    A tensor network formalism of thermofield dynamics is introduced. The formalism relates the original Hilbert space with its tilde space by a product of two copies of a tensor network. Then, their interface becomes an event horizon, and the logarithm of the tensor rank corresponds to the black hole entropy. Eventually, multiscale entanglement renormalization anzats (MERA) reproduces an AdS black hole at finite temperature. Our finding shows rich functionalities of MERA as efficient graphical representation of AdS/CFT correspondence.

  9. Cosmological Black Holes on Branes

    OpenAIRE

    Rogatko, Marek

    2003-01-01

    We examined analytically a cosmological black hole domain wall system. Using the C-metric construction we derived the metric for the spacetime describing an infinitely thin domain wall intersecting a cosmological black hole. We studied the behaviour of the scalar field describing a self-interacting cosmological domain wall and find the approximated solution valid for large distances. The thin wall approximation and the back raection problem were elaborated finding that the topological kink so...

  10. Black holes as parts of entangled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basini, G.; Capozziello, S.; Longo, G.

    A possible link between EPR-type quantum phenomena and astrophysical objects like black holes, under a new general definition of entanglement, is established. A new approach, involving backward time evolution and topology changes, is presented bringing to a definition of the system black hole-worm hole-white hole as an entangled system.

  11. Accretion, primordial black holes and standard cosmology

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B Nayak; P Singh

    2011-01-01

    Primordial black holes evaporate due to Hawking radiation. We find that the evaporation times of primordial black holes increase when accretion of radiation is included. Thus, depending on accretion efficiency, more primordial black holes are existing today, which strengthens the conjecture that the primordial black holes are the proper candidates for dark matter.

  12. Dynamics of extremal black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Giddings, Steven B

    1992-01-01

    Particle scattering and radiation by a magnetically charged, dilatonic black hole is investigated near the extremal limit at which the mass is a constant times the charge. Near this limit a neighborhood of the horizon of the black hole is closely approximated by a trivial product of a two-dimensional black hole with a sphere. This is shown to imply that the scattering of long-wavelength particles can be described by a (previously analyzed) two-dimensional effective field theory, and is related to the formation/evaporation of two-dimensional black holes. The scattering proceeds via particle capture followed by Hawking re-emission, and naively appears to violate unitarity. However this conclusion can be altered when the effects of backreaction are included. Particle-hole scattering is discussed in the light of a recent analysis of the two-dimensional backreaction problem. It is argued that the quantum mechanical possibility of scattering off of extremal black holes implies the potential existence of additional ...

  13. Intermediate-Mass Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, M C

    2004-01-01

    The mathematical simplicity of black holes, combined with their links to some of the most energetic events in the universe, means that black holes are key objects for fundamental physics and astrophysics. Until recently, it was generally believed that black holes in nature appear in two broad mass ranges: stellar-mass (roughly 3-20 solar masses), which are produced by the core collapse of massive stars, and supermassive (millions to billions of solar masses), which are found in the centers of galaxies and are produced by a still uncertain combination of processes. In the last few years, however, evidence has accumulated for an intermediate-mass class of black holes, with hundreds to thousands of solar masses. If such objects exist they have important implications for the dynamics of stellar clusters, the formation of supermassive black holes, and the production and detection of gravitational waves. We review the evidence for intermediate-mass black holes and discuss future observational and theoretical work t...

  14. Evolution of supermassive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Volonteri, M

    2006-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are nowadays believed to reside in most local galaxies, and the available data show an empirical correlation between bulge luminosity - or stellar velocity dispersion - and black hole mass, suggesting a single mechanism for assembling black holes and forming spheroids in galaxy halos. The evidence is therefore in favour of a co-evolution between galaxies, black holes and quasars. In cold dark matter cosmogonies, small-mass subgalactic systems form first to merge later into larger and larger structures. In this paradigm galaxy halos experience multiple mergers during their lifetime. If every galaxy with a bulge hosts a SMBH in its center, and a local galaxy has been made up by multiple mergers, then a black hole binary is a natural evolutionary stage. The evolution of the supermassive black hole population clearly has to be investigated taking into account both the cosmological framework and the dynamical evolution of SMBHs and their hosts. The seeds of SMBHs have to be looked ...

  15. The 2002 Antarctic Ozone Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, P. A.; Nash, E. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Kawa, S. R.

    2003-01-01

    Since 1979, the ozone hole has grown from near zero size to over 24 Million km2. This area is most strongly controlled by levels of inorganic chlorine and bromine oncentrations. In addition, dynamical variations modulate the size of the ozone hole by either cooling or warming the polar vortex collar region. We will review the size observations, the size trends, and the interannual variability of the size. Using a simple trajectory model, we will demonstrate the sensitivity of the ozone hole to dynamical forcing, and we will use these observations to discuss the size of the ozone hole during the 2002 Austral spring. We will further show how the Cly decreases in the stratosphere will cause the ozone hole to decrease by 1-1.5% per year. We will also show results from a 3-D chemical transport model (CTM) that has been continuously run since 1999. These CTM results directly show how strong dynamics acts to reduce the size of the ozone hole.

  16. Bounds on Black Hole Spins

    CERN Document Server

    Daly, Ruth A

    2009-01-01

    Beam powers and black hole masses of 48 extended radio sources are combined to obtain lower bounds on the spins and magnetic field strengths of supermassive black holes. This is done in the context of the models of Blandford & Znajek (1977) (the 'BZ' model) and Meier (1999); a parameterization for bounds in the context of other models is suggested. The bounds obtained for very powerful classical double radio sources in the BZ model are consistent with black hole spins of order unity for sources at high redshift. The black hole spins are largest for the highest redshift sources and decrease for sources at lower redshift; the sources studied have redshifts between zero and two. Lower power radio sources associated with central dominant galaxies may have black hole spins that are significantly less than one. Combining this analysis with other results suggests that the maximum values of black hole spin associated with powerful radio galaxies decline from values of order unity at a redshift of 2 to values of o...

  17. Population regulation of a tropical damselfly in the larval stage by food limitation, cannibalism, intraguild predation and habitat drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fincke, Ola M

    1994-11-01

    experimentally prevented, competition for food reduced the growth of one or both larvae relative to controls. Holes that were watered during the dry season supported larval densities similar to those in the wet season. Thus, dry season mortality could not be attributed to a decrease in available prey. Rather, M. coerulatus larvae could not survive more than 1 month of complete drying. Because the dry season typically lasts more than 6 weeks, habitat drying is a secondary source of mortality, affecting second- or third-generation larvae that fail to emerge before tree holes dry out completely.

  18. Magnetic Black Holes Are Also Unstable

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Sang Pyo

    2004-01-01

    Most black holes are known to be unstable to emitting Hawking radiation (in asymptotically flat spacetime). If the black holes are non-extreme, they have positive temperature and emit thermally. If they are extremal rotating black holes, they still spontaneously emit particles like gravitons and photons. If they are extremal electrically charged black holes, they are unstable to emitting electrons or positrons. The only exception would be extreme magnetically charged black holes if there do not exist any magnetic monopoles for them to emit. However, here we show that even in this case, vacuum polarization causes all magnetic black holes to be unstable to emitting smaller magnetic black holes.

  19. Black hole quantum spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corda, Christian

    2013-12-01

    Introducing a black hole (BH) effective temperature, which takes into account both the non-strictly thermal character of Hawking radiation and the countable behavior of emissions of subsequent Hawking quanta, we recently re-analysed BH quasi-normal modes (QNMs) and interpreted them naturally in terms of quantum levels. In this work we improve such an analysis removing some approximations that have been implicitly used in our previous works and obtaining the corrected expressions for the formulas of the horizon's area quantization and the number of quanta of area and hence also for Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, its subleading corrections and the number of micro-states, i.e. quantities which are fundamental to realize the underlying quantum gravity theory, like functions of the QNMs quantum "overtone" number n and, in turn, of the BH quantum excited level. An approximation concerning the maximum value of n is also corrected. On the other hand, our previous results were strictly corrected only for scalar and gravitational perturbations. Here we show that the discussion holds also for vector perturbations. The analysis is totally consistent with the general conviction that BHs result in highly excited states representing both the "hydrogen atom" and the "quasi-thermal emission" in quantum gravity. Our BH model is somewhat similar to the semi-classical Bohr's model of the structure of a hydrogen atom. The thermal approximation of previous results in the literature is consistent with the results in this paper. In principle, such results could also have important implications for the BH information paradox.

  20. How objective is black hole entropy?

    CERN Document Server

    Lau, Y K

    1994-01-01

    The objectivity of black hole entropy is discussed in the particular case of a Schwarzchild black hole. Using Jaynes' maximum entropy formalism and Euclidean path integral evaluation of partition function, it is argued that in the semiclassical limit when the fluctutation of metric is neglected, the black hole entropy of a Schwarzchild black hole is equal to the maximal information entropy of an observer whose sole knowledge of the black hole is its mass. Black hole entropy becomes a measure of number of its internal mass eigenstates in accordance with the Boltzmann principle only in the limit of negligible relative mass fluctutation. {}From the information theoretic perspective, the example of a Schwarzchild black hole seems to suggest that black hole entropy is no different from ordinary thermodynamic entropy. It is a property of the experimental data of a black hole, rather than being an intrinsic physical property of a black hole itself independent of any observer. However, it is still weakly objective in...

  1. Study on drying rate in contact drying with flexible screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟宏; 陆仁书; 张显权

    2000-01-01

    The moisture contents (MC) of popular veneers were tested in Composition Board Laboratory of Northeast Forestry University by contact drying with flexible screen. The influence factors considered included temperature, initial moisture contents (IMC), and veneer thickness. Veneer-drying laws under different hot press conditions were analyzed. The results showed that the drying rate increased with temperature rising. 160℃ was considered to be more efficient than 140℃ and 180℃ because excessive high temperature has no significant contribution to drying rate. IMC had significant effect on drying rate. The veneer with high IMC had a higher drying rate at above fiber saturation point (FSP) and a lower drying rate at below FSP, compared to the veneer with low IMC. Average drying rate also varied with thickness in power law.

  2. Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    New results from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory have made a major advance in explaining how a special class of black holes may shut off the high-speed jets they produce. These results suggest that these black holes have a mechanism for regulating the rate at which they grow. Black holes come in many sizes: the supermassive ones, including those in quasars, which weigh in at millions to billions of times the mass of the Sun, and the much smaller stellar-mass black holes which have measured masses in the range of about 7 to 25 times the Sun's mass. Some stellar-mass black holes launch powerful jets of particles and radiation, like seen in quasars, and are called "micro-quasars". The new study looks at a famous micro-quasar in our own Galaxy, and regions close to its event horizon, or point of no return. This system, GRS 1915+105 (GRS 1915 for short), contains a black hole about 14 times the mass of the Sun that is feeding off material from a nearby companion star. As the material swirls toward the black hole, an accretion disk forms. This system shows remarkably unpredictable and complicated variability ranging from timescales of seconds to months, including 14 different patterns of variation. These variations are caused by a poorly understood connection between the disk and the radio jet seen in GRS 1915. Chandra, with its spectrograph, has observed GRS 1915 eleven times since its launch in 1999. These studies reveal that the jet in GRS 1915 may be periodically choked off when a hot wind, seen in X-rays, is driven off the accretion disk around the black hole. The wind is believed to shut down the jet by depriving it of matter that would have otherwise fueled it. Conversely, once the wind dies down, the jet can re-emerge. "We think the jet and wind around this black hole are in a sort of tug of war," said Joseph Neilsen, Harvard graduate student and lead author of the paper appearing in the journal Nature. "Sometimes one is winning and then, for reasons we don

  3. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  4. An unusually dry story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Rajagopala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a middle-aged woman with a prior history of central nervous system (CNS demyelinating disorder who presented with an acute onset quadriparesis and respiratory failure. The evaluation revealed distal renal tubular acidosis with hypokalemia and medullary nephrocalcinosis. Weakness persisted despite potassium correction, and ongoing evaluation confirmed recurrent CNS and long-segment spinal cord demyelination with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies. There was no history of dry eyes or dry mouth. Anti-Sjogren′s syndrome A antigen antibodies were elevated, and there was reduced salivary flow on scintigraphy. Coexistent antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with inferior vena cava thrombosis was also found on evaluation. The index patient highlights several rare manifestations of primary Sjogren′s syndrome (pSS as the presenting features and highlights the differential diagnosis of the clinical syndromes in which pSS should be considered in the Intensive Care Unit.

  5. Drying characteristics and kinetics of fluidized bed dried potato

    OpenAIRE

    S.B. BAKAL; K.H. GEDAM; Sharma, G. P.

    2008-01-01

    In developed countries, more than 50% potatoes are consumed as processed products. As drying is the vital phenomenon in processing, it is necessary to investigate the drying characteristics and its kinetics. In this experimental study, drying kinetics of Potato in two different shape of cuboidal & cylindrical with three aspect ratio was investigated as a function of drying conditions. Experiments were conducted using air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 ºC, at velocity of 7 ms-1. The experimenta...

  6. Dry Eye Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Javadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS, also known as dry eye syndrome, has been changed over recent years. Until lately, the condition was thought to be merely due to aqueous tear insufficiency. Today, it is understood that KCS is a multifactorial disorder due to inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal gland, neurotrophic deficiency and meibomian gland dysfunction. This change in paradigm has led to the development of new and more effective medications.

  7. Drying of complex suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Lei; Bergés, Alexis; Lu, Peter J.; Studart, André R.; Schofield, Andrew B.; Oki, Hidekazu; Davies, Simon; Weitz, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the 3D structure and drying dynamics of complex mixtures of emulsion droplets and colloidal particles, using confocal microscopy. Air invades and rapidly collapses large emulsion droplets, forcing their contents into the surrounding porous particle pack at a rate proportional to the square of the droplet radius. By contrast, small droplets do not collapse, but remain intact and are merely deformed. A simple model coupling the Laplace pressure to Darcy's law correctly estimates ...

  8. Regular black hole in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok

    2008-01-01

    We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.

  9. Regular black hole in three dimensions

    OpenAIRE

    Myung, Yun Soo; Yoon, Myungseok

    2008-01-01

    We find a new black hole in three dimensional anti-de Sitter space by introducing an anisotropic perfect fluid inspired by the noncommutative black hole. This is a regular black hole with two horizons. We compare thermodynamics of this black hole with that of non-rotating BTZ black hole. The first-law of thermodynamics is not compatible with the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy.

  10. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000032.htm Dry mouth during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you ...

  11. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  12. Could supermassive black holes be quintessential primordial black holes?

    CERN Document Server

    Bean, R; Bean, Rachel; Magueijo, Joao

    2002-01-01

    There is growing observational evidence for a population of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in galactic bulges. We examine in detail the conditions under which these black holes must have originated from primordial black holes (PBHs). We consider the merging and accretion history experienced by SMBHs to find that, whereas it is possible that they were formed by purely astrophysical processes, this is unlikely and most probably a populations of primordial progenitors is necessary. We identify the mass distribution and comoving density of this population and then propose a cosmological scenario producing PBHs with the right properties. Although this is not essential we consider PBHs produced at the end of a period of inflation with a blue spectrum of fluctuations. We constrain the value of the spectral tilt in order to obtain the required PBH comoving density. We then assume that PBHs grow by accreting quintessence showing that their mass scales like the horizon mass while the quintessence field itself is scal...

  13. Time-course of perceptual processing of "hole" and "no-hole"figures: An ERP study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weina Zhu; Junjun Zhang; Changle Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Closure or the presence of a "hole" is an emergent perceptual feature that can be extracted by the visual system early on.This feature has been shown to have perceptual advantages over openness or "no-hole".In this study,we investigated when and how the human brain differentiates between "hole" and "no-hole" figures.Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during a passive observation paradigm.Two pairs of simple figures (Experiment 1) and two sets of Greek letters (Experiment 2) were used as stimuli.The ERPs of "hole" and "no-hole"figures differed ~90 ms after stimulus onset:"hole"figures elicited smaller P1 and N1 amplitudes than "no-hole" figures.These suggest that both P1 and N1 components are sensitive to the difference between "hole" and "no-hole" figures; perception of "hole" and "no-hole" figures might be differentiated early during visual processing.

  14. Fluid flow in drying drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, H.

    2013-01-01

    When a suspension drop evaporates, it leaves behind a drying stain. Examples of these drying stains encountered in daily life are coffee or tea stains on a table top, mineral rings on glassware that comes out of the dishwasher, or the salt deposits on the streets in winter. Drying stains are also pr

  15. Force-feeding Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Begelman, Mitchell C

    2012-01-01

    We propose that the growth of supermassive black holes is associated mainly with brief episodes of highly super-Eddington infall of gas ("hyperaccretion"). This gas is not swallowed in real time, but forms an envelope of matter around the black hole that can be swallowed gradually, over a much longer timescale. However, only a small fraction of the black hole mass can be stored in the envelope at any one time. We argue that any infalling matter above a few per cent of the hole's mass is ejected as a result of the plunge in opacity at temperatures below a few thousand degrees K, corresponding to the Hayashi track. The speed of ejection of this matter, compared to the velocity dispersion (sigma) of the host galaxy's core, determines whether the ejected matter is lost forever or returns eventually to rejoin the envelope, from which it can be ultimately accreted. The threshold between matter recycling and permanent loss defines a relationship between the maximum black hole mass and sigma that resembles the empiri...

  16. Information locking in black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Smolin, J; Smolin, John; Oppenheim, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    The black hole information loss paradox has plagued physicists since Hawking's discovery that black holes evaporate. The calculation suggests that information thrown into a black hole is evaporated away as thermal radiation, and is destroyed: either the unitary laws of quantum theory break down, or we must modify the laws of general relativity. Here we show that one of the central presumptions of the debate is incorrect. Ensuring that information not escape during the semi-classical evaporation process does not require that all the information remain in the black hole until the final stages of evaporation. By taking into account recent results in quantum information theory, we find that the amount of information that must remain in the black hole until the final stages of evaporation can be very small, even though the amount of information which has already radiated away is negligible. Quantum effects mean that information need not be additive: a small number of quanta can lock a large amount of information, ...

  17. Resource Letter BH-2: Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gallo, Elena

    2008-01-01

    This resource letter is designed to guide students, educators, and researchers through (some of) the literature on black holes. Both the physics and astrophysics of black holes are discussed. Breadth has been emphasized over depth, and review articles over primary sources. We include resources ranging from non-technical discussions appropriate for broad audiences to technical reviews of current research. Topics addressed include classification of stationary solutions, perturbations and stability of black holes, numerical simulations, collisions, the production of gravity waves, black hole thermodynamics and Hawking radiation, quantum treatments of black holes, black holes in both higher and lower dimensions, and connections to nuclear and condensed matter physics. On the astronomical end, we also cover the physics of gas accretion onto black holes, relativistic jets, gravitationally red-shifted emission lines, evidence for stellar-mass black holes in binary systems and super-massive black holes at the centers...

  18. Terrestrial Planets Accreted Dry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2007-12-01

    Plate tectonics shaped the Earth, whereas the Moon is a dry and inactive desert. Mars probably came to rest within the first billion years of its history, and Venus, although internally very active, has a dry inferno for its surface. The strong gravity field of a large planet allows for an enormous amount of gravitational energy to be released, causing the outer part of the planetary body to melt (magma ocean), helps retain water on the planet, and increases the pressure gradient. The weak gravity field and anhydrous conditions prevailing on the Moon stabilized, on top of its magma ocean, a thick buoyant plagioclase lithosphere, which insulated the molten interior. On Earth, the buoyant hydrous phases (serpentines) produced by reactions between the terrestrial magma ocean and the wet impactors received from the outer Solar System isolated the magma and kept it molten for some few tens of million years. The elemental distributions and the range of condensation temperatures show that the planets from the inner Solar System accreted dry. The interior of planets that lost up to 95% of their K cannot contain much water. Foundering of their wet surface material softened the terrestrial mantle and set the scene for the onset of plate tectonics. This very same process may have removed all the water from the surface of Venus 500 My ago and added enough water to its mantle to make its internal dynamics very strong and keep the surface very young. Because of a radius smaller than that of the Earth, not enough water could be drawn into the Martian mantle before it was lost to space and Martian plate tectonics never began. The radius of a planet therefore is the key parameter controlling most of its evolutional features.

  19. Electrohydrodynamic drying of carrot slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Ding

    Full Text Available Carrots have one of the highest levels of carotene, and they are rich in vitamins, fiber and minerals. However, since fresh carrots wilt rapidly after harvest under inappropriate storage conditions, drying has been used to improve their shelf life and retain nutritional quality. Therefore, to further investigate the potential of this method, carrot slices were dried in an EHD system in order to study the effect of different voltages on drying rate. As measures of quality, carotene content and rehydration ratio were, respectively, compared against the conventional oven drying regime. Carotene, the main component of the dried carrot, and rehydration characteristics of the dried product can both indicate quality by physical and chemical changes during the drying process. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drying curves were also performed, using root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and modeling efficiency as the primary criteria to select the equation that best accounts for the variation in the drying curves of the dried samples. Theoretically, the Page model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of carrot slices at 10kV to 30kV. Experimentally, the drying rate of carrots was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and quality, as determined by carotene content and rehydration ratio, was also improved when compared to oven drying. Therefore, this work presents a facile and effective strategy for experimentally and theoretically determining the drying properties of carrots, and, as a result, it provides deeper insight into the industrial potential of the EHD drying technique.

  20. Black Hole Blows Big Bubble

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Combining observations made with ESO's Very Large Telescope and NASA's Chandra X-ray telescope, astronomers have uncovered the most powerful pair of jets ever seen from a stellar black hole. This object, also known as a microquasar, blows a huge bubble of hot gas, 1000 light-years across, twice as large and tens of times more powerful than other known microquasars. The discovery is reported this week in the journal Nature. "We have been astonished by how much energy is injected into the gas by the black hole," says lead author Manfred Pakull. "This black hole is just a few solar masses, but is a real miniature version of the most powerful quasars and radio galaxies, which contain black holes with masses of a few million times that of the Sun." Black holes are known to release a prodigious amount of energy when they swallow matter. It was thought that most of the energy came out in the form of radiation, predominantly X-rays. However, the new findings show that some black holes can release at least as much energy, and perhaps much more, in the form of collimated jets of fast moving particles. The fast jets slam into the surrounding interstellar gas, heating it and triggering an expansion. The inflating bubble contains a mixture of hot gas and ultra-fast particles at different temperatures. Observations in several energy bands (optical, radio, X-rays) help astronomers calculate the total rate at which the black hole is heating its surroundings. The astronomers could observe the spots where the jets smash into the interstellar gas located around the black hole, and reveal that the bubble of hot gas is inflating at a speed of almost one million kilometres per hour. "The length of the jets in NGC 7793 is amazing, compared to the size of the black hole from which they are launched," says co-author Robert Soria [1]. "If the black hole were shrunk to the size of a soccer ball, each jet would extend from the Earth to beyond the orbit of Pluto." This research will help

  1. Scrambling with matrix black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Lucas; Sahakian, Vatche

    2013-08-01

    If black holes are not to be dreaded sinks of information but rather fully described by unitary evolution, they must scramble in-falling data and eventually leak it through Hawking radiation. Sekino and Susskind have conjectured that black holes are fast scramblers; they generate entanglement at a remarkably efficient rate, with the characteristic time scaling logarithmically with the entropy. In this work, we focus on Matrix theory—M-theory in the light-cone frame—and directly probe the conjecture. We develop a concrete test bed for quantum gravity using the fermionic variables of Matrix theory and show that the problem becomes that of chains of qubits with an intricate network of interactions. We demonstrate that the black hole system evolves much like a Brownian quantum circuit, with strong indications that it is indeed a fast scrambler. We also analyze the Berenstein-Maldacena-Nastase model and reach the same tentative conclusion.

  2. Holes at High Blowing Ratios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip M. Ligrani

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental results are presented which describe the development and structure of flow downstream of a single row of holes with compound angle orientations producing film cooling at high blowing ratios. This film cooling configuration is important because similar arrangements are frequently employed on the first stage of rotating blades of operating gas turbine engines. With this configuration, holes are spaced 6d apart in the spanwise direction, with inclination angles of 24 degrees, and angles of orientation of 50.5 degrees. Blowing ratios range from 1.5 to 4.0 and the ratio of injectant to freestream density is near 1.0. Results show that spanwise averaged adiabatic effectiveness, spanwise-averaged iso-energetic Stanton number ratios, surveys of streamwise mean velocity, and surveys of injectant distributions change by important amounts as the blowing ratio increases. This is due to injectant lift-off from the test surface just downstream of the holes.

  3. Lee-Wick Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo; Wang, Yixu

    2016-01-01

    We derive and study an approximate static vacuum solution generated by a point-like source in a higher derivative gravitational theory with a pair of complex conjugate ghosts. The gravitational theory is local and characterized by a high derivative operator compatible with Lee-Wick unitarity. In particular, the tree-level two-point function only shows a pair of complex conjugate poles besides the massless spin two graviton. We show that singularity-free black holes exist when the mass of the source $M$ exceeds a critical value $M_{\\rm crit}$. For $M > M_{\\rm crit}$ the spacetime structure is characterized by an outer event horizon and an inner Cauchy horizon, while for $M = M_{\\rm crit}$ we have an extremal black hole with vanishing Hawking temperature. The evaporation process leads to a remnant that approaches the zero-temperature extremal black hole state in an infinite amount of time.

  4. Black holes and galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Propst, Raphael J

    2010-01-01

    Galaxies are the basic unit of cosmology. The study of galaxy formation is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning. The physics of galaxy formation is complicated because it deals with the dynamics of stars, thermodynamics of gas and energy production of stars. A black hole is a massive object whose gravitational field is so intense that it prevents any form of matter or radiation to escape. It is hypothesized that the most massive galaxies in the universe- "elliptical galaxies"- grow simultaneously with the supermassive black holes at their centers, giving us much stronger evidence that black holes control galaxy formation. This book reviews new evidence in the field.

  5. Volume inside old black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulou, Marios; De Lorenzo, Tommaso

    2016-11-01

    Black holes that have nearly evaporated are often thought of as small objects, due to their tiny exterior area. However, the horizon bounds large spacelike hypersurfaces. A compelling geometric perspective on the evolution of the interior geometry was recently shown to be provided by a generally covariant definition of the volume inside a black hole using maximal surfaces. In this article, we expand on previous results and show that finding the maximal surfaces in an arbitrary spherically symmetric spacetime is equivalent to a 1 +1 geodesic problem. We then study the effect of Hawking radiation on the volume by computing the volume of maximal surfaces inside the apparent horizon of an evaporating black hole as a function of time at infinity: while the area is shrinking, the volume of these surfaces grows monotonically with advanced time, up to when the horizon has reached Planckian dimensions. The physical relevance of these results for the information paradox and the remnant scenarios are discussed.

  6. Lee-Wick black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bambi, Cosimo; Modesto, Leonardo; Wang, Yixu

    2017-01-01

    We derive and study an approximate static vacuum solution generated by a point-like source in a higher derivative gravitational theory with a pair of complex conjugate ghosts. The gravitational theory is local and characterized by a high derivative operator compatible with Lee-Wick unitarity. In particular, the tree-level two-point function only shows a pair of complex conjugate poles besides the massless spin two graviton. We show that singularity-free black holes exist when the mass of the source M exceeds a critical value Mcrit. For M >Mcrit the spacetime structure is characterized by an outer event horizon and an inner Cauchy horizon, while for M =Mcrit we have an extremal black hole with vanishing Hawking temperature. The evaporation process leads to a remnant that approaches the zero-temperature extremal black hole state in an infinite amount of time.

  7. Massive Black Holes and Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Evidence has been accumulating for several decades that many galaxies harbor central mass concentrations that may be in the form of black holes with masses between a few million to a few billion time the mass of the Sun. I will discuss measurements over the last two decades, employing adaptive optics imaging and spectroscopy on large ground-based telescopes that prove the existence of such a massive black hole in the Center of our Milky Way, beyond any reasonable doubt. These data also provide key insights into its properties and environment. Most recently, a tidally disrupting cloud of gas has been discovered on an almost radial orbit that reached its peri-distance of ~2000 Schwarzschild radii in 2014, promising to be a valuable tool for exploring the innermost accretion zone. Future interferometric studies of the Galactic Center Black hole promise to be able to test gravity in its strong field limit.

  8. Nonextremal black holes are BPS

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, C M; Weinberg, E J; Miller, Christopher M.; Schalm, Koenraad; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2006-01-01

    Extremal charged black holes are BPS solutions. It is commonly thought that their nonextremal counterparts are not. Further, experience with BPS solutions in flat spacetime suggests that all BPS solutions are supersymmetric; i.e. that they are invariant under some supersymmetry charges of either the original field theory or an appropriately extended version thereof. Using nonextremal Reissner-Nordstrom black holes as counterexamples, we show that neither of these expectations is universally valid. These black holes correspond to a one-parameter family of BPS solutions. By showing that no generalized Killing spinor can be constructed for these, we show that there is no supergravity theory for which these BPS solutions preserve a fraction of the supersymmetry, nor is there an associated Witten-Nester positive energy bound.

  9. Disrupting Entanglement of Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Leichenauer, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    We study entanglement in thermofield double states of strongly coupled CFTs by analyzing two-sided Reissner-Nordstrom solutions in AdS. The central object of study is the mutual information between a pair of regions, one on each asymptotic boundary of the black hole. For large regions the mutual information is positive and for small ones it vanishes; we compute the critical length scale, which goes to infinity for extremal black holes, of the transition. We also generalize the butterfly effect of Shenker and Stanford to a wide class of charged black holes, showing that mutual information is disrupted upon perturbing the system and waiting for a time of order $\\log E/\\delta E$ in units of the temperature. We conjecture that the parametric form of this timescale is universal.

  10. Calabi-Yau black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmakova, Marina

    1997-07-01

    We find the entropy of N=2 extreme black holes associated with general Calabi-Yau moduli space and the prepotential F=dABC(XAXBXC/X0). We show that for arbitrary dABC and black hole charges p and q the entropy-area formula depends on combinations of these charges and parameters dABC. These combinations are the solutions of a simple system of algebraic equations. We give a few examples of particular Calabi-Yau moduli spaces for which this system has an explicit solution. For the special case when one of the black hole charges is equal to zero (p0=0) the solution always exists.

  11. Black holes with vector hair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhong-Ying

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider Einstein gravity coupled to a vector field, either minimally or non-minimally, together with a vector potential of the type V = 2{Λ}_0+1/2{m}^2{A}^2 + {γ}_4{A}^4 . For a simpler non-minimally coupled theory with Λ0 = m = γ4 = 0, we obtain both extremal and non-extremal black hole solutions that are asymptotic to Minkowski space-times. We study the global properties of the solutions and derive the first law of thermodynamics using Wald formalism. We find that the thermodynamical first law of the extremal black holes is modified by a one form associated with the vector field. In particular, due to the existence of the non-minimal coupling, the vector forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and partly contributes to the one form modifying the first law. For a minimally coupled theory with Λ0 ≠ 0, we also obtain one class of asymptotically flat extremal black hole solutions in general dimensions. This is possible because the parameters ( m 2 , γ4) take certain values such that V = 0. In particular, we find that the vector also forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and contributes to the corresponding first law, although the non-minimal coupling has been turned off. Thus all the extremal black hole solutions that we obtain provide highly non-trivial examples how the first law of thermodynamics can be modified by a either minimally or non-minimally coupled vector field. We also study Gauss-Bonnet gravity non-minimally coupled to a vector and obtain asymptotically flat black holes and Lifshitz black holes.

  12. Supersymmetric black holes in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohaupt, T. [Theoretical Physics Division, Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Liverpool, Peach Street, Liverpool L69 7ZL (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    We review recent developments concerning supersymmetric black holes in string theory. After a general introduction to the laws of black hole mechanics and to black hole entropy in string theory, we discuss black hole solutions in N=2 supergravity, special geometry, the black hole attractor equations and the underlying variational principle. Special attention is payed to the crucial role of higher derivative corrections. Finally we discuss black hole partition functions and their relation with the topological string, mainly from the supergravity perspective. We summarize the state of art and discuss various open questions and problems. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Black holes a very short introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Blundell, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    Black holes are a constant source of fascination to many due to their mysterious nature. Black Holes: A Very Short Introduction addresses a variety of questions, including what a black hole actually is, how they are characterized and discovered, and what would happen if you came too close to one. It explains how black holes form and grow—by stealing material that belongs to stars—as well as how many there may be in the Universe. It also explores the large black holes found in the centres of galaxies, and how black holes power quasars and lie behind other spectacular phenomena in the cosmos.

  14. Astrophysical Black Holes: Evidence of a Horizon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpi, Monica

    In this Lecture Note we first follow a short account of the history of the black hole hypothesis. We then review on the current status of the search for astrophysical black holes with particular attention to the black holes of stellar origin. Later, we highlight a series of observations that reveal the albeit indirect presence of supermassive black holes in galactic nuclei, with mention to forthcoming experiments aimed at testing directly the black hole hypothesis. We further focus on evidences of a black hole event horizon in cosmic sources.

  15. Geometric inequalities for black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dain, Sergio [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Full text: A geometric inequality in General Relativity relates quantities that have both a physical interpretation and a geometrical definition. It is well known that the parameters that characterize the Kerr-Newman black hole satisfy several important geometric inequalities. Remarkably enough, some of these inequalities also hold for dynamical black holes. This kind of inequalities, which are valid in the dynamical and strong field regime, play an important role in the characterization of the gravitational collapse. They are closed related with the cosmic censorship conjecture. In this talk I will review recent results in this subject. (author)

  16. Black Holes with Zero Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Nucamendi, U; Nucamendi, Ulises; Sudarsky, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    We consider the spacetimes corresponding to static Global Monopoles with interior boundaries corresponding to a Black Hole Horizon and analyze the behavior of the appropriate ADM mass as a function of the horizon radius r_H. We find that for small enough r_H, this mass is negative as in the case of the regular global monopoles, but that for large enough r_H the mass becomes positive encountering an intermediate value for which we have a Black Hole with zero ADM mass.

  17. Black holes and warped spacetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaufmann, W.J. III

    1979-01-01

    Black holes (BHs) and their warping effect on spacetime are described, beginning with a discussion on stellar evolution that includes white dwarfs, supernovas and neutron stars. The structure of static, rotating, and electrically charged BHs are considered, as well as the general theory of relativity, quantum mechanics, the Einstein-Rosen bridge, and wormholes in spacetime. Attention is also given to gravitational lenses, various space geometries, quasars, Seyfert galaxies, supermassive black holes, the evaporation and particle emission of BHs, and primordial BHs, including their temperature and lifetime.

  18. Terahertz superconducting plasmonic hole array

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Zhen; Han, Jiaguang; Gu, Jianqiang; Xing, Qirong; Zhang, Weili

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate thermally tunable superconductor hole array with active control over their resonant transmission induced by surface plasmon polaritons . The array was lithographically fabricated on high temperature YBCO superconductor and characterized by terahertz-time domain spectroscopy. We observe a clear transition from the virtual excitation of the surface plasmon mode to the real surface plasmon mode. The highly tunable superconducting plasmonic hole arrays may have promising applications in the design of low-loss, large dynamic range amplitude modulation, and surface plasmon based terahertz devices.

  19. Chaotization inside Quantum Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Addazi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    We show how the horizon geometry and entropy of a Semiclassical Black Hole can be reconstructed from a system of $N>>1$ horizonless conic singularities with average opening angle at the horizon $\\langle \\Theta \\rangle=2\\pi$. This conclusion is strongly motivated by a generalized Wheeler-De Witt equation for quantum black holes. We will argument how infalling information will be inevitably chaotized in these systems. A part of the initial probability density will be trapped inside the system, in back and forth scatterings among conic singularities, for a characteristic time close to the Semiclassical BH life-time. Further implications on information paradoxes are discussed.

  20. Dry EEG Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lopez-Gordo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG emerged in the second decade of the 20th century as a technique for recording the neurophysiological response. Since then, there has been little variation in the physical principles that sustain the signal acquisition probes, otherwise called electrodes. Currently, new advances in technology have brought new unexpected fields of applications apart from the clinical, for which new aspects such as usability and gel-free operation are first order priorities. Thanks to new advances in materials and integrated electronic systems technologies, a new generation of dry electrodes has been developed to fulfill the need. In this manuscript, we review current approaches to develop dry EEG electrodes for clinical and other applications, including information about measurement methods and evaluation reports. We conclude that, although a broad and non-homogeneous diversity of approaches has been evaluated without a consensus in procedures and methodology, their performances are not far from those obtained with wet electrodes, which are considered the gold standard, thus enabling the former to be a useful tool in a variety of novel applications.

  1. Solar drying and agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana del Monserrate Ruiz Cedeño

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Agribusinesses are the livelihoods of rural populations, but when production increase, many products are damaged and lose their commercial value due to lack of conservation treatments at a local level. Agricultural production represents the foundation of economic development of the province of Manabi. A significant level of agricultural products is lost due to lack of conservation technologies. Solar drying is a way of conserving by dehydration of some products such as: vegetables, fruits, aromatic and medicinal plants. This can be achieved by a process of proper conservation that is conducive to reduce losses using technologies easy to build, as are the different types of solar dryers which are already used in different parts of the South American region. This article proposes to introduce solar-drying technology in agricultural areas of the province of Manabi. And thereby achieve the regaining of different products that today are lost, incorporating new and attractive, marketable lines based on agricultural products naturally dehydrated with a high nutritionalvalue, capable of contributing to human health not only in the province but also in the country.

  2. Black-Hole and White-Hole Horizons in Superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Volovik, G E

    2006-01-01

    Ripplons -- gravity-capillary waves on the free surface of a liquid or at the interfaces between two superfluids -- are the most favourable excitations for simulation of the general-relativistic effects related to horizons and ergoregions. The white-hole horizon for the ``relativistic'' ripplons at the surface of the shallow liquid is easily simulated using the kitchen-bath hydraulic jump. The same white-hole horizon is observed in quantum liquid -- superfluid 4He. The ergoregion for the ``non-relativistic'' ripplons is generated in the experiments with two sliding 3He superfluids. The common property experienced by all these ripplons is the Miles instability inside the ergoregion or horizon. Because of the universality of the Miles instability, one may expect that it could take place inside the horizon of the astrophysical black holes, if there is a preferred reference frame which comes from the trans-Planckian physics. If this is the case, the black hole would evapotate much faster than due to the Hawking r...

  3. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  4. From Pinholes to Black Holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenimore, Edward E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-10-06

    Pinhole photography has made major contributions to astrophysics through the use of “coded apertures”. Coded apertures were instrumental in locating gamma-ray bursts and proving that they originate in faraway galaxies, some from the birth of black holes from the first stars that formed just after the big bang.

  5. Black Holes and Exotic Spinors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Hoff da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exotic spin structures are non-trivial liftings, of the orthogonal bundle to the spin bundle, on orientable manifolds that admit spin structures according to the celebrated Geroch theorem. Exotic spin structures play a role of paramount importance in different areas of physics, from quantum field theory, in particular at Planck length scales, to gravity, and in cosmological scales. Here, we introduce an in-depth panorama in this field, providing black hole physics as the fount of spacetime exoticness. Black holes are then studied as the generators of a non-trivial topology that also can correspond to some inequivalent spin structure. Moreover, we investigate exotic spinor fields in this context and the way exotic spinor fields branch new physics. We also calculate the tunneling probability of exotic fermions across a Kerr-Sen black hole, showing that the exotic term does affect the tunneling probability, altering the black hole evaporation rate. Finally we show that it complies with the Hawking temperature universal law.

  6. Black holes in brane worlds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M S Modgil; S Panda; S Sengupta

    2004-03-01

    A Kerr metric describing a rotating black hole is obtained on the three brane in a five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum brane world by considering a rotating five-dimensional black string in the bulk. We examine the causal structure of this space-time through the geodesic equations.

  7. Improving accuracy of holes honing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan М. Buykli

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently, in precision engineering industry tolerances for linear dimensions and tolerances on shape of surfaces of processing parts are steadily tightened These requirements are especially relevant in processing of holes. Aim of the research is to improve accuracy and to enhance the technological capabilities of holes honing process and, particularly, of blind holes honing. Based on formal logic the analysis of formation of processing errors is executed on the basis of consideration of schemes of irregularity of dimensional wear and tear along the length of the cutting elements. With this, the possibilities of compensating this irregularities and, accordingly, of control of accuracy of processing applied to the honing of both throughout and blind holes are specified. At the same time, a new method of honing is developed, it is protected by the patent of Ukraine for invention. The method can be implemented both on an existing machine tools at insignificant modernization of its system of processing cycle control and on newly designed ones.

  8. Hole localization and symmetry breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, R; Nieuwpoort, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of some theoretical work on the symmetry breaking of electronic wavefunctions that followed the early work on Bagus and Schaefer who observed that a considerable lower SCF energy could be obtained for an ionized state of the O2 molecule with a 1s hole if the symmetry re

  9. Black Holes: A Selected Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    1991-01-01

    Offers a selected bibliography pertaining to black holes with the following categories: introductory books; introductory articles; somewhat more advanced articles; readings about Einstein's general theory of relativity; books on the death of stars; articles on the death of stars; specific articles about Supernova 1987A; relevant science fiction…

  10. Gravitational Collapse and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, Lewis

    1973-01-01

    The newest and most exotic manner in which stars die is investigated. A brief outline is presented, along with a discussion of the role supernova play, followed by a description of how the black holes originate, exist, and how they might be detected. (DF)

  11. Information retrieval from black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Padmanabhan, T

    2016-01-01

    It is generally believed that, when matter collapses to form a black hole, the complete information about the initial state of the matter cannot be retrieved by future asymptotic observers, through local measurements. This is contrary to the expectation from a unitary evolution in quantum theory and leads to (a version of) the black hole information paradox. Classically, nothing else, apart from mass, charge and angular momentum is expected to be revealed to such asymptotic observers after the formation of a black hole. Semi-classically, black holes evaporate after their formation through the Hawking radiation. The dominant part of the radiation is expected to be thermal and hence one cannot know anything about the initial data from the resultant radiation. However, there can be sources of distortions which make the radiation non-thermal. Although the distortions are not strong enough to make the evolution unitary, these distortions carry some part of information regarding the in-state. In this work, we show ...

  12. What Are Holes in the Heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Holes in the Heart? Holes in the heart are ... Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT OIG CONTACT US National Institutes of Health ...

  13. How Are Holes in the Heart Treated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Are Holes in the Heart Treated? Many holes in the ... Google+ SITE INDEX ACCESSIBILITY PRIVACY STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT OIG CONTACT US National Institutes of Health ...

  14. Spin distribution of primordial black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Shuichiro

    2017-08-01

    We estimate the spin distribution of primordial black holes based on the recent study of the critical phenomena in the gravitational collapse of a rotating radiation fluid. We find that primordial black holes are mostly slowly rotating.

  15. Measurement procedure for optomechanical hole plate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik

    2003-01-01

    Measurement procedure for optomechanical hole plate in connection with CIRP interlaboratory comparison on measuring machines.......Measurement procedure for optomechanical hole plate in connection with CIRP interlaboratory comparison on measuring machines....

  16. Regular Black Holes with Cosmological Constant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MO Wen-Juan; CAI Rong-Gen; SU Ru-Keng

    2006-01-01

    We present a class of regular black holes with cosmological constant Λ in nonlinear electrodynamics. Instead of usual singularity behind black hole horizon, all fields and curvature invariants are regular everywhere for the regular black holes. Through gauge invariant approach, the linearly dynamical stability of the regular black hole is studied. In odd-parity sector, we find that the Λ term does not appear in the master equations of perturbations, which shows that the regular black hole is stable under odd-parity perturbations. On the other hand, for the even-parity sector, the master equations are more complicated than the case without the cosmological constant. We obtain the sufficient conditions for stability of the regular black hole. We also investigate the thermodynamic properties of the regular black hole, and find that those thermodynamic quantities do not satisfy the differential form of first law of black hole thermodynamics. The reason for violating the first law is revealed.

  17. Implementing black hole as efficient power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Shao-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Treating the black hole molecules as working substance and considering its phase structure, we study the black hole heat engine by a charged anti-de Sitter black hole. In the reduced temperature-entropy chart, it is found that the work, heat, and efficiency of the engine are independent of the black hole charge. Applying the Rankine cycle with or without a back pressure mechanism to the black hole heat engine, the efficiency is numerically solved. The result shows that the black hole engine working along the Rankine cycle with a back pressure mechanism has a higher efficiency. This provides a novel and efficient mechanism to produce the useful mechanical work with black hole, and such heat engine may act as a possible energy source for the high energy astrophysical phenomena near the black hole.

  18. Foundations of Black Hole Accretion Disk Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Abramowicz, Marek A; Fragile, P. Chris

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the main aspects of black hole accretion disk theory. We begin with the view that one of the main goals of the theory is to better understand the nature of black holes themselves...

  19. Astronomy: Intermediate-mass black hole found

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gültekin, Kayhan

    2017-02-01

    The existence of medium-sized black holes has long been debated. Such an object has now been discovered in the centre of a dense cluster of stars, potentially enhancing our understanding of all black holes. See Letter p.203

  20. Black hole entropy, curved space and monsters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Stephen D.H. [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)], E-mail: hsu@uoregon.edu; Reeb, David [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR 97403 (United States)], E-mail: dreeb@uoregon.edu

    2008-01-10

    We investigate the microscopic origin of black hole entropy, in particular the gap between the maximum entropy of ordinary matter and that of black holes. Using curved space, we construct configurations with entropy greater than the area A of a black hole of equal mass. These configurations have pathological properties and we refer to them as monsters. When monsters are excluded we recover the entropy bound on ordinary matter Shole are associated with the growth of a slightly smaller black hole which absorbs some additional energy. Our results suggest that the area entropy of black holes is the logarithm of the number of distinct ways in which one can form the black hole from ordinary matter and smaller black holes, but only after the exclusion of monster states.

  1. Multipole moments of bumpy black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Vigeland, Sarah J

    2010-01-01

    General relativity predicts the existence of black holes, compact objects whose spacetimes depend on only their mass and spin (the famous "no hair" theorem). As various observations probe deeper into the strong fields of black hole candidates, it is becoming possible to test this prediction. Previous work suggested that such tests can be performed by measuring whether the multipolar structure of black hole candidates has the form that general relativity demands, and introduced a family of "bumpy black hole" spacetimes to be used for making these measurements. These spacetimes are black holes with the "wrong" multipoles, where the deviation from general relativity depends on the spacetime's "bumpiness." In this paper, we show how to compute the Geroch-Hansen moments of a bumpy black hole, demonstrating that there is a clean mapping between the deviations used in the bumpy black hole formalism and the Geroch-Hansen moments. We also extend our previous results to define bumpy black holes whose {\\it current} mome...

  2. Dry ice blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

    1992-04-01

    As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

  3. Information retrieval from black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochan, Kinjalk; Chakraborty, Sumanta; Padmanabhan, T.

    2016-08-01

    It is generally believed that, when matter collapses to form a black hole, the complete information about the initial state of the matter cannot be retrieved by future asymptotic observers, through local measurements. This is contrary to the expectation from a unitary evolution in quantum theory and leads to (a version of) the black hole information paradox. Classically, nothing else, apart from mass, charge, and angular momentum is expected to be revealed to such asymptotic observers after the formation of a black hole. Semiclassically, black holes evaporate after their formation through the Hawking radiation. The dominant part of the radiation is expected to be thermal and hence one cannot know anything about the initial data from the resultant radiation. However, there can be sources of distortions which make the radiation nonthermal. Although the distortions are not strong enough to make the evolution unitary, these distortions carry some part of information regarding the in-state. In this work, we show how one can decipher the information about the in-state of the field from these distortions. We show that the distortions of a particular kind—which we call nonvacuum distortions—can be used to fully reconstruct the initial data. The asymptotic observer can do this operationally by measuring certain well-defined observables of the quantum field at late times. We demonstrate that a general class of in-states encode all their information content in the correlation of late time out-going modes. Further, using a 1 +1 dimensional dilatonic black hole model to accommodate backreaction self-consistently, we show that observers can also infer and track the information content about the initial data, during the course of evaporation, unambiguously. Implications of such information extraction are discussed.

  4. Spinning a charged dilaton black hole

    CERN Document Server

    Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    A charged dilaton black hole which possesses infinitesimal angular momentum is studied. We find that the gyromagnetic ratio of the dilaton black hole depends not only on the parameter which appears in the interaction between the dilaton and the electric field but also nonlinearly on the ratio of the charge to the mass of the black hole. The moment of inertia for the charged dilaton hole in the limit of infinitesimal angular momentum is also calculated.

  5. The case for artificial black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Philbin, Thomas G

    2008-08-28

    The event horizon is predicted to generate particles from the quantum vacuum, an effect that bridges three areas of physics--general relativity, quantum mechanics and thermodynamics. The quantum radiation of real black holes is too feeble to be detectable, but black-hole analogues may probe several aspects of quantum black holes. In this paper, we explain in simple terms some of the motivations behind the study of artificial black holes.

  6. Dried fruit and dental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Michèle Jeanne

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature has found that the common perceptions that dried fruits are "sticky", adhere to teeth, and are detrimental to dental health on account of their sugar content are based on weak evidence. There is a lack of good quality scientific data to support restrictive advice for dried fruit intake on the basis of dental health parameters and further research is required. A number of potentially positive attributes for dental health, such as the need to chew dried fruits which encourages salivary flow, and the presence of anti-microbial compounds and of sorbitol, also require investigation to establish the extent of their effects and whether they balance against any potentially negative attributes of dried fruit. Advice on dried fruit consumption should also take account of the nutritional benefits of dried fruit, being high in fibre, low in fat and containing useful levels of micronutrients.

  7. A note on the black hole remnant

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang, Li

    2006-01-01

    Analyzing the tunneling probability of a Schwarzschild black hole with a negative log-area correction to Bekenstein-Hawking entropy, I argue that this correction may be closely related to a black hole remnant. The value for the minimal black hole mass is also discussed.

  8. The fuzzball proposal for black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skenderis, K.; Taylor, M.

    2008-01-01

    The fuzzball proposal states that associated with a black hole of entropy S, there are expS horizon-free non-singular solutions that asymptotically look like the black hole but generically differ from the black hole up to the horizon scale. These solutions, the fuzzballs, are considered to be the bl

  9. Charged Black Holes in New Massive Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Ghodsi, Ahmad; Moghadassi, Mohammad

    2010-01-01

    We construct charged black hole solutions to three-dimensional New Massive Gravity (NMG), by adding electromagnetic Maxwell and Chern-Simons actions. We find charged black holes in the form of warped AdS_3 and "log" solutions in specific critical point. The entropy, mass and angular momentum of these black holes are computed.

  10. Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lane

    The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for transcendent…

  11. Micro black holes in the laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Bleicher, Marcus; Sprenger, Martin; Winstanley, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    The possibility of creating microscopic black holes is one of the most exciting predictions for the LHC, with potentially major consequences for our current understanding of physics. We briefly review the theoretical motivation for micro black hole production, and our understanding of their subsequent evolution. Recent work on modelling the radiation from quantum-gravity-corrected black holes is also discussed.

  12. Quantum Creation of BTZ Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Wu Zhong Chao

    1999-01-01

    The constrained Instanton method is used to study quantum creation of a BTZ black hole. It is found that the relative creation probability is the exponential of the negative sum of the entropy associated with the outer and inner black hole horizons. The quantum creation of the 4- or higher dimensional versions of the BTZ black hole are also studied.

  13. 30 CFR 77.1010 - Collaring holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collaring holes. 77.1010 Section 77.1010 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Control § 77.1010 Collaring holes. (a) Starter steels shall be used when collaring holes with...

  14. Extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katmadas, S.

    2011-01-01

    An explanation for the entropy of black holes has been an outstanding problem in recent decades. A special case where this is possible is that of extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity in four and five dimensions. The best developed case is for black holes preserving some supersymmetry (BPS), whic

  15. Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lane

    The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for…

  16. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2013-04-02

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  17. Straight hole drilling machines for coal mines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonin, VV; Kokoulin, DI; Alekseev, SE; Kubanychbek, B.

    2017-02-01

    The authors prove the demand for drilling machines capable of making long straight holes in rocks with the strength up to 120 MPa. The paper describes the designed, manufactured and tested down-the-hole hammers for rotary–percussion drilling of long straight directional holes. The hammers have been delivered to Berezovskaya Mine for further trial and commercial operation.

  18. Black Hole Monodromy and Conformal Field Theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro, A.; Lapan, J.M.; Maloney, A.; Rodriguez, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    The analytic structure of solutions to the Klein-Gordon equation in a black hole background, as represented by monodromy data, is intimately related to black hole thermodynamics. It encodes the "hidden conformal symmetry" of a nonextremal black hole, and it explains why features of the inner event

  19. On Quantum Contributions to Black Hole Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Wheeler’s quantum foam on black hole growth are explored from an astrophysical per- spective. Quantum fluctuations in the form of mini (10−5 g) black holes can couple to macroscopic black holes and allow the latter to grow exponentially in mass on a time scale of 109 years.

  20. Compensating Scientism through "The Black Hole."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Lane

    The focal image of the film "The Black Hole" functions as a visual metaphor for the sacred, order, unity, and eternal time. The black hole is a symbol that unites the antinomic pairs of conscious/unconscious, water/fire, immersion/emersion, death/rebirth, and hell/heaven. The black hole is further associated with the quest for…

  1. On black holes and gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Loinger, Angelo

    2002-01-01

    Black holes and gravitational waves are theoretical entities of today astrophysics. Various observed phenomena have been associated with the concept of black hole ; until now, nobody has detected gravitational waves. The essays contained in this book aim at showing that the concept of black holes arises from a misinterpretation of general relativity and that gravitational waves cannot exist.

  2. Signatures of black holes at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaglià, Marco; Godang, Romulus; Cremaldi, Lucien M.; Summers, Donald J.

    2007-06-01

    Signatures of black hole events at CERN's Large Hadron Collider are discussed. Event simulations are carried out with the Fortran Monte Carlo generator CATFISH. Inelasticity effects, exact field emissivities, color and charge conservation, corrections to semiclassical black hole evaporation, gravitational energy loss at formation and possibility of a black hole remnant are included in the analysis.

  3. Signatures of black holes at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Cavaglia, Marco; Cremaldi, Lucien M; Summers, Donald J

    2007-01-01

    Signatures of black hole events at CERN's Large Hadron Collider are discussed. Event simulations are carried out with the Fortran Monte Carlo generator CATFISH. Inelasticity effects, exact field emissivities, color and charge conservation, corrections to semiclassical black hole evaporation, gravitational energy loss at formation and possibility of a black hole remnant are included in the analysis.

  4. On Quantum Contributions to Black Hole Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaans, M.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Wheeler’s quantum foam on black hole growth are explored from an astrophysical per- spective. Quantum fluctuations in the form of mini (10−5 g) black holes can couple to macroscopic black holes and allow the latter to grow exponentially in mass on a time scale of 109 years. Consequent

  5. Extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katmadas, S.

    2011-01-01

    An explanation for the entropy of black holes has been an outstanding problem in recent decades. A special case where this is possible is that of extremal black holes in N=2 supergravity in four and five dimensions. The best developed case is for black holes preserving some supersymmetry (BPS), whic

  6. Resource Letter BH-1: Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detweiler, Steven

    1981-01-01

    Lists resources on black holes, including: (1) articles of historical interest; (2) books and journal articles on elementary expositions; (3) elementary and advanced textbooks; and (4) research articles on analytic structure of black holes, black hole dynamics, and astrophysical processes. (SK)

  7. Event horizons of two Schwarzchild black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, N.T.

    1988-06-01

    The problem of two Schwarzchild black holes, one much smaller than the other, is investigated by an approximate analytic method. The critical separation between the black holes at which their event horizons join is found for two cases, (2) time-symmetric initial data, and (b) the small black hole falls from rest at infinity.

  8. Shapes and Positions of Black Hole Shadows in Accretion Disks and Spin Parameters of Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Rohta

    2004-01-01

    Can we determine a spin parameter of a black hole by observation of a black hole shadow in an accretion disk? In order to answer this question, we make a qualitative analysis and a quantitative analysis of a shape and a position of a black hole shadow casted by a rotating black hole on an optically thick accretion disk and its dependence on an angular momentum of a black hole. We have found black hole shadows with a quite similar size and a shape for largely different black hole spin paramete...

  9. The stable problem of the black-hole connected region in the Schwarzschild black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Guihua

    2005-01-01

    The stability of the Schwarzschild black hole is studied. Using the Painlev\\'{e} coordinate, our region can be defined as the black-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole or the white-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole. We study the stable problems of the black-hole-connected region. The conclusions are: (1) in the black-hole-connected region, the initially regular perturbation fields must have real frequency or complex frequen...

  10. The stable problem of the black-hole connected region in the Schwarzschild black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Tian, Guihua

    2005-01-01

    The stability of the Schwarzschild black hole is studied. Using the Painlev\\'{e} coordinate, our region can be defined as the black-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole or the white-hole-connected region(r>2m, see text) of the Schwarzschild black hole. We study the stable problems of the black-hole-connected region. The conclusions are: (1) in the black-hole-connected region, the initially regular perturbation fields must have real frequency or complex frequen...

  11. Shapes and Positions of Black Hole Shadows in Accretion Disks and Spin Parameters of Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Rohta

    2004-01-01

    Can we determine a spin parameter of a black hole by observation of a black hole shadow in an accretion disk? In order to answer this question, we make a qualitative analysis and a quantitative analysis of a shape and a position of a black hole shadow casted by a rotating black hole on an optically thick accretion disk and its dependence on an angular momentum of a black hole. We have found black hole shadows with a quite similar size and a shape for largely different black hole spin paramete...

  12. Convective drying of sludge cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbo; Peng, Xiaofeng; Xue, Yuan; Lee, Duujong; Chu, Chingping

    2002-08-01

    This paper presented an experimental study on convective drying of waste water sludge collected from Beijing GaoBeiDian Sewage Treatment Plant, particularly on the correlation between the observed shrinkage dynamics of sludge cake and the drying curve. During the initial stage of drying the process resembles to that of a particulate bed, in which moisture diffuses and evaporates at the upper surface. Conventional drying theory assuming a diffusion-evaporating front interprets this period of drying. Consequently, owing to the very large shrinkage ratio of the dried cake, cracks emerges and propagates on and within the cake body, whence inducing evaporating channel that facilitates the water removal. This occurrence compensates the reduction of surface area for evaporation, whence extending the constant-rate period during the test. Afterwards, the cracks meet with each other and form isolated cake piles, while the subsequent drying occur mainly within these piles and the conventional theory fails. The transition between the drying on a plain cake layer and that on the isolated piles demonstrates the need to adopt distinct descriptions on these two regimes of drying for the sludge cake.

  13. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  14. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and progre

  15. Black holes under external influence

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jiří Bičák

    2000-10-01

    The work on black holes immersed in external fields is reviewed in both test-field approximation and within exact solutions. In particular we pay attention to the effect of the expulsion of the flux of external fields across charged and rotating black holes which are approaching extremal states. Recently this effect has been shown to occur for black hole solutions in string theory. We also discuss black holes surrounded by rings and disks and rotating black holes accelerated by strings.

  16. On coupling impedances of pumping holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurennoy, S.

    1993-04-01

    Coupling impedances of a single small hole in vacuum-chamber walls have been calculated at low frequencies. To generalize these results for higher frequencies and/or larger holes one needs to solve coupled integral equations for the effective currents. These equations are solved for two specific hole shapes. The effects of many holes at high frequencies where the impedances are not additive are studied using a perturbation-theory method. The periodic versus random distributions of the pumping holes in the Superconducting Super Collider liner are compared.

  17. Black Hole Radiation and Volume Statistical Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinowitz, M

    2005-01-01

    The simplest possible equations for Hawking radiation, and other black hole radiated power is derived in terms of black hole density. Black hole density also leads to the simplest possible model of a gas of elementary constituents confined inside a gravitational bottle of Schwarzchild radius at tremendous pressure, which yields identically the same functional dependence as the traditional black hole entropy. Variations of Sbh are can be obtained which depend on the occupancy of phase space cells. A relation is derived between the constituent momenta and the black hole radius RH

  18. Dyonic Non-Abelian Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Brihaye, Y; Kunz, J; Tell, N

    1999-01-01

    We study static spherically symmetric dyonic black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory. As for the magnetic non-abelian black holes, the domain of existence of the dyonic non-abelian black holes is limited with respect to the horizon radius and the dimensionless coupling constant $\\alpha$, which is proportional to the ratio of vector meson mass and Planck mass. At a certain critical value of this coupling constant, $\\hat \\alpha$, the maximal horizon radius is attained. We derive analytically a relation between $\\hat numerically. Besides the fundamental dyonic non-abelian black holes, we study radially excited dyonic non-abelian black holes and globally regular gravitating dyons.

  19. An Optical Analog of a Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Royston, A; Royston, Andrew; Gass, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Using media with extremely low group velocities one can create an optical analog of a curved space-time. Leonhardt and Piwnicki have proposed that a vortex flow will act as an optical black hole. We show that although the Leonhardt - Piwnicki flow has an orbit of no return and an infinite red-shift surface, it is not a true black hole since it lacks a null hypersurface. However a radial flow will produce a true optical black hole that has a Hawking temperature and obeys the first law of black hole mechanics. By combining the Leonhardt - Piwnicki flow with a radial flow we obtain the analog of the Kerr black hole.

  20. Black Hole Decay as Geodesic Motion

    CERN Document Server

    Sen-Gupta, K; Gupta, Kumar S.; Sen, Siddhartha

    2003-01-01

    We show that a formalism for analyzing the near-horizon conformal symmetry of Schwarzschild black holes using a scalar field probe is capable of describing black hole decay. The decay rate is shown to be correctly described by geodesic motion in the space of black hole masses. This provides a novel geometric interpretation for the decay of black holes. We also show that the near-horizon conformal symmetry predicts a precise correction term to the usual expression for the decay rate of black holes. The results obtained here are a consequence of the holographic nature of the system.

  1. Staying dry under water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo; Megaridis, Constantine; Walther, Jens; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Patankar, Neelesh

    2012-11-01

    Lotus leaves are known for their non-wetting properties due to the presence of surface texture. The superhydrophobic behavior arises because of the prevention of liquid water from entering the pores of the roughness. Present superhydrophobic materials rely on air trapped within the surface pores to avoid liquid permeation. This is typically unsustainable for immersed bodies due to dissolution of the air, especially under elevated pressures. Here, molecular dynamics simulations are used to demonstrate the non-wetting behavior of an immersed ten-nanometer pore. This is accomplished by establishing thermodynamically sustained vapor pockets of the surrounding liquid medium. Over 300,000 atoms were used to construct the nanopore geometry and simulate SPC/E water molecules. Ambient pressure was varied along two isotherms (300 K, and 500 K). This approach for vapor-stabilization could offer valuable guidance for maintaining surfaces dry even in a submerged state without relying on trapped air. The approach may be extended to control general phase behavior of water adjacent to textured surfaces. ISEN support is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  3. Sessile nanofluid droplet drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Crivoi, Alexandru; Duan, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Nanofluid droplet evaporation has gained much audience nowadays due to its wide applications in painting, coating, surface patterning, particle deposition, etc. This paper reviews the drying progress and deposition formation from the evaporative sessile droplets with the suspended insoluble solutes, especially nanoparticles. The main content covers the evaporation fundamental, the particle self-assembly, and deposition patterns in sessile nanofluid droplet. Both experimental and theoretical studies are presented. The effects of the type, concentration and size of nanoparticles on the spreading and evaporative dynamics are elucidated at first, serving the basis for the understanding of particle motion and deposition process which are introduced afterward. Stressing on particle assembly and production of desirable residue patterns, we express abundant experimental interventions, various types of deposits, and the effects on nanoparticle deposition. The review ends with the introduction of theoretical investigations, including the Navier-Stokes equations in terms of solutions, the Diffusion Limited Aggregation approach, the Kinetic Monte Carlo method, and the Dynamical Density Functional Theory. Nanoparticles have shown great influences in spreading, evaporation rate, evaporation regime, fluid flow and pattern formation of sessile droplets. Under different experimental conditions, various deposition patterns can be formed. The existing theoretical approaches are able to predict fluid dynamics, particle motion and deposition patterns in the particular cases. On the basis of further understanding of the effects of fluid dynamics and particle motion, the desirable patterns can be obtained with appropriate experimental regulations.

  4. Black Holes Shed Light on Galaxy Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This videotape is comprised of several segments of animations on black holes and galaxy formation, and several segments of an interview with Dr. John Kormendy. The animation segments are: (1) a super massive black hole, (2) Centarus A active black hole found in a collision, (3) galaxy NGC-4261 (active black hole and jet model), (4) galaxy M-32 (orbits of stars are effected by the gravity of the black hole), (5) galaxy M-37 (motion of stars increases as mass of black hole increases), (6) Birth of active galactic nuclei, (7) the collision of two galaxy leads to merger of the black holes, (8) Centarus A and simulation of the collision of 2 galaxies. There are also several segments of an interview with John Kormendy. In these segments he discusses the two most important aspects of his recent black hole work: (1) the correlations between galaxies speed and the mass of the black holes, and (2) the existence of black holes and galactic formation. He also discusses the importance of the Hubble Space Telescope and the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph to the study of black holes. He also shows the methodology of processing images from the spectrograph in his office.

  5. Black Hole with Quantum Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Ahmed Farag

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigate black hole (BH) physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which introduces a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. It also ameliorates the black hole singularity and the information loss problem.

  6. Black hole with quantum potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Farag Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we investigate black hole (BH physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE. From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which may introduce a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. Those corrections also turn the spacelike singularity of the black hole to be timelike, and hence this may ameliorate the information loss problem.

  7. "Twisted" black holes are unphysical

    CERN Document Server

    Gray, Finnian; Schuster, Sebastian; Visser, Matt

    2016-01-01

    So-called "twisted" black holes have recently been proposed by Zhang (1609.09721 [gr-qc]), and further considered by Chen and Jing (1610.00886 [gr-qc]), and more recently by Ong (1610.05757 [gr-qc]). While these spacetimes are certainly Ricci-flat, and so mathematically satisfy the vacuum Einstein equations, they are also merely minor variants on Taub--NUT spacetimes. Consequently they exhibit several unphysical features that make them quite unreasonable as realistic astrophysical objects. Specifically, these "twisted" black holes are not (globally) asymptotically flat. Furthermore, they contain closed timelike curves that are not hidden behind any event horizon --- the most obvious of these closed timelike curves are small azimuthal circles around the rotation axis, but the effect is more general. The entire region outside the horizon is infested with closed timelike curves.

  8. Black hole with quantum potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: ahmed.ali@fsc.bu.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt); Khalil, Mohammed M., E-mail: moh.m.khalil@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria 12544 (Egypt)

    2016-08-15

    In this work, we investigate black hole (BH) physics in the context of quantum corrections. These quantum corrections were introduced recently by replacing classical geodesics with quantal (Bohmian) trajectories and hence form a quantum Raychaudhuri equation (QRE). From the QRE, we derive a modified Schwarzschild metric, and use that metric to investigate BH singularity and thermodynamics. We find that these quantum corrections change the picture of Hawking radiation greatly when the size of BH approaches the Planck scale. They prevent the BH from total evaporation, predicting the existence of a quantum BH remnant, which may introduce a possible resolution for the catastrophic behavior of Hawking radiation as the BH mass approaches zero. Those corrections also turn the spacelike singularity of the black hole to be timelike, and hence this may ameliorate the information loss problem.

  9. Extremal Black Holes as Qudits

    CERN Document Server

    Rios, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We extend the black hole/qudit correspondence by identifying five and six-dimensional 1/2-BPS black string and hole charge vectors in N=8 and N=2 magic supergravities with qubits and qutrits over composition algebras. In D=6, this is accomplished via Hopf fibrations, which map qubits over composition algebras to rank one elements of Jordan algebras of degree two. An analogous procedure maps qutrits over composition algebras to D=5 charge vectors, which are rank one elements of Jordan algebras of degree three. In both cases, the U-duality groups are interpreted as qudit SLOCC transformation groups. We provide explicit gates for such transformations and study their applications in toroidally compactified M-theory.

  10. Black Holes at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Kanti, Panagiota

    2008-01-01

    In these two lectures, we will address the topic of the creation of small black holes during particle collisions in a ground-based accelerator, such as LHC, in the context of a higher-dimensional theory. We will cover the main assumptions, criteria and estimates for their creation, and we will discuss their properties after their formation. The most important observable effect associated with their creation is likely to be the emission of Hawking radiation during their evaporation process. After presenting the mathematical formalism for its study, we will review the current results for the emission of particles both on the brane and in the bulk. We will finish with a discussion of the methodology that will be used to study these spectra, and the observable signatures that will help us identify the black-hole events.

  11. Black holes in magnetic monopoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kimyeong; Nair, V. P.; Weinberg, Erick J.

    1992-04-01

    We study magnetically charged classical solutions of a spontaneously broken gauge theory interacting with gravity. We show that nonsingular monopole solutions exist only if the Higgs-field vacuum expectation value v is less than or equal to a critical value vcr, which is of the order of the Planck mass. In the limiting case, the monopole becomes a black hole, with the region outside the horizon described by the critical Reissner-Nordström solution. For vsolutions which are singular at r=0, but which have this singularity hidden within a horizon. These have nontrivial matter fields outside the horizon, and may be interpreted as small black holes lying within a magnetic monopole. The nature of these solutions as a function of v and of the total mass M and their relation to the Reissner-Nordström solutions are discussed.

  12. Black Holes in Magnetic Monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K; Weinberg, Erick J; Weinberg, Erick J.

    1992-01-01

    We study magnetically charged classical solutions of a spontaneously broken gauge theory interacting with gravity. We show that nonsingular monopole solutions exist only if the Higgs vacuum expectation value $v$ is less than or equal to a critical value $v_{cr}$, which is of the order of the Planck mass. In the limiting case the monopole becomes a black hole, with the region outside the horizon described by the critical Reissner-Nordstrom solution. For $v

  13. Black Holes with Proca Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Fan, Zhong-Ying

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider Einstein gravity coupled to a Proca field, either minimally or non-minimally, together with a vector potential of the type $V=2\\Lambda_0+ m^2 A^2/2 + \\gamma_4 A^4$. For a simpler non-minimally coupled theory with $\\Lambda_0=m=\\gamma_4=0$, we obtain both extremal and non-extremal black hole solutions that are asymptotic to Minkowski space-times. We study the global properties of the solutions and derive the first law of thermodynamics using Wald formalism. We find that the thermodynamical first laws of the extremal black holes are modified by a one form associated with the Proca. In particular, due to the existence of the non-minimal coupling, the Proca forms thermodynamic conjugates with the graviton mode and partly contributes to the one form modifying the first laws. For a minimally coupled theory with $\\Lambda_0\

  14. Black Holes: Attractors for Intelligence?

    CERN Document Server

    Vidal, Clement

    2011-01-01

    The Search for Extra-Terrestrial Intelligence (SETI) has so far been unsuccessful and needs additional methods. We introduce a two-dimensional metric for civilization development, using the Kardashev scale of energy increase and the Barrow scale of inward manipulation. To support Barrow's scale limit, we contend with energetic, societal, scientific, computational, and philosophical arguments that black holes are attractors for intelligence. An application of the two-dimensional metric leads to a simple, consistent and observable hypothesis to test the existence of very advanced civilizations. We suggest that some already observed X-Ray binaries may be unnoticed advanced civilizations, of type KII-Bomega. The appendix provides an argumentative map of the paper's main thesis. KEYWORDS: SETI, black holes, Kardashev scale, Barrow scale, star lifting, XRB

  15. Quasistars: Accreting black holes inside massive envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Begelman, Mitchell C; Armitage, Philip J

    2007-01-01

    We study the structure and evolution of "quasistars," accreting black holes embedded within massive hydrostatic gaseous envelopes. These configurations may model the early growth of supermassive black hole seeds. The accretion rate onto the black hole adjusts so that the luminosity carried by the convective envelope equals the Eddington limit for the total mass. This greatly exceeds the Eddington limit for the black hole mass alone, leading to rapid growth of the black hole. We use analytic models and numerical stellar structure calculations to study the structure and evolution of quasistars. We derive analytically the scaling of the photospheric temperature with the black hole mass and envelope mass, and show that it decreases with time as the black hole mass increases. Once the photospheric temperature becomes lower than 10000 K, the photospheric opacity drops precipitously and the photospheric temperature hits a limiting value, analogous to the Hayashi track for red giants and protostars, below which no hy...

  16. Plasma electron-hole kinematics: momentum conservation

    CERN Document Server

    Hutchinson, I H

    2016-01-01

    We analyse the kinematic properties of a plasma electron hole: a non-linear self-sustained localized positive electric potential perturbation, trapping electrons, that behaves as a coherent entity. When a hole accelerates or grows in depth, ion and electron plasma momentum is changed both within the hole and outside it, by an energization process we call jetting. We present a comprehensive analytic calculation of the momentum changes of an isolated general one-dimensional hole. The conservation of the total momentum gives the hole's kinematics, determining its velocity evolution. Our results explain many features of the behavior of hole speed observed in numerical simulations, including self-acceleration at formation, and hole pushing and trapping by ion streams.

  17. From Schwinger Balls to Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Allahbakhshi, Davood

    2016-01-01

    We have shown intriguing similarities between Schwinger balls and black holes. By considering black hole as a gravitational Schwinger ball, we have derived the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and the first law of black hole thermodynamics as a direct result of the inverse area dependence of the gravitational force. It is also shown that the Planck length is nothing but the gravitational Schwinger length. The relation between the mass and the radius of the black hole is derived by considering the black hole as a Schwinger ball of gravitons. We show how the evolution of the entanglement entropy of the black hole, as Page introduced many years ago, can be obtained by including gravitons in the black hole's evaporation process and using a deformed EPR mechanism. Also this deformed EPR mechanism can solve the information paradox. We show how naive simultaneous usage of Page's argument and equivalence principle leads to firewall problem.

  18. Black Hole Thermodynamics and Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Sidharth, B G

    2005-01-01

    We show a strong parallel between the Hawking, Beckenstein black hole Thermodynamics and electromagnetism: When the gravitational coupling constant transform into the electromagnetic coupling constant, the Schwarzchild radius, the Beckenstein temperature, the Beckenstein decay time and the Planck mass transform to respectively the Compton wavelength, the Hagedorn temperature, the Compton time and a typical elementary particle mass. The reasons underlying this parallalism are then discussed in detail.

  19. Van der Waals black hole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruna Rajagopal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the context of extended phase space, where the negative cosmological constant is treated as a thermodynamic pressure in the first law of black hole thermodynamics, we find an asymptotically AdS metric whose thermodynamics matches exactly that of the Van der Waals fluid. We show that as a solution of Einstein's equations, the corresponding stress energy tensor obeys (at least for certain range of metric parameters all three weak, strong, and dominant energy conditions.

  20. Complexity, Action, and Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adam; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Our earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the `Wheeler-DeWitt' patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are fastest computers in nature.

  1. Complexity, action, and black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adam R.; Roberts, Daniel A.; Susskind, Leonard; Swingle, Brian; Zhao, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Our earlier paper "Complexity Equals Action" conjectured that the quantum computational complexity of a holographic state is given by the classical action of a region in the bulk (the "Wheeler-DeWitt" patch). We provide calculations for the results quoted in that paper, explain how it fits into a broader (tensor) network of ideas, and elaborate on the hypothesis that black holes are the fastest computers in nature.

  2. Rλ3-inspired black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováčik, Samuel

    2017-08-01

    We study a black hole with a blurred mass density instead of a singular one, which is caused by the noncommutativity of three-space. Depending on its mass, such object has either none, one or two event horizons. It possesses properties, which become important on a microscopic scale, in particular, the Hawking temperature does not increase indefinitely as the mass goes to zero, but vanishes instead. Such frozen and extremely dense pieces of matter are good dark matter candidates.

  3. Gayge Fields and Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal'Tsov, D. V.

    1987-10-01

    Exact solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills and Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs systems of equations are examined, which describe Black Holes, with gluonic and scalar hairs. A simple deduction of these equations, based on the use of the gayge symmetry is given. The transition to a nonsingular gayge for gravitating Wu - Yang monopoles, in which the singularity is headen inside the horizon, is discussed. Bibliography: 11

  4. A Black Hole Life Preserver

    CERN Document Server

    Gott, J R; Freedman, Deborah L.

    2003-01-01

    Since no one lives forever, all a life preserver can really do is prolong life for longer than would have otherwise been the case. With this rather limited definition in mind we explore in this paper whether in principle you can take a life preserver with you to protect you (for a while at least) against the tidal forces encountered on a trip inside a black hole.

  5. Geometric obstruction of black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Punzi, R; Wohlfarth, M N R; Punzi, Raffaele; Schuller, Frederic P.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N. R.

    2006-01-01

    We study the global structure of Lorentzian manifolds with partial sectional curvature bounds. In particular, we prove completeness theorems for homogeneous and isotropic cosmologies as well as static spherically symmetric spacetimes. The latter result is used to rigorously prove the absence of static spherically symmetric black holes in more than three dimensions. The proofs of these new results are preceded by a detailed exposition of the local aspects of sectional curvature bounds for Lorentzian manifolds, which extends and strengthens previous constructions.

  6. Viscous property of dried clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-sheng; LI Jian-zhong

    2006-01-01

    One dimensional and triaxial compression tests of air-dried and oven-dried Fujinomori clay and Pisa clay were carried out. Water content is less than 4.5 % and 1.0% for air-dried and oven-dried clay specimens, respectively. In all tests, axial strain rate was changed stepwise many times and drained creep tests were performed several times during monotonic loading at a constant strain rate. Global unloading (and also reloading in some tests) was applied during which creep loading tests were performed several times. Cyclic loading with small stress amplitude and several cycles was also performed to calculate the modulus of elasticity of the clay in tests. Local displacement transducer was used in triaxial compression test to increase measuring accuracy of axial strain. The results show that air-dried and oven-dried clay have noticeable viscous properties; during global unloading, creep deformation changes from positive to negative, i.e. there exist neutral points (zero creep deformation or no creep deformation point) in global unloading part of strain-stress curve; viscous property of Fujinomori clay decreases when water content decreases, i.e. viscous property of air-dried Fujinomori clay is more significant than that of oven-dried Fujinomori clay.

  7. Microwave Drying of Moist Coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomatov, Vl. V.; Karelin, V. A.; Sladkov, S. O.; Salomatov, Vas. V.

    2017-03-01

    Physical principles and examples of practical implementation of drying large bodies of coal by microwave radiation are considered. It is shown that energy consumption in microwave drying of brown coals decreases to 1.5-1.8 (kW·h)/ kg as compared with traditional types of drying, for which the expenditures of energy amount to 3.0 (kW·h)/kg. In using microwave drying, the technological time of drying decreases to 4 h, whereas the time of convective drying, with other things being equal, comes to 8-20 h. Parallel with microwave radiation drying, grinding of a fuel takes place, as well as entrainment of such toxic and ecologically harmful elements as mercury, chlorine, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen. An analysis of the prospects of using a microwave energy for drying coal fuel has shown that microwave radiation makes it possible to considerably economize in energy, increase explosional safety, improve the ecological situation, and reduce the metal content and overall dimensions of the equipment.

  8. Fractal black holes and information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Naschie, M.S. [Department of Physics, University of Alexandria, Alexandria (Egypt); Department of Astrophysics, Cairo University (Egypt); Department of Physics, Mansura University (Egypt)

    2006-07-15

    If nature is fractal as it evidently is, at classical resolution and if it is suspected to also be fractal at the quantum resolution as it is now a days generally believed to be, then we must have over looked at least two points or so in our physical model building of mini black holes. To start with at such ultra high resolution, the mini black hole geometry must be a fractal. Consequently we have zero volume and only a fractal surface area. Second because we cannot take the differential limit for the -bar {sub p}{sup 2} covering the transfinite surface area, there will be many gaps between the (-bar {sub p}){sup 2} tilings. In other words we must introduce transfinite corrections to the final result. Proceeding this way the information entropy unit of a black hole should be a=I=(7+{phi}{sup 3})(10){sup -66}cm{sup 2}=7.23606799(10){sup -66}cm{sup 2}The nearest classical result to the above is that obtained by Gerard 't Hoofta=I=(0.724)(10){sup -65}cm{sup 2}The paper ends with a general discussion of E-infinity theory and its possible relation with 't Hooft's holographic principle and his gluons-quark strings.

  9. Black Holes and Random Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Cotler, Jordan S; Hanada, Masanori; Polchinski, Joseph; Saad, Phil; Shenker, Stephen H; Stanford, Douglas; Streicher, Alexandre; Tezuka, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    We argue that the late time behavior of horizon fluctuations in large anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes is governed by the random matrix dynamics characteristic of quantum chaotic systems. Our main tool is the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev (SYK) model, which we use as a simple model of a black hole. We use an analytically continued partition function $|Z(\\beta +it)|^2$ as well as correlation functions as diagnostics. Using numerical techniques we establish random matrix behavior at late times. We determine the early time behavior exactly in a double scaling limit, giving us a plausible estimate for the crossover time to random matrix behavior. We use these ideas to formulate a conjecture about general large AdS black holes, like those dual to 4D super-Yang-Mills theory, giving a provisional estimate of the crossover time. We make some preliminary comments about challenges to understanding the late time dynamics from a bulk point of view.

  10. Bleed Hole Flow Phenomena Studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Boundary-layer bleed is an invaluable tool for controlling the airflow in supersonic aircraft engine inlets. Incoming air is decelerated to subsonic speeds prior to entering the compressor via a series of oblique shocks. The low momentum flow in the boundary layer interacts with these shocks, growing in thickness and, under some conditions, leading to flow separation. To remedy this, bleed holes are strategically located to remove mass from the boundary layer, reducing its thickness and helping to maintain uniform flow to the compressor. The bleed requirements for any inlet design are unique and must be validated by extensive wind tunnel testing to optimize performance and efficiency. To accelerate this process and reduce cost, researchers at the NASA Lewis Research Center initiated an experimental program to study the flow phenomena associated with bleed holes. Knowledge of these flow properties will be incorporated into computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models that will aid engine inlet designers in optimizing bleed configurations before any hardware is fabricated. This ongoing investigation is currently examining two hole geometries, 90 and 20 (both with 5-mm diameters), and various flow features.

  11. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  12. Reed's Conjecture on hole expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Fouquet, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    In 1998, Reed conjectured that for any graph $G$, $\\chi(G) \\leq \\lceil \\frac{\\omega(G) + \\Delta(G)+1}{2}\\rceil$, where $\\chi(G)$, $\\omega(G)$, and $\\Delta(G)$ respectively denote the chromatic number, the clique number and the maximum degree of $G$. In this paper, we study this conjecture for some {\\em expansions} of graphs, that is graphs obtained with the well known operation {\\em composition} of graphs. We prove that Reed's Conjecture holds for expansions of bipartite graphs, for expansions of odd holes where the minimum chromatic number of the components is even, when some component of the expansion has chromatic number 1 or when a component induces a bipartite graph. Moreover, Reed's Conjecture holds if all components have the same chromatic number, if the components have chromatic number at most 4 and when the odd hole has length 5. Finally, when $G$ is an odd hole expansion, we prove $\\chi(G)\\leq\\lceil\\frac{\\omega(G)+\\Delta(G)+1}{2}\\rceil+1$.

  13. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  14. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen W; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been shown that BMS supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft ($i.e.$ zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This paper gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the ho...

  15. Black Holes as Effective Geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Balasubramanian, Vijay; El-Showk, Sheer; Messamah, Ilies

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational entropy arises in string theory via coarse graining over an underlying space of microstates. In this review we would like to address the question of how the classical black hole geometry itself arises as an effective or approximate description of a pure state, in a closed string theory, which semiclassical observers are unable to distinguish from the "naive" geometry. In cases with enough supersymmetry it has been possible to explicitly construct these microstates in spacetime, and understand how coarse-graining of non-singular, horizon-free objects can lead to an effective description as an extremal black hole. We discuss how these results arise for examples in Type II string theory on AdS_5 x S^5 and on AdS_3 x S^3 x T^4 that preserve 16 and 8 supercharges respectively. For such a picture of black holes as effective geometries to extend to cases with finite horizon area the scale of quantum effects in gravity would have to extend well beyond the vicinity of the singularities in the effective t...

  16. Entanglement Entropy of Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Solodukhin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The entanglement entropy is a fundamental quantity, which characterizes the correlations between sub-systems in a larger quantum-mechanical system. For two sub-systems separated by a surface the entanglement entropy is proportional to the area of the surface and depends on the UV cutoff, which regulates the short-distance correlations. The geometrical nature of entanglement-entropy calculation is particularly intriguing when applied to black holes when the entangling surface is the black-hole horizon. I review a variety of aspects of this calculation: the useful mathematical tools such as the geometry of spaces with conical singularities and the heat kernel method, the UV divergences in the entropy and their renormalization, the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy in four and six dimensions and their relation to the conformal anomalies. The focus in the review is on the systematic use of the conical singularity method. The relations to other known approaches such as ’t Hooft’s brick-wall model and the Euclidean path integral in the optical metric are discussed in detail. The puzzling behavior of the entanglement entropy due to fields, which non-minimally couple to gravity, is emphasized. The holographic description of the entanglement entropy of the black-hole horizon is illustrated on the two- and four-dimensional examples. Finally, I examine the possibility to interpret the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy entirely as the entanglement entropy.

  17. Entropy of Quantum Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romesh K. Kaul

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Loop Quantum Gravity, black holes (or even more general Isolated Horizons are described by a SU(2 Chern-Simons theory. There is an equivalent formulation of the horizon degrees of freedom in terms of a U(1 gauge theory which is just a gauged fixed version of the SU(2 theory. These developments will be surveyed here. Quantum theory based on either formulation can be used to count the horizon micro-states associated with quantum geometry fluctuations and from this the micro-canonical entropy can be obtained. We shall review the computation in SU(2 formulation. Leading term in the entropy is proportional to horizon area with a coefficient depending on the Barbero-Immirzi parameter which is fixed by matching this result with the Bekenstein-Hawking formula. Remarkably there are corrections beyond the area term, the leading one is logarithm of the horizon area with a definite coefficient −3/2, a result which is more than a decade old now. How the same results are obtained in the equivalent U(1 framework will also be indicated. Over years, this entropy formula has also been arrived at from a variety of other perspectives. In particular, entropy of BTZ black holes in three dimensional gravity exhibits the same logarithmic correction. Even in the String Theory, many black hole models are known to possess such properties. This suggests a possible universal nature of this logarithmic correction.

  18. Hair of astrophysical black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    The "no hair" theorem is not applicable to black holes formed from collapse of a rotating neutron star. Rotating neutron stars can self-produce particles via vacuum breakdown forming a highly conducting plasma magnetosphere such that magnetic field lines are effectively "frozen-in" the star both before and during collapse. In the limit of no resistivity, this introduces a topological constraint which prohibits the magnetic field from sliding off the newly-formed event horizon. As a result, during collapse of a neutron star into a black hole, the latter conserves the number of magnetic flux tubes N_B = e \\Phi_\\infty /(\\pi c \\hbar), where \\Phi_\\infty is the initial magnetic flux through the hemispheres of the progenitor and out to infinity. The black hole's magnetosphere subsequently relaxes to the split monopole magnetic field geometry with self-generated currents outside the event horizon. The dissipation of the resulting equatorial current sheet leads to a slow loss of the anchored flux tubes, a process that...

  19. Kronos: Mapping Black Hole Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, B. M.; Kronos Science Team

    2001-12-01

    Kronos initiates a new era in astrophysics, fully opening the domain of time to astrophysical study. By using the natural variability of accreting sources, Kronos creates microarcsecond maps of the environments of supermassive black holes in galaxies and stellar-size black holes in binary systems and characterizes accretion processes in Galactic compact binaries. Kronos will obtain broad energy range spectroscopic data with co-aligned X-ray, ultraviolet, and visible spectrometers. The high-Earth orbit of Kronos enables well-sampled high time-resolution observations, critical for the innovative and sophisticated methods that are used to understand the accretion flows, mass outflows, jets, and other phenomena found in accreting sources. By utilizing reverberation mapping analysis techniques, Kronos produces advanced maps of unprecedented resolution of the extreme environment in the inner cores of active galaxies. Similarly, Doppler tomography and eclipse mapping techniques characterize and map Galactic binary systems, revealing the details of the physics of accretion processes in black hole, neutron star, and white dwarf binary systems. The Kronos instrument complement, sensitivity, and orbital environment make it suitable to aggressively address time variable phenomena in a wide range of astronomical objects from nearby flare stars to distant galaxies.

  20. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.;

    2004-01-01

    A dry release method for fabrication of suspended nanostructures is presented. The technique has been combined with an anti-stiction treatment for fabrication of nanocantilever based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The process combines a dry release method, using a supporting layer of photo......A dry release method for fabrication of suspended nanostructures is presented. The technique has been combined with an anti-stiction treatment for fabrication of nanocantilever based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The process combines a dry release method, using a supporting layer......, the technique enables long time storage and transportation of produced devices without the risk of stiction. By combining the dry release method with a plasma deposited anti-stiction coating both fabrication induced stiction, which is mainly caused by capillary forces originating from the dehydration...

  1. Drying Characteristics of Garcinia atroviridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waigoon RITTIRUT

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some physical and chemical properties of fresh garcinia fruits are reported. The most suitable drying conditions for garcinia material in a tray dryer based on the final moisture content were determined by extensive testing. It was found that for the material thickness of 2, 4 and 6 mm, a temperature of 55 °C and air velocity of 1.2 m/s are suitable for drying. The most suitable time where the final moisture content met the commercial standard was found to be 199, 256 and 427 min, respectively. The higher the temperature, the shorter the drying time. It was also observed that the suitable drying time for 2-mm thick material and air velocity of 1.2 m/s was 199, 159 and 99 min for drying temperature of 55, 65 and 75 °C, respectively. Drying characteristics are also reported. Most of the drying rate curves appear in a falling rate period except at low temperature and low velocity of operation parameters i.e. 55 °C and 0.5 m/s for 4-mm thick material, where the constant drying rate is approximately 0.09 kg water/min.m2. The sorption isotherm is sigmoidal shape at 30 °C and monolayer moisture content is 14.78 kg water/100 kg dry solid. Soaking material in 1.5 and 3.0 %w/w sodium chloride did not affect the drying rate. Effective moisture diffusivities were evaluated to be  5.57´10-10, 6.94´10-10 and 1.11´10-9 m2/s at temperatures 55, 65 and 75 °C, respectively.

  2. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  3. Hawking Radiation from Regular Black Hole as a Possible Probe for Black Hole Interior Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Yanbin

    2016-01-01

    The notion of the black hole singularity and the proof of the singularity theorem in general relativity were considered great successes in gravitational physics. On the other hand they also presented deep puzzles to physicists. Conceptual challenges were set up by the intractability of the singularity. The existence of black hole horizons which cover up the interior, including the singularity of the black hole from outside observers, builds an information curtain, further hindering physicists from understanding the nature of the singularity and the interior structure of black holes. The regular black hole is a concept produced out of multiple attempts to establish a tractable and understandable interior structure for black hole and to avoid the singularity inside the black hole body. A method is needed to check the correctness of the new constructions of black holes. After studying the Hawking radiation by fermion tunnelling from one type of regular black hole, structure dependent results were obtained. The r...

  4. XFEM Modelling of Multi-holes Plate with Single-row and Staggered Holes Configurations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supar Khairi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Joint efficiency is the key to composite structures assembly design, good structures response is dependent upon multi-holes behavior as subjected to remote loading. Current benchmarking work were following experimental testing series taken from literature on multi-holes problem. Eleven multi-hole configurations were investigated with various pitch and gage distance of staggered holes and non-staggered holes (single-row holes. Various failure modes were exhibited, most staggered holes demonstrates staggered crack path but non-staggered holes series displayed crack path along net-section plane. Stress distribution were carried out and good agreement were exhibited in experimental observation as reported in the respective literature. Consequently, strength prediction work were carried out under quasi-static loading, most showed discrepancy between 8% -31%, better prediction were exhibited in thicker and non-staggered holes plate combinations.

  5. Planning, drilling, logging, and testing of energy extraction hole EE-1, Phases I and II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettitt, R.A.

    1977-08-01

    Energy Extraction Hole No. 1 (EE-1) is the second deep hole drilled into the Precambrian-age granitic rocks of the Jemez Mountains of north-central New Mexico. EE-1 was drilled to intersect a hydraulic fracture extending outward from near the bottom of previously drilled hole GT-2, thus completing the underground circulation loop required for the hot dry rock geothermal energy extraction experiment. Directional drilling techniques were used to intersect the fracture zone. In addition, high-temperature instrumentation and equipment development, hydraulic fracturing experiments, pressure-flow testing of the fracture systems, and fracture mapping and borehole-ranging technique activities were conducted. The drilling, logging, and testing operations in EE-1 are described.

  6. Drying of α-amylase by spray drying and freeze-drying - a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Jesus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at comparing two traditional methods of drying of enzymes and at verifying the efficiency of each one and their advantages and disadvantages. The experiments were performed with a laboratory spray dryer and freeze-dryer using α-amylase as the model enzyme. An experimental design in star revealed that spray drying is mainly influenced by the inlet air temperature and feed flow rate, which were considered to be the main factors influencing the enzymatic activity and water activity; the long period of material exposure to high temperatures causes a partial activity loss. In the experiments of freeze drying, three methods of freezing were used (freezer, acetone and dry ice, and liquid nitrogen and samples subsequently freeze-dried for times ranging between 0-24 hours. The product obtained from the two techniques showed high enzymatic activity and low water activity. For the drying of heat-resistant enzymes, in which the product to be obtained does not have high added value, spray drying may be more economically viable because, in the freeze drying process, the process time can be considered as a limiting factor when choosing a technique.

  7. Primordial black holes in globular clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Steinn; Hernquist, Lars

    1993-01-01

    It has recently been recognized that significant numbers of medium-mass back holes (of order 10 solar masses) should form in globular clusters during the early stages of their evolution. Here we explore the dynamical and observational consequences of the presence of such a primordial black-hole population in a globular cluster. The holes initially segregate to the cluster cores, where they form binary and multiple black-hole systems. The subsequent dynamical evolution of the black-hole population ejects most of the holes on a relatively short timescale: a typical cluster will retain between zero and four black holes in its core, and possibly a few black holes in its halo. The presence of binary, triple, and quadruple black-hole systems in cluster cores will disrupt main-sequence and giant stellar binaries; this may account for the observed anomalies in the distribution of binaries in globular clusters. Furthermore, tidal interactions between a multiple black-hole system and a red giant star can remove much of the red giant's stellar envelope, which may explain the puzzling absence of larger red giants in the cores of some very dense clusters.

  8. Kinematic determination of Electron-Hole velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Ian H.; Zhou, C.

    2016-10-01

    Coherent self-sustaining BGK potential structures, like the electron holes that often form during nonlinear electrostatic instabilities and are frequently observed in space plasmas, have ``kinematic'' momentum conservation properties that determine their velocity. The electron and ion momentum, both internal and external to the hole, must be included. Momentum changes arise from hole acceleration and from hole depth growth, by energization processes we call jetting; and these must balance any additional external forces on the particles. Comprehensive analytic expressions for the contributions have been calculated for holes of arbitrary localized potential form. Using these, we can deduce velocity changes in various interesting situations such as the self-acceleration of electron holes during formation, the circumstances under which holes accelerate at the rate of the electrons in a background electric field, the influence of the ion stream pushing and pulling holes to higher or lower speeds, and the trapping of hole velocity between the velocity of two ion streams. The predictions are in excellent quantitative agreement with targeted PIC simulations. The kinematic theory thus explains why isolated holes behave the way they do. Partially supported by NSF/DOE Basic Plasma Grant DE-SC0010491.

  9. Drying of thin colloidal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, Alexander F.

    2013-04-01

    When thin films of colloidal fluids are dried, a range of transitions are observed and the final film profile is found to depend on the processes that occur during the drying step. This article describes the drying process, initially concentrating on the various transitions. Particles are seen to initially consolidate at the edge of a drying droplet, the so-called coffee-ring effect. Flow is seen to be from the centre of the drop towards the edge and a front of close-packed particles passes horizontally across the film. Just behind the particle front the now solid film often displays cracks and finally the film is observed to de-wet. These various transitions are explained, with particular reference to the capillary pressure which forms in the solidified region of the film. The reasons for cracking in thin films is explored as well as various methods to minimize its effect. Methods to obtain stratified coatings through a single application are considered for a one-dimensional drying problem and this is then extended to two-dimensional films. Different evaporative models are described, including the physical reason for enhanced evaporation at the edge of droplets. The various scenarios when evaporation is found to be uniform across a drying film are then explained. Finally different experimental techniques for examining the drying step are mentioned and the article ends with suggested areas that warrant further study.

  10. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  11. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a raw material in the production of starch, tapioca and snack foods ... The material was dried for 8 hours daily after which it was kept indoors overnight. The surface with .... statistical package (MS Office, 2007). .... preservation and marketing.

  12. EFFECT OF DRYING CONDITIONS ON MUSHROOM QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOJ KULSHRESHTHA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluidized bed drying of mushroom was undertaken to study the drying characteristics and quality of the dried mushrooms. Drying was done at drying air temperatures of 50, 70, and 90oC and air velocities of 1.71 and 2.13 m/s. Two batch sizes, namely, 0.5 kg and 1 kg of sliced milky mushrooms were dried. Drying characteristics and the quality of dried mushrooms were analyzed. The results indicated that the drying time decreased only marginally with increase in air velocity. Drying air temperature of 50oC was better as it resulted in a dried product having better rehydration characteristics, lesser shrinkage and lighter color. Highest energy efficiency (79.74% was observed while drying a batch size of 1 kg at a drying air temperature of 50oC, using an air velocity of 1.7 m/s.

  13. Evaluation of Hole Quality in Hardened Steel with High-Speed Drilling Using Different Cooling Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Cardoso Brandão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the hole quality on AISI H13 hardened steel using high-speed drilling. Specimens were machined with new and worn out drills with 8.6 mm diameter and (TiAlN coating. Two levels of cutting speed and three levels of cooling/lubrication systems (flooded, minimum lubrication quantity, and dry were used. The hole quality is evaluated on surface roughness (Ra parameter, diameter error, circularity, and cylindricity error. A statistical analysis of the results shows that the cooling/lubrication system significantly affects the hole quality for all measured variables. This analysis indicates that dry machining produces the worst results. Higher cutting speeds not only prove beneficial to diameter error and circularity errors, but also show no significant difference on surface roughness and cylindricity errors. The effects of the interaction between the cooling/lubrication systems, tool wear, and cutting speed indicate that only cylindricity error is influenced. Thus, the conclusion is that the best hole quality is produced with a higher cutting speed using flooded or minimum lubrication quantity independent of drill wear.

  14. Natural wind drying of willow stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigler, J.K.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Berg, van den J.V.; Sonneveld, C.; Meerdink, G.

    2000-01-01

    The process of natural wind drying of willow (Salix viminalis) stems in large piles was investigated. A simple drying model was developed for stems. Large-scale drying experiments were conducted and drying data were statistically analysed. Whether drying in a pile of willow stems was uniform was inv

  15. A Mathematical Model for Freeze-Drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the experiments on freeze-drying carrot and potato slabs, the effects of some parameters, such as heating temperature and pressure on the freeze-drying process are examined. A simple model of freeze-drying is established to predict drying time and the mass variations of materials during the drying. The experimental results agree well with those calculated by the model.

  16. Influence of Cutting Parameters on the Surface Roughness and Hole Diameter of Drilling Making Parts of Alluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Stasiūnas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the drilling process of an aluminium alloy. The paper is aimed at analyzing the influence of cutting speed, feed and hole depth considering hole diameter and hole surface roughness of aluminum alloy 6082 in the dry drilling process and at making empirical formulas for cutting parameters. The article also describes experimental techniques and equipment, tools and measuring devices. Experimental studies have been carried out using different cutting parameters. The obtained results have been analyzed using computer software. According to the existing techniques for measuring, surface roughness and hole diameters have been measured, empirical models have been created and the results of the conducted experiments have been inspected. The findings and recommendations are presented at the end of the work.Artcile in Lithuanian

  17. Influence of Cutting Parameters on the Surface Roughness and Hole Diameter of Drilling Making Parts of Alluminium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Stasiūnas

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The article researches the drilling process of an aluminium alloy. The paper is aimed at analyzing the influence of cutting speed, feed and hole depth considering hole diameter and hole surface roughness of aluminum alloy 6082 in the dry drilling process and at making empirical formulas for cutting parameters. The article also describes experimental techniques and equipment, tools and measuring devices. Experimental studies have been carried out using different cutting parameters. The obtained results have been analyzed using computer software. According to the existing techniques for measuring, surface roughness and hole diameters have been measured, empirical models have been created and the results of the conducted experiments have been inspected. The findings and recommendations are presented at the end of the work.Artcile in Lithuanian

  18. holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Barcons

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available La acreción es el mecanismo dominante en el crecimiento de los agujeros negros presentes en los centros galácticos. Los rastreos del cielo a longitudes de onda de rayos X trazan la historia de esta acreción en el Universo y muestran que la mayor parte de ella ocurre en objetos oscurecidos. En este artículo presentamos algunos resultados obtenidos con el XMM-Newton Medium Sensitivity survey (XMS, que investiga la población de fuentes que produce aproximadamente la mitad más brillante del fondo de rayos X por debajo de 10 keV. Hacemos énfasis en el papel que juegan los telescopios de gran apertura, como GTC, en poner al descubierto el crecimiento de agujeros negros en objetos oscurecidos

  19. BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liancheng; He, Feng; Fu, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole. It can be found that the BSW process will also arise near black hole horizon when the evaporation of charged black hole is very slow. But now the background black hole does not have to be an extremal black hole, and it will be approximately an extremal black hole unless it is nearly a huge stationary black hole.

  20. BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Liancheng; He, Feng; Fu, Xiangyun

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the BSW process of the slowly evaporating charged black hole. It can be found that the BSW process will also arise near black hole horizon when the evaporation of charged black hole is very slow. But now the background black hole does not have to be an extremal black hole, and it will be approximately an extremal black hole unless it is nearly a huge stationary black hole.

  1. Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, David; Lehner, Luis; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Garrett, Travis

    2011-08-02

    The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux.

  2. Toroidal Horizons in Binary Black Hole Mergers

    CERN Document Server

    Bohn, Andy; Teukolsky, Saul A

    2016-01-01

    We find the first binary black hole event horizon with a toroidal topology. It had been predicted that generically the event horizons of merging black holes should briefly have a toroidal topology, but such a phase has never been seen prior to this work. In all previous binary black hole simulations, in the coordinate slicing used to evolve the black holes, the topology of the event horizon transitions directly from two spheres during the inspiral to a single sphere as the black holes merge. We present a coordinate transformation to a foliation of spacelike hypersurfaces that "cut a hole" through the event horizon surface, resulting in a toroidal event horizon. A torus could potentially provide a mechanism for violating topological censorship. However, these toroidal event horizons satisfy topological censorship by construction, because we can always trivially apply the inverse coordinate transformation to remove the topological feature.

  3. Seeding Black Holes in Cosmological Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Philip

    2014-01-01

    We present a new model for the formation of black holes in cosmological simulations, motivated by the first star formation. Black holes form from high density peaks of primordial gas, and grow via both gas accretion and mergers. Massive black holes heat the surrounding material, suppressing star formation at the centres of galaxies, and driving galactic winds. We perform an investigation into the physical effects of the model parameters, and obtain a `best' set of these parameters by comparing the outcome of simulations to observations. With this best set, we successfully reproduce the cosmic star formation rate history, black hole mass -- velocity dispersion relation, and the size -- velocity dispersion relation of galaxies. The black hole seed mass is 10^3Msun, which is orders of magnitude smaller than has been used in previous cosmological simulations with active galactic nuclei, but suggests that the origin of the seed black holes is the death of Population III stars.

  4. The thermal radiation from dynamic black holes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Using the related formula of dynamic black holes, the instantaneous radiation energy density of the general spherically symmetric charged dynamic black hole and the arbitrarily accelerating charged dynamic black hole is calculated. It is found that the instantaneous radiation energy density of black hole is always proportional to the quartic of the temperature of event horizon in the same direction. The proportional coefficient of generalized Stefan-Boltzmann is no longer a constant, and it becomes a dynamic coefficient that is related to the event horizon changing rate, space-time structure near event horizon and the radiation absorption coefficient of the black hole. It is shown that there should be an internal relation between the gravitational field around black hole and its thermal radiation.

  5. Reversible Carnot cycle outside a black hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Xi-Hao; Gao Si-Jie

    2009-01-01

    A Carnot cycle outside a Schwarzschild black hole is investigated in detail. We propose a reversible Carnot cycle with a black hole being the cold reservoir. In our model, a Carnot engine operates between a hot reservoir with temperature T1 and a black hole with Hawking temperature Th. By naturally extending the ordinary Carnot cycle to the black hole system, we show that the thermal efficiency for a reversible process can reach the maximal efficiency 1-TH/T1 Consequently, black holes can be used to determine the thermodynamic temperature by means of the Carnot cycle. The role of the atmosphere around the black hole is discussed. We show that the thermal atmosphere provides a necessary mechanism to make the process reversible.

  6. Weighing black holes in the universe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xue-bing

    2006-01-01

    The determination of the mass of black holes in our universe is crucial to understand their physics nature but is a great challenge to scientists.In this paper Ⅰ briefly review some methods that are currently used to estimate the mass of black holes,especially those in X-ray binary systems and in galactic nuclei.Our recent progress in improving the mass estimates of supermasssive black holes in active galactic nuclei by involving some empirical relations is presented.Finally Ⅰ point out the similarities and common physics in Galactic black hole X-ray binaries and active galactic nuclei,and demonstrate that the black hole mass estimation is very much helpful to understand the accretion physics around black holes.

  7. Boosting jet power in black hole spacetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Neilsen, David; Palenzuela, Carlos; Hirschmann, Eric W; Liebling, Steven L; Motl, Patrick M; Garret, T

    2010-01-01

    The extraction of rotational energy from a spinning black hole via the Blandford-Znajek mechanism has long been understood as an important component in models to explain energetic jets from compact astrophysical sources. Here we show more generally that the kinetic energy of the black hole, both rotational and translational, can be tapped, thereby producing even more luminous jets powered by the interaction of the black hole with its surrounding plasma. We study the resulting Poynting jet that arises from single boosted black holes and binary black hole systems. In the latter case, we find that increasing the orbital angular momenta of the system and/or the spins of the individual black holes results in an enhanced Poynting flux.

  8. What does a black hole look like?

    CERN Document Server

    Bailyn, Charles D

    2014-01-01

    Emitting no radiation or any other kind of information, black holes mark the edge of the universe--both physically and in our scientific understanding. Yet astronomers have found clear evidence for the existence of black holes, employing the same tools and techniques used to explore other celestial objects. In this sophisticated introduction, leading astronomer Charles Bailyn goes behind the theory and physics of black holes to describe how astronomers are observing these enigmatic objects and developing a remarkably detailed picture of what they look like and how they interact with their surroundings. Accessible to undergraduates and others with some knowledge of introductory college-level physics, this book presents the techniques used to identify and measure the mass and spin of celestial black holes. These key measurements demonstrate the existence of two kinds of black holes, those with masses a few times that of a typical star, and those with masses comparable to whole galaxies--supermassive black holes...

  9. Kerr-Newman Black Hole In Quintessence

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Zhaoyi

    2016-01-01

    We study the Kerr-Newman solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell equation in quintessence field around a black hole by Newman-Janis algorithm. From the horizon structure and stationary limit surfaces, we find that Kerr-Newman black hole exists an ergosphere with $r^{+} < r < r^{L}$, which is related to the parameters $\\omega$ and $\\alpha$. We obtain the general expression between $\\alpha$ and $\\omega$ if the cosmological horizon exists, in which for $\\omega=-1/2$, $\\alpha\\leq\\sqrt{2}/5$, and for $\\omega=-2/3$, $\\alpha\\leq 1/6$. For $\\omega=-2/3$, the result is same with rotational black hole in quintessence. The singularity of the black holes is the same with that of Kerr black hole. We also discuss the rotation velocity of the black holes on the equatorial plane for $\\omega =-2/3$ and $-1/2$.

  10. NASA's Chandra Finds Black Holes Are "Green"

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    Black holes are the most fuel efficient engines in the Universe, according to a new study using NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. By making the first direct estimate of how efficient or "green" black holes are, this work gives insight into how black holes generate energy and affect their environment. The new Chandra finding shows that most of the energy released by matter falling toward a supermassive black hole is in the form of high-energy jets traveling at near the speed of light away from the black hole. This is an important step in understanding how such jets can be launched from magnetized disks of gas near the event horizon of a black hole. Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine Illustration of Fuel for a Black Hole Engine "Just as with cars, it's critical to know the fuel efficiency of black holes," said lead author Steve Allen of the Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology at Stanford University, and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. "Without this information, we cannot figure out what is going on under the hood, so to speak, or what the engine can do." Allen and his team used Chandra to study nine supermassive black holes at the centers of elliptical galaxies. These black holes are relatively old and generate much less radiation than quasars, rapidly growing supermassive black holes seen in the early Universe. The surprise came when the Chandra results showed that these "quiet" black holes are all producing much more energy in jets of high-energy particles than in visible light or X-rays. These jets create huge bubbles, or cavities, in the hot gas in the galaxies. Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy Animation of Black Hole in Elliptical Galaxy The efficiency of the black hole energy-production was calculated in two steps: first Chandra images of the inner regions of the galaxies were used to estimate how much fuel is available for the black hole; then Chandra images were used to estimate the power required to produce

  11. Instability of ultra-spinning black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emparan, Roberto [Departament de Fisica Fonamental and C.E.R. en Astrofisica, Fisica de Particules i Cosmologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Diagonal 647, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA) (Spain); Myers, Robert C. [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, 35 King Street North, Waterloo, Ontario N2J 2W9 (Canada) and Department of Physics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario N2L 3G1 (Canada)]. E-mail: rmyers@perimeterinstitute.ca

    2003-09-01

    It has long been known that, in higher-dimensional general relativity, there are black hole solutions with an arbitrarily large angular momentum for a fixed mass. We examine the geometry of the event horizon of such ultra-spinning black holes and argue that these solutions become unstable at large enough rotation. Hence we find that higher-dimensional general relativity imposes an effective 'Kerr-bound' on spinning black holes through a dynamical decay mechanism. Our results also give indications of the existence of new stationary black holes with 'rippled' horizons of spherical topology. We consider various scenarios for the possible decay of ultra-spinning black holes, and finally discuss the implications of our results for black holes in braneworld scenarios. (author)

  12. Microcanonical Description of (Micro Black Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Harms

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The microcanonical ensemble is the proper ensemble to describe black holes which are not in thermodynamic equilibrium, such as radiating black holes. This choice of ensemble eliminates the problems, e.g., negative specific heat (not allowed in the canonical ensemble and loss of unitarity, encountered when the canonical ensemble is used. In this review we present an overview of the weaknesses of the standard thermodynamic description of black holes and show how the microcanonical approach can provide a consistent description of black holes and their Hawking radiation at all energy scales. Our approach is based on viewing the horizon area as yielding the ensemble density at fixed system energy. We then compare the decay rates of black holes in the two different pictures. Our description is particularly relevant for the analysis of micro-black holes whose existenceis predicted in models with extra-spatial dimensions.

  13. Information Retention by Stringy Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2108556

    2015-01-01

    Building upon our previous work on two-dimensional stringy black holes and its extension to spherically-symmetric four-dimensional stringy black holes, we show how the latter retain information. A key r\\^ole is played by an infinite-dimensional $W_\\infty$ symmetry that preserves the area of an isolated black-hole horizon and hence its entropy. The exactly-marginal conformal world-sheet operator representing a massless stringy particle interacting with the black hole necessarily includes a contribution from $W_\\infty$ generators in its vertex function. This admixture manifests the transfer of information between the string black hole and external particles. We discuss different manifestations of $W_\\infty$ symmetry in black-hole physics and the connections between them.

  14. Simulations of binary black hole mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Geoffrey

    2017-01-01

    Advanced LIGO's observations of merging binary black holes have inaugurated the era of gravitational wave astronomy. Accurate models of binary black holes and the gravitational waves they emit are helping Advanced LIGO to find as many gravitational waves as possible and to learn as much as possible about the waves' sources. These models require numerical-relativity simulations of binary black holes, because near the time when the black holes merge, all analytic approximations break down. Following breakthroughs in 2005, many research groups have built numerical-relativity codes capable of simulating binary black holes. In this talk, I will discuss current challenges in simulating binary black holes for gravitational-wave astronomy, and I will discuss the tremendous progress that has already enabled such simulations to become an essential tool for Advanced LIGO.

  15. The Black Hole Uncertainty Principle Correspondence

    CERN Document Server

    Carr, B J

    2014-01-01

    The Black Hole Uncertainty Principle correspondence proposes a connection between the Uncertainty Principle on microscopic scales and black holes on macroscopic scales. This is manifested in a unified expression for the Compton wavelength and Schwarzschild radius. It is a natural consequence of the Generalized Uncertainty Principle, which suggests corrections to the Uncertainty Principle as the energy increases towards the Planck value. It also entails corrections to the event horizon size as the black hole mass falls to the Planck value, leading to the concept of a Generalized Event Horizon. One implication of this is that there could be sub-Planckian black holes with a size of order their Compton wavelength. Loop quantum gravity suggests the existence of black holes with precisely this feature. The correspondence leads to a heuristic derivation of the black hole temperature and suggests how the Hawking formula is modified in the sub-Planckian regime.

  16. String condensation: Nemesis of Black Holes?

    CERN Document Server

    Hewitt, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper puts forward a conjecture that there are no black holes in M theory. We will show that a mechanism to prevent black hole formation is needed in 4 dimensions to make string theory a viable high energy model of quantum gravity. Black hole formation may be averted by a gravity regulation mechanism based on string condensation. In this scenario, black holes are replaced by `hot holograms' that form during gravitational collapse. The geometric conditions based on the properties of free thermalon solutions that are proposed for conversion to a high temperature hologram to occur, however, are local and generic in dimension and could apply throughout M space. This idea can be applied to resolve the problems presented by the process of black hole evaporation, which appears to be inconsistent with quantum information theory. Whereas, in the conventional view, black holes are real and firewalls are probably a chimera, in the scenario proposed here that situation would be reversed.

  17. Monitoring Holes in the Sun's Corona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Coronal holes are where the fast solar wind streams out of the Suns atmosphere, sending charged particles on rapid trajectories out into the solar system. A new study examines how the distribution of coronal holes has changed over the last 40 years.Coronal holes form where magnetic field lines open into space (B) instead of looping back to the solar surface (A). [Sebman81]Source of the Fast Solar WindAs a part of the Suns natural activity cycle, extremely low-density regions sometimes form in the solar corona. These coronal holes manifest themselves as dark patches in X-ray and extreme ultraviolet imaging, since the corona is much hotter than the solar surface that peeks through from underneath it.Coronal holes form when magnetic field lines open into space instead of looping back to the solar surface. In these regions, the solar atmosphere escapes via these field lines, rapidly streaming away from the Suns surface in whats known as the fast solar wind.Coronal Holes Over Space and TimeAutomated detection of coronal holes from image-based analysis is notoriously difficult. Recently, a team of scientists led by Kenichi Fujiki (ISEE, Nagoya University, Japan) has developed an automated prediction technique for coronal holes that relies instead on magnetic-field data for the Sun, obtained at the National Solar Observatorys Kitt Peak between 1975 and 2014. The team used these data to produce a database of 3335 coronal hole predictions over nearly 40 years.Latitude distribution of 2870 coronal holes (each marked by an x; color indicates polarity), overlaid on the magnetic butterfly map of the Sun. The low-latitude coronal holes display a similar butterfly pattern, in which they move closer to the equator over the course of the solar cycle. Polar coronal holes are more frequent during solar minima. [Fujiki et al. 2016]Examining trends in the coronal holes distribution in latitude and time, Fujiki and collaborators find a strong correlation between the total area covered

  18. Black hole chemistry: thermodynamics with Lambda

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiznak, David; Teo, Mae

    2016-01-01

    We review recent developments on the thermodynamics of black holes in extended phase space, where the cosmological constant is interpreted as thermodynamic pressure and treated as a thermodynamic variable in its own right. In this approach, the mass of the black hole is no longer regarded as internal energy, rather it is identified with the chemical enthalpy. This leads to an extended dictionary for black hole thermodynamic quantities, in particular a notion of thermodynamic volume emerges for a given black hole spacetime. This volume is conjectured to satisfy the reverse isoperimetric inequality - an inequality imposing a bound on the amount of entropy black hole can carry for a fixed thermodynamic volume. New thermodynamic phase transitions naturally emerge from these identifications. Namely, we show that black holes can be understood from the viewpoint of chemistry, in terms of concepts such as Van der Waals fluids, reentrant phase transitions, and triple points. We also review the recent attempts at exten...

  19. Dynamics around supermassive black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Gualandris, Alessia

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of galactic nuclei reflects the presence of supermassive black holes (SBHs) in many ways. Single SBHs act as sinks, destroying a mass in stars equal to their own mass in roughly one relaxation time and forcing nuclei to expand. Formation of binary SBHs displaces a mass in stars roughly equal to the binary mass, creating low-density cores and ejecting hyper-velocity stars. Gravitational radiation recoil can eject coalescing binary SBHs from nuclei, resulting in offset SBHs and lopsided cores. We review recent work on these mechanisms and discuss the observable consequences.

  20. Bohr-like black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Corda, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The idea that black holes (BHs) result in highly excited states representing both the "hydrogen atom" and the "quasi-thermal emission" in quantum gravity is today an intuitive but general conviction. In this paper it will be shown that such an intuitive picture is more than a picture. In fact, we will discuss a model of quantum BH somewhat similar to the historical semi-classical model of the structure of a hydrogen atom introduced by Bohr in 1913. The model is completely consistent with existing results in the literature, starting from the celebrated result of Bekenstein on the area quantization.

  1. Low dimensional worm-holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzija, Nikola

    1995-01-01

    A simple three dimensional physical model is proposed to qualitatively address a particular type of dynamics evolving on toroidal structures. In the phase space this dynamics creates appearance of a worm-hole through which a chaotic, quasiperiodic and periodic behaviors are formed. An intriguing topological property of such a system is that it possesses no steady state solutions. As such, it opens some interesting questions in the bifurcation theory. The model also offers a novel qualitative tool for explaining some recently reported experimental and simulation results observed in physics, chemistry and biology.

  2. Comparisons of Black Hole Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Kupferman, Judy

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis I examine several different concepts of black hole entropy in order to understand whether they describe the same quantity. I look at statistical and entanglement entropies, Wald entropy and Carlip's entropy from conformal field theory, and compare their behavior in a few specific aspects: divergence at the BH horizon, dependence on space time curvature and behavior under a geometric variation. I find that statistical and entanglement entropy may be similar but they seem to differ from the entropy of Wald and Carlip. Chapters 2 and 3 overlap with 1010.4157 and 1310.3938. Chapter 4 does not appear elsewhere.

  3. Black Hole Researchers in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, Rosa

    2016-07-01

    "Black Holes in my School" is a research project that aims to explore the impact of engaging students in real research experiences while learning new skills and topics addressed in the regular school curriculum. The project introduces teachers to innovative tools for science teaching, explore student centered methodologies such as inquiry based learning and provides a setting where students take the role of an astrophysicist researching the field of compact stellar mass objects in binary systems. Students will study already existing data and use the Faulkes Telescopes to acquire new data. In this presentation the main aim is to present the framework being built and the results achieved so far.

  4. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.

    2015-01-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional...... mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have...... not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water.In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys – thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical...

  5. 10-minute consultation Dry mouth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Taubert; Eleanor M R Davies; Ian Back

    2007-01-01

    @@ A 67 year old man presents with a six week history of dry mouth (xerostomia). He has prostate cancer, which has spread to his spine, and he takes opiates for pain relief. Recently, he started taking an antidepressant.

  6. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Nandy, Krishanu; Schutzius, Thomas M.; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2015-08-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

  7. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... moisture Hot, dry air in desert environments Air conditioners that cool the air and remove moisture Taking ... scrubbing your skin. Shave right after bathing, when hair is soft. Wear soft, comfortable clothing next to ...

  8. Geon black holes and quantum field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Louko, Jorma

    2010-01-01

    Black hole spacetimes that are topological geons in the sense of Sorkin can be constructed by taking a quotient of a stationary black hole that has a bifurcate Killing horizon. We discuss the geometric properties of these geon black holes and the Hawking-Unruh effect on them. We in particular show how correlations in the Hawking-Unruh effect reveal to an exterior observer features of the geometry that are classically confined to the regions behind the horizons.

  9. Test fields cannot destroy extremal black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natário, José; Queimada, Leonel; Vicente, Rodrigo

    2016-09-01

    We prove that (possibly charged) test fields satisfying the null energy condition at the event horizon cannot overspin/overcharge extremal Kerr-Newman or Kerr-Newman-anti de Sitter black holes, that is, the weak cosmic censorship conjecture cannot be violated in the test field approximation. The argument relies on black hole thermodynamics (without assuming cosmic censorship), and does not depend on the precise nature of the fields. We also discuss generalizations of this result to other extremal black holes.

  10. The thermodynamics in a dynamical black hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo LIU; Wen-biao LIU

    2009-01-01

    Considering the back-reaction of emitting particles to the black hole, a "new" horizon is suggested where thermodynamics can be built in the dynamical black hole. It, at least, means that the thermodynamics of a dynamical black hole should not be constructed at the original event horizon any more. The temperature, "new" horizon position and radiating particles' energy will be consistent again under the theory of equilibrium thermodynamical system.

  11. Schwarzchild Black Holes in Matrix Theory, 2

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, T; Klebanov, Igor R; Susskind, Leonard

    1998-01-01

    We present a crude Matrix Theory model for Schwarzchild black holes in uncompactified dimension greater than 5. The model accounts for the size, entropy, and long range static interactions of black holes. The key feature of the model is a Boltzmann gas of D0 branes, a concept which depends on certain qualitative features of Matrix Theory which previously have not been utilized in studies of black holes.

  12. Dyonic Non-Abelian Black Holes

    OpenAIRE

    Brihaye, Y.; Hartmann, B.; Kunz, J; Tell, N.

    1999-01-01

    We study static spherically symmetric dyonic black holes in Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs theory. As for the magnetic non-abelian black holes, the domain of existence of the dyonic non-abelian black holes is limited with respect to the horizon radius and the dimensionless coupling constant $\\alpha$, which is proportional to the ratio of vector meson mass and Planck mass. At a certain critical value of this coupling constant, $\\hat \\alpha$, the maximal horizon radius is attained. We derive analyti...

  13. Superradiance by mini black holes with mirror

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jong-Phil

    2011-01-01

    The superradiant scattering of massive scalar particles by a rotating mini black hole is investigated. Imposing the mirror boundary condition, the system becomes the so called black-hole bomb where the rotation energy of the black hole is transferred to the scattered particle exponentially with time. Bulk emissions as well as brane emissions are considered altogether. It is found that the largest effects are expected for the brane emission of lower angular modes with lighter mass and larger a...

  14. Noncommutative Black Holes and the Singularity Problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, C; Bertolami, O [Instituto de Plasmas e Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Dias, N C; Prata, J N, E-mail: cbastos@fisica.ist.utl.pt, E-mail: orfeu.bertolami@fc.up.pt, E-mail: ncdias@mail.telepac.pt, E-mail: joao.prata@mail.telepac.pt [Departamento de Matematica, Universidade Lusofona de Humanidades e Tecnologias, Avenida Campo Grande, 376, 1749-024 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2011-09-22

    A phase-space noncommutativity in the context of a Kantowski-Sachs cosmological model is considered to study the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. Due to the divergence of the probability of finding the black hole at the singularity from a canonical noncommutativity, one considers a non-canonical noncommutativity. It is shown that this more involved type of noncommutativity removes the problem of the singularity in a Schwarzschild black hole.

  15. Geometrothermodynamics of higher dimensional black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Bravetti, Alessandro; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Quevedo, Hernando

    2012-01-01

    We study the thermodynamics and geometrothermodynamics of different black hole configurations in more than four spacetime dimensions. We find the conditions under which second order phase transitions occur in in higher-dimensional static Reissner-Nordstr\\"om and stationary Kerr black holes. Our results indicate that the equilibrium manifold of all these black hole configurations is in general curved and that curvature singularities appear exactly at those places where second order phase transitions occur.

  16. Quantum aspects of black hole entropy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parthasarathi Majumdar

    2000-10-01

    This survey intends to cover recent approaches to black hole entropy which attempt to go beyond the standard semiclassical perspective. Quantum corrections to the semiclassical Bekenstein–Hawking area law for black hole entropy, obtained within the quantum geometry framework, are treated in some detail. Their ramification for the holographic entropy bound for bounded stationary spacetimes is discussed. Four dimensional supersymmetric extremal black holes in string-based = 2 supergravity are also discussed, albeit more briefly.

  17. Joint evolution of black holes and galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Colpi, M; Haardt, F

    2006-01-01

    OBSERVATIONAL EVIDENCE FOR SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLES Introduction Some Useful Formalism General Considerations Resolved Stellar Dynamics Gas as a Tracer of the Gravitational Potential Tackling the Unresolvable: Reverberation Mapping Scaling Relations for SMBHs Black Hole Demographics The Future JOINT EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLES AND GALAXIES: OBSERVATIONAL ISSUES Galaxy Activity: Generalities Local Evidence on the Interplay Between the Stellar and Gravitational Origin of AGN Activity The Cosmic History of Galaxy Activity Constraints on the Cosmic Energy Budget Current Observational Programs and Fut

  18. Dry aging of beef; Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humid...

  19. Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

  20. Oil Shale Core Hole and Rotary Hole Locations in the State of Colorado

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This file contains points that describe locations of oil shale core holes and rotary holes in the state of Colorado and is available as an ESRI shapefile, Google...

  1. Low-mass black holes as the remnants of primordial black hole formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jenny E

    2012-01-01

    Bridging the gap between the approximately ten solar mass 'stellar mass' black holes and the 'supermassive' black holes of millions to billions of solar masses are the elusive 'intermediate-mass' black holes. Their discovery is key to understanding whether supermassive black holes can grow from stellar-mass black holes or whether a more exotic process accelerated their growth soon after the Big Bang. Currently, tentative evidence suggests that the progenitors of supermassive black holes were formed as ∼10(4)-10(5) M(⊙) black holes via the direct collapse of gas. Ongoing searches for intermediate-mass black holes at galaxy centres will help shed light on this formation mechanism.

  2. Rotating black holes in brane worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Frolov, V P; Stojkovic, D B; Frolov, Valeri P.; Fursaev, Dmitri V.; Stojkovic, Dejan

    2004-01-01

    We study interaction of rotating higher dimensional black holes with a brane in space-times with large extra dimensions. We demonstrate that a rotating black hole attached to a brane can be stationary only if the null Killing vector generating the black hole horizon is tangent to the brane world-sheet. The characteristic time when a rotating black hole with the gravitational radius $r_0$ reaches this final stationary state is $T\\sim r_0^{p-1}/(G\\sigma)$, where $G$ is the higher dimensional gravitational coupling constant, $\\sigma$ is the brane tension, and $p$ is the number of extra dimensions.

  3. Destroying black holes with test bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, Ted [Center for Fundamental Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-4111 (United States); Sotiriou, Thomas P, E-mail: jacobson@umd.ed, E-mail: T.Sotiriou@damtp.cam.ac.u [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2010-04-01

    If a black hole can accrete a body whose spin or charge would send the black hole parameters over the extremal limit, then a naked singularity would presumably form, in violation of the cosmic censorship conjecture. We review some previous results on testing cosmic censorship in this way using the test body approximation, focusing mostly on the case of neutral black holes. Under certain conditions a black hole can indeed be over-spun or over-charged in this approximation, hence radiative and self-force effects must be taken into account to further test cosmic censorship.

  4. Charged black holes in phantom cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Mubasher; Qadir, Asghar; Rashid, Muneer Ahmad [National University of Sciences and Technology, Center for Advanced Mathematics and Physics, Rawalpindi (Pakistan)

    2008-11-15

    In the classical relativistic regime, the accretion of phantom-like dark energy onto a stationary black hole reduces the mass of the black hole. We have investigated the accretion of phantom energy onto a stationary charged black hole and have determined the condition under which this accretion is possible. This condition restricts the mass-to-charge ratio in a narrow range. This condition also challenges the validity of the cosmic-censorship conjecture since a naked singularity is eventually produced due to accretion of phantom energy onto black hole. (orig.)

  5. Do black holes really evaporate thermally

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipler, F.J.

    1980-09-22

    The Raychaudhuri equation is used to analyze the effect of the Hawking radiation back reaction upon a black-hole event horizon. It is found that if the effective stress-energy tensor of the Hawking radiation has negative energy density as expected, then an evaporating black hole initially a solar mass in size must disappear in less than a second. This implies that either the evaporation process, if it occurs at all, must be quite different from what is commonly supposed, or else black-hole event horizons: and hence black holes: do not exist.

  6. Do black holes really evaporate thermally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipler, F. J.

    1980-09-01

    The Raychaudhuri equation is used to analyze the effect of the Hawking radiation back reaction upon a black-hole event horizon. It is found that if the effective stress-energy tensor of the Hawking radiation has negative energy density as expected, then an evaporating black hole initially a solar mass in size must disappear in less than a second. This implies that either the evaporation process, if it occurs at all, must be quite different from what is commonly supposed, or else black-hole event horizons - and hence black holes - do not exist.

  7. Light geodesics near an evaporating black hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerreiro, Thiago, E-mail: thiago.barbosa@unige.ch; Monteiro, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.monteiro@unige.ch

    2015-10-16

    Quantum effects imply that an infalling observer cannot cross the event horizon of an evaporating black hole, even in her proper time. The Penrose diagram of an evaporating black hole is different from the one usually reported in the literature. We show that before the observer can cross the horizon the black hole disappears. Possible observational consequences are discussed. - Highlights: • We calculate the in-falling light geodesics in an evaporating black hole. • For our calculation we use a non-static metric called Vaydia metric. • We show that in-falling light cannot cross the event horizon. • In this case there is no information paradox.

  8. Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barranco, Juan; Bernal, Argelia; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier

    2012-08-24

    We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultralight scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axionlike scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolve, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations.

  9. Particle accelerators inside spinning black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Kayll

    2010-05-28

    On the basis of the Kerr metric as a model for a spinning black hole accreting test particles from rest at infinity, I show that the center-of-mass energy for a pair of colliding particles is generically divergent at the inner horizon. This shows not only that classical black holes are internally unstable, but also that Planck-scale physics is a characteristic feature within black holes at scales much larger that the Planck length. The novel feature of the divergence discussed here is that the phenomenon is present only for black holes with rotation, and in this sense it is distinct from the well-known Cauchy horizon instability.

  10. Colliding black holes the close limit

    CERN Document Server

    Price, R H; Richard H Price; Jorge Pullin

    1994-01-01

    The problem of the mutual attraction and joining of two black holes is of importance as both a source of gravitational waves and as a testbed of numerical relativity. If the holes start out close enough that they are initially surrounded by a common horizon, the problem can be viewed as a perturbation of a single black hole. We take initial data due to Misner for close black holes, apply perturbation theory and evolve the data with the Zerilli equation. The computed gravitational radiation agrees with and extends the results of full numerical computations.

  11. General Logarithmic Corrections to Black Hole Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Das, S; Bhaduri, R K; Das, Saurya; Majumdar, Parthasarathi; Bhaduri, Rajat K.

    2002-01-01

    We compute leading order corrections to the the entropy of any thermodynamic system due to small statistical fluctuations around equilibrium. When applied to black holes, these corrections are shown to be of the form $-k\\ln(Area)$. For BTZ black holes, $k=3/2$, as found earlier. We extend the result to anti-de Sitter Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom black holes in arbitrary dimensions. Finally we examine the role of conformal field theory in black hole entropy and its corrections.

  12. Destroying black holes with test bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobson, Ted; 10.1088/1742-6596/222/1/012041

    2010-01-01

    If a black hole can accrete a body whose spin or charge would send the black hole parameters over the extremal limit, then a naked singularity would presumably form, in violation of the cosmic censorship conjecture. We review some previous results on testing cosmic censorship in this way using the test body approximation, focusing mostly on the case of neutral black holes. Under certain conditions a black hole can indeed be over-spun or over-charged in this approximation, hence radiative and self-force effects must be taken into account to further test cosmic censorship.

  13. Black Hole Growth in Hierarchical Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Malbon, R K; Frenk, C S; Lacey, C G; Malbon, Rowena K.

    2006-01-01

    We incorporate a model for black hole growth during galaxy mergers into the semi-analytical galaxy formation model based on Lambda-CDM proposed by Baugh et al. (2005). Our black hole model has one free parameter, which we set by matching the observed zeropoint of the local correlation between black hole mass and bulge luminosity. We present predictions for the evolution with redshift of the relationships between black hole mass and bulge properties. Our simulations reproduce the evolution of the optical luminosity function of quasars. We study the demographics of the black hole population and address the issue of how black holes acquire their mass. We find that the direct accretion of cold gas during starbursts is an important growth mechanism for lower mass black holes and at high redshift. On the other hand, the re-assembly of pre-existing black hole mass into larger units via merging dominates the growth of more massive black holes at low redshift. This prediction could be tested by future gravitational wa...

  14. Schwarzschild black holes can wear scalar wigs

    CERN Document Server

    Barranco, Juan; Degollado, Juan Carlos; Diez-Tejedor, Alberto; Megevand, Miguel; Alcubierre, Miguel; Núñez, Darío; Sarbach, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    We study the evolution of a massive scalar field surrounding a Schwarzschild black hole and find configurations that can survive for arbitrarily long times, provided the black hole or the scalar field mass is small enough. In particular, both ultra-light scalar field dark matter around supermassive black holes and axion-like scalar fields around primordial black holes can survive for cosmological times. Moreover, these results are quite generic, in the sense that fairly arbitrary initial data evolves, at late times, as a combination of those long-lived configurations.

  15. Black hole collapse and democratic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Aron; Magán, Javier M.

    2016-11-01

    We study the evolution of black hole entropy and temperature in collapse scenarios in asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetime, finding three generic lessons. First, entropy evolution is extensive. Second, at large times, entropy and temperature ring with twice the frequency of the lowest quasinormal mode. Third, the entropy oscillations saturate black hole area theorems in general relativity. The first two features are characteristic of entanglement dynamics in "democratic" models. Solely based on general relativity and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy formula, our results point to democratic models as microscopic theories of black holes. The third feature can be taken as a prediction for microscopic models of black hole physics.

  16. On the thermodynamics of hairy black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anabalón, Andrés [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias, Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Choque, David, E-mail: brst1010123@gmail.com [Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2015-04-09

    We investigate the thermodynamics of a general class of exact 4-dimensional asymptotically Anti-de Sitter hairy black hole solutions and show that, for a fixed temperature, there are small and large hairy black holes similar to the Schwarzschild–AdS black hole. The large black holes have positive specific heat and so they can be in equilibrium with a thermal bath of radiation at the Hawking temperature. The relevant thermodynamic quantities are computed by using the Hamiltonian formalism and counterterm method. We explicitly show that there are first order phase transitions similar to the Hawking–Page phase transition.

  17. On the thermodynamics of hairy black holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Anabalón

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the thermodynamics of a general class of exact 4-dimensional asymptotically Anti-de Sitter hairy black hole solutions and show that, for a fixed temperature, there are small and large hairy black holes similar to the Schwarzschild–AdS black hole. The large black holes have positive specific heat and so they can be in equilibrium with a thermal bath of radiation at the Hawking temperature. The relevant thermodynamic quantities are computed by using the Hamiltonian formalism and counterterm method. We explicitly show that there are first order phase transitions similar to the Hawking–Page phase transition.

  18. Thermodynamics of black holes in rainbow gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Banerjee, Ritwick

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the thermodynamic properties of black holes under the influence of rainbow gravity. In the metric of Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstrom and Reissner-Nordstrom-de-Sitter black hole surrounded by quintessence, we consider a rainbow function and derive the existence of remnant and critical masses of a black hole. Using the Hawking temperature relation we derive the heat capacity and the entropy of the rainbow gravity inspired black holes and closely study the relation between entropy and area of the horizon for different values of n of the rainbow function.

  19. Black hole evaporation in conformal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bambi, Cosimo; Porey, Shiladitya; Rachwal, Leslaw

    2016-01-01

    We study the formation and the evaporation of a spherically symmetric black hole in conformal gravity. From the collapse of a spherically symmetric thin shell of radiation, we find a singularity-free non-rotating black hole. This black hole has the same Hawking temperature as a Schwarzschild black hole with the same mass, and it completely evaporates either in a finite or in an infinite time, depending on the ensemble. We consider the analysis both in the canonical and in the micro-canonical statistical ensembles. Last, we discuss the corresponding Penrose diagram of this physical process.

  20. Black Holes versus Supersymmetry at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arunava; Cavaglia, Marco

    2007-11-01

    Supersymmetry and extra dimensions are the two most promising candidates for new physics at the TeV scale. Supersymmetric particles or extra-dimensional effects could soon be observed at the Large Hadron Collider. In this paper we assess the distinguishability of supersymmetry and black hole events at the LHC. Black hole events are simulated with the CATFISH black hole generator. Supersymmetry simulations use a combination of PYTHIA and ISAJET, the latter providing the mass spectrum. Our analysis shows that supersymmetry and black hole events at the Large Hadron Collider can be easily discriminated.

  1. Rotating Black Holes and Coriolis Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Xiaoning; Yuan, Pei-Hung; Cho, Chia-Jui

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the Petrov-like boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  2. Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Chia-Jui; Wu, Xiaoning; Yang, Yi; Yuan, Pei-Hung

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  3. Rotating black holes and Coriolis effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Jui Chou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we consider the fluid/gravity correspondence for general rotating black holes. By using the suitable boundary condition in near horizon limit, we study the correspondence between gravitational perturbation and fluid equation. We find that the dual fluid equation for rotating black holes contains a Coriolis force term, which is closely related to the angular velocity of the black hole horizon. This can be seen as a dual effect for the frame-dragging effect of rotating black hole under the holographic picture.

  4. Pregalactic black holes - A new constraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, J. D.; Silk, J.

    1979-01-01

    Pregalactic black holes accrete matter in the early universe and produce copious amounts of X radiation. By using observations of the background radiation in the X and gamma wavebands, a strong constraint is imposed upon their possible abundance. If pregalactic black holes are actually present, several outstanding problems of cosmogony can be resolved with typical pregalactic black hole masses of 100 solar masses. Significantly more massive holes cannot constitute an appreciable mass fraction of the universe and are limited by a specific mass-density bound.

  5. Drilling history core hole DC-8

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-10-01

    Core hole DC-8 was completed in August, 1978 by Boyles Brothers Drilling Company, Spokane, Washington, under subcontract to Fenix and Scission, Inc. The hole was cored for the US Department of Energy and the Rockwell Hanford Operations' Basalt Waste Isolation Program. Fenix and Scisson, Inc. furnished the engineering, daily supervision of the core drilling activities, and geologic core logging for hole DC-8. Core hole DC-8 is located on the Hanford Site near the Wye Barricade and 50 feet northwest of rotary hole DC-7. The Hanford Site vation coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 coordinates for DC-8 are North 14,955.94 feet and West 14,861.92 mean sea level. The purpose of core hole DC-8 was to core drill vertically through the basalt and interbed units for stratigraphic depth determination and core collection, and to provide a borehole for hydrologic testing and cross-hole seismic shear and pressure wave velocity studies with rotary hole DC-7. The total depth of core hole DC-8 was 4100.5 feet. Core recovery exceeded 97 percent of the total footage cored.

  6. Thermoelectric DC conductivities from black hole horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Donos, Aristomenis

    2014-01-01

    An analytic expression for the DC electrical conductivity in terms of black hole horizon data was recently obtained for a class of holographic black holes exhibiting momentum dissipation. We generalise this result to obtain analogous expressions for the DC thermoelectric and thermal conductivities. We illustrate our results using some holographic Q-lattice black holes as well as for some black holes with linear massless axions, in both $D=4$ and $D=5$ bulk spacetime dimensions, which include both spatially isotropic and anisotropic examples. We show that some recently constructed ground states of holographic Q-lattices, which can be either electrically insulating or metallic, are all thermal insulators.

  7. Close encounters of three black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Campanelli, Manuela; Zlochower, Yosef

    2007-01-01

    We present the first fully relativistic longterm numerical evolutions of three equal-mass black holes in a hierarchical system consisting of a third black hole in orbit about a black-hole binary at twice the binaries separation. We find that these close-three-black-hole systems can have very different merger dynamics than black-hole binaries. In particular, we see distinctive waveforms, a suppression of the emitted gravitational radiation, and a redistribution of the energy of the system that can impart substantial kicks to one of the members of the binary. We evolve two such configurations and find very different behaviors. In one configuration the binary is quickly disrupted and the individual holes follow complicated trajectories and merge with the third hole in rapid succession, while in the other, the binary completes a half-orbit before the initial merger of one of the members with the third black hole, and the resulting two-black-hole system forms a highly elliptical, well separated binary that shows n...

  8. Phase transitions near black hole horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Gubser, S S

    2005-01-01

    The Reissner-Nordstrom black hole in four dimensions can be made unstable without violating the dominant energy condition by introducing a real massive scalar with non-renormalizable interactions with the gauge field. New stable black hole solutions then exist with greater entropy for fixed mass and charge than the Reissner-Nordstrom solution. In these new solutions, the scalar condenses to a non-zero value near the horizon. Various generalizations of these hairy black holes are discussed, and an attempt is made to characterize when black hole hair can occur.

  9. Spherical Black Holes cannot Support Scalar Hair

    CERN Document Server

    Sudarsky, D

    1998-01-01

    The static spherically symmetric ``black hole solution" of the Einstein - conformally invariant massless scalar field equations known as the BBMB ( Bocharova, , Bronikov, Melinkov, Bekenstein) black hole is critically examined. It is shown that the stress energy tensor is ill-defined at the horizon, and that its evaluation through suitable regularization yields ambiguous results. Consequently, the configuration fails to represent a genuine black hole solution. With the removal of this solution as a counterexample to the no hair conjecture, we argue that the following appears to be true: Spherical black holes cannot carry any kind of classical scalar hair.

  10. On ADM quantities of multiple black holes

    CERN Document Server

    Rácz, István

    2016-01-01

    In [11] a proposal was made to construct initial data for binary black hole configurations. It was done by using the parabolic-hyperbolic form of the constraints and choosing the free data provided by superposed Kerr-Schild black holes. The proposal of [11] do also apply to multiple systems involving generic Kerr-Schild black holes. Notably, the specific choice made for the free data allows---without making detailed use of the to be solutions to the constraints---to determine explicitly, the ADM quantities of the multiple system in terms of the separations velocities and spins of the individual Kerr-Schild black holes.

  11. Galaxies of all Shapes Host Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    This artist's concept illustrates the two types of spiral galaxies that populate our universe: those with plump middles, or central bulges (upper left), and those lacking the bulge (foreground). New observations from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope provide strong evidence that the slender, bulgeless galaxies can, like their chubbier counterparts, harbor supermassive black holes at their cores. Previously, astronomers thought that a galaxy without a bulge could not have a supermassive black hole. In this illustration, jets shooting away from the black holes are depicted as thin streams. The findings are reshaping theories of galaxy formation, suggesting that a galaxy's 'waistline' does not determine whether it will be home to a big black hole.

  12. Introduction to the Illinois Deep Hole Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, M. S.; Haimson, B. C.; Hinze, W. J.; van Schmus, W. R.

    1983-09-01

    Commonwealth Edison recently drilled three engineering test holes in northwestern Illinois. The three holes (UPH 1, 2, and 3) were 0.6, 1.6, and 1.6 km deep, respectively, and the latter two penetrated nearly 1 km of Precambrian granitic basement. In 1980, continuous core from all three holes and access to UPH 3 were made available for scientific investigations through the Illinois Deep Hole Project. The drill hole and cores provided an excellent opportunity for "piggyback" scientific investigations because (1) the basement geology of the region was poorly known, (2) a large vertical depth of continuous core was available, and (3) one of the holes was available for testing where corresponding core is available. The principal study of these holes was an integrated investigation of surface and in-hole experiments, plus detailed petrologic, geochemical, and physical property studies of the core samples. The combined results of these studies contributed significatnly to our understanding of the regional geology of the Precambrian basement, the regional geophysics and tectonics, and the correlation between geophysical well logging and the true character of the rocks penetrated. Furthermore, this project has shown that substantial scientific benefit can be obtained from continental drilling "holes of opportunity" if members of the scientific community are able to respond in a timely and coordinated fashion.

  13. On Destroying Extremal Magnetized Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Siahaan, Haryanto M

    2016-01-01

    The gedanken experiment by Wald to destroy a black hole using a test particle in the equatorial plane is adopted to the case of extremal magnetized black holes. We find that the presence of external magnetic fields resulting from the "magnetization" process using a Harrison-like transformation permits the test particle to have energies in the range which allows the destruction of black holes. However, from the corresponding effective potential we find that the test particle which may destroy the black hole can never reach the horizon.

  14. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, J.; Menon, C.

    2013-08-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm2.

  15. Morphology of drying blood pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Nick; Smith, Fiona; Nicloux, Celine; Brutin, David; D-Blood project Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Often blood pools are found on crime scenes providing information concerning the events and sequence of events that took place on the scene. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the drying dynamics of blood pools. This study focuses on the drying process of blood pools to determine what relevant information can be obtained for the forensic application. We recorded the drying process of blood pools with a camera and measured the weight. We found that the drying process can be separated into five different: coagulation, gelation, rim desiccation, centre desiccation, and final desiccation. Moreover, we found that the weight of the blood pool diminishes similarly and in a reproducible way for blood pools created in various conditions. In addition, we verify that the size of the blood pools is directly related to its volume and the wettability of the surface. Our study clearly shows that blood pools dry in a reproducible fashion. This preliminary work highlights the difficult task that represents blood pool analysis in forensic investigations, and how internal and external parameters influence its dynamics. We conclude that understanding the drying process dynamics would be advancement in timeline reconstitution of events. ANR funded project: D-Blood Project.

  16. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  17. Differentiating full thickness macular holes from impending macular holes and macular pseudoholes

    OpenAIRE

    Tsujikawa, M; Ohji, M; Fujikado, T.; Saito, Y.; Motokura, M.; Ishimoto, I.; Tano, Y.

    1997-01-01

    AIMS—The reliability of scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) microperimetry in differentiating full thickness macular holes from macular pseudoholes and impending macular holes was evaluated.
METHODS—106 eyes with the clinical diagnosis of full thickness macular holes, macular pseudoholes, and impending (stage 1) macular holes were examined for the presence of deep or relative scotoma using SLO microperimetry. The relation between these scotomas and the clinical diagnosis was studied.
RESULTS—...

  18. Sonic analogue of black holes and the effects of high frequencies on black hole evaporation

    CERN Document Server

    Unruh, W G

    1995-01-01

    The naive calculation of black hole evaporation makes the thermal emission depend on the arbitrary high frequency behaviour of the theory where the theory is certainly wrong. Using the sonic analog to black holes-- dumb holes-- I show numerically that a change in the dispersion relation at high frequencies does not seem to alter the evaporation process, lending weight to the reality of the black hole evaporation process. I also suggest a reason for the insensitivity of the process to high frequency regime.

  19. Do black holes create polyamory?

    CERN Document Server

    Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Ryszard; Oppenheim, Jonathan; Smolin, John A

    2015-01-01

    Of course not, but if one believes that information cannot be destroyed in a theory of quantum gravity, then we run into apparent contradictions with quantum theory when we consider evaporating black holes. Namely that the no-cloning theorem or the principle of entanglement monogamy is violated. Here, we show that neither violation need hold, since, in arguing that black holes lead to cloning or non-monogamy, one needs to assume a tensor product structure between two points in space-time that could instead be viewed as causally connected. In the latter case, one is violating the semi-classical causal structure of space, which is a strictly weaker implication than cloning or non-monogamy. We show that the lack of monogamy that can emerge in evaporating space times is one that is allowed in quantum mechanics, and is very naturally related to a lack of monogamy of correlations of outputs of measurements performed at subsequent instances of time of a single system. A particular example of this is the Horowitz-Mal...

  20. Entanglement Entropy of Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solodukhin, Sergey N.

    2011-10-01

    The entanglement entropy is a fundamental quantity, which characterizes the correlations between sub-systems in a larger quantum-mechanical system. For two sub-systems separated by a surface the entanglement entropy is proportional to the area of the surface and depends on the UV cutoff, which regulates the short-distance correlations. The geometrical nature of entanglement-entropy calculation is particularly intriguing when applied to black holes when the entangling surface is the black-hole horizon. I review a variety of aspects of this calculation: the useful mathematical tools such as the geometry of spaces with conical singularities and the heat kernel method, the UV divergences in the entropy and their renormalization, the logarithmic terms in the entanglement entropy in four and six dimensions and their relation to the conformal anomalies. The focus in the review is on the systematic use of the conical singularity method. The relations to other known approaches such as 't Hooft's brick-wall model and the Euclidean path integral in the optical metric are discussed in detail. The puzzling behavior of the entanglement entropy due to fields, which non-minimally couple to gravity, is emphasized. The holographic description of the entanglement entropy of the blackhole horizon is illustrated on the two- and four-dimensional examples. Finally, I examine the possibility to interpret the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy entirely as the entanglement entropy.