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Sample records for dry eye patients

  1. Dry Eye

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    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  2. [Dry eye syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis patients].

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    Polanská, V; Hlinomazová, Z; Fojtík, Z; Nemec, P

    2007-11-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to review the incidence of the dry eye syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, evaluate the association among the incidence of the dry eye syndrome, presence of positive rheumatoid factor (RF), the RA stage, and the duration of the disease. The group consisted of altogether 100 patients, 16 men and 84 women; the average age was 58.9 years (SD 14.6). The average duration of RA was 12.3 years, SD 11.0. In each patient, the Schirmer test I was performed, the presence of the LIPCOF (Lid Parallel Conjunctival Folds) on the slit lamp was assessed, the BUT (Tear Break-Up Time) was measured and vital fluorescein staining was performed. In each patient the data of the presence or absence of the RF in the serum, RA severity according to the X-ray examination, and the disease duration were recorded. The Pearson's association test for nominal variables was used for statistical evaluation of the association between the rheumatoid arthritis presence and the dry eye syndrome. In our group of 100 patients, the Schirmer test I was positive in 67% of patients. Positive BUT was marked in 84 % of patients. The conjunctival folds were present in 45 % of patients only. The pathological findings after cornea fluorescein staining appeared in 18 % of patients. The dry eye syndrome incidence was marked in 74% of patients with RA. Subjective difficulties were declared by 38.3% of patients only. The local treatment was already established in 23.0% of patients only. We did not find statistically significant correlation between the RF positive rheumatoid arthritis appearance and dry eye syndrome, nor between the stage of the rheumatoid arthritis and presence of the dry eye syndrome. We proved statistical connection between the presence of dry eye syndrome and the duration of rheumatoid arthritis longer than 10 years. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is the most common ocular complication in rheumatoid arthritis patients. We proved the connection

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

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  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: ... your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when ...

  5. Clinical Characteristics of Dry Eye Patients With Chronic Pain Syndromes

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    Vehof, Jelle; Smitt-Kamminga, Nicole Sillevis; Kozareva, Diana; Nibourg, Simone A.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate clinical characteristics of dry eye disease (DED) patients with a chronic pain syndrome. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. study. METHODS: Four hundred twenty-five patients of a tertiary care DED patient cohort in the Netherlands were included. Chronic pain syndromes irritable bowel s

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

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  7. What Is Dry Eye?

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  8. What Is Dry Eye?

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  9. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  10. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome at patients with diabetus melitus TIP 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Burda

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: In our study the Dry Eye Syndrome showed to have a high correlation with Diabetes Mellitus Tip II ( about 52.9%. Prevalence of Dry Eye was significantly higher at patients with longer duration of diabetes. Dry Eye seems to be an important contributing factor related to corneal abnormalities. Age and sex not seem to play any important role in this condition. Good glycemic control is important for prevention and control of Dry Eye Syndrome.

  11. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

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    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  12. Corneal Sensitivity and Dry Eye Symptoms in Patients with Keratoconus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dienes, Lóránt; Kiss, Huba J.; Perényi, Kristóf; Nagy, Zoltán Z.; Acosta, M. Carmen; Gallar, Juana; Kovács, Illés

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate corneal sensitivity to selective mechanical, chemical, and thermal stimulation and to evaluate their relation to dry eye symptoms in patients with keratoconus. Methods Corneal sensitivity to mechanical, chemical, and thermal thresholds were determined using a gas esthesiometer in 19 patients with keratoconus (KC group) and in 20 age-matched healthy subjects (control group). Tear film dynamics was assessed by Schirmer I test and by the non-invasive tear film breakup time (NI-BUT). All eyes were examined with a rotating Scheimpflug camera to assess keratoconus severity. Results KC patients had significatly decreased tear secretion and significantly higher ocular surface disease index (OSDI) scores compared to controls (5.3±2.2 vs. 13.2±2.0 mm and 26.8±15.8 vs. 8.1±2.3; p0.05). The mean threshold for selective mechanical (KC: 139.2±25.8 vs. control: 109.1±24.0 ml/min), chemical (KC: 39.4±3.9 vs. control: 35.2±1.9%CO2), heat (KC: 0.91±0.32 vs. control: 0.54±0.26 Δ°C) and cold (KC: 1.28±0.27 vs. control: 0.98±0.25 Δ°C) stimulation in the KC patients were significantly higher than in the control subjects (p0.05), whereas in the control subjects both mechanical (r = 0.52, p = 0.02), chemical (r = 0.47, p = 0.04), heat (r = 0.26, p = 0.04) and cold threshold (r = 0.40, p = 0.03) increased with age. In the KC group, neither corneal thickness nor tear flow, NI-BUT or OSDI correlated significantly with mechanical, chemical, heat or cold thresholds (p>0.05 for all variables). Conclusions Corneal sensitivity to different types of stimuli is decreased in patients with keratoconus independently of age and disease severity. The reduction of the sensory input from corneal nerves may contribute to the onset of unpleasant sensations in these patients and might lead to the impaired tear film dynamics. PMID:26495846

  13. [Effects of silicone punctal plugs for tear deficiency dry eye patients].

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    Shi, Shuai; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Ma, Hui-xiang; Sun, Li

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of silicone punctual plug for treating aqueous tear deficiency dry eye patients. Prospective consecutive cases study. Silicone punctal plugs (France Chirurgie Instrumentation) were inserted into lower canaliculus in 65 tear deficiency dry eye patients (65 eyes). The clinical data collected included sex and age of the patients, frequency of lubricant use, the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores, slit lamp microscope examination, Schirmer I test (SIT) (with anesthesia), tear break-up time (TBUT), and ocular surface staining with fluoresce in sodium. All examinations were recorded at baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months after punctal occlusion. There were 41 women and 24 men in this study, and their average age was 41.77 years old. The dry eye symptoms improved in 57 (87.69%) of 65 eyes at 6 months follow-up. The frequency of lubricant use was significantly decreased in these eyes (χ(2) = 81.97, P eyes, which did not need lubricant any more. At baseline, 6 weeks and 6 months after punctal occlusion, OSDI mean score was 37.32 ± 2.41, 19.60 ± 8.07 and 18.17 ± 7.93, respectively (F = 344.10, P eyes, 18.46%). Epiphora (4 eyes, 6.15%), partial extrusion (3 eyes, 4.62%), and total extrusion (3 eyes, 4.62%) were the other complications encountered. Silicone punctal plug insertion is a stable, effective and safety method for the treatment of tear deficiency dry eye.

  14. Evidence of interventions for the risk of dry eye in critically ill patients: An integrative review.

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    de França, Caroline Fernandes Souza Macêdo; Fernandes, Ana Paula Nunes de Lima; Carvalho, Diana Paula de Souza Rego Pinto; de Mesquita Xavier, Suênia Silva; Júnior, Marcos Antonio Ferreira; Botarelli, Fabiane Rocha; Vitor, Allyne Fortes

    2016-02-01

    Identify the best scientific evidence available to eye care in order to prevent dry eye. Review study conducted according to the three steps of the evidence-based practice, guided by the following question, grounded in the Patient, Intervention, Comparison, and Outcome strategy: "What is the best scientific evidence available to eye care related to preventing dry eye?" Two databases were used, the web portal Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online and two digital libraries. Data were organized by using three structured forms. Ten studies made up the final sample, in English, with evidence levels between I and III. The results pointed out differences regarding the best or most appropriate occlusion and ocular lubrication methods to prevent dry eye. Several care methods showed strong scientific evidence to prevent dry eye, related to occlusion and ocular lubrication. There is a need for further studies to determine the strength of this evidence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Prediction of risk and incidence of dry eye in critical patients1

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    de Araújo, Diego Dias; Almeida, Natália Gherardi; Silva, Priscila Marinho Aleixo; Ribeiro, Nayara Souza; Werli-Alvarenga, Andreza; Chianca, Tânia Couto Machado

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: to estimate the incidence of dry eye, to identify risk factors and to establish a risk prediction model for its development in adult patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a public hospital. Method: concurrent cohort, conducted between March and June, 2014, with 230 patients admitted to an intensive care unit. Data were analyzed by bivariate descriptive statistics, with multivariate survival analysis and Cox regression. Results: 53% out of 230 patients have developed dry eye, with onset mean time of 3.5 days. Independent variables that significantly and concurrently impacted the time for dry eye to occur were: O2 in room air, blinking more than five times per minute (lower risk factors) and presence of vascular disease (higher risk factor). Conclusion: dry eye is a common finding in patients admitted to adults intensive care units, and care for its prevention should be established. PMID:27192415

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

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  17. What Is Dry Eye?

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  18. What Is Dry Eye?

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  19. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome at patients with diabetus melitus tip 2, one year retrospective study May 2011-June 2012

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    Nora Burda

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: In our study the Dry Eye Syndrome showed to have a high correlation with Diabetes Mellitus Tip II (about 52.9%. Prevalence of Dry Eye was significantly higher at patients with longer duration of diabetes. Dry Eye seems to be an important contributing factor related to corneal abnormalities. Age and sex not seem to play any important role in this condition. Good glycemic control is important for prevention and control of Dry Eye Syndrome.

  20. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome at patients with diabetus melitus TIP 2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nora Burda; Vilma Mema; Ejup Mahmudi; Brikena Selimi; Sulejman Zhugli; Basri Lenajni; Illaz Bunjaku

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study is to prescribe and analyze the correlation of dry eye and Diabetes Mellitus Tip II, at Polyclinic of Specialties Nr. 2 Ophthalmology service ,between May 2011 and June 2012. Methods: A total number of 223 patients diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus Tip II underwent ocular examinations including 120 male and 103 female, aged from 24-73 years old. To confirm the presence of diabetes among these patients fasting blood glucose level was performed (normal limit < 110 mg/dL). History of disease, duration of diabetes, age, and sex was obtained by reviewing the medical records and direct patient interview. Also the patients complains: tearing photophobia, red eye , itching ,foreign body sensation, blurred vision was recorded. From the study were excluded all conditions which affects the tear film stability and contact lens wearer. Results: A total of 118 patients (58 male /61 female) were diagnosed with dry eye syndrome of varying degrees.. The diagnosis was made by heaving two or more positive tests performed as mentioned above, and referring to patients complains. Fourteen patients represent pinpoint corneal dye with fluorosceini , forty-six patients was positive to cotton swab test diminution of corneal sensitivity, eighty-nine patients was positive to Schirmmer test less than 10 mm, positive TBUT test less than 9 s was found to be the amount of seventy-one patients. Positive tear meniscus at inferior lid margin was found at fifty-six patients. Dry eye is a disorder of tear film because of tear deficiency or excessive tear evaporation which causes damage to the inter palpaberal ocular surface and is associated with symptoms of ocular discomfort. This ocular disorder is very common among general population with 28% of the adults having dry eye syndrome. Early diagnosis and timely treatment, complications as secondary microbial infection and corneal ulceration could be avoided.Conclusions: In our study the Dry Eye Syndrome showed to have

  1. Evaluation of clinical outcomes in patients with dry eye disease using lubricant eye drops containing polyethylene glycol or carboxymethylcellulose

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    Cohen S

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stephen Cohen,1 Anna Martin,2 Kenneth Sall31Cohen Optometry, Scottsdale, AZ, USA; 2Alcon Laboratories Inc, Fort Worth, TX, USA; 3Sall Research Medical Center Inc, Artesia, CA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to compare changes in corneal staining in patients with dry eye after 6 weeks of treatment with Systane® Gel Drops or Refresh Liquigel® lubricant eye drops.Methods: Patients aged ≥18 years with a sodium fluorescein corneal staining sum score of ≥3 in either eye and best-corrected visual acuity of 0.6 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution or better in each eye who were using a lubricant eye gel or ointment for dry eye were included in this randomized, parallel-group, multicenter, double-blind trial. Patients were randomized to four times daily Systane® Gel Drops (polyethylene glycol 400 0.4% and propylene glycol 0.3% or Refresh LiquiGel® Drops (carboxymethylcellulose sodium 1% for 6 weeks. The primary efficacy outcome was mean change from baseline to week 6 in sodium fluorescein corneal staining. Supportive efficacy outcomes included conjunctival staining, tear film break-up time, Patient Global Assessment of Improvement, Impact of Dry Eye on Everyday Life (IDEEL Treatment Satisfaction/Treatment Bother Questionnaire, Single Symptom Comfort Scale, and Ocular Symptoms Questionnaire. The safety analysis comprised recording of adverse events.Results: In total, 147 patients (Systane group, n=73; Refresh group, n=74; mean ± standard deviation age, 57±16 years were enrolled and included in the safety and efficacy analyses. Corneal staining was significantly reduced from baseline to week 6 for Systane and Refresh (−3.4±2.5 and −2.5±2.6 units, respectively; P<0.0001, t-test, with a significantly greater improvement with Systane versus Refresh (P=0.0294. Results for conjunctival staining, tear film break-up time, and patient-reported outcome questionnaires were not statistically different between groups. No safety

  2. Presence of Dry Eye in Patients with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

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    Emrah Kan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the tear function tests in patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and to compare the results with healthy subjects. Methods. A hundred and ten patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and 100 healthy subjects were included in this study. The presence of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy and tear function tests were evaluated clinically. The results were first compared between the patients and the control groups and then compared between patients with NOSPECS and patients without NOSPECS. Logistic regression analyses of the risk factors for dry eye including sex, gender, free plasma thyroxine, proptosis, upper eyelid margin-reflex distance, and duration of the disease were also evaluated. Results. The mean ocular surface disease index score was significantly higher and mean Schirmer and mean tear break-up time scores were significantly lower in patients compared to control subjects. Mean Schirmer and tear break-up time scores were found to be significantly lower in patients with NOSPECS when compared to the patients without NOSPECS. Both proptosis and free plasma thyroxine levels were significantly associated with dry eye. Conclusions. Patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis tend to develop dry eye more common than healthy subjects. Proptosis and lower free plasma thyroxine levels were found to be risk factors for the presence of dry eye.

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

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  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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  5. Assessment of Corneal Biomechanical Properties by CorVis ST in Patients with Dry Eye and in Healthy Subjects

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    Qin Long

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate corneal biomechanical properties in patients with dry eye and in healthy subjects using Corneal Visualization Scheimpflug Technology (CorVis ST. Methods. Biomechanical parameters were measured using CorVis ST in 28 eyes of 28 patients with dry eye (dry eye group and 26 normal subjects (control group. The Schirmer I test value, tear film break-up time (TBUT, and corneal staining score (CSS were recorded for each eye. Biomechanical properties were compared between the two groups and bivariate correlation analysis was used to assess the relationship between biomechanical parameters and dry eye signs. Results. Only one of the ten biomechanical parameters was significantly different between the two groups. Patients in the dry eye group had significantly lower highest concavity time (HC-time (P=0.02 than the control group. Correlation analysis showed a significant negative correlation between HC-time and CSS with marginal P value (ρ=-0.39, P=0.04 in the dry eye group. Conclusions. The corneal biomechanical parameter of HC-time is reduced in dry eyes compared to normal eyes. There was also a very weak but significant negative correlation between HC-time and CSS in the dry eye group, indicating that ocular surface damage can give rise to a more compliant cornea in dry eyes.

  6. [Evaluation of tear film and meibomian gland function in dry eye patients using Keratograph 5M].

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    Zhu, Kexuan; Xie, Wenjia; Ying, Jinglu; Yao, Yufeng

    2016-05-25

    Objective: To assess the application of Keratograph 5M in evaluating tear film and meibomian gland function in patients with dry eye. Methods: A total of 144 eyes were recruited in the study, in which 72 eyes were from patients diagnosed with dry eye and 72 eyes were from healthy subjects. All subjects finished following tests or examinations:ocular surface disease index (OSDI) to evaluate eye symptoms; Keratograph 5M examination to obtain tear meniscus height (TMH), noninvasive tear break-up time (NIBUT) including first NIBUT (NIBUT-Fir) and average NIBUT (NIBUT-Ave), and infrared meibography; and fluorescein sodium staining to obtain fluorescein tearbreak-up time (FBUT). Results: Dry eye group had higher OSDI score than healthy control group, but its TMH, NIBUT-Fir and NIBUT-Ave were lower than those in healthy control group (all P0.05). The NIBUT-Fir and NIBUT-Ave showed a significant correlation with FBUT (r=0.833 and 0.727, Pfilm and meibomian gland, and the new meibography scoring system can evaluate the function of meibomian gland objectively and succinctly.

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

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  8. Two Patients with Dry Eye Disease Followed Up Using an Expression Assay of Ocular Surface Mucin

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    Yumiko Machida

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report 2 patients with dry eye disease followed up using the expression levels of ocular surface mucin. Case Reports: Patient 1: a 57-year-old woman with Sjögren's syndrome-associated dry eyes experienced severe dryness and foreign body sensation in both her eyes, and instilled sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution 0.3% about 10-15 times daily. We measured the expression levels of MUC5AC mRNA (MUC5AC and MUC16 mRNA (MUC16 by using real-time reversed transcription polymerase chain reaction for the specimens of modified impression cytology. Expression levels of MUC5AC and MUC16 on her ocular surface were very low. Subjective symptoms and expression levels of ocular surface mucin improved after combined treatment of rebamipide (4 times daily and fluorometholone (once daily ophthalmic suspension. Patient 2: a 62-year-old man with chronic graft-versus-host disease-associated dry eye experienced severe foreign body sensation and developed superficial punctate keratopathy with mucous thread and filamentary keratitis. Expression level of MUC5AC was very high at baseline. Subjective symptoms and expression levels of ocular surface mucin improved by combined treatment of rebamipide (4 times daily and fluorometholone (once daily ophthalmic suspension. Conclusion: Clinical test for MUC gene expression on the ocular surface was found to be useful in the follow-up of dry eye treatment.

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

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  10. Sodium hyaluronate eye drops of different osmolarity for the treatment of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragona, P; Di Stefano, G; Ferreri, F; Spinella, R; Stilo, A

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To study the effect of the treatment of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients with hypotonic or isotonic hyaluronate eye drops. Methods: 40 Sjögren's syndrome patients were divided in two groups and treated as follows: group 1 with hypotonic (150 mOsm/l) 0.4% hyaluronate eye drops; group 2 with isotonic 0.4% hyaluronate eye drops. The eye drops were instilled six times a day for 90 days. Grading of subjective symptoms, break up time (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining, conjunctival rose bengal staining, Schirmer's I test, and conjunctival impression cytology were carried out at 0 and 15, 30, 90 days from the beginning of the study. Patients were examined in a blind fashion. For the statistical analysis the Student's t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and χ2 test were performed. Results: Symptoms were statistically significantly improved at day 15 in both groups but group 1 patients had a global score statistically significantly better group 2 (p=0.02). At day 15 group 1 patients had an improvement from baseline values of BUT (p=0.003), fluorescein, and rose bengal score (p=0.000001 and p=0.0004 respectively). Group 2 patients had, at day 15, an improvement of BUT and fluorescein score compared to baseline values (p=0.05 and p=0.0001 respectively). A comparison between the two groups showed better results for group 1 patients at day 15 for rose bengal stain (p=0.01) and for BUT (p=0.05) and fluorescein score (p=0.0003) at day 90. The conjunctival impression cytology showed that group 1 had a statistically significant better total score than group 2 starting from day 15 and lasting throughout the study (p<0.02). Also group 2 patients showed an improvement from baseline values starting from day 30 (p=0.000005). Conclusion: Hyaluronate eye drops are useful for treating severe dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients. The use of a formulation with pronounced hypotonicity showed better effects on corneoconjunctival epithelium than the isotonic solution. PMID:12140209

  11. Long-Term Results of Punctal Plug Applied to Dry Eye Patients

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    ismet Doğru

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The evaluation of long-term results of punctal plugs applied to dry eye patients and the potential problems they may bring about. Material and Method: In this study, we retrospectively assessed 30 eyes of 15 patients with moderate to advanced dry eyes who were applied punctal plug (5 mm for treatment purpose and were observed for 12 months. The patients’ Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI scoring, Schimer-1 test (without topical anesthesia, tear film break-up time (TBUT and ocular surface staining with fluorescein results were evaluated and compared before and after 6- and 12-month use of punctal plug. The patients were started on topical antiinflammatory treatment and artificial tears two months before the application of the punctum plug. Results: The patients’ average age was 56.4±2.3 (range: 36-70 years, and the average follow-up period was 15 (12-30 months. The average OSDI score was statistically significantly decreased at 6 and 12 months when compared to the initial value (p<0.05. The average Schirmer-1 test values measured at 6 and 12 months were also statistically significantly increased compared with the initial value (p<0.05. The average Schirmer-1 test value at 12 months was considerably increased when compared with the 6th month’s value (p<0.05. The average TBUT was statistically significantly increased when compared to the values at 6 and 12 months (p<0.05. When the outcomes of ocular surface staining with fluorescein were evaluated, a significant decrease was seen at 6 and 12 months when compared to the initial value (p<0.05. Discussion: The punctal plug treatment associated with topical anti-inflammatory treatment for moderate and advanced dry eye patients is a reliable method. It decreases the dry eye symptoms and findings in the long term. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2011; 41: 225-9

  12. Efficacy of an artificial tear emulsion in patients with dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction

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    Sindt CW

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Christine W Sindt,1 Gary N Foulks2 1Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, 2Kentucky Lions Eye Center, Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA Objectives: The aim of the study reported here was to assess the efficacy of an artificial tear emulsion for the treatment of dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD. Methods: At five clinics, patients completed a 1-week treatment with their habitual topical therapy and then a 4-week treatment with open-label study medication: Systane® Balance Lubricant Eye Drops (Alcon, Alcon Inc, Fort Worth, TX, USA. Subjective assessments included a preference survey, the Impact of Dry Eye in Everyday Life questionnaire, and the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Objective assessments by unmasked investigators included visual acuity, meibomian gland expression and dropout, tear film breakup time, corneal staining, and dosing frequency. Results: At baseline, the 49 patients had mean meibomian gland expression grades and gland dropout that indicated mild to moderate MGD. Patients administered their habitual therapy 2.5 ± 1.3 times per day. After 4 weeks of study medication, the Impact of Dry Eye in Everyday Life questionnaire results indicated statistically and clinically significant improvements. Fewer than half of the participants were employed, limiting the usefulness of the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment questionnaire. Visual acuity remained statistically similar, while corneal staining and tear film breakup time improved significantly (P < 0.05 but modestly. The outcomes were achieved with 1.9 ± 1.1 doses per day of study medication, a significantly lower frequency than the habitual frequency (P < 0.001. The most common medication-related adverse event was blurred vision (3/49 patients, 6.1%. At study conclusion, 27/44 (61.4% survey respondents

  13. Ocular Surface Epithelial Thickness Evaluation in Dry Eye Patients: Clinical Correlations

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    Qingfeng Liang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the relationship between corneal and conjunctival epithelium thickness and ocular surface clinical tests in dry eye disease (DED patients. Patients and Methods. Fifty-four patients with DED and 32 control subjects were included. Each patient underwent an ocular surface evaluation using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI, tear film break-up time (TBUT, corneal and conjunctival staining, tear film lipid layer analysis, and Schirmer test. The central corneal (CET, limbal (LET, and bulbar conjunctival epithelium thickness (BET were acquired using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT. Results. Compared to control subjects, mean BET was significantly thicker and mean LET was significantly lower in the DED group. There was no significant difference in mean CET between the two groups. The mean LET was correlated with OSDI and TBUT. The inferior LET was correlated with OSDI, Schirmer I test, TBUT, Oxford score, and corneal sensitivity. Mean BET was correlated with OSDI and TBUT, but not with Schirmer I test and Oxford score. Conclusions. In dry eye patients, a thinner limbal epithelium and a thicker bulbar conjunctival epithelium were observed. These changes were correlated to the severity of dry eye symptoms and tear film alterations.

  14. Aging eye microbiota in Dry Eye Syndrome in patients treated with Enterococcus faecium and Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisari, Giuseppe; Chisari, Eleonora Margherita; Borzì, Antonio Maria; Ozyalcin, Erdogan; Chisari, Clara Grazia

    2017-07-04

    Aging seem to have a key role in the onset and progression of ocular surface diseases. Dry Eye Syndrome (DES) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface in which symptoms may interfere with the ability to work and carry out daily functions. This clinical trial was a pilot study to evaluate the effects of supplementation with mixture (MYA796 and Enterococcus faecium SGEf01) on the tear film. Following the run-in period subjects were randomized in two groups: group A (n.30 subjects) and group B (n.30 subjects). Group A (control) treated only with substitute tear and group B treated with substitute tear + mixture (symbiotic). The data obtained in the two study groups A and B were, respectively the following: Schirmer I: 9.2±0.2 Vs 12.8±0.4 (pmicrobiota ocular surface subject with DES. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

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  16. What Is Dry Eye?

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  17. Dry Eye Syndrome

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    Mohammad-Ali Javadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS, also known as dry eye syndrome, has been changed over recent years. Until lately, the condition was thought to be merely due to aqueous tear insufficiency. Today, it is understood that KCS is a multifactorial disorder due to inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal gland, neurotrophic deficiency and meibomian gland dysfunction. This change in paradigm has led to the development of new and more effective medications.

  18. Osteopoikilosis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis complicated with dry eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureten, Kemal

    2007-09-01

    Osteopoikilosis is an uncommon sclerosing bone dysplasia of unknown etiology. It is usually detected as a coincidental finding at radiographic examination. Mild joint pain and swelling may be seen in 15-20% of cases. Osteopoikilosis is rarely associated with rheumatoid arthritis. In this case report a young man with osteopoikilosis who was diagnosed as having rheumatoid arthritis complicated with dry eyes is presented. Although patients with osteopoikilosis may have articular symptoms, those patients should be carefully examined for a possible association with a rheumatic condition.

  19. The Effect of Tear Supplementation on Ocular Surface Sensations during the Interblink Interval in Patients with Dry Eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lóránt Dienes

    Full Text Available To investigate the characteristics of ocular surface sensations and corneal sensitivity during the interblink interval before and after tear supplementation in dry eye patients.Twenty subjects (41.88±14.37 years with dry eye symptoms were included in the dry eye group. Fourteen subjects (39.13±11.27 years without any clinical signs and/or symptoms of dry eye were included in the control group. Tear film dynamics was assessed by non-invasive tear film breakup time (NI-BUT in parallel with continuous recordings of ocular sensations during forced blinking. Corneal sensitivity to selective stimulation of corneal mechano-, cold and chemical receptors was assessed using a gas esthesiometer. All the measurements were made before and 5 min after saline and hydroxypropyl-guar (HP-guar drops.In dry eye patients the intensity of irritation increased rapidly after the last blink during forced blinking, while in controls there was no alteration in the intensity during the first 10 sec followed by an exponential increase. Irritation scores were significantly higher in dry eye patients throughout the entire interblink interval compared to controls (p0.05.Ocular surface irritation responses due to tear film drying are considerably increased in dry eye patients compared to normal subjects. Although tear supplementation improves the protective tear film layer, and thus reduce unpleasant sensory responses, the rapid rise in discomfort is still maintained and might be responsible for the remaining complaints of dry eye patients despite the treatment.

  20. [Prevalence of dry eye in Hansen's disease patients from a colony hospital in Goiânia, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazão, Karys Carvalho; Picolo, Naira Bernardes; Hanouche, Rosana Zacarias; Santos, Procópio Miguel dos; Santos, Regina Cândido Ribeiro dos

    2005-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of dry eye in Hansen's disease patients from the "Hospital de Dermatologia Sanitária de Goiânia". The sample of the present study included 70 patients with Hansen's disease, from the "Hospital de Dermatologia Sanitária de Goiânia", and 30 controls, from the "Fundação Banco de Olhos de Goiás", both located in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. Ophthalmologic examination and Schirmer I, break-up time (BUT) and rose Bengal staining tests were carried out for all patients in a single evaluation. For the diagnosis of dry eye the Schirmer I equal or less than 5 mm and rose Bengal grade II or III, in at least one eye were considered. Forty-four (63.0%) patients with Hansen's disease were male and 22 (73.3%) controls were female (p=0.001). The mean age of the patients with Hansen's disease was 61.1+/-12.5 years and in the control group, it was 55.7+/-9.6 years. Fifteen (21.4%) patients with Hansen's disease and four (13.3%) controls presented with dry eye diagnosis (p=0.429). The lepromatous type (74.2%) of Hansen's disease was the most prevalent and dry eye (66.7%) was more frequent in this clinical form of the disease. The dry eye disease was more prevalent in patients with Hansen's disease, although the difference was not statistically significant.

  1. Clinical features of diabetic patients with dry eye disease in a community in Maceio: a cross-sectional study

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    Marina Viegas Moura Rezende Ribeiro

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: This study was carried out in order to assess the epidemiological profile of symptomatic dry eye in diabetic patients. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-one diabetic patients were evaluated using a specific questionnaire about other diseases and drugs. Of these, 58 who classified as having moderate to severe dry eye were included. Results: In this study, 58 of the 221 diabetic patients had moderate to severe dry eye (26.2%. Of the 58 patients, dry eye was more prevalent at age 61.46 ± 14.18 years for men, and 61.09 ± 10.64 for women (p<0.005. Dry eye was more common in women (75.9% (p=0.456. Of the 58 patients, 15 (25.9% had at least one ocular disease.The most common was diabetic retinopathy (13 of 15 patients, 86.7%, 95% CI 69.46-103.87. A total of 19 patients used eye drops (32.8%; and most (14 of the 19 individuals, 73.7% used lubricants (95%CI 53.88-93.48. Hypertension was the most prevalent associated comorbidity (56.9% and the most commonly used medications were hypoglycemic agents (98 %, 95%CI 94.00 - 101.92 and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (53.1%, 95%CI 53.06 39.09 - 67.04. Conclusion: Further epidemiologic studies need to be done to establish a real etiologic relationship between diabetes and dry eye, and its correlation to other risk factors. In spite of these limitations, we have strong evidence of this relationship, and in clinical practice, examination for dry eye should be part of the assessment of diabetic disease.

  2. Signs and Symptoms of Dry Eye in Keratoconus Patients Before and After Intrastromal Corneal Rings Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carracedo, Gonzalo; Recchioni, Alberto; Alejandre-Alba, Nicolás; Martin-Gil, Alba; Batres, Laura; Morote, Ignacio Jimenez-Alfaro; Pintor, Jesús

    2017-04-01

    Based on the relationship between keratoconus and dry eye, the aim of this study was to evaluate changes in signs and symptoms of dry eye in keratoconus patients before and after intrastromal corneal ring surgery. Fifteen keratoconus patients were enrolled in Fundación Jiménez-Díaz of Madrid and University Clinic of Optometry of the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Madrid, Spain). Tear break up time (TBUT), Schirmer test without anesthesia, corneal staining, diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) concentration, and ocular surface disease index (OSDI) were evaluated. Impression cytology combined with laser confocal microscopy was performed to evaluate goblet cell density, mucin cloud height (MCH), and cell layer thickness (CLT). All measurements were performed before (pre) surgery, 1 month (post) and 6 months after surgery (post6m). We found no statistical differences in time in Schirmer test, TBUT, and corneal staining. OSDI scores were 44.96  ±  8.65, 26.30 ± 6.79, and 19.31 ± 4.28 for (pre), (post), and (post6m) surgery, respectively (p < 0.001). Impression cytology showed a decrease in cell density at (post6m) compared with presurgery (47.36 ± 35.15 cells/mm(2) and 84.88 ± 32.08 cells/mm(2), respectively, p = 0.04). At post6m, the MCH increased compared with presurgery values (13.97 ± 4.26 µm and 6.77 ± 2.51 µm, respectively, p < 0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in CLT in time. Ap4A tear concentrations were lower post6m than presurgery (1.02  ±  0.65 and 2.56   ± 1.10  µM, respectively, p < 0.001). Intrastromal corneal ring surgery induces changes improving dry eye symptoms but no changes were found in signs of dry eye after surgery in keratoconus patients except for the MCH that increases drastically. More studies are needed to clarify the reason of its improvement.

  3. Clinical observation of Danzhi Xiaoyao Capsule with hypromellose 2910,dextran 70 and glycerol eye drops for dry eye in menopausal patients

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    Wen-Li Cai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the clinical effects, corneal surface shape and corneal thickness variation after treated by Danzhi Xiaoyao Capsule combined with hypromellose 2910,dextran 70 and glycerol eye drops for dry eye in menopausal patients. METHODS: Eighty menopausal patients(160 eyesdiagnosed as dry eye were randomly divided into groups A and B(40 patients each. Group A was treated with hypromellose 2910,dextran 70 and glycerol eye drops only and group B was treated with Danzhi Xiaoyao Capsule and eye drops. Before and 1mo after treatment, the clinical effects were evaluated by symptom scores, fluorescein staining(FL, tear film breakup time(BUTand Schirmer Ⅰ test. While the corneal surface regularity index(SRI, surface asymmetry index(SAIand central corneal thickness(CCTwere observed. RESULTS: At 1mo after treatment, the symptoms scores and FL scores of the 2 groups decreased significantly(PPPP>0.05. CONCLUSION: Combination therapy of Danzhi Xiaoyao Capsule and hypromellose 2910,dextran 70 and glycerol eye drops for menopausal patients with dry eye is more effective than single eye drops, and can improve the symptoms and signs.

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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  5. What Is Dry Eye?

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  6. Evaluation of patients with dry eye disease for conjunctival Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Maha Mohssen; Khattab, Rania Abdelmonem; Mahran, Magda H.; Elborgy, Ebrahim S.

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the possibility of the development of dry eye disease (DED) as a result of persistent infection with Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum in the conjunctiva of patients. METHODS This study was conducted on 58 patients of age range 20-50y, diagnosed with DED confirmed by Schirmer I test and tear breakup time. The non-dry eye control group included 27 subjects of the same age. Ocular specimens were collected as conjunctival scrapings and swabs divided into three groups: the first used for bacterial culture, the second and third taken to detect Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) assay and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. RESULTS Chlamydia trachomatis was detected in 65.5% and 76% of DED patients by DFA and PCR methods respectively. Ureaplasma urealyticum was found in 44.8% of DED infected patients using the PCR method. Both organisms were identified in only 37.9% of DED patients found to be infected. Control subjects had a 22% detection rate of Chlamydia trachomatis by DFA assay versus a 7% detection rate by PCR; while Ureaplasma urealyticum was detected in 3.7% of the controls by PCR method. The conjunctival culture revealed that gram positive microorganisms represented 75% of isolates with coagulase negative Staphylococci the most common (50%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (20%), whereas gram negative microorganisms occurred in 25% of cases, isolating Moraxella spp. as the most frequent organism. CONCLUSION Our results tend to point out that Chlamydia trachomatis and Ureaplasma urealyticum were detected in a moderate percentage of patients with DED, and could be a fair possibility for its development. PCR is more reliable in detecting Chlamydia trachomatis than DFA technique. The presence of isolated conjunctival bacterial microflora can be of some potential value. PMID:27803864

  7. Prevalence of dry eye syndrome at patients with diabetus melitus tip 2, one year retrospective study May 2011-June 2012

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nora Burda; Vilma Mema; Ejup Mahmudi Md; Brikena Selimi; Sulejman Zhugli; Basri Lenajni; Illaz Bunjaku

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To prescribe and analyze the correlation of Dry Eye and Diabetes Mellitus Tip II, at Polyclinic of Specialties Nr. 2 Ophthalmology service, between May 2011 and June 2012.Methods:A total number of 223 patients diagnosed with Diabetes Mellitus Tip II underwent ocular examinations. 120 male and 103 female, aged from 24-73 years old. To confirm the presence of diabetes among these patients fasting blood glucose level was performed (normal limit < 110 mg/dL). History of disease, duration of diabetes, age, sex was obtained by reviewing the medical records and direct patient interview. Also the patients complains: tearing photophobia, red eye, itching ,foreign body sensation, blurred vision was recorded. From the study were excluded all conditions which affects the tear film stability and contact lens wearer.Results: 118 patients were diagnosed with Dry Eye Syndrome of varying degrees. 58 male/61 female. The diagnosis was made by heaving two or more positive tests performed as mentioned above, and referring to patients complains. Fourteen patients represent pinpoint corneal dye with fluorosceini, forty-six patients was positive to cotton swab test diminution of corneal sensitivity, eighty-nine patients was positive to Schirmmer test less than 10 mm, positive TBUT test less than 9 s was found to be the amount of seventy-one patients. Positive tear meniscus at inferior lid margin was found at fifty-six patients. Dry eye is a disorder of tear film because of tear deficiency or excessive tear evaporation which causes damage to the inter palpaberal ocular surface and is associated with symptoms of ocular discomfort. This ocular disorder is very common among general population with 28% of the adults having dry eye syndrome. Early diagnosis and timely treatment, complications as secondary microbial infection and corneal ulceration could be avoided. Conclusions: In our study the Dry Eye Syndrome showed to have a high correlation with Diabetes Mellitus Tip II (about 52

  8. A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY REGARDING PREVALENCE OF DRY EYE DISEASE IN POST-OPERATIVE CATARACT SURGERY PATIENTS OF 140 CASES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Srinivasan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dry eye disease is one of the most common ocular surface disorder with large number of studies carried out in various countries estimate the prevalence of dry eye disease to be between 5-34%. The prevalence of dry eye increases with age. As per Breaver Dam study regarding dry eye the prevalence of DED 13.3%. Dry eye was apparently higher in women than men. Studies have shown that cataract surgery worsen dry eye symptoms in patients with preexisting dry eye symptoms as well as without preexisting DES, mostly dry eye symptoms last for two months of post cataract surgery period. MATERIALS AND METHODS The prospective observational study was conducted in Department of Ophthalmology, Government Vellore Medical College and Hospital, Vellore. The total number of cataract surgery performed cases were 140 in number. The study period was four months, conducted in tertiary eye center. The Cataract patients were preoperatively at normal tear secretions. Post cataract surgery period from first POD, one week POD, four weeks, six weeks, two months and three months POD examined by slit lamp, Schirmer's test I, TBUT and corneal sensitivity test were performed. RESULTS Our study revealed that increased prevalence in female sex with increased age group range from 51-70 years showed post cataract surgery period dryness of eye. The ratio of Post cataract surgery DED in male and female is 13:29. This shows increased female sex prevalence of postoperative DED. In our study, the prevalence of post cataract surgery dry eye disease was 30%. CONCLUSION 73% cataract surgeries is now clear corneal cataract surgery and this procedure cuts a large part of corneal nerves. The nerve essential for tear production gets disturbed leading to dryness and hence decreased visual function. The corneal nerves are important in self-regulation of tears since they provide the sensation in the feedback loop that signals tear production. When the functions of the nerves get blocked

  9. A multicenter, open-label, 52-week study of 2% rebamipide (OPC-12759) ophthalmic suspension in patients with dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shigeru; Awamura, Saki; Nakamichi, Norihiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Oshiden, Kazuhide; Yokoi, Norihiko

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension administered 4 times daily for 52 weeks in patients with dry eye. Multicenter (17 sites), open-label, single-arm study. A total of 154 patients with dry eye were enrolled in this study. After a 2-week screening period, patients received 2% rebamipide, instilled as 1 drop in each eye, 4 times daily for 52 weeks. The signs and symptoms measures were assessed at baseline, at weeks 2 and 4, and at every 4 weeks thereafter. The objective signs were fluorescein corneal staining score, lissamine green conjunctival staining score, and tear film break-up time, while subjective symptoms were dry eye-related ocular symptoms (foreign body sensation, dryness, photophobia, eye pain, and blurred vision). The safety variable was the occurrence of adverse events. For all objective signs and subjective symptoms, the scores significantly improved at week 2 compared with baseline (P rebamipide is effective in improving both the objective signs and subjective symptoms of dry eye patients for at least 52 weeks. In addition, 2% rebamipide treatment was generally well tolerated. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Vitamin D Supplementation for Patients with Dry Eye Syndrome Refractory to Conventional Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Seok Hyun; Shin, Young Joo; Kim, Ha Kyoung; Hyon, Joon Young; Wee, Won Ryang; Park, Shin Goo

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of vitamin D supplementation in patients with dry eye syndrome (DES) refractory to conventional treatment with vitamin D deficiency. A total of 105 patients with DES refractory to conventional treatment and vitamin D deficiency that was treated with an intramuscular injection of cholecalciferol (200,000 IU). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured. Eye discomfort was assessed using ocular surface disease index (OSDI) and visual analogue pain score (VAS). Tear break-up time (TBUT), fluorescein staining score (FSS), eyelid margin hyperemia, and tear secretion test were measured before treatment, and 2, 6, and 10 weeks after vitamin D supplementation. Mean serum 25(OH)D level was 10.52 ± 4.61 ng/mL. TBUT, and tear secretion test showed an improvement at 2 and 6 weeks after vitamin D supplementation compared to pretreatment values (p vitamin D supplementation (p vitamin D supplementation is effective and useful in the treatment of patients with DES refractory to conventional treatment and with vitamin D deficiency. PMID:27698364

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears. How do tears work? ... you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and ...

  12. Expression Profiling of Nonpolar Lipids in Meibum From Patients With Dry Eye: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianzhong; Keirsey, Jeremy K; Green, Kari B; Nichols, Kelly K

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to characterize differentially expressed lipids in meibum samples from patients with dry eye disease (DED) in order to better understand the underlying pathologic mechanisms. Meibum samples were collected from postmenopausal women with DED (PW-DED; n = 5) and a control group of postmenopausal women without DED (n = 4). Lipid profiles were analyzed by direct infusion full-scan electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). An initial analysis of 145 representative peaks from four classes of lipids in PW-DED samples revealed that additional manual corrections for peak overlap and isotopes only slightly affected the statistical analysis. Therefore, analysis of uncorrected data, which can be applied to a greater number of peaks, was used to compare more than 500 lipid peaks common to PW-DED and control samples. Statistical analysis of peak intensities identified several lipid species that differed significantly between the two groups. Data from contact lens wearers with DED (CL-DED; n = 5) were also analyzed. Many species of the two types of diesters (DE) and very long chain wax esters (WE) were decreased by ∼20% in PW-DED, whereas levels of triacylglycerols were increased by an average of 39% ± 3% in meibum from PW-DED compared to that in the control group. Approximately the same reduction (20%) of similar DE and WE was observed for CL-DED. Statistical analysis of peak intensities from direct infusion ESI-MS results identified differentially expressed lipids in meibum from dry eye patients. Further studies are warranted to support these findings.

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

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  18. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film ...

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

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  20. Effect of a light-emitting timer device on the blink rate of non-dry eye individuals and dry eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Danielle Lumi; Hazarbassanov, Rossen Mihaylov; Yamasato, Camila Karim Nakase; Bandeira e Silva, Francisco; Godinho, Cléber José; Gomes, José Álvaro Pereira

    2013-08-01

    To evaluate blink rate effects by a novel light-emitting diode (LED) timer device (PISC) on non-dry eye (DE) subjects and DE patients during a reading task on liquid crystal display (LCD) screens, in different environmental conditions. This was a case-control study that included 15 DE patients and 15 non-DE subjects as controls. Participants had their blink rates measured while they read an electronic format text. These tasks were performed in four different conditions: with and without a LED timer device in two visits, and with and without air conditioning. All participants completed the Ocular Surface Disease Index and were examined by best spectacle-corrected visual acuity exam, biomicroscopy, Schirmer test 1, fluorescein staining and break-up time and lissamine green staining (Oxford scale grading). Outcomes between reading tasks conditions were compared independently for each group and blink rate frequency was higher in tasks with LED timer device, with and without air conditioning, for the DE group (ptimer device increased blink frequency for DE and control groups. Further studies need to be carried out in order to evaluate long-term effects of this new device, as well as its assessment with different reading scenarios.

  1. Risk of dry eye syndrome in patients treated with whole-brain radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanda, Tavish; Wu, Cheng-Chia; Campbell, Ashley A; Bathras, Ryan M; Jani, Ashish; Kazim, Michael; Wang, Tony J C

    2017-08-04

    With improvements in systemic therapy, patients with cancer treated with whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT) are living long enough to develop late toxicities, including dry eye syndrome. In general practice, dose to the lacrimal gland (LG) is not constrained (maximum constraint <40 Gy) in WBRT. The purpose of this study was to measure dose to the LG in WBRT and determine methods for reducing radiation exposure. We conducted a retrospective review of 70 3-dimensional (3D) conformal plans; thirty-six plans with a radiation prescription of 30 Gy in 10 fractions and 34 plans with a prescription of 37.5 Gy in 15 fractions. LGs were contoured in accordance with Freedman and Sidani (2015). Biological effective dose (BED)3 maximum constraints were calculated from 40 Gy and 20 Gy to be 32.17 Gy (30 Gy) and 36.70 Gy (37.5 Gy). Both regimens demonstrated supraorbital blocking by 3 methods: T1, bordering the supraorbital ridge; T2, no contact with supraorbital ridge; and T3, coverage of the supraorbital ridge. Mean dose for the plans with a 30-Gy prescription and the plans with a 37.5-Gy prescription was 27.5 Gy and 35.2 Gy, respectively (p ≤ 0.0001). BED3 maximum constraint (Dmax) was violated 16 of 26 (61.5%) in T1 (average Dmax: 32.2 Gy), 13 of 28 (46.4%) in T2 (average Dmax: 32.1 Gy), and 5 of 18 (27.8%) in T3 (average Dmax: 31.8 Gy) for the 30-Gy prescription. Dmax was violated in 32 of 32 (100%) in T1 (average Dmax: 40.1 Gy), 22 of 22 (100%) in T2 (average Dmax: 40.3 Gy), and 14 of 14 (100%) in T3 (average Dmax: 39.4) for the 37.5 Gy prescription. Average Dmax for the 37.5-Gy prescription was highly significant in favor of T3 (p = 0.0098). Patients who receive WBRT may develop dry eye syndrome as a late toxicity. Constraints are commonly violated with a prescription of 37.5 Gy. Methods to reduce dose include T3 supraorbital blocking, an easily implementable change that may dramatically improve patient quality of life. Copyright © 2017

  2. Aging: A Predisposition to Dry Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anushree Sharma

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye syndrome is a disease of the ocular surface and tear film that is prevalent in older adults. Even though the degree of visual acuity loss in dry eye patients is commonly mild-to-moderate, in the aging population, this minimal change in visual status can lead to a significant decrease in visual function and quality of life. A healthy ocular surface is maintained by appropriate tear production and tear drainage, and deficiencies in this delicate balance can lead to dryness. In the aging eye, risk factors such as polypharmacy, androgen deficiency, decreased blink rates, and oxidative stress can predispose the patient to developing dry eye that is frequently more severe, has higher economic costs, and leads to worse consequences to the well-being of the patient. Understanding why elderly patients are at higher risk for developing dry eyes can provide insights into the diagnosis and management of the growing number of older adults struggling with dry eye and minimize the burden of disease on our aging population.

  3. Corneal confocal microscopy and dry eye findings in contact lens discomfort patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Aysun Sanal; Gurdal, Canan; Arslan, Nese

    2017-08-16

    To evaluate the corneal confocal microscopy and dry eye findings in patients with contact lens discomfort. The study included 3 groups of participants: Contact lens wearers using silicone hydrogel soft contact lenses who are symptomatic (CLD, n=15) or asymptomatic (ACL, n=11) and non-wearers as controls (n=14). Duration of contact lens wear, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire responses, fluorescein tear break-uptime (FBUT), and corneal confocal microscopy findings were recorded. Mean age was 25.7±8.2 years and male/female ratio was 7/33. Demographic findings were similar regarding the groups. CLD patients had a longer lens use history than ACL (median 5 vs 2 years, p<0.001). OSDI scores were higher in CLD group than ACL or controls (p<0.001, p=0.002). FBUT was significantly lowest in CLD group, compared to controls and ACL (p<0.001, p=0.039). FBUT was also lower in ACL patients compared to controls (p=0.036). There was no difference between basal epithelium cell counts between all 3 groups. Anterior stromal activated keratocyte numbers were similar between contact lens using groups but was lower in controls (p=0.005). However, dendritiform cells in the sub-basal nerve layer were higher in CLD group compared to controls but similar to ACL (p<0.001, p=0.058). Graded sub-basal nerve tortuosity was more prominent in CLD group than the ACL (p=0.014). Patients with CLD had been wearing contact lenses for longer than those without symptoms. OSDI and FBUT scores were worse in CLD patients. In contact lens discomfort patients, there were increased dendritiform cells, indicating intensified inflammatory status of the cornea. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. COMPARISON OF DRY EYES IN POST- MENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH AND WITHOUT SYMPTOMS OF DRY EYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : PURPOSE: This study was done to evaluate the relationship between menopause and dry eyes, to assess the severity of dry eyes in symptomatic post-menopausal women and to validate Ocular Surface Disease Index. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study, cross sectional group comprised of 293 postmenopausal patients attending the postmenopausal clinic in Gynecology Out Patient Department and fulfilling our selection criteria. After noting the detailed history and demography, the Allergan Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI score was done. Visual acuity was assessed on Snellen’s chart and anterior segment evaluation was done with slit lamp biomicroscope. Dry eye evaluation was done with Schirmer and Tear film Break-Up Time (tBUT tests. RESULTS: The important ocular findings in postmenopausal women were foreign-body sensation and grittiness, hyperaemia, mucoid discharge and fluctuating or blurry vision. The overall prevalence of dry eye in symptomatic post-menopausal women was 82.97% which was statistically significant. (p<0.00 CONCLUSION: Results from the present study reveal that dry eye symptoms are common problems in postmenopausal women. The prevalence of dry eye in post-menopausal women with symptoms has significant association. Hence, examination for dry eye should be an integral part of the postmenopausal women especially those having dry eye symptoms.

  5. Severity of dry eye syndrome is related to anti-dsDNA autoantibody in systemic lupus erythematosus patients without secondary Sjogren syndrome: A cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alexander; Chen, Hung-Ta; Hwang, Yih-Hsiou; Chen, Yi-Tsun; Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2016-07-01

    There are as many as one-third of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients who suffer from dry eye syndrome. To this date, dry eye syndrome in SLE patients is believed to be caused by secondary Sjogren syndrome (sSS). However, there is increasing evidence for possible independency of dry eye syndrome and sSS in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this retrospective observational case series was to identify SLE patients without sSS who had dry eye syndrome, examine the correlation of different autoantibodies and dry eye severity, and determine the cause of dry eye in these patients.We included 49 consecutive SLE patients with dry eye who visited our dry eye clinic. In order to rule out sSS, these patients were all negative for anti-Sjogren's-syndrome-related antigen A and B (anti-SSA/SSB) and had no oral symptoms. Each patient's lupus activity was determined by serological tests including antidouble-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA), complement levels (C3, C4), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and antinuclear antibody (ANA). Severity of dry eye syndrome was determined by corneal sensation (KSen), superficial punctuate keratopathy (SPK), Schirmer-I test (Schirmer), and tear film break-up time (TBUT). The autoantibodies and the dry eye parameters in each group were tested using the χ test or the Mann-Whitney U test for normally distributed or skewed data, respectively.The anti-dsDNA showed significant correlations with KSen (P syndrome in SLE patients without sSS was strongly correlated with anti-dsDNA and C3 but not with C4, ESR, and ANA.

  6. Severity of dry eye syndrome is related to anti-dsDNA autoantibody in systemic lupus erythematosus patients without secondary Sjogren syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Alexander; Chen, Hung-Ta; Hwang, Yih-Hsiou; Chen, Yi-Tsun; Hsiao, Ching-Hsi; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There are as many as one-third of the systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients who suffer from dry eye syndrome. To this date, dry eye syndrome in SLE patients is believed to be caused by secondary Sjogren syndrome (sSS). However, there is increasing evidence for possible independency of dry eye syndrome and sSS in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The purpose of this retrospective observational case series was to identify SLE patients without sSS who had dry eye syndrome, examine the correlation of different autoantibodies and dry eye severity, and determine the cause of dry eye in these patients. We included 49 consecutive SLE patients with dry eye who visited our dry eye clinic. In order to rule out sSS, these patients were all negative for anti-Sjogren's-syndrome-related antigen A and B (anti-SSA/SSB) and had no oral symptoms. Each patient's lupus activity was determined by serological tests including antidouble-stranded DNA antibody (anti-dsDNA), complement levels (C3, C4), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and antinuclear antibody (ANA). Severity of dry eye syndrome was determined by corneal sensation (KSen), superficial punctuate keratopathy (SPK), Schirmer-I test (Schirmer), and tear film break-up time (TBUT). The autoantibodies and the dry eye parameters in each group were tested using the χ2 test or the Mann–Whitney U test for normally distributed or skewed data, respectively. The anti-dsDNA showed significant correlations with KSen (P syndrome in SLE patients without sSS was strongly correlated with anti-dsDNA and C3 but not with C4, ESR, and ANA. PMID:27428227

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American Academy of ...

  9. Frequency and risk factors associated with dry eye in patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Jaime D; Galor, Anat; Ramos-Betancourt, Nallely; Lisker-Cervantes, Andrés; Beltrán, Francisco; Ozorno-Zárate, Jorge; Sánchez-Huerta, Valeria; Torres-Vera, Marco-Antonio; Hernández-Quintela, Everardo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to ascertain the frequency and risk factors of dry eye (DE) among patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico. Methods Approximately 338 consecutive new patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City underwent an ocular surface examination, which included tear film break-up time, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer’s test, and evaluation of meibum quality. Symptoms of DE were evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index and Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Information on demographics, exposures, past medical and ocular history, and medications was also collected. Results The frequency of severe DE symptoms was found to be 43% based on the Ocular Surface Disease Index and 30% based on Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Risk factors significantly associated with increased DE symptoms included dry mouth and gastrointestinal ulcer medications. With regard to signs, aqueous tear deficiency was a less-frequent finding (22%) in our population than evaporative deficiency (94%). Risk factors associated with aqueous tear deficiency were dry mouth and diuretic use. No risk factors were associated with evaporative deficiency. Risk factors associated with meibomian gland dysfunction included old age, male sex, arthritis, and use of an antihypertensive. The only risk factor associated with corneal staining was dry mouth. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate the frequency of symptomatic and clinical DE in a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico. The frequency of DE ranged from 30% using a symptomatic definition to 94% using objective measures. Different risk factors were found for different aspects of DE, suggesting differing underlying pathophysiologies behind different DE subtypes. PMID:27499613

  10. Frequency and risk factors associated with dry eye in patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinez JD

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Jaime D Martinez,1 Anat Galor,2,3 Nallely Ramos-Betancourt,1 Andrés Lisker-Cervantes,1 Francisco Beltrán,1 Jorge Ozorno-Zárate,1 Valeria Sánchez-Huerta,1 Marco-Antonio Torres-Vera,1 Everardo Hernández-Quintela1 1Cornea and External Diseases Service, Asociación Para Evitar la Ceguera en Mexico (Association to prevent blindness in Mexico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Miami Veterans Affairs Medical Center, 3Cornea and External Diseases Division, Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami, Miami, FL, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to ascertain the frequency and risk factors of dry eye (DE among patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico.Methods: Approximately 338 consecutive new patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City underwent an ocular surface examination, which included tear film break-up time, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer’s test, and evaluation of meibum quality. Symptoms of DE were evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index and Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Information on demographics, exposures, past medical and ocular history, and medications was also collected.Results: The frequency of severe DE symptoms was found to be 43% based on the Ocular Surface Disease Index and 30% based on Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Risk factors significantly associated with increased DE symptoms included dry mouth and gastrointestinal ulcer medications. With regard to signs, aqueous tear deficiency was a less-frequent finding (22% in our population than evaporative deficiency (94%. Risk factors associated with aqueous tear deficiency were dry mouth and diuretic use. No risk factors were associated with evaporative deficiency. Risk factors associated with meibomian gland dysfunction included old age, male sex, arthritis, and use of an antihypertensive. The only risk factor associated with corneal staining was dry

  11. [The presence of dry eye syndrome and corneal complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and its association with -174 gene polymorphism for interleukin 6].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanská, V; Serý, O; Fojtík, Z; Hlinomazová, Z

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the dry eye syndrome and corneal complications in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and to assess its association with the -174 gene polymorphism for interleukin 6. The group consisted of 123 patients treated for rheumatoid arthritis (20 men, 103 women); the mean age was 53 years (+/- 13.6). Every patient had completely ophthalmologic examination and special attention was paid to the amount of tears. The presence of corneal complications was detected in the medical history and evaluated during the slit lamp examination. In all patients the polymorphism-174 IL-6 examinations were performed. For the statistical data processing, the chi square (chi2) test for nominal variable was used. The dry eye syndrome (DES) was found in 98 eyes (79.7%), severe dry eye syndrome was detected in 53 patients (43.1%). Corneal complications appeared in 9 patients (7.3%). DES was present in 32 patients with the GG genotype (91.4%, n1 = 35), in 49 patients with the CG genotype (71.0%, n2 = 69), and in 8 patients with the CC genotype (42.1%, n3 = 19). After the statistical evaluation we have found the association between the dry eye syndrome and the GG genotype (chi2 = 8.9) and the association between less common dry eye syndrome appearance and the presence of the CC genotype (chi2 = 10.3). Severe dry eye syndrome we proved in 18 patients with GG genotype (51.4%, n1 = 35), in 31 patients with CG genotype (44.9%, n2 = 69), and in 4 patients with CC genotype CC (21.1%, n3 = 19). We proved statistically significant association between CC genotype and less often appearance of the severe dry eye syndrome (chi2 = 4.45). Corneal complications we noticed in one patient with GG genotype (2.8%, n1 = 35), in 5 patients with CG genotype (7.2%, n2 = 69), and in 3 patients with CC genotype (15.8%, n3 = 19). We did not prove statistically significant association between the 174 IL-6 polymorphism and corneal complications appearance. The 174 IL-6

  12. Dry Eye Management: Targeting the Ocular Surface Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; M, Vimalin Jeyalatha; Qu, Yangluowa; He, Xin; Ou, Shangkun; Bu, Jinghua; Jia, Changkai; Wang, Junqi; Wu, Han; Liu, Zuguo; Li, Wei

    2017-06-29

    Dry eye can damage the ocular surface and result in mild corneal epithelial defect to blinding corneal pannus formation and squamous metaplasia. Significant progress in the treatment of dry eye has been made in the last two decades; progressing from lubricating and hydrating the ocular surface with artificial tear to stimulating tear secretion; anti-inflammation and immune regulation. With the increase in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of dry eye, we propose in this review the concept of ocular surface microenvironment. Various components of the microenvironment contribute to the homeostasis of ocular surface. Compromise in one or more components can result in homeostasis disruption of ocular surface leading to dry eye disease. Complete evaluation of the microenvironment component changes in dry eye patients will not only lead to appropriate diagnosis, but also guide in timely and effective clinical management. Successful treatment of dry eye should be aimed to restore the homeostasis of the ocular surface microenvironment.

  13. Dry Eye Management: Targeting the Ocular Surface Microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaobo; Jeyalatha M, Vimalin; Qu, Yangluowa; He, Xin; Ou, Shangkun; Bu, Jinghua; Jia, Changkai; Wang, Junqi; Wu, Han; Liu, Zuguo

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye can damage the ocular surface and result in mild corneal epithelial defect to blinding corneal pannus formation and squamous metaplasia. Significant progress in the treatment of dry eye has been made in the last two decades; progressing from lubricating and hydrating the ocular surface with artificial tear to stimulating tear secretion; anti-inflammation and immune regulation. With the increase in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of dry eye, we propose in this review the concept of ocular surface microenvironment. Various components of the microenvironment contribute to the homeostasis of ocular surface. Compromise in one or more components can result in homeostasis disruption of ocular surface leading to dry eye disease. Complete evaluation of the microenvironment component changes in dry eye patients will not only lead to appropriate diagnosis, but also guide in timely and effective clinical management. Successful treatment of dry eye should be aimed to restore the homeostasis of the ocular surface microenvironment. PMID:28661456

  14. Discordant Dry Eye Disease (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M; Harper, Daniel E; Pallazola, Vincent; Harte, Steven E; Hussain, Munira; Sugar, Alan; Williams, David A; Clauw, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    To improve understanding of dry eye disease and highlight a subgroup of patients who have a component of central sensitization and neuropathic pain contributing to their condition. Prospective, cross-sectional, IRB-approved study comparing isolated dry eye disease (n=48) to fibromyalgia (positive control; n=23) and healthy (negative control; n=26) individuals with ocular surface examination, corneal confocal microscopy, quantitative sensory testing, and self-reported ocular symptoms and systemic associations. A subset of patients also underwent skin biopsy and/or brain neuroimaging. Dry eye patients were split into concordant (ie, those with dry eyes on examination) and discordant (ie, those with dry eye symptoms but normal examination) subgroups for further analysis. We hypothesized that on the systemic measures included, concordant patients would resemble healthy controls, whereas discordant patients would show evidence of centralized mechanisms similar to fibromyalgia. Schirmer test and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores indicated significant decreases in tear production (Schirmer: healthy, 18.5±8.2 mm; dry, 11.2±5.4 mm; fibromyalgia, 14.4±7.5; P<.001) and increases in self-reported dry eye symptoms (OSDI: healthy, 1.9±3.0; dry, 20.3±17.7; fibromyalgia, 20.3±17.1; P<.001) in the dry eye and fibromyalgia patients, compared to controls. The discordant subgroup had decreased corneal nerve density and decreased visual quality-of-life scores, similar to patients with fibromyalgia. Concordant patients were more similar to healthy controls on these measures. Individuals with discordant dry eye may have a central pathophysiologic mechanism leading to their eye pain symptoms, which could be an important factor to consider in treatment of chronic idiopathic dry eye.

  15. CORELATION OF DRY EYE STATUS WITH SEVERITY OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

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    Tanushree

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the correlation of dry eye status with severity of diabetic retinopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective study. One hundred patients with diabetes mellitus attending the outpatient and in-patient department, Department of Ophthalmology, K. R. Hospital, Mysore, were included under the study, between the periods from January 2014 to July 2014 (6 months. Informed and written consent was taken from all the patients. After detailed history, all necessary ocular and systemic examination was done. All diabetes mellitus patients were analyzed for dry eye status and presence of diabetic retinopathy changes. Dry eye status was evaluated with Schirmer’s test, Tear film break up time and conjunctival impression cytology. Retinal status evaluation was done by direct ophthalmoscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy and Slit lamp Biomicroscopy using 78D lens after pupillary dilation. Diabetic retinopathy was graded accordingly to ETDRS classification. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: All data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi square test and contingency coefficient analysis was applied. RESULTS: A total of 100 diabetes mellitus patients were analyzed. 56 (56% patients had Diabetic retinopathy and 44(44% had normal fundus picture. Out of the 100 diabetes mellitus patients, 36 (36% patients had dry eye. Significant association (P – 0.001 between dry eye and diabetes mellitus was seen. CONCLUSION: Dry eye and diabetes mellitus have a common association. Dry eye is more frequent in diabetes mellitus patients with longer duration and in patients with Diabetic retinopathy.

  16. New drugs for the treatment of dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridder III WH

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available William H Ridder III, Apoorva Karsolia Southern California College of Optometry, Marshall B Ketchum University, Fullerton, CA, USA Abstract: Dry eye disease (DED is one of the most commonly encountered conditions for eye care practitioners. The prevalence of DED can be as high as 30% of the population. In the past decade, only one drug has been approved for the treatment of DED by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA in the USA (ie, Restasis® by Allergan, Inc.. The total annual cost (ie, treatment and lost productivity due to symptoms to the US economy of dry eye can be more than $55 billion. Thus, the development of new drug treatments for dry eye is important for both the dry eye patient and the ophthalmic industry. There are many drugs in development for the treatment of dry eye. This manuscript reviews the drugs listed on the ClinicalTrials.gov website (FDA list of clinical trials being investigated for the treatment of dry eye. A large number of these drugs are designed to target a specific cause of dry eye and some of these drugs will be approved for clinical use in the next 10 years. This will result in a significant increase in the clinician’s choice of treatment and potentially better control of the dry eye patient's condition. Keywords: keratoconjunctivitis sicca, clinical trials, anti-inflammatory, secretagogues

  17. Use of preservative-free hyaluronic acid (Hylabak® for a range of patients with dry eye syndrome: experience in Russia

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    Brzhesky VV

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vladimir Vsevolodovich Brjesky,1 Yury Fedorovich Maychuk,2 Alexey Vladimirovich Petrayevsky,3 Peter Gerrievich Nagorsky41Department of Ophthalmology, Pediatric State Medical Academy, Saint Petersburg, 2Moscow Research Institute of Eye Diseases, Moscow, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Volgograd State Medical University, Volgograd, 4Novosibirsk Branch of the Federal State Institute MNTK Eye Microsurgery, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation, RussiaAbstract: Artificial tear preparations are important in the management of dry eye syndrome. We present the findings from four recently published studies conducted in Russia assessing Hylabak® (marketed as Hyabak® in Europe, a preservative-free hyaluronic acid preparation, for the treatment of dry eye syndrome. All studies had an open, noncomparative design, but one compared the findings with those from 25 patients treated with Tear Naturale® in previous studies. A total of 134 children and adults were enrolled, and the etiologies of dry eye syndrome included contact lens use, intensive office work, adenovirus eye infection, postmenopausal status, persistent meibomian blepharitis, Sjögren's syndrome, phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation, and refractive surgery. The patients were treated with Hylabak for 2 weeks to 2 months. All studies showed that Hylabak resulted in marked improvement as assessed by subjective sensations/complaints, Schirmer's test, Norn’s test, impression cytology and biomicroscopy, staining, and tear osmolarity. Greater benefits were also reported compared with Tear Naturale, including a faster onset of action. Hylabak was well tolerated. In conclusion, Hylabak provided rapid and safe relief from the signs and symptoms of dry eye syndrome, as well as improvement in objective measures, in a wide range of patients.Keywords: dry eye, eye drops, artificial tears, hyaluronic acid, Hylabak®, preservative-free

  18. Comparison of the NEI-VFQ and OSDI questionnaires in patients with Sjögren's syndrome-related dry eye

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    Smith Janine A

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine the associations between vision-targeted health-related quality of life (VT-HRQ and ocular surface parameters in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by dry eye and dry mouth. Methods Forty-two patients fulfilling European / American diagnostic criteria for Sjögren's syndrome underwent Schirmer testing without anesthesia, ocular surface vital dye staining; and measurement of tear film breakup time (TBUT. Subjects were administered the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI and the 25-item National Eye Institute Vision Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ. Main outcome measures included ocular surface parameters, OSDI subscales describing ocular discomfort (OSDI-symptoms, vision-related function (OSDI-function, and environmental triggers, and NEI-VFQ subscales. Results Participants (aged 31–81 y; 95% female all had moderate to severe dry eye. Associations of OSDI subscales with the ocular parameters were modest (Spearman r (ρ Conclusions Associations between conventional objective measures of dry eye and VT-HRQ were modest. The generic NEI-VFQ was similar to the disease-specific OSDI in its ability to measure the impact of Sjögren's syndrome-related dry eye on VT-HRQ.

  19. Effects of 3% diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution on higher-order aberrations in patients diagnosed with dry eye after cataract surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Yasushi; Ochi, Shintarou

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effects of diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution 3% (DQS) and artificial tears (AT) on higher-order aberrations (HOAs) in patients with dry eye after cataract surgery. Design This was a post hoc analysis of a previously conducted randomized clinical study. Methods Fifty-nine eyes from 42 patients (17 males and 25 females, aged 72.6±8.0 years) with verified or suspected dry eye at 4 weeks after cataract surgery were evaluated. The dry eye patients were randomly assigned to receive DQS or AT for 4 weeks. Tear breakup time (BUT), corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores, and HOAs were analyzed before and after instillation. HOAs were measured consecutively for 10 seconds with a wavefront analyzer. Average HOAs, HOA fluctuations (fluctuation index [FI]) and changes in HOAs (stability index [SI]) were compared within and between the two groups. Results After 4 weeks of instillation, BUT significantly increased (P=0.001) compared with preinstillation values in the DQS group, but not in the AT group. This increase in BUT in the DQS group was significantly greater than in the AT group (P=0.014). Corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores after instillation significantly improved compared with preinstillation values in the DQS group (P=0.018). In HOAs, the cornea aberration changed from an upward curve (a sawtooth pattern) to an almost constant value (a stable pattern) in the DQS group, but not in the AT group. In FI and SI, there were no significant changes in either group; however, FI and SI were significantly lower in the DQS group than in the AT group (both, P=0.004). Conclusion The dry eye patients after cataract surgery had a visual dysfunction in HOAs. DQS is effective to treat dry eye disease after cataract surgery with improvement of visual function. PMID:28096651

  20. Condition Judgement of Dry Eye in Sicca Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    In this paper, we presented 32 dry eyes of 16 random patients with primary Sicca Syndrome graded with rose bengal(rb), Break up time of tear film (BUT) and Schirmer 1 test (S1T). Of them, the lip biopsy and tear β2-M level were examined and overall studied. The results showed that the grade of dry eye was closely related with both the degree of lymphocyte infiltration of lip glands and level of tear β2-M, and indicated that our grading methed for dry eye based on rb, BUT and SIT is dependable, and the l...

  1. Sex hormones and the dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Susan; Cole, Nerida; Stapleton, Fiona; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2014-07-01

    The greater prevalence of dry eye in women compared to men suggests that sex hormones may have a role in this condition. This review aims to present evidence for how sex hormones may affect the ocular structures involved in the production, regulation and maintenance of the normal tear film. It is hypothesised that hormone changes alter the homeostasis of the ocular surface and contribute to dry eye. Androgens impact on the structure and function of the meibomian and lacrimal glands and therefore androgen deficiency is, at least in part, associated with the aetiology of dry eye. In contrast, reports of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on these ocular structures and on the conjunctiva are contradictory and the mechanisms of action of these female-specific sex hormones in the eye are not well understood. The uncertainty of the effects of oestrogen and progesterone on dry eye symptoms is reflected in the controversial relationship between hormone replacement therapy and the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Current understanding of sex hormone influences on the immune system suggests that oestrogen may modulate a cascade of inflammatory events, which underlie dry eye.

  2. A randomized crossover study comparing trehalose/hyaluronate eyedrops and standard treatment: patient satisfaction in the treatment of dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto-Bonilla, Juan Carlos; Del Olmo-Jimeno, Alberto; Llovet-Osuna, Fernando; Hernández-Galilea, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a common disorder in routine ophthalmological practice, and a better understanding of the complex pathophysiology is leading to improved treatment. Thealoz Duo(®) is a novel artificial tear preparation containing two active ingredients: Trehalose, a naturally occurring disaccharide with anhydrobiotic functions in many organisms, and hyaluronate, a widely distributed anionic glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide with lubricative and water-retaining properties in biological systems. In a randomized, single center, open label, crossover study, 17 adult patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye syndrome were randomized to treatment with Thealoz Duo(®) (combining trehalose and hyaluronic acid) or Systane(®). Patients received 7 days of treatment. The primary efficacy variable was patient satisfaction evaluated by a 0-100 visual analog scale evaluated on days 0 and 7 of treatment. Secondary parameters included ocular surface disease index (OSDI), symptoms of dry eye, ocular staining scores (fluorescein and lissamine green), ocular clinical signs, Schirmer test, tear breakup time, and global efficacy assessed by the patient and the investigator. Seventeen patients were included. Patient satisfaction improved from 44.5±19.0 to 70.2±19.2 mm during Thealoz Duo(®) treatment and from 47.2±23 to 57.1±19.1 mm during Systane(®) treatment (P=0.043, mixed-effects analysis of covariance). Two secondary efficacy parameters (dry eye symptoms and the impact of their symptoms on work) showed statistically significant advantages for Thealoz Duo(®) over Systane(®). There were no statistically significant advantages for Systane(®) over Thealoz Duo(®) for any measured parameter. No adverse events were reported. Thealoz Duo(®) appears to be an effective combination of two active ingredients for the treatment of dry eye and is at least as effective as Systane(®).

  3. The relationship between Graves’ ophthalmopathy and dry eye syndrome

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    Selter JH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Jessica H Selter,1 Anisa I Gire,2 Shameema Sikder2 1Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, 2Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: A complex relationship between Graves’ ophthalmopathy (GO and dry eye syndrome exists. New research brings more insight into the association between these two diseases.Methods: A review of the literature was conducted using the query terms “Graves’ Ophthalmopathy”, “Thyroid Eye Disease”, and “Dry Eye” in MedLine (PubMed and Scopus. A total of 55 papers were reviewed. Case reports were excluded.Conclusion: This review paper shows the close relationship between dry eye syndrome and GO. The underlying mechanisms behind their association suggest mechanical impairment of orbital muscles and immune-mediated lacrimal gland dysfunction as the causes of dry eye in GO patients. However, there are a variety of treatment options available for patients with GO with signs of dry eye, which help combat this issue. Keywords: Graves’ ophthalmopathy, dry eye, thyroid eye disease, ocular inflammation

  4. The IMPACT study: a prospective evaluation of the effects of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% on ocular surface staining and visual performance in patients with dry eye

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    Stonecipher KG

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Karl G Stonecipher,1,2 Gail L Torkildsen,3 George W Ousler III,4 Scot Morris,5 Linda Villanueva,6 David A Hollander6 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, 2TLC Laser Eye Centers, Greensboro, NC, 3Andover Eye Associates, 4Ora, Inc., Andover, MA, 5Eye Consultants of Colorado, Conifer, CO, 6Allergan plc, Irvine, CA, USA Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% on ocular surface staining and visual performance in patients with dry eye.Methods: This was a single-center, 6-month, open-label, Phase IV study. Patients with bilateral dry eye disease and a symptom score of ≥2 on the Ocular Discomfort and 4-Symptom Questionnaire, an Ocular Surface Disease Index score of >12, at least one eye with Schirmer’s score <10 mm/5 minutes, and central corneal staining graded as ≥2 on the Ora Calibra™ Corneal and Conjunctival Staining Scale were enrolled. Cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis® was instilled twice daily in each eye. The primary efficacy endpoints were ocular surface staining and visual function at 6 months. Secondary outcome measures included Schirmer’s test, tear film breakup time, symptoms, and adverse events.Results: A total of 40 patients with the mean age of 59.4 years (range, 40–78 years were enrolled; 35 (87.5% were female and 37 (92.5% completed the study. At 6 months, inferior corneal, central corneal, total corneal, and total ocular surface fluorescein staining were significantly improved from baseline in both eyes (P<0.001. Patient responses on the Ocular Surface Disease Index showed significant improvement in blurred vision and visual function related to reading, driving at night, working with a computer or bank machine, and watching television (P≤0.041. At 6 months, 35.1% of patients achieved ≥5 mm improvement and 18.9% achieved ≥10 mm improvement in the average eye Schirmer score. Mean tear film breakup

  5. Incidence and pattern of dry eye after cataract surgery.

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    Ngamjit Kasetsuwan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the incidence and severity pattern of dry eye after phacoemulsification. SETTING: King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study. METHODS: Samples were collected from ninety-two uncomplicated cataract patients who were 18 years old or older. Dry eye incidence and pattern were analyzed at days 0, 7, 30 and 90 after phacoemulsification using (1 Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI questionnaire, (2 tear break up time (TBUT, (3 Oxford ocular surface staining system, and (4 Schirmer I test without anesthesia. RESULTS: Seven days after phacoemulsification, the incidence of dry eye was 9.8% (95% confidence interval; 3.6-16.0%. The severity of dry eye peaked seven days post-phacoemulsification and was measured by OSDI questionnaire and all three clinical tests. Within thirty days and 3 months post-surgery, both the symptoms and signs showed rapid and gradual improvements, respectively. However, dry eye post-phacoemulsification was not significantly associated with sex and systemic hypertension (P = 0.26, 0.17 and 0.73, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of dry eye after phacoemulsification was 9.8%. Symptoms and signs of dry eye occurred as early as seven days post-phacoemulsification and the severity pattern improved over time. We recommend that ophthalmologists should evaluate patients both before and after phacoemulsification to prevent further damage to the ocular surface and able to manage the patient promptly and effectively so the patient will not have a poor quality of life and vision due to dry eye syndrome.

  6. Effects of 3% diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution on higher-order aberrations in patients diagnosed with dry eye after cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inoue Y

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Yasushi Inoue, Shintarou Ochi Inoue Eye Clinic, Tamano, Okayama, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the effects of diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution 3% (DQS and artificial tears (AT on higher-order aberrations (HOAs in patients with dry eye after cataract surgery. Design: This was a post hoc analysis of a previously conducted randomized clinical study. Methods: Fifty-nine eyes from 42 patients (17 males and 25 females, aged 72.6±8.0 years with verified or suspected dry eye at 4 weeks after cataract surgery were evaluated. The dry eye patients were randomly assigned to receive DQS or AT for 4 weeks. Tear breakup time (BUT, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores, and HOAs were analyzed before and after instillation. HOAs were measured consecutively for 10 seconds with a wavefront analyzer. Average HOAs, HOA fluctuations (fluctuation index [FI] and changes in HOAs (stability index [SI] were compared within and between the two groups. Results: After 4 weeks of instillation, BUT significantly increased (P=0.001 compared with preinstillation values in the DQS group, but not in the AT group. This increase in BUT in the DQS group was significantly greater than in the AT group (P=0.014. Corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores after instillation significantly improved compared with preinstillation values in the DQS group (P=0.018. In HOAs, the cornea aberration changed from an upward curve (a sawtooth pattern to an almost constant value (a stable pattern in the DQS group, but not in the AT group. In FI and SI, there were no significant changes in either group; however, FI and SI were significantly lower in the DQS group than in the AT group (both, P=0.004. Conclusion: The dry eye patients after cataract surgery had a visual dysfunction in HOAs. DQS is effective to treat dry eye disease after cataract surgery with improvement of visual function. Keywords: cataract surgery, dry eye, tear film breakup time, higher-order aberrations

  7. Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny L Gayton

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Johnny L GaytonEyesight Associates, Warner Robins, GA, USAPurpose: This review article examines the prevalence, etiology, and current therapies of dry eye disease, with special focus on postmenopausal women.Method: A systematic literature search utilizing MEDLINE was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles related to dry eye published prior to September 2008. The terms “dry eye” and “women” were searched in combination with one or more of the following words or phrases: prevalence, postmenopausal, etiology, risk factors, therapy, medications, surgery, tear film, and quality of life. Articles were selected based on their direct applicability to the subject matter. A manual search was also conducted based on citations in the published literature.Results: Epidemiologic studies identified prevalence rates ranging from 7% in the United States to 33% in Taiwan and Japan. Risk factors include advanced age, female sex, smoking, extreme heat or cold weather conditions, low relative humidity, use of video display terminals, refractive surgery, contact lens wear, and certain medications.Conclusion: The last decade has brought about a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye disease. New therapies that can alleviate the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease and, consequently, improve the quality of life of dry eye patients are available in the market.Keywords: dry eye disease, etiology, prevalence, postmenopausal women

  8. A randomized crossover study comparing trehalose/hyaluronate eyedrops and standard treatment: patient satisfaction in the treatment of dry eye syndrome

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    Pinto-Bonilla JC

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Juan Carlos Pinto-Bonilla,1 Alberto del Olmo-Jimeno,2 Fernando Llovet-Osuna,3 Emiliano Hernández-Galilea4 1Department of Corneal, Refractive, and Cataract Surgery, European Ophthalmological Institute, Clínica Baviera, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain; 2Optometry Department, European Ophthalmological Institute, Clínica Baviera, Pamplona, Navarra, Spain; 3Department of Refractive and Cataract Surgery, European Ophthalmological Institute, Clínica Baviera, Madrid, Madrid, Spain; 4Ophthalmology Department, Hospital Clínico Universitario de Salamanca, Universidad de Salamanca, Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain Abstract: Dry eye is a common disorder in routine ophthalmological practice, and a better understanding of the complex pathophysiology is leading to improved treatment. Thealoz Duo® is a novel artificial tear preparation containing two active ingredients: Trehalose, a naturally occurring disaccharide with anhydrobiotic functions in many organisms, and hyaluronate, a widely distributed anionic glycosaminoglycan polysaccharide with lubricative and water-retaining properties in biological systems. In a randomized, single center, open label, crossover study, 17 adult patients with moderate-to-severe dry eye syndrome were randomized to treatment with Thealoz Duo® (combining trehalose and hyaluronic acid or Systane®. Patients received 7 days of treatment. The primary efficacy variable was patient satisfaction evaluated by a 0–100 visual analog scale evaluated on days 0 and 7 of treatment. Secondary parameters included ocular surface disease index (OSDI, symptoms of dry eye, ocular staining scores (fluorescein and lissamine green, ocular clinical signs, Schirmer test, tear breakup time, and global efficacy assessed by the patient and the investigator. Seventeen patients were included. Patient satisfaction improved from 44.5±19.0 to 70.2±19.2 mm during Thealoz Duo® treatment and from 47.2±23 to 57.1±19.1 mm during Systane® treatment (P=0.043, mixed

  9. Clinical treatment of dry eye using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovici, Bernardo K; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Chiacchio, Brenda B; Santo, Ruth M; Shimazaki, Jun; Hida, Richard Y

    2012-08-01

    To report the clinical outcome of the treatment of dry eyes using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops (olive oil + tacrolimus 0.03%) (Ophthalmos, Sao Paulo, Brazil). Sixteen eyes of 8 patients with Sjögren syndrome dry eyes (age, 51.13 ± 9.45 years) were enrolled in this study (prospective noncontrolled interventional case series). Patients were instructed to use topical 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops twice a day (every 12 hours) in the lower conjunctival sac. Schirmer I test, break-up time, corneal fluorescein, and rose bengal staining score were performed in all patients 1 day before, and 14, 28, and 90 days after treatment with 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops. The average fluorescein staining and rose bengal staining scores improved statistically significantly after 14 days of treatment and improved even more after 28 and 90 days. The average Schirmer I test did not improve statistically significantly after 28 days of treatment, although we did observe a significant improvement after 90 days of treatment with 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops. The average break-up time did not improve statistically after 14 days of treatment, although we observed a significant improvement after 28 and 90 days of treatment with 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops. Topical 0.03% tacrolimus eye drops successfully improved tear stability and ocular surface status in patients with dry eyes.

  10. Glaucoma and dry eye disease: the role of preservatives in glaucoma medications

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    Ratna Sitompul

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is a common cause of irreversible blindness with increasing prevalence. Some of glaucoma patients will also experience dry eye. Dry eye is the most frequent side effect related to benzalkonium chloride (BAC-containing eye drop  used for glaucoma patients. In addition, glaucoma and dry eyes have shared risk factors that are old age and female. Dry eye among glaucoma patients need to be treated promptly as it produces discomfort, reduces patients’ compliance and   decreases success rate of glaucoma therapy. Dry eye symptoms can be treated by applying preservative-free eye drop, giving combination of preservative containing and preservative-free eye drop to reduce BAC exposure, prescribing artificial tear and conducting surgery to minimize or eliminate the need of topical medication. (Med J Indones 2011; 20:302-5Keywords: benzalkonium chloride, dry eye, glaucoma

  11. Dry eye syndrome among computer users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajta, Aurora; Turkoanje, Daniela; Malaescu, Iosif; Marin, Catalin-Nicolae; Koos, Marie-Jeanne; Jelicic, Biljana; Milutinovic, Vuk

    2015-12-01

    Dry eye syndrome is characterized by eye irritation due to changes of the tear film. Symptoms include itching, foreign body sensations, mucous discharge and transitory vision blurring. Less occurring symptoms include photophobia and eye tiredness. Aim of the work was to determine the quality of the tear film and ocular dryness potential risk in persons who spend more than 8 hours using computers and possible correlations between severity of symptoms (dry eyes symptoms anamnesis) and clinical signs assessed by: Schirmer test I, TBUT (Tears break-up time), TFT (Tear ferning test). The results show that subjects using computer have significantly shorter TBUT (less than 5 s for 56 % of subjects and less than 10 s for 37 % of subjects), TFT type II/III in 50 % of subjects and type III 31% of subjects was found when compared to computer non users (TFT type I and II was present in 85,71% of subjects). Visual display terminal use, more than 8 hours daily, has been identified as a significant risk factor for dry eye. It's been advised to all persons who spend substantial time using computers to use artificial tears drops in order to minimize the symptoms of dry eyes syndrome and prevents serious complications.

  12. Effectiveness and Optical Quality of Topical 3.0% Diquafosol versus 0.05% Cyclosporine A in Dry Eye Patients following Cataract Surgery

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    Jang Hoon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the effectiveness and optical quality of 3.0% topical diquafosol versus 0.05% cyclosporine A in dry eye patients following cataract surgery. Methods. In total, 40 eyes of 40 patients newly diagnosed with dry eye syndrome 1 week after cataract surgery were randomized to receive either 3.0% diquafosol ophthalmic solution six times daily or 0.05% cyclosporine A twice daily for 3 months. Outcome measures were tear film break-up time (TBUT, results on Schirmer 1 test, ocular surface staining score, the ocular surface disease index (OSDI score, and higher-order aberrations (HOAs. Measurements were taken at baseline and at 1, 2, and 3 months. Results. In the diquafosol group, TBUT showed higher outcomes than the cyclosporine A group at 1 and 3 months. Both groups showed increased scores on Schirmer 1 test. The ocular surface staining score decreased in all periods in both groups. Vertical coma and total HOAs decreased more in the cyclosporine A group than in the diquafosol group at 3 months. Conclusion. Both 3.0% diquafosol and 0.05% cyclosporine A were effective in treating dry eye after cataract surgery. Diquafosol was more effective in increasing the tear secretion, but cyclosporine A was more effective in improving optical aberrations.

  13. Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Johnny L

    2009-01-01

    This review article examines the prevalence, etiology, and current therapies of dry eye disease, with special focus on postmenopausal women. A systematic literature search utilizing MEDLINE was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles related to dry eye published prior to September 2008. The terms "dry eye" and "women" were searched in combination with one or more of the following words or phrases: prevalence, postmenopausal, etiology, risk factors, therapy, medications, surgery, tear film, and quality of life. Articles were selected based on their direct applicability to the subject matter. A manual search was also conducted based on citations in the published literature. Epidemiologic studies identified prevalence rates ranging from 7% in the United States to 33% in Taiwan and Japan. Risk factors include advanced age, female sex, smoking, extreme heat or cold weather conditions, low relative humidity, use of video display terminals, refractive surgery, contact lens wear, and certain medications. The last decade has brought about a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye disease. New therapies that can alleviate the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease and, consequently, improve the quality of life of dry eye patients are available in the market.

  14. Therapy of corneal erosions and 'dry eye' with Solcoseryl and Vitasic eye drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krannig, H M; Rohde-Germann, H; Straub, W

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study of Solcoseryl eye drops versus Vitasic eye drops has been carried out under controlled conditions (randomized and double-blind) on a total of 94 patients. 52 had corneal erosion, 30 had dry eye syndrome, 8 cases could not be evaluated. In addition, 2 eyes with photophthalmia were treated with Vitasic and 2 showing keratitis with Solcoseryl. There were no adverse reactions other than 2 instances of stinging with Solcoseryl and 1 case of severe irritation after Vitasic. The patients were examined on days 0, 1, 3 and 7. Results showed a consistent superiority of Solcoseryl eye drops in respect to speed of healing of corneal erosions and moistening of the cornea in the 'dry eye' syndrome which reached statistical significance in some parameters.

  15. Diagnostic Procedures and Management of Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaštelan, Snježana; Tomić, Martina; Salopek-Rabatić, Jasminka; Novak, Branko

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye disease or dysfunctional tear syndrome is among the most frequent diagnoses in ophthalmology. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film which results in ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Risk factors for dry eye syndrome include age, sex (female gender), race, contact lens wear, environment with low humidity, systemic medications, and autoimmune disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the systematic classification, epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and advances in the management of dry eye disease. The recent improvements in comprehending the underlying etiologic factors will inevitably improve future classifications and diagnostic abilities leading to more effective therapeutic options. Treatment of this highly prevalent condition can drastically improve the quality of life of individuals and prevent damage to the ocular surface. PMID:24024186

  16. Diagnostic Procedures and Management of Dry Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snježana Kaštelan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye disease or dysfunctional tear syndrome is among the most frequent diagnoses in ophthalmology. It is a multifactorial disease of the ocular surface and tear film which results in ocular discomfort, visual disturbances, and tear instability with potential damage to the cornea and conjunctiva. Risk factors for dry eye syndrome include age, sex (female gender, race, contact lens wear, environment with low humidity, systemic medications, and autoimmune disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the systematic classification, epidemiology, diagnostic procedures, and advances in the management of dry eye disease. The recent improvements in comprehending the underlying etiologic factors will inevitably improve future classifications and diagnostic abilities leading to more effective therapeutic options. Treatment of this highly prevalent condition can drastically improve the quality of life of individuals and prevent damage to the ocular surface.

  17. The interblink interval in normal and dry eye subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston PR

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Patrick R Johnston,1 John Rodriguez,1 Keith J Lane,1 George Ousler,1 Mark B Abelson1,21Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA; 2Schepens Eye Research Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: Our aim was to extend the concept of blink patterns from average interblink interval (IBI to other aspects of the distribution of IBI. We hypothesized that this more comprehensive approach would better discriminate between normal and dry eye subjects.Methods: Blinks were captured over 10 minutes for ten normal and ten dry eye subjects while viewing a standardized televised documentary. Fifty-five blinks were analyzed for each of the 20 subjects. Means, standard deviations, and autocorrelation coefficients were calculated utilizing a single random effects model fit to all data points and a diagnostic model was subsequently fit to predict probability of a subject having dry eye based on these parameters.Results: Mean IBI was 5.97 seconds for normal versus 2.56 seconds for dry eye subjects (ratio: 2.33, P = 0.004. IBI variability was 1.56 times higher in normal subjects (P < 0.001, and the autocorrelation was 1.79 times higher in normal subjects (P = 0.044. With regard to the diagnostic power of these measures, mean IBI was the best dry eye versus normal classifier using receiver operating characteristics (0.85 area under curve (AUC, followed by the standard deviation (0.75 AUC, and lastly, the autocorrelation (0.63 AUC. All three predictors combined had an AUC of 0.89. Based on this analysis, cutoffs of ≤3.05 seconds for median IBI, and ≤0.73 for the coefficient of variation were chosen to classify dry eye subjects.Conclusion: (1 IBI was significantly shorter for dry eye patients performing a visual task compared to normals; (2 there was a greater variability of interblink intervals in normal subjects; and (3 these parameters were useful as diagnostic predictors of dry eye disease. The results of this pilot study merit investigation of IBI

  18. Prevention and treatment of transient dry eye following excimer laser surgery

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    V. V. Pogorelovа

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare dry eye symptoms after LASIK with mechanical keratome-created flaps and femtosecond laser keratome-created flaps as well as to analyze the efficacy of Systane® Ultra Monodose used to prevent and to treat transient dry eye after excimer laser surgery. Methods: 98 patients (194 eyes with myopia and compound myopic astigmatism who underwent excimer laser surgery were included in the study. In group 1 patients with pre-op dry eye, femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK was performed, Systane® Ultra Monodose was prescribed postoperatively. In group 2 patients with pre-op dry eye, LASIK was performed using mechanical microkeratome, Systane® Ultra Monodose was prescribed postoperatively. In group 3 patients without pre-op dry eye, LASIK was performed using mechanical microkeratome, standard anti-inflammatory therapy without any lubricant eye drops was prescribed. Patients were followed up for 60 days. Results: It was demonstrated that excimer laser surgery provokes transient dry eye in all patients, therefore, artificial tears are required for 2 months and more after the surgery. Post-operative lubricant eye drops use improves tear film stability, tear production, tear osmolarity, and objective signs of dry eye. Femtosecond laser decreases clinical and functional symptoms of transient dry eye as compared with mechanical microkeratome and provides more rapid visual recovery. Conclusion: Systane® Ultra Monodose has both high efficiency and good tolerability. It can be recommended for the prevention and treatment of dry eye following excimer laser surgery.

  19. Prevention and treatment of transient dry eye following excimer laser surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pogorelovа

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare dry eye symptoms after LASIK with mechanical keratome-created flaps and femtosecond laser keratome-created flaps as well as to analyze the efficacy of Systane® Ultra Monodose used to prevent and to treat transient dry eye after excimer laser surgery. Methods: 98 patients (194 eyes with myopia and compound myopic astigmatism who underwent excimer laser surgery were included in the study. In group 1 patients with pre-op dry eye, femtosecond laser-assisted LASIK was performed, Systane® Ultra Monodose was prescribed postoperatively. In group 2 patients with pre-op dry eye, LASIK was performed using mechanical microkeratome, Systane® Ultra Monodose was prescribed postoperatively. In group 3 patients without pre-op dry eye, LASIK was performed using mechanical microkeratome, standard anti-inflammatory therapy without any lubricant eye drops was prescribed. Patients were followed up for 60 days. Results: It was demonstrated that excimer laser surgery provokes transient dry eye in all patients, therefore, artificial tears are required for 2 months and more after the surgery. Post-operative lubricant eye drops use improves tear film stability, tear production, tear osmolarity, and objective signs of dry eye. Femtosecond laser decreases clinical and functional symptoms of transient dry eye as compared with mechanical microkeratome and provides more rapid visual recovery. Conclusion: Systane® Ultra Monodose has both high efficiency and good tolerability. It can be recommended for the prevention and treatment of dry eye following excimer laser surgery.

  20. [Dry eye syndrome and the PC screen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldovan, Iulia; Stan, Cristina; Marc, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    To study the correlation between PC screen exposure of over 8 hours and Dry Eye Syndrome in 18-25 years-old students. This is a cross-sectional, cohort clinical study, carried out in March 2012 - February 2013. All subjects completed a questionnaire, underwent a slit lamp examination and measurement of visual acuity. Among the 59 participants of this study, 26 were EXPOSED (> 8 hours of PC screen exposure = EXPOSED) and 33 were NONEXPOSED. The 18-25 - year old participants who were exposed over 8 hours to the PC screen had a relative risk of 5,5 to develop Dry Eye Syndrome, compared to NONEXPOSED participants. Results indicate that Dry Eye Syndrome incidence and intensity of symptoms had increased proportionally with the hours of exposure. Tear Film Breakup Time, the Ocular Protection Index and the PC Ocular Protection Index decreased with the hours of PC screen exposure, suggesting a behavioral change in the EXPOSED participants. Exposure of over 8 hours to the PC screen caused Dry Eye Syndrome in 18-25 - year old students, with a relative risk of 5,5.

  1. Oral supplementation with a nutraceutical formulation containing omega-3 fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants in a large series of patients with dry eye symptoms: results of a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatell-Tortajada J

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jordi Gatell-TortajadaOn behalf of the Large Dry Eye Clinical Study Group (LDECSGCornea and Ocular Surface Department, Institut Català de Retina, Barcelona, SpainPurpose: To assess the benefits and tolerability of a dietary supplement based on omega-3 fatty acids to relieve dry eye symptoms.Methods: A total of 1,419 patients (74.3% women, mean age 58.9 years with dry eye syndrome using artificial tears participated in a 12-week prospective study. Patients were instructed to take 3 capsules/day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudysec® 1.5 g. Study variables were dry eye symptoms (scratchy and stinging sensation, eye redness, grittiness, painful and tired eyes, grating sensation, and blurry vision, conjunctival hyperemia, tear breakup time (TBUT, Schrimer I test, and Oxford grading scheme.Results: At 12 weeks, each dry eye symptom improved significantly (P<0.001, and the use of artificial tears decreased significantly from 3.77 (standard deviation [SD] =2.08 at baseline to 3.45 (SD =1.72 (P<0.01. In addition, the Schirmer test scores and the TBUT increased significantly, and there was an increase in patients grading 0–I in the Oxford scale and a decrease of those grading IV–V. Significant differences in improvements of dry eye symptoms were also found in compliant versus noncompliant patients as well as in those with moderate/severe versus none/mild conjunctival hyperemia.Conclusion: Oral ω-3 fatty acids supplementation was an effective treatment for dry eye symptoms.Keywords: dry eye symptoms, artificial tears, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, nutraceutical supplement, ocular inflammation, eye discomfort

  2. A clinical study of the efficacy of topical corticosteroids on dry eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chong-qing; SUN Wen; GU Yang-shun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of topical corticosteroid for treatment of moderate or severe dry eye. Methods: Sixty eyes of 30 patients with moderate or severe dry eye, who were not sensitive to artificial tears, were treated with 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops. Subjective symptom and objective tests were used to evaluate the efficacy of treatment before and after application of 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops for 1 week and 1 month. Side effects were also evaluated. Results: After 1 week of treatment, subjective symptoms were improved in all dry eye patients; objective tests were improved in all dry eye patients 1month after treatment, and the difference was significant. Conclusion: Topical corticosteroid drops can rapidly and effectively relieve the symptoms and signs of moderate or severe dry eye.

  3. A clinical study of the efficacy of topical corticosteroids on dry eye

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chong-qing; Sun, Wen; Gu, Yang-Shun

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of topical corticosteroid for treatment of moderate or severe dry eye. Methods: Sixty eyes of 30 patients with moderate or severe dry eye, who were not sensitive to artificial tears, were treated with 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops. Subjective symptom and objective tests were used to evaluate the efficacy of treatment before and after application of 0.1% fluorometholone eye drops for 1 week and 1 month. Side effects were also evaluated. Results: After 1 week ...

  4. Summary on Clinical Experience of Acupuncture Treating Dry Eye Syndromes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓芃; 杨玲; 莫文权; 施征; 赵粹英

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dry eye syndromes(DES)refer to discomfort in the eye region,visual disturbance,poor stability of lacrimal film,inflammation of eve surface and its potential iniury due to many factors of abnonnal lacrimation[1].Patients with this condition can experience a dry sensation in the eyes,foreign body sensation,burning and itching sensation in the eyes,and blurred vision.The lingering pathological change can lead to decreased transparency of the cornea and hypopsia,affecting the work,study and life,and even resulting in blindness.With popularization of computers,and change in lifestyles,the incidence of DES rises gradually and tends to occur in young age.

  5. 1416例门诊干眼病病因调查分析%Analysis cause of dry eye in 1416 cases of out-patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宏; 张月梅; 雷迅文

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the patients with dry eye in out-patient and to analyze the distribution and the relevant factors of dry eye.Methods A total of 4563 eases of outpatients conducted a questionnaire survey,combined with slit-lamp microscope,tear secretion test,tear film break-up time and cornea and conjunetiva staining to confirm the diagnosis.Results The prevalence of dry eye in out-patients aeenunted for 31.03%,among those cases that older than 45 years old,20-45 years old,and younger than 20 years old,the incidence was 9.14%,15.80%,6.09% respectively.The incidence of female and male was of 21.08%,9.95% respectively.In the office worker,labour,house keeper,often wearing enntaet lenses the incidence rates were 27.68%,19%,10.73%,9.75% respectively in those dry eye patients.The occurrence of dry eye had significant correlation with age,gender and occupation.Conclusions The risk factors are the bad working environment,abuse of eye drops,excessive using eyes and wear contact lenses,the cause of dry eye is closely related with age.%目的 通过对眼科门诊就诊患者干眼病的检杏,分析干眼病的分布人群及干眼病的相关因素.方法 对4563例眼科门诊患者进行问卷调查,结合裂隙灯显微镜,泪液分泌试验,泪膜破裂时间及角结膜染色检查确定诊断.结果 眼科门诊患者中,干眼病患病率为31.03%,其中大于45岁、20~45岁、小于20岁发病率分别为9.14%、15.80%、6.09%;女性、男性发病率分别为21.08%、9.95%.干眼病患者中职员、工人、家务、经常配戴隐形眼镜者发病率分别为27.68%、19%、10.73%、9.75%.干眼病的发生与年龄、性别及职业明显相关.结论 不良的工作环境、滥用滴眼液、过度用眼及配戴角膜接触镜等是十眼病发生的高危因素,干眼病的病因与年龄密切相关.

  6. Dry eye following phacoemulsification surgery and its relation to associated intraoperative risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Sahu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Phacoemulsification surgery is capable of inducing dry eye, and patients should be informed accordingly prior to surgery. The clinician should also be cognizant that increased CDE can induce dry eyes even in eyes that were healthy preoperatively. In addition, intraoperative exposure to the microscopic light should be minimized.

  7. Diagnosis of dry eye disease and emerging technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeev MSB

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Maya Salomon-Ben Zeev,1 Darby Douglas Miller,2,3 Robert Latkany1,21The Dry Eye Center at Physician Eyecare of New York, 2New York Eye and Ear Infirmary, 3Laser and Corneal Surgery Associates, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Dry eye is one of the most commonly encountered problems in ophthalmology. Signs can include punctate epithelial erosions, hyperemia, low tear lakes, rapid tear break-up time, and meibomian gland disease. Current methods of diagnosis include a slit-lamp examination with and without different stains, including fluorescein, rose bengal, and lissamine green. Other methods are the Schirmer test, tear function index, tear break-up time, and functional visual acuity. Emerging technologies include meniscometry, optical coherence tomography, tear film stability analysis, interferometry, tear osmolarity, the tear film normalization test, ocular surface thermography, and tear biomarkers. Patient-specific considerations involve relevant history of autoimmune disease, refractive surgery or use of oral medications, and allergies or rosacea. Other patient considerations include clinical examination for lid margin disease and presence of lagophthalmos or blink abnormalities. Given a complex presentation and a variety of signs and symptoms, it would be beneficial if there was an inexpensive, readily available, and reproducible diagnostic test for dry eye.Keywords: cornea, dry eye, tear film, stain

  8. Dry Eye as a Mucosal Autoimmune Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E.; Schaumburg, Chris S.; Pflugfelder, Stephen C.

    2013-01-01

    Dry eye is a common ocular surface inflammatory disease that significantly affects quality of life. Dysfunction of the lacrimal function unit (LFU) alters tear composition and breaks ocular surface homeostasis, facilitating chronic inflammation and tissue damage. Accordingly, the most effective treatments to date are geared towards reducing inflammation and restoring normal tear film. The pathogenic role of CD4+ T cells is well known, and the field is rapidly realizing the complexity of other innate and adaptive immune factors involved in the development and progression of disease. The data support the hypothesis that dry eye is a localized autoimmune disease originating from an imbalance in the protective immunoregulatory and proinflammatory pathways of the ocular surface. PMID:23360156

  9. Safety and efficacy of MIM D3 ophthalmic solutions in a randomized placebo controlled Phase 2 clinical trial in patients with dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meerovitch K

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Karen Meerovitch,1 Gail Torkildsen,2 John Lonsdale,3 Heidi Goldfarb,4 Teresa Lama,1 Garth Cumberlidge,1 George W Ousler III5 1Mimetogen Pharmaceuticals Inc, Montreal, QC, Canada; 2Andover Eye Associates, Andover, MA, USA; 3Central Maine Eye Care, Lewiston, ME, USA; 4SDC, Tempe, AZ, USA; 5Ora Inc, Andover, MA, USA Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of ophthalmic MIM-D3, a tyrosine kinase TrkA receptor agonist, in patients with dry eye. Design: A prospective, two-center, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled Phase 2 study. Methods: A total of 150 dry eye patients were randomized 1:1:1 to study medication (1% MIM-D3, 5% MIM-D3, or placebo and dosed twice daily (BID for 28 days. Key eligibility criteria included exacerbation in corneal staining and ocular discomfort in the Controlled Adverse Environment (CAESM on two visits, separated by 1 week of BID dosing with artificial tears. Safety and efficacy were evaluated at baseline, throughout treatment, and for 2 weeks post-treatment. The pre-specified primary outcome measures were fluorescein corneal staining post-CAE at day 28 and diary worst symptom scores over 28 days. Secondary outcomes included the pre-, post-, and the change from pre- to post-CAE fluorescein and lissamine green staining in both corneal and conjunctival regions, as well as individual diary symptoms. Results: The prespecified primary endpoints were not met. Compared with placebo, fluorescein corneal staining at day 28 was significantly improved (P < 0.05 in the 1% MIM-D3 group for the assessment of change from pre-CAE to post-CAE. In addition, following CAE exposure, patients in the 1% MIM-D3 group showed significant improvements versus placebo (P < 0.05 in inferior fluorescein and lissamine green staining after 14 and 28 days. Compared with placebo, patients in the 5% MIM-D3 group reported significantly lower daily diary scores for ocular dryness (P < 0.05. In a subgroup defined by higher symptom scores during

  10. The influence of protein free calf blood extract eye gel on dry eye after pterygium surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai-Ni Ji

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the influence of protein free calf blood extract eye gel on dry eye after pterygium surgery. METHODS: Thirty six patients(40 eyeswith primary nasal pterygium were enrolled in this study, which were divided into study group and control group randomly, with 20 eyes in each group. All patients received pterygium excision and limbal stem cell autograft surgery and tobramicin dexamethasone eye drops after surgery. Patients of the study group received protein free calf blood extract eye gel while those of the control group received 0.1% sodium hyaluronate eye drops furthermore. Ocular surface disease index(OSDIquestionnaire, tear film break-up time(BUTand Schirmer's Ⅰ test Ⅰ(SⅠtwere carried before and 3 months after surgery to evaluate the dry eye degree of the patients. RESULTS: There was no statistical difference between the age, gender and size of the pterygium of the study and control groups preoperatively. There was no statistical difference between the OSDI(2.33±1.02 vs 2.32±0.93, BUT(8.80±2.48 vs 8.35±2.28seconds and SⅠt(4.30±2.30 vs 4.40±2.44of the two groups preoperatively. There was statistical difference between the OSDI(1.45±0.47 vs 1.81±0.60, BUT(11.20±2.07 vs 9.50±2.40seconds and SⅠt(8.35±3.13 vs 6.35±2.18of the two groups 3 months postoperatively, which was also different from that of the preoperative data correspondingly. CONCLUSION: Protein free calf blood extract eye gel could reduce the dry eye after pterygium surgery.

  11. Blink lagophthalmos and dry eye keratopathy in patients with non-facial palsy: clinical features and management with upper eyelid loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vikesh; Daya, Sheraz M; Lake, Damian; Malhotra, Raman

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the outcome of using upper eyelid gold weight implantation for patients with non-paralytic lagophthalmos on blink (LOB) only. We highlight the features of incomplete blink and reduced blink rate in patients with non-facial palsy as an exacerbating factor in dry eye keratopathy. Retrospective, noncomparative case series. Twelve patients (21 procedures) who underwent upper eyelid gold weight implantation for non-paralytic LOB only. Retrospective case note review of patients who underwent upper eyelid loading for non-paralytic LOB only over a 5-year period at a single institution. Improvement in LOB, gentle and forced closure, increased frequency of blinking (FOB), degree of corneal staining, incidence of epithelial defects or corneal ulcer, improvement in vision, and subjective improvement in ocular discomfort. Twenty-one procedures in 12 patients. Nine patients underwent bilateral surgery. Mean age was 56 (range, 8-80) years. Median postoperative follow-up was 15 months, and mean follow-up was 20.38 ± 16.61 (6-58) months. Eleven of 12 patients had an improvement in LOB and increased FOB, resulting in improvement of keratopathy and reduced ocular discomfort. One patient developed superior corneal thinning and descemetocele, requiring removal of the gold weight; 1 patient required ptosis surgery; and 1 patient developed a gold allergy and underwent platinum chain exchange. We highlight the need to consider incomplete blink and reduced FOB as exacerbating factors for corneal-related disorders, including dry eye. Upper eyelid loading with gold weight implantation is a useful and predictive method of improving exposure-related keratopathy due to LOB in the absence of facial palsy. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Improvements in Signs and Symptoms of Dry Eye after Instillation of 2% Rebamipide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Tsutomu; Fujita, Miho; Yamada, Yumi; Kobayashi, Maika; Fujimoto, Chiaki; Takahashi, Hisatomo; Igarashi, Toru; Nakano, Yuichiro; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Because dry eye greatly reduces quality of life, this study aimed to examine rebamipide instillation in patients with dry eye and assess the improvement of signs and symptoms as evaluated with the Ocular Surface Disease Index, which is the most popular index and is highly reliable. From June 2013 through January 2014, we examined 50 eyes of 25 patients with dry eye (6 men and 19 woman) at our institution. Dry eye was diagnosed on the basis of the presence of symptoms, tear dynamics, and ocular surface abnormalities according to the Japanese criteria for dry eye. Before being enrolled, all patients underwent ocular surface health assessment, including history interviews, and completed the Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire. Patients received 2% rebamipide ophthalmic solution 4 times daily for 4 weeks. Signs and symptoms were analyzed before and 4 weeks after rebamipide administration. Tear dynamics, tear break-up time, and ocular surface abnormalities were measured and compared between before and 4 weeks after rebamipide administration. Of the 25 patients, 9 had definite dry eye and 16 had probable dry eye. Tear break-up time and the fluorescein staining score significantly improved after 4 weeks. However, no significant change was observed for the Schirmer test I and the lissamine green staining score. The administration of 2% rebamipide 4 times daily for 4 weeks improves the signs and symptoms of dry eye and improves patients' quality of life.

  13. Medial blepharosynechioplasty: a new surgical concept for severe dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasaki T

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Tsugihisa Sasaki,1,2 Taeko Ota,3 Youko Ookura,4 Kazuhisa Sugiyama11Department of Ophthalmology, Kanazawa University School of Medicine, Kanazawa, Ishikawa; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Fukui Prefectural Hospital, Fukui; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Tonami General Hospital, Tonami-city, Toyama; 4Department of Ophthamology, Saiseikai Kanazawa Hospital, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, JapanBackground: The purpose of this work was to report on the performance of medial blepharosynechioplasty (MBSP, a newly devised technique for treating severe dry eye.Methods: In this retrospective, nonrandomized clinical trial, three cases with severe dry eye (Sjögren’s syndrome associated with repeated punctal plug loss were treated using MBSP to create a synechia between the upper and lower lid medial borders of the puncta to suppress the lacrimal pump.Results: Postoperative follow-up showed improvement in the corneal condition in all three cases that persisted for 12–35 months. None of the patients had visual impairment.Conclusion: MBSP is a promising treatment for severe dry eye and merits further study.Keywords: dry eye, lacrimal pump suppression, medial blepharosynechioplasty

  14. Acupuncture for dry eye: a randomised controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Ae-Ran

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye is usually managed by conventional medical interventions such as artificial tears, anti-inflammatory drugs and surgical treatment. However, since dry eye is one of the most frequent ophthalmologic disorders, safer and more effective methods for its treatment are necessary, especially for vulnerable patients. Acupuncture has been widely used to treat patients with dry eye. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture for this condition. Methods/Design A randomised, patient-assessor blinded, sham (non-acupuncture point, shallow acupuncture controlled study was established. Participants allocated to verum acupuncture and sham acupuncture groups will be treated three times weekly for three weeks for a total of nine sessions per participant. Seventeen points (GV23; bilateral BL2, GB4, TE23, Ex1 (Taiyang, ST1 and GB20; and left SP3, LU9, LU10 and HT8 for men, right for women have been selected for the verum acupuncture; for the sham acupuncture, points have been selected that do not coincide with a classical acupuncture point and that are located close to the verum points, except in the case of the rim of the eye. Ocular surface disease index, tear film breakup time, the Schirmer I test, medication quantification scale and general assessment of improvement will be used as outcome variables for evaluating the effectiveness of acupuncture. Safety will also be assessed at every visit. Primary and secondary outcomes will be assessed four weeks after screening. All statistical analyses will be performed using analysis of covariance. Discussion The results of this trial will be used as a basis for clarifying the efficacy of acupuncture for dry eye. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00969280.

  15. A review on recent advances in dry eye: Pathogenesis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavsar, Ankita S; Bhavsar, Samir G; Jain, Sunita M

    2011-05-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, more commonly known as dry eye, is an extremely common and often unrecognized disease. It is the condition in ophthalmology that in its mild grade of severity will affect most of the population at one time or other. Due to a wide variety of presentations and symptoms, it often frustrates the ophthalmologists as well as patients. Due to multifactorial and elusive etiology, it is often challenging to treat dry eye. Ocular surface disorders are also clinically important to treat especially in terms of visual acuity. Xero-dacryology is therefore becoming a very important branch of ophthalmology. Recent studies have given insight into the inflammatory etiology of dry eye. The conventional and main approach to the treatment of dry eye is providing lubricating eye drops or tear substitutes. However, the newer treatment approach is to target the underlying cause of dry eye instead of conventional symptomatic relief. In light of the above knowledge, the present article focuses on newer theories on pathogenesis of dry eye and their impact on dry eye management. METHOD OF LITERATURE SEARCH: A systematic literature review was performed using PubMed databases in two steps. The first step was oriented to articles published for dry eye. The second step was focused on the role of inflammation and anti-inflammatory therapy for dry eye. The search strategy was not limited by year of publication. A manual literature search was also undertaken from authentic reference books on ocular surface disease.

  16. A novel TRPM8 agonist relieves dry eye discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jee Myung; Li, Fengxian; Liu, Qin; Rüedi, Marco; Wei, Edward Tak; Lentsman, Michael; Lee, Hyo Seok; Choi, Won; Kim, Seong Jin; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2017-06-26

    Physical cooling of the eye surface relieves ocular discomfort, but translating this event to drug treatment of dry eye discomfort not been studied. Here, we synthesized a water-soluble TRPM8 receptor agonist called cryosim-3 (C3, 1-diisopropylphosphorylnonane) which selectively activates TRPM8 (linked to cooling) but not TRPV1 or TRPA1 (linked to nociception) and tested C3 in subjects with mild forms of dry eye disease. A set of 1-dialkylphosphoryalkanes were tested for activation of TRPM8, TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptors in transfected cells. The bioactivity profiles were compared by perioral, topical, and intravenous delivery to anesthetized rats. The selected lead candidate C3 or vehicle (water) was applied with a cotton gauze pad to upper eyelids of patients with dry eye disease (n = 30). Cooling sensation, tear film break-up time (TBUT), basal tear secretion, and corneal staining were evaluated. C3 was then applied four times daily for 2 weeks to patients using a pre-loaded single unit applicator containing 2 mg/mL of C3 in water (n = 20) or water only. TBUT, basal tear secretion, and corneal staining, and three questionnaires surveys of ocular discomfort (VAS scale, OSDI, and CVS symptoms) were analyzed before and at 1 and 2 weeks thereafter. C3 was a selective and potent TRPM8 agonist without TRPV1 or TRPA1 activity. In test animals, the absence of shaking behavior after C3 perioral administration made it the first choice for further study. C3 increased tear secretion in an animal model of dry eye disease and did not irritate when wiped on eyes of volunteers. C3 singly applied (2 mg/ml) produced significant cooling in irritation or pain were reported by any subject. C3 is a promising candidate for study of TRPM8 function on the eye surface and for relief of dry eye discomfort. ISRCTN24802609 and ISRCTN13359367 . Registered 23 March 2015 and 2 September 2015.

  17. [Assessment of systane in severe dry eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocanu, Carmen; Bărăscu, Doina; Bîrjovanu, Flori; Mănescu, Rodica; Iliuşi, Felicia

    2008-01-01

    The study proposes the evaluation of the Systane effect on people that have severe dry eye sensation, with cornea or conjunctive complications. In order to do this, a study protocol has been adopted which meant comparing the values of lacrimal film break-up time, before and after Systane treatment, comparing cornea and conjunctive staining, comparing the crystallization test before and after treatment, comparing the conjunctival impression before and after treatment, and the general acceptability of Systane. The study results have shown that in severe dry eye cases, Systane increases lacrimal film break-up time by 2-3 seconds than the initial value, as well as considerable reduction in cornea/conjunctival staining and in conjunctival hyperemia in Sicca keratoconjunctivitis. After treatment, conjunctival impression have shown the proliferation of conjunctival and goblet cells, with normal morphologic aspect of the new-formed cells. In every case, the regenerating effect on epithelia of Systane was obvious, which is determined by the direct action of the HP-guar, forming a protective layer with lubrication effect, helpful to the initiation of tissue repairing processes.

  18. Contact lenses and associated anterior segment disorders: dry eye disease, blepharitis, and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemp, Michael A; Bielory, Leonard

    2008-02-01

    This article discusses the use of contact lenses in patients suffering from dry eye and ocular allergy. The diagnosis of dry eye is outlined along with the relationship between contact lenses, the tear film, and the ocular surface. A practical approach to the recognition and management of the dry eye patient wishing to wear contact lenses is presented. In addition, a consideration of a careful strategy to identify patients with ocular allergy and manage the use of contact lenses in these patients is developed with an emphasis on the avoidance of complications.

  19. Detection of mucus glycoconjugates in human conjunctiva by using the lectin-colloidal gold technique in TEM. II. A quantitative study in dry-eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versura, P; Maltarello, M C; Cellini, M; Caramazza, R; Laschi, R

    1986-08-01

    The mucus glycoconjugates produced by conjunctival goblet cells in dry-eye patients were studied by a specific cytochemical reaction in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Four lectins, proteins of vegetal origin which specifically bind glycosidic residues, (WGA, PNA, SBA and ConA) were used conjugated with colloidal gold as ultrastructural marker. We performed a quantitative analysis by counting the colloidal gold particles present on mucus granules. The results were compared with normal conditions. We found a decrease in sialic acid, N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine and galactose-N-acetyl-galactosamine and an increase in mannose. The different content of glycoconjugates in goblet cells may reflect in the change of physical and functional properties of mucus. We think these data may be useful in the search for a therapeutic mucomimetic drug.

  20. Dry Eye: Prevalence and Attributable Risk Factors in a Hospital-Based Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahai Anshu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the prevalence of dry eye in a hospital-based population and to evaluate the various risk factors attributable to dry eye. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 500 patients above 20 years of age were screened randomly for dry eye. A 13-point questionnaire, Lissamine Green test, Tear film break-up time (TBUT, Schirmer′s test and presence of strands/filaments were used to diagnose dry eye. The diagnosis was made when at least three of the tests were positive. The role of air pollution, sunlight, excessive winds, smoking, drugs and refractive status as dry eye risk factors was assessed. Results: Ninety-two (18.4% patients had dry eye. Dry eye prevalence was maximum in those above 70 years of age (36.1% followed by the age group 31-40 years (20%. It was significantly higher ( P = 0.024 in females (22.8% than in males (14.9%, more common in rural residents (19.6% than in urban (17.5% and highest among farmers/labourers (25.3%. A 2.15 fold increase was found in the odds for dry eye in those exposed to excessive wind, 1.91 fold to sunlight exposure, 1.42 to smoking, 1.38 to air pollution and 2.04 for persons on drugs. Dry eye prevalence was 14% in emmetropes, 16.8% in myopes and 22.9% in hypermetropes. It was 15.6% in those with corrected and 25.3% in those with uncorrected refractive errors. Conclusion: Dry eye is an under-diagnosed ocular disorder. Reduction in the modifiable risk factors of dry eye is essential to reduce its prevalence

  1. Effectiveness and relevant factors of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension treatment in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kaori; Matsumiya, Wataru; Otsuka, Keiko; Maeda, Yoshifumi; Nagai, Takayuki; Nakamura, Makoto

    2015-06-06

    Rebamipide with mucin secretagogue activity was recently approved for the treatment of dry eye. The efficacy and safety in the treatment of rebamipide were shown in two pivotal clinical trials. It was the aim of this study to evaluate the effect of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension in patients with dry eye and analyze relevant factors for favorable effects of rebamipide in clinical practice. This was a retrospective cohort study of 48 eyes from 24 patients with dry eye treated with 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension. Dry eye-related symptom score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), fluorescein ocular surface staining score (FOS) and the Schirmer test were used to collect the data from patients at baseline, and at 2, 4, 8, and 12 week visits. To determine the relevant factors, multiple regression analyses were then performed. Mean dry eye-related symptom score showed a significant improvement from the baseline (14.5 points) at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks (9.80, 7.04, 7.04 and 7.83 points, corrected P value rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was an effective therapy for dry eye patients. Moreover the fluorescein conjunctiva staining score and dry eye-related symptom score might be good relevant factors for favorable effects of rebamipide.

  2. 白内障患者手术后干眼不应忽视%Not to ignore the dry eye of cataract patients after surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙旭光; 施玉英; 张琛

    2008-01-01

    白内障患者手术后发生干眼的问题已经引起了国内外学者的注意.白内障患者术后干眼可分为早期(可逆性)干眼和慢性(不可逆性)干眼,前者术前泪液分泌功能多为正常,由于手术及术后用药等因素的影响,术后泪液分泌暂时性减少,随着相关因素的去除,其功能可以恢复正常;后者术前已患有干眼,或泪液分泌功能处于"边界状态",手术及术后相关因素加剧了泪液分泌的异常,甚至造成眼表组织的异常.及时发现和正确处理术后干眼,对维持眼表稳定性和更好地恢复视力均有重要的临床意义.%Dry eye syndrome following carrot surgery W88 concerned about recently.Two kinds of dry eye were clinically observed after cataract surgery,early dry eye and chronic dry eye.Most cases of early dry eye,who usually had the normal lacrimal secretion before surgery,were reversible and involved in some of factors associated with surgery and pest-surgery medicatiotr But most cases of chronic dry eye,who have abnormal lacrimal secretion or"borderline state"of lacrimal secretion test before surgery,may suffer from the ocular surface diseases related to irreversible dry eye disease.It is significantly important for maintaining of the ocular surface stability and recovery of vision acuity after cataract surgery to do early diagnose and promptly manage the dry eye syndrome.

  3. A Clinic-based Survey of Clinical Characteristics and Practice Pattern of Dry Eye in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Yamada, Masakazu; Suwaki, Kazuhisa; Shigeyasu, Chika; Uchino, Miki; Hiratsuka, Yoshimune; Yokoi, Norihiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics and practice pattern of patients with dry eye disease (DED) in eye clinics across Japan. A multi-center, cross-sectional study was conducted among patients with DED who visited eye clinics in Japan. Subjective symptoms, patient's background, ocular surface features, and tear function were evaluated. Main outcome measures were tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer I value, kerato-conjunctival staining score, and dry eye symptom questionnaire score. Initially, 463 subjects were enrolled, and 449 cases (63 male and 386 female; mean age, 62.6 ± 15.7 years) were included in the final analysis. Overall, 94.9% of patients had a shortened TBUT (≤5 s), and 54.6% had an aqueous tear deficiency (Schirmer I value ≤5 mm). The most prevalent subtype of dry eye was aqueous-deficient dry eye, which was present in 35.0% of all patients, followed by short-BUT-type dry eye, which was seen in 26.7%. The two most common DED subtypes were aqueous-deficient and short-BUT-type dry eye. Shortened TBUT is the most common feature of dry eye, regardless of subtype. The current treatment choice mainly consisted of hyaluronic acid, two novel mucin secretagogues, diquafosol and rebamipide, and steroidal eye drops. University Hospital Medical Information Network: UMIN (registries no. UMIN 000015890). Japan Dry Eye Society, Tokyo, Japan, and Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, Japan.

  4. Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gayton, Johnny L

    2009-01-01

    Johnny L GaytonEyesight Associates, Warner Robins, GA, USAPurpose: This review article examines the prevalence, etiology, and current therapies of dry eye disease, with special focus on postmenopausal women.Method: A systematic literature search utilizing MEDLINE was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles related to dry eye published prior to September 2008. The terms “dry eye” and “women” were searched in combination with one or more of the follo...

  5. Impact of Glaucoma and Dry Eye on Text-Based Searching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Michelle J; Rubin, Gary S; Akpek, Esen K; Ramulu, Pradeep Y

    2017-06-01

    We determine if visual field loss from glaucoma and/or measures of dry eye severity are associated with difficulty searching, as judged by slower search times on a text-based search task. Glaucoma patients with bilateral visual field (VF) loss, patients with clinically significant dry eye, and normally-sighted controls were enrolled from the Wilmer Eye Institute clinics. Subjects searched three Yellow Pages excerpts for a specific phone number, and search time was recorded. A total of 50 glaucoma subjects, 40 dry eye subjects, and 45 controls completed study procedures. On average, glaucoma patients exhibited 57% longer search times compared to controls (95% confidence interval [CI], 26%-96%, P search times were noted among subjects with greater VF loss (P search times compared to controls, though worse Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) vision-related subscores were associated with longer search times (P Search times showed no association with OSDI symptom subscores (P = 0.20) or objective measures of dry eye (P > 0.08 for Schirmer's testing without anesthesia, corneal fluorescein staining, and tear film breakup time). Text-based visual search is slower for glaucoma patients with greater levels of VF loss and dry eye patients with greater self-reported visual difficulty, and these difficulties may contribute to decreased quality of life in these groups. Visual search is impaired in glaucoma and dry eye groups compared to controls, highlighting the need for compensatory strategies and tools to assist individuals in overcoming their deficiencies.

  6. Dry Eye and Corneal Langerhans Cells in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós D. Resch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation of dry eye and corneal Langerhans cells (LCs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Methods. Prospective consecutive case series of 27 SLE patients and 27 control subjects. Dry eye was evaluated by lid-parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF, Schirmer test, tear break-up time (TBUT, and ocular surface disease index (OSDI questionnaire. In vivo investigation of corneal LCs density and morphology (LCM was performed with confocal corneal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph with Rostock Cornea Module. Results. Tear production and stability were pathological in SLE subjects compared to control (Schirmer: 8.45 ± 9.82 mm/5 min versus 11.67 ± 3.21 mm/5 min; TBUT: 6.86 ± 3.53 s versus 11.09 ± 3.37 s. OSDI was significantly greater in SLE patients (25.95 ± 17.92 than in controls (11.06 ± 7.18. Central LC density was greater in SLE patients (43.08 ± 48.67 cell/mm2 than in controls (20.57 ± 21.04 cell/mm2. There was no difference in the peripheral LC density (124.78 ± 165.39 versus 78.00 ± 39.51 cell/mm2. LCM was higher in SLE patients in the centre (1.43 ± 0.79 and in the periphery (2.89 ± 0.42 compared to controls (centre: 1.00 ± 0.69, periphery: 2.35 ± 0.54. Conclusions. Significant changes in dry eye parameters and marked increase of central LCs could be demonstrated in SLE patients. SLE alters not only the LC density but also the morphology, modifies corneal homeostasis, and might contribute to the development of dry eye.

  7. Efficacy of vitrectomy and epiretinal membrane peeling in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason III JO

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available John O Mason III,1,2 Shyam A Patel11Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alabama School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USA; 2Retina Consultants of Alabama, Callahan Eye Foundation Hospital, Birmingham, AL, USAObjective: To study the efficacy of epiretinal membrane (ERM peeling in eyes with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Methods: We retrospectively analyzed patient charts on 17 eyes (16 patients that underwent ERM peeling with a concurrent diagnosis of dry AMD.Results: Eyes with concurrent dry AMD and with a good preoperative best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA (better than or equal to 20/50 had a statistically significant mean BCVA improvement at 6 months after ERM peeling. There was a statistical increase in mean BCVA from 20/95 to 20/56 in dry AMD eyes, and no eyes showed worsening in BCVA at 6 months or at most recent follow-up. Five/seventeen (29.4% eyes had cataract formation or progression. There were no other complications, reoperations, or reoccurrences.Conclusion: ERM peeling in eyes with dry AMD may show significant improvement, especially in eyes with good preoperative BCVA. The procedure is relatively safe with low complications and reoccurrences.Keywords: macular pucker, epiretinal membrane peeling, epimacular membrane, macular degeneration

  8. An evaluation of Retaine™ ophthalmic emulsion in the management of tear film stability and ocular surface staining in patients diagnosed with dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ousler III G

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available George Ousler III,1 Douglas K Devries,2 Paul M Karpecki,3 Joseph B Ciolino41Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA; 2Eye Care Associates of Nevada, Sparks, NV, USA; 3Koffler Vision Group, Lexington, KY, USA; 4Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Boston, MA, USAAbstract: A single-center, open-label study consisting of two visits over the course of approximately 2 weeks was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of Retaine™ ophthalmic emulsion in improving the signs and symptoms of dry eye. Forty-two subjects were enrolled and received 1–2 drops twice daily of Retaine™ beginning at the first visit (day 1 and ending at the second visit. Subjects were instructed to complete a symptomatology diary twice daily prior to drop instillation through the morning of the second visit. Ocular sign and symptom assessments, visual acuity procedures, and comfort assessments were conducted during both visits. A statistically significant reduction was observed in mean breakup area on the second visit between the predose time and the postdose time (P=0.026. On the second visit, subjects had significantly less corneal fluorescein staining in the superior (P=0.002, central (P=0.017, corneal sum (P=0.011, and all ocular regions combined (P=0.038 than on the first visit. On the second visit, statistically significant reductions in dryness (P<0.001, grittiness (P=0.0217, ocular discomfort (P=0.0017, and all symptoms (P<0.001 were also seen as measured by the Ora Calibra™ Ocular Discomfort and 4-Symptom Questionnaire (0–5 scale. Subjects reported a statistically significant improvement in their abilities to work with a computer at night (P=0.044. Mean drop comfort scores ranged from 1.29–1.81 on the Ora Calibra™ 0–10 Drop Comfort Scale, on which 0 is very comfortable and 10 is very uncomfortable. Retaine™ demonstrates promising results as a novel artificial tear option for individuals suffering from dry eye. The unique mechanism of action of Retaine™ provides enhanced comfort

  9. [Recent advances in dry eye: etiology, pathogenesis and management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yi; Pan, Zhi-qiang

    2013-09-01

    Dry eye is one of the most common and multifactorial disease of the ocular surface that results in ocular discomfort, blurred vision, reduced quality of life, and decreased productivity. Recent advances in our knowledge of the causation of dry eye open opportunities for improving diagnosis , and disease management and for developing new, more effective therapies to manage this widely prevalent and debilitating disease state. In light of the above knowledge, the present article reviews the newer theories and reports on etiology , pathogenesis and management of dry eye.

  10. Dry Eye in Children with Chronic Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Yüksekkaya

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate the dry eye symptoms based on objective test and subjective findings in children with chronic renal failure (CRF and to compare the results with those in healthy subjects. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four children with CRF and 89 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects were included in this prospective study. Tear break-up time (TBUT and Schirmer test, subjective symptoms (burning, foreign-body sensation, hyperemia, itching, tearing, calcification of the conjunctiva, and corneal staining were evaluated. In the study group, relation between TBUT and Schirmer test results and duration of disease, duration of dialysis, serum calcium, phosphorus, urea, creatinine, and total protein levels were recorded. For statistical analysis, t-test, chi-square test, and Pearson’s correlation test were used. Results: In the study group, burning sensation was statistically higher than in the control group. Except this, according to the other subjective tests and corneal staining, there were no significant differences between the two groups (p>0.05. Conjunctival calcification was seen in 3 patients in the study group. The mean Schirmer test result was 21.1±8.0 and 23.7±8.0 mm in the study and control groups, respectively (p=0.101. The mean TBUT was 12.5±5.2 seconds (s in the study and 16.0±5.5 s in the control groups (p=0.002. None of the disease-related variables (the mean duration of disease and dialysis, serum calcium, phosphorus, urea, creatinine, and total protein levels were associated with dry eye syndrome (p>0.05. Conclusion: TBUT was statistically significantly lower, but Schirmet test result was not significantly different between children with CRF and age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. The disease-related variables have no effect in the development of dry eyes. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: 196-200

  11. Diagnosis of dry eye disease and emerging technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeev, Maya Salomon-Ben; Miller, Darby Douglas; Latkany, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye is one of the most commonly encountered problems in ophthalmology. Signs can include punctate epithelial erosions, hyperemia, low tear lakes, rapid tear break-up time, and meibomian gland disease. Current methods of diagnosis include a slit-lamp examination with and without different stains, including fluorescein, rose bengal, and lissamine green. Other methods are the Schirmer test, tear function index, tear break-up time, and functional visual acuity. Emerging technologies include meniscometry, optical coherence tomography, tear film stability analysis, interferometry, tear osmolarity, the tear film normalization test, ocular surface thermography, and tear biomarkers. Patient-specific considerations involve relevant history of autoimmune disease, refractive surgery or use of oral medications, and allergies or rosacea. Other patient considerations include clinical examination for lid margin disease and presence of lagophthalmos or blink abnormalities. Given a complex presentation and a variety of signs and symptoms, it would be beneficial if there was an inexpensive, readily available, and reproducible diagnostic test for dry eye. PMID:24672224

  12. Thermal analysis of dry eye subjects and the thermal impulse perturbation model of ocular surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Aizhong; Maki, Kara L; Salahura, Gheorghe; Kottaiyan, Ranjini; Yoon, Geunyoung; Hindman, Holly B; Aquavella, James V; Zavislan, James M

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we explore the usage of ocular surface temperature (OST) decay patterns to distinguished between dry eye patients with aqueous deficient dry eye (ADDE) and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD). The OST profiles of 20 dry eye subjects were measured by a long-wave infrared thermal camera in a standardized environment (24 °C, and relative humidity (RH) 40%). The subjects were instructed to blink every 5 s after 20 ∼ 25 min acclimation. Exponential decay curves were fit to the average temperature within a region of the central cornea. We find the MGD subjects have both a higher initial temperature (p thermal impulse perturbation (TIP) model. We conclude that long-wave-infrared thermal imaging is a plausible tool in assisting with the classification of dry eye patient.

  13. Presence or absence of ocular surface inflammation directs clinical and therapeutic management of dry eye

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    Sambursky R

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Robert Sambursky Coastal Eye Institute, Cornea and Comprehensive Ophthalmology, Bradenton, FL, USA Background: The presence of clinically significant inflammation has been confirmed in the tears of 40%–65% of patients with symptoms of dry eye. Ocular surface inflammation may lead to tear film instability, epithelial cell irregularities, and permeability, resulting in chronic symptomatic pain and fluctuating vision as well as negative surgical outcomes.Patients and methods: A retrospective single center medical chart review of 100 patients was conducted. All patients were tested with the InflammaDry test to determine if patients exhibited elevated levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9. InflammaDry-positive patients were started on a combination of cyclosporine 0.05% twice daily, 2,000–4,000 mg oral omega-3 fatty acids, and frequent artificial tear replacement. InflammaDry-negative patients were started on 2,000–4,000 mg of oral omega-3 fatty acids and frequent artificial tear replacement. Each patient was retested at ~90 days. A symptom questionnaire was performed at the initial visit and at 90 days.Results: 60% of the patients with dry eye symptoms tested positive for elevated MMP-9 at the initial visit. 78% of all patients returned for follow-up at ~90 days including 80% (48/60 of the previously InflammaDry-positive patients and 75% (30/40 of the previously InflammaDry-negative patients. A follow-up symptom questionnaire reported at least 75% symptomatic improvement in 65% (31/48 of the originally InflammaDry-positive patients and in 70% (21/30 of the initially InflammaDry-negative patients. Symptomatic improvement of at least 50% was reported in 85% (41/48 of previously InflammaDry-positive patients and 86% (26/30 of previously InflammaDry-negative patients. Following treatment, 54% (26/48 of previously InflammaDry-positive patients converted to a negative InflammaDry result.Conclusion: Identifying which symptomatic dry eye

  14. Upper eyelid entropion and dry eye in cicatricial trachoma without trichiasis

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    Abrahão Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to evaluate the position of the upper eyelid margin and eye surface status in cicatricial trachoma without trichiasis (TS. METHODS: Slit-lamp biomicroscopy was employed to evaluate the location of the upper lid mucocutaneous transition of 156 eyes of 78 patients with trichiasis and of 130 eyes of 65 control subjects. For each eye the position of the upper lid mucocutaneous junction was graded with respect to the line of meibomian gland orifices into 3 categories: a anterior, b at the line, and c posterior to the line. Ocular surface dye staining with lissamine green was performed in all eyes. All participants answered a questionnaire with queries on the presence and intensity of dry eye symptoms. RESULTS: In the eyes with trichiasis the location of the mucocutaneous transition was posterior to the meibomian gland line in 55 (35.3%, at the line in 77 (49.4% and anterior to the line in only 24 (15.4%. In the control group these figures were: 5 (3.8%; 42 (42% and 83 (63.8%. Lissamine staining and dry eye symptoms were also associated with trichiasis. CONCLUSION: Different degrees of upper lid entropion are already present in cicatricial trachoma even in the absence of trichiasis. Trichiasis is associated with lissamine green staining and dry eye symptoms. Conjunctivalization of the upper lid margin may play a role in the development of trachomatous dry eye.

  15. Dry Eye Disease Incidence Associated with Chronic Graft-Host Disease: Nonconcurrent Cohort Study (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Shahzad I; De la Parra-Colín, Paola; De Melo-Franco, Rafael; Johnson, Christopher; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh

    2015-09-01

    To determine if chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with stable or progressive dry eye disease and to determine the true incidence in patients with no prior history of dry eye disease. A nonconcurrent cohort study at a single institution with 136 patients who had no previous history of dry eye disease before HSCT. Survival analysis was used to estimate dry eye disease incidence. The incidence rate was calculated using life tables as the number of observed dry eye disease cases divided by the person-time at risk accumulated by the cohort. Transition probabilities were calculated from time of transplant to time of diagnosis, and then to last recorded visit. Incidence rate was 0.8 cases of dry eye disease per person-year, and half of the population at risk developed dry eye disease during the first 10 months post transplant. Time to develop dry eye disease was 2.5 months for mild dry eye disease, 9.6 months for moderate dry eye disease, and 13.2 months for severe dry eye disease. In terms of cumulative incidence, 73% of subjects developed dry eye disease (50% mild, 16% moderate, and 7% severe) at the time of diagnosis. Our findings suggest that dry eye disease associated with cGVHD is an extremely frequent event and shows a wide spectrum of severity, with a mild form presenting early and a moderate to severe form presenting later after HSCT. These findings need to be studied further to elucidate if these are two different pathophysiological entities or just different expressions of the same pathology.

  16. Dry Eye Disease Incidence Associated with Chronic Graft-Host Disease: Nonconcurrent Cohort Study (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mian, Shahzad I.; De la Parra-Colín, Paola; De Melo-Franco, Rafael; Johnson, Christopher; Barrientos-Gutierrez, Tonatiuh

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine if chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is associated with stable or progressive dry eye disease and to determine the true incidence in patients with no prior history of dry eye disease. Methods: A nonconcurrent cohort study at a single institution with 136 patients who had no previous history of dry eye disease before HSCT. Survival analysis was used to estimate dry eye disease incidence. The incidence rate was calculated using life tables as the number of observed dry eye disease cases divided by the person-time at risk accumulated by the cohort. Transition probabilities were calculated from time of transplant to time of diagnosis, and then to last recorded visit. Results: Incidence rate was 0.8 cases of dry eye disease per person-year, and half of the population at risk developed dry eye disease during the first 10 months post transplant. Time to develop dry eye disease was 2.5 months for mild dry eye disease, 9.6 months for moderate dry eye disease, and 13.2 months for severe dry eye disease. In terms of cumulative incidence, 73% of subjects developed dry eye disease (50% mild, 16% moderate, and 7% severe) at the time of diagnosis. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that dry eye disease associated with cGVHD is an extremely frequent event and shows a wide spectrum of severity, with a mild form presenting early and a moderate to severe form presenting later after HSCT. These findings need to be studied further to elucidate if these are two different pathophysiological entities or just different expressions of the same pathology. PMID:27507907

  17. Effects of Systane® Balance on noninvasive tear film break-up time in patients with lipid-deficient dry eye

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    Aguilar AJ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Alejandro J Aguilar, Maria I Marquez, Paula A Albera, Jorge L Tredicce, Alejandro Berra Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina Purpose: To evaluate the ability of Systane® Balance (SYSB administered four times per day for 4 weeks to increase noninvasive tear film break-up time (NITFBUT over baseline compared with a saline (SAL control in patients with lipid-deficient dry eye (DE.Patients and methods: Patients aged ≥18 years with DE and evidence of meibomian gland dysfunction (ie, abnormal gland expression and missing meibomian glands were included in this randomized, parallel-group, controlled, investigator-masked comparison study. Patients were randomized to SYSB or SAL four times daily for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was mean change in NITFBUT from baseline at week 4. Ocular surface staining, goblet cell density, and meibomian gland expression were also assessed. Safety assessments included adverse events (AEs, best-corrected visual acuity, and ocular signs.Results: A total of 49 patients received study treatments (SYSB, n=25; SAL, n=24. Most patients were women (67.4% and Caucasian (63.3%; mean ± standard deviation (SD age was 44±19 years. DE characteristics at baseline were similar between groups. After 4 weeks of treatment, the mean ± SD NITFBUT increase from baseline was significantly greater with SYSB (2.83±0.74 seconds compared with SAL (0.66±0.55 seconds; P<0.001, t-test. Improvements in conjunctival and corneal staining, percentage of patients with increased goblet cell density, and meibomian gland expression were also observed with 4 weeks of SYSB over SAL. No AEs were reported for either treatment group; best-corrected visual acuity and ocular signs remained stable or improved compared with baseline.Conclusion: SYSB restored tear film stability, improved ocular surface healing, and improved meibomian gland functionality after 4 weeks of use in patients with lipid-deficient DE. No AEs were reported

  18. Dry eyes among information technology professionals in India

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    Amaravathy Karuppaiah Brindha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To perform the determination ofthe burden of dry eye syndrome among information technology(ITprofessionals and examine association of dry eye syndrome between various daily activities. METHODS: This was a pilot cross-sectional study conducted for a period of 3mo from October-December, 2013 in Chennai, South India. The study population was enrolled from three IT companies in a city in Chennai. The inclusion criteria consisted of individuals working in the IT industry at least for a period of 6mo, aged 18y or above and giving voluntary, written informed consent. Variable information was gathered by using series of questionnaires and ophthalmic assessment. Information about sociodemographic characteristics was also gathered. Schirmer's test was performed for ophthalmic assessment. All of the analysis was performed by using SPSS vs.16. RESULTS: About one fifth(n=36, 18%of the participants were suspected to have dry eyes, with mean age of 29y(SD=7, and majority of them being males, graduates/ postgraduates, single, living in extended families in urban areas. Windy environment significantly showed to aggravate redness(P=0.04and burning sensation of the eyes(P=0.000. Similarly, watching television significantly showed to aggravate gritty sensation(P=0.01and led to excess mucous in the eyes(P=0.02. CONCLUSION:Based on the results of our study, it can be concluded that the exposure to various daily activities such as watching television, using computer, reading, and use of air conditioning and windy environments(dry environmentswere associated with signs and symptoms of dry eyes. Also, watching television and windy environment were significantly positively correlated with some of the signs of dry eye. This study emphasizes the urgent need of multi-factorial approach including policy measures for addressing the burden of dry eye in population.

  19. Long-term rebamipide and diquafosol in two cases of immune-mediated dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamane, Mio; Ogawa, Yoko; Fukui, Masaki; Kamoi, Mizuka; Saijo-Ban, Yumiko; Yaguchi, Saori; Mukai, Shin; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Simmura, Shigeto; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-04-01

    Two new drugs with mucin-inducing and secretion-promotive effects, rebamipide and diquafosol, were recently approved as topical dry-eye treatments. We report two cases in which the long-term use of mucin-inducing eye drops improved chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD)-related dry eye and ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP)-like disease. Case 1. A 61-year-old woman had cGVHD-related dry eye that resisted traditional medications. Next, we use topical diquafosol in addition to conventional treatments. The patient used diquafosol for 6 months without experiencing any side effects. The symptoms, including dry-eye sensation, ocular pain, foreign body sensation, and photophobia, as well as ocular surface findings including fluorescein and rose bengal scores and tear break-up time (TBUT), partly improved. To further improve the clinical signs and symptoms and decrease chronic inflammation, rebamipide was added to diquafosol. The symptoms, TBUT, and fluorescein and rose bengal scores markedly improved after long-term dual treatment without any side effects for 6 months. Case 2. A 77-year-old woman had OCP-like disease with dry eye. The patient did not improve using the currently available conventional treatments. Next, we use topical rebamipide in addition to conventional treatments. Symptoms including asthenopia, dry-eye sensation, ocular pain, and dull sensation, as well as fluorescein and rose bengal scores and TBUT, partly improved. Specifically, functional visual acuity was markedly improved after commencement of rebamipide. To further improve the clinical signs and symptoms and increase tear film stability and tear film volume, diquafosol was added to rebamipide. The combination of diquafosol and rebamipide worked for the patient. Improvements were seen in several symptoms, fluorescein and rose bengal scores, Schirmer test value, and TBUT without any side effects for 12 months. Long-term treatment with topical rebamipide and diquafosol can improve dry eye

  20. DEBS – a unification theory for dry eye and blepharitis

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    Rynerson, James M; Perry, Henry D

    2016-01-01

    For many years, blepharitis and dry eye disease have been thought to be two distinct diseases, and evaporative dry eye distinct from aqueous insufficiency. In this treatise, we propose a new way of looking at dry eye, both evaporative and insufficiency, as the natural sequelae of decades of chronic blepharitis. Dry eye is simply the late form and late manifestation of one disease, blepharitis. We suggest the use of a new term in describing this one chronic disease, namely dry eye blepharitis syndrome (DEBS). Bacteria colonize the lid margin within a structure known as a biofilm. The biofilm allows for population densities that initiate quorum-sensing gene activation. These newly activated gene products consist of inflammatory virulence factors, such as exotoxins, cytolytic toxins, and super-antigens, which are then present for the rest of the patient’s life. The biofilm never goes away; it only thickens with age, producing increasing quantities of bacterial virulence factors, and thus, increasing inflammation. These virulence factors are likely the culprits that first cause follicular inflammation, then meibomian gland dysfunction, aqueous insufficiency, and finally, after many decades, lid destruction. We suggest that there are four stages of DEBS which correlate with the clinical manifestations of folliculitis, meibomitis, lacrimalitis, and finally lid structure damage evidenced by entropion, ectropion, and floppy eyelid syndrome. When one fully understands the structure and location of the glands within the lid, it becomes easy to understand this staged disease process. The longer a gland can resist the relentless encroachment of the invading biofilm, the longer it can maintain normal function. The stages depend purely on anatomy and years of biofilm presence. Dry eye now becomes a very easy disease to understand. We feel that dry eye should be treated and prevented by early and routine biofilm removal through electromechanical lid margin debridement. PMID

  1. Blink Animation Software to Improve Blinking and Dry Eye Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosch, Daniela S; Foppa, Curdin; Tóth, Mike; Joos, Roland E

    2015-09-01

    To evaluate if the animation "blink blink" increases blink rate and improves dry eye symptoms during prolonged computer use. Study part A: Blink rate was recorded at baseline and during computer work of normal subjects without symptoms of dry eye. Half of the subjects used "blink blink," instructed to blink on animation appearance; the other half used a placebo version for 1 week during computer use. Thereafter, blink rate was recorded again with the use of "blink blink." Study part B: Blink rate was recorded during computer work with dry eye symptoms (modified Ocular Surface Disease Index > 15.0). Subjects used the test and placebo version of "blink blink" each for 1 week (1 week washout; crossover) and were instructed to blink twice on presentation of the animation. Blink rate and dry eye symptoms were assessed after each phase and compared with baseline. Study part A: Ten subjects participated (mean [± SD] age, 38.3 [± 16.0] years; 5 women). A greater increase in blink rate was observed in the test group (5.62 blinks/min for the test group and 0.96 blinks/min for the control group). Study part B: Twenty-four subjects participated (mean [± SD] age, 39.3 [± 19.1] years; 11 women). Dry eye symptoms improved during both phases (with test and placebo) to a statistically significant degree (each, p animation allowed a decrease in number of presentations and improved acceptance of "blink blink."

  2. A review of quality of life measures in dry eye questionnaires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Joseph R; Tolleson-Rinehart, Sue; Huynh, Kyle; Davis, Richard M

    2014-02-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is an ocular disease that affects 5% to 17% of the US population. Because of the negative effects of DED on patients' quality of life (QOL), disease-specific questionnaires that assess QOL in patients with dry eyes are essential in the monitoring and management of this chronic ocular condition. This review provides clinicians and researchers with a summary of the current questionnaires available for assessing QOL in patients with dry eyes. A systematic review of the literature was performed in March 2013. There are only 2 validated, reliable dry eye questionnaires with QOL measures currently available for clinic use: the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and the Impact of Dry Eye on Everyday Life questionnaire (IDEEL). Multiple other dry eye questionnaires assess some degree of QOL, but they have either not been tested for validity and reliability or are limited in QOL measures they assess. The OSDI and IDEEL are validated, reliable disease-specific questionnaires that assess QOL measures in patients with DED. Because of its extensive development process and multiple QOL measures, the IDEEL offers a more thorough assessment of the effect of DED on QOL for clinical trials, whereas the OSDI may be the more convenient option for clinical use as a result of its shorter completion time. Other questionnaires used to assess QOL in DED (eg, 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire and Texas Eye Research and Technology Center DEQ) are fairly limited in this assessment. Finally, because of the negative effects of DED on QOL, this review emphasizes the importance of including QOL measures in future questionnaires for the monitoring and management of DED.

  3. Fourier-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography for Monitoring the Lower Tear Meniscus in Dry Eye after Acupuncture Treatment

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    Tong Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye is highly prevalent and has a significant impact on quality of life. Acupuncture was found to be effective to treat dry eye. However, little was known about the effect of acupuncture on different subtypes of dry eye. The objective of this study was to investigate the applicability of tear meniscus assessment by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography in the evaluation of acupuncture treatment response in dry eye patients and to explore the effect of acupuncture on different subtypes of dry eye compared with artificial tear treatment. A total of 108 dry eye patients were randomized into acupuncture or artificial tear group. Each group was divided into three subgroups including lipid tear deficiency (LTD, Sjögren syndrome dry eye (SSDE, and non-Sjögren syndrome dry eye (Non-SSDE for data analysis. After 4-week treatment, the low tear meniscus parameters including tear meniscus height (TMH, tear meniscus depth (TMD, and tear meniscus area (TMA in the acupuncture group increased significantly for the LTD and Non-SSDE subgroups compared with both the baseline and the control groups (all P values < 0.05, but not for the SSDE. Acupuncture provided a measurable improvement of the tear meniscus dimensions for the Non-SSDE and LTD patients, but not for the SSDE patients.

  4. Treatment of dry eye by moving the lacrimal punctum to dry dock.

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    Murube-del-Castillo, J; Hernandez-King, J

    1993-01-01

    Several methods for occluding the lacrimal canaliculi to prevent spontaneous drainage have been described for the treatment of dry eye. These techniques have been either of short duration or irreversible. We have developed a technique in which the vertical portion of the lacrimal canaliculus is transferred anteriorly, and the lacrimal punctum is placed between the eyelashes, where it is out of the lacrimal meniscus and therefore nonfunctional. If the quantity of lacrimal secretion improves, the vertical portion of the lacrimal canaliculus may be returned to its original site, allowing normal lacrimal flow. The technique was successful in 12 puncta of seven patients with more than 5 years of follow up. The operation was easily reversed in the two puncta of one patient who complained of epiphora after lacrimal secretion had improved, allowing spontaneous tear drainage.

  5. Effects of silk fibroin in murine dry eye

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    Kim, Chae Eun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Yeon, Yeung Kyu; Park, Chan Hum; Yang, Jaewook

    2017-03-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of silk fibroin in a mouse model of dry eye. The experimental dry eye mouse model was developed using more than twelve-weeks-old NOD.B10.H2b mice exposing them to 30–40% ambient humidity and injecting them with scopolamine hydrobromide for 10 days. Tear production and corneal irregularity score were measured by the instillation of phosphate buffered saline or silk fibroin. Corneal detachment and conjunctival goblet cell density were observed by hematoxylin and eosin or periodic acid Schiff staining in the cornea or conjunctiva. The expression of inflammatory markers was detected by immunohistochemistry in the lacrimal gland. The silk group tear production was increased, and corneal smoothness was improved. The corneal epithelial cells and conjunctival goblet cells were recovered in the silk groups. The expression of inflammatory factors was inhibited in the lacrimal gland of the silk group. These results show that silk fibroin improved the cornea, conjunctiva, and lacrimal gland in the mouse model of dry eye. These findings suggest that silk fibroin has anti-inflammatory effects in the experimental models of dry eye.

  6. The effect of intravitreal injections on dry eye, and proposed management strategies

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    Laude A

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Augustinus Laude,1–3 Jimmy WK Lim,1,2 Vishwanath Srinagesh,4 Louis Tong2,5–7 1National Healthcare Group Eye Institute, Tan Tock Seng Hospital, 2Singapore Eye Research Institute, 3Lee Kong Chian School of Medicine, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; 4Krieger Eye Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Singapore National Eye Centre, 6Duke NUS Medical School, 7Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore Abstract: Intravitreal injection of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF agents has become a commonly used treatment method for a number of ophthalmic conditions, including age-related macular degeneration. Although anti-VEGF therapy has shown promising results for many patients, there are several aspects of its application that have not been thoroughly investigated. One of these is the development and/or escalation of concurrent dry eye syndrome. Many patients undergoing treatment are already predisposed to dry eye disease due to their age and overall ocular health. As dry eye can have a substantial impact on quality of life, it has become increasingly apparent that the clinical signs and symptoms should be closely monitored and aggressively managed. This will allow for the optimization of patient comfort and visual potential. Here, we discuss the reasons why dry eye may develop during the course of repeated ocular anti-VEGF therapy, highlighting the key concerns about current practices and proposing possible solutions to improve the outcome for the patients. Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, povidone–iodine, toxicity, ocular health, chronic ophthalmic treatment

  7. Analysis of dry eye after phacoemulsification in patients of renal transplantation%肾移植患者白内障超声乳化术后干眼临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武劲圆; 孙丰源; 唐东润; 张蕊

    2013-01-01

    目的 分析肾移植术后患者行超声乳化白内障吸出术后泪液及泪膜的变化,探讨其干眼问题.方法 采用非随机病例对照研究设计.肾移植组白内障患者26例(34眼)及单纯年龄相关性白内障患者(对照组)33例(40眼),分别于超声乳化联合人工晶状体(IOL)植入术前术后不同时间,以干眼调查问卷的方式获得患者的主觉症状并进行评分,同时行泪膜破裂时间(BUT)、基础泪液分泌试验(SIt)、角膜荧光素染色检查,对两组患者的上述检测指标进行比较.结果 肾移植组术后干眼症状的评分及角膜荧光素染色(FL),泪膜破裂时间(BUT)明显重于对照组,总体差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).但术后3个月FL与术前比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 肾移植患者术后泪膜功能较差,是干眼症的易患人群,行超声乳化术后干眼症状较单纯年龄相关性白内障患者更明显.%Objective To analyze the change of tear film after phacoemulsification in patient with renal transplantation and discuss the problem of dry eye.Methods A non-randomized cases-controlled study was designed.26 cataract patients with renal transplantation (the experimental group) (34 eyes) and matched 33 patients (40 eyes) with age-related cataract(control group) were included in this study.Before and after different time phacoemulsification and IOL implantation respectively was performed on the all patients,dry eye-related symptom was surveyed and scored by questionnaire,and tear film break-up time (BUT),Schirmer I test (SIt) and corneal fluorescein (FL) were examined.Results The experimental group is significantly heavier than control group obviously postoperatively in patients with dry eye symptom score,FL,BUT,the overall differences were statistically significant(P < 0.05),but after 3 months FL preoperatively with no significant difference (P > 0.05).Conclusion Tear film function of renal transplantation patients is poor after

  8. Associations between subjective happiness and dry eye disease: a new perspective from the Osaka study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Yokoi, Norihiko; Uchino, Yuichi; Dogru, Murat; Komuro, Aoi; Sonomura, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroaki; Kinoshita, Shigeru; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye disease has become an important health problem. A lack of concordance between self-reported symptoms and the outcome of dry eye examinations has raised questions about dry eye disease. To explore the association between subjective happiness and objective and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease. The study adopted a cross-sectional design. All the employees of a company in Osaka, Japan. 672 Japanese office workers using Visual Display Terminals (age range: 26-64 years). The dry eye measurement tools included the Schirmer test, conjunctivocorneal staining, the tear film break-up time, as well as the administration of a dry eye symptoms questionnaire. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale. Dry eye examination parameters, dry eye symptoms questionnaires, and the Subjective Happiness Scale score. Of the 672 workers, 561 (83.5%) completed the questionnaires and examinations. The mean Subjective Happiness Scale score was 4.91 (SD = 1.01). This score was inversely correlated with the dry eye symptom score (r = -0.188, p happiness was the lowest in the group without objective results, but reported subjective symptoms of dry eyes (p happiness and self-reported symptoms of dry eyes. Findings of this study revealed a new perspective on dry eye disease, including the potential for innovative treatments of a specific population with dry eye disease.

  9. Extended release of hyaluronic acid from hydrogel contact lenses for dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulvi, Furqan A; Soni, Tejal G; Shah, Dinesh O

    2015-01-01

    Current dry eye treatment includes delivering comfort enhancing agents to the eye via eye drops, but low residence time of eye drops leads to low bioavailability. Frequent administration leads to incompliance in patients, so there is a great need for medical device such as contact lenses to treat dry eye. Studies in the past have demonstrated the efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA) in the treatment of dry eyes using eye drops. In this paper, we present two methods to load HA in hydrogel contact lenses, soaking method and direct entrapment. The contact lenses were characterized by studying their optical and physical properties to determine their suitability as extended wear contact lenses. HA-laden hydrogel contact lenses prepared by soaking method showed release up to 48 h with acceptable physical and optical properties. Hydrogel contact lenses prepared by direct entrapment method showed significant sustained release in comparison to soaking method. HA entrapped in hydrogels resulted in reduction in % transmittance, sodium ion permeability and surface contact angle, while increase in % swelling. The impact on each of these properties was proportional to HA loading. The batch with 200-μg HA loading showed all acceptable values (parameters) for contact lens use. Results of cytotoxicity study indicated the safety of hydrogel contact lenses. In vivo pharmacokinetics studies in rabbit tear fluid showed dramatic increase in HA mean residence time and area under the curve with lenses in comparison to eye drop treatment. The study demonstrates the promising potential of delivering HA through contact lenses for the treatment of dry eye syndrome.

  10. Clinical utility of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution in the treatment of dry eyes

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    Koh S

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Shizuka Koh Department of Ophthalmology, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Suita, Osaka, Japan Abstract: Diquafosol is a drug used for dry eye treatment with a novel mechanism of action. It stimulates the secretion of tear fluid and mucin on the ocular surface, thus enabling us to selectively treat the tear film layer, playing an important role in the establishment of the concept of “Tear Film Oriented Therapy (TFOT”, an effective therapeutic approach to dry eye in Japan. The 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution has been widely used for the treatment of dry eye in clinical practice, and it is currently available in Japan and South Korea. This review provides an overview of the clinical utility of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution, focusing on the results of clinical studies on various types of dry eye, including aqueous-deficient dry eye, short tear film breakup time-type dry eye, and post dry eye after laser in situ keratomileusis. It also introduces the additive effect of diquafosol on sodium hyaluronate monotherapy for dry eye, and the effect of 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution for dry eye-related conditions. Additionally, it summarizes the ocular effects of diquafosol in healthy human eyes. Lastly, the importance of improving tear film stability in dry eye treatment, as well as general advances in dry eye treatments, are described. Keywords: diquafosol, dry eye, mucin secretion, fluid secretion, ocular surface, vision

  11. Talking with eye injury patients

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    Helen Roberts

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with an eye injury are usually in pain and very frightened. They need a gentle, reassuring approach. Your first task is to assess the general state of your patient. If they are alert and orientated and their general health is good, you can continue to examine them in the eye department. If their immediate general health is at risk, you will have to address this first.

  12. [Dry eye syndrome. Occupational risk factors, valuation and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Terradillos-García, M J; López González, Á A

    2014-03-01

    Dry eye syndrome in the workplace is associated with new ways of working, with increasing use of screens and electronic devices and environmental conditions encountered in modern office designs and other environments. Also affect occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals or atmospheric dust with increased ocular dryness. The study of pathophysiological aspects and laboral causality of the dry eye, must be to develop joint task in Occupational Health, Public Health in coordination with and responsible for the national health system, which would involve primary and secondary preventive measures more effective and proper diagnosis, control and monitoring of the disease, A better knowledge of occupational hazards and actions agreed and coordinated between occupational physicians, preventers, primary care physicians and specialist physicians, such as ophthalmology, will get results much more effective when earlier and optimize available resources.

  13. The top 100 papers in dry eye - A bibliometric analysis.

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    Schargus, Marc; Kromer, Robert; Druchkiv, Vasily; Frings, Andreas

    2017-09-15

    Citation analysis represents one of the best currently available methods for quantifying the impact of articles. Bibliometric studies list the ''best sellers'' in a single field of interest. The purpose of the present study was to identify and analyze the most frequently cited papers in dry eye research that may be of high interest for researchers and clinicians. We reviewed the database of the Institute for Scientific Information to identify articles published from 1900 to September 2016. All dry eye articles published in 59 ophthalmology journals were identified. The top 100 articles were selected for further analysis of authorship, source journal, number of citations, citation rate, geographic origin, article type, and level of evidence. The 100 most-cited articles were published between 1983 and 2011, with most of them in the 2000s. The number of citations per article ranged from 96 to 610, and was greatest for articles published in the 2000s. Each of these articles was published in one of 15 journals. Most articles represented Level-III evidence, followed by Levels II and I. The present study focusing on dry eye research revealed that 55% of the most-cited articles came from the U.S. and 18% from Japan. Diagnostics and therapy were the areas of focus of most of the clinical articles; 13% of the most cited papers were review articles. This analysis provides researchers and clinicians with a detailed overview on the most cited dry eye papers over the past decades. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Real-world assessment of diquafosol in dry eye patients with risk factors such as contact lens, meibomian gland dysfunction, and conjunctivochalasis: subgroup analysis from a prospective observational study

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    Yamaguchi M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Masahiko Yamaguchi,1 Takeshi Nishijima,2 Jun Shimazaki,3 Etsuko Takamura,4 Norihiko Yokoi,5 Hitoshi Watanabe,6 Yuichi Ohashi1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Ehime University School of Medicine, Ehime, 2Department of Safety Vigilance Group, Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Dental College, Ichikawa General Hospital, Chiba, 4Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo, 5Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, 6Department of Ophthalmology, Kansai Rosai Hospital, Hyogo, Japan Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of diquafosol (DQS ophthalmic solution in dry eye (DE patients wearing contact lenses (CLs or with concomitant meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD or conjunctivochalasis in a real-world setting. Patients and methods: From a cohort of patients enrolled in a prospective observational study, DE patients who met the Japanese diagnostic criteria and who received DQS as a monotherapy were extracted and stratified according to the presence or absence of CL use, MGD, and conjunctivochalasis. Corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining score, tear film break-up time, total symptom score (12 DE-related subjective symptoms, patient-reported outcomes, and adverse reactions were investigated. Results: DQS treatment resulted in significant improvement in total symptom score, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining score, and tear film break-up time without significant differences between patient subgroups with versus without CL use, MGD, or conjunctivochalasis. Comparable proportions of patients perceived symptomatic improvements in all subgroups. There were no adverse reactions specifically associated with the CL use or any comorbidity of MGD or conjunctivochalasis. Conclusion: DQS can be used effectively and safely as a monotherapy for the treatment of DE patients wearing CLs or with concomitant MGD or

  15. Comparison of novel lipid-based eye drops with aqueous eye drops for dry eye: a multicenter, randomized controlled trial

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    Simmons PA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Peter A Simmons, Cindy Carlisle-Wilcox, Joseph G Vehige Ophthalmology Research and Development, Allergan, Inc., Irvine, CA, USA Background: Dry eye may be caused or exacerbated by deficient lipid secretion. Recently, lipid-containing artificial tears have been developed to alleviate this deficiency. Our study compared the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of lipid-containing eye drops with that of aqueous eye drops.Methods: A non-inferiority, randomized, parallel-group, investigator-masked multicenter trial was conducted. Subjects with signs and symptoms of dry eye were randomized to use one of two lipid-containing artificial tears, or one of two aqueous artificial tears. Subjects instilled assigned drops in each eye at least twice daily for 30 days. The primary efficacy analysis tested non-inferiority of a preservative-free lipid tear formulation (LT UD to a preservative-free aqueous tear formulation (AqT UD for change in Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI score from baseline at day 30. Secondary measures included OSDI at day 7, tear break-up time (TBUT, corneal and conjunctival staining, Schirmer’s test, acceptability and usage questionnaires, and safety assessments.Results: A total of 315 subjects were randomized and included in the analyses. Subjects reported instilling a median of three doses of study eye drops per day in all groups. At days 7 and 30, all groups showed statistically significant improvements from baseline in OSDI (P<0.001 and TBUT (P≤0.005. LT UD was non-inferior to AqT UD for mean change from baseline in OSDI score at day 30. No consistent or clinically relevant differences for the other efficacy variables were observed. Acceptability was generally similar across the groups and there was a low incidence of adverse events.Conclusion: In this heterogeneous population of dry eye subjects, there were no clinically significant differences in safety, effectiveness, and acceptability between lipid-containing artificial tears

  16. Effect of Rebamipide Ophthalmic Suspension on Intraocular Light Scattering for Dry Eye After Corneal Refractive Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igarashi, Akihito; Kamiya, Kazutaka; Kobashi, Hidenaga; Shimizu, Kimiya

    2015-08-01

    To assess the changes in intraocular scattering before and after instillation of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension in patients with dry eye after corneal refractive surgery. This study enrolled 60 eyes of 30 dry eye patients undergoing corneal refractive surgery. Patients were randomly assigned to start topical administration of rebamipide ophthalmic suspension (rebamipide group) or artificial tears (control group) 4 times daily for 4 weeks. Tear secretion, tear break-up time (TBUT), and the fluorescein score were measured before and after treatment. Intraocular light scattering was also measured as the objective scattering index (OSI) at 0.5-second intervals over 10 seconds. In the rebamipide group, the Schirmer I test, TBUT, and fluorescein score improved significantly, from 11.4 ± 9.0 mm, 2.2 ± 0.7 seconds, and 4.3 ± 1.3 to 14.9 ± 7.4 mm, 4.5 ± 1.7 seconds, and 1.9 ± 1.0, respectively (P = 0.006, P Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension was effective for improving both ocular surface parameters and optical quality in patients with dry eye undergoing corneal refractive surgery, suggesting that it may hold promise for the treatment of such patients.

  17. Botulinum neurotoxin type A versus punctal plug insertion in the management of dry eye disease

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    Amal A Bukhari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the efficacies of punctal plug insertion and Botulinum toxin injection in dry eye disease not responding to topical medications. Materials and Methods: A non-controlled randomized clinical trial of two parallel groups of 60 dry eye patients seen in the clinic not responding to topical medications were divided into two groups. One group received punctal plugs and the other group received Botulinum toxin injections to prevent lacrimal tear drainage. Results: Of a total of 36 patients with a mean age of 44.5 years who received punctal plugs, 50% of them experienced improvements in the clinical manifestations of their disease. 12/36 (33.3% developed plug extrusion, and 6/36 (16.7% patients developed conjunctival erosions with irritation that necessitated plug removal within one week of insertion. A total of 24 patients with a mean age of 47.5 years received injections of Botulinum toxin. Of these, 83.3% had improvement in all of the clinical manifestations of dry eye. 4/24 (16.7% had no improvement in the degrees to which they experienced foreign body sensations, 33.3% reported shampoo entering the eye while showering. All of the patients who received Botulinum toxin injections were satisfied with the results of their treatment, whereas only 72.3% of the patients who received punctal plugs were satisfied with their results. Conclusion: Botulinum neurotoxin A injections can be a very good alternative to punctal plugs in improving the clinical manifestations of dry eye disease They are associated with the development of fewer and milder complications and with higher levels of patient satisfaction.

  18. An evaluation of dry eye symptoms and signs in a cohort of children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

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    Kaisu M Kotaniemi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Kaisu M Kotaniemi1, Pirjo M Salomaa1, Kristiina Sihto-Kauppi1, Hanna M Säilä2, Markku J Kauppi31Department of Ophthalmology;2Pediatric Rheumatology;3Rheumatology, Rheumatism Foundation Hospital, Heinola, FinlandObjective: To determine the prevalence of dry eye symptoms and signs in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA.Patients and methods: A total of 192 children with JIA: 48 oligo-, 39 extended oligo-, 79 polyarthritis, and 26 with other types of arthritis (eight juvenile spondyloarthritis, five juvenile psoriatic arthritis, three mixed connective tissue diseases, two systemic onset arthritis, and eight undetermined arthritis were interviewed for dry eye symptoms and tested with Schirmer test with anesthetic. Two thirds of the patients were female and the mean age of the patients was 13.1 years (range 10–16 and the mean duration of arthritis was six years (SD 4, 4. Thirty-one percent of the patients had a history of uveitis. Dry eye was defined as Schirmer test score ≤5 mm in five minutes. The type of arthritis, a history of uveitis, and the ocular and systemic medication used were evaluated for their correlation with dry eye symptoms and signs by using chi-square tests and the Mann–Whitney Monte Carlo analysis.Results: Altogether 17% of this cohort had decreased basal tear secretion. The most common symptoms of dry eye were discharge secretion, itching, and watering. The intensity of symptoms and signs did not correlate. The type of arthritis, a history or presence of uveitis, and the medication used did not correlate with the occurrence of dry eyes.Conclusion: Dry eye symptoms and signs are common in JIA, and Schirmer test with anesthetic is a useful tool in evaluating these patients.Keywords: dry eyes, Schirmer test, juvenile idiopathic arthritis

  19. Clinical Effect of Antioxidant Glasses Containing Extracts of Medicinal Plants in Patients with Dry Eye Disease: A Multi-Center, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won; Kim, Jae Chan; Kim, Won Soo; Oh, Han Jin; Yang, Jee Myung; Lee, Jee Bum; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of wearable antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants in patients with mild dry eye disease (DED). Fifty patients with mild DED were randomly assigned to wear either extracts of antioxidant medicinal plants containing (N = 25) or placebo glasses (N = 25). Patients wore the glasses for 15 min three times daily. The ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score, tear film break up time (BUT), and Schirmer's test were evaluated and compared within the group and between the groups at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatment. OSDI score and tear film BUT were significantly improved in the treatment group at 4 and 8 weeks after wearing glasses (all P plants were effective in improving in DED both subjectively and objectively. Wearing antioxidants glasses might be a safe and adjunctive therapeutic option for DED. ISRCTN registry 71217488.

  20. Meibomian gland dysfunction determines the severity of the dry eye conditions in visual display terminal workers.

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    Huping Wu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD may determine the severity of dry eye conditions in visual display terminal (VDT workers. METHODOLOGY: Prospective, case-control study carried out in China.106 eyes of 53 patients (VDT work time >4 hour per day were recruited as the Long time VDT group; 80 eyes of 40 control subjects (VDT work time ≤ 4 hour per day served as the Short time VDT group. A questionnaire of Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI and multiple tests were performed. Three dry eye tests: tear film breakup time (BUT, corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer I test; and three MGD parameters: lid margin abnormality score, meibum expression assessment (meibum score, and meibomian gland dropout degree (meiboscore using Keratograph 5 M. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: OSDI and corneal fluorescein score were significantly higher while BUT was dramatically shorter in the long time VDT group than the short time VDT group. However, the average of Schirmer tear volumes was in normal ranges in both groups. Interestingly, the three MGD parameters were significantly higher in the long time VDT group than the short time one (P<0.0001. When 52 eyes with Schirmer <10 mm and 54 eyes with Schirmer ≥ 10 mm were separated from the long time VDT workers, no significant differences were found between the two subgroups in OSDI, fluorescein staining and BUT, as well as the three MGD parameters. All three MGD parameters were positively correlated with VDT working time (P<0.0001 and fluorescein scores (P<0.0001, inversely correlated with BUT (P<0.05, but not correlated with Schirmer tear volumes in the VDT workers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that a malfunction of meibomian glands is associated with dry eye patients in long term VDT workers with higher OSDI scores whereas some of those patients presenting a normal tear volume.

  1. Validity of subjective assessment as screening tool for dry eye disease and its association with clinical tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kavita; R; Bhatnagar; Sonali; Pote; Sudeep; Pujari; Dhiraj; Deka

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To determine the role of subjective assessment using Mc Monnies dry eye questionnaire in diagnosing dry eye disease and its association with clinical tests.METHODS: There were 500 patients screened for dry eye using Mc Monnies dry eye questionnaire between May to October 2013 at the outpatient Department of Ophthalmology of a medical college hospital. All 500 patients were subjected to clinical tests. Dry eye was defined as having one or more symptoms often or all the time. Positive signs were if one or both eyes revealed tear film breakup time(TBUT) of ≤10s, a Schirmer test score of ≤10 mm, a Rose Bengal staining score of ≥1, a Lissamine green staining score of ≥1 or existence of meibomian gland disease(≥grade 1). Statistical analysis was performed to describe the distribution of symptoms and signs, to assess the correlations between Mc Monnies score(MS) and variable clinical signs of dry eye, and to explore the association between dry eye symptoms and variable clinical signs. Analysis was performed using software package Epi info. A Probability(P) value using Chi-square test of <0.005 was taken as significant.· RESULTS: Dry eye prevalence with symptoms(questionnaire), Schirmer test, TBUT, Rose Bengal staining and Lissamine green staining was 25.6%,15.20%, 20.80%, 23.60%, and 22.60% respectively. Among those with severe symptoms(MS>20), 75.86% had a low TBUT(<10s), 58.62% had a low Schirmer’s I test(≤10 mm),86.20% had Rose Bengal staining score of ≥1, 79.31%had Lissamine green staining score of ≥1. We found statistically significant associations between positive Schirmer test and arthritis(P <0.002), dryness elsewhere(P <0.001), contact lens use(P < 0.002), systemic medication(P <0.0001), sleeping with eyes partly open(P <0.002), history of dry eyes treatment(P <0.0001),environmental factors(P <0.001), swimming(P <0.001).· CONCLUSION: Subjective assessment plays an important role in diagnosing dry eye disease. There is strong correlation

  2. [Analysis of incidence of ocular surface disease index with objective tests and treatment for dry eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Torres, L A; Porras-Machado, D J; Villegas-Guzmán, A E; Molina-Zambrano, J A

    2010-02-01

    To correlate ocular surface disease index (OSDI) with objective tests on patients with dry eye on first consultation and evaluate the efficiency of topical medication administered depending on severity of symptoms reported by patients who were evaluated at 3 months. We studied a sample of 144 patients with dry eye who were evaluated with OSDI and basic diagnostic tests at first consultation: Height of lacrimal meniscus, Schirmer II test (with anesthetic), Break-up time test (BUT), and lissamine green staining. The sample was divided into four groups depending on clinical severity, taking into account results of OSDI questionnaire. Treatment was determined for each group taking into account lubricant viscosity properties: OSDI (mild) = carboxymethylcelullose, OSDI (moderate) = hidroxypropylmethylcelullose, OSDI (severe) = polyethyleneglycol and OSDI (very severe) = polyethyleneglycol + cyclosporine A 0.05%. Final OSDI was established for 56 patients who were assessed at 3 months. Results of objective tests at first consult showed a correlation between the severity of symptoms and the grade of lissamine green staining (p = 0.0421). We found significant improvement in OSDI values after topical treatment was administered in all groups of patients (p = 0.0066) at three months post treatment. Conjuntival lissamine green staining is a useful guideline that could be routinely used to confirm diagnosis in subjective evaluations and patient follow-up. Patients with dry eye show a decrease in OSDI after being treated with the appropriate medication prescribed for each particular group, depending on severity.

  3. Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension for the treatment of dry eye syndrome: a critical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashima T

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tomoyuki Kashima,1 Hirotaka Itakura,1,2 Hideo Akiyama,1 Shoji Kishi11Department of Ophthalmology, Gunma University, School of Medicine, Maebashi, Gunma, Japan; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Maebashi Red Cross Hospital, Maebashi, Gunma, JapanAbstract: Rebamipide was initially developed and approved for use in treating gastric ulcers and lesions associated with gastritis. Discovery of its ability to increase gastric mucin led to investigations of its effect on ocular surface mucin and the subsequent development for use in dry eye patients. Investigations have confirmed that rebamipide increases corneal and conjunctival mucin-like substances along with improving corneal and conjunctival injury. Clinically, rebamipide ophthalmic suspensions can effectively treat tear deficiency and mucin-caused corneal epithelial damage, and can restore the microstructure responsible for tear stability. Topical rebamipide has also been shown to be effective in treating other ocular surface disorders such as lagophthalmos, lid wiper epitheliopathy, and persistent corneal erosion. Rebamipide’s ability to modify epithelial cell function, improve tear stability, and suppress inflammation in the absence of any known major side effects suggest that it may be a beneficial first drug of choice for severe dry eye treatment and other ocular surface disorders. This review summarizes the history and development of this innovative dry eye treatment from its initial use as an effective stomach medication to its current use in the treatment of dry eye in Japan.Keywords: quinolinone derivative, tear deficiency, ocular surface disorder, mucin secretion, Mucosta

  4. Rebamipide ophthalmic suspension for the treatment of dry eye syndrome: a critical appraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashima, Tomoyuki; Itakura, Hirotaka; Akiyama, Hideo; Kishi, Shoji

    2014-01-01

    Rebamipide was initially developed and approved for use in treating gastric ulcers and lesions associated with gastritis. Discovery of its ability to increase gastric mucin led to investigations of its effect on ocular surface mucin and the subsequent development for use in dry eye patients. Investigations have confirmed that rebamipide increases corneal and conjunctival mucin-like substances along with improving corneal and conjunctival injury. Clinically, rebamipide ophthalmic suspensions can effectively treat tear deficiency and mucin-caused corneal epithelial damage, and can restore the microstructure responsible for tear stability. Topical rebamipide has also been shown to be effective in treating other ocular surface disorders such as lagophthalmos, lid wiper epitheliopathy, and persistent corneal erosion. Rebamipide’s ability to modify epithelial cell function, improve tear stability, and suppress inflammation in the absence of any known major side effects suggest that it may be a beneficial first drug of choice for severe dry eye treatment and other ocular surface disorders. This review summarizes the history and development of this innovative dry eye treatment from its initial use as an effective stomach medication to its current use in the treatment of dry eye in Japan. PMID:24940041

  5. A Comprehensive Review on Dry Eye Disease: Diagnosis, Medical Management, Recent Developments, and Future Challenges

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    Suvarna P. Phadatare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye syndrome (DES or keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS is a common disorder of the tear film caused by decreased tear production or increased evaporation and manifests with a wide variety of signs and symptoms. The present review from interpretation of the literature gives detailed information on the prevalence, definition, causes, diagnostic tests, and medical management of dry eye disease. A number of systems contribute to the physiological integrity of the ocular surface and disruption of system may or may not produce symptoms. Therefore accurate diagnosis of dry eyes with no or minimal disruption of physiological function is necessary. The paper also discusses different colloidal drug delivery systems and current challenges in the development of topical ophthalmic drug delivery systems for treatment of KCS. Due to the wide prevalence and number of factors involved, newer, more sensitive diagnostic techniques and novel therapeutic agents have been developed to provide ocular delivery systems with high therapeutic efficacy. The aim of this review is to provide awareness among the patients, health care professionals, and researchers about diagnosis and treatment of KCS and recent developments and future challenges in management of dry eye disease.

  6. Efficacy of Carboxymethylcellulose and Hyaluronate in Dry Eye Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Kyeong; Park, Hwa Yeon; Hyon, Joon Young; Oh, Seung-Won; Bae, Woo Kyung; Han, Jong-Soo; Jung, Se Young; Um, Yoo Jin; Lee, Ga-Hye; Yang, Ji Hye

    2017-01-01

    Background The efficacy of two artificial tears, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and hyaluronate (HA), was compared in the treatment of patients with dry eye disease. Methods We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on randomized controlled trials in the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases. The efficacy was compared in terms of the mean change from baseline in tear break-up time. The meta-analysis was conducted using both random and fixed effect models. The quality of the selected studies was assessed for risk of bias. Results Five studies were included involving 251 participants. Random effect model meta-analysis showed no significant difference between CMC and HA in treating dry eye disease (pooled standardized mean difference [SMD]=-0.452; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.911 to 0.007; P=0.053). In contrast, fixed effect model meta-analysis revealed significant improvements in the CMC group when compared to the HA group (pooled SMD=-0.334; 95% CI, -0.588 to -0.081; P=0.010). Conclusion The efficacy of CMC appeared to be better than that of HA in treating dry eye disease, although meta-analysis results were not statistically significant. Further research is needed to better elucidate the difference in efficacy between CMC and HA in treating dry eye disease. PMID:28197326

  7. Mucosal environmental sensors in the pathogenesis of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Stern, Michael E

    2014-09-01

    The 4th Cullen Symposium, held April 17 and 18, 2014, included expert researchers in mucosal immunity of the eye and other mucosal surfaces, particularly the gut. The theme of the meeting was environmental sensing mechanisms in mucosal tissues and their relevance for initiating ocular surface inflammation in dry eye. There are a number of shared features between the ocular surface and other mucosal surfaces, but distinct differences may exist in the type and distribution of mucins and microbiota. Mechanisms to regulate DC maturation and prevent tissue-damaging inflammation are shared among these sites. Epithelial and dendritic cells are key environmental sensors participating in initiation of innate and adaptive immune responses in response to a variety of environmental stresses.

  8. [Quantitative analysis of the corneal subbasal nerves in different degrees of dry eye with AutoCAD].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Y; Wu, J; Zhu, H F; Cheng, Y; Zhu, X P

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the practical value of AutoCAD in quantitative analysis of corneal subbasal epithelial nerves with different degrees of dry eye. Ninety patients were divided into groups of mild, moderate, and severe dry eye, 30 patients (60 eyes) in each group. And 30 healthy volunteers were recruited as the normal control group. Confocal microscopy was used to observe the length of the subbasal epithelial nerve plexus. The images were analyzed by AutoCAD software to determine the density (mm/mm(2)), the number of branches, and the curvature score of the subbasal epithelial nerves. These data of patients with dry eye and the controls were statistically compared, by analysis of variance(ANOV). By AutoCAD software, quantitative analysis of the corneal subbasal epithelial nerves was successfully performed. The nerve density in the patients with mild dry eye[(16.70±3.43) mm/mm(2)] was not significantly different from the controls[(15.87 ± 2.75) mm/mm(2)] (P=0.880), but the number of nerval branches 13.43±2.46 and the curvature 3.10±0.80 increased significantly (PAutoCAD software is useful in the quantitative analysis of corneal nerve images under a confocal microscope. The corneal subbasal epithelial nerve density, the number of branches, and the curvature of the nerves are related to the degree of dry eye, and may be used as clinical indicators.

  9. Related factors analysis of type 2 diabetic patients with dry eye%2型糖尿病患者干眼症发生情况及相关因素探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘承

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析2型糖尿病患者并发干眼症情况及相关影响因素。  方法:选取45例90眼2型糖尿病患者和40例80眼非糖尿病患者为研究对象,分析其泪膜破裂时间、基础泪液分泌试验以及角膜荧光素染色指标间的差异,并分析其相关因素。  结果:观察组患者平均泪膜破裂时间为6.23±2.36s,显著短于对照组;泪液分泌试验滤纸条平均浸润长度为8.65±3.82mm,显著低于对照组;角膜荧光素染色评分为1.89±1.31分,显著高于对照组;干眼症发病率达58%,显著高于对照组,差异均具有统计学意义( P<0.05)。 Logistic多因素分析显示泪液基础分泌量和泪膜破裂时间为2型糖尿病患者合并干眼症重要的危险因素。  结论:2型糖尿病患者泪膜破裂时间缩短、基础泪液分泌值减少以及角膜荧光素染色评分升高。泪液基础分泌量和泪膜破裂时间为2型糖尿病患者合并干眼症重要的危险因素。%AIM: To analyze dry eye conditions of type 2 diabetes and its related factors. METHODS: Totally 45 patients ( 90 eyes ) with type 2 diabetes and 40 patients (80 eyes) non-diabetic patients were chosen for this study. Tear film break-up time, Schirmer test, and corneal fluorescein staining differences between indicators and its related factors were analyzed.RESULTS:In diabetes group, the mean tear film break-up time was 6.23±2.36s, significantly shorter than that of the control group; Schirmer infiltration experiments average length of filter strips was 8.65 ±3.82mm, significantly lower than that of the control group; corneal fluorescein staining score was 1.89 ± 1.31points, significantly higher.The incidence rate of dry eye was 58%, was significantly higher, the difference had statistically significant (P CONCLUSION:In type 2 diabetes patients, the tear film breakup time is shortened, and the basal tear secretion is decreased corneal

  10. Associations between subjective happiness and dry eye disease: a new perspective from the Osaka study.

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    Motoko Kawashima

    Full Text Available Dry eye disease has become an important health problem. A lack of concordance between self-reported symptoms and the outcome of dry eye examinations has raised questions about dry eye disease.To explore the association between subjective happiness and objective and subjective symptoms of dry eye disease.The study adopted a cross-sectional design.All the employees of a company in Osaka, Japan.672 Japanese office workers using Visual Display Terminals (age range: 26-64 years.The dry eye measurement tools included the Schirmer test, conjunctivocorneal staining, the tear film break-up time, as well as the administration of a dry eye symptoms questionnaire. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale.Dry eye examination parameters, dry eye symptoms questionnaires, and the Subjective Happiness Scale score.Of the 672 workers, 561 (83.5% completed the questionnaires and examinations. The mean Subjective Happiness Scale score was 4.91 (SD = 1.01. This score was inversely correlated with the dry eye symptom score (r = -0.188, p < 0.001, but was not associated with objective findings which include conjunctivocorneal staining, low Schirmer test score, or low tear film break-up time. The level of subjective happiness was the lowest in the group without objective results, but reported subjective symptoms of dry eyes (p < 0.05.There is evidence of the relationship between subjective happiness and self-reported symptoms of dry eyes. Findings of this study revealed a new perspective on dry eye disease, including the potential for innovative treatments of a specific population with dry eye disease.

  11. Contact lens wear and dry eyes: challenges and solutions

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    Markoulli M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria Markoulli, Sailesh Kolanu School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The number of contact lens wearers worldwide has remained relatively stable over the past decade, despite the investment that has gone into contact lens technology. This is largely because 10%–50% of wearers dropout of contact lens wear within 3 years of commencement; the most common reason cited being contact lens discomfort (CLD. Of the symptoms reported, sensation of dry eye is the most common. Given the outcome of reduced wearing time, increased chair time, and ultimate contact lens discontinuation, the challenge is to identify the warning signs of CLD early on. Clinically detectable changes such as conjunctival staining, conjunctival indentation, conjunctival epithelial flap formation, lid wiper epitheliopathy, Demodex blepharitis, and meibomian gland dysfunction have been linked to CLD, highlighting the need to perform regular aftercare visits to identify these changes. At a cellular level, conjunctival metaplasia and reduced goblet cell density have been linked to CLD, leading to a downstream effect on the tear film breakup time of contact lens wearers. These factors suggest a strong link between CLD and friction, raising the need to target this as a means of minimizing CLD. The purpose of this review is to identify the clinical signs that relate to CLD as a means of earlier detection and management in order to combat contact lens dropout. Keywords: contact lens discomfort, dry eye disease, lid wiper epitheliopathy, tear film biomarkers, meibomian gland dysfunction

  12. A randomized clinical evaluation of the safety of Systane® Lubricant Eye Drops for the relief of dry eye symptoms following LASIK refractive surgery

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    Daniel Durrie

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Durrie, Jason StahlDurrie Vision, Overland Park, Kansas, USAPurpose: To evaluate the safety of Systane® Lubricant Eye Drops in relieving the symptoms of dry eye following laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK surgery.Methods: This was a randomized, double-masked, single-center, placebo-controlled, contralateral eye study of 30 patients undergoing LASIK surgery. The mean age of patients was 42.4 ± 10.7 years, and the mean spherical equivalent was −3.29 (range, +1.75 to −7.38. Patients’ right and left eyes were randomized to receive either Systane® or placebo – a preserved, thimerosal-free saline solution – beginning from the day of surgery and ending 30 days following surgery. Outcome measures included tear film break up time (TFBUT, visual acuity, degree of corneal and conjunctival staining, and treatment-related adverse events.Results: Preoperatively, placebo-treated eyes had statistically significantly higher sum corneal staining score than Systane®-treated eyes (p = 0.0464; however, the difference was clinically insignificant (p = 0.27. Two weeks post operatively, the average TFBUT in the Systane®-treated eyes was 1.23 seconds longer than that of the placebo-treated eyes (p = 0.028. All other evaluated variables were comparable between the two treatments. No adverse events were reported in the study.Conclusion: Systane® Lubricant Eye Drops are safe for use following LASIK surgery to relieve the discomfort symptoms of dry eye associated with the procedure.Keywords: Systane®, safety, dry eye, LASIK

  13. The association of sleep quality with dry eye disease: the Osaka study

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    Kawashima M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Motoko Kawashima,1 Miki Uchino,1,2 Norihiko Yokoi,3 Yuichi Uchino,1,2 Murat Dogru,1 Aoi Komuro,3 Yukiko Sonomura,3 Hiroaki Kato,3 Shigeru Kinoshita,3 Kazuo Tsubota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, 2Ryogoku Eye Clinic, Sumida-ku, Tokyo, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: To investigate the association of dry eye disease with sleep quality. Methods: In 2011, a cross-sectional survey was conducted among all the employees, mainly young and middle-aged Japanese office workers, who used visual display technology, at a company in Osaka, Japan (N=672; age range =26–64 years. The participants were classified according to the Japanese dry eye diagnosis criteria by dry eye examination results including the Schirmer test, fluorescein and lissamine green staining, tear film break-up time, and symptom questionnaire into three groups as follows: definite dry eye disease, probable dry eye disease, and no dry eye disease. To determine sleep quality, Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (global score was implemented. The global score (range =0–21 was calculated by summing seven sleep variable scores (scale, 0–3; scores ≥5.5 indicated poor sleep. Results: The total mean global score was 5.1±2.3 (completed N=383; 45% of the dry eye disease participants reported having poor sleep quality, while 34% of the no dry eye disease participants did so, with a significant difference found in the global score (P=0.002. Furthermore, a statistically significant association was observed between the global score and dry eye disease (P=0.005. Conclusion: Poor sleep quality is associated with dry eye disease, especially with dry eye symptoms. Keywords: dry eye, sleep quality, symptom, questionnaire, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, tear film break-up time, visual display terminals

  14. Evaluation of prophilaxis of dry eye syndrome associated with soft contact lenses

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    Erkin Bilalov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the paper was to investigate the possibilities of dry eye syndrome prevention associated with soft contact lenses wearing. The algorithm of dry eye syndrome diagnostics and soft contact lenses selection has been developed based on the results of this work. The research showed that “Slezol Forte” is highly effective in the prevention of dry eye syndrome associated with wearing of soft contact lenses.

  15. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Dry Eye Syndrome in a United States Veterans Affairs Population

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    GALOR, ANAT; FEUER, WILLIAM; LEE, DAVID J.; FLOREZ, HERMES; CARTER, DAVID; POUYEH, BOZORGMEHR; PRUNTY, WILLIAM J.; PEREZ, VICTOR L.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To evaluate the prevalence of dry eye syndrome (DES) and its associated risk factors in a US Veterans Affairs population receiving ocular care services. DESIGN Retrospective study. METHODS SETTINGS Patients were seen in the Miami and Broward Veterans Affairs eye clinics between 2005 and 2010. PATIENTS POPULATION Patients were divided into cases and controls with regard to their dry eye status (cases = ICD9 code for DES plus dry eye therapy; controls = patients without ICD9 code plus no therapy). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The prevalence of DES and its associated risk factors. RESULTS A total of 16 862 patients were identified as either a dry eye case (n = 2056) or control (n = 14 806). Overall, 12% of male and 22% of female patients had a diagnosis of DES, with female gender imparting a 2.40 increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI] 2.04–2.81) over male gender. Several medical conditions were found to increase DES risk including post-traumatic stress disorder (odds ratio [OR] 1.97, 95% CI 1.75–2.23), depression (OR 1.91, 95% CI 1.73–2.10), thyroid disease (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.46–2.26), and sleep apnea (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.97–2.46) (all analyses adjusted for gender and age). The use of several systemic medications, including anti-depressant medications (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.79–2.17), anti-anxiety medication (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.58–1.91), and anti–benign prostatic hyperplasia medications (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.51–1.86), was likewise associated with an increased risk of DES. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of DES was found to be high in both men and women in our eye care population. This is the first study to demonstrate that in a veteran population, several diagnoses were significantly associated with DES, including post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. PMID:21684522

  16. [Comparison of local acetylcysteine and artificial tears in the management of dry eye syndrome].

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    Pokupec, Rajko; Petricek, Igor; Sikić, Jakov; Bradić, Mirna; Popović-Suić, Smiljka; Petricek, Goranka

    2005-01-01

    Dry eye syndrome is a common clinical entity causing difficulties to many people, especially the elderly. Standard substitution therapy with artificial tears may frequently prove inadequate, thus any new treatment modality is highly welcome. The syndrome implies lacrimal hyperosmolality, which in turn results in mucus accumulation in the conjunctival sac causing additional irritation. Locally applied acetylcysteine, a mucolytic, regulates mucus secretion and reduces mucus accumulation. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of artificial tear therapy and therapy with local acetylcysteine. The study included 32 patients with the symptoms and signs of dry eye attending our department between March 20 and May 9, 2003. All study patients were on long-term substitution therapy with artificial tears. Upon evaluation of subjective discomforts and objective signs, the patients were switched from artificial tear therapy (Isopto-Tears, Alcon, with polyvinyl alcohol as active ingredient) to therapy with locally applied acetylcysteine (Brunac, Bruschettini). All parameters were re-evaluated at 2-week control visit. Thirty of 32 patients (94%) completed the study with control visit. Of these, 18 (60%) patients reported reduction of subjective discomforts, ten (33%) patients observed no change, and two (7%) patients experienced more discomforts with acetylcysteine than with artificial tear therapy. On objective sign evaluation, 12 (40%) patients showed less discomforts, unchanged condition was recorded in 13 (43%) patients, and five (17%) patients had more discomforts as compared with artificial tear therapy. A statistically significant difference (p=0.05) between artificial tear therapy and acetylcysteine therapy was found for the subjective symptom score but not for the objective sign score. Therapy with acetylcysteine proved more efficient than artificial tears in reducing subjective symptoms but had no effect on the objective signs of dry eye syndrome. The

  17. A novel treatment for keratitis sicca (Dry eye): Anatomical feasibility study.

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    Iwanaga, Joe; Watanabe, Koichi; Kusukawa, Jingo; Fisahn, Christian; Alonso, Fernando; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-09-01

    Chronic dry eye (keratitis sicca) is a significant problem that in certain populations can result in corneal desiccation and the potential for blindness. Therefore, novel treatments for such disorders might decrease patient morbidity. The present study aimed to investigate a potential treatment for chronic dry eye via a cadaveric feasibility study. On 10 cadaveric sides, the parotid gland branch of the auriculotemporal nerve (ATN) was identified and anastomosed to an anterior superficial temporal branch (STb) of this same nerve. The STb was then transposed anteriorly and sutured to the lacrimal gland. The parotid branch of the ATN was easily identified on all sides. The STb of the ATN was easily identified and mobilized on all sides. This latter nerve had adequate length to be moved to the ipsilateral lacrimal gland on all sides. Rerouting parotid gland secretomotor fibers to the superficial branch of the ATN and then moving this branch to the lacrimal gland is a feasible surgical maneuver based on our cadaveric study. Clinical studies are now necessary to show utility of this procedure in patients with chronic dry eye. Clin. Anat. 30:839-843, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Síndrome de ojo seco Dry eye syndrome

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    Rafael Balbona Brito

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre el síndrome de ojo seco, que abarcó su clasificación, diagnóstico y tratamiento. Se tuvo en cuenta que constituye una entidad frecuente en la Oftalmología; se presenta con la finalidad de mostrar el síndrome de manera actualizada y con el objetivo de facilitar su manejoA bibliographic review of the dry eye syndrome that included its classification, diagnosis and treatment is made. Taking into account that it is a frequent entity in Ophthalmology, it is presented in order to provide an updating of the syndrome and to facilitate its management

  19. Treatment of Sjögren's syndrome dry eye using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop: Prospective double-blind randomized study.

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    Moscovici, Bernardo Kaplan; Holzchuh, Ricardo; Sakassegawa-Naves, Fernando Eiji; Hoshino-Ruiz, Diego Ricardo; Albers, Marcos Bottene Villa; Santo, Ruth Miyuki; Hida, Richard Yudi

    2015-10-01

    To describe the clinical efficacy of the treatment of Sjögren's syndrome dry eye using 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop. Prospective double-blind randomized study. Institutional outpatient clinic. Forty-eight eyes of twenty-four patients with dry eye related to Sjögren syndrome were enrolled in this study. The patients were randomized in 2 groups: tacrolimus (n=14) and vehicle (n=10) group. The tacrolimus group received a vial containing tacrolimus 0.03% (almond oil as vehicle) and the other group received the almond oil vehicle. All patients were instructed to use the eye drops every 12h in the lower conjunctival sac. Schirmer I test, break-up-time (BUT), corneal fluorescein and Rose Bengal staining scores were evaluated in all patients one day before the treatment (baseline), 7, 14, 28 and 90 days after treatment with the eye drops. The average fluorescein and Rose Bengal scores improved statistically after 7 days of treatment and even more after 90 days. The average Schirmer I and BUT values were unchanged after 7, 14 and 21 days but did show an improvement relative to baseline after 28 days of treatment. Schirmer I, BUT, fluorescein and Rose Bengal did not show any statistical significance in the vehicle group. Topical 0.03% tacrolimus eye drop improved tear stability and ocular surface status in cases of inflammatory or SS-related dry eye. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01850979. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical Effect of Antioxidant Glasses Containing Extracts of Medicinal Plants in Patients with Dry Eye Disease: A Multi-Center, Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial.

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    Won Choi

    Full Text Available To investigate the clinical efficacy and safety of wearable antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants in patients with mild dry eye disease (DED.Fifty patients with mild DED were randomly assigned to wear either extracts of antioxidant medicinal plants containing (N = 25 or placebo glasses (N = 25. Patients wore the glasses for 15 min three times daily. The ocular surface disease index (OSDI score, tear film break up time (BUT, and Schirmer's test were evaluated and compared within the group and between the groups at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatment.OSDI score and tear film BUT were significantly improved in the treatment group at 4 and 8 weeks after wearing glasses (all P < 0.001. Compared to the placebo group, the OSDI scores were significantly lower in the treatment group at 8 weeks (P = 0.007. The results of the Schirmer's test showed significant improvement in the treatment group at 4 weeks (P = 0.035, however there were no significant differences between the other groups or within the groups. No adverse events were reported during the study.Antioxidant glasses containing extracts of medicinal plants were effective in improving in DED both subjectively and objectively. Wearing antioxidants glasses might be a safe and adjunctive therapeutic option for DED.ISRCTN registry 71217488.

  1. Comparison of Development of Dry Eye in Conventional Hydrogel and Silicone Hydrogel Contact Lens Users

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    Rukiye Aydın

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To compare the level and severity of dry eye between conventional hydrogel and silicone hydrogel contact lens users by using dry eye questionnaires and clinical tests. Ma te ri al and Met hod: Forty-two contact lens users who attended the Cornea and Contact Lens Unit, Department of Ophthalmology at Dokuz Eylül University, were included in this study. The first group consisted of subjects who have used conventional hydrogel (CHL contact lens for minimum one year and maximum five years. The second group consisted of subjects who have used silicone hydrogel (SHL contact lens for minimum one year and maximum 5 years. Twenty healthy individuals with no history of contact lens use were included in the control group. OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire was performed to all patients. The tear function was determined by Schirmer’s test and tear break-up time in all three groups. Re sults: There was no statistically significant OSDI score differences between CHL and SHL users. Nevertheless, it was noted that OSDI score in both groups was statistically higher than in the control group. There was no statistically significant difference in tear break-up time between CHL and SHL users. On the other hand, tear break-up time was significantly lower in both groups when compared to the control group. There was no significant difference among the groups for Schirmer scoring. Dis cus si on: The use of conventional hydrogel and silicone hydrogel lenses causes a decline in tear break-up time leading to dry eye symptoms. However, no differences were determined between CHL and SHL users with regard to the severity of dry eye symptoms. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 7-14

  2. Effect of human milk as a treatment for dry eye syndrome in a mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diego, Jose L.; Bidikov, Luke; Pedler, Michelle G.; Kennedy, Jeffrey B.; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo; Gregory, Darren G.; Petrash, J. Mark

    2016-01-01

    -reduced milk but continued to increase in eyes treated with nopal-derived materials. Conclusions Whole and fat-reduced human milk showed promising effects in the prevention of BAK-induced loss of corneal epithelial thickness and epithelial damage in this mouse model. Further studies are required to determine whether human milk may be safely used to treat dry eye in patients. PMID:27667918

  3. Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care: Punctal Plugs for Dry Eye

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    ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an ... healthy lifestyle choices can help you protect your vision by reducing your risk for eye diseases, eye infections and eye injuries . Partnering with your ...

  4. Oral omega-3 fatty acids treatment in computer vision syndrome related dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Phogat, Hemant; Kaur, Avinash; Kumar, Manjushri

    2015-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of dietary consumption of omega-3 fatty acids (O3FAs) on dry eye symptoms, Schirmer test, tear film break up time (TBUT) and conjunctival impression cytology (CIC) in patients with computer vision syndrome. Interventional, randomized, double blind, multi-centric study. Four hundred and seventy eight symptomatic patients using computers for more than 3h per day for minimum 1 year were randomized into two groups: 220 patients received two capsules of omega-3 fatty acids each containing 180mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 120mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) daily (O3FA group) and 236 patients received two capsules of a placebo containing olive oil daily for 3 months (placebo group). The primary outcome measure was improvement in dry eye symptoms and secondary outcome measures were improvement in Nelson grade and an increase in Schirmer and TBUT scores at 3 months. In the placebo group, before dietary intervention, the mean symptom score, Schirmer, TBUT and CIC scores were 7.5±2, 19.9±4.7mm, 11.5±2s and 1±0.9 respectively, and 3 months later were 6.8±2.2, 20.5±4.7mm, 12±2.2s and 0.9±0.9 respectively. In the O3FA group, these values were 8.0±2.6, 20.1±4.2mm, 11.7±1.6s and 1.2±0.8 before dietary intervention and 3.9±2.2, 21.4±4mm, 15±1.7s, 0.5±0.6 after 3 months of intervention, respectively. This study demonstrates the beneficial effect of orally administered O3FAs in alleviating dry eye symptoms, decreasing tear evaporation rate and improving Nelson grade in patients suffering from computer vision syndrome related dry eye. Copyright © 2015 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Association Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels and Dry Eye in Korean Adults: A Study Based on Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2010–2011

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    Kim, Min Ji; Kim, Yun-Jin; Lee, Sang-Yeoup; Lee, Jeong-Gyu; Jeong, Dong-Wook; Kim, Yun Hee

    2017-01-01

    Background Dry eye is a common disease. Many patients continue to experience residual symptoms despite optimal treatment. Thus, new treatment options are required. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels and dry eye. Methods This study was performed using data from the fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which is a cross-sectional study of the Korean population that was conducted from 2010 to 2011. We included adults aged >19 years who underwent ophthalmologic interviews and examinations. We excluded subjects who had comorbid conditions (rheumatoid arthritis, thyroid disease, chronic kidney disease, or depression) that are associated with dry eye. The subjects were divided into normal and dry eye groups. The dry eye group consisted of those who had clinically diagnosed dry eye syndrome or symptoms. Multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine the association between serum 25(OH)D levels and dry eye. Results In the univariate model, the 25(OH)D levels were lower in the dry eye group than in the normal group (P=0.01). A significant association was found between severe vitamin D deficiency (<10 ng/mL) and dry eye (P=0.04). However, after multivariate adjustment, the statistical significance of the association disappeared (P-values= 0.49, vitamin D insufficiency; P=0.33, vitamin D deficiency; P=0.18, severe vitamin D deficiency). Conclusion Severe vitamin D deficiency was associated with dry eye in an unadjusted model, but the association was not statistically significant after adjustment. PMID:28360983

  6. Alcohol consumption and dry eye syndrome: a Meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yong-Sheng; Qu, Nai-Bin; Yu, Xiao-Ning

    2016-01-01

    AIM To quantify the association between alcohol consumption and dry eye syndrome (DES) with Meta-analysis of published case-control and cross-sectional studies. METHODS Three databases were screened for potentially eligible studies through Nov. 30, 2015, PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library. Odds ratios (ORs) were pooled with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to evaluate the relationship between alcohol consumption and DES risk. Subgroup analyses were performed according to diagnostic criteria, publication year, sample size, alcohol intake and adjusted factors. RESULTS A total of 10 (9 case-control and 1 cross-sectional) studies from 8 articles were included in this Meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that alcohol consumption would significantly increase the risk of DES (OR 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02-1.30), and the results were independent of smoking, hypertension, diabetes and thyroid disease history. And the results of subgroup analyses indicated an increased incidence of DES diagnosed by typical DES symptoms and positive objective tests together (OR 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01-1.39) among drinkers, but not by typical DES symptoms alone (OR 1.11, 95% CI: 0.94-1.32). What's more, any drinkers were at higher risk of suffering from DES (OR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.31-1.34), while heavy drinkers not (OR 1.01, 95% CI: 0.86-1.18). CONCLUSION The present Meta-analysis suggests that alcohol consumption may be a significant risk factor for DES. Alcohol-induced peripheral neuropathymay falsely reduce the prevalence of DES among heavy drinkers. Future prospective studies of alcohol consumption and DES risk are needed to confirm our results. PMID:27803869

  7. Corneal sensitivity, ocular surface health and tear film stability after punctal plug therapy of aqueous deficient dry eye

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    Azza Mohamed Ahmed Said

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the effect of punctal occlusion using thermosensitive (smart plug versus silicone plug for management of aqueous deficient dry eye on corneal sensitivity, ocular surface health and tear film stability. METHODS: A comparative prospective interventional case study included 45 patients with bilateral severe form of aqueous deficient dry eye. In each patient, the smart plug was inserted in the lower punctum of the right eye which was considered as study group 1 and silicone plug was inserted in the lower punctum of the left eye of the same patient which was considered as study group 2. All patients were subjected to careful history taking and questionnaire for subjective assessment of severity of symptoms. Corneal sensitivity, corneal fluorescein, rose bengal staining, Schirmer’s I test, tear film break up time and conjunctival impression cytology were performed pre and 1, 3 and 6mo post plug insertion. RESULTS: A statistically significant improvement in subjective and objective manifestations occurred following treatment with both types of plugs (P<0.01. The thermosensitive plug caused significant overall improvement, decrease in frequency of application of tear substitutes and improvement of conjunctival impression cytology parameters in the inserted side (P<0.01. Canaliculitis was reported in two eyes (4.4% following punctal occlusion using thermosensitive plug (study group 1. Spontaneous plug loss occurred in 21 eyes (46.6% in the silicone plug group (study group 2. CONCLUSION: Improvement of subjective and objective manifestations of aqueous deficient dry eye occurs following punctal plug occlusion. Thermosensitive plug has good patient's compliance with fewer complications and lower rates of loss compared to the silicone plug.

  8. Diagnosing dry eye with dynamic-area high-speed videokeratoscopy

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    Alonso-Caneiro, David; Turuwhenua, Jason; Iskander, D. Robert; Collins, Michael J.

    2011-07-01

    Dry eye syndrome is one of the most commonly reported eye health conditions. Dynamic-area high-speed videokeratoscopy (DA-HSV) represents a promising alternative to the most invasive clinical methods for the assessment of the tear film surface quality (TFSQ), particularly as Placido-disk videokeratoscopy is both relatively inexpensive and widely used for corneal topography assessment. Hence, improving this technique to diagnose dry eye is of clinical significance and the aim of this work. First, a novel ray-tracing model is proposed that simulates the formation of a Placido image. This model shows the relationship between tear film topography changes and the obtained Placido image and serves as a benchmark for the assessment of indicators of the ring's regularity. Further, a novel block-feature TFSQ indicator is proposed for detecting dry eye from a series of DA-HSV measurements. The results of the new indicator evaluated on data from a retrospective clinical study, which contains 22 normal and 12 dry eyes, have shown a substantial improvement of the proposed technique to discriminate dry eye from normal tear film subjects. The best discrimination was obtained under suppressed blinking conditions. In conclusion, this work highlights the potential of the DA-HSV as a clinical tool to diagnose dry eye syndrome.

  9. Influence on ocular surface after cataract surgery and effect of topical diquafosol on postoperative dry eye: a multicenter prospective randomized study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyake K

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Kensaku Miyake,1 Norihiko Yokoi2 On behalf of Dry Eye After Cataract Surgery Investigational Study Group (DASIS group 1Miyake Eye Hospital, Nagoya, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto, Japan Purpose: To investigate influences of 3% diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution (DQS on ocular surface after cataract surgery and effects on postoperative dry eye. Design: This study had two consecutive prospective study phases. The former was an observational study from before cataract surgery to 4 weeks after surgery and the latter was a randomized open-label study from 4 to 8 weeks after surgery. Methods: Subjects were 433 eyes of 433 patients undergoing cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. Dry eye examination of tear breakup time (BUT, corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores, total subjective symptom score (12 symptoms, and Schirmer I test were conducted before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Patient demographics and these examination results were used to analyze risk factors to predict postoperative dry eye. In a randomized study, 154 eyes diagnosed with dry eye postoperatively were applied either DQS or artificial tears (AT six times daily for 4 weeks. The data of the examinations were compared. Results: At 4 weeks after surgery, BUT was shortened significantly (P=0.036, fluorescein staining score increased significantly (P=0.012, but total subjective symptom score was significantly improved (P<0.001. The majority of postoperative dry eye was shortened BUT type (53.1%. The dry eye prevalence after surgery decreased (55.7% compared with before surgery (69.7%. Females and the patient with dry eye symptoms before surgery had significant risk factors for postoperative dry eye. In a randomized study, BUT was significantly prolonged in the DQS group (P=0.015, but not in the AT group. Fluorescein staining score was significantly improved in both groups (P<0.001. Total subjective symptom

  10. Investigation of extended blinks and interblink intervals in subjects with and without dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez JD

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available John D Rodriguez,1 George W Ousler III,1 Patrick R Johnston,1 Keith Lane,1 Mark B Abelson1,21Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, 2Schepens Eye Research Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USABackground: The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence and duration of extended blinks ≥ 70 msec and their associated interblink intervals in normal subjects and in subjects with mild to moderate dry eye.Methods: This single-center, prospective, double-blind study included 11 subjects with dry eye and eight subjects with normal eyes. Extended blinks were defined as lid closure in at least two successive video frames (≥ 70 msec. Digital video imaging of each subject's eyes was recorded while the subject viewed a 10-minute documentary. The subjects did not know that blink was the outcome being measured. Following capture, the videos were manually analyzed in a masked fashion for the occurrence of extended blinks. The length of the interblink interval (ie, time between blinks before and after these extended blinks (the interblink interval ratio was calculated, as well as differences in lid contact times.Results: The dry eye group had a median extended blink duration which was 2.53 times longer than that of the normal group. For subjects with dry eye, interblink intervals post-extended blink were significantly longer than interblink intervals pre-extended blink (P < 0.001. Interblink intervals did not lengthen significantly in normal subjects. In both groups, the duration of the extended blink was significantly (P = 0.001 and positively correlated with interblink interval ratio (post-extended to pre-extended blink interblink interval, such that for each doubling of extended blink duration, the interblink interval ratio increased by 10%. Blinks longer than one second in duration occurred almost exclusively in subjects with dry eye.Conclusion: This study reports three central findings: blink duration tended to be longer in subjects with dry

  11. A randomized, multicenter phase 3 study comparing 2% rebamipide (OPC-12759) with 0.1% sodium hyaluronate in the treatment of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Shigeru; Oshiden, Kazuhide; Awamura, Saki; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Nakamichi, Norihiro; Yokoi, Norihiko

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy of 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension compared with 0.1% sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution for the treatment of patients with dry eye. Randomized, multicenter, active-controlled parallel-group study. One hundred eighty-eight patients with dry eye. Following a 2-week screening period, patients were allocated randomly to receive 2% rebamipide or 0.1% sodium hyaluronate, administered as 1 drop in each eye 4 or 6 times daily, respectively, for 4 weeks. There were 2 primary end points: changes in the fluorescein corneal staining (FCS) score to determine noninferiority of 2% rebamipide and changes in the lissamine green conjunctival staining (LGCS) score to determine superiority. Secondary objective end points were Schirmer's test results and tear film breakup time (TBUT). Secondary subjective end points were dry eye-related ocular symptoms (foreign body sensation, dryness, photophobia, eye pain, and blurred vision) score and the patients' overall treatment impression score. In the primary analysis, the mean change from baseline in FCS scores verified noninferiority, indicated significant improvement, and, in LGCS scores, verified the superiority of 2% rebamipide to 0.1% sodium hyaluronate. Values for the Schirmer's test and TBUT were comparable between the 2 groups. For 2 dry eye-related ocular symptoms--foreign body sensation and eye pain--2% rebamipide showed significant improvements over 0.1% sodium hyaluronate. Patients had a significantly more favorable impression of 2% rebamipide than of 0.1% sodium hyaluronate; 64.5% rated treatment as improved or markedly improved versus 34.7%, respectively. No serious adverse events were observed. Administration of 2% rebamipide was effective in improving both the objective signs and subjective symptoms of dry eye. Those findings, in addition to the well-tolerated profile of 2% rebamipide, clearly show that it is an effective therapeutic method for dry eye. Proprietary or commercial disclosure

  12. Sleep and mood disorders in dry eye disease and allied irritating ocular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayaki, Masahiko; Kawashima, Motoko; Negishi, Kazuno; Kishimoto, Taishiro; Mimura, Masaru; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate sleep and mood disorders in patients with irritating ocular diseases. The study design was a cross-sectional/case-control study conducted in six eye clinics. Out of 715 outpatients diagnosed with irritating ocular surface diseases and initially enrolled, 301 patients with dry eye disease (DED) and 202 age-matched control participants with other ocular surface diseases were analyzed. The mean Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) scores were 6.4 ± 3.2 and 11.1 ± 5.7 for severe DED (n = 146), 5.5 ± 3.3 and 9.8 ± 4.0 for mild DED (n = 155), 5.5 ± 3.1 and 9.5 ± 6.6 for chronic conjunctivitis (n = 124), and 5.0 ± 3.3 and 8.9 ± 5.3 for allergic conjunctivitis (n = 78). There were significant differences among these diagnostic groups for PSQI (P sleep quality in patients with DED is significantly worse than in patients with other irritating ocular surface diseases and it is correlated with the severity of DED.

  13. Prevalence of eye disease in Brazilian patients with psoriatic arthritis

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    Fernanda B. F. de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to report the type and frequency of ocular manifestations in Brazilian psoriatic arthritis patients. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in a Brazilian tertiary hospital. The test group included 40 patients who had psoriatic arthritis according to the Classification Criteria for Psoriatic Arthritis. A control group of 40 individuals was matched for age and gender. All of the patients underwent ophthalmic evaluation, which included best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp and fundus examinations, and dry eye diagnostic tests (Schirmer I, tear breakup time and rose bengal. Demographic parameters were also evaluated. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients was 53.9±13.1 years; the mean disease duration was 8±10.5 years. Most of the patients were women (60%, and the majority had polyarticular disease (57.5%. Several ocular abnormalities were found, including punctate keratitis, pinguecula, blepharitis, pterygium, cataract, glaucoma, uveitis, and retinal microvascular abnormalities. There were no significant differences in the rates of these abnormalities compared with the control group, however. The Keratoconjunctivitis sicca and dry eye diagnostic tests were more often positive in the patients with psoriatic arthritis than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, keratoconjunctivitis sicca was the most common ocular finding related to psoriatic arthritis. Therefore, we recommend early ophthalmologic evaluations for all psoriatic arthritis patients who complain of eye symptoms.

  14. Amniotic membrane extract ameliorates benzalkonium chloride-induced dry eye in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinye; Luo, Pingping; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Jingyao; He, Hui; Xu, Yuxue; Lin, Zhirong; Zhou, Yueping; Xu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zuguo

    2013-10-01

    Human amniotic membrane (AM) is avascular but contains various beneficial bioactive factors, its extract (AE) is also effective in treating many ocular surface disorders. In this study, we for the first time evaluated the therapeutic effects of AE on dry eye induced by benzalkonium chloride in a BALB/c mouse model. Topical application of AE (1.5 and 3 μg/eye/day) resulted in significantly longer tear break-up time on Day 3 and 6, lower fluorescein staining scores on Day 3, and lower inflammatory index on Day 6. AE reduced corneal epithelial K10 expression, inflammatory infiltration, and levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in BAC treated mice than that in the control mice. Moreover, decreased TUNEL positive cells in cornea and increased goblet cells in conjunctiva were also observed in AE treated corneas. Finally, AE induced more Ki-67 positive cells in corneal epithelium of dry eye mouse. Taken together, our data provide further support for BAC induced dry eye model as a valuable for dry eye study and suggest a great potential for AE as a therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of dry eye.

  15. Effect of soft contact lens curvature on dry eye of flight attendants

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    Chang-Liang Meng

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To discuss the effect of wearing customized curvature soft corneal contact lens to dry eye degree of flight attendants.METHODS: Eighty cases(160 eyesof flight attendants from China Southern were divided into two groups: control group 40 cases(80 eyeswearing ready-made Bausch soft corneal contact lens(curvature 8.4; the experiment group 40 cases(80 eyes, wearing Bausch soft corneal contact lens with customized curvature. Tear break-up time(BUT, Schirmer Ⅰ test(SⅠtand fluorescein(FLstaining were as dry eye evaluation index. The results was statistically analyzed.RESULTS: BUT, SⅠt average shortening value of the experimental group were less than that of the control group, there was statistical significance(PPCONCLUSION: Wearing customized curvature soft corneal contact lens can prevent the flight dry eye more effectively than fixed curvature product.

  16. Correlação entre sinais e sintomas de olho seco em pacientes portadores da síndrome de Sjögren Correlation between signals and symptoms of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients

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    Marcello Novoa Colombo Barboza

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estudar, numa determinada população de portadores da síndrome de Sjögren, a correlação entre os sinais e sintomas de olho seco. MÉTODOS: Foi constituído o Grupo Caso, formado por 17 pacientes portadores da síndrome de Sjögren e o Grupo Controle, formado por 25 pacientes normais. Para avaliação dos sintomas foi aplicado o questionário "Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI" nos pacientes de ambos os grupos e, em seguida, todos os indivíduos foram submetidos à realização dos testes de Schirmer I e II, coloração da superfície ocular com corante rosa bengala, paquimetria e estesiometria. Para análise das correlações entre sinais e sintomas foi utilizado o teste de correlação de Spearman e para comparação das médias dos valores encontrados no questionário "Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI" e nos testes clínicos entre os pacientes dos Grupos, foi utilizado teste t de Student para amostras independentes. RESULTADOS: Os resultados deste estudo evidenciaram fraca correlação entre os sintomas avaliados pelo questionário "Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI" e os testes oculares, o que indica que nem todos os pacientes que apresentavam sintomas exuberantes, exibiam testes proporcionalmente alterados. A média da sensibilidade da córnea de ambos os olhos dos pacientes do Grupo Caso esteve estatisticamente reduzida quando comparada à do Grupo Controle. Todos os parâmetros estudados no Grupo Caso apresentaram diferenças estatisticamente significantes (pPURPOSE: To study the correlation between the signals and symptoms of dry eye in Sjögren's syndrome patients. METHODS: We formed the case group with 17 Sjögren's syndrome patients and the control group with 25 normal patients. For evaluation of the symptoms the "Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI" questionnaire was applied to both groups and, after that, all the individuals were submitted to the ocular tests: Schirmer I and II, coloration of the ocular surface with

  17. Visual acuity and quality of life in dry eye disease: Proceedings of the OCEAN group meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Del-Castillo, José; Labetoulle, Marc; Baudouin, Christophe; Rolando, Maurizio; Akova, Yonca A; Aragona, Pasquale; Geerling, Gerd; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Messmer, Elisabeth M; Boboridis, Kostas

    2017-04-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) results in tear film instability and hyperosmolarity, inflammation of the ocular surface and, ultimately, visual disturbance that can significantly impact a patient's quality of life. The effects on visual acuity result in difficulties with driving, reading and computer use and negatively impact psychological health. These effects also extend to the workplace, with a loss of productivity and quality of work causing substantial economic losses. The effects of DED and the impact on vision experienced by patients may not be given sufficient importance by ophthalmologists. Functional visual acuity (FVA) is a measure of visual acuity after sustained eye opening without blinking for at least 10 s and mimics the sustained visual acuity of daily life. Measuring dynamic FVA allows the detection of impaired visual function in patients with DED who may display normal conventional visual acuity. There are currently several tests and methods that can be used to measure dynamic visual function: the SSC-350 FVA measurement system, assessment of best-corrected visual acuity decay using the interblink visual acuity decay test, serial measurements of ocular and corneal higher order aberrations, and measurement of dynamic vision quality using the Optical Quality Analysis System. Although the equipment for these methods may be too large or unaffordable for use in clinical practice, FVA testing is an important assessment for DED.

  18. Establishing the tolerability and performance of tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP in treating dry eye syndrome: results of a clinical study

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    Valente Cristiana

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the problems arising from available preparations for dry eye syndrome is the limited residence time of products on the ocular surface. In this paper, we look at an innovative new treatment for dry eye, tamarind seed polysaccharide (TSP. TSP possesses mucomimetic, mucoadhesive and pseudoplastic properties. The 'mucin-like' molecular structure of TSP is similar to corneal and conjunctival mucin 1 (MUC1, a transmembrane glycoprotein thought to play an essential role in protecting and wetting the corneal surface and may explain its increased retention on the eye surface. Methods The activity of TSP and hyaluronic acid (HA in the treatment of dry eye syndrome was compared in an open-label, randomised, single-centre clinical study. Thirty patients were randomised to receive three or more applications per day of either TSP 0.5%, TSP 1% or HA 0.2% (Hyalistil™ over a period of 90 days. The primary objective of tolerability was assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS, scoring of specific symptoms and the incidence of adverse events. Secondary objectives included improvement in stability of the precorneal tear film, subjective symptoms and corneal and conjunctival staining. Results TSP 0.5% and 1% were comparable to HA 0.2% with regard to both primary and secondary objective parameters. TSP 1% showed benefits over HA 0.2% for the subjective symptoms; trouble blinking, ocular burning and foreign body sensation. Conclusion This study suggests that TSP 0.5% and 1% offer at least equivalent relief to HA 0.2% for dry eye syndrome. All treatments demonstrated optimal tolerability and are suitable for frequent use in the therapy of dry eye. TSP 1% produced promising results in terms of improvements in certain patient symptoms and suggests benefits of the TSP formulation. This study paves the way for a larger study to further establish the performance and safety of TSP compared with HA and highlights the need to expand this therapeutic

  19. Effects of Cognitive Behavior Intervention on Anxiety and Depression of Patients with Dry Eye Emotions%认知行为干预对干眼症患者焦虑抑郁情绪的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗平; 余妤; 邓珊珊

    2015-01-01

    【目的】探讨认知行为干预(Cognitive behavioral therapy ,CBT )对干眼症患者焦虑抑郁情绪的影响。【方法】将90例干眼症患者按随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组,每组45例,对照组进行眼科常规护理,观察组在常规护理的基础上给予CBT ,采用zung氏焦虑自评量表(SAS )与抑郁自评量表(SDS )对两组患者出入院时的焦虑和抑郁情绪进行评价,对两组患者护理满意度、疗效进行比较。【结果】观察组患者出院时SAS评分为(40.25±8.14)分明显低于对照组(45.21±8.05)分;SDS评分为(39.95±8.07)分,也明显低于对照组SDS评分(44.68±8.28)分,两组评分比较差异均有统计学意义( tsas=3.17,P<0.01,tsds =2.52,P<0.05);观察组患者对护理的总满意度高于对照组,差异有显著意义(100% v s 73.33%,χ2=13.85, P <0.01);观察组有效率也高于对照组,差异有显著意义(93.33% v s 77.78%,χ2=4.41, P <0.05)。【结论】CBT能降低干眼症患者焦虑和抑郁情绪,规范健康认知和行为,改善患者预后,提高患者生活质量,方法简单,值得推广。%[Objective] To explore the effects of cognitive behavior intervention on anxiety and depression of patients with dry eye emotions .[Methods]A total of 90 patients were randomly divided into intervention and control groups (n=45 each) .The control group was subject to routine care while the intervention group received cognitive behavioral intervention on the basis of routine care .And two groups were compared with re‐gards to anxiety ,depression ,satisfaction and efficacy .[Results] The self‐rating anxiety scale (SAS) score was 40 .25 ± 8 .14 in intervention group versus 45 .21 ± 8 .05 in control group .And the self‐rating depression scale (SDS) score was 39 .95 ± 8 .07 in intervention group versus 44 .68 ± 8 .28

  20. Uso de ciclosporina 0,05% tópica no tratamento do olho seco de pacientes portadores do vírus HIV Topical cyclosporine 0.05% for the treatment of dry eye disease in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Pinho Paes Barreto

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo comparou a eficácia do tratamento da síndrome do olho seco em pacientes infectados pelo HIV com suplementação lacrimal (carboximetilcelulose sódica 0,5% ou com suplementação lacrimal associada à terapia anti-inflamatória (carboximetilcelulose sódica 0,5% e ciclosporina 0,05%. MÉTODOS: Vinte pacientes portadores do vírus HIV provenientes do ambulatório de Infectologia do Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro foram selecionados. O diagnóstico de síndrome do olho seco foi baseado no questionário para olho seco (Ocular Surface Disease Index - OSDI®, teste de Schirmer I, tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal e coloração da superfície ocular com rosa bengala a 1%. Os pacientes foram distribuídos em dois grupos com dez pacientes (20 olhos e acompanhados durante seis meses. O grupo I foi tratado com colírio de carboximetilcelulose sódica 0,5% e o grupo II foi tratado com a associação de carboximetilcelulose sódica 0,5% e ciclosporina 0,05% tópica. RESULTADOS: Comparando os resultados no início e no final do tratamento, a associação com ciclosporina 0,05% mostrou-se superior (p PURPOSE: This study evaluates the use of topical cyclosporine 0.05% and sodium carboxymethylcellulose 0.5% for the treatment of dry eye disease in patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. METHODS: Twenty HIV-positive-patients were selected from the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro Hospital. Dry eye diagnosis was based on a dry eye questionnaire (Ocular Surface Disease Index - OSDI®, Schirmer I test, break up time and 1% rose bengal staining of the ocular surface. The patients were divided into two groups with ten patients (20 eyes. Group I received sodium carboxymethylcellulose 0.5% drops and group II received sodium carboxymethylcellulose 0.5% drops and topical cyclosporine 0.05% for six months. RESULTS: Comparing

  1. Quality of life of eye amputated patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Marie L R; Ekholm, Ola; Prause, Jan U

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate eye-amputated patients’ health-related quality of life, perceived stress, self-rated health, job separation because of illness or disability and socioeconomic position. Methods: Patients were recruited from a tertiary referral centre situated in Copenhagen. Inclusion criteria......-administered questionnaire containing health-related quality of life (SF-36), the perceived stress scale and answered questions about self-rated health, job changes because of illness or disability and socioeconomic status. These results were compared with findings from the Danish Health Interview Survey 2005. Results......% of the study population has retired or changed to a part-time job because of eye disease. The percentage of eye amputated patients, who were divorced or separated, was twice as high as in the general population. Conclusion: The impact of an eye amputation is considerable. The quality of life, perceived stress...

  2. Dry Eye Disease following Refractive Surgery: A 12-Month Follow-Up of SMILE versus FS-LASIK in High Myopia

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    Bingjie Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare dry eye disease following SMILE versus FS-LASIK. Design. Prospective, nonrandomised, observational study. Patients. 90 patients undergoing refractive surgery for myopia were included. 47 eyes underwent SMILE and 43 eyes underwent FS-LASIK. Methods. Evaluation of dry eye disease was conducted preoperatively and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively, using the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Questionnaire (SEEQ and TBUT. Results. TBUT reduced following SMILE at 1 and 3 months (p<0.001 and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p<0.001. TBUT was greater following SMILE than FS-LASIK at 3, 6, and 12 months (p<0.001, p<0.001, and p=0.009, resp.. SEEQ scores increased (greater symptoms following SMILE at 1 month (p<0.001 and 3 months (p=0.003 and at 1, 3, and 6 months following FS-LASIK (p<0.001. SMILE produced lower SEEQ scores (fewer symptoms than FS-LASIK at 1, 3, and 6 months (p<0.001. Conclusion. SMILE produces less dry eye disease than FS-LASIK at 6 months postoperatively but demonstrates similar degrees of dry eye disease at 12 months.

  3. Blink patterns and lid-contact times in dry-eye and normal subjects

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    Ousler GW 3rd

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available George W Ousler 3rd,1 Mark B Abelson,1,2 Patrick R Johnston,1 John Rodriguez,1 Keith Lane,1 Lisa M Smith11Ora, Andover, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USAPurpose: To classify blinks in dry eye and normal subjects into six subtypes, and to define the blink rate and duration within each type of blink, as well as the total lid-contact time/minute.Materials and methods: This was a single-centered, prospective, double-blind study of eleven dry-eye and ten normal subjects. Predefined subjects watched a video while blinks were recorded for 10 minutes. Partial blinks were classified by percentage closure of maximal palpebral fissure opening: 25%, 50%, 75%. Complete blinks were characterized as full (>0 seconds, extended (>0.1 seconds, or superextended (>0.5 seconds. The mean duration of each type of blink was determined and standardized per minute as total lid-contact time.Results: Total blinks observed were 4,990 (1,414 normal, 3,756 dry eye: 1,809 (50.59% partial and 1,767 (49.41% complete blinks among dry-eye subjects versus 741 (52.90% partial and 673 (47.60% complete blinks among normal subjects. Only superextended blinks of ≥0.5-second duration were significantly more frequent in dry-eye subjects than normals (2.3% versus 0.2%, respectively; P=0.023. Total contact time was seven times higher in dry-eye subjects than normals (0.565 versus 0.080 seconds, respectively; P<0.001. Isolating only extended blinks (>0.1 second, the average contact time (seconds was four times longer in dry-eye versus normal subjects (2.459 in dry eye, 0.575 in normals; P=0.003. Isolating only superextended blinks (>0.5 seconds, average contact time was also significantly different (7.134 in dry eye, 1.589 in normals; P<0.001. The contact rate for all full closures was 6.4 times longer in dry-eye (0.045 versus 0.007, P<0.001 than normal subjects.Conclusion: Dry-eye subjects spent 4.5% of a

  4. Evaluation of Tear Malate Dehydrogenase 2 in Mild Dry Eye Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Guo; Houbin Huang; Yuli Pi; Hancheng Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effect of tear malate dehydrogenase 2 on monitoring ocular surface injury in mild dry eye (DE) disease. Methods: A total of 15 DE patients (30 eyes) with mild sub-jective symptoms but no ocular surface fluorescein staining signs were enrolled in this study. (DE group)..The control group was 15 healthy age- and sex-matched volunteers (30 eyes)..All subjects were asked to fill out a DE symptoms questionnaire and take different tests including tear MDH and MDH2 activities evaluation,..tear breakup time. (TBUT), Schirmer I,.and slit-lamp examination of the ocular surface. We investigated different changes in tear MDH and MDH2 ac-tivities in the DE group and control group,.discussed the as-sociation between tear MDH2 activity and DE symptoms, and the relationship between tear MDH2 activity and diagnostic tests (Schirmer I and TBUT). We also analyzed the changes in tear MDH2 activities after the treatment with artificial tears. Results:.Tear MDH activities in the DE group and control group were 288 ±102 U/L and 259 ±112 U/L,.respectively, and this difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). The tear MDH2 activities in DE group were significantly in-creased compared with control group. Tear MDH2 was signif-icantly and negatively correlated with the Schirmer’s value (r=-0.733,P Conclusion: Tear MDH2 activity can indicate ocular surface injury in mild DE patients and may be used to monitor the re-sponse to therapy.

  5. Activities of autonomic neurotransmitters in meibomian gland tissues are associated with menopausal dry eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianxiang Li; Dongling Jin; Jinsheng Gao; Liguang Wang; Xianjun Liu; Jingzhang Wang; Zhongxin Xu

    2012-01-01

    The secretory activities of meibomian glands are regulated by the autonomic nervous system. The change in density and activity of autonomic nerves in meibomian glands during menopause play an important role in the pathogenesis of dry eye. In view of this, we established a dry eye rat model by removing the bilateral ovaries. We used neuropeptide Y and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide as markers of autonomic neurotransmitters. Our results showed that the concentration of estradiol in serum significantly decreased, the density of neuropeptide Y immunoreactivity in nerve fibers significantly increased, the density of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide immunoreactivity in nerve fibers significantly decreased, and the ratio of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide/neuropeptide Y positive staining significantly decreased. These results suggest that a decrease in ovary activity may lead to autonomic nervous system dysfunction, thereby affecting the secretory activity of the meibomian gland, which participates in sexual hormone imbalance-induced dry eye.

  6. The tear substitutive therapy for prophylaxis and treatment of dry eye after cataract surgery

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    V. N. Trubilin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the efficiency of tear substitutes based on hyaluronic acid at the patients after phacoemulsification for prophylaxis and postoperative therapy of dry eye syndrome.Methods: 168 patients (168 eyes were examined before cataract surgery. The average age was 69.2±5.7 years old. Patients were divided into four groups according to the presence of eye dry syndrome and following tear substitutive therapy. 55 patients with a mild case of DES (the first group were treated with Vismed® eye drops 1 drop given 3 times a day for 1 week before surgery and postoperatively. 10 patients with a moderate case of DES (second group were treated with Vismed gel® to use with the same periodicity. Patients without DES were divided into two groups: 50 of them (third group were treated to use Vismed® 1 drop 3 times a day postoperatively, the rest 53 didn’t undergo the course of treatment — «checkout group». The observation period was 45 days after operation. The study of tear secretion and osmolarity of tear fluid was performed before and after operative period.Results: 65 patients were first diagnosed a mild or moderate case of DES. On the third day after operation every group showed the increase of tear osmolarity, it was especially noticable among the patients of «checkout group» from 294 to 314 mOsm / l at the average. On the seventh day after operation all groups showed further negative dynamics, and in the «checkout» group comparing to initial indices was registered noticable worsening of the studied parameters (р≤0.05. By the 14th day after phacoemulsification patients from the 1st and the 3rd groups displayed the tendency to restoration of indices to the preoperative values. Indices of osmolarity and tear secretion restored among the patients from the 1st and the 2nd groups by the 21st day and even improved in comparison to the preoperative values of group 3. Meanwhile, «checkout» group’s indices fell to a level

  7. Severe symptoms of short tear break-up time dry eye are associated with accommodative microfluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaido M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Minako Kaido,1,2 Motoko Kawashima,1 Reiko Ishida,1,3 Kazuo Tsubota1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 2Wada Eye Clinic, Chiba, 3Ishida Eye Clinic, Shizuoka, Japan Aim: Validating the hypothesis that accommodative microfluctuations (AMFs may be associated with severe symptoms in short tear break-up time (BUT dry eye (DE. Methods: This study included 12 subjects with short BUT DE (age: 49.6±18.3 years. Diagnoses were performed based on the presence of DE symptoms, BUT ≤5 s, Schirmer score >5 mm, and negative keratoconjunctival epithelial damage. Tear evaluation, AMF, and functional visual acuity (VA examinations were conducted before and after DE treatment. The AMF parameters evaluated were: total high-frequency component (HFC, HFC with low accommodation for the task of staring into the distance (HFC1, HFC with high accommodation for deskwork (HFC2. A subjective questionnaire of DE symptoms was also performed. Results: Mean BUT increased from 1.9±2.0 to 6.4±2.5 s after treatment (P<0.05. The mean logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution functional VA significantly improved (from 0.19±0.19 to 0.12±0.17; P<0.05. Mean power spectrum values for total HFC and HFC1 decreased (from 61.3±5.7 to 53.8±6.6 dB and from 62.9±10.5 to 52.4±6.2 dB, respectively; P<0.05, while the mean HFC2 power spectrum values did not differ before and after treatment (P>0.05. Subjective DE symptoms were reduced in nine patients. Conclusion: Along with the improvement of BUT after treatment, DE symptoms diminished and HFC1 and functional VA improved, suggesting that tear film instability is associated with deterioration of functional VA, AMF, and DE symptoms. Keywords: accommodative microfluctuation, ciliary muscle spasm, dry eye, ocular fatigue, tear break-up time, functional visual acuity 

  8. Small-molecule CFTR activators increase tear secretion and prevent experimental dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, Alyssa M; Casey, Scott D; Felix, Christian M; Phuan, Puay W; Verkman, A S; Levin, Marc H

    2016-05-01

    Dry eye disorders, including Sjögren's syndrome, constitute a common problem in the aging population, with limited effective therapeutic options available. The cAMP-activated Cl(-) channel cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a major prosecretory channel at the ocular surface. We investigated whether compounds that target CFTR can correct the abnormal tear film in dry eye. Small-molecule activators of human wild-type CFTR identified by high-throughput screening were evaluated in cell culture and in vivo assays, to select compounds that stimulate Cl(-)-driven fluid secretion across the ocular surface in mice. An aminophenyl-1,3,5-triazine, CFTRact-K089, fully activated CFTR in cell cultures with EC50 ∼250 nM and produced an ∼8.5 mV hyperpolarization in ocular surface potential difference. When delivered topically, CFTRact-K089 doubled basal tear volume for 4 h and had no effect in CF mice. CFTRact-K089 showed sustained tear film bioavailability without detectable systemic absorption. In a mouse model of aqueous-deficient dry eye produced by lacrimal ablation, topical administration of 0.1 nmol CFTRact-K089 3 times daily restored tear volume to basal levels, preventing corneal epithelial disruption when initiated at the time of surgery and reversing it when started after development of dry eye. Our results support the potential utility of CFTR-targeted activators as a novel prosecretory treatment for dry eye.-Flores, A. M., Casey, S. D., Felix, C. M., Phuan, P. W., Verkman, A. S., Levin, M. H. Small-molecule CFTR activators increase tear secretion and prevent experimental dry eye disease.

  9. THE PROBLEM OF SECONDARY DRY EYE SYNDROME IN THE CONTEXT OF ORGAN-SAVING RADIOTHERAPY FOR CHOROIDAL MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. I. Gyuntner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available After brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma, mild and moderate secondary dry eye syndrome was established in 87.2 and 12.8 % of the patients, respectively. Biomicroscopic changes in the ocular surface were seen in the postradiation period over time. Out of the functional studies, there was timing of precorneal tear film rupture, meniscometry using optical coherent tomography, which proved to be of the most informative value. The findings suggested that at 1 year of brachytherapy for choroidal melanoma, the secondary dry eye syndrome was accompanied by a significant reduction in the rupture time for the precorneal tear film and by a decrease in the height of the lower tear meniscus.

  10. iDEAS: A web-based system for dry eye assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remeseiro, Beatriz; Barreira, Noelia; García-Resúa, Carlos; Lira, Madalena; Giráldez, María J; Yebra-Pimentel, Eva; Penedo, Manuel G

    2016-07-01

    Dry eye disease is a public health problem, whose multifactorial etiology challenges clinicians and researchers making necessary the collaboration between different experts and centers. The evaluation of the interference patterns observed in the tear film lipid layer is a common clinical test used for dry eye diagnosis. However, it is a time-consuming task with a high degree of intra- as well as inter-observer variability, which makes the use of a computer-based analysis system highly desirable. This work introduces iDEAS (Dry Eye Assessment System), a web-based application to support dry eye diagnosis. iDEAS provides a framework for eye care experts to collaboratively work using image-based services in a distributed environment. It is composed of three main components: the web client for user interaction, the web application server for request processing, and the service module for image analysis. Specifically, this manuscript presents two automatic services: tear film classification, which classifies an image into one interference pattern; and tear film map, which illustrates the distribution of the patterns over the entire tear film. iDEAS has been evaluated by specialists from different institutions to test its performance. Both services have been evaluated in terms of a set of performance metrics using the annotations of different experts. Note that the processing time of both services has been also measured for efficiency purposes. iDEAS is a web-based application which provides a fast, reliable environment for dry eye assessment. The system allows practitioners to share images, clinical information and automatic assessments between remote computers. Additionally, it save time for experts, diminish the inter-expert variability and can be used in both clinical and research settings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Chronic dry eye symptoms after LASIK: parallels and lessons to be learned from other persistent post-operative pain disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Alexandra E; Galor, Anat; Weiss, Jayne S; Felix, Elizabeth R; Martin, Eden R; Patin, Dennis J; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Levitt, Roy C

    2015-04-21

    Laser in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a commonly performed surgical procedure used to correct refractive error. LASIK surgery involves cutting a corneal flap and ablating the stroma underneath, with known damage to corneal nerves. Despite this, the epidemiology of persistent pain and other long-term outcomes after LASIK surgery are not well understood. Available data suggest that approximately 20-55% of patients report persistent eye symptoms (generally regarded as at least 6 months post-operation) after LASIK surgery. While it was initially believed that these symptoms were caused by ocular surface dryness, and referred to as "dry eye," it is now increasingly understood that corneal nerve damage produced by LASIK surgery resembles the pathologic neuroplasticity associated with other forms of persistent post-operative pain. In susceptible patients, these neuropathological changes, including peripheral sensitization, central sensitization, and altered descending modulation, may underlie certain persistent dry eye symptoms after LASIK surgery. This review will focus on the known epidemiology of symptoms after LASIK and discuss mechanisms of persistent post-op pain due to nerve injury that may be relevant to these patients. Potential preventative and treatment options based on approaches used for other forms of persistent post-op pain and their application to LASIK patients are also discussed. Finally, the concept of genetic susceptibility to post-LASIK ocular surface pain is presented.

  12. Influence on ocular surface after cataract surgery and effect of topical diquafosol on postoperative dry eye: a multicenter prospective randomized study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Kensaku; Yokoi, Norihiko

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate influences of 3% diquafosol sodium ophthalmic solution (DQS) on ocular surface after cataract surgery and effects on postoperative dry eye. Design This study had two consecutive prospective study phases. The former was an observational study from before cataract surgery to 4 weeks after surgery and the latter was a randomized open-label study from 4 to 8 weeks after surgery. Methods Subjects were 433 eyes of 433 patients undergoing cataract surgery with intraocular lens implantation. Dry eye examination of tear breakup time (BUT), corneal and conjunctival fluorescein staining scores, total subjective symptom score (12 symptoms), and Schirmer I test were conducted before surgery and 4 weeks after surgery. Patient demographics and these examination results were used to analyze risk factors to predict postoperative dry eye. In a randomized study, 154 eyes diagnosed with dry eye postoperatively were applied either DQS or artificial tears (AT) six times daily for 4 weeks. The data of the examinations were compared. Results At 4 weeks after surgery, BUT was shortened significantly (P=0.036), fluorescein staining score increased significantly (P=0.012), but total subjective symptom score was significantly improved (Pscore was significantly improved in both groups (Pscore was significantly decreased in the AT group (Pfilm stability and ocular surface, and DQS has a capability to improve them. PMID:28360509

  13. A comparative review of Haute Autorité de Santé and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence health technology assessments of Ikervis® to treat severe keratitis in adult patients with dry eye disease which has not improved despite treatment with tear substitutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Yasmina Iffet

    2017-01-01

    Background: In 2015, Ikervis® became the only EMA-approved cyclosporine A (CsA) eye-drop for the treatment of severe keratitis in adult patients with dry eye disease, which has not improved despite treatment with tear substitutes. Since the 1980s, CsA has been used empirically for ocular conditions in veterinary medicine then in humans. However, its extremely low aqueous solubility led to its administration in vegetable oils, which is characterized by low ocular availability, poor intraocular penetration, poor tolerability and short shelf-life. Concentrations from 0.05% to 2% are compounded on an industrial scale and reimbursed throughout Europe. In France, Ikervis® has been granted an ASMR score of 5 by HAS, whereas in UK NICE endorsed its use. Objective: To review the dry eye disease environment, its challenges and available treatment options, and compare the NICE and HAS assessments to question HAS' decision to maintain full reimbursement of compounded CsA formulations in the absence of evidence, while reimbursing the EMA-approved drug at 15%. extensive search on PubMED. Results: Comparator selection, composite score assessment and use of CE model are key differentiators. Conclusion: In topical formulations, improvements to the vehicle are key innovations that can bring significant benefits. After the USA, a Compounding Act is needed in Europe.

  14. Prevalência de olho seco em portadores de hanseníase de um hospital-colônia em Goiânia Prevalence of dry eye in Hansen's disease patients from a colony hospital in Goiânia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karys Carvalho Frazão

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar a prevalência de olho seco em hansenianos do Hospital de Dermatologia Sanitária de Goiânia. MÉTODOS: A amostra do presente estudo incluiu 70 hansenianos, do Hospital de Dermatologia Sanitária de Goiânia, e 30 controles, da Fundação Banco de Olhos de Goiás, ambos localizados em Goiânia-GO. Foram realizados exame oftalmológico e testes de Schirmer I, "break-up time" (BUT e rosa bengala em todos estes indivíduos em uma única avaliação. Para o diagnóstico de olho seco foi considerado o teste de Schirmer I menor ou igual a 5 mm e o rosa bengala grau II ou III, em pelo menos um olho. RESULTADOS: Quarenta e quatro (63,0% hansenianos eram do sexo masculino e 22 (73,3% controles, do sexo feminino (p=0,001. A idade média dos hansenianos foi de 61,1±12,5 anos e no grupo controle, 55,7±9,6 anos. Quinze (21,4% hansenianos e quatro (13,3% controles apresentaram diagnóstico de olho seco (p=0,429. A forma virchowiana (HV (74,2% da hanseníase foi a mais prevalente e o olho seco (66,7% foi mais freqüente nesta forma clínica da doença. CONCLUSÃO: A prevalência de olho seco foi maior no grupo de hansenianos, apesar de não ter havido diferença significativa.PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of dry eye in Hansen's disease patients from the "Hospital de Dermatologia Sanitária de Goiânia". METHODS: The sample of the present study included 70 patients with Hansen's disease, from the "Hospital de Dermatologia Sanitária de Goiânia", and 30 controls, from the "Fundação Banco de Olhos de Goiás", both located in Goiânia-GO, Brazil. Ophthalmologic examination and Schirmer I, break-up time (BUT and rose Bengal staining tests were carried out for all patients in a single evaluation. For the diagnosis of dry eye the Schirmer I equal or less than 5 mm and rose Bengal grade II or III, in at least one eye were considered. RESULTS: Forty-four (63.0% patients with Hansen's disease were male and 22 (73.3% controls were female

  15. A Metabolome-Wide Study of Dry Eye Disease Reveals Serum Androgens as Biomarkers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vehof, Jelle; Hysi, Pirro G.; Hammond, Christopher J.

    Purpose: To test the association between serum metabolites and dry eye disease (DED) using a hypothesisfree metabolomics approach. Design: Cross-sectional association study. Participants: A total of 2819 subjects from the population-representative TwinsUK cohort in the United Kingdom, with a mean

  16. [Research update of effectiveness and mechanism of essential fatty acids in treating dry eye].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Liang, Q F

    2017-03-11

    Topical anti-inflammatory therapy has become the significant way of treating dry eye so far. However, as the long-term use of routine anti-inflammatory medications are restricted from their side effects, it is inevitable to explore safer and more effective alternatives. Essential fatty acids have proven to be anti-inflammatory systemically, which makes it possible to treat dry eye. Clinical trials have demonstrated that supplementation with either ω-3 or ω-6 essential fatty acids or both has multifactorial efficacies including improvement of subjective symptoms, alleviation of inflammation of ocular surface and eyelid margin, prolongation of tear break-up time and increase of tear flow secretion. Besides anti-inflammation effects, several basic researches have revealed that other mechanisms of essential fatty acids treating dry eye might lie in the corneal epithelial healing and tear secretion promotion. This review puts emphasis on the effectiveness, feasibility and mechanism of treating dry eye with essential fatty acids. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2017, 53: 225-229).

  17. DEBS – a unification theory for dry eye and blepharitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rynerson JM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available James M Rynerson,1 Henry D Perry2 1BlephEx, LLC, Alvaton, KY, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Nassau University Medical Center, Hofstra University School of Medicine, East Meadow, NY, USA Abstract: For many years, blepharitis and dry eye disease have been thought to be two distinct diseases, and evaporative dry eye distinct from aqueous insufficiency. In this treatise, we propose a new way of looking at dry eye, both evaporative and insufficiency, as the natural sequelae of decades of chronic blepharitis. Dry eye is simply the late form and late manifestation of one disease, blepharitis. We suggest the use of a new term in describing this one chronic disease, namely dry eye blepharitis syndrome (DEBS. Bacteria colonize the lid margin within a structure known as a biofilm. The biofilm allows for population densities that initiate quorum-sensing gene activation. These newly activated gene products consist of inflammatory virulence factors, such as exotoxins, cytolytic toxins, and super-antigens, which are then present for the rest of the patient’s life. The biofilm never goes away; it only thickens with age, producing increasing quantities of bacterial virulence factors, and thus, increasing inflammation. These virulence factors are likely the culprits that first cause follicular inflammation, then meibomian gland dysfunction, aqueous insufficiency, and finally, after many decades, lid destruction. We suggest that there are four stages of DEBS which correlate with the clinical manifestations of folliculitis, meibomitis, lacrimalitis, and finally lid structure damage evidenced by entropion, ectropion, and floppy eyelid syndrome. When one fully understands the structure and location of the glands within the lid, it becomes easy to understand this staged disease process. The longer a gland can resist the relentless encroachment of the invading biofilm, the longer it can maintain normal function. The stages depend purely on anatomy and years of

  18. PERSIST: Physician's Evaluation of Restasis® Satisfaction in Second Trial of topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% for dry eye: a retrospective review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mah F

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Francis Mah,1 Mark Milner,2 Samuel Yiu,3 Eric Donnenfeld,4 Taryn M Conway,5 David A Hollander51University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 2The Eye Center, Hamden, CT, 3University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 4Ophthalmic Consultants of Long Island and Connecticut, Rockville Centre, New York, NY, 5Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA, USABackground: Chronic dry eye disease often requires long-term therapy. Tear film alterations in the setting of dry eye may include reduced tear volume as well as an increase in inflammatory cytokines and osmolarity. Topical cyclosporine ophthalmic emulsion 0.05% (Restasis®; Allergan Inc, Irvine, CA is indicated to increase tear production in patients with dry eye and reduced tear production presumed to be due to ocular inflammation. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a second trial of topical cyclosporine in patients with dry eye who were previously considered treatment failures.Materials and methods: This multicenter (three cornea practices retrospective chart review evaluated clinical outcomes in patients with dry eye who received a second trial of cyclosporine after a prior treatment failure, defined as prior discontinuation of topical cyclosporine after less than 12 weeks.Results: Thirty-five patients, most of whom were female (71.4% and Caucasian (62.9%, were identified. Prior discontinuation was most commonly due to burning/stinging (60%. The median duration of second treatment was 10 months (range 1 week to 45 months. Physician education was provided in the second trial in 97.1% of cases. At initiation of the second trial of cyclosporine, 10 (28.6% patients received courses of topical corticosteroids. Physicians reported on a questionnaire that 80% of patients achieved clinical benefit with a second trial of cyclosporine.Conclusion: A repeat trial with topical cyclosporine can achieve clinical success. Direct patient education via the physician and staff may be key to success. Proper patient

  19. Differential Effects of Dry Eye Disorders on Metabolomic Profile by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

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    Carmen Galbis-Estrada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We used 1H NMR spectroscopy to analyze the metabolomic profile of reflex tears from patients with dry eye disorders (DEDs. 90 subjects were divided into 2 groups: (1 patients with DEDs (DEDG; n = 55 and (2 healthy subjects (CG; n = 35. Additionally, the DEDG was subdivided into 2 subgroups based on DED severity: mild-to-moderate and moderate (n = 22 and n = 33, resp.. Personal interviews and systematized ophthalmologic examinations were carried out. Reflex tears (20–30 μL were collected by gently rubbing in the inferior meniscus of both eyelids with a microglass pipette and stored at −80°C until analysis. NMR spectra were acquired using a standard one-dimensional pulse sequence with water suppression. Data were processed and transferred to MATLAB for further chemometric analysis. Main differences in tear composition between DEDG and CG were found in cholesterol, N-acetylglucosamine, glutamate, creatine, amino-n-butyrate, choline, acetylcholine, arginine, phosphoethanolamine, glucose, and phenylalanine levels. This metabolic fingerprint helped also to discriminate between the three additional subgroups of DEDG. Our results suggest that tear metabolic differences between DEDG and CG identified by NMR could be useful in understanding ocular surface pathogenesis and improving biotherapy.

  20. Vitamin B12 deficiency evaluation and treatment in severe dry eye disease with neuropathic ocular pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Serkan; Ozer, Murat Atabey; Akdemir, Mehmet Orçun

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to understand the effect of vitamin B12 deficiency on neuropathic ocular pain (NOP) and symptoms in patients with dry eye disease (DED). Patients with severe DED (without receiving topical artificial tears treatment) and ocular pain were enrolled (n = 90). Patients with severe DED and vitamin B12 deficiency (group 1, n = 45) received parenteral vitamin B12 supplement + topical treatment (artificial tears treatment + cyclosporine), and patients with severe DED and normal serum vitamin B12 level (group 2, n = 45) received only topical treatment (artificial tears treatment + cyclosporine). Patients were evaluated by the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire, 3rd question (have you experienced painful or sore eyes during last week?) score of OSDI as a pain determiner and pain frequency measure), tear break up time (TBUT), and Schirmer's type 1 test. We compared the groups' OSDI, TBUT, and Schirmer's test recordings at the first visit and after 12 weeks retrospectively. The OSDI score, 3rd OSDI question score, TBUT, and Schirmer's test results improved after 12 weeks (p vitamin B12 level at enrollment was 144.24 ±43.36 pg/ml in group 1 and 417.53 ±87.22 pg/ml in group 2. The mean vitamin B12 level in group 1 reached to 450 ±60.563 pg/ml after 12 weeks of treatment. The mean score changes between the groups were not statistically significant; however, the decrease in the OSDI questionnaire score (-30.80 ±5.24) and 3rd OSDI question score (-2.82 ±0.53) were remarkable in group 1 (Table 2). The mean TBUT increase was +7.98 ±2.90 s and Schirmer's test result increase was +12.16 ±2.01 mm in group 1. The mean TBUT increase was +6.18 ±1.49 s and Schirmer's test result increase was +6.71 ±1.47 mm in group 2. These findings indicate that vitamin B12 deficiency is related with NOP. It may be important to consider measuring the serum vitamin B12 level in patients with severe DED presenting with resistant ocular pain despite taking topical

  1. A field test of Web-based screening for dry eye disease to enhance awareness of eye problems among general Internet users: a latent strategy to promote health

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kawashima, Motoko; Uchino, Miki; Kawazoe, Takashi; Kamiyashiki, Masaaki; Sano, Kokoro; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    .... The purpose of this preliminary study was to test a Web-based self-screening questionnaire for drawing attention to dry eye disease among general Internet users and identifying those with a higher...

  2. Development of lifitegrast: a novel T-cell inhibitor for the treatment of dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semba CP

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Charles P Semba,1 Thomas R Gadek2 1Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA; 2Ophthalma Logic Consulting, Park City, UT, USA Abstract: Dry eye disease (DED is a multifactorial disorder of the ocular surface characterized by symptoms of discomfort, decreased tear quality, and chronic inflammation that affects an estimated 20 million patients in the US alone. DED is associated with localized inflammation of the ocular surface and periocular tissues leading to homing and activation of T cells, cytokine release, and development of hyperosmolar tears. This inflammatory milieu results in symptoms of eye dryness and discomfort. Homing of T cells to the ocular surface is influenced by the binding of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1; CD11a/CD18; αLβ2, a cell surface adhesion protein, to its cognate ligand, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1; CD54, which is expressed on inflamed ocular/periocular epithelium and vascular endothelium. LFA-1/ICAM-1 binding within the immunologic synapse enables both T-cell activation and cytokine release. Lifitegrast is a novel T-cell integrin antagonist that is designed to mimic the binding epitope of ICAM-1. It serves as a molecular decoy to block the binding of LFA-1/ICAM-1 and inhibits the downstream inflammatory process. In vitro studies have demonstrated that lifitegrast inhibits T-cell adhesion to ICAM-1-expressing cells and inhibits secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interferon gamma, tumor necrosis factor alpha, macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha, interleukin (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6, all of which are known to be associated with DED. Lifitegrast has the potential to be the first pharmaceutical product approved in the US indicated for the treatment of both symptoms and signs of DED. Clinical trials involving over 2,500 adult DED patients have demonstrated that topically administered lifitegrast 5

  3. 普通眼科门诊患者干眼认知度的调查%Randomly sampling survey of dry eye awareness in general eye clinic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱伟强; 刘子源; 汲婧; 曾琳; 李学民; 王薇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the dry eye awareness in the populations visiting general eye clinic.Methods This was a cross-sectional study.A questionnaire about dry eye was designed and administrated to Peking University Third Hospital General Eye Clinic patients (n =804) from June 2010 to June 2011.The questionnaire contents included general demographic characteristics,experience of healthrelated work,past medical history,medication history and ocular surface symptoms associated with dry eye,contact lens wearing,ocular operation history,etc.Chi-square and Binary logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of demographic and clinical features on awareness of dry eye.Results Awareness of "dry eye" in the general eye clinical patients was relatively low (26.9%,216/804).Participants whose age were between 40 and 60 years had better dry eye awareness (41.7%,73/175) (X2 =27.365,P =0.000).Dry eye awareness of female was better than that of male [female:33.8 % (151/447),male:18.2% (65/357),X2 =24.500,P =0.000].Those who had been in health-related work (71.4%,30/42),and whose friends or relatives were ophthalmologists (54.7%,52/95) had better dry eye awareness (x2 =31.582,36.400 ;both P < 0.01).Participants with a history of rheumatoid arthritis (7/10) or diabetes mellitus (63.0%,17/27) had better dry eye awareness (X2 =32.301,29.887 ; both P < 0.01).Those who had been using artificial tears (77.5%,31/40),oral contraceptives (9/14),diuretics (10/18),sedatives (70.4%,19/27) and anti-depression drugs (4/4) had better dry eye awareness (X2 =54.928,10.154,7.713,26.912,10.943 ; all P < O.01).Except frequently blinking (29.5 %),participants who had ocular irrigating symptoms (all > 33.0%) had better awareness than those who had not(X2 =7.831-32.522,all P <0.01).Those who were allergic to environment irritating factors (all > 30.0%) had better awareness (x2 =5.033-24.564,all P < 0.O1).Participants who had medical history of

  4. Regarding the influence of sex and aging on dry eye disease

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    Han SB

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Sang Beom HanDepartment of Ophthalmology, Kangwon National University Hospital, Kangwon National University Graduate School of Medicine, Chuncheon, Republic of KoreaI read with great interest the article by Ahn et al1 entitled “Sex differences in the effect of aging on dry eye disease”, in which the authors revealed the sex differences in the effect of aging on dry eye disease (DED in Korean adult population. They also showed the differences in patterns of DED following ocular surgery according to sex.1 The large population-based cross-sectional study was undoubtfully well designed and conducted, and suggests that matching of age and sex is recommended in further researches on DED.1However, I would like to point out that there exist controversies regarding the effect of aging and sex on DED. Our previous study showed that age had no significant association with the prevalence of DED in adults of 65 years or older, while female sex was significantly related to increased prevalence of DED.2 By contrast, studies in the US demonstrated that prevalence of DED increased with aging both in male and female populations.3,4 Moreover, there are differences in pathophysiology of DED according to age. Although dysfunction of lacrimal and meibomian glands may play an important role in the pathogenesis of DED in the elderly, DED associated with visual display terminal use or contact lens wear is more common in young and middle-aged patients.5 Therefore, I believe these differences in the pathogenesis should be considered in the evaluation of the effects of sex and aging on DED.Authors' replyJong Ho Ahn,1 Yoon-Hyeong Choi,2 Hae Jung Paik,1 Mee Kum Kim,3 Won Ryang Wee,3 Dong Hyun Kim11Department of Ophthalmology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South KoreaWe thank the author for taking a

  5. Corneal confocal microscopy alterations in Sjögren's syndrome dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanza, Michele; Iaccarino, Stefania; Varricchi, Gilda; D'Errico, Tito; Gironi Carnevale, Ugo Antonello; Bifani, Mario

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate light backscattering (LB) in corneal layers in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome dry eye (SSDE) utilizing in vivo corneal confocal microscopy (IVCM) and to determine the eventual association with the lacrimal functional test values. A complete ophthalmic evaluation, Schirmer test with and without stimulation, break-up time (BUT) and IVCM were performed on 55 patients affected by SSDE and in an age- and sex-matched cohort of healthy participants (HP). Light backscattering, measures as light reflectivity unit (LRU), detected by IVCM at Bowman's membrane (BM) at 50 μm, at 100 μm and at 200 μm deeper than BM was compared in the two groups. The correlations between LB values and lacrimal function results were evaluated. In patients affected by SSDE, LB was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in each corneal layer examined (+14 ± 6.33 LRU at BM), compared with HP. A good reverse correlation between the light reflectivity measures at BM with Schirmer test with (r = -0.91) and without (r = -0.90) stimulation and BUT (r = -0.88) was found. Correlations were lower in the deeper corneal layers. Even if our results should be confirmed in further studies with a larger population, these findings show that IVCM is a device able to detect alterations in corneal layers in SSDE patients related to the lacrimal function. Light backscattering (LB) could be very useful for clinical diagnosis and management of SSDE. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A highly soluble matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibitor for potential treatment of dry eye syndrome.

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    Mori, Mattia; De Lorenzo, Emanuele; Torre, Eugenio; Fragai, Marco; Nativi, Cristina; Luchinat, Claudio; Arcangeli, Annarosa

    2012-11-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) or keratoconjunctivitis sicca is an eye disease caused by the chronic lack of lubrication and moisture of the eye. The pathogenesis of DES involves the over-expression and over-activity of corneal Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9). We propose herein a new, non-symptomatic approach for the treatment of DES based on the inhibition of MMP-9 by a new highly soluble molecule, designed as PES_103 that has been shown to inhibit MMP-9 both in vitro and in vivo. The efficacy of PES_103 in vivo and the potential benefits of this treatment in restoring tear production were studied in this work using an animal model of reduced lacrimation. PES_103 did not show any significant corneal toxicity. © 2012 The Authors Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2012 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  7. Air exposure induced characteristics of dry eye in conjunctival tissue culture.

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    Hui Lin

    Full Text Available There are several animal models illustrating dry eye pathophysiology. Current study would like to establish an ex vivo tissue culture model for characterizing dry eye. Human conjunctival explants were cultured under airlift or submerged conditions for up to 2 weeks, and only airlifted conjunctival cultures underwent increased epithelial stratification. Starting on day 4, the suprabasal cells displayed decreased K19 expression whereas K10 keratin became evident in airlift group. Pax6 nuclear expression attenuated already at 2 days, while its perinuclear and cytoplasmic expression gradually increased. MUC5AC and MUC19 expression dramatically decreased whereas the full thickness MUC4 and MUC16 expression pattern disappeared soon after initiating the airlift condition. Real time PCR showed K16, K10 and MUC16 gene up-regulated while K19, MUC5AC, MUC19 and MUC4 down-regulated on day 8 and day 14. On day 2 was the appearance of apoptotic epithelial and stromal cells appeared. The Wnt signaling pathway was transiently activated from day 2 to day 10. The inflammatory mediators IL-1β, TNF-α, and MMP-9 were detected in the conditioned media after 6 to 8 days. In conclusion, airlifted conjunctival tissue cultures demonstrated Wnt signaling pathway activation, coupled with squamous metaplasia, mucin pattern alteration, apoptosis and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression. These changes mimic the pathohistological alterations described in dry eye. This correspondence suggests that insight into the pathophysiology of dry eye may be aided through the use of airlifted conjunctival tissue cultures.

  8. A mouse dry eye model induced by topical administration of benzalkonium chloride

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    Lin, Zhirong; Liu, Xiaochen; Zhou, Tong; Wang, Yihui; Bai, Li; He, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To develop a dry eye model of mouse induced by topical administration of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and investigate the possible mechanisms. Methods BAC at concentration of 0.2% was applied to the mouse ocular surface for 7 days. Phenol red thread tear test, tear break-up time (BUT) test, corneal inflammatory index scoring, fluorescein and rose bengal test were performed to evaluate the toxic effects of BAC on the ocular surface. Global specimens were collected on day (D) 7 and labeled with a series of antibodies including cytokeratin 10 (K10) and mucin 5AC (MUC5AC). Apoptosis of ocular surface epithelium was evaluated by in situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Histologic analysis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were performed on D7. Results BAC at a concentration of 0.2% successfully induced a dry eye condition with decreased tear volume and BUTs, increased corneal fluorescein and rose bengal scores. The Inflammatory index was increased in accompanyment with higher tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression and more inflammatory infiltration in the cornea. Immunolabeling revealed positive K10 expression in BAC-treated corneal epithelium and fewer MUC5AC-positive cells in the BAC-treated conjunctival fornix. TUNEL assay showed more apoptotic cells in the corneal basal epithelium. TEM showed that the size and intervals of the microvillis were both reduced in the corneal epithelium. Conclusions Topical administration of 0.2% BAC in mouse induces changes resembling that of dry eye syndrome in humans, and thus, represents a novel model of dry eye. PMID:21283525

  9. Safety and Efficacy of Cortisol Phosphate in Hyaluronic Acid Vehicle in the Treatment of Dry Eye in Sjogren Syndrome.

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    Rolando, Maurizio; Vagge, Aldo

    2017-06-01

    Evaluation of 0.3% cortisol phosphate eye drops in hyaluronic acid vehicle in the treatment of dry eye in Sjogren Syndrome. This prospective, single-center, masked (single blind), randomized controlled study included 40 female patients divided into 2 groups, group 1 treated with Idracemi, 0.3% cortisol phosphate eye drops twice a day, and group 2 treated with Cortivis, 0.3% cortisol phosphate in hyaluronic acid vehicle, with the same posology. Screening (day -7), randomization (day 0), follow-up (day 7), and termination (day 28) visits were conducted. Symptoms (VAS) questionnaire, tear film breakup time, corneo-conjunctival stain, intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement, and fundus examination were performed at each visit. Conjunctival impression cytology for human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) expression at visit 1 and 4 was also performed. No changes in IOP or fundus examination were observed in either group at each time point. Group 1 showed at day 28 a statistically significant amelioration of symptoms and reduction of HLA-DR expression. Group 2 showed at day 7 statistically significant improvement of corneal and conjunctival stain versus baseline and versus group 1; the symptom score was statistically significantly better than baseline and versus group 1 after 28 days too. The HLA-DR expression and the epithelial cell area were statistically significantly reduced versus baseline and versus group 1 at the same time. Cortisol phosphate proved to be safe and effective in treating dry eye in Sjogren Syndrome patients in both formulations. However, the formula with hyaluronic acid vehicle proved to be more effective. Both formulations were very well tolerated.

  10. Dysfunctional tear syndrome: dry eye disease and associated tear film disorders – new strategies for diagnosis and treatment

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    Milner, Mark S.; Beckman, Kenneth A.; Luchs, Jodi I.; Allen, Quentin B.; Awdeh, Richard M.; Berdahl, John; Boland, Thomas S.; Buznego, Carlos; Gira, Joseph P.; Goldberg, Damien F.; Goldman, David; Goyal, Raj K.; Jackson, Mitchell A.; Katz, James; Kim, Terry; Majmudar, Parag A.; Malhotra, Ranjan P.; McDonald, Marguerite B.; Rajpal, Rajesh K.; Raviv, Tal; Rowen, Sheri; Shamie, Neda; Solomon, Jonathan D.; Stonecipher, Karl; Tauber, Shachar; Trattler, William; Walter, Keith A.; Waring, George O.; Weinstock, Robert J.; Wiley, William F.; Yeu, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS) is a common and complex condition affecting the ocular surface. The health and normal functioning of the ocular surface is dependent on a stable and sufficient tear film. Clinician awareness of conditions affecting the ocular surface has increased in recent years because of expanded research and the publication of diagnosis and treatment guidelines pertaining to disorders resulting in DTS, including the Delphi panel treatment recommendations for DTS (2006), the International Dry Eye Workshop (DEWS) (2007), the Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) Workshop (2011), and the updated Preferred Practice Pattern guidelines from the American Academy of Ophthalmology pertaining to dry eye and blepharitis (2013). Since the publication of the existing guidelines, new diagnostic techniques and treatment options that provide an opportunity for better management of patients have become available. Clinicians are now able to access a wealth of information that can help them obtain a differential diagnosis and treatment approach for patients presenting with DTS. This review provides a practical and directed approach to the diagnosis and treatment of patients with DTS, emphasizing treatment that is tailored to the specific disease subtype as well as the severity of the condition. PMID:27653608

  11. Cyclosporine A Loaded PLGA Nanoparticles for Dry Eye Disease: In Vitro Characterization Studies

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    Vijay D. Wagh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye disease is a common disease of the tear film caused by decreased tear production or increased evaporation. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate poly (dl-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanoparticles for CsA (CsA ophthalmic delivery, for the treatment of dry eye disease. Topical CsA is currently the only and safe pharmacologic treatment of severe dry eye symptoms. Nanoparticles (NPs were prepared by W/O solvent evaporation technique followed by probe sonicator and characterized for various properties such as particle size, entrapment efficiency, zeta potential, in vitro drug release, in vitro permeation studies by Franz diffusion cells, XRD, DSC, SEM, and stability studies. The developed nanosuspension showed a mean particle size in the range from 128 to 253.50 nm before freeze drying and after freeze drying 145.60 to 260.0 nm. The drug entrapment efficiency was from 58.35 to 95.69% and production yield was found between 52.29±2.4 and 85.30±2.1% in all preparations. The zeta potential of the Eudragit RL containing nanoparticles was positive, that is, 20.3 mV to 34.5 mV. The NPs formulations exhibited a biphasic drug release with initial burst followed by a very slow drug release and total cumulative release up to 24 h ranged from 69.83 to 91.92%. Kinetically, the release profiles of CsA from NPs appeared to fit best with the Higuchi model. The change of surface characteristics of NPs represents a useful approach for improvement of ocular retention and drug availability.

  12. Rebamipide (OPC-12759) in the treatment of dry eye: a randomized, double-masked, multicenter, placebo-controlled phase II study.

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    Kinoshita, Shigeru; Awamura, Saki; Oshiden, Kazuhide; Nakamichi, Norihiro; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Yokoi, Norihiko

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the dose response for efficacy of 1% and 2% rebamipide ophthalmic suspension compared with placebo in patients with dry eye. A randomized, double-masked, multicenter, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, dose-response phase II study. A total of 308 patients with dry eye. After a 2-week screening period, patients were randomized to receive placebo or 1% rebamipide or 2% rebamipide administered as 1 drop in each eye 4 times daily for 4 weeks. The primary objective end point was change in fluorescein corneal staining (FCS) score from baseline to last observation carried forward (LOCF). Secondary objective end points were lissamine green conjunctival staining (LGCS) score, tear film break-up time (TBUT), and the Schirmer's test. Secondary subjective end points included dry eye-related ocular symptoms (foreign body sensation, dryness, photophobia, eye pain, and blurred vision) score and patients' overall treatment impression score. Rebamipide dose response was observed in FCS, LGCS, and TBUT scores. Both 1% and 2% rebamipide were significantly more effective than the placebo in terms of the change from baseline to LOCF for FCS, LGCS, and TBUT scores. There was no significant difference between the rebamipide and placebo groups from baseline to LOCF in Schirmer's test values, and dose response was not observed. In the predefined dry eye subpopulation with a baseline FCS score of 10 to 15, the mean change from baseline in the 2% rebamipide group was larger than that in the 1% rebamipide group. Change from baseline to LOCF for all 5 dry eye-related ocular symptom scores and patients' overall treatment impression showed significant improvements in the 1% and 2% rebamipide groups compared with the placebo group, except for photophobia in the 1% rebamipide group. No deaths or drug-related serious adverse events occurred in any treatment group. The incidence of ocular abnormalities was similar across the rebamipide and placebo groups. Rebamipide was effective in

  13. Automated grading system for evaluation of ocular redness associated with dry eye

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    Rodriguez JD

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available John D Rodriguez,1 Patrick R Johnston,1 George W Ousler III,1 Lisa M Smith,1 Mark B Abelson1,21Ora, Inc, Andover, MA, USA; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USABackground: We have observed that dry eye redness is characterized by a prominence of fine horizontal conjunctival vessels in the exposed ocular surface of the interpalpebral fissure, and have incorporated this feature into the grading of redness in clinical studies of dry eye.Aim: To develop an automated method of grading dry eye-associated ocular redness in order to expand on the clinical grading system currently used.Methods: Ninety nine images from 26 dry eye subjects were evaluated by five graders using a 0–4 (in 0.5 increments dry eye redness (Ora CalibraTM Dry Eye Redness Scale [OCDER] scale. For the automated method, the Opencv computer vision library was used to develop software for calculating redness and horizontal conjunctival vessels (noted as "horizontality". From original photograph, the region of interest (ROI was selected manually using the open source ImageJ software. Total average redness intensity (Com-Red was calculated as a single channel 8-bit image as R − 0.83G − 0.17B, where R, G and B were the respective intensities of the red, green and blue channels. The location of vessels was detected by normalizing the blue channel and selecting pixels with an intensity of less than 97% of the mean. The horizontal component (Com-Hor was calculated by the first order Sobel derivative in the vertical direction and the score was calculated as the average blue channel image intensity of this vertical derivative. Pearson correlation coefficients, accuracy and concordance correlation coefficients (CCC were calculated after regression and standardized regression of the dataset.Results: The agreement (both Pearson's and CCC among investigators using the OCDER scale was 0.67, while the agreement of investigator to computer was 0.76. A multiple

  14. A Survey on Treatment of Dry Eye by Traditional Chinese Medicine and Integrative Chinese and Western Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Wan-yu; LI Yue-hong

    2006-01-01

    Dry eye is now one of the most common superficial disorders in ophthalmology at home and abroad, and more and more people attach importance to the study. The ideal approach for treatment of dry eye is to normalize the condition by rebuilding the superficial circumstance of the eye, and to make tear film work as well as possible so as to relieve the irritating symptoms in the eye. The authors are making a comprehensive discussion on the methods and curative effects of treating dry eye by traditional Chinese medicine and by integrative Chinese and Western medicine in recent years, so as to introduce the distinctive features of the traditional Chinese medicine and integrative Chinese and Western medicine in this field.

  15. Dry eye disease is associated with deterioration of mental health in male Japanese university staff.

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    Tounaka, Kaoru; Yuki, Kenya; Kouyama, Keisuke; Abe, Takayuki; Tsubota, Kazuo; Kawabe, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Kazuhito

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is defined as a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear-film instability, with potential damage to the ocular surface. It is thought to be associated with reduced quality of life (QOL). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of DED on health-related QOL in Japanese university sedentary office workers who are daily users of visual display terminal. In this study, 163 university staff (99 male and 64 female), aged 23-69 years, served as study subjects. Subjects were asked to answer the following three questions. (1) How often do your eyes feel dry? (2) How often do your eyes feel irritated? (3) Have you ever been diagnosed by a clinician as having dry eye syndrome? Sixty-eight subjects who answered "constantly," "often", or "sometimes" to both questions 1 and 2 were classified as the DED Group, and the remaining 95 were defined as the Non-DED Group. QOL was assessed by the SF-36 questionnaire, which consisted of 36 items to produce three summary scores, namely, mental, physical, and role/social component summary scores. For males, the DED Group had significantly lower scores than the Non-DED Group for mental component summary (MCS) (P = 0.005). In multiple regression analysis, MCS scores were adversely related to DED in males (P = 0.015). DED was associated with worsened QOL. DED should be regarded as a factor that can lead to deterioration of mental health.

  16. Comparison of diagnostic tests in distinct well-defined conditions related to dry eye disease.

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    Monica Alves

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: This study compares signs, symptoms and predictive tools used to diagnose dry eye disease (DED and ocular surface disorders in six systemic well-defined and non-overlapping diseases. It is well known that these tests are problematic because of a lack of agreement between them in identifying these conditions. Accordingly, we provide here a comparative clinical profile analysis of these different diseases. METHODS: A spontaneous and continuous sample of patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS (n=27, graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD (n=28, Graves orbitopathy (n=28, facial palsy (n=8, diabetes mellitus without proliferative retinopathy (n=14 and glaucoma who chronically received topical drugs preserved with benzalkonium chloride (n=20 were enrolled. Evaluation consisted of a comprehensive protocol encompassing: (1 structured questionnaire - Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI; (2 tear osmolarity (TearLab Osmolarity System - Ocusense; (3 tear film break-up time (TBUT; (4 fluorescein and lissamine green staining; (5 Schirmer test and (6 severity grading. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty five patients (aged 48.8 years-old ± 14.1, male:female ratio=0.4 were enrolled in the study, along with 24 age and gender matched controls. Higher scores on DED tests were obtained in Sjögren Syndrome (P<0.05, except for tear film osmolarity that was higher in diabetics (P<0.001 and fluorescein staining, that was higher in facial palsy (P<0.001. TFBUT and OSDI correlated better with other tests. The best combination of diagnostic tests for DED was OSDI, TBUT and Schirmer test (sensitivity 100%, specificity 95% and accuracy 99.3%. CONCLUSIONS: DED diagnostic test results present a broad range of variability among different conditions. Vital stainings and TBUT correlated best with one another whereas the best test combination to detect DED was: OSDI/TBUT/Schirmer.

  17. Severe Dry Eye Syndrome After Radiotherapy for Head-and-Neck Tumors

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    Bhandare, Niranjan, E-mail: bhandn@shands.ufl.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Moiseenko, Vitali [Vancouver Cancer Centre, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Song, William Y. [University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA (United States); Morris, Christopher G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States); Bhatti, M. Tariq [Department of Ophthalmology and Medicine (Division of Neurology), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Mendenhall, William M. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the incidence of severe dry eye syndrome (DES) after external beam radiotherapy for head-and-neck cancer and its dependence on the parameters relevant to external beam radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: The present retrospective study included 78 patients treated for primary extracranial head-and-neck tumors between 1965 and 2000, whose lacrimal apparatus/entire globe was exposed to fractionated external beam radiotherapy. The dose received by the major lacrimal gland was used for analysis. The end point of the present study was the ophthalmologic diagnosis of severe DES leading to vision compromise. Results: Of the 78 patients, 40 developed severe DES leading to visual compromise. The incidence of DES increased steadily from 6% at 35-39.99 Gy to 50% at 45-49.99 Gy and 90% at 60-64.99 Gy. With a mean of 0.9 years (range, 1 month to 3 years), the latency of DES was observed to be a function of the total dose and the dose per fraction. On univariate and multivariate analysis, the total dose (p < .0001 and p < .0001, respectively) and dose per fraction (p {<=} .0001 and p = .0044, respectively) were significant. However, age, gender, and the use of chemoradiotherapy were not. The actuarial analysis indicated a 5-year probability of freedom from DES of 93% for doses <45 Gy, 29% for 45-59.9 Gy, and 3% doses {>=}60 Gy. A logistic normal tissue complication probability model fit to our data obtained a dose of 34 and 38 Gy corresponding to a 5% and 10% incidence of DES. Conclusion: With a dose of 34 Gy corresponding to a 5% incidence of DES, the risk of severe DES increased, and the latency decreased with an increase in the total dose and dose per fraction to the lacrimal gland. The effect of chemoradiotherapy and hyperfractionation on the risk of DES needs additional investigation.

  18. Optimization and validation of an existing, surgical and robust dry eye rat model for the evaluation of therapeutic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joossen, Cedric; Lanckacker, Ellen; Zakaria, Nadia; Koppen, Carina; Joossens, Jurgen; Cools, Nathalie; De Meester, Ingrid; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Delputte, Peter; Maes, Louis; Cos, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this research was to optimize and validate an animal model for dry eye, adopting clinically relevant evaluation parameters. Dry eye was induced in female Wistar rats by surgical removal of the exorbital lacrimal gland. The clinical manifestations of dry eye were evaluated by tear volume measurements, corneal fluorescein staining, cytokine measurements in tear fluid, MMP-9 mRNA expression and CD3(+) cell infiltration in the conjunctiva. The animal model was validated by treatment with Restasis(®) (4 weeks) and commercial dexamethasone eye drops (2 weeks). Removal of the exorbital lacrimal gland resulted in 50% decrease in tear volume and a gradual increase in corneal fluorescein staining. Elevated levels of TNF-α and IL-1α have been registered in tear fluid together with an increase in CD3(+) cells in the palpebral conjunctiva when compared to control animals. Additionally, an increase in MMP-9 mRNA expression was recorded in conjunctival tissue. Reference treatment with Restasis(®) and dexamethasone eye drops had a positive effect on all evaluation parameters, except on tear volume. This rat dry eye model was validated extensively and judged appropriate for the evaluation of novel compounds and therapeutic preparations for dry eye disease.

  19. Effectiveness and tolerability of dietary supplementation with a combination of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and antioxidants in the treatment of dry eye symptoms: results of a prospective study

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    Oleñik A

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrea OleñikOn behalf of the Dry Eye Clinical Study Group (DECSGOphthalmology Department, Fundación Jiménez Díaz, Madrid, SpainBackground: We assessed the effectiveness and tolerability of a dietary supplement based on the combination of omega-3 essential fatty acids and antioxidants on dry eye-related symptoms.Methods: A total of 905 patients (72% women, median age 60 years with dry eye syndrome and using artificial tears to relieve symptoms participated in an open-label prospective intervention study. They were recruited during a routine ophthalmological appointment. Patients were instructed to take three capsules/day of the nutraceutical formulation (Brudysec® 1.5 g for 12 weeks. Dry eye symptoms (categorized as 0, none; 1, mild; 2, moderate; and 3, severe included scratchy and stinging sensation in the eyes, eye redness, grittiness, painful eyes, tired eyes, grating sensation, and blurry vision.Results: The mean intensity of dry eye symptoms varied from 1.1 (± standard deviation [SD] 0.9 for painful eyes to 2.0 (0.9 for grittiness, with a mean value of 11.9 (4.8 for all symptoms together. At week 12, all individual symptoms improved significantly (P<0.001. The mean value for all symptoms together decreased from a mean value of 11.9 (± SD 4.8 at baseline to 6.8 (± SD 4.5 after 12 weeks of treatment (P<0.001. There was a decrease in the percentage of patients in which dry eye symptoms predominated nearly all the time (53.5% versus 34.1%. A total of 68.1% of patients reported better tolerance to contact lenses after treatment. The mean number of daily instillations of artificial tears also decreased significantly (3.8 [± SD 1.6] versus 3.3 [± SD 1.6], P<0.001. A total of 634 patients (70.1% did not report any adverse events. In the remaining patients with adverse events, the most frequent was fish-tasting regurgitation in 13.5% of cases, followed by nausea in 4.9%, diarrhea in 1.3%, and vomiting in 0.3%.Conclusion: Dietary

  20. Selenium-binding lactoferrin is taken into corneal epithelial cells by a receptor and prevents corneal damage in dry eye model animals.

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    Higuchi, Akihiro; Inoue, Hiroyoshi; Kaneko, Yoshio; Oonishi, Erina; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-11-11

    The ocular surface is strongly affected by oxidative stress, which causes many ocular diseases including dry eye. Previously, we showed that selenium compounds, e.g., selenoprotein P and Se-lactoferrin, were candidates for treatment of dry eye. This paper shows the efficacy of Se-lactoferrin for the treatment of dry eye compared with Diquas as a control drug using two dry eye models and incorporation of lactoferrin into corneal epithelial cells via lactoferrin receptors. We show the efficacy of Se-lactoferrin eye drops in the tobacco smoke exposure rat dry eye model and short-term rabbit dry eye model, although Diquas eye drops were only effective in the short-term rabbit dry eye model. These results indicate that Se-lactoferrin was useful in the oxidative stress-causing dry eye model. Se-lactoferrin was taken into corneal epithelium cells via lactoferrin receptors. We identified LRP1 as the lactoferrin receptor in the corneal epithelium involved in lactoferrin uptake. Se-lactoferrin eye drops did not irritate the ocular surface of rabbits. Se-lactoferrin was an excellent candidate for treatment of dry eye, reducing oxidative stress by a novel mechanism.

  1. Lacrimal hypofunction as a new mechanism of dry eye in visual display terminal users.

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    Shigeru Nakamura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dry eye has shown a marked increase due to visual display terminal (VDT use. It remains unclear whether reduced blinking while focusing can have a direct deleterious impact on the lacrimal gland function. To address this issue that potentially affects the life quality, we conducted a large-scale epidemiological study of VDT users and an animal study. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cross sectional survey carried out in Japan. A total of 1025 office workers who use VDT were enrolled. The association between VDT work duration and changes in tear film status, precorneal tear stability, lipid layer status and tear secretion were analyzed. For the animal model study, the rat VDT user model, placing rats onto a balance swing in combination with exposure to an evaporative environment was used to analyze lacrimal gland function. There was no positive relationship between VDT working duration and change in tear film stability and lipid layer status. The odds ratio for decrease in Schirmer score, index of tear secretion, were significantly increased with VDT working year (P = 0.012 and time (P = 0.005. The rat VDT user model, showed chronic reduction of tear secretion and was accompanied by an impairment of the lacrimal gland function and morphology. This dysfunction was recovered when rats were moved to resting conditions without the swing. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data suggest that lacrimal gland hypofunction is associated with VDT use and may be a critical mechanism for VDT-associated dry eye. We believe this to be the first mechanistic link to the pathogenesis of dry eye in office workers.

  2. High Frequency of Latent Conjunctival C. trachomatis, M. hominis, and U. urealyticum Infections in Young Adults with Dry Eye Disease

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    Ernest V. Boiko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To determine the frequency of detection of conjunctival C. trachomatis (CT, M. hominis (MH, and U. urealyticum (UU infections in young adults with dry eye disease (DED, since these infections may potentially produce the chronic subclinical inflammation characteristic of DED. Materials and Methods. The study included subjects of 25–45 years of age, divided into the DED (n=114 and nondry eye control (n=98 groups, with the diagnosis based on self-reported complaints, biomicroscopy, the Schirmer I test, and break-up time. All patients had conjunctival scrapings taken to detect CT, MH, and UU with direct fluorescent-antibody assay kits. Results. At least one of the three microorganisms was found in 87.7% of the DED patients versus 8.2% of the controls. Of all the DED patients, 63.2%, 50.8%, and 42.1% were found to be infected with CT, MH, and UU, respectively. Multiple pathogens were identified in 65% of the DED patients found to be infected. CT infection was detected in 6.1% of the controls. Conclusion. C. trachomatis, M. hominis, and U. urealyticum were detected with high frequency in the conjunctiva of young adults with DED and may be an important risk factor for DED in them.

  3. High Frequency of Latent Conjunctival C. trachomatis, M. hominis, and U. urealyticum Infections in Young Adults with Dry Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boiko, Ernest V.; Pozniak, Alexei L.; Maltsev, Dmitrii S.; Suetov, Alexei A.; Nuralova, Irina V.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To determine the frequency of detection of conjunctival C. trachomatis (CT), M. hominis (MH), and U. urealyticum (UU) infections in young adults with dry eye disease (DED), since these infections may potentially produce the chronic subclinical inflammation characteristic of DED. Materials and Methods. The study included subjects of 25–45 years of age, divided into the DED (n = 114) and nondry eye control (n = 98) groups, with the diagnosis based on self-reported complaints, biomicroscopy, the Schirmer I test, and break-up time. All patients had conjunctival scrapings taken to detect CT, MH, and UU with direct fluorescent-antibody assay kits. Results. At least one of the three microorganisms was found in 87.7% of the DED patients versus 8.2% of the controls. Of all the DED patients, 63.2%, 50.8%, and 42.1% were found to be infected with CT, MH, and UU, respectively. Multiple pathogens were identified in 65% of the DED patients found to be infected. CT infection was detected in 6.1% of the controls. Conclusion. C. trachomatis, M. hominis, and U. urealyticum were detected with high frequency in the conjunctiva of young adults with DED and may be an important risk factor for DED in them. PMID:24967096

  4. Tratamiento del ojo seco: sus opciones Treatment of the dry eye: its options

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    Marta Herrera Soto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza una revisión bibliográfica del tratamiento del ojo seco debido a la frecuencia con que aparece esta entidad; se exponen las diferentes opciones terapéuticas para el conocimiento de todos y su objetivo es ofrecer a los nuevos oftalmólogos una panorámica ampliada para su tratamientoA bibliograpic review of the treatment of the dry eye is made due to its frequency. The different therapeutic options are explained so that everybody knows them. It is aimed at offering the new ophthalmologists a wider view for its treatment

  5. Eye-tracking dysfunctions in schizophrenic patients and their relatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzman, P.S.; Proctor, L.R.; Levy, D.L.; Yasillo, N.J.; Meltzer, H.Y.; Hurt, S.W.

    1974-08-01

    A simple test of smooth-pursuit eye movements disclosed a striking association between deviant eye tracking and clinically diagnosed schizophrenia. A high proportion of the schizophrenic patients' first-degree relatives who were not themselves clinically schizophrenic also showed deviant eye-tracking behavior. The relationship of poor eye tracking and schizophrenia is even stronger when specific psychological test evidence of thought disorder is used operationally to classify patients. The eye-tracking dysfunction may thus represent a genetic marker that can prove highly useful for studying the transmission of a vulnerability to schizophrenia. The findings suggest proprioceptive and interoceptive involvement in schizophrenic pathology. (auth)

  6. [Eye contact in adult patients with Asperger syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, M; Wolfgang, D

    2015-05-01

    It is unclear if individuals with autism spectrum disorders rarely hold direct eye contact because eyes are unimportant for them, or if it is actively avoided. The aim of the current investigation was to gain a better understanding for their views on direct eye contact by exploring adult patients with Asperger syndrome. 63 adult patients with Asperger syndrome (28 females, 35 males, 21 - 62 years old) were explored about using and sensing direct eye contact by means of a standardised questionnaire. 87 % of investigated patients depict direct eye contact as being disagreeable. They describe it as arduous and distracting. Therefore they mostly actively avoid direct eye contact. The here gained knowledge about aversion towards direct eye contact in individuals with autism should lead to a stronger understanding and acceptance of this problem in the non-autistic population. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Clinical Analysis of Raceanisodamine Eye Drops Effect on Dry Eye%消旋山莨菪碱滴眼液在干眼治疗中的临床应用分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁小庆; 刘焰; 刘堃; 曹晖; 王卫峻; 傅扬; 孙晓东; 许迅

    2011-01-01

    目的:评价0.05%消旋山莨菪碱滴眼液对干眼治疗的临床疗效.方法:选取2009年5月~2010年1月共65例(130眼)干眼患者.使用0.05%消旋山莨菪碱滴眼液每天两次,连续8周.采用SPSS13.0 统计软件对其使用前后不适症状(异物感、烧灼感、畏光、视久模糊、眼痛)及两项体征(角膜荧光素染色(FL)、泪膜破裂时间(BUT))的变化进行处理.统计第0、2、5、8周每只眼每次检查的综合计分.结果:第2、5、8周时FL及BUT与治疗前比,差值均有统计学意义(P< 0.05).干眼患者的综合分平均值在第0、2、5及8周逐渐递减,分别是:11.9、8.6、5.9、4.2.与用药前比较,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:0.05%消旋山莨菪碱滴眼液对干眼的不适症状及相关体征具有良好的改善作用.%Objective:To evaluate the clinical efficacy of 0.05% Raceanisodamine Eye Drops on dry eye symptoms and clinical signs.Methods:From May 2009 to January 2010,65 patients(130 eyes)suffering from dry eye were selected.The 0.05%Raceanisodamine Eye Drops was given twice a day for 8 weeks as only treatment.The relative symptoms of dry eye,including foreign body sensation,burning sensation,photophobia,unstable vision,eye pain,and clinical signs of dry eye,including tear film break-up time(BUT) and fluorescein staining of the cornea(FL),were recorded.The differences between before and after using drops were analyzed in statistical processing The main statistical indicator was the composite score,which was the sum of the score of every symptom and sign multiplied by its weight supposed as one.The data records of the dry eye patients' symptoms and signs were sorted out and counted in statistical processing at 0 week,2 weeks,5 weeks,8 weeks.The SPSS 13.0 software was used to analyze the database.The paired-samplest test,frequencies descriptive statistics were used for analysis.Results:There was statistical difference in average score of fluorescein staining of the

  8. 药源性干眼症%Drug-induced dry eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨永升; 张守康; 谢立科

    2012-01-01

    Drug-induced dry eye is gradually recognized by ophthalmologists in recent years.It has been found that more than 10 categories and hundreds of drugs can induce dry eye,which include anti-cholinergic receptor drugs,antihistamines,antidepressant drugs,anti-psychotic drugs,hormone drugs,antiglaucoma drugs,and so on.The main mechanisms include the influence of drugs on the parasympathetic/sympathetic system so that the secretion pathway of lacrimal gland blocked,or tear film instability and ocular surface abnormalities caused by eye drops or ointments. Preventions and treatments are mainly to stop or change the drugs,etiological treatment and symptomatic treatment.%药源性干眼症是近年来逐渐被认识的一类药源性眼病,引起此病的药物有十余类上百种,其中常见的有抗胆碱能受体药、抗组胺药、抗抑郁症类药、抗精神病类药、激素类药、抗青光眼类药等.主要机制是药物影响副交感或交感神经系统,支配腺体分泌的通路受到阻断;或药物局部使用引起泪膜不稳定及眼表面异常.防治此类干眼症主要采用停药或换药,对因治疗以及对症处理.

  9. Impact of Dry Eye Syndrome on Vision-Related Quality of Life in a Non-Clinic-Based General Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Qihua

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dry eye syndrome (DES is a common ocular disorder occurring in general population. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of DES on vision-related quality of life (QoL in a non-clinic-based general population. Methods This population-based cross-sectional study enrolled subjects older than 40 years, who took part in an epidemiological study on dry eye in Sanle Community, Shanghai. Apart from the collection of sociodemographics, dry eye symptoms, and other clinical data, a Chinese version of the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI VFQ-25 was administered to all subjects. Comparisons of the NEI VFQ-25 subscale item scores and composite score were made among subgroups divided according to the presence of dry eye symptoms or signs. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between the clinical variables and the VFQ-25 composite score. Results A total of 229 participants were enrolled in the study, with an average age of (60.7 ±10.1 years old. Majority of these participants were female (59.8 %, 137/229. The total DES symptom scores (TDSS in subjects either with definite DES or only with dry eye symptoms were significantly higher (F = 60.331, P  Conclusions The symptoms of dry eye are associated with an adverse impact on vision-related QoL in non-clinic-based general population, which is mainly represented as more ocular pain and discomfort, and impaired mental health as well. Apart from clinical examination, it is also important to refer to subjective symptoms and QoL scores when assessing the severity of DES.

  10. Research on the Stability of a Rabbit Dry Eye Model Induced by Topical Application of the Preservative Benzalkonium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Shaohong; Wan, Pengxia; Li, Naiyang; Tang, Jing; Han, Yu; Xiong, Cuiju; Wang, Zhichong

    2012-01-01

    Background Dry eye is a common disease worldwide, and animal models are critical for the study of it. At present, there is no research about the stability of the extant animal models, which may have negative implications for previous dry eye studies. In this study, we observed the stability of a rabbit dry eye model induced by the topical benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and determined the valid time of this model. Methods and Findings Eighty white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. One eye from each rabbit was randomly chosen to receive topical 0.1% BAC twice daily for 2 weeks (Group BAC-W2), 3 weeks (Group BAC-W3), 4 weeks (Group BAC-W4), or 5 weeks (Group BAC-W5). Fluorescein staining, Schirmer's tests, and conjunctival impression cytology were performed before BAC treatment (normal) and on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after BAC removal. The eyeballs were collected at these time points for immunofluorescence staining, hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, and electron microscopy. After removing BAC, the signs of dry eye in Group BAC-W2 lasted one week. Compared with normal, there were still significant differences in the results of Schirmer's tests and fluorescein staining in Groups BAC-W3 and BAC-W4 on day 7 (P<0.05) and in Group BAC-W5 on day 14 (P<0.05). Decreases in goblet cell density remained stable in the three experimental groups at all time points (P<0.001). Decreased levels of mucin-5 subtype AC (MUC5AC), along with histopathological and ultrastructural disorders of the cornea and conjunctiva could be observed in Group BAC-W4 and particularly in Group BAC-W5 until day 21. Conclusions A stable rabbit dry eye model was induced by topical 0.1% BAC for 5 weeks, and after BAC removal, the signs of dry eye were sustained for 2 weeks (for the mixed type of dry eye) or for at least 3 weeks (for mucin-deficient dry eye). PMID:22438984

  11. Research on the stability of a rabbit dry eye model induced by topical application of the preservative benzalkonium chloride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaoyang Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dry eye is a common disease worldwide, and animal models are critical for the study of it. At present, there is no research about the stability of the extant animal models, which may have negative implications for previous dry eye studies. In this study, we observed the stability of a rabbit dry eye model induced by the topical benzalkonium chloride (BAC and determined the valid time of this model. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Eighty white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups. One eye from each rabbit was randomly chosen to receive topical 0.1% BAC twice daily for 2 weeks (Group BAC-W2, 3 weeks (Group BAC-W3, 4 weeks (Group BAC-W4, or 5 weeks (Group BAC-W5. Fluorescein staining, Schirmer's tests, and conjunctival impression cytology were performed before BAC treatment (normal and on days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after BAC removal. The eyeballs were collected at these time points for immunofluorescence staining, hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining, and electron microscopy. After removing BAC, the signs of dry eye in Group BAC-W2 lasted one week. Compared with normal, there were still significant differences in the results of Schirmer's tests and fluorescein staining in Groups BAC-W3 and BAC-W4 on day 7 (P<0.05 and in Group BAC-W5 on day 14 (P<0.05. Decreases in goblet cell density remained stable in the three experimental groups at all time points (P<0.001. Decreased levels of mucin-5 subtype AC (MUC5AC, along with histopathological and ultrastructural disorders of the cornea and conjunctiva could be observed in Group BAC-W4 and particularly in Group BAC-W5 until day 21. CONCLUSIONS: A stable rabbit dry eye model was induced by topical 0.1% BAC for 5 weeks, and after BAC removal, the signs of dry eye were sustained for 2 weeks (for the mixed type of dry eye or for at least 3 weeks (for mucin-deficient dry eye.

  12. Mathematical Modeling of Drying Kinetics of Bird’s Eye Chilies in a Convective Hot-Air Dryer

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    Kongdej LIMPAIBOON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The drying kinetics of red bird’s eye chilies and the color of the product were investigated in a laboratory scale hot-air dryer under 3 air temperatures of 55, 60 and 65 °C. The 6 mathematical models (Lewis model; Page model; Henderson and Pabis model; Logarithmic model; Modified Page model; and Wang and Singh model were used to fit the experimental data obtained in order to estimate the moisture ratio as the function of drying time. The results showed that operating temperature enhanced the kinetics of the drying of chilies; the drying times of chilies at 55, 60 and 65 °C were 510, 360 and 330 min, respectively. The experimental drying curves obtained at all operating conditions took place in the falling rate period. Comparing the dried products, it was observed that the red bird’s eye chilies dried at a lower temperature had higher Hunter L (lightness, a* (redness and b* (yellowness values. The experimental data were fitted to different drying models. The performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. Among the 6 mathematical models, the Wang and Singh model satisfactorily described the drying kinetics of chilies.

  13. Inflammatory cytokine expression on the ocular surface in the Botulium toxin B induced murine dry eye model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Lei; Shen, Jikui; Zhang, Cheng; Park, Choul Yong; Kohanim, Sahar; Yew, Margaret; Parker, John S.; Chuck, Roy S.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Inflammation plays an important role in dry eye syndrome. In this study, inflammatory cytokine expression on the ocular surface in the Botulium toxin B (BTX-B) induced mouse dry eye model was investigated. Methods CBA/J mice received an injection of saline or 20 milliunits (mU) of BTX-B into the lacrimal gland. Tear production and corneal fluorescein staining were evaluated in all groups before injection and at 3 time points after. The pro-inflammatory cytokines macrophage inhibitory ...

  14. Evaluation of a Novel Artificial Tear in the Prevention and Treatment of Dry Eye in an Animal Model

    OpenAIRE

    She, Yujing; Li, Jinyang; Xiao, Bing,;Jing, Chun,;Kelly, Geoff,;Walker, Philip,;Muskett, Frederick,;Frenkiel, Thomas,;Martin, Steve,;Sarma, Kavitha,;Reinberg, Danny,;Gamblin, Steven,;Wilson, Jonathan,; Lu, Huihui; Liu, Haixia; Simmons, Peter A; Vehige, Joseph G; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To evaluate effects of a novel multi-ingredient artificial tear formulation containing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in a murine dry eye model. Methods: Dry eye was induced in mice (C57BL/6) using an intelligently controlled environmental system (ICES). CMC+HA (Optive Fusion™), CMC-only (Refresh Tears®), and HA-only (Hycosan®) artificial tears and control phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were administered 4 times daily and compared with no treatment (n...

  15. Calorie restriction: A new therapeutic intervention for age-related dry eye disease in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Okada, Naoko; Ogawa, Yoko [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Murat, Dogru [Department of Ocular Surface and Visual Optics, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Shigeru; Nakashima, Hideo [Research Center, Ophtecs Corporation, Hyogo (Japan); Shimmura, Shigeto [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Shinmura, Ken [Division of Geriatric Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Tsubota, Kazuo, E-mail: tsubota@sc.itc.keio.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)

    2010-07-09

    A decrease in lacrimal gland secretory function is closely related to aging and leads to an increased prevalence of dry eye syndrome. Since calorie restriction (CR) is considered to prevent functional decline of various organs due to aging, we hypothesized that CR could prevent age-related lacrimal dysfunction. Six-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly divided into ad libitum (AL) and CR (-35%) groups. After 6 months of CR, tear function was examined under conscious state. After euthanasia, lacrimal glands were subjected to histological examination, tear protein secretion stimulation test with Carbachol, and assessment of oxidative stress with 8-hydroxy-2 deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) antibodies. CR significantly improved tear volume and tended to increase tear protein secretion volume after stimulation with Carbachol compared to AL. The acinar unit density was significantly higher in the CR rats compared to AL rats. Lacrimal glands in the CR rats showed a lesser degree of interstitial fibrosis. CR reduced the concentration of 8-OHdG and the extent of staining with HNE in the lacrimal gland, compared to AL. Furthermore, our electron microscopic observations showed that mitochondrial structure of the lacrimal gland obtained from the middle-aged CR rats was preserved in comparison to the AL rats. Collectively, these results demonstrate for the first time that CR may attenuate oxidative stress related damage in the lacrimal gland with preservation of lacrimal gland functions. Although molecular mechanism(s) by which CR maintains lacrimal gland function remains to be resolved, CR might provide a novel therapeutic strategy for treating dry eye syndrome.

  16. Efficacy of Topical Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy in the Treatment of Experimental Dry Eye Syndrome Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Beyazyıldız

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The current study was set out to address the therapeutic efficacy of topically applied mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs on dry eye syndrome (DES induced by benzalkonium chloride (BAC in rats. Methods. Rats were divided into two groups just after establishment of DES. Eye drops containing either bromodeoxyuridine labeled MSCs (n=9 or phosphate buffer solution (n=7 were topically applied once daily for one week. Schirmer test, break-up time score, ocular surface evaluation tests, and corneal inflammatory index scoring tests were applied to all rats at baseline and after treatment. All rats were sacrificed after one week for histological and electron microscopic analysis. Results. Mean aqueous tear volume and tear film stability were significantly increased in rats treated with MSCs (P<0.05. Infiltration of bromodeoxyuridine labeled MSCs into the meibomian glands and conjunctival epithelium was observed in MSCs treated rats. Increased number of secretory granules and number of goblet cells were observed in MSCs treated rats. Conclusion. Topical application of MSCs could be a safe and effective method for the treatment of DES and could potentially be used for further clinical research studies.

  17. La hiperosmolaridad del film lagrimal en el ojo seco Tears osmolarity in dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro J. Aguilar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El ojo seco es una compleja enfermedad multifactorial de la película lagrimal y de la superficie ocular caracterizada por síntomas de desconforto, alteraciones de la visión e inestabilidad del film lagrimal que puede provocar daño potencial sobre la superficie ocular. La inestabilidad del film producirá aumentos en la osmolaridad de la película lagrimal, lo que desencadena a su vez lesiones osmóticas epiteliales e inflamación. Al producirse estos cambios sobre la superficie ocular, los mecanismos neurofisiológicos de homeostasis se verán alterados lo que complicará aún más el proceso, con la aparición de circuitos viciosos fisiopatológicos.Dry eye is a complex multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface that results in symptoms of discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. It is accompanied by increased osmolarity of the tear film and inflammation of the ocular surface. Inestability of the tear film may also cause an increased osmolarity of the tear film, thus triggering epithelial osmotic lesions and inflammation. The occurrence of such changes on the eye surface results in disturbances of homeostatic neurophysiologic mechanisms which further worsen the process and vicious pathophysiological cycles occur.

  18. The Effect of Dry Eye Disease on Scar Formation in Rabbit Glaucoma Filtration Surgery

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    Hong Ji

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The success rate of glaucoma filtration surgery is closely related to conjunctival inflammation, and the main mechanism of dry eye disease (DED is inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DED on bleb scar formation after rabbit glaucoma filtration surgery. Sixteen New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into control and DED groups. A DED model was induced by twice-daily topical administration of 0.1% benzalkonium chloride (BAC drops for three weeks. Ocular examinations were performed to verify the DED model. Surgical effects were assessed, and histologic assessments were performed on the 28th postoperative day. Higher fluorescein staining scores, lower basal tear secretion levels and goblet cell counts, and increased interleukin 1β (IL-1β levels were observed in the DED group. The DED eyes displayed significantly higher intraocular pressure (IOP% on the 14th postoperative day; a smaller bleb area on days 14, 21 and 28; and a shorter bleb survival time. Moreover, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA and alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA levels were significantly increased in the DED group. These results demonstrate that DED promotes filtering bleb scar formation and shortens bleb survival time; these effects may be mediated via IL-1β.

  19. Sensitization of trigeminal brainstem pathways in a model for tear deficient dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mostafeezur; Okamoto, Keiichiro; Thompson, Randall; Katagiri, Ayano; Bereiter, David A

    2015-05-01

    Chronic dry eye disease (DE) is associated with an unstable tear film and symptoms of ocular discomfort. The characteristics of symptoms suggest a key role for central neural processing; however, little is known about central neuroplasticity and DE. We used a model for tear deficient DE and assessed effects on eye blink behavior, orbicularis oculi muscle activity (OOemg), and trigeminal brainstem neural activity in male rats. Ocular-responsive neurons were recorded at the interpolaris/caudalis transition (Vi/Vc) and Vc/upper cervical cord (Vc/C1) regions under isoflurane, whereas OOemg activity was recorded under urethane. Spontaneous tear volume was reduced by ∼50% at 14 days after exorbital gland removal. Hypertonic saline-evoked eye blink behavior in awake rats was enhanced throughout the 14 days after surgery. Saline-evoked neural activity at the Vi/Vc transition and in superficial and deep laminae at the Vc/C1 region was greatly enhanced in DE rats. Neurons from DE rats classified as wide dynamic range displayed enlarged convergent periorbital receptive fields consistent with central sensitization. Saline-evoked OOemg activity was markedly enhanced in DE rats compared with controls. Synaptic blockade at the Vi/Vc transition or the Vc/C1 region greatly reduced hypertonic saline-evoked OOemg activity in DE and sham rats. These results indicated that persistent tear deficiency caused sensitization of ocular-responsive neurons at multiple regions of the caudal trigeminal brainstem and enhanced OOemg activity. Central sensitization of ocular-related brainstem circuits is a significant factor in DE and likely contributes to the apparent weak correlation between peripheral signs of tear dysfunction and symptoms of irritation.

  20. 针灸治疗干眼的系统评价%Acupuncture therapy for dry eye: a systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 刘迈兰; 于美玲; 兰蕾; 尹海燕; 罗玲; 唐勇; 宋剑涛

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for dry eye. METHODS We searched the randomized controlled trials of acupuncture therapy for dry eye. Search methods included electronic search, hand search and websites complement search. Languages were limited to Chinese and English. According to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions (5.1.0), we assessed the quality of the trials. The statistical analysis was managed by RevMan 5.1.0 software provided by Cochrane Collaboration. RESULTS 1.Eight RCTs met the inclusion criteria, including 1 medium quality study, 7 low quality studies. 2. The results of meta-analysis indicated that significant difference had been found among acupuncture alone or acupuncture with artificial tears or artificial tears alone. The efficacy of the former was prior to artificial tears in increasing tear secretion and break-up time of tears of patients with dry eye. 3. Among 8 studies which was descriptively analyzed, 2 studies showed that acupuncture with artificial tears was superior to artificial tears in improving dryness and ocular fatigue; while 5 studies indicated that acupuncture with artificial tears had the same efficacy with artificial tears in improvement of symptoms, increasing tear secretion and alleviating the ocular surface damage. One study showed that artificial tears were probably more effective than acupuncture in increasing tear film stability of patients with dry eye. CONCLUSIONS Acupuncture or acupuncture with artificial tears would be a more effective treatment to improve the symptoms, increase the tear secretion and tear film stability in patients with dry eye, compared with artificial tears. However, it still needs high-quality randomized controlled trials to verify the efficacy and safety of acupuncture therapy for dry eye.%目的 评价针灸治疗干眼的临床疗效及安全性.方法 采用计算机检索、手工检索及网络补充检索方法相结合,语言限于

  1. Therapeutic efficacy of fibroblast growth factor 10 in a rabbit model of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenjing; Ma, Mingming; Du, Ergang; Zhang, Zhengwei; Jiang, Kelimu; Gu, Qing; Ke, Bilian

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of fibroblast growth factor 10 (FGF10) in the promotion of healing, survival and expression of mucin in corneal epithelial cells in a rabbit dry eye model. A total of 12 healthy female New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into three groups. The lacrimal glands were injected with saline either alone (normal control group) or with concanavalin A (Con A), with either topical phosphate‑buffered saline (PBS; PBS control group) or 25 µg/ml FGF10 (FGF10 treatment group). Lacrimal gland inflammation, tear function, corneal epithelial cell integrity, cell apoptosis and mucin expression were subsequently assessed. Lacrimal gland tissue biopsies were performed in conjunction with histology and electron microscopy observations. Tear meniscus height (TMH) and tear meniscus area (TMA) were measured using Fourier domain‑optical coherence tomography. Tear membrane break‑up time (TBUT) was also assessed and corneal fluorescein staining was performed. The percentages of apoptotic corneal and conjunctival (Cj) epithelial cells (ECs) were counted using a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling method. The mRNA expression levels of Muc1 were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analyses. The TMH and TMA values of the PBS and treatment groups were found to be significantly reduced, compared with those of the normal control group 3 days after Con A injection. However, the TMH and TMA of the FGF10 treatment group were higher, compared with those of the PBS group 3 and 7 days after treatment, respectively. Furthermore, the FGF10 treatment group exhibited prolonged TBUT, reduced corneal fluorescein staining and repaired epithelial cell ultrastructure7 days after treatment. The percentages of apoptotic corneal‑ and Cj‑ECs in the FGF10 treatment group were significantly reduced, compared with those in the PBS group. FGF10

  2. Dry eye disease and uveitis: A closer look at immune mechanisms in animal models of two ocular autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Tanima; Diedrichs-Möhring, Maria; Wildner, Gerhild

    2016-12-01

    Understanding the immunopathogenesis of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases is a prerequisite for specific and effective therapeutical intervention. This review focuses on animal models of two common ocular inflammatory diseases, dry eye disease (DED), affecting the ocular surface, and uveitis with inflammation of the inner eye. In both diseases autoimmunity plays an important role, in idiopathic uveitis immune reactivity to intraocular autoantigens is pivotal, while in dry eye disease autoimmunity seems to play a role in one subtype of disease, Sjögren' syndrome (SjS). Comparing the immune mechanisms underlying both eye diseases reveals similarities, and significant differences. Studies have shown genetic predispositions, T and B cell involvement, cytokine and chemokine signatures and signaling pathways as well as environmental influences in both DED and uveitis. Uveitis and DED are heterogeneous diseases and there is no single animal model, which adequately represents both diseases. However, there is evidence to suggest that certain T cell-targeting therapies can be used to treat both, dry eye disease and uveitis. Animal models are essential to autoimmunity research, from the basic understanding of immune mechanisms to the pre-clinical testing of potential new therapies.

  3. Rationale for anti-inflammatory therapy in dry eye syndrome Bases da terapia antiinflamatória em síndrome do olho seco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CS De Paiva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye is a multifactorial condition that results in a dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. Changes in tear composition including increased cytokines, chemokines, metalloproteinases and the number of T cells in the conjunctiva are found in dry eye patients and in animal models. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. There are several anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye that target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified and are discussed in detail.Olho seco é uma doença multifatorial que resulta em disfunção da unidade lacrimal glandular. Evidências sugerem que inflamação está involvida na patogênese da doença. Mudanças na composição das lágrimas, incluindo aumento de citocinas, quimiocinas, metaloproteinases e o número de células T na conjuntiva são encontrados em pacientes com olho seco e em modelos animais. Esta inflamação é responsável em parte pelos sintomas de irritação, doença epitelial de surperfície ocular e função epitelial de barreira alterada em olho seco. Existem várias terapias antiinflamatórias que se direcionam para um ou mais mediadores/vias que foram identificados e são discutidos em detalhe.

  4. The leaves of Diospyros kaki exert beneficial effects on a benzalkonium chloride–induced murine dry eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-A; Hyun, Lee Chung; Jung, Sang Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In this study, the beneficial effects of the oral administration of ethanol extract of Diospyros kaki (EEDK) were tested on a mouse dry eye model induced by benzalkonium chloride (BAC). Methods A solution of 0.2% BAC was administered topically to mouse eyes for 14 days, twice daily, to induce dry eye. Various concentrations of EEDK were administrated daily by oral gavage for 14 days after BAC treatment. Preservative-free eye drops were instilled in the positive-control group. The tear secretion volume (Schirmer’s test), tear break-up time (BUT), and fluorescein score were measured on the ocular surface. BAC-induced corneal damage was tested with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Moreover, apoptotic cell death in the corneal epithelial layer was investigated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The protein expression level of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) was determined with western blot analysis. Furthermore, squamous metaplasia in the corneal epithelial layer was detected with immunofluorescent staining for cytokeratine-10. The cellular proliferation in the cornea was examined with immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67. Results EEDK treatment resulted in prolonged BUT, decreased fluorescein score, increased tear volume, and smoother epithelial cells compared with BAC treatment alone in the cornea. Moreover, EEDK treatment inhibited the inflammatory response and corneal epithelial cell death in a BAC-induced murine dry eye model, and changes in squamous cells were inhibited. Proliferative activity in the corneal epithelium cells was improved with EEDK. Conclusions EEDK could be a potential therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of dry eye. PMID:27110091

  5. Nível de testosterona total em mulheres pós-menopausa com olho seco Total testosterone level in postmenopausal women with dry eye

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    Maria Cecília Barros Duarte

    2007-06-01

    level determination, and the patients were submitted to an ophthalmologic examination (emphasizing on dry eye detection and answered the OSDI (Ocular Surface Disease Index questionnaire. Five patients were excluded. Postmenopausal women were divided into three groups according to OSDI score and the ophthalmic examination. RESULTS: Five patients were classified in the no dry eye group (control, fifteen in the mild to moderate dry eye group and four in the severe dry eye group. There were no statistically significant differences regarding mean age (p=0.3915; instruction level (p=0.9333; number of comorbidities (p=0.2551; medication taken (p=0.2844 and total testosterone level among those groups (p=0.1275. CONCLUSION: Further research with a greater bigger sample is necessary to establish the relation of androgen levels in dry eye patients.

  6. Biochemical analysis of ocular surface mucin abnormalities in dry eye: the canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, S J; Corfield, A P; Kaswan, R L; Hirsh, S; Stern, M; Bara, J; Carrington, S D

    1998-12-01

    This study examines the canine model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS, 'dry eye') in order to establish the biochemical basis of altered ocular mucin secretion in this condition. It follows a previous examination of ocular mucins in the normal dog. Mucus was collected by suction from the ocular surface of dogs with KCS, and dispersed in guanidine hydrochloride containing a cocktail of protease inhibitors. Caesium chloride density gradient centrifugation was used to separate floating 'rafts' of cell membranes from gradients containing secreted mucins. Gradient fractions were collected into pools on the basis of differential staining by Periodic Acid Schiff, Wheat Germ Agglutinin, and antibodies to MUC5AC peptide. High molecular weight glycoproteins were purified from the pooled material by gel filtration chromatography. Membrane-associated glycoproteins were also derived from the membrane rafts using octyl glucoside extraction and/or reduction and alkylation. Secreted mucins and membrane extracts from KCS samples were compared to equivalent material obtained from normal eyes. Density gradient staining profiles for normal and KCS mucus were similar over the buoyant density range typical for secreted mucins, enabling the collection of identical pools of gradient fractions for direct comparison. The following differences were observed in KCS secreted mucins compared to normal samples: an increase in the proportion of mucin with low buoyant density; a decrease in mannose content detected with Concanavalin A lectin; an increase in N-acetylglucosamine structures detected with Lycopersicon esculentum lectin; increased migration and lack of evidence for distinct subunit structure on agarose gels. In membrane extracts, the main difference was the presence of T antigen (Gal beta 1-3GalNAc) in KCS. These results demonstrate alterations in the subunit linkage of mucins in KCS, and suggest that glycosylation, core protein expression and/or post-synthetic modification of ocular

  7. Sex differences in the effect of aging on dry eye disease

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    Ahn JH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jong Ho Ahn,1 Yoon-Hyeong Choi,2 Hae Jung Paik,1 Mee Kum Kim,3 Won Ryang Wee,3 Dong Hyun Kim1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Gachon University Gil Medical Center, 2Department of Preventive Medicine, Gachon University College of Medicine, Incheon, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea Purpose: Aging is a major risk factor in dry eye disease (DED, and understanding sexual differences is very important in biomedical research. However, there is little information about sex differences in the effect of aging on DED. We investigated sex differences in the effect of aging and other risk factors for DED.Methods: This study included data of 16,824 adults from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2010–2012, which is a population-based cross-sectional survey. DED was defined as the presence of frequent ocular dryness or a previous diagnosis by an ophthalmologist. Basic sociodemographic factors and previously known risk factors for DED were included in the analyses. Linear regression modeling and multivariate logistic regression modeling were used to compare the sex differences in the effect of risk factors for DED; we additionally performed tests for interactions between sex and other risk factors for DED in logistic regression models.Results: In our linear regression models, the prevalence of DED symptoms in men increased with age (R=0.311, P=0.012; however, there was no association between aging and DED in women (P>0.05. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that aging in men was not associated with DED (DED symptoms/diagnosis: odds ratio [OR] =1.01/1.04, each P>0.05, while aging in women was protectively associated with DED (DED symptoms/diagnosis: OR =0.94/0.91, P=0.011/0.003. Previous ocular surgery was significantly associated with DED in both men and women (men/women: OR =2.45/1.77 [DED symptoms] and 3.17/2.05 [DED diagnosis], each P<0.001. Tests for

  8. Eye injury treatment in intensive care unit patients

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    L. K. Moshetova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To describe eye injuries in intensive care unit (ICU patients with multitrauma, to study conjunctival microflora in these patients, and to develop etiologically and pathogenically targeted treatment and prevention of wound complications.Materials and methods. Study group included 50 patients (54 eyes with combined mechanical cerebral and eye injury. All patients underwent possible ophthalmological examination (biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy and ocular fundus photographing with portative fundus camera, tonometry, cranial CT and MRT, and bacteriological study of conjunctival smears. Results. Modern methods of ophthalmological examination of ICU patients provided correct diagnosis and prediction of wound healing. Eye injury treatment schedule provided maximum possible results in all ICU patients. Hospitalacquired infection results in asymptomatic dissemination of pathogenic microbes on ocular surface. Conclusions. 14-day topical treatment with antimicrobials, steroids, and NSAIDs reduces posttraumatic inflammation caused by mechanical eye injuries in ICU patients. Bacteriological studies of conjunctival smears demonstrate the presence of pathogenic flora in ICU patients. In these patients, the most effective antibacterial agents are third-generation fluoroquinolones. 

  9. Eye injury treatment in intensive care unit patients

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    L. K. Moshetova

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To describe eye injuries in intensive care unit (ICU patients with multitrauma, to study conjunctival microflora in these patients, and to develop etiologically and pathogenically targeted treatment and prevention of wound complications.Materials and methods. Study group included 50 patients (54 eyes with combined mechanical cerebral and eye injury. All patients underwent possible ophthalmological examination (biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy and ocular fundus photographing with portative fundus camera, tonometry, cranial CT and MRT, and bacteriological study of conjunctival smears. Results. Modern methods of ophthalmological examination of ICU patients provided correct diagnosis and prediction of wound healing. Eye injury treatment schedule provided maximum possible results in all ICU patients. Hospitalacquired infection results in asymptomatic dissemination of pathogenic microbes on ocular surface. Conclusions. 14-day topical treatment with antimicrobials, steroids, and NSAIDs reduces posttraumatic inflammation caused by mechanical eye injuries in ICU patients. Bacteriological studies of conjunctival smears demonstrate the presence of pathogenic flora in ICU patients. In these patients, the most effective antibacterial agents are third-generation fluoroquinolones. 

  10. Follow up of dry eye after cataract phacoemalsification%白内障超声乳化术后干眼的观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈淑娟; 马文平; 贾改娟

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe changes of dry eye after cataract phacoemalsification surgery.Methods Prospective non-randomized study. Forty-eight eyes from 48 patients without preoperative dry eye were involved. Dry eye symptoms score, tear break-up time(t BUT) and Schirmer Ⅰ test ( ST-Ⅰ ) were measured before surgery and 7 days, 1 month, 3 months after surgery. Operation time under microscope and phacoemusification time were record. Statistical analyses were performed. Results Four cases were lost to follow up,two cases withdrew,and forty-two cases completed follow up. Symtoms score at 7 days postoperatively increased significantly compared with the preoperative values ( P 0. 05). Tear break-up time at any postoperative timepoint were worse than preoperative values (P 0. 05). Significant correlation was noted between symptoms score, tBUT, ST- Ⅰ at any postoperative timepoint and operation time under microscope. There was no correlation between symptoms score, tBUT,ST- Ⅰ at any postoperative timepoint and phacoemusification time. Conclusion Dry eye may occur after cataract surgery. Dry eye symptoms, tear film stability and tear secretory valume are worse in early postoperative period, and dry eye symptoms and tear secretory valume are gradually restored with time, while tear film stability is still less at 3 months postoperativly. Operation time under microscope may have an adverse effect on dry eye.%目的 观察白内障超声乳化术后干眼变化.方法 前瞻性非随机研究,符合条件的术前非干眼的白内障手术48例(48眼),均行11点位角膜缘隧道切口的超声乳化吸出联合人工晶状体植入术.记录手术持续时间、超声能量时间,手术前及手术后(7 d、1个月、3个月)进行干眼的症状评分,检测泪膜破裂时间(tBUT)、Schirmer Ⅰ试验(ST-Ⅰ).结果 失访4例,退出2例,完成随访者42例42眼;术后7 d症状评分较术前显著增加(P0.05);术后7 d、1个月、3个月tBUT与

  11. Evaluation of a Novel Artificial Tear in the Prevention and Treatment of Dry Eye in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Yujing; Li, Jinyang; Xiao, Bing; Lu, Huihui; Liu, Haixia; Simmons, Peter A; Vehige, Joseph G; Chen, Wei

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate effects of a novel multi-ingredient artificial tear formulation containing carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and hyaluronic acid (HA) in a murine dry eye model. Dry eye was induced in mice (C57BL/6) using an intelligently controlled environmental system (ICES). CMC+HA (Optive Fusion™), CMC-only (Refresh Tears(®)), and HA-only (Hycosan(®)) artificial tears and control phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) were administered 4 times daily and compared with no treatment (n = 64 eyes per group). During regimen 1 (prevention regimen), mice were administered artificial tears or PBS for 14 days (starting day 0) while they were exposed to ICES, and assessed on days 0 and 14. During regimen 2 (treatment regimen), mice exposed to ICES for 14 days with no intervention were administered artificial tears or PBS for 14 days (starting day 14) while continuing exposure to ICES, and assessed on days 0, 14, and 28. Corneal fluorescein staining and conjunctival goblet cell density were measured. Artificial tear-treated mice had significantly better outcomes than control groups on corneal staining and goblet cell density (P < 0.01). Mice administered CMC+HA also showed significantly lower corneal fluorescein staining and higher goblet cell density, compared with CMC (P < 0.01) and HA (P < 0.05) in both regimens 1 and 2. The artificial tear formulation containing CMC and HA was effective in preventing and treating environmentally induced dry eye. Improvements observed for corneal fluorescein staining and conjunctival goblet cell retention suggest that this combination may be a viable treatment option for dry eye disease.

  12. Comprehensive Review of the Literature on Existing Punctal Plugs for the Management of Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehangir, Naz; Bever, Greg; Mahmood, S M Jafar; Moshirfar, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Numerous designs of punctal and canalicular plugs are available on the market. This variety presents challenges to ophthalmologists when choosing punctal plugs for the management of various ocular conditions. The aim of this literature review is to provide a classification system for lacrimal occlusive devices based on their location and duration of action as well as to identify different characteristics of each one of them. We want to give a comprehensive overview on punctal and canalicular plugs including their manufacturing companies, indications, and complications that have been reported in various articles. PubMed and Google Scholar were used to identify articles written in English as well as few articles written in Japanese, Chinese, Slovak, and Spanish that had abstracts in English. Nine different companies that manufacture punctal and canalicular plugs were identified and their plugs were included in this review. Punctal and canalicular plugs are used in the management of various ocular conditions including dry eye disease and punctal stenosis as well as in ocular drug delivery. Although they are a relatively safe option, associated complications have been reported in the literature such as infection, allergic reaction, extrusion, and migration.

  13. Comprehensive Review of the Literature on Existing Punctal Plugs for the Management of Dry Eye Disease

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    Naz Jehangir

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous designs of punctal and canalicular plugs are available on the market. This variety presents challenges to ophthalmologists when choosing punctal plugs for the management of various ocular conditions. The aim of this literature review is to provide a classification system for lacrimal occlusive devices based on their location and duration of action as well as to identify different characteristics of each one of them. We want to give a comprehensive overview on punctal and canalicular plugs including their manufacturing companies, indications, and complications that have been reported in various articles. PubMed and Google Scholar were used to identify articles written in English as well as few articles written in Japanese, Chinese, Slovak, and Spanish that had abstracts in English. Nine different companies that manufacture punctal and canalicular plugs were identified and their plugs were included in this review. Punctal and canalicular plugs are used in the management of various ocular conditions including dry eye disease and punctal stenosis as well as in ocular drug delivery. Although they are a relatively safe option, associated complications have been reported in the literature such as infection, allergic reaction, extrusion, and migration.

  14. Comparison of telomere length and association with progenitor cell markers in lacrimal gland between Sjögren syndrome and non-Sjögren syndrome dry eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Maida, Yoshiko; Kamoi, Mizuka; Ogawa, Yoko; Shimmura, Shigeto; Masutomi, Kenkichi; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2011-01-01

    Indicators of aging such as disruption of telomeric function due to shortening may be more frequent in dysfunctional lacrimal gland. The aims of this study were to 1) determine the viability of quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization of telomeres (telo-FISH) for the assessment of telomere length in lacrimal gland in Sjögren and non- Sjögren syndrome patients; and 2) investigate the relationship between progenitor cell markers and telomere length in both groups. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization with a peptide nucleic acid probe complementary to the telomere repeat sequence was performed on frozen sections from human lacrimal gland tissues. The mean fluorescence intensity of telomere spots was automatically quantified by image analysis as relative telomere length in lacrimal gland epithelial cells. Immunostaining for p63, nucleostemin, ATP-binding cassette, sub-family G, member 2 (ABCG2), and nestin was also performed. Telomere intensity in the Sjögren syndrome group (6,785.0±455) was significantly lower than that in the non-Sjögren syndrome group (7,494.7±477; p=0.02). Among the samples from the non-Sjögren syndrome group, immunostaining revealed that p63 was expressed in 1-3 acinar cells in each acinar unit and continuously in the basal layer of duct cells. In contrast, in the Sjögren syndrome group, p63 and nucleostemin showed a lower level of expression. ABCG2 was expressed in acinar cells in both sjogren and non-Sjogren syndrome. The results of this study indicate that 1) telo-FISH is a viable method of assessing telomere length in lacrimal gland, and 2) telomere length in Sjögren syndrome is shorter and associated with lower levels of expression of p63 and nucleostemin than in non-Sjögren syndrome.

  15. Inflammation in dry eye associated with rheumatoid arthritis: cytokine and in vivo confocal microscopy study.

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    Villani, Edoardo; Galimberti, Daniela; Del Papa, Nicoletta; Nucci, Paolo; Ratiglia, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to study ocular surface inflammation in relation to systemic disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients with or without secondary Sjögren's syndrome (SSII and non-SSII respectively). The study was conducted in two phases. In phase I, 12 patients with active RA SSII and 12 with active RA non-SSII were consecutively enrolled. Each completed an Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire and underwent a full eye exam and in vivo confocal microscopy examination of the cornea. Tear fluid samples were collected in sponges and analyzed for IL-1α, -6, and -8, and TNF-α. When RA activity was suppressed by systemic treatment the patients entered phase II of the study in which all of the phase I examinations were repeated. In RA SSII patients, OSDI, fluorescein staining dendritic cell density, and concentrations of IL-1α and IL-6 decreased significantly (P < 0.01) between phases I and II. Tear breakup time scores increased significantly. For RA non-SSII patients, there were no significant differences between phases I and II. Differences in the clinical, cellular and cytokine responsiveness to systemic RA treatments show that the ocular surface pathology is dissimilar for RA SSII and RA non-SSII patients.

  16. Doctor-Shopping Behavior among Patients with Eye Floaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Gow-Lieng; Chen, Cheng-Yu

    2015-07-13

    Patients suffering from eye floaters often resort to consulting more than one ophthalmologist. The purpose of this study, using the Health Belief Model (HBM), was to identify the factors that influence doctor-shopping behavior among patients with eye floaters. In this cross-sectional survey, 175 outpatients who presented floaters symptoms were enrolled. Data from 143 patients (77 first time visitors and 66 doctor-shoppers) who completed the questionnaire were analyzed. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. We found that women and non-myopia patients were significantly related with frequent attendance and doctor switching. Though the HBM has performed well in a number of health behaviors studies, but most of the conceptual constructors of HBM did not show significant differences between the first time visitors and true doctor-shoppers in this study. Motivation was the only significant category affecting doctor-shopping behavior of patients with eye floaters.

  17. Doctor-Shopping Behavior among Patients with Eye Floaters

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    Gow-Lieng Tseng

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering from eye floaters often resort to consulting more than one ophthalmologist. The purpose of this study, using the Health Belief Model (HBM, was to identify the factors that influence doctor-shopping behavior among patients with eye floaters. In this cross-sectional survey, 175 outpatients who presented floaters symptoms were enrolled. Data from 143 patients (77 first time visitors and 66 doctor-shoppers who completed the questionnaire were analyzed. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. We found that women and non-myopia patients were significantly related with frequent attendance and doctor switching. Though the HBM has performed well in a number of health behaviors studies, but most of the conceptual constructors of HBM did not show significant differences between the first time visitors and true doctor-shoppers in this study. Motivation was the only significant category affecting doctor-shopping behavior of patients with eye floaters.

  18. Experiencing health care service quality: through patients' eyes.

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    Schembri, Sharon

    2015-02-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to consider health care service quality from the patients' perspective, specifically through the patient's eyes. A narrative analysis was performed on 300 patient stories. This rigorous analysis of patient stories is designed to identify and describe health care service quality through patients' eyes in an authentic and accurate, experiential manner. The findings show that there are variant and complex ways that patients experience health care service quality. Patient stories offer an authentic view of the complex ways that patients experience health care service quality. Narrative analysis is a useful tool to identify and describe how patients experience health care service quality. Patients experience health care service quality in complex and varying ways.

  19. Effect of topical olopatadine and epinastine in the botulinum toxin B-induced mouse model of dry eye.

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    Lekhanont, Kaevalin; Park, Choul Yong; Combs, Juan Castro; Suwan-Apichon, Olan; Rangsin, Ram; Chuck, Roy S

    2007-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of topical olopatadine, epinastine, and lubricant eye drops on dry eye ocular surface disease in the botulinum toxin B (BTX-B)-induced mouse model of keratoconjunctivitis sicca. CBA/J mice were randomized into 3 experimental groups of 10 animals each. All mice received a transconjunctival injection of 0.05 mL of 20-mU BTX-B solutions into the left lacrimal gland. Three (3) days after intralacrimal gland injections, each group received treatment with twice-daily topical lubricant as a control, 0.1% olopatadine, or 0.05% epinastine eye drops. To monitor the progression of dry eye tear production, an ocular surface fluorescein staining score was evaluated in each of the 3 experimental groups. Three (3) days after the intralacrimal gland injection of BTX-B, aqueous tear production was significantly decreased (1.95+/-0.64 mm), compared to baseline level (2.69+/-0.66 mm; Pproduction between the 3 different medication groups at all time points. Aqueous tear production in neither the olopatadine nor the epinastine-challenged groups was further decreased compared to the lubricant-treated group. Difference in the proportion of mice with a low- and high corneal staining score between the control and study groups did not reach statistical significance throughout the 4-week experimental period. In addition, changes in corneal fluorescein staining of the olopatadine group versus the epinastine group did not show a statistically significant difference. Topical olopatadine and epinastine do not cause significantly additional damage to the compromised ocular surface secondary to dry eye after continuous 4-week, twice-daily application. Topical olopatadine and epinastine appear to have comparable effects on aqueous tear-production and corneal-surface changes in this mouse model.

  20. 糖尿病对干眼症白内障超声乳化术后泪膜的影响%Effect of diabetes on ocular surface and tear film of dry-eye patients treated with phacoemulsification for cataract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕芳; 龙潭

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of diabetes on ocular surface and tear film of dry-eye patients treated with phacoemulsification for cataract. Methods:All dry-eye patients with cataract were divided into the diabetes group and the control group. The differences of break-up time(BUT),Shirmer Ι test,the scores of symptom and dyeing were compared between the two groups. Results:No significant difference was found between two groups in age,sex,cumulative energy divergence and priming time in operation,as well as BUT,ShirmerⅠtest,the scores of symptom and dyeing(P ﹥ 0. 05). The difference of BUT in the diabetes group is shorter than that in the control group after three-month surgery(P ﹤ 0. 05), while it was not significant after one - week and one-month surgery(P ﹥ 0. 05). No significant difference of Shirmer Ι test was found between the two groups in any monitoring point(P ﹥ 0. 05). The significant difference of the scores of symptom between two groups was found both after one-month surgery and three-month surgery(P ﹤ 0. 05),while not after one-week surgery(P ﹥ 0. 05). The significant difference of the scores of dyeing between the two groups was found after three-month surgery(P ﹤ 0. 05),while not after one-week surgery and one-month surgery(P ﹥ 0. 05). Conclusion:Diabetes may delay the rehabilitation of ocular surface and tear film in dry-eye patients treated with phacoemulsification for cataract.%目的:观察糖尿病对合并干眼症的白内障患者行超声乳化术后泪膜及眼表的影响。方法选取欲行白内障超声乳化手术的干眼症患者,分为糖尿病组和对照组。比较两组患者术后泪膜破裂时间( break-up time, BUT)、泪液分泌实验(Shirmer Ⅰ)、症状评分和染色评分。结果两组患者术前年龄、性别、手术中累计发散能量和灌注时间无显著性差异(P ﹥0.05),术前 BUT、Shirmer Ⅰ、症状评分和染色评分无显著性差异(P ﹥0.05

  1. Automated Grading System for Evaluation of Corneal Superficial Punctate Keratitis Associated with Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, John D; Lane, Keith; Ousler, George W; Angjeli, Endri; Smith, Lisa; Abelson, Mark

    2015-03-03

    Purpose. To develop an automated method of grading fluorescein staining that accurately reproduces the clinical grading system currently in use. Methods. From the slit lamp photograph of the fluorescein-stained cornea, the region of interest was selected and punctate dot number calculated using software developed with the Opencv computer vision library. Images (N=229) were then divided into six incremental severity categories based on computed scores. The final selection of fifty-four photographs represented the full range of scores: nine images from each of six categories. These were then evaluated by three investigators using a clinical 0-4 corneal staining scale. Pearson correlations were calculated to compare investigator scores, and mean investigator and automated scores. Lin's Concordance Correlations (CCC) and Bland Altman plots were used to assess agreement between methods and between investigators. Results. Pearson's correlation between investigators was 0.914; mean CCC between investigators was 0.882. Bland-Altman analysis indicated that scores assessed by Investigator 3 were significantly higher than those of Investigators 1 and 2 (paired t-test). The predicted grade was calculated to be: Gpred=1.48log(Ndots) - 0.206. The two-point Pearson's correlation coefficient between the methods was 0.927 (p<0.0001). CCC between predicted automated score Gpred and mean investigator score was 0.929, 95% C.I. (0.884, 0.957). Bland-Altman analysis did not indicate bias. The difference in standard deviation between clinical and automated methods was 0.398. Conclusion. An objective, automated analysis of corneal staining provides a quality assurance tool to be used to substantiate clinical grading of key corneal staining endpoints in multi-centered clinical trials of dry eye.

  2. Study on the expression of inflammatory factors in the botulium toxin B-induced rats dry eye model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai Zhao

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore the changes of macrophage migration inhibitory factor(MIF, interleukin 1(IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-αlevels in the botulium toxin B-induced murine dry eye model.METHODS: The rats were randomly divided into two groups, 20 mice received injection of botulium toxin B(0.1mL, and 10 mice were injected physiological saline(0.1mL. Schirmer I test, corneal fluorescein staining and the levels of MIF, IL-6,TNF-α were performed before and 3, 7, 28, 42 days after injection. The levels of MIF, IL-6, TNF-α were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA.RESULTS: The tear production was significantly decreased at 4 points and the corneal fluorescein staining increased at 5 points in BTX-B-injected mice compared with control mice. In the BTX-B-injected mice, the level of IL-1β increased significantly at the 3 days and 1, 4, 6 week, and the level of MIF in lacrimal gland increased significantly since the 4th week compared with control mice. The level of TNF-α has no difference between the two groups.CONCLUSION: Injection botulium toxin B can successfully established the mice model of dry eye. This model has the characteristic changes of the expression of inflammatory factors, which is an ideal animal model for dry eye experiment.

  3. Lacrimal proline rich 4 (LPRR4 protein in the tear fluid is a potential biomarker of dry eye syndrome.

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    Saijyothi Venkata Aluru

    Full Text Available Dry eye syndrome (DES is a complex, multifactorial, immune-associated disorder of the tear and ocular surface. DES with a high prevalence world over needs identification of potential biomarkers so as to understand not only the disease mechanism but also to identify drug targets. In this study we looked for differentially expressed proteins in tear samples of DES to arrive at characteristic biomarkers. As part of a prospective case-control study, tear specimen were collected using Schirmer strips from 129 dry eye cases and 73 age matched controls. 2D electrophoresis (2DE and Differential gel electrophoresis (DIGE was done to identify differentially expressed proteins. One of the differentially expressed protein in DES is lacrimal proline rich 4 protein (LPRR4. LPRR4 protein expression was quantified by enzyme immune sorbent assay (ELISA. LPRR4 was down regulated significantly in all types of dry eye cases, correlating with the disease severity as measured by clinical investigations. Further characterization of the protein is required to assess its therapeutic potential in DES.

  4. Eye movements during visual search in patients with glaucoma

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    Smith Nicholas D

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glaucoma has been shown to lead to disability in many daily tasks including visual search. This study aims to determine whether the saccadic eye movements of people with glaucoma differ from those of people with normal vision, and to investigate the association between eye movements and impaired visual search. Methods Forty patients (mean age: 67 [SD: 9] years with a range of glaucomatous visual field (VF defects in both eyes (mean best eye mean deviation [MD]: –5.9 (SD: 5.4 dB and 40 age-related people with normal vision (mean age: 66 [SD: 10] years were timed as they searched for a series of target objects in computer displayed photographs of real world scenes. Eye movements were simultaneously recorded using an eye tracker. Average number of saccades per second, average saccade amplitude and average search duration across trials were recorded. These response variables were compared with measurements of VF and contrast sensitivity. Results The average rate of saccades made by the patient group was significantly smaller than the number made by controls during the visual search task (P = 0.02; mean reduction of 5.6% (95% CI: 0.1 to 10.4%. There was no difference in average saccade amplitude between the patients and the controls (P = 0.09. Average number of saccades was weakly correlated with aspects of visual function, with patients with worse contrast sensitivity (PR logCS; Spearman’s rho: 0.42; P = 0.006 and more severe VF defects (best eye MD; Spearman’s rho: 0.34; P = 0.037 tending to make less eye movements during the task. Average detection time in the search task was associated with the average rate of saccades in the patient group (Spearman’s rho = −0.65; P  Conclusions The average rate of saccades made during visual search by this group of patients was fewer than those made by people with normal vision of a similar average age. There was wide variability in saccade rate in the patients

  5. Social marketing potential of qualitative cost-free-to-patient eye care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Social marketing potential of qualitative cost-free-to-patient eye care program ... socio-demographic factors, source of awareness about the eye care program, ... care personnel and overall assessment of the eye care program was carried out.

  6. When your eye patient is a child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Chandna

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this issue of the journal, we address the eye health needs of young children, focusing on those aged less than six years old. All of you who have tried to examine or measure the visual acuity of young children will know that this can be very challenging and difficult; it can be very tempting to give up and send the child home, particularly if the clinic is busy. We hope that, after reading this edition of the journal and putting into practice some of the practical suggestions, you will feel more confident in managing young children. Also, if referral is needed, you will have a better idea of the degree of urgency required and how this should be communicated to parents.

  7. Simulations of Keratoconus Patient Vision with Optical Eye Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bo; Chen, Ying-Ling; Lewis, J. W. L.; Shi, Lei; Wang, Ming

    2007-11-01

    Keratoconus (KC) is an eye condition that involves progressive corneal thinning. Pushed by the intraocular pressure, the weakened cornea bulges outward and creates an irregular surface shape. The result is degraded vision that is difficult to correct with regular eye glasses or contact lens. In this study we use the optical lens design software, ZeMax, and patient data including cornea topography and refraction prescription to construct KC eye models. The variation of KC ``cone height'' on the cornea is used to simulate KC progression. The consequent patients' night vision and Snellen letter chart vision at 20 feet are simulated using these anatomically accurate 3-dimensional models. 100 million rays are traced for each image simulation. Animated results illustrate the change of KC visual acuity with the progression of disease. This simulation technique provides a comprehensive tool for medical training and patient consultation/education.

  8. Prosthetic eye rehabilitation and management of completely blind patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatamleh, Muhanad M; Haylock, Colin; Hollows, Philip; Richmond, Andrew; Watson, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Facial prostheses aim to restore the appearance, contours, and esthetics of the face while consequently enhancing patients' self-esteem and reintegration into social life. Restoring unilateral missing ocular and orbital tissues is a challenging task that requires great skill from the clinician (anaplastologist) to accurately mimic the opposing natural tissues. Bilateral defects present additional technical and clinical challenges for clinicians and patients alike. This article presents two cases involving restoration of the ocular and orbital components of bilaterally blind patients. The first case comprised the construction of indwelling scleral eye shells for both eyes, while the second comprised left orbital (implant-retained) and right indwelling eye shell prostheses. Custom-made bilaterally indwelling eyes are more esthetically pleasing than stock options and show better fit and comfort following conventional impression techniques. Clinical challenges include impression taking, prosthesis fabrication, identification of the correct orientation into the socket, communication with the patient, and satisfaction of patient expectations. Since both patients were blind, their families played a vital role in describing their prostheses and thus in improving the patients' self-esteem and satisfaction with treatment.

  9. Keep An Eye Out For Myasthenia Gravis Patients With An Eye Out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Arturo eLeis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Eye trauma and blindness are common in the United States, with an incidence of over 2 million cases per year and 25 million blind adults, respectively. However, literature is surprisingly scarce on the potential confounding effect of eye trauma or blindness on the diagnosis of myasthenia gravis (MG, an autoimmune neuromuscular disease in which fluctuating ocular symptoms are the most distinguishing feature. We present the case of a 75 year-old man with eye enucleation referred for electrodiagnostic evaluation of the right upper limb after an accidental fall. Neurological examination showed proximal muscle weakness, but MG was not initially considered because the patient lacked the classic ocular symptoms of MG. The delay in diagnosis resulted in worsening of systemic MG symptoms, although in other patients it may have precipitated MG crisis or possibly death. Greater awareness that eye trauma or blindness can prevent expression of ocular symptoms in neuromuscular disorders is needed to avoid morbidity associated with an erroneous or delayed diagnosis.

  10. A mass and solute balance model for tear volume and osmolarity in the normal and the dry eye

    KAUST Repository

    Gaffney, E.A.

    2010-01-01

    Tear hyperosmolarity is thought to play a key role in the mechanism of dry eye, a common symptomatic condition accompanied by visual disturbance, tear film instability, inflammation and damage to the ocular surface. We have constructed a model for the mass and solute balance of the tears, with parameter estimation based on extensive data from the literature which permits the influence of tear evaporation, lacrimal flux and blink rate on tear osmolarity to be explored. In particular the nature of compensatory events has been estimated in aqueous-deficient (ADDE) and evaporative (EDE) dry eye. The model reproduces observed osmolarities of the tear meniscus for the healthy eye and predicts a higher concentration in the tear film than meniscus in normal and dry eye states. The differential is small in the normal eye, but is significantly increased in dry eye, especially for the simultaneous presence of high meniscus concentration and low meniscus radius. This may influence the interpretation of osmolarity values obtained from meniscus samples since they need not fully reflect potential damage to the ocular surface caused by tear film hyperosmolarity. Interrogation of the model suggests that increases in blink rate may play a limited role in compensating for a rise in tear osmolarity in ADDE but that an increase in lacrimal flux, together with an increase in blink rate, may delay the development of hyperosmolarity in EDE. Nonetheless, it is predicted that tear osmolarity may rise to much higher levels in EDE than ADDE before the onset of tear film breakup, in the absence of events at the ocular surface which would independently compromise tear film stability. Differences in the predicted responses of the pre-ocular tears in ADDE compared to EDE or hybrid disease to defined conditions suggest that no single, empirically-accessible variable can act as a surrogate for tear film concentration and the potential for ocular surface damage. This emphasises the need to measure

  11. 我国干眼问卷的研制及评估%Development and assessment of a dry eye questionnaire applicable to the Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵慧; 刘祖国; 杨文照; 肖辛野; 陈景尧; 李奇渊; 钟桃玲

    2015-01-01

    on literature review and clinical practice,a dry eye questionnaire was developed and optimized to apply to Chinese dry eye patients in the language expression and culture background.Participants (78 patients with dry eye and 82 controls) completed the dry eye questionnaire and the ocular surface disease index (OSDI) questionnaire,and ophthalmic examinations were performed,including slit lamp examination,tear breakup time,fluorescein staining,Schirmer I test and meibomian gland assessment.The original questionnaire was optimized with factor analysis according to the answers from respondents and clinical evaluations.The Cronbach αand intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used to evaluate the internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability.Factor analysis was used to assess the construct validity,concurrent validity was obtained by Spearman correlation analysis,and discriminant validity was obtained by ANOVA and Wilcoxon rank sum test.Receiver operator characteristics curves were generated to identify the sensitivity and specificity of each questionnaire for diagnosis of dry eye.Results The questionnaire was optimized to 12 items by factor analysis.The response rate from respondents to the dry eye questionnaire and the OSDI was 100% and 91.25%,respectively.The Cronbachαof the dry eye questionnaire and the OSDI was 0.794 and 0.925,respectively,whilst the ICC of both questionnaires was 0.99,indicating good to excellent rehability.The factor analysis suggested that these two questionnaires had good construct validity.The Spearman correlation analysis indicated that the dry eye questionnaire score correlated positively with the OSDI score(r=0.812,P<0.01)and had a greater correlation relationship with the clinical evaluations compared with the OSDI score(r for each was 0.613 and 0.605,P<0.01).The discriminant validity analysis suggested that there was significant difference in the dry eye questionnaire score between the dry eye group and non-dry

  12. A Randomized Multicenter Study Comparing 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.3% Sodium Hyaluronate with 0.05% Cyclosporine in the Treatment of Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yuli; Song, Jong Suk; Choi, Chul Young; Yoon, Kyung Chul; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: To investigate the efficacy of 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.3% sodium hyaluronate (SH) artificial tears compared with 0.05% cyclosporine (CS) ophthalmic solution for the treatment of dry eye. Methods: One hundred seventy-six patients were recruited and randomized to receive of 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.3% SH and 0.05% CS. There was a primary end point which is the changes in the fluorescein corneal staining (FCS) score to determine noninferiority of 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.3% SH. Secondary objective end points were lissamine green conjunctival staining (LGCS) scores, Schirmer test, and tear film break-up time (TBUT). Secondary subjective end point was ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score. These were evaluated before treatment and 6 and 12 weeks after start of treatment. Results: In the primary analysis, the mean change from baseline in FCS scores verified noninferiority of 0.1% and 0.15% SH to 0.05% CS and also indicated significant improvement of all groups (P scores, and OSDI scores showed significant improvements in all groups (P scores in the 0.15% SH group showed a significant tendency for better improvement at week 12 compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). No serious adverse events were observed. Conclusions: Administration of 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.3% SH was effective in improving both the objective signs and subjective symptoms of dry eye. Those findings, in addition to the well-tolerated profile of 0.1%, 0.15%, and 0.3% SH, show that it is effective therapeutic method for dry eye. PMID:27929721

  13. Proteomic analysis of tears following acupuncture treatment for menopausal dry eye disease by two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingyu; Liu, Junling; Ren, Chengda; Cai, Wenting; Wei, Qingquan; Song, Yi; Yu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate whether acupuncture is effective at treating dry eye disease among postmenopausal women and to identify the possible mechanisms. Methods Twenty-eight postmenopausal women with dry eye disease were randomly divided into two groups: an acupuncture plus artificial tears (AC + AT) group and an artificial tears (AT) only group. After baseline examination of clinical parameters and tear sample collection, each patient received the designated modality of topical therapy for 2 months. Post-treatment documentation of clinical parameters was recorded, and tear samples were collected. Tear samples from the AC + AT group were subjected to two-dimensional nano-liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (2D nano-LC-MS/MS). Western blot analysis was also performed on tear samples from both groups. Results After treatment, the Ocular Surface Disease Index scores, symptom assessment scores, scores of sign assessment, and tear break-up time were significantly improved in both groups (P=0.000). Symptom assessment scores were significantly improved in the AC + AT group (P=0.000) compared with the AT group. 2D nano-LC-MS/MS identified 2,411 proteins, among which 142 were downregulated and 169 were upregulated. After combined AC + AT treatment, the abundance of secreted proteins was increased, whereas that of cytoplasmic proteins decreased (Pearson’s χ2 test, P=0.000, P=0.000, respectively). Proteins involved in immunity and regulation were also more abundant (Pearson’s χ2 test, P=0.040, P=0.016, respectively), while components and proliferation-related proteins were downregulated (Pearson’s χ2 test, P=0.003, P=0.011, respectively). Conclusion AC + AT treatment increased protein synthesis and secretion, and improved clinical symptoms. These results indicate that acupuncture may be a complimentary therapy for treating postmenopausal dry eye disease. PMID:28280333

  14. Eye movements of patients with schizophrenia in a natural environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowiasch, Stefan; Backasch, Bianca; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Leube, Dirk; Kircher, Tilo; Bremmer, Frank

    2016-02-01

    Alterations of eye movements in schizophrenia patients have been widely described for laboratory settings. For example, gain during smooth tracking is reduced, and fixation patterns differ between patients and healthy controls. The question remains, whether such results are related to the specifics of the experimental environment, or whether they transfer to natural settings. Twenty ICD-10 diagnosed schizophrenia patients and 20 healthy age-matched controls participated in the study, each performing four different oculomotor tasks corresponding to natural everyday behavior in an indoor environment: (I) fixating stationary targets, (II) sitting in a hallway with free gaze, (III) walking down the hallway, and (IV) visually tracking a target on the floor while walking straight-ahead. In all conditions, eye movements were continuously recorded binocularly by a mobile lightweight eye tracker (EyeSeeCam). When patients looked at predefined targets, they showed more fixations with reduced durations than controls. The opposite was true when participants were sitting in a hallway with free gaze. During visual tracking, patients showed a significantly greater root-mean-square error (representing the mean deviation from optimal) of retinal target velocity. Different from previous results on smooth-pursuit eye movements obtained in laboratory settings, no such difference was found for velocity gain. Taken together, we have identified significant differences in fundamental oculomotor parameters between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls during natural behavior in a real environment. Moreover, our data provide evidence that in natural settings, patients overcome some impairments, which might be present only in laboratory studies, by as of now unknown compensatory mechanisms or strategies.

  15. Low Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels Are Associated with Dry Eye Syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Young Yoon

    Full Text Available Dry eye syndrome (DES is a common tear film and ocular surface disease that results in discomfort, visual disturbance, and tear film instability with potential damage to the ocular surface. Systemic diseases associated with DES include diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, anxiety, thyroid disease, allergic diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, chronic pain syndrome, and hyperlipidemia. Interestingly, it has been found that most of these are associated with low levels of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OHD or inadequate sunlight exposure.In this cross-sectional data analysis, noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥19 years (N = 17,542 who participated in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2012 were included. Information regarding duration of sunlight exposure was collected from the survey participants. Serum 25(OHD and zinc levels were measured. The confounding variables were age, gender, sunlight exposure time, region of residence, obesity, serum 25(OHD level, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, thyroid disorder, atopic dermatitis, history of ocular surgery, regular exercise, and walking exercise.Mean serum 25(OHD levels of subjects with and without DES were 16.90 ± 6.0 and 17.52 ± 6.07 (p<0.001. Inadequate sunlight exposure time (odds ratio [OR], 1.554; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.307-1.848, urban residence (OR, 1.669; 95% CI, 1.456-1.913, indoor occupation (OR, 1.578; 95% CI, 1.389-1.814, and low serum 25(OHD level (OR, 1.158; 95% CI, 1.026-1.308 were the risk factors for DES. After adjusting for age, sex, obesity, diabetes mellitus, rheumatoid arthritis, depression, thyroid disorder, atopic dermatitis, history of ocular surgery, regular exercise, and occupation, low serum 25(OHD level (OR, 1.178; 95% CI, 1.010-1.372 and deficient sunlight exposure time (OR, 1.383; 95% CI, 1.094-1.749 were the risk factors for diagnosed DES.Low serum 25(OHD levels and inadequate sunlight exposure are

  16. Effect of Oral Re-esterified Omega-3 Nutritional Supplementation on Dry Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnenfeld, Eric D.; Shah, Zubin A.; Holland, Edward J.; Gross, Michael; Faulkner, William J.; Matossian, Cynthia; Lane, Stephen S.; Toyos, Melissa; Bucci, Frank A.; Perry, Henry D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effect of oral re-esterified omega-3 fatty acids on tear osmolarity, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tear break-up time (TBUT), Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI), fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer score, meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) stage and omega-3 index in subjects with dry eyes and confirmed MGD. Methods: This was a multicenter, prospective, interventional, placebo-controlled, double-masked study. Subjects were randomized to receive 4 softgels containing a total of 1680 mg of eicosapentaenoic acid/560 mg of docosahexaenoic acid or a control of 3136 mg of linoleic acid, daily for 12 weeks. Subjects were measured at baseline, week 6, and week 12 for tear osmolarity, TBUT, OSDI, fluorescein corneal staining, and Schirmer test with anesthesia. MMP-9 testing and omega-3 index were done at baseline and at 12 weeks. Results: One hundred five subjects completed the study. They were randomized to omega-3 (n = 54) and control group (n = 51). Statistically significant reduction in tear osmolarity was observed in the omega-3 group versus control group at week 6 (−16.8 ± 2.6 vs. −9.0 ± 2.7 mOsm/L, P = 0.042) and week 12 (−19.4 ± 2.7 vs. −8.3 ± 2.8 mOsm/L, P = 0.004). At 12 weeks, a statistically significant increase in omega-3 index levels (P < 0.001) and TBUT (3.5 ± 0.5 s vs. 1.2 ± 0.5 s, P = 0.002) was also observed. Omega-3 group experienced a significant reduction in MMP-9 positivity versus control group (67.9% vs. 35.0%, P = 0.024) and OSDI scores decreased significantly in omega-3 (−17.0 ± 2.6) versus control group (−5.0 ± 2.7, P = 0.002). Conclusions: Oral consumption of re-esterified omega-3 fatty acids is associated with statistically significant improvement in tear osmolarity, omega-3 index levels, TBUT, MMP-9, and OSDI symptom scores. PMID:27442314

  17. Dietary Supplementation with a Combination of Lactoferrin, Fish Oil, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 for Treating Dry Eye: A Rat Model and Human Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Motoko; Nakamura, Shigeru; Izuta, Yusuke; Inoue, Sachiko; Tsubota, Kazuo

    2016-04-01

    To examine the effect of a combined dietary supplement containing fish oil, lactoferrin, zinc, vitamin C, lutein, vitamin E, γ-aminobutanoic acid, and Enterococcus faecium WB2000 on dry eye. A preliminary study in a rat model and a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in humans were conducted. Forty Japanese volunteers aged 22 to 59 years were randomized into combined dietary supplement (2 capsules/day; 20 participants) and placebo (vehicle; 19 participants) groups and treated once daily for 8 weeks. Rats received the combined dietary supplement components (10 or 50 mg/kg orally) or vehicle (2% DMSO), and dry eye was mechanically induced for 2 days. Tear production was measured in rats after dry eye was induced. Humans were assessed at baseline and weeks 4 and 8 post-supplementation based on keratoconjunctival epithelial damage; fluorescein tear film breakup time; tear production; biochemical data; information regarding subjective dry eye symptoms by answering a questionnaire; and information regarding adverse events via medical interviews. Supplementation dose-dependently mitigated the decrease in tear production in rats. Among subjects with confirmed dry eye, clinical symptoms improved at weeks 4 and 8 more significantly in the supplementation group than in the placebo group (P<.05). The rate of increase in the Schirmer value was greater in the supplementation group. No adverse events occurred. Supplementation improved objective and subjective dry eye symptoms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Uso oral do óleo de linhaça (Linum usitatissimum no tratamento do olhoseco de pacientesportadores da síndrome de Sjögren Oral flaxseed oil (Linum usitatissimum in the treatment for dry-eye Sjögren's syndrome patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Neuzimar Pinheiro Jr.

    2007-08-01

    were consecutively selected from patients of the Departament of Reumatology of the Amazonas University Hospital. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca diagnosis was based on a dry-eye symptom survey score (Ocular Surface Disease Index - OSDI®, Schirmer-I test, fluorescein break-up time, 1% Rose Bengal staining of ocular surface measured by the van Bijsterveld scale. All patients had ocular surface inflammation evaluated and quantified by conjunctival impression cytology, before and after the study. The subjects were divided into three groups with 13 (Group I, 12 (Group II and 13 (Group III patients. Group I received flaxseed oil capsules with a final 1 g/day dosis, Group II flaxseed oil capsules with a final 2 g/day dosis and Group III - controls - placebo, for 180 days. RESULTS: Comparing the results at the beginning and at the end of the treatment, statistically significant changes (p<0.05 in symptoms (OSDI®, ocular surface inflammation quantified by conjunctival impression cytology, Schirmer-I test and fluorescein break-up time occurred in Groups I e II when compared to controls. CONCLUSIONS: Therapy with oral flaxseed oil capsules 1 or 2 g/day reduces ocular surface inflammation and ameliorates the symptoms of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in Sjögren's syndrome patients. Long-term studies are needed to confirm the role of this therapy for keratoconjunctivitis sicca in Sjögren's syndrome.

  19. The Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Bidens Pilosa L. on Androgen Deficiency Dry Eye in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanwei Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bidens pilosa L. (Bp is widely distributed in China and has been widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the extract of Bp on androgen deficiency dry eye and determine its possible mechanisms. Methods: Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group Con (control, Group Sal (physiological saline, Group Fin (oral finasteride, and Group Bp (oral finasteride and Bp. The dry eye model was established in group Fin and group Bp. Aqueous tear quantity was measured with phenol red-impregnated cotton threads with anesthesia. Tear film breakup time (BUT and corneal epithelial damage were evaluated by fluorescein staining. Animals were sacrificed at 28 days, and ocular tissues (lacrimal gland and cornea were evaluated with light microscopy; gene microarray analysis for inflammatory cytokines and Western blot were also performed. Results: Finasteride administration effectively induced dry eye in rats by 14 days after administration. Group Fin rats had significantly higher fluorescein staining scores and lower aqueous tear quantity and BUT than the group Con rats, and notable inflammatory cell infiltrates were observed in the lacrimal gland of group Fin rats. The fluorescein staining score, aqueous tear quantity and BUT significantly improved with Bp treatment in the group Bp rats, and the structures of the lacrimal gland were well maintained without significant lymphocyte infiltration. Cytokine antibody array data identified the cytokines B7-2/Cd86, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, MMP-8, FasL, TNF-α and TIMP-1 as candidates for validation by Western blot. Expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, in group Fin were upregulated compared with group Con. Levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-10, in group Fin were also upregulated compared with those in group Con. Compared with group Fin, IL-1β, FasL, and TNF

  20. The Association between Dry Eye Disease and Physical Activity as well as Sedentary Behavior: Results from the Osaka Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Motoko Kawashima

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To assess the association of dry eye disease (DED with physical activity and sedentary behavior. Methods. The cross-sectional survey conducted included Japanese office workers who use visual display terminals (n=672. DED was assessed according to the Japanese Dry Eye Diagnostic Criteria, and participants were categorized into “definite DED,” “probable DED,” or “non-DED” groups based on the results of DED examinations. Physical activity and sedentary behavior of participants were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ, and physical activity level was calculated in metabolic equivalent units per week (MET, min/week. Participants were classified as having a high, moderate, or low level of physical activity. Results. Participants with abnormal tear break-up time (BUT (≤5 s were involved in sedentary behavior for significantly longer duration than those with normal BUT (P=0.035. Non-DED participants (14.5% tended to have higher levels of physical activity than definite DED participants (2.5%. Participants with definite DED had significantly lower MET scores than those with non-DED (P=0.025. Conclusions. Our findings suggest that a lower level of physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with DED; however, longitudinal/intervention studies with large groups of participants are needed to validate these findings.

  1. 儿童干眼的临床研究%Clinical survey of dry eye in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金涵; 谢晖; 赖平红

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical features and the related factors of dry eye disease.Methods The symptom and pathogeny of 112 suspected dry eye children were analyzed; and the Schirment Test,BuT,FL and eye examination on those children for half a year before and after the therapy were examined.Results The main clinical symptoms of the 112 children was:frequent blinking (40 cases,35.7%),eye itching (36 cases,32%),redness (16 cases,14.3%),dryness (12 cases,10.7),photophobia (10 cases,9%),wind,smoke and air conditioners sensations (8 cases,7%),excretions-increased (6 cases,5.3%),filamentary keratitis (2 cases,1.8%).The results of BUT was improved significantly after the therapy (P <0.01),while the improvement of Schirmer was not remarkable (P >0.05).Among the 112 children,95 cases (85%) came to the doctor with the vision beyond 0.8,36 cases (32%) were wearing glasses (P <0.01).Conclusions The main symptom of children dry eye is frequent blinking,the main sign is the stable decrease of tear films; whether dry eye disease has led and deteriorated myopia needs further research.%目的 了解儿童干眼的临床特点及相关因素.方法 临床病例对照研究.对2011年2月至2012年2月在江西省人民医院眼科中心以干眼的诊断标准将112例疑似干眼儿童的病因、临床特点进行分析;并对病例治疗前后追踪半年分别做Schirmer Test(泪液分泌试验)、BUT(泪膜破裂时间)、FL(角膜荧光素染色)及视力及屈光检查.结果 112例患儿的主要症状为频繁瞬目40例(35.7%),眼痒36例(32%),眼红16例(14.3%),干涩感12例(10.7%),畏光10例(9%),对风、烟、空调敏感8例(7%),分泌物增多6例(5.3%),丝状角膜炎2例(1.8%).治疗前后BUT检查有显著性改善差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),而Schirmer试验比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).112例患儿就诊时95例(85%)视力在0.8以上,6例(5%)近视配戴着眼镜,追踪半年后,65例(58

  2. Effect of 0.025% FK-506 eyedrops on botulinum toxin B-induced mouse dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bin-wu; Chen, Mei-zhu; Fan, Shu-xian; Chuck, Roy S; Zhou, Shi-you

    2014-12-09

    To investigate the effect of FK-506 eye drops on Botulinum toxin B (BTX-B)-induced mouse dry eye. Forty-five CBA/J mice were followed up for 4 weeks after treatment with 0.025% FK-506, vehicle or 0.9% saline eye drops 3 days after intralacrimal glands injection with 20 milliunits BTX-B. Tear production, corneal fluorescein staining, the mRNA, and protein expression of cytokines were measured. The activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was detected by Western blotting. The infiltration of inflammatory cells was examined by immunohistochemistry. After treated with FK-506 eye drops, aqueous tear production in the mice began to recover at week 1, and then increased to the levels of pre-BTX-B injection at week 4 (2.21 ± 0.43 vs. 2.52 ± 0.71 mm, t = 0.84, P > 0.05). The severity of corneal epithelial defects was alleviated at week 2 and further improved at week 4 when compared with those in the vehicle- and saline-treated groups. The gene expression of IL-1β and TNF-α in the FK-506 and vehicle-treated groups were 47.01% and 45.56%, 85.91% and 115.83% of that in the saline-treated group in the ocular surface, while in the lacrimal glands 49.16% and 67.60%, 94.91% and 95.77% of that in the saline-treated group, respectively. The ratio of phosphorylated IκB-α to total IκB-α in the keratoconjunctival tissues was lower in the FK-506-treated group than in the vehicle- and saline-treated groups (both P < 0.05). No inflammatory cells were detected in all groups. Topical application of FK-506 can inhibit NF-κB activation and related inflammatory response and alleviate the signs of dry eye. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. High Levels of 17β-Estradiol Are Associated with Increased Matrix Metalloproteinase-2 and Metalloproteinase-9 Activity in Tears of Postmenopausal Women with Dry Eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglin Shen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To determine the serum levels of sex steroids and tear matrix metalloproteinases (MMP 2 and 9 concentrations in postmenopausal women with dry eye. Methods. Forty-four postmenopausal women with dry eye and 22 asymptomatic controls were enrolled. Blood was drawn and analyzed for serum levels of sex steroids and lipids. Then, the following tests were performed: tear collection, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI questionnaire, fluorescein tear film break-up time (TBUT, corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer test, and conjunctival impression cytology. The conjunctival mRNA expression and tear concentrations of MMP-2 and MMP-9 were measured. Results. Serum 17β-estradiol levels were significantly higher in the dry eye subjects than in the controls (P=0.03, whereas there were no significant differences in levels of testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, and progesterone. Tear MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentrations (P<0.001, as well as the MMP-9 mRNA expression in conjunctival samples (P=0.02, were significantly higher in dry eye subjects than in controls. Serum 17β-estradiol levels were positively correlated with tear MMP-2 and MMP-9 concentrations and negatively correlated with Schirmer test values. Conclusions. High levels of 17β-estradiol are associated with increased matrix metalloproteinase-2 and metalloproteinase-9 activity in tears of postmenopausal women with dry eye.

  4. The relationship between tattoo on eyelid margin and incidence of dry eye%纹眼线与干眼症的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琳; 关娟

    2011-01-01

    目的 通过对纹眼线患者的眼表情况进行临床检查,分析纹眼线与干眼症的关系.设计 病例对照研究.研究对象 病例组为接受纹眼线的女性患者46例(92眼),对照组为与病例组年龄匹配的未纹眼线的女性健康查体者53例(106眼).方法 所有对象行基础泪液分泌试验(Schirmer Ⅰ试验,SIt)、泪膜破裂时间(BUT)、角膜荧光素染色检查,参照日本干眼症的诊断标准,对两组检测结果进行比较分析.主要指标 主观症状、Schirmner Ⅰ试验、BUT、角膜荧光素染色.结果 病例组中确诊为干眼症者18例(39.13%),有主观症状者27例(58.70%),SchirmerⅠ试验≤5mm/5min者14例(30.43%),BUT≤5 s者21例(45.65%),角膜荧光素染色阳性者20例(43.48%);而对照组确诊为干眼症者10例(18.87%),有主观症状者18例(33.96%),Schirmer Ⅰ试验≤5mm/5min者7例(13.21%),BUT≤5s者12例(22.64%),角膜荧光素染色阳性者12例(22.64%).与对照组相比,病例组中诊断干眼症及有主观症状者比例较高、Schirmer Ⅰ试验值下降、BUT值缩短、角膜荧光素染色阳性率增加(P均<0.05).结论 纹眼线会引起不同程度的眼表损害及干眼症.(眼科,2011,20:420-423)%Objective To observe the relationship between tattoo on eyelid margin and dry eye. Design Case-control study. Participants Tattooed female patients 46 cases (92 eyes). Fifty three cases of non-tattooed female healthy people (106 eyes) were consider as the controls. There was no significant difference in ages between the case group and the controls. Methods According to the Japan dry eye diagnostic criteria, subjective symptoms, the results of Schirmner I test, the tear break-up time (BUT) and corneal fluorescein-staining were compared between two groups. Main Outcome Measures Subjective symptoms, Schirmner I test, BUT and corneal fluores - cein-staining. Results There were 18 patients (39.13%) diagnosed as dry eye, 27 ones (58.70%) with

  5. Clinical study on high concentrations of sodium hyaluronate eye drops for moderate to severe dry eye%高浓度玻璃酸钠滴眼液治疗中重度干眼的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田玉景; 张钦

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To observe the efficacy of high concentrations of sodium hyaluronate ( 3g/L SH ) for moderate to severe dry eye. METHODS: Forty moderate to severe dry eye patients were included in the study according to the diagnosis criteria and randomized into two groups. The patients of the trial group received topical administration of high concentration sodium hyaluronate (3g/L), and those of the control group received sodium hyaluronate ( 1g/L ) plus recombinant human epidermal growth factor. The dry eye symptom scores, ocular surface disease index ( OSDI) scores, tear film break-up time ( BUT) , SchirmerⅠ test and corneal fluorescein staining score were evaluated. All the indexes were compared between the two groups 2wk before and after treatment. RESULTS: There were no significant differences of the indicators between the two groups before treatment. After 2wk treatment, the differences were statistically significant compared to former except for the SchirmerⅠtest. Compared with the control group, the symptom scores and the OSDI scores were lowered. No significant differences were found in the other indicators between these two groups. CONCLUSION: Topical usage of highconcentrations of sodium hyaluronate (3g/L) is beneficial for remitting the ocular symptoms in moderate to severe dry eyes, and also improve the quality of life of patients.%目的:观察高浓度玻璃酸钠滴眼液治疗中重度干眼的临床疗效。  方法:中重度干眼患者40例随机分成试验组和对照组,每组各20例。试验组用玻璃酸钠滴眼液(3g/L)、对照组玻璃酸钠滴眼液(1g/L)联合重组人表皮生长因子滴眼液治疗,治疗前和治疗2 wk后,通过症状评分、眼表疾病指数( OSDI)评分、泪膜破裂时间( BUT )、泪液分泌试验(Schirmer I test,SIt)、角膜荧光素染色评分(FL)等评价两组疗效。  结果:治疗前,两组各项指标差异均无统计学意义。治疗2 wk后,除SIt外,两组的其他指标和治

  6. 应用泪道栓塞术治疗顽固性干眼的临床观察%Clinical trial of Smart Plug in lacrimal plug in the treatment of serious dry eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵越筑; 屠叔丹; 邵利琴

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the availability and efficacy of Smart Plug in lacrimal plug in the treatment of serious dry eye with the VDT (video display terminal). Methods Lacrumal plug by lacrimal aperture was applied in 32 patients (48 eyes) with the VDT dry eyes. Symptoms of patients with 6 months before operation and after operation, tears secretion test and the improvement of tears break-up time (BUT) were recorded. Results The results showed that effective rate and improvement rate were 83% (40eyes) and 17% (8 eyes) respectively. Symptoms of patients suffered from dry eye were relieved obviously by using Smart Plug. Conclusions Lacrimal plug can be used for patients with serious dry eye by improving tear volume and tear film stability.%目的 探讨新型Smart Plug泪道栓子治疗视频终端顽固性干眼的临床效果.方法 观察32例(48只眼)视频终端顽固性干眼的患者,选择性在上下泪小点或下泪小点植入泪道栓子,治疗后6个月进行复诊,记录术前、术后6个月症状及泪液分泌试验、泪膜破裂时间的改善情况.结果 经治疗显效40只眼占83%,有效8只眼占17%.结论 使用Smart Plug泪道栓子进行泪道栓塞术可以明显改善干眼患者的临床症状,增加患者眼球表面泪液量,改善泪膜的稳定性,是治疗视频终端顽固性干眼的有效方法之一.

  7. AWARENESS AND WILLINGNESS OF EYE DONATION AMONG ATTENDANTS OF PATIENTS IN RURAL KARNATAKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharath R.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: In India it is estimated that there are approximately 6.8 million people who have vision less than 6/60 in atleast one eye due to corneal disease: the rate of eye donation is low. The aim of the study was to assess the awareness about eye donation, pledging their eyes and willingness to donate eyes among attendants of patients in rural Karnataka. STUDY DESIGN: Cross - s ectional study design . MATERIALS AND METHOD S: This observational study was conducted on attendants who accompanied patients ( n = 200 visiting various outpatient departments of the Hospital between November 2014 and December 2014. The participants answered a questionnaire (Kannada and English versions which included demographic profile, awareness of eye donation, knowledge regarding facts of eye donation, pledging and willingness to donate eyes. RESULTS: Awareness of eye donation was observed in 182 (91% participants. Analysis showed that awareness was equal among males and females. Of the 182 participants who were aware of eye donation, only 108 (59.34% were willing to donate eyes. Willingness was more among the males (55.55%. 142 (71% participants wou ld recommend eye donation. Main reasons for not pledging eyes were: lack of information regarding pledging eyes (39.18%, objection by family members (33.78% and religious belief (17.56%. Educational status was associated with willingness to donate eyes (P=0.0001. Media was the major source of information about eye donation. Of those aware of eye donation only 9.34% have pledged their eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Although multiple strategies are currently followed to increase awareness of eye donations, we need to develop more innovative strategies to target young rural population to make them pledge their eyes. Awareness has to be created through the curriculum. Training of anganawadi, ASHA workers and paramedical personnel in spreading awareness, pledging and ben efits of eye donation at community level.

  8. Lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5.0% for treatment of dry eye disease: results of the OPUS-1 phase 3 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, John D; Torkildsen, Gail L; Lonsdale, John D; D'Ambrosio, Francis A; McLaurin, Eugene B; Eiferman, Richard A; Kennedy, Kathryn S; Semba, Charles P

    2014-02-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of lifitegrast ophthalmic solution 5.0% compared with placebo in subjects with dry eye disease. Prospective, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, parallel arm, multicenter clinical trial. A total of 588 adult subjects with dry eye disease. Eligible subjects were randomized 1:1 to receive topically administered lifitegrast (5.0%) or placebo (vehicle) twice daily for 84 days after a 14-day open-label placebo run-in period. After enrollment (day 0), subjects were evaluated at days 14, 42, and 84. Key objective (fluorescein and lissamine staining scores [Ora scales]) and subjective (Ocular Surface Disease Index [OSDI], 7-item visual analog scale, and ocular discomfort score [Ora scale]) measures were assessed at all visits. The primary objective efficacy measure (sign) was mean change from baseline inferior corneal staining score (ICSS) at day 84. The co-primary subjective efficacy measure (symptom) was the mean change from baseline in the visual-related function subscale score of the Ocular Surface Disease Index (VR-OSDI). Supportive measures included corneal fluorescein scores (superior, central, total region) and conjunctival lissamine scores (nasal, temporal, total region) and symptom scores at day 84. The study met the primary objective efficacy ICSS end point in demonstrating superiority of lifitegrast compared with placebo (P = 0.0007). Lifitegrast significantly reduced corneal fluorescein staining (superior, P = 0.0392; total cornea, P = 0.0148) and conjunctival lissamine staining (nasal, P = 0.0039; total conjunctiva, P = 0.0086) at day 84 versus placebo. Significant (P measure (P = 0.7894). However, significant improvements were observed at day 84 in ocular discomfort (P = 0.0273) and eye dryness (P = 0.0291), the most common and severe symptoms reported at baseline in both groups. There were no unanticipated or serious ocular adverse events (AEs). The most frequent reported ocular AEs were transient intermittent

  9. Force-length recording of eye muscles during local-anesthesia surgery in 32 strabismus patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Simonsz (Huib)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractAbstract. Force-length recordings were made from isolated human eye muscles during strabismus surgery in local, eye-drop anesthesia in 32 adult patients. From each muscle three recordings were made: (1) while the patient looked with the other eye into the field of action of the recorded

  10. Lens coloboma in one eye and ectopia lentis in the other eye of a patient with Marfan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Bikram Bahadur; Singh, Ramandeep; Ram, Jagat; Kumar, Abiraj

    2014-12-09

    We present a case of Marfan syndrome with lens coloboma in one eye and ectopia lentis in the other. A 14-year-old girl reported decreased vision in the left eye. Her visual acuity was 6/24 and counting fingers at 1 m in the right and left eyes, respectively. Her intraocular pressure was 15 mm Hg in both eyes. Evaluation of the right eye on slit lamp biomicroscopy under mydriasis revealed an inferiorly visible flattened and concave crystalline lens equator from 4 to 8 o'clock position along with notching and absence of zonules, suggestive of lens coloboma. Left eye examination revealed a superiorly subluxated lens from 3 to 9 o'clock position and posterior subcapsular cataract. The posterior segment evaluation of both eyes was normal. Her father, aunt and grandfather were of tall stature, characteristic of Marfan syndrome. On systemic evaluation, the patient was diagnosed as Marfan syndrome. After surgical correction she achieved vision of 6/6 in both eyes.

  11. Domestic polyacrylic acid gel in the treatment of dry eyes%聚丙烯酸凝胶人工泪液的研制及其疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞; 胡燕华; 魏厚仁; 查仲玲; 祝丽明

    2001-01-01

    ObjectiveTo evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of the domestic polyacrylic acid(PAA) gel for the treatment of dry eyes.Methods140 patients with dry eyes were randomly allocated to treatment with either PAA(70) or PVA(70) in a multicenter,prospective and open study.The parameters assessed included the foreign body sensation,dry eye sensation,hot sensation,pain,vision acuity,schirmmer's test(SIT),break-up time(BUT),rose bengal staining(RB),the precorneal resident time after the first treatment and toxic or side effects.ResultsThe two groups were similar in study parameters at baseline.Two kinds of artificial tears both significantly improved the patient's subjective symptoms and objective signs(P0.05),in spite of the fact that the precorneal resident time of PAA was much more than PVA(P0.05),但角膜前停留时间PAA明显长于PVA(P<0.01)。结论  国产聚丙烯酸凝胶人工泪治疗干眼症确实安全有效

  12. Inflammatory cytokine expression on the ocular surface in the Botulium toxin B induced murine dry eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Shen, Jikui; Zhang, Cheng; Park, Choul Yong; Kohanim, Sahar; Yew, Margaret; Parker, John S; Chuck, Roy S

    2009-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in dry eye syndrome. In this study, inflammatory cytokine expression on the ocular surface in the Botulium toxin B (BTX-B) induced mouse dry eye model was investigated. CBA/J mice received an injection of saline or 20 milliunits (mU) of BTX-B into the lacrimal gland. Tear production and corneal fluorescein staining were evaluated in all groups before injection and at 3 time points after. The pro-inflammatory cytokines macrophage inhibitory factor (MIF), interleukin-1beta (IL-1 beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF- alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in conjunctival and corneal epithelium were evaluated by real time quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry. BTX-B injected mice showed significantly decreased aqueous tear production and increased corneal fluorescein staining at the 1 week and 2 week time points compared with normal control and saline-injected mice. The BTX-B injected mice mRNA expression levels of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta from conjunctival and corneal epithelial cells increased significantly at two early time points comparing with that of normal and saline injected mice, but IL-1beta returned to normal levels at the 4 week time point. Saline injected mice showed no difference in mRNA expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, MIF, and IL-6 on the ocular surface tissue at all time points. Immunohistochemistry confirmed these findings. BTX-B induced mouse model showed decreased aqueous tear production, increased corneal fluorescein staining, and TNF-alpha and IL-1beta increased expression on the ocular surface within one month. The patterns seen appeared to mimic those in humans with non-Sjögren's syndrome keratoconjunctivitis sicca (NS-KCS).

  13. Therapeutic Efficacy of Nanocomplex of Poly(Ethylene Glycol) and Catechin for Dry Eye Disease in a Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyesook; Shim, Whuisu; Kim, Chae Eun; Choi, So Yeon; Lee, Haeshin; Yang, Jaewook

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the possibility of the nanocomplex of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and catechin as a new biomedical material to treat dry eye disease. NOD.B10.H2b mice were exposed to an air draft and injected with scopolamine for 10 days. Ten days later, the mice were treated with normal saline (n = 11), 1% catechin (n = 11), 1% PEG (n = 11), and 1% catechin/PEG nanocomplex solution mixture containing catechin and PEG at weight ratios of 1:1 (CP1, n = 11), 1:5 (CP5, n = 11), and 1:10 (CP10, n = 11). All treatments were administered five times a day for 10 days. We estimated the effect of PEG/catechin nanocomplexes on inflammation, tear production, epithelium stabilization, and goblet cell density. Desiccation stress significantly decreased tear production and increased the corneal irregularity score. Furthermore, desiccation stress markedly increased the detached epithelium and decreased the numbers of conjunctival goblet cells. In addition, the expression of proinflammatory-related factors was markedly induced by desiccation stress in the lacrimal glands. However, the PEG/catechin nanocomplex effectively induced an increase in tear production, stabilization of the corneal epithelium, and an increase in conjunctival goblet cells and anti-inflammatory improvements in a PEG dose-dependent manner. In this study, we found that PEG may increase bioavailability of catechin. Therefore, the PEG/catechin nanocomplex can be used as a new biomedical material to treat dry eye disease through stabilization of the tear film and inhibition of inflammation.

  14. Therapeutic Efficacy of Topically Applied Antioxidant Medicinal Plant Extracts in a Mouse Model of Experimental Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Won; Lee, Jee Bum; Cui, Lian; Li, Ying; Li, Zhengri; Choi, Ji Suk; Lee, Hyo Seok; Yoon, Kyung Chul

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the therapeutic effects of topical administration of antioxidant medicinal plant extracts in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). Methods. Eye drops containing balanced salt solution (BSS) or 0.001%, 0.01%, and 0.1% extracts were applied for the treatment of EDE. Tear volume, tear film break-up time (BUT), and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured 10 days after desiccating stress. In addition, we evaluated the levels of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, IL-6, interferon- (IFN-) γ, and IFN-γ associated chemokines, percentage of CD4+C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 positive (CXCR3+) T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) positive cells, and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Results. Compared to the EDE and BSS control groups, the mice treated with topical application of the 0.1% extract showed significant improvements in all clinical parameters, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels, percentage of CD4+CXCR3+ T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-HNE-positive cells, and extracellular ROS production (P plant extracts improved clinical signs, decreased inflammation, and ameliorated oxidative stress marker and ROS production on the ocular surface of the EDE model mice.

  15. Effects of PUVA on the eye

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backman, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common skin disease which may be treated with 8-methoxy psoralen and long-wave ultraviolet light (PUVA). Eye protection is provided during and after treatment to prevent the development of photokeratitis and cataracts. Fifteen patients, treated with medication and ultraviolet A (UVA) had an initial complete eye examination and a repeat examination after each treatment. No patients developed cataracts but almost one-half of the patients had a mild form of photokeratoconjunctivitis. The ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye ocular manifestations included photophobia, conjunctivitis, keratitis, and dry eyes. Tear break-up time was reduced significantly immediately after treatment for two patients but returned to normal 8 hr later. Dermatologists who employ PUVA treatments should be concerned about photokeratoconjunctivitis and the dry-eye syndrome.

  16. Functional neuroanatomical correlates of eye movements during rapid eye movement sleep in depressed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Anne; Buysse, Daniel J; Wood, Annette; Nofzinger, Eric

    2004-04-30

    In depressed patients, REM density, or the number of rapid eye movements (REMs) per minute of REM sleep, is a correlate of depression severity and clinical outcomes. We investigated the functional neuroanatomical correlates of average REM counts (RC), an automated analog of REM density, in depression. Thirteen medication-free depressed patients underwent all night polysomnography and positron emission tomography (PET) scans using [(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(18)F] FDG) during REM sleep. Regression analyses were conducted with Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM-99). Average RC significantly and positively correlated with relative regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc) bilaterally in the striate cortex, the posterior parietal cortices, and in the medial and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices. Average RC were negatively correlated with rCMRglc in areas corresponding bilaterally to the lateral occipital cortex, cuneus, temporal cortices, and parahippocampal gyri. The areas where average RC was positively correlated with rCMRglc appear to constitute a diffuse cortical system involved in the regulation of emotion-induced arousal. The observed pattern of correlations suggests that average RC may be a marker of hypofrontality during REM sleep in depressed patients.

  17. Using Eye Tracking to Assess Reading Performance in Patients with Glaucoma: A Within-Person Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reading is often cited as a demanding task for patients with glaucomatous visual field (VF loss, yet reading speed varies widely between patients and does not appear to be predicted by standard visual function measures. This within-person study aimed to investigate reading duration and eye movements when reading short passages of text in a patient’s worse eye (most VF damage when compared to their better eye (least VF damage. Reading duration and saccade rate were significantly different on average in the worse eye when compared to the better eye (P<0.001 in 14 patients with glaucoma that had median (interquartile range between-eye difference in mean deviation (MD; a standard clinical measure for VF loss of 9.8 (8.3 to 14.8 dB; differences were not related to the size of the difference in MD between eyes. Patients with a more pronounced effect of longer reading duration on their worse eye made a larger proportion of “regressions” (backward saccades and “unknown” EMs (not adhering to expected reading patterns when reading with the worse eye when compared to the better eye. A between-eye study in patients with asymmetric disease, coupled with eye tracking, provides a useful experimental design for exploring reading performance in glaucoma.

  18. Tear Production Rate in a Mouse Model of Dry Eye According to the Phenol Red Thread and Endodontic Absorbent Paper Point Tear Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Servet; Kulualp, Kadri

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the endodontic absorbent paper point test (EAPTT) and the phenol red thread test (PRTT) for the assessment of tear production rate in a mouse model of dry eye. Fourteen BALB/c breed female mice were allocated into experimental and control groups of equal number. For 6 wk, the experimental group was kept in dry-eye cabinets, whereas the control group was kept in normal cages under ambient conditions. In both groups, the tear production rate was measured by using EAPTT and PRTT before the study, at study baseline, and at weeks 2, 4, and 6. Tear production at weeks 2, 4, and 6 differed significantly between groups and tests. Evaluating the groups independently in terms of the test technique revealed significant differences in tear production rate between the 2 groups at the same measurement times. Due to their persistent exposure to evaporative stress factors, the tear production rate of the mice in the dry-eye cabinet was consistently lower than that of controls. Unlike PRTT, EAPTT can be readily applied to the small globes of laboratory animals without the need for forceps, thus saving time and effort. In addition, EAPTT was practical and imposed no undue stress on the mice, due to the test material's firmer structure. Therefore, compared with PRTT, EAPTT is safer and more reliable for the diagnosis of dry-eye syndrome in mice.

  19. Supercritical fluid-mediated liposomes containing cyclosporin A for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in a rabbit model: comparative study with the conventional cyclosporin A emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karn, Pankaj Ranjan; Kim, Hyun Do; Kang, Han; Sun, Bo Kyung; Jin, Su-Eon; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of cyclosporin (CsA)-encapsulated liposomes with the commercially available CsA emulsion (Restasis) for the treatment of dry eye syndrome in rabbits. Liposomes containing CsA were prepared by the supercritical fluid (SCF) method consisted of phosphatidylcholine from soybean (SCF-S100) and egg lecithins (SCF-EPCS). An in vitro permeation study was carried out using artificial cellulose membrane in Franz diffusion cells. Dry eye syndrome was induced in male albino rabbits and further subdivided into untreated, Restasis-treated, EPCS, and S100-treated groups. Tear formation in the dry-eye-induced rabbits was evaluated using the Schirmer tear test. All formulations were also evaluated by ocular irritation tests using the Draize eye and winking methods with the determination of CsA concentration in rabbit tears. After the treatment, the Schirmer tear test value significantly improved in EPCS-treated (P=0.005) and S100-treated (P=0.018) groups compared to the Restasis-treated group. The AUC₀₋₂₄ h for rabbit's tear film after the administration of SCF-S100 was 32.75±9.21 μg·h/mg which was significantly higher than that of 24.59±8.69 μg·h/mg reported with Restasis. Liposomal CsA formulations used in this study showed lower irritation in rabbit eyes compared with Restasis. These results demonstrate that the novel SCF-mediated liposomal CsA promises a significant improvement in overcoming the challenges associated with the treatment of dry eyes.

  20. Refraction and eye anterior segment parameters in schizophrenic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongabay Cumurcu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the difference in terms of refractive errors and anterior segment parameters between schizophrenic patients and healthy volunteers. Methods: This study compared 70 patients (48 men who were diagnosed with schizophrenia with a control group of 60 (35 men who were similar in terms of age, gender, education, and socioeconomic level. Anterior segment examination was performed using a Scheimflug system. Axial length and lens thickness (LT were measured using optic biometry. The following tests were administered to the psychiatric patient group: Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS, and Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS. Results: Mild myopia was detected in both the schizophrenic and control groups, with no statistically significant difference (p>0.005. Corneal volume (CV, anterior chamber volume (ACV, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and central corneal thickness (CCT values were lower in the schizophrenic group, and there was a statistically significant between-group difference (p=0.026, p=0.014, p=0.048, and p=0.005, respectively. LT was greater in schizophrenics, and the difference was found to be statistically significant (p=0.006. A statistically significant negative correlation was found between SAPS and cylinder values (p=0.008. The axial eye length, cylinder value, pupil diameter, mean keratometric value, and anterior chamber angle revealed no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: No statistically significant difference was detected in terms of refraction disorders between schizophrenics and the healthy control group, while some differences in anterior chamber parameters were present. These results demonstrate that schizophrenics may exhibit clinical and structural differences in the eye.

  1. Comparative role of 20% cord blood serum and 20% autologous serum in dry eye associated with Hansen's disease: a tear proteomic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Somnath; Sen, Swarnali; Datta, Himadri

    2015-01-01

    To compare the role of topically applied serum therapy with preservative-free artificial tear (AT) drops in patients with moderate to severe dry eye in Hansen's disease along with change in tear protein profile. 144 consecutive patients were randomly divided into three groups. After a baseline examination of clinical parameters, each of the patients received designated modality of topical therapy six times a day for 6 weeks. Post-treatment documentation of clinical parameters was done at 6 weeks, and then at 12 weeks after discontinuation of topical therapy. Analysis of three tear proteins using gel electrophoresis (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) was done at baseline, at the first and second post-treatment visits. In the cord blood serum (CBS) group, except for McMonnies score and staining score, all other clinical parameters showed continued improvement in the first and second post-treatment analyses. In the autologous serum (ALS) group, all the clinical parameters except Schirmer's I showed significant improvement in the first post-treatment analysis .This was sustained at a significant level in the second analysis except for tear film break-up time (TBUT) and conjunctival impression cytology grading. In the AT group, all the parameters improved at a non-significant level except for TBUT in the first analysis. In the next analysis, apart from McMonnies score and TBUT, other clinical parameters did not improve. In the ALS and CBS groups, tear lysozyme, lactoferrin levels improved in both post-treatment measurements (statistically insignificant).Total tear protein continued to increase at statistically significant levels in the first and second post-treatment analyses in the CBS group and at a statistically insignificant level in the ALS group. In the AT group, the three tear proteins continued to decrease in both the analyses. In moderate to severe dry eye in Hansen's disease, serum therapy in comparison with AT drops, improves

  2. Smartphone use is a risk factor for pediatric dry eye disease according to region and age: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jun Hyung; Kim, Kyoung Woo; Moon, Nam Ju

    2016-10-28

    In 2014, the overall rate of smartphone use in Korea was 83 and 89.8 % in children and adolescents. The rate of smartphone use differs according to region (urban vs. rural) and age (younger grade vs. older grade). We investigated risk and protective factors associated with pediatric dry eye disease (DED) in relation to smartphone use rate according to region and age. We enrolled 916 children and performed an ocular exam that included slit lamp exam and tear break-up time. A questionnaire administered to children and their families consisted of video display terminal (VDT) use, outdoor activity, learning, and modified ocular surface disease index (OSDI) score. DED was defined based on the International Dry Eye Workshop guidelines (Objective signs: punctate epithelial erosion or short tear break-up time; subjective symptoms: modified OSDI score) We performed statistical analysis of risk factors and protective factors in children divided into groups as follows: DED vs. control, urban vs. rural, younger grade (1st to 3rd) vs. older grade (4th to 6th). A total of 6.6 % of children were included in the DED group, and 8.3 % of children in the urban group were diagnosed with DED compared to 2.8 % in the rural group (P = 0.03). The rate of smartphone use was 61.3 % in the urban group and 51.0 % in the rural group (P = 0.04). In total, 9.1 % of children in the older-grade group were diagnosed with DED compared to 4 % in the younger-grade group (P = 0.03). The rate of smartphone use was 65.1 % in older-grade children and 50.9 % in younger-grade children (P smartphone use was longer in the DED group than controls (logistic regression analysis, P smartphone use for 4 weeks in the DED group, both subjective symptoms and objective signs had improved. Smartphone use in children was strongly associated with pediatric DED; however, outdoor activity appeared to be protective against pediatric DED. Older-grade students in urban environments had DED risk

  3. All eyes on the patient: the influence of oncologists' nonverbal communication on breast cancer patients' trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillen, Marij A; de Haes, Hanneke C J M; van Tienhoven, Geertjan; Bijker, Nina; van Laarhoven, Hanneke W M; Vermeulen, Daniëlle M; Smets, Ellen M A

    2015-08-01

    Trust in the oncologist is crucial for breast cancer patients. It reduces worry, enhances decision making, and stimulates adherence. Optimal nonverbal communication by the oncologist, particularly eye contact, body posture, and smiling, presumably benefits patients' trust. We were the first to experimentally examine (1) how the oncologist's nonverbal behavior influences trust, and (2) individual differences in breast cancer patients' trust. Analogue patients (APs) viewed one out of eight versions of a video vignette displaying a consultation about chemotherapy treatment. All eight versions varied only in the oncologist's amount of eye contact (consistent vs. inconsistent), body posture (forward leaning vs. varying), and smiling (occasional smiling vs. no smiling). Primary outcome was trust in the observed oncologist (Trust in Oncologist Scale). 214 APs participated. Consistent eye contact led to stronger trust (β = -.13, p = .04). This effect was largely explained by lower educated patients, for whom the effect of consistent eye contact was stronger than for higher educated patients (β = .18, p = .01). A forward leaning body posture did not influence trust, nor did smiling. However, if the oncologist smiled more, he was perceived as more friendly (rs = .31, p nonverbal communication with breast cancer patients while simultaneously managing increased time pressure and computer use during the consultation.

  4. Eye donation – Awareness and willingness among attendants of patients at various clinics in Melaka, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Sulatha; Khanna, Rajesh; Rao, Krishna A; Rao, Lavanya G; Lingam, Kamala D; Binu, V

    2011-01-01

    Aim: Corneal blindness accounts for 3.42% of blindness in Malaysia; the rate of eye donation is low. The aim of the study was to assess the awareness about eye donation and willingness to donate eyes among attendants of patients at various clinics in Melaka, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted on attendants who accompanied patients (n = 400) visiting various outpatient departments of the General Hospital and two peripheral clinics in Melaka between August and October 2007. The participants answered a questionnaire (Malay and English versions) which included demographic profile, awareness of eye donation, knowledge regarding facts of eye donation, and willingness to donate eyes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed at 5% level of significance. Results: Awareness of eye donation was observed in 276 (69%) participants. Multivariate analysis showed that awareness was more among females when compared to males (P = 0.009). Of the 276 participants who were aware of eye donation, only 34.42% were willing to donate eyes. Willingness was more among the Indian race (P = 0.02) and males (P = 0.02). Educational status did not influence the willingness to donate eyes. Conclusions: Although majority of participants were aware of eye donation, willingness to donate eyes was poor. PMID:21157071

  5. Eye donation - awareness and willingness among attendants of patients at various clinics in Melaka, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandary, Sulatha; Khanna, Rajesh; Rao, Krishna A; Rao, Lavanya G; Lingam, Kamala D; Binu, V

    2011-01-01

    Corneal blindness accounts for 3.42% of blindness in Malaysia; the rate of eye donation is low. The aim of the study was to assess the awareness about eye donation and willingness to donate eyes among attendants of patients at various clinics in Melaka, Malaysia. This observational study was conducted on attendants who accompanied patients (n = 400) visiting various outpatient departments of the General Hospital and two peripheral clinics in Melaka between August and October 2007. The participants answered a questionnaire (Malay and English versions) which included demographic profile, awareness of eye donation, knowledge regarding facts of eye donation, and willingness to donate eyes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed at 5% level of significance. Awareness of eye donation was observed in 276 (69%) participants. Multivariate analysis showed that awareness was more among females when compared to males (P = 0.009). Of the 276 participants who were aware of eye donation, only 34.42% were willing to donate eyes. Willingness was more among the Indian race (P = 0.02) and males (P = 0.02). Educational status did not influence the willingness to donate eyes. Although majority of participants were aware of eye donation, willingness to donate eyes was poor.

  6. Eye donation - Awareness and willingness among attendants of patients at various clinics in Melaka, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhandary Sulatha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Corneal blindness accounts for 3.42% of blindness in Malaysia; the rate of eye donation is low. The aim of the study was to assess the awareness about eye donation and willingness to donate eyes among attendants of patients at various clinics in Melaka, Malaysia. Materials and Methods: This observational study was conducted on attendants who accompanied patients (n = 400 visiting various outpatient departments of the General Hospital and two peripheral clinics in Melaka between August and October 2007. The participants answered a questionnaire (Malay and English versions which included demographic profile, awareness of eye donation, knowledge regarding facts of eye donation, and willingness to donate eyes. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was performed at 5% level of significance. Results: Awareness of eye donation was observed in 276 (69% participants. Multivariate analysis showed that awareness was more among females when compared to males (P = 0.009. Of the 276 participants who were aware of eye donation, only 34.42% were willing to donate eyes. Willingness was more among the Indian race (P = 0.02 and males (P = 0.02. Educational status did not influence the willingness to donate eyes. Conclusions: Although majority of participants were aware of eye donation, willingness to donate eyes was poor.

  7. 小牛血去蛋白提取物眼用凝胶及玻璃酸钠滴眼液治疗相关干眼症应用%Deproteinised calf blood extract eye gel and sodium hyaluronate eye drops in meibomian gland related dry eye

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲洪强; 高子清; 洪晶

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinic efficacy between deproteinised calf blood extract eye gel and sodium hyaluronate eye drops on recovery of meibomian gland related dry eye,to provide reference for drug treatment of meibomian gland related dry eye.Methods A randomized comparative study of deproteinised calf blood extract eye gel versus sodium hyaluronate eye drops both four times per day on a total of 80 patients (40 patients each group) with meibomian gland related dry eye.Both groups received applications of eyelid margins cleansing,eyelids warm compresses and massage,erythromycin ointment every night as side treatment.Symptom scores,Schirmer test values,tear film break-up times (BUT),fluorescein staining scores,meibo-scores were recorded on the last day before treatment and 30±7 day after start of treatment.Results The symptom scores of pre-and post-treatment in patients with deproteinised calf blood extract eye gel were,14.23±4.64,5.95±2.87; BUT scores 3.28±2.67,5.80±3.05; and fluorescein staining scores 3.71±3.84,1.83±1.535.10±2.416 score,which reached a significant statistic difference (t =3.25,P <0.01).The symptom scores of pre-and post-treatment with sodium hyaluronate eye drops were 13.05±2.14,7.83±2.24;and BUT scores 3.63±2.64,4.89±2.35 which had a statistic difference (t =2.97,P <0.05).Meibo-scores pre-and post-treatment in deproteinised calf blood extract eye gel group and sodium hyaluronate eye drops group were 3.95±1.19 score,3.88±l.43score; 3.93±1.25 score,3.98±1.33 score with no statistic difference in groups (t =3.42,P >0.05).Between the two groups,there were significant statistic difference in symptom (t =3.42,P <0.01),the change of BUTs (t =-2.52,P <0.05) and fluorescein staining scores (t =3.268,P <0.01),however the change of meibo-scores had no statistic difference (t =0.537,P>0.05).Conclusions Topical application of deproteinised calf blood extract eye gel and sodium hyaluronate eye drops both have a clearly

  8. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with narcolepsy is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Stine; Gammeltoft, Steen; Jennum, Poul J

    2010-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by dream-enacting behaviour and impaired motor inhibition during rapid eye movement sleep. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but also reported in narcolepsy with cataplexy....... Most narcolepsy with cataplexy patients lack the sleep-wake, and rapid eye movement sleep, motor-regulating hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. In contrast, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and hypocretin deficiency are rare in narcolepsy without cataplexy. We hypothesized...... that rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder coexists with cataplexy in narcolepsy due to hypocretin deficiency. In our study, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder was diagnosed by the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (2nd edition) criteria in 63 narcolepsy patients with or without...

  9. Efficacy and safety of LASIK in 10,052 eyes of 5081 myopic Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lanping; Liu, Guifen; Ren, Yanjun; Li, Ji; Hao, Junhua; Liu, Xia; Zhang, Yajuan

    2005-01-01

    To analyze the outcomes and incidence of postoperative complications in a large series of patients undergoing LASIK for myopia. All 5081 patients (10,052 eyes) diagnosed with myopia at The Third Hospital of Handan, China, from September 2003 through March 2005 were studied. All study eyes underwent LASIK with 1-month follow-up. Spherical equivalent refraction, best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), and uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) were measured before and after surgery and intra- and postoperative complications were recorded. Uncorrected visual acuity at 1-month follow-up of 9555 (95.1%) eyes reached or exceeded the preoperative BSCVA. Hemorrhage of corneal limbus during surgery occurred in 1060 (10.5%) eyes, Sands of Sahara syndrome occurred in 232 (2.3%) eyes, interface infection responsive to treatment occurred in 4 (0.04%) eyes, and epithelial ingrowth occurred in 1 (0.01%) eye. LASIK is a safe and effective method for the treatment of myopia.

  10. Crossed hand-eye dominance in male psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotakos, Orestis

    2002-12-01

    Increased incidence of left-eye and crossed hand-eye dominance have been considered as indicating left hemispheric dysfunction in many neuropsychiatric disorders. This study investigates the incidence of left-eye and crossed hand-eye dominance in patience with schizophrenia (n = 68), panic disorder (n = 62), personality disorder (n = 35), heroin addiction (n = 54), and mental retardation (n = 33), in comparison with controls (n = 944). All psychiatric groups, except the group with panic disorder, had significantly greater frequency of left-eye dominance than the control group. Furthermore, all psychiatric groups, except the personality-disordered group, had significantly greater frequency of crossed hand-eye dominance than the control group. These findings further support the evidence of an anomaly in hemispheric lateralization among different psychiatric populations, particularly among those with psychotic symptoms and cognitive deficits.

  11. Ictal SPECT in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Geert; Bitterlich, Marion; Kuwert, Torsten; Ritt, Philipp; Stefan, Hermann

    2015-05-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is a rapid eye movement parasomnia clinically characterized by acting out dreams due to disinhibition of muscle tone in rapid eye movement sleep. Up to 80-90% of the patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder develop neurodegenerative disorders within 10-15 years after symptom onset. The disorder is reported in 45-60% of all narcoleptic patients. Whether rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is also a predictor for neurodegeneration in narcolepsy is not known. Although the pathophysiology causing the disinhibition of muscle tone in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder has been studied extensively in animals, little is known about the mechanisms in humans. Most of the human data are from imaging or post-mortem studies. Recent studies show altered functional connectivity between substantia nigra and striatum in patients with rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. We were interested to study which regions are activated in rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder during actual episodes by performing ictal single photon emission tomography. We studied one patient with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, one with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder, and two patients with narcolepsy and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder. All patients underwent extended video polysomnography. The tracer was injected after at least 10 s of consecutive rapid eye movement sleep and 10 s of disinhibited muscle tone accompanied by movements registered by an experienced sleep technician. Ictal single photon emission tomography displayed the same activation in the bilateral premotor areas, the interhemispheric cleft, the periaqueductal area, the dorsal and ventral pons and the anterior lobe of the cerebellum in all patients. Our study shows that in patients with Parkinson's disease and rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder-in contrast to wakefulness

  12. Abundance of infiltrating CD163+ cells in the retina of postmortem eyes with dry and neovascular age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lad, Eleonora M; Cousins, Scott W; Van Arnam, John S; Proia, Alan D

    2015-11-01

    Prior research in animal models has suggested that retinal macrophages play an important role in age-related macular degeneration (AMD), but studies have insufficiently characterized the distribution of retinal macrophages in various stages of human AMD. In this case series, we analyzed H&E, periodic acid-Schiff, and CD163 and CD68 immunostained slides from 56 formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded autopsy eyes of patients over age 75: 11 age-matched, normal eyes, and 45 AMD eyes. Qualitative analysis of the macula and retinal periphery revealed that all eyes contained a significant number of CD163+ cells but a negligible number of CD68+ cells. In normal eyes and eyes with thin or infrequent basal laminar deposits, CD163+ cells were restricted to the inner retina. In contrast, in AMD eyes with thick basal deposits, choroidal neovascular membranes, and geographic atrophy, qualitatively there was a marked increase in the number and size of the CD163+ cells in the outer retina, sub-retinal, and sub-retinal pigment epithelium space in the macula. The changes in number and localization of retinal CD163+ cells in eyes with intermediate-severe AMD support a key role for macrophages in the pathogenesis and progression of the disease. A larger, quantitative study evaluating the distribution of macrophage subpopulations in postmortem AMD eyes is warranted.

  13. Treatment of dry eye with traditional Chinese medicine :A Meta-analysis%中医药治疗干眼症疗效的Meta分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芬; 彭清华; 姚小磊; 王方

    2011-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in the treatment of dry eye by Meta-analysis. Methods The e-lectronic bibliographic databases were searched, including Cochrane library, Pubmed, CBM(from 1997 to 2009) ,VIP(from 1999 to 2010) and CNKI (from 1999 to 2010) ,the randomized controlled trials of TCM treatment compared with Western medicine treatment of the dry eye were assembled. Data were extracted and evaluated by two reviewers independently with a designed extraction formation by Meta-analysis based on the Cochrane net suggestion. Results A total of 18 randomized controlled trials involving 1 728 patients were included. After the treatment,the results of Meta-analyses showed that the TCM treatment significantly increased the BUT in the treatment group of five studies [ WMD = 1. 47,95% CI (1. 02,1. 92) ], TCM treatment significantly increased the Schirmer I test( SIt) in the treatment group of four studies[ WMD = 1.95,95% CI( 1. 23, 2. 68) ] ,TCM treatment could significantly improve the overall efficacy[ OR =4. 16,95% CI( 3.18,5.43) ]. Conclusions The available studies show that compared with Western medicine,TCM treatment for dry eye can increase the BUT and the SIt,also improve the overall efficacy. But owing to the limited studies and few number of TCM treatment for dry eye,the large sample and multicenter randomized controlled trial is still needed to verify the superiority of TCM for dry eye.%目的 运用Meta分析法系统评价中医药治疗干眼症的疗效.方法 按Cochrane系统评价方法,计算机检索Cochranelibrary、Pubmed、CBM(1997-2009)、CNKI(1999-2010)、VIP(1999-2010)数据库,纳入中医药治疗干眼症的随机及半随机对照试验,并按Cochrane协作网推荐的方法进行质量评价、资料提取和Meta分析.结果 共纳入18个随机对照研究文献,包括1728例患者.Meta分析结果显示:BUT的测定:5个研究的治疗组在疗程结束后的BUT延

  14. A method to reduce patient's eye lens dose in neuro-interventional radiology procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, M. J.; Wong, J. H. D.; Kadir, K. A. A.; Sani, F. M.; Ng, K. H.

    2016-08-01

    Complex and prolonged neuro-interventional radiology procedures using the biplane angiography system increase the patient's risk of radiation-induced cataract. Physical collimation is the most effective way of reducing the radiation dose to the patient's eye lens, but in instances where collimation is not possible, an attenuator may be useful in protecting the eyes. In this study, an eye lens protector was designed and fabricated to reduce the radiation dose to the patients' eye lens during neuro-interventional procedures. The eye protector was characterised before being tested on its effectiveness in a simulated aneurysm procedure on an anthropomorphic phantom. Effects on the automatic dose rate control (ADRC) and image quality are also evaluated. The eye protector reduced the radiation dose by up to 62.1% at the eye lens. The eye protector is faintly visible in the fluoroscopy images and increased the tube current by a maximum of 3.7%. It is completely invisible in the acquisition mode and does not interfere with the clinical procedure. The eye protector placed within the radiation field of view was able to reduce the radiation dose to the eye lens by direct radiation beam of the lateral x-ray tube with minimal effect on the ADRC system.

  15. Endophthalmitis after tooth extraction in a patient with previous perforating eye injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogurel, Tevfik; Onaran, Zafer; Ogurel, Reyhan; Örnek, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this stuty is to describe a case of endophthalmitis after tooth extraction in a patient with previous perforating eye injury. 50 years old male patient attempted to our clinic with complaints of sudden severe pain, reduced vision, light sensitivity and redness in the right eye. The patient stated that severe pain in his eye began approximately 12 hours following tooth extraction. The patient's ocular examination revealed a visual acuity of hand motion in the right eye. Anterior segment examination of the right eye showed intense conjunctival hyperemia, chemosis, a fine keraticprespitat and corneal edema. Dental procedures of the patients who had recently underwent ocular surgery or trauma should be done in a more controlled manner under anti -infective therapy or should be postponed in elective procedures.

  16. Upper eyelid entropion and dry eye in cicatricial trachoma without trichiasis Entrópio de pálpebra superior e olho seco no tracoma cicatricial sem triquíase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abrahão Lucena

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: to evaluate the position of the upper eyelid margin and eye surface status in cicatricial trachoma without trichiasis (TS. METHODS: Slit-lamp biomicroscopy was employed to evaluate the location of the upper lid mucocutaneous transition of 156 eyes of 78 patients with trichiasis and of 130 eyes of 65 control subjects. For each eye the position of the upper lid mucocutaneous junction was graded with respect to the line of meibomian gland orifices into 3 categories: a anterior, b at the line, and c posterior to the line. Ocular surface dye staining with lissamine green was performed in all eyes. All participants answered a questionnaire with queries on the presence and intensity of dry eye symptoms. RESULTS: In the eyes with trichiasis the location of the mucocutaneous transition was posterior to the meibomian gland line in 55 (35.3%, at the line in 77 (49.4% and anterior to the line in only 24 (15.4%. In the control group these figures were: 5 (3.8%; 42 (42% and 83 (63.8%. Lissamine staining and dry eye symptoms were also associated with trichiasis. CONCLUSION: Different degrees of upper lid entropion are already present in cicatricial trachoma even in the absence of trichiasis. Trichiasis is associated with lissamine green staining and dry eye symptoms. Conjunctivalization of the upper lid margin may play a role in the development of trachomatous dry eye.OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a posição da margem palpebral superior e a superfície ocular no tracoma cicatricial sem triquíase (TS. MÉTODOS: A localização da transição mucocutânea da pálpebra superior foi avaliada com lâmpada de fenda em 156 olhos de 78 pacientes com triquíase e de 130 olhos de 65 controles. A posição da transição mucocutânea foi classificada em relação à linha das glândulas de Meibômio em três categorias: a anterior, b sobre a linha e c posterior a linha. A superfície ocular de todos os olhos foi avaliada com verde de lissamina. Todos os participantes

  17. Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY: impact of an eye health education program on patient knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhodes LA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lindsay A Rhodes,1 Carrie E Huisingh,1 Gerald McGwin Jr,1,2 Stephen T Mennemeyer,3 Mary Bregantini,4 Nita Patel,4 Jinan Saaddine,5 John E Crews,5 Christopher A Girkin,1 Cynthia Owsley11Department of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine, 2Department of Epidemiology, 3Department of Health Care Organization and Policy, School of Public Health, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL, 4Prevent Blindness, Chicago, IL, USA; 5Vision Health Initiative, Division of Diabetes Translation, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USAPurpose: To assess the impact of the education program of the Eye Care Quality and Accessibility Improvement in the Community (EQUALITY telemedicine program on at-risk patients’ knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care as well as to assess patient satisfaction with EQUALITY.Patients and methods: New or existing patients presenting for a comprehensive eye exam (CEE at one of two retail-based primary eye clinics were enrolled based on ≥1 of the following at-risk criteria for glaucoma: African Americans ≥40 years of age, Whites ≥50 years of age, diabetes, family history of glaucoma, and/or preexisting diagnosis of glaucoma. A total of 651 patients were enrolled. A questionnaire was administered prior to the patients’ CEE and prior to the patients receiving any of the evidence-based eye health education program; a follow-up questionnaire was administered 2–4 weeks later by phone. Baseline and follow-up patient responses regarding knowledge about glaucoma and attitudes about eye care were compared using McNemar’s test. Logistic regression models were used to assess the association of patient-level characteristics with improvement in knowledge and attitudes. Overall patient satisfaction was summarized.Results: At follow-up, all patient responses in the knowledge and attitude domains significantly improved from baseline (P≤0.01 for all questions. Those who were unemployed (odds

  18. Investigation of retinal microstructure in healthy eyes and dry age-related macular degeneration using a combined AO-OCT-SLO system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells-Gray, Elaine M.; Choi, Stacey S.; Ohr, Matthew; Cebulla, Colleen M.; Doble, Nathan

    2017-02-01

    Combined adaptive optics (AO) optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) imaging allows simultaneous en face and cross sectional views of the retina. We describe improvements to our AO-OCT-SLO system and highlight its resolution capability and clinical utility by presenting results from 3 control and 4 dry agerelated macular degeneration (AMD) subjects. From a group of subjects with healthy eyes, OCT A-scans were grouped as originating from cones or rods and were averaged. The resulting reflectance profiles were then used to identify the location of cone and rod segments. Results for rods and cones were compared, with the focus on inner segment (IS) and outer segment (OS) structures and where these cells embed into the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). In the AMD patients, cone IS and OS lengths were measured over and around drusen for two retinal regions (fovea-2° and 2°-4°), and those results were correlated to drusen height. For the fovea-2° region, the drusen height that caused statistically significant shortening of cone ISL and OSL compared to the unaffected adjacent area were 40 μm and 50 μm respectively (p = 0.009, and p region, the equivalent drusen heights that caused significant shortening of segment length were 60 μm for IS (p = 0.017) and 80 μm for OS (p < 0.001)

  19. Pax6 downregulation mediates abnormal lineage commitment of the ocular surface epithelium in aqueous-deficient dry eye disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Ting Chen

    Full Text Available Keratinizing squamous metaplasia (SQM of the ocular surface is a blinding consequence of systemic autoimmune disease and there is no cure. Ocular SQM is traditionally viewed as an adaptive tissue response during chronic keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS that provokes pathological keratinization of the corneal epithelium and fibrosis of the corneal stroma. Recently, we established the autoimmune regulator-knockout (Aire KO mouse as a model of autoimmune KCS and identified an essential role for autoreactive CD4+ T cells in SQM pathogenesis. In subsequent studies, we noted the down-regulation of paired box gene 6 (Pax6 in both human patients with chronic KCS associated with Sjögren's syndrome and Aire KO mice. Pax6 encodes a pleiotropic transcription factor guiding eye morphogenesis during development. While the postnatal function of Pax6 is largely unknown, we hypothesized that its role in maintaining ocular surface homeostasis was disrupted in the inflamed eye and that loss of Pax6 played a functional role in the initiation and progression of SQM. Adoptive transfer of autoreactive T cells from Aire KO mice to immunodeficient recipients confirmed CD4+ T cells as the principal downstream effectors promoting Pax6 downregulation in Aire KO mice. CD4+ T cells required local signaling via Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R1 to provoke Pax6 loss, which prompted a switch from corneal-specific cytokeratin, CK12, to epidermal-specific CK10. The functional role of Pax6 loss in SQM pathogenesis was indicated by the reversal of SQM and restoration of ocular surface homeostasis following forced expression of Pax6 in corneal epithelial cells using adenovirus. Thus, tissue-restricted restoration of Pax6 prevented aberrant epidermal-lineage commitment suggesting adjuvant Pax6 gene therapy may represent a novel therapeutic approach to prevent SQM in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases of the ocular surface.

  20. Corneal-protective effects of an artificial tear containing sodium hyaluronate and castor oil on a porcine short-term dry eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Takashi; Amako, Hideki; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Tazawa, Mariko; Sakamoto, Yuji

    2014-09-01

    The corneal-protective effects of an artificial tear containing sodium hyaluronate (SH) and castor oil (CO) were evaluated on a porcine short-term dry eye model. Fresh porcine eyes with an intact cornea were treated with an artificial tear of saline, SH solution (0.1%, 0.5% or 1%), CO solution (0.5%, 1% or 5%) or a mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO and then desiccated for 60, 90 or 180 min. To assess corneal damage, the eyes were stained with methylene blue (MB) or lissamine green (LG). The staining score of MB, absorbance of MB extracted from the cornea and staining density of LG increased significantly with increasing desiccation time in untreated and all artificial tear-treated eyes, although there were no significant differences in staining scores and absorbance of MB between eyes treated continuously with saline and 1% SH-treated ones at 60 and 90 min of desiccation or the mixture-treated eyes at 60 min of desiccation. No significant differences in the staining density of LG were also found between continuous saline-treated eyes and ones desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. Mild cytoplasmic vacuolations were histopathologically observed in the basal and wing cells in eyes desiccated for 60 min and treated with 1% SH and the mixture. The mixture solution containing 0.5% SH and 1% CO has protective effects against corneal desiccation similar to those of 1% SH and would be helpful as an artificial tear.

  1. Examining the relationship between hormone therapy and dry-eye syndrome in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlAwlaqi, Ahmed; Hammadeh, Mohamed

    2016-05-01

    To examine the relationship between hormone therapy (HT) and dry-eye syndrome (DES) in postmenopausal women. A cross-sectional study was performed on 360 postmenopausal women. They were grouped into two groups. Group 1 was the control group (n = 189) without DES symptoms and which did not receive HT. Group 2 (n = 177) consisted of women with DES symptoms. Group 2 was randomly grouped into two further categories-group 2A (n = 90) that received estrogen-only HT, and group 2B (n = 87) in which participants were treated with a combination of estrogen and progesterone HT. The severity of symptom levels was determined using the Ocular Surface Disease Index levels that identify the extent of the relationship between the sex hormones and DES. A further comparison of the severity of symptoms among women using HT and those not using HT was used to establish the relationship between HT and DES in postmenopausal women. There was a significant variation in the severity levels of DES across women not using HT and those who were using HT (group 2A and 2B) (F[2, 357] = 974.186, P 1 mg/d) across women using HT (group 2A and 2B) (F[2, 357] = 302.513, P women using HT (group 2A and 2B) (F[3, 356] = 218.266, P women. Instead, prolonged HT use seems to increase the risk of DES.

  2. Nanomolar-Potency Aminophenyl-1,3,5-triazine Activators of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) Chloride Channel for Prosecretory Therapy of Dry Eye Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sujin; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Felix, Christian M; Tan, Joseph-Anthony; Levin, Marc H; Verkman, Alan S

    2017-02-09

    Dry eye disorders are a significant health problem for which limited therapeutic options are available. CFTR is a major prosecretory chloride channel at the ocular surface. We previously identified, by high-throughput screening, aminophenyl-1,3,5-triazine CFTRact-K089 (1) that activated CFTR with EC50 ≈ 250 nM, which when delivered topically increased tear fluid secretion in mice and showed efficacy in an experimental dry eye model. Here, functional analysis of aminophenyl-1,3,5-triazine analogs elucidated structure-activity relationships for CFTR activation and identified substantially more potent analogs than 1. The most potent compound, 12, fully activated CFTR chloride conductance with EC50 ≈ 30 nM, without causing cAMP or calcium elevation. 12 was rapidly metabolized by hepatic microsomes, which supports its topical use. Single topical administration of 25 pmol of 12 increased tear volume in wild-type mice with sustained action for 8 h and was without effect in CFTR-deficient mice. Topically delivered 12 may be efficacious in human dry eye diseases.

  3. Application of Essential Fatty Acids in the Treatment of Dry Eye%必需脂肪酸在干眼治疗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙冰(综述); 傅少颖(审校)

    2014-01-01

    必需脂肪酸( EFAs)在人体中担任重要角色,它们构成细胞的脂质双分子层,影响其流动性,组成受体,进行信号转导和细胞膜的再生循环。研究发现,EFAs有抗炎作用,可能构成不同疾病病理过程的潜在联系。在眼科研究中发现,EFAs对干眼的治疗有一定作用。该文就EFAs的来源、生化、作用等方面论述对干眼的作用。%Essential fatty acids( EFAs) play an important role in the human body,they form the lipid bi-layer of the cell,affect its liquidity,compose receptors,make signal transduction and cell membrane regenera-tion cycle. The study found that the essential fatty acids have anti-inflammatory effects,may constitute a po-tential link in different pathological processes of diseases. Essential fatty acids have a role in the treatment of dry eye in ophthalmic research. Essential fatty acids have a role in the treatment of dry eye in ophthalmic re-search. This review discusses the role of essential fatty acids in dry eye from the source, biochemistry and re-action.

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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  5. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... vision. The tear film is made of three layers: An oily layer A watery layer A mucus layer Each layer of the tear film serves a purpose. The oily layer is the outside of the tear film. It ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

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  7. What Is Dry Eye?

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  11. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision Subspecialties Cataract/ ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

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  13. 圆锥角膜配戴透气性角膜接触镜相关性干眼疗效评价%The therapeutic efficiency on dry eye in keratoconus wearing rigid gas permeable contact lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕天斌; 石迎辉; 覃建

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic efficiency of vitamin A palmitate eye gel on dry eye in keratoconus wearing rigid gas permeable contact lens (RGP).Methods Ninety cases of dry eye related to wearing RGP in keratoconus were randomly divided into 3 groups,each group of 30 cases (60 eyes):group A used artificial tear eye drop,1 drop each time,6 times on first; group B used vitamin A palmitate eye gel,1 drop each time,3 times on first; group C used artificial tear eye drop first and used vitamin A palmitate eye gel 15 minutes later.All cases had been detected and evaluated by subjective symptoms of dry eye,break-up time (BUT),Schirmer Ⅰ test (SⅠT) and corneal fluorescent staining (Fl),at pre-therapy and 3,7,14 days of post-therapy.Results The subjective symptoms of dry eye,FI and BUT of three groups had been more improved at 7 days after therapy than pre-therapy (P <0.05).SⅠT of three groups hadn't significant difference after therapy (P >0.05).The each index when measured on day 7 and day 14 had no significant difference in patients of each group (P >0.05).There was no significant difference in subjective symptoms,BUT and SIT between group A and group B (P >0.05),except Fl (P <0.05).Group C in improving the subjective symptoms of dry eye,BUT,and Fl stain was better than group A (P <0.05).SⅠT and Fl compared pre and post therapy had no significant difference between group B and group C (P >0.05).But in improving the subjective symptoms of dry eye and BUT,group C was superior to group B (P <0.05).Conclusions Vitamin A palmitate can promote the repair of corneal epithelial defects and significantly improve dry eye patients' symptoms and signs in keratoconus wearing RGP,so it has clinical application value.%目的 观察维生素A棕榈酸酯眼用凝胶对圆锥角膜配戴硬性透气性角膜接触镜(RGP)相关性干眼症的临床疗效.方法 将90例透气性角膜接触镜相关性干眼症圆锥角膜患者随机分为3组,每组30

  14. Progression of research for the association between sex hormones and dry eye%性激素与干眼的相关性研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林通; 龚岚

    2014-01-01

    Researches of the correlation between sex hormones and dry eye have been concerned early.Ocular surface inflammation,epithelial apoptosis and anormal expression of tear lipocalin and lipid may be important pathogenetic factors of various types of dry eye,and variedness of sex hormone level may have a certain correlation with these factors.The alteration of structure and function of tear film is the direct reason for dry eye.The change of sex hormone level likely gives influence to tear composition and pathological variation of related ocular surface tissues,then affects the structure and function of tear film,and finally lead to dry eye.Different sex hormones give certain different moderating effects to related ocular surface organization,so the recent correlational study of sex hormones and dry eye can be summarized in terms of androgen and estrogen,as these two sex hormones have certain impacts on tear composition and ocular surface organization respectively.%性激素与干眼的相关性研究较早就受到关注.眼表的炎症反应、上皮细胞凋亡、脂钙蛋白、脂质成分的表达异常可能是各种类型干眼发病的重要因素,而性激素水平的变化可能与这些改变有一定的相关性.泪膜结构和功能的异常是干眼发生的直接原因.性激素水平的变化可能对泪液成分和相关眼表组织的病理改变产生一定影响,进而影响泪膜的结构和功能,最终形成干眼.雄性和雌性激素对相关眼表组织的调节作用有一定的差异性,因此从雄激素和雌激素分别对泪液成分及相关眼表组织影响出发,对近年来性激素与干眼相关性研究进行概述.

  15. Dominant Eye and Visual Evoked Potential of Patients with Myopic Anisometropia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A prospective nonrandomized controlled study was conducted to explore the association between ocular dominance and degree of myopia in patients with anisometropia and to investigate the character of visual evoked potential (VEP in high anisometropias. 1771 young myopia cases including 790 anisometropias were recruited. We found no significant relation between ocular dominance and spherical equivalent (SE refraction in all subjects. On average for subjects with anisometropia 1.0–1.75 D, there was no significant difference in SE power between dominant and nondominant eyes, while, in SE anisometropia ≥1.75 D group, the degree of myopia was significantly higher in nondominant eyes than in dominant eyes. The trend was more significant in SE anisometropia ≥2.5 D group. There was no significant difference in higher-order aberrations between dominant eye and nondominant eye either in the whole study candidates or in any anisometropia groups. In anisometropias >2.0 D, the N75 latency of nondominant eye was longer than that of dominant eye. Our results suggested that, with the increase of anisometropia, nondominant eye had a tendency of higher refraction and N75 wave latency of nondominant eye was longer than that of dominant eye in high anisometropias.

  16. EYE DISEASE IN NEWLY-DIAGNOSED LEPROSY PATIENTS IN EASTERN NEPAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUBBERS, WJ; SCHIPPER, A; HOGEWEG, M; DESOLDENHOFF, R

    1994-01-01

    To determine the magnitude of eye lesions in newly diagnosed leprosy patients we examined their eyes. The Eastern Leprosy Control Project was supported by The Netherlands Leprosy Relief Association; we used the regional clinic in Biratnagar and 5 mobile clinics in surrounding districts as our survey

  17. EYE DISEASE IN NEWLY-DIAGNOSED LEPROSY PATIENTS IN EASTERN NEPAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUBBERS, WJ; SCHIPPER, A; HOGEWEG, M; DESOLDENHOFF, R

    To determine the magnitude of eye lesions in newly diagnosed leprosy patients we examined their eyes. The Eastern Leprosy Control Project was supported by The Netherlands Leprosy Relief Association; we used the regional clinic in Biratnagar and 5 mobile clinics in surrounding districts as our survey

  18. Eye models for the prediction of contrast vision in patients with new intraocular lens designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piers, Patricia A.; Sverker Norrby, N. E.; Mester, Ulrich

    2004-04-01

    Theoretical calculations of the polychromatic modulation transfer function (MTF) and wave-front aberration were performed with physiological eye models. These eye models have an amount of spherical aberration that is representative of a normal population of pseudophakic eyes implanted with two different types of intraocular lens (IOL) made from high-refractive-index silicone. These theoretical calculations were compared with the measured contrast sensitivity function (CSF) under mesopic lighting conditions and with wave-front aberration (obtained with a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor) collected from 37 patients bilaterally implanted with the same types of lens. The relationships between the ocular wave-front aberration and the MTF predicted by the eye models and the CSF and the ocular wave-front aberration measured in eyes implanted with IOLs were investigated. The predicted improvements in MTF and wave-front aberration correlated well with the improvements measured in practice. Physiological eye models are therefore useful tools for IOL design.

  19. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder in patients with narcolepsy is associated with hypocretin-1 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Stine; Gammeltoft, Steen; Jennum, Poul J

    2010-01-01

    variables were analysed in relation to cataplexy and hypocretin deficiency with uni- and multivariate logistic/linear regression models, controlling for possible rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder biasing factors (age, gender, disease duration, previous anti-cataplexy medication). Only hypocretin......Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is characterized by dream-enacting behaviour and impaired motor inhibition during rapid eye movement sleep. Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder is commonly associated with neurodegenerative disorders, but also reported in narcolepsy with cataplexy....... Most narcolepsy with cataplexy patients lack the sleep-wake, and rapid eye movement sleep, motor-regulating hypocretin neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. In contrast, rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder and hypocretin deficiency are rare in narcolepsy without cataplexy. We hypothesized...

  20. Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking in Pellucid Marginal Degeneration: 2 Patients, 4 Eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serife Bayraktar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To report the long-term results of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL with riboflavin and ultraviolet-A irradiation in 4 eyes of 2 patients affected by pellucid marginal degeneration (PMD. Methods. This study involved the retrospective analysis of 4 eyes of 2 patients with PMD that underwent CXL treatment. Of the eyes, three had only CXL treatment and one had CXL treatment after an intrastromal corneal ring segment implantation. We have pre- and postoperatively evaluated uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA, best corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA, corneal topography (Pentacam, specular microscopy, and pachymetry. Results. Patient 1 was a woman, aged 35, and Patient 2 was a man, aged 33. The right eye of Patient 1 showed an improvement in her BCDVA, from 16/40 to 18/20 in 15 months, and her left eye improved from 12/20 to 18/20 in 20 months. Patient 2’s right eye showed an improvement in his BCDVA, from 18/20 to 20/20 in 43 months, and his left eye improved from 16/20 to 18/20 in 22 months. No complications were recorded during or after the treatment. Conclusion. CXL is a safe tool for the management of PMD, and it can help to stop the progression of this disease.

  1. Research progress in pathogenesis,prevention and treatment of drug-induced dry eye disorders%药源性干眼症发生发展机制及防治研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白芳; 陶海; 王朋

    2016-01-01

    药源性干眼症可致眼表潜在损伤,主要临床表现为眼部干涩、烧灼感、异物感、眼痒、眼红、畏光、视物模糊等,影响患者生活质量。引起药源性干眼症的药物包括全身使用的抗胆碱能药物如抗精神病药、抗组胺和减充血剂、激素、化疗药、抗病毒药、抗疟疾药、抗风湿药、螯合剂、神经毒素;眼周及眼局部使用的含或不含防腐剂的滴眼液及肉毒素等。药源性干眼症的发病机制与上述药物导致腺体分泌减少、影响水液层和黏蛋白层分泌、干扰泪膜脂质层使脂质分泌量减少、泪膜不稳定,诱发炎性反应损伤结膜杯状细胞、眼睑腺体、结膜及角膜,以及降低角膜感觉程度、减少传入神经冲动使泪液生成减少等有关。应避免不必要的全身或局部多重用药,确诊药源性干眼症后应停用有关药物或换用致干眼症不良反应程度较低的药物。%Drug-induced dry eye disorders may cause potential damage to the ocular surface which can seriously decrease the quality of life of patients. The main clinical manifestations include eye dryness, burning-like feeling,foreign body sensation,itching,redness,photophobia,and blurred vision. The common drugs causing drug-induced dry eye disorders include systemic anticholinergic drugs such as psychotropic drugs,antihistamines and decongestant,steroids,chemotherapeutic drugs,antiviral drug,anti-malarial,antirheumatic agents,chelating agent,and neurotoxin. The drug for local application around the eye include eye drops and botox with or without preservative. The main mechanisms of drug-induced dry eye disorders may involve decrease of glandular secretion,affecting the aqueous layer and mucin layer;disturbing the stabilization of tear lipid layer and decreasing the lipid secretory volume;inducing the inflammatory reaction which damages the conjunctival goblet cells,eyelid glands,conjunctiva and cornea;reducing the

  2. Analysis of the dry eye syndrome-related factors and outcomes of clinical intervention%眼干燥综合征相关因素分析及临床干预的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张莉莉; 周莉; 徐唐; 周群

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨眼干燥综合征(干眼症)的相关因素和临床干预效果.方法 干眼症患者218例,随机均分为干预组(A组,常规给予病因治疗、泪液治疗及系统的临床干预)和对照组(B组,仅常规给予病因治疗和泪液治疗),比较两组治疗2周后的泪液功能试验( SIT)、泪膜破裂时间(TBUT)、角膜荧光染色检查(FL)和自我测评等指标.结果 视频终端综合征或看书为干眼症相关的主要因素,占45.41%(99/218),其次分别为闭经或泪腺萎缩老化占37.16%(81/218),眼表手术或用药占33.49%(73/218),户外工作或户外运动者占29.36%(64/218),佩戴隐形眼镜占21.56%(47/218),饮食结构(维生素A缺乏)占7.34%(16/218).A组SIT、TBUT、FL和自我测评评分均明显高于B组(P<0.05).结论 干眼症的相关因素是多方面的,科学、有效的实施临床干预能减轻干眼症患者的症状.%Objective To investigate the dry eye-related factors and the outcomes of clinical intervention. Methods A total of 218 patients with dry eye was randomly divided into two groups of A (given clinical interventions of etiological treatment, tear treatment and the system clinical intervention) and B(treated with etiological treatment and tear treatment only as the control). After treated for two weeks,the Schirmer I test(SIT),tear film break-up time(TBUT),fluorescin staining of cornea(FL) and self-assessment scores were compared between two groups. Results Of the factors related to dry eye syndrome, Vidio end syndrome or reading acounted for 45.41% (99/218), menisschesis and lacrimal atrophy for 37.16%(81/218),surgery or drug administration on the eye surface for 33. 49% (73/218), outdoor working or exercise for 29. 36% (64/218), contact glasses wearing for 21. 56% (47/218), lack of vitamine A for 7. 34% (16/218). The SIT, TBUT, FL and self-assessment scores were all significantly higher in group A than those in group B ( P<0. 05 ) . Conclusion The factors related to

  3. How detrimental is eye movement during photorefractive keratectomy to the patient's postoperative vision?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Natalie M.; van Saarloos, Paul P.; Eikelboom, Robert H.

    2000-06-01

    This study aimed to gauge the effect of the patient's eye movement during Photo Refractive Keratectomy (PRK) on post- operative vision. A computer simulation of both the PRK procedure and the visual outcome has been performed. The PRK simulation incorporated the pattern of movement of the laser beam to perform a given correction, the beam characteristics, an initial corneal profile, and an eye movement scenario; and generated the corrected corneal profile. The regrowth of the epithelium was simulated by selecting the smoothing filter which, when applied to a corrected cornea with no patient eye movement, produced similar ray tracing results to the original corneal model. Ray tracing several objects, such as letters of various contrast and sizes was performed to assess the quality of the post-operative vision. Eye movement scenarios included no eye movement, constant decentration and normally distributed random eye movement of varying magnitudes. Random eye movement of even small amounts, such as 50 microns reduces the contrast sensitivity of the image. Constant decentration decenters the projected image on the retina, and in extreme cases can lead to astigmatism. Eye movements of the magnitude expected during laser refractive surgery have minimal effect on the final visual outcome.

  4. Effect of corneal flaps at different positions of the dry eye after femtosecond%不同角膜瓣位置对飞秒激光术后干眼的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵波; 杨雪飞

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨飞秒激光在同一个体制作不同方位角膜瓣与术后干眼发生率的关系.方法 临床病例对照研究.对2014年8~12月在天津爱尔眼科医院将30例(60只眼)预行飞秒激光的男性近视患者,年龄18~35岁,平均(24.78±4.08)岁,按眼别分为两组:A组鼻侧瓣(30只眼),等效球镜为(-5.39±1.87)D:B组上方瓣(30只眼),等效球镜为(-5.02±1.32)D.观察同一个体双眼在术前、术后1周、1个月、3个月角膜荧光染色、泪膜破裂时间检查、Schirmer Ⅰ试验的结果,应用SPSS1 7.0进行统计学分析.结果 术前两组角膜荧光染色、BUT和Schirmer Ⅰ试验比较结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);术后1周、1个月,两组比较结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);术后3个月与术前比较结果差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 就同一个体而言,飞秒激光制作角膜瓣方位的选择对术后干眼影响不大,且术后干眼恢复的时间较传统手术快.%Objective TTo investigate the relationship between different position femtosecond laser corneal flap and the incidence of postoperative dry eye in the same individual.Methods Male with myopia patients of 30 patients (60 eyes) received femtosecond laser,aged 18-35 (averaged age of 24.78 ± 4.08),were divided into two groups according to the left and right eye:group A of nasal flap (30 eyes),spherical equivalent was (-5.39±1.87)D; group B of superior flap (30 eyes),spherical equivalent was (-5.02±1.32)D.Corneal fluorescein staining,tear film break-up time check,Schirmer Ⅰ test results in the same individual eyes were observed preoperative and postoperative of 1 week,1 month,3 months.Comparative analysis was used SPSS software.Results The preoperative corneal fluorescein staining,BUT and Schirrner Ⅰ test comparison of two groups showed no significant difference (P > 0.05); after 1 week,1 month,the two groups showed no significant difference (P >0.05); after 3 months compared with the

  5. Central retinal venous pressure in eyes of normal-tension glaucoma patients with optic disc hemorrhage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Eun Kim

    Full Text Available To compare central retinal venous pressure (CRVP among eyes with and without optic disc hemorrhage (ODH in bilateral normal-tension glaucoma (NTG patients and NTG eyes without an episode of ODH.In this prospective study, 22 bilateral NTG patients showing a unilateral ODH and 29 bilateral NTG patients without an episode of ODH were included. Eyes were categorized into group A (n = 22, eyes with ODH, group B (n = 22, fellow eyes without ODH, and group C (n = 29, NTG eyes without an episode of ODH. A contact lens ophthalmodynamometer was used to measure CRVP and central retinal arterial pressure (CRAP.Intraocular pressure (IOP measured on the day of contact lens ophthalmodynamometry showed no difference among groups. However, the mean baseline IOP in group A was significantly lower than that in group C (P = .008. The CRVP in group A (29.1 ± 10.8 mmHg was significantly lower than that in group C (40.1 ± 8.8 mmHg, P = .001, but similar to that in group B (30.5 ± 8.7 mmHg, P = .409. A similar relationship was noted for CRAP. No significant eye-associated variable for ODH was found in group A and B by conditional logistic regression analysis (all P > 0.05. However, multivariate logistic regression analysis in groups A and C revealed that low mean baseline IOP (odds ratio [OR] = 0.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.49-0.98, P = 0.043 and low CRVP (OR = 0.88, 95% CI 0.80-0.95, P = 0.003 were associated with ODH.CRVP was lower in NTG eyes with ODH than in eyes without an episode of ODH, but similar to that of fellow eyes without ODH. These imply less likelihood of association between increased central retinal venous resistance and ODH.

  6. Assessment and management of patients with acute red eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkinson, Sue

    2013-06-01

    This article provides an overview of the role of the nurse in the assessment and management of five ocular conditions that give rise to an acute red eye in older people. The conditions discussed are acute closed angle glaucoma, acute iritis, acute conjunctivitis, herpes zoster ophthalmicus and bacterial corneal ulcer.

  7. Experience of ZOU Ju-sheng in Treatment of Dry Eye%邹菊生老师治疗干眼症经验总结

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董志国; 张殷建

    2011-01-01

    ZOU Ju-sheng teacher applied modern anatomy and traditional organs Classification to explore the etiology and pathogenesis of dry eye,and use of ophthalmic XuanFu theory, combined with LunZang relevant theories,using propaganda through the eye of the law of XuanFu to cure disease,available better effect.%邹菊生老师运用现代解剖与传统脏腑分属方式探寻干眼症的病因病机,并运用眼科玄府理论,结合轮脏相关学说,采用宣通眼部玄府之法论治本病,获得了较好疗效.

  8. Comparison of topical dry eye medications for the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca in a botulinum toxin B-induced mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekhanont, Kaevalin; Leyngold, Ilya M; Suwan-Apichon, Olan; Rangsin, Ram; Chuck, Roy S

    2007-01-01

    To compare the effects of topical dry eye medications including anti-inflammatory agents and lubricant eyedrops for the treatment of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS) in a botulinum toxin B (BTX-B)-induced mouse model. CBA mice were randomized into 10 groups. The first 5 groups received a transconjunctival injection of saline into the lacrimal gland, and the remaining groups were injected with 0.05 mL of 20 mU BTX-B. Each group received treatment with 0.1% fluorometholone (FML), 0.05% cyclosporine A (CsA), a 50:50 combination of FML and CsA, artificial tears, or saline 3 days after injections. Tear production, corneal staining, and blink rate were compared in each of the 10 groups. Tear production in BTX-B-injected CsA-treated, FML-treated, and combined-treated groups started to return to baseline level within 2 weeks of treatment, whereas those treated with saline or artificial tears still exhibited reduction of lacrimation up to 4 weeks after injection. Topical FML significantly reversed the staining score within 1 week of treatment. The improvement of corneal staining in BTX-B-challenged combined-treated and CsA-treated groups occurred later within 2 weeks after treatment. No significant improvement in corneal staining was observed for the BTX-B-injected mice treated with artificial tears or saline. No significant changes were noted in blink frequency between the control and study groups undergoing the various dry eye therapies. The therapeutic effects of dry eye medications in a BTX-B-induced mouse model of KCS are similar to the human response.

  9. The Youngest Patient with Bilateral Keratoconus Secondary to Chronic Persistent Eye Rubbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunes, Alime; Tok, Levent; Tok, Özlem; Seyrek, Lütfi

    2015-01-01

    We present the case of a four-year-old girl with bilateral keratoconus secondary to chronic persistent eye rubbing. She was referred to our clinic with intractable ocular itching and low vision. According to her family, she was generally rubbing her eyes. On slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination, bilateral papillary reactions were seen on the upper tarsal conjunctiva. Clinical examination and corneal topography were compatible with keratoconus. The patient's visual acuity was not evaluated because of cooperation difficulties. Systemic examination was normal. In fact, trauma may be the common underlying factor in eye rubbing and may cause development of keratoconus, even in the early years. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest patient with bilateral keratoconus secondary to chronic persistent eye rubbing in the literature. Keratoconus should be kept in mind in patients with severe ocular itching, even in small children.

  10. Risk of pseudophakic retinal detachment in 202 226 patients using the fellow nonoperated eye as reference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerrum, Søren S; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; La Cour, Morten

    2013-01-01

    To study the risk of pseudophakic retinal detachment (PRD) after first-eye phacoemulsification cataract surgery in Denmark relative to the risk of retinal detachment (RD) in the patients' fellow nonoperated eyes.......To study the risk of pseudophakic retinal detachment (PRD) after first-eye phacoemulsification cataract surgery in Denmark relative to the risk of retinal detachment (RD) in the patients' fellow nonoperated eyes....

  11. [The active search for occupational diseases in the engineering industries. Diseases associated with exposure to welding activities in optical radiation: dry eye syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messineo, A; Leone, M; Sanna, S; Arrigoni, E; Teodori, C; Pecorella, I; Imperatore, A; Villarini, S; Macchiaroli, S

    2011-01-01

    In the project of active research of occupational diseases was conducted a study on 45 welders in the engineering companies, with particular attention to the hazards of exposure to the optical radiation. The protocol used involved the execution of Breack Up test, Schirmer test, corneal staining and scraping cytology. It revealed that more than half of the welders had ocular lesions referable to their work activity as well as some permanent functional damages with the characters of dry eye syndrome. None of these diseases, which could alert for medical-legal and insurance, was highlighted by the occupational health physician.

  12. Just-in-time patient scheduling in an eye care clinic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campbell, Matthew; Vanberkel, Peter; Blake, J.

    2007-01-01

    The IWK’s division of Ophthalmology currently provides clinical service to over 8000 patients per year. Eye Care Centre patients were experiencing long waits between registration and their ophthalmologist appointment. This paper details the development of a patient scheduling methodology that utiliz

  13. Eye Movement Impairment Recovery in a Gaucher Patient Treated with Miglustat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostino Accardo

    2010-01-01

    Two sisters, presenting the same genotype (R353G/R353G, were diagnosed as suffering from GD; one of them later developed neurological alterations identified by quantitative saccadic eye movements analysis. The aim of the study was to quantitatively measure the miglustat effects in this GD neurological patient. Eye movement analysis during subsequent controls was performed by estimating the characteristic parameters of saccadic main sequence. The study demonstrates that the SRT alone can be effective in GD3. Moreover, it confirms that quantitative eye movement analysis is able to precociously identify also slight neurological alterations, permitting more accurate GD classification.

  14. Longitudinal strain bull's eye plot patterns in patients with cardiomyopathy and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dan; Hu, Kai; Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Störk, Stefan; Weidemann, Frank

    2016-05-10

    Despite substantial advances in the imaging techniques and pathophysiological understanding over the last decades, identification of the underlying causes of left ventricular hypertrophy by means of echocardiographic examination remains a challenge in current clinical practice. The longitudinal strain bull's eye plot derived from 2D speckle tracking imaging offers an intuitive visual overview of the global and regional left ventricular myocardial function in a single diagram. The bull's eye mapping is clinically feasible and the plot patterns could provide clues to the etiology of cardiomyopathies. The present review summarizes the longitudinal strain, bull's eye plot features in patients with various cardiomyopathies and concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and the bull's eye plot features might serve as one of the cardiac workup steps on evaluating patients with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  15. Exérese do segmento vertical do canalículo lacrimal na síndrome do olho seco: estudo preliminar Removal of the vertical portion of the lacrimal canaliculus in dry eye syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Forno

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a eficácia e possíveis complicações da remoção do segmento vertical do canalículo lacrimal, em pacientes com síndrome do olho seco grave. MÉTODOS: Seis canalículos de quatro pacientes, 3 dos quais tinham o diagnóstico de olho seco associado à síndrome de Sjögren primária e o quarto, ceratoconjuntivite sicca por remoção completa de glândula lacrimal, foram submetidos a exérese do segmento vertical do canalículo lacrimal. Os critérios de inclusão foram: sinais e sintomas de olho seco que não melhoraram com tratamento clínico, Schirmer menor que 5 mm, rosa bengala corando córnea e conjuntiva e casos de recanalização após eletrocauterização dos pontos. Os pontos lacrimais foram avaliados por exame biomicroscópico após 7, 15, 30, 90 e 180 dias da cirurgia. RESULTADOS: No período de seguimento, nenhum canalículo sofreu recanalização. Em cinco olhos, houve diminuição da ceratite ponteada difusa e dos filamentos corneanos e melhora nos valores do teste de Schirmer e rosa bengala. No olho submetido à remoção completa da glândula lacrimal, a córnea ainda apresentava ceratite ponteada difusa, mesmo após dois meses de cirurgia. Não houve alterações da margem palpebral. CONCLUSÃO: Esta técnica, além de mostrar-se efetiva e simples para oclusão permanente do canalículo lacrimal, não cursou com complicações observadas em outros procedimentos.PURPOSE: To demonstrate the efficacy and possible complications of a surgical technique that includes the removal of the vertical portion of the lacrimal canaliculus in patients with dry eye syndrome. METHODS: A study was performed on six canaliculi of six eyes (four patients. Three patients had dry eye, associated with primary Sjögren syndrome. One of the four patients developed keratoconjuntivitis sicca due to lacrimal gland removal. The criteria included: patients with symptoms of dry eye that did not improve even with the continuous use of

  16. Studies of cytotoxic antibodies against eye muscle antigens in patients with thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.-G.; Hiromatsu, Y.; Salvi, M.; Triller, H.; Bernard, N.; Wall, J.R. (Thyroid Research Unit, The Montreal General Hospital Research Institute, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Medeiros-Neto, G.; Iacona, A.; Lima, N. (Thyroid Clinic, Hospital das Clinicas, Sao Paulo (Brazil))

    1989-01-01

    We have studied the prevalence and significance of cytotoxic antibodies against human eye muscle cells, as detected in antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and complement-mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (CMAC) in {sup 51}Cr release assays, in patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A high prevalence of positive ADCC tests was found in all groups of patients with ophthalmopathy tested. Tests were positive in 64% of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy from an area of severe iodine deficiency (Sao Paulo) and in 64% of such patients from an iodine replete area (Montreal). In patients with so-called ''euthyroid ophthalmopathy'', i.e. eye disease associated with thyroiditis, ADCC tests were positive in 75 and 38% of patients from the two areas, respectively, while tests were positive in 40 and 22%, respectively, of patients with Graves' hyperthyroidism without evident eye disease. In normal subjects, levels of {sup 51}Cr release was always at background levels. In a group of patients from the high-iodine area, levels of antibodies in ADCC correlated positively with the intraocular pressure (mmHg) in primary position as a parameter of eye muscle dysfunction. In patients with ophthalmopathy, positive ADCC tests were assciated with antibodies to eye muscle membrane antigens of 55,65 and 95 kD as detected by immunoblotting, although the correlation was not close for any antigen. in contrast, CMAC tests were negative in all patients with ophthalmopathy. We also tested 9 mouse and 10 human monoclonal antibodies, reactive with orbital antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, for cytotoxic activity, in ADCC and CMAC, against eye muscle and thyroid cells. All monoclonal antibodies were of the IgM class and negative in ADCC assays. (Abstract Truncated)

  17. Epidemiological investigation of dry eye among soldiers in Beijing Armed Police Force%武警某部战士干眼症患病情况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄蒂; 兰雅维; 李洁; 范珊珊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the morbidity of dry eye disease in the Beijing Armed Police Forces,and to evaluate the risk factors attributable to dry eye. Methods A total of 680 outpatients and soldiers stationed near the hospital were recruited from May 2008 to June 2010. After having informed consent from the objects, questionnaires and four dry eye tests were conducted, including fluorescein staining test, break -up time, meibomian gland function, and Schirmer I test. Multivariate conditional logistic regression model was used for analysis of the risk factors. Results The six hundred and eighty soldiers ranged in age from 19 to 25 years ( with a mean of 22.9 years). Dry eye was present in 67 ( 9.85% ) of the study subjects. On analyzing the presenting complaints, the most common complaint was dryness, found in 50(74.62% ) subjects, followed by sense of foreign body in 36(53.73% ) and transient blurred vision in 27(40.29% ), and the most least complaint was ocular pain in 3(4.47% ). The following factors were associated with dry eye in a multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis: meibomian gland dysfunction (P <0.001, B 3. 414, Exp(B)30.375), a history of LASIK (P<0. 001, B2.624, Exp(B) 13.793), the use of eye drop(P <0.001, B2.619, Exp(B) 13.717)and video display terminal(P <0.001, B2.234,Exp(B)9.340). No correlation was found between dry eye sickness and history of keratitis or conjunctivitis. Conclusions Meibomian gland dysfunction, LASIK, and a history of the use of eye drop are the major causes of dry eye among the duty troops in the Armed Police Forces.%目的 了解驻京武警某部战士干眼症患病情况,探讨其发病危险因素.方法 自2008-05至2010-06抽检武警某部共680例执勤战士作为研究对象,在获得知情同意后进行干眼症问卷调查及角膜荧光素染色、泪膜破裂时间(break up time,BUT)试验、睑板腺功能检查、基础泪液分泌试验4项干眼症的客观检查,并分

  18. Multi-channel MRI segmentation of eye structures and tumors using patient-specific features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciller, Carlos; De Zanet, Sandro; Kamnitsas, Konstantinos; Maeder, Philippe; Glocker, Ben; Munier, Francis L; Rueckert, Daniel; Thiran, Jean-Philippe; Bach Cuadra, Meritxell; Sznitman, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    Retinoblastoma and uveal melanoma are fast spreading eye tumors usually diagnosed by using 2D Fundus Image Photography (Fundus) and 2D Ultrasound (US). Diagnosis and treatment planning of such diseases often require additional complementary imaging to confirm the tumor extend via 3D Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In this context, having automatic segmentations to estimate the size and the distribution of the pathological tissue would be advantageous towards tumor characterization. Until now, the alternative has been the manual delineation of eye structures, a rather time consuming and error-prone task, to be conducted in multiple MRI sequences simultaneously. This situation, and the lack of tools for accurate eye MRI analysis, reduces the interest in MRI beyond the qualitative evaluation of the optic nerve invasion and the confirmation of recurrent malignancies below calcified tumors. In this manuscript, we propose a new framework for the automatic segmentation of eye structures and ocular tumors in multi-sequence MRI. Our key contribution is the introduction of a pathological eye model from which Eye Patient-Specific Features (EPSF) can be computed. These features combine intensity and shape information of pathological tissue while embedded in healthy structures of the eye. We assess our work on a dataset of pathological patient eyes by computing the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) of the sclera, the cornea, the vitreous humor, the lens and the tumor. In addition, we quantitatively show the superior performance of our pathological eye model as compared to the segmentation obtained by using a healthy model (over 4% DSC) and demonstrate the relevance of our EPSF, which improve the final segmentation regardless of the classifier employed.

  19. Proficiency of eye drop instillation in postoperative cataract patients in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Y

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Yang Liu,1 Amanda Murdoch,2 Ken Bassett,3 Shafik Dharamsi4 1Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 2Queen’s School of Medicine, Queen’s University, Kingston, ON, Canada; 3Departments of Family Practice and Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; 4Department of Family Practice, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada Objective: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of postoperative instruction on proficiency of eye drop instillation following cataract surgery, and to determine whether such proficiency correlates with the prevalence and/or duration of irritation and pain experienced in operated eyes. Design: This was a prospective, nonrandomized control trial with an educational intervention conducted via a single eye clinic in Accra, Ghana. Participants: The 218 subjects who completed the study were postoperative cataract surgery patients whose surgery had been funded by the nongovernmental organization Unite for Sight. Methods: Patients were evaluated on their ability to administer eye drops correctly on their first attempt on postoperative day one. If unsuccessful, patients were given an educational session that consisted of verbal instructions and an educational video. Both groups (successful and unsuccessful on the first postoperative day were tested again for proficiency on postoperative day 30. The baseline group was evaluated only on postoperative day 30 and consisted of 36 patients. Results: Of the 133 patients who received the educational session on eye drop instillation, 112 (84% exhibited proficiency on postoperative day 30 as compared with 29 of 49 patients (59% who did not receive the intervention. Additionally, there were fewer reports of pain and irritation following cataract extraction in the patients who received the educational session. Conclusion: This study supports the efficacy of patient

  20. TU-E-201-00: Eye Lens Dosimetry for Patients and Staff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2015-06-15

    Madan M. Rehani, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston Methods for Eye Lens Dosimetry and Studies On Lens Opacities with Interventionalists Radiation induced cataract is a major threat among staff working in interventional suites. Nearly 16 million interventional procedures are performed annually in USA. Recent studies by the principal investigator’s group, primarily among interventional cardiologists, on behalf of the International Atomic Energy Agency, show posterior subcapsular (PSC) changes in the eye lens in 38–53% of main operators and 21–45% of support staff. These changes have potential to lead to cataract in future years, as per information from A-Bomb survivors. The International Commission on Radiological Protection has reduced dose limit for staff by a factor of 7.5 (from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y). With increasing emphasis on radiation induced cataracts and reduction in threshold dose for eye lens, there is a need to implement strategies for estimating eye lens dose. Unfortunately eye lens dosimetry is at infancy when it comes to routine application. Various approaches are being tried namely direct measurement using active or passive dosimeters kept close to eyes, retrospective estimations and lastly correlating patient dose in interventional procedures with staff eye dose. The talk will review all approaches available and ongoing active research in this area, as well as data from surveys done in Europe on status of eye dose monitoring in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The talk will provide update on how good is Hp(10) against Hp(3), estimations from CTDI values, Monte Carlo based simulations and current status of eye lens dosimetry in USA and Europe. The cataract risk among patients is in CT examinations of the head. Since radiation induced cataract predominantly occurs in posterior sub-capsular (PSC) region and is thus distinguishable from age or drug related cataracts and is also preventable, actions on

  1. Intercultural communication through the eyes of patients: experiences and preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, E.; Dulmen, S. van; Bank, L.; Seeleman, C.; Scherpbier, A.; Scheele, F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore patients' preferences and experiences regarding intercultural communication which could influence the development of intercultural patient-centred communication training. Methods: This qualitative study is based on interviews with non-native patients. Thirty non-native

  2. Classification of iRBD and Parkinson's disease patients based on eye movements during sleep

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Julie Anja Engelhard; Koch, Henriette; Frandsen, Rune;

    2013-01-01

    Patients suffering from the sleep disorder idiopathic rapid-eye-movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) have been observed to be in high risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). This makes it essential to analyze them in the search for PD biomarkers. This study aims at classifying patients...

  3. DISABILITIES OF HANDS, FEET AND EYES IN NEWLY-DIAGNOSED LEPROSY PATIENTS IN EASTERN NEPAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHIPPER, A; LUBBERS, WJ; HOGEWEG, M; DESOLDENHOFF, R

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude of hand/feet/eye disabilities in newly diagnosed leprosy patients by examining all newly diagnosed leprosy patients who presented at the Eastern Leprosy Control Project (supported by The Netherlands Leprosy Relief Association), made up of a r

  4. DISABILITIES OF HANDS, FEET AND EYES IN NEWLY-DIAGNOSED LEPROSY PATIENTS IN EASTERN NEPAL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHIPPER, A; LUBBERS, WJ; HOGEWEG, M; DESOLDENHOFF, R

    The objective of the study was to determine the magnitude of hand/feet/eye disabilities in newly diagnosed leprosy patients by examining all newly diagnosed leprosy patients who presented at the Eastern Leprosy Control Project (supported by The Netherlands Leprosy Relief Association), made up of a

  5. Profile of pediatric glaucoma patients in Shanghai Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Yuan; Long Qingqing; Guo Wenyi; Sun Xinghuai

    2014-01-01

    Background The extent of our knowledge of the epidemiology of pediatric glaucoma in China is limited.To better characterize the epidemiology of pediatric glaucoma in eastern China,we report the clinical profile,etiologies,and treatment modalities in patients <18 years of age in Shanghai Eye,Ear,Nose and Throat Hospital.Methods The medical records of patients presenting glaucoma between January 2003 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed.The demographic characteristics,the proportion of different glaucoma subtypes and surgical precedures were collected and analyzed.Results A total of 1 142 eyes of 734 pediatric patients (500 males)were included.Congenital glaucoma was the leading subtype,accounting for 47.55% of all patients.The ratio of boys to girls was 2.5:1.Patients with congenital glaucoma affecting both eyes accounted for 72.5% of all patients examined.Patients with primary juvenile glaucoma were the second most common group (n=125,17.03%).Traumatic glaucoma was the third most common subtype (n=81,11.03%).The type of surgery was related to the subtype of glaucoma.Conclusions Congenital glaucoma,primary juvenile glaucoma,and traumatic glaucoma are the most prevalent subtypes in pediatric glaucoma patients in Shanghai Eye,Ear,Nose and Throat Hospital.The characteristics of congenital glaucoma in China are similar to those in Western countries.

  6. Lens coloboma in one eye and ectopia lentis in the other eye of a patient with Marfan syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Thapa, Bikram Bahadur; Singh, Ramandeep; Ram, Jagat; Kumar, Abiraj

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of Marfan syndrome with lens coloboma in one eye and ectopia lentis in the other. A 14-year-old girl reported decreased vision in the left eye. Her visual acuity was 6/24 and counting fingers at 1 m in the right and left eyes, respectively. Her intraocular pressure was 15 mm Hg in both eyes. Evaluation of the right eye on slit lamp biomicroscopy under mydriasis revealed an inferiorly visible flattened and concave crystalline lens equator from 4 to 8 o’clock position along wi...

  7. Eye-Tracking Control to Assess Cognitive Functions in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Jürgen; Gorges, Martin; Aho-Özhan, Helena E A; Uttner, Ingo; Schneider, Erich; Kassubek, Jan; Pinkhardt, Elmar H; Ludolph, Albert C; Lulé, Dorothée

    2016-10-13

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder with pathological involvement of upper and lower motoneurons, subsequently leading to progressive loss of motor and speech abilities. In addition, cognitive functions are impaired in a subset of patients. To evaluate these potential deficits in severely physically impaired ALS patients, eye-tracking is a promising means to conduct cognitive tests. The present article focuses on how eye movements, an indirect means of communication for physically disabled patients, can be utilized to allow for detailed neuropsychological assessment. The requirements, in terms of oculomotor parameters that have to be met for sufficient eye-tracking in ALS patients are presented. The properties of stimuli, including type of neuropsychological tests and style of presentation, best suited to successfully assess cognitive functioning, are also described. Furthermore, recommendations regarding procedural requirements are provided. Overall, this methodology provides a reliable, easy to administer and fast approach for assessing cognitive deficits in patients who are unable to speak or write such as patients with severe ALS. The only confounding factor might be deficits in voluntary eye movement control in a subset of ALS patients.

  8. Improving eye care follow-up adherence in diabetic patients with ocular abnormalities: the effectiveness of patient contracts in a free, pharmacy-based eye screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleo, C L; Murchison, A P; Dai, Y; Hark, L A; Mayro, E L; Collymore, B; Haller, J A

    2015-07-01

    Patient contracts are increasingly utilized in medical practice and have the potential to improve health outcomes in high-risk populations. However, as a relatively new tool, there has been limited research regarding the efficacy of patient contracts. Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the leading causes of vision impairment in adults in the US and only 50-60% of adults with diabetes adhere to annual dilated fundus exam recommendations. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of patient contracts on follow-up adherence in diabetic patients with ocular abnormalities after a free, pharmacy-based eye screening. This prospective study implemented a non-invasive, non-mydriatic fundus camera in an urban, community-based pharmacy setting to screen for ocular diseases in patients with diabetes. Patients were assigned to the contract or non-contract group. Patients who signed a contract agreed to: 1) review their results with their primary care doctor, 2) follow-up with an ophthalmologist if their results were abnormal, and 3) inform research staff if/when they completed an eye care appointment. All study participants and their primary care doctors were notified of their results via mail. Follow-up questionnaires were administered to all patients by telephone three months after the screening results. 500 patients were screened and 113 (22.6%) had abnormal results. Of the patients who had abnormal results, 83 (74.3%) were able to be contacted. Of the 83 patients who were able to be contacted, the majority of patients were African American (73.5%) and female (56.6%). The mean age was 54.7 years. Of those, 34 (41.0%) adhered to follow-up recommendations. There was no significant difference in follow-up adherence between the contract (38.1%) and non-contract group (43.9%) (P = 0.59). In addition, 70.4% of patients did not comply with at least one measure of the contract agreement. Contracts did not increase follow-up adherence to eye appointments in diabetic patients with

  9. Patients undergoing long-term treatment with antihypertensive eye drops responded positively with respect to their ocular surface disorder to oral supplementation with antioxidants and essential fatty acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galbis-Estrada C

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Carmen Galbis-Estrada,1,* Maria D Pinazo-Durán,1,* Jorge Cantú-Dibildox,2 Carla Marco-Ramírez,1 Manuel Díaz-Llópis,1,3 Javier Benítez-del-Castillo21Ophthalmic Research Unit Santiago Grisolia, Department of Surgery/Ophthalmology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain; 2Department of Ophthalmology, Hospital of Jerez, Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, Spain; 3University and Polytechnic Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Glaucoma and dry eye disorders (DEDs are frequent comorbidities. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of essential polyunsaturated fatty acids have been extensively studied in relation to eye diseases.Objective: Our objective was to determine the effects of oral supplementation with a combined formulation of antioxidants and essential polyunsaturated fatty acids on expression of cytokines and chemokines in tears from patients with DEDs or primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG.Methods: Participants (n = 97 were distributed into three groups: (1 individuals with nonsevere DEDs (DEDG, (2 individuals with nonadvanced POAG (POAGG, and (3 healthy controls. These groups were randomized into two subgroups: one received a daily antioxidant and essential polyunsaturated fatty acid supplement (two pills for 3 months (+S, and the other did not (−NS. Participants were interviewed and ophthalmologically examined. Concentrations of specific cytokines and chemokines in reflex tears were determined by multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry. The data were analyzed statistically (SPSS version 15.0.Results: Comparison of the results from the DEDG and POAGG patients showed significant differences in tear expression of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (P = 0.008, tumor necrosis factor α (P = 0.005, vascular endothelial growth factor (P = 0.038, interleukin-4 (P = 0.030, and interleukin-6 (P = 0.044. The main signs and symptoms of dry eyes such

  10. Point prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome in patients scheduled for cataract surgery in eye camps in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Shaer Mutahar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To study the point prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXS among Yemeni patients in different governorates with age-related cataract scheduled for surgery. Settings: Eye camps organized by the Nibras Health Society to perform cataract surgeries during the years 2002-2006. All patients aged 40 years and above were included in the study. Materials and Methods: A total of 2535 eyes of 2535 patients from 13 governorates, scheduled for cataract surgery in eye camps, were included. All eyes underwent complete eye examination before the surgery and were evaluated for the signs of pseudoexfoliation material in the pupil, iris and lens capsule on dilated slit lamp examination. Results: The study found 495 of the 2535 eyes (19.53% with PXS with males more commonly affected than females (55.2 and 44.8%, respectively. The mean age of patients with PXS was 66.2 years while it was 64.6 years in non-PXS patients. The prevalence of pseudoexfoliation syndrome increased with age (10.1% in the age group of 41-50 years that increased to 28.8% in the age group of more than 81 years old. The rate of PXS detection in camps in 13 governorates ranged from 13.33 to 24.22% with an overall rate of 19.53%. The lowest rate was noticed in Sana′a and the highest in Al-Dhale governorate. Conclusion: This pilot study confirms that PXS was common in patients undergoing cataract surgery in Yemen with an increased detection rate with age. This study also highlights the prevalence of an ocular disease that is associated with systemic and ocular complications; however, further studies based on population studies are needed.

  11. Visual Acuity Before and After Treatment in Patients with Chemical Injuries at the National Eye Center, Cicendo Eye Hospital, Bandung from 2010 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endi Pramudya Laksana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chemical trauma is one of the emergency cases in ophthalmology since it can lead to severe, permanent blindness if not immediately treated. This study aimed to reveal pre- and post-therapy visual acuity on patients with chemical trauma at theNational Eye Center, Cicendo Eye Hospital, Bandung. Methods: This study was performed on 40 patients’ medical records from the National Eye Center, Cicendo Eye Hospital Bandung from January 2010 to January 2011 as secondary data, using the descriptive retrospective method. The data were divided into two groups: acid and alkali trauma. The collected data were analyzed and presented in tables. Results: Chemical trauma cases were mostly caused by caustic soda (17/40 whereas the least were caused by vinegar (3/40 and commonly occurred on adult patients in the right eye on alkali trauma. Patients with chemical trauma generally had normal eyesight before therapy.The number of patients with acid and alkali trauma who experienced improved eyesight after therapy alkali were similar (3 patients while worsening symptoms occurred in one patient with alkali chemical trauma from mild to medium low vision. Conclusions: There are some improvements of visual acuity after treatment in patients with chemical injuries.

  12. Intercultural communication through the eyes of patients: experiences and preferences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, E.; Dulmen, S. van; Bank, L.; Seeleman, C.M.; Scheele, F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore patients’ preferences and experiences regarding intercultural communication which could influence the development of intercultural patient-centred communication training. Methods: This qualitative study is based on interviews with non-native patients. Thirty non-native patien

  13. Intercultural communication through the eyes of patients: experiences and preferences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternotte, E.; Dulmen, S. van; Bank, L.; Seeleman, C.M.; Scheele, F.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To explore patients’ preferences and experiences regarding intercultural communication which could influence the development of intercultural patient-centred communication training. Methods: This qualitative study is based on interviews with non-native patients. Thirty non-native

  14. Look Through Patients' Eyes to Improve the Delivery of Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    By developing and implementing a method for seeing the healthcare experience from the standpoint of patients and family members, the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center has improved care delivery, lowered costs, and improved patient satisfaction. Cross-functional, multidisciplinary teams use a six-step patient and family-centered care methodology to identify gaps and develop changes that will improve the patient experience and clinical outcomes. Committee members shadow patients and family members to get firsthand knowledge about what they are going through and what goes wrong and what goes right. The teams proposed minor and major changes, but none involve adding more staff and few involve more expenditures.

  15. Patient satisfaction regarding eye care services at tertiary hospital of central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Sudhan

    2011-01-01

    Study Design : Descriptive study. Materials and Methods : This study was conducted between September 2005 and June 2006. Patients attending the eye clinic of Sadguru Netra Chikitsalaya, Chitrakoot, Madhya Pradesh, India, and admitted as in-patients in this hospital were our study population. Randomly selected patients were interviewed by trained staff. Close-ended questionnaire was used to conduct these structured interviews. Their responses were grouped into one of five categories and evaluated to determine satisfaction for different components of eye care services. Results : Three hundred and twenty persons were interviewed. The satisfaction was of excellent grade among 77 (48.1% patients attending clinic and 156 (97.5% patients who were admitted in the hospital. The participants expressed dissatisfaction for the long waiting period in clinics, poor cleanliness, and insufficient toilet facilities. Those admitted in the hospital felt that food facilities were less than the expected quality. Child-friendly facilities received high satisfaction scores. Conclusion : Although eye care services both in clinics and in the wards were satisfactory according to the end-users, there are scopes for improvement. Patient satisfaction surveys should be encouraged in hospitals for better accountability and also for strengthening the quality of eye care services.

  16. Eye-Base Domestic Robot Allowing Patient to Be Self-Services and Communications Remotely

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Eye-based domestic helper is proposed for helping patient self-sufficient in hospital circumstance. This kind of system will benefit for those patient who cannot move around, it especially happen to stroke patient who in the daily they just lay on the bed. They could not move around due to the body malfunction. The only information that still could be retrieved from user is eyes. In this research, we develop a new system in the form of domestic robot helper controlled by eye which allows patient self-service and speaks remotely. First, we estimate user sight by placing camera mounted on user glasses. Once eye image is captured, the several image processing are used to estimate the sight. Eye image is cropped from the source for simplifying the area. We detect the centre of eye by seeking the location of pupil. The pupil and other eye component could be easily distinguished based on the color. Because pupil has darker color than others, we just apply adaptive threshold for its separation. By using simple model of eye, we could estimate the sight based on the input from pupil location. Next, the obtained sight value is used as input command to the domestic robot. User could control the moving of robot by eye. Also, user could send the voice through text to speech functionality. We use baby infant robot as our domestic robot. We control the robot movement by sending the command via serial communication (utilizing the USB to serial adapter. Three types of command consist of move forward, turn left, and turn right are used in the system for moving the robot. In the robot, we place another camera for capturing the scenery in the front of robot. Between robot and user, they are separated by distance. They are connected over TCP/IP network. The network allows user control the robot remotely. We set the robot as server and user’s computer as client. The robot streams the scenery video and receives command sending by the client. In the other place

  17. Clinical implications of eye deviation on admission CT examination of acute ischaemic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payabvash, S; Qureshi, I; Qureshi, A I

    2016-12-01

    To determine the frequency and prognostic value of eye deviation detected on the admission computed tomography (CT) of acute ischaemic stroke patients. The clinical and imaging data from the Albumin in Acute Stroke (ALIAS) Trials 1 and 2 were analysed. Two reviewers evaluated all admission CT images for the presence of eye deviation, and Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS). The admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and 3-month modified Rankin scale (mRs) scores were ascertained. Disability or death was defined as mRS score >2, at 3-month follow-up. Of 1,223 patients included in the present series, 352 (28.8%) had rightward and 331 (27.1%) had leftward eye deviation on admission CT. Patients with eye deviation on CT had higher admission NIHSS score and larger middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarct volume (based on ASPECTS). The presence of eye deviation on CT was associated with higher rates of haemorrhagic transformation at 24 hours (19.8% versus 13.5%, p=0.004), and higher rates of disability or death at 3-month follow-up (53.1% versus 35.7%, peye deviation relation with higher rate of disability or death is predominantly due to its association with higher admission NIHSS scores, lower ASPECTS, and to a lesser extent patients' older age. The presence of eye deviation on CT examination of acute ischaemic stroke patients is associated with larger anterior circulation stroke volumes, higher risk of 24-hour haemorrhagic transformation, and 3-month disability or death. Copyright © 2016 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Topical steroid and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit inflammatory cytokine expression on the ocular surface in the botulium toxin B-induced murine dry eye model

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Lei; Zhang, Cheng; Chuck, Roy S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of the topical steroid, fluorometholone, and the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), nepafenac and ketorolac, on inflammatory cytokine expression of the ocular surface in the botulium toxin B-induced murine dry eye model. Methods Topical artificial tears (0.5% carboxymethylcellulose sodium), 0.1% fluorometholone, 0.1% nepafenac, and 0.4% ketorolac were applied 3 times per day in a dry eye mouse model 1 week after intralacrimal botulium toxin B (BTX-B...

  19. Eye tracking as a debriefing mechanism in the simulated setting improves patient safety practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneman, Elizabeth A; Cunningham, Helene; Fisher, Donald L; Plotkin, Karen; Nathanson, Brian H; Roche, Joan P; Marquard, Jenna L; Reilly, Cheryl A; Henneman, Philip L

    2014-01-01

    Human patient simulation has been widely adopted in healthcare education despite little research supporting its efficacy. The debriefing process is central to simulation education, yet alternative evaluation methods to support providing optimal feedback to students have not been well explored. Eye tracking technology is an innovative method for providing objective evaluative feedback to students after a simulation experience. The purpose of this study was to compare 3 forms of simulation-based student feedback (verbal debrief only, eye tracking only, and combined verbal debrief and eye tracking) to determine the most effective method for improving student knowledge and performance. An experimental study using a pretest-posttest design was used to compare the effectiveness of 3 types of feedback. The subjects were senior baccalaureate nursing students in their final semester enrolled at a large university in the northeast United States. Students were randomly assigned to 1 of the 3 intervention groups. All groups performed better in the posttest evaluation than in the pretest. Certain safety practices improved significantly in the eye tracking-only group. These criteria were those that required an auditory and visual comparison of 2 artifacts such as "Compares patient stated name with name on ID band." Eye tracking offers a unique opportunity to provide students with objective data about their behaviors during simulation experiences, particularly related to safety practices that involve the comparison of patient stated data to an artifact such as an ID band. Despite the limitations of current eye tracking technology, there is significant potential for the use of this technology as a method for the study and evaluation of patient safety practices.

  20. Clinical outcomes of glued transscleral fixated intraocular lens in functionally one-eyed patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok Kumar, Dhivya; Agarwal, Amar; Agarwal, Athiya; Chandrasekar, Radhika

    2014-07-01

    To analyze the indications, visual outcome, mental status, and quality of life after glued transscleral fixated intraocular lens (IOL) in functionally one-eyed individuals. Dr Agarwal's Eye Hospital and Eye Research Centre, Chennai, India. Prospective observational comparative case series. Patients with one functioning eye with surgical indications (aphakia, luxated IOL, or dislocated lens) and the fellow eye with no perception of light were included. Indications, uncorrected distant visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA), mental status (Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale) and quality of life (visual function scoring VF-14) were assessed. Outcomes of nonsurgical and surgical management were evaluated and compared. Of 22 patients, 10 (45.4%) patients underwent glued IOL (group A) and 12 (54.5%) wore spectacles (group B). There was a strong association between the initial clinical presentation and management (χ, P=0.000). Subluxated cataract and dislocated lens (or IOL) required surgical treatment. Postoperative aphakia with adequate spectacle correction were conservatively treated. There was change (P=0.005) in UDVA and CDVA after glued IOL surgery. There was no loss of CDVA. There was difference between the 2 groups in reading small prints (P=0.021), sporting activities (P=0.000), and night driving (P=0.000). Surgical anxiety was higher in group B (P=0.014). Females were more anxious than the males (P=0.014). There was an association of increasing age and the decision for nonsurgical management (χ, P=0.005). Glued transscleral fixated IOL can be safely performed in one-eyed patients for specific indications to provide good functional results.

  1. Intercultural communication through the eyes of patients: experiences and preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paternotte, Emma; van Dulmen, Sandra; Bank, Lindsay; Seeleman, Conny; Scherpbier, Albert; Scheele, Fedde

    2017-05-16

    To explore patients' preferences and experiences regarding intercultural communication which could influence the development of intercultural patient-centred communication training. This qualitative study is based on interviews with non-native patients. Thirty non-native patients were interviewed between September and December 2015 about their preferences and experiences regarding communication with a native Dutch doctor. Fourteen interviews were established with an interpreter. The semi-structured interviews took place in Amsterdam. They were focused on generic and intercultural communication skills of doctors. Relevant fragments were coded by two researchers and analysed by the research team by means of thematic network analysis. Informed consent and ethical approval was obtained beforehand. All patients preferred a doctor with a professional patient-centred attitude regardless of the doctor's background. Patients mentioned mainly generic communication aspects, such as listening, as important skills and seemed to be aware of their own responsibility in participating in a consultation. Being treated as a unique person and not as a disease was also frequently mentioned. Unfamiliarity with the Dutch healthcare system influenced the experienced communication negatively. However, a language barrier was considered the most important problem, which would become less pressing once a doctor-patient relation was established. Remarkably, patients in this study had no preference regarding the ethnic background of the doctor. Generic communication was experienced as important as specific intercultural communication, which underlines the marginal distinction between these two. A close link between intercultural communication and patient-centred communication was reflected in the expressed preference 'to be treated as a person'.

  2. Comparing the Dry Season In-Situ Leaf Area Index (LAI Derived from High-Resolution RapidEye Imagery with MODIS LAI in a Namibian Savanna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel J. Mayr

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Leaf Area Index (LAI is one of the most frequently applied measures to characterize vegetation and its dynamics and functions with remote sensing. Satellite missions, such as NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS operationally produce global datasets of LAI. Due to their role as an input to large-scale modeling activities, evaluation and verification of such datasets are of high importance. In this context, savannas appear to be underrepresented with regards to their heterogeneous appearance (e.g., tree/grass-ratio, seasonality. Here, we aim to examine the LAI in a heterogeneous savanna ecosystem located in Namibia’s Owamboland during the dry season. Ground measurements of LAI are used to derive a high-resolution LAI model with RapidEye satellite data. This model is related to the corresponding MODIS LAI/FPAR (Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation scene (MOD15A2 in order to evaluate its performance at the intended annual minimum during the dry season. Based on a field survey we first assessed vegetation patterns from species composition and elevation for 109 sites. Secondly, we measured in situ LAI to quantitatively estimate the available vegetation (mean = 0.28. Green LAI samples were then empirically modeled (LAImodel with high resolution RapidEye imagery derived Difference Vegetation Index (DVI using a linear regression (R2 = 0.71. As indicated by several measures of model performance, the comparison with MOD15A2 revealed moderate consistency mostly due to overestimation by the aggregated LAImodel. Model constraints aside, this study may point to important issues for MOD15A2 in savannas concerning the underlying MODIS Land Cover product (MCD12Q1 and a potential adjustment by means of the MODIS Burned Area product (MCD45A1.

  3. Effect Observation on Lushi Runzao Decoction for Prim ary Sjogren's Syndrome for Three Months of Dry Eye Symptoms%路氏润燥汤对原发性干燥综合征3个月眼干症状的改善效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑丽萍; 孙玲; 崔长春

    2016-01-01

    Objective Discussion on the Lushi Runzao Decoction with primary Sjogren's syndrome improving effect of three months of dry eye symptoms. Methods71 patients with primary Sjogren's syndrome three months of dry eye symptoms in patients randomized to the treatment group (n = 36)in the application's Lushi Runzao Decoction ,control group (n = 35) using oral chloroquine bisulfate tablets for the treatment,compared to group 2 efficacy.ResultsAfter treatment of dry eye VAS score,the total effective rate were better than the control group(P<0.05).ConclusionLushi Runzao Decoction for three months of dry eye syndrome improving effect is certainly worth learning.%目的:探讨路氏润燥汤对原发性干燥综合征3个月眼干症状的改善效果。方法将71例原发性干燥综合征3个月眼干症状患者随机分组,治疗组(n=36)应用路氏润燥汤,对照组(n=35)口服硫酸氢氯喹片治疗,对比2组疗效。结果治疗组治疗后VAS眼干评分、治疗总有效率均优于对照组(P<0.05)。结论路氏润燥汤对原发性干燥综合征3个月眼干症状的改善效果肯定。

  4. Patient satisfaction: examine your practice through their eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applegate, M B

    1995-01-01

    In an environment of constant change, effective management decisions are harder to make. Physicians and clinic managers often miss valuable information from one key group--the patients. Their input builds a framework for sound solutions. The most efficient, unbiased collection method is a patient satisfaction study. With guidance from some one who is experienced in survey design and handling, physicians and managers will find these studies are easy to administer, are tools for learning and help build patient loyalty. Effectively designed studies give proportion to issues raised by patients. This information helps physicians and managers make good decisions on practice style, operations and service delivery. In the two case studies of primary care practices included in this article, the physician partners had very different issues of concern than the patients did. Without the studies, the physicians might have made poor decisions on the future of their clinics. Insurance providers recommend regular satisfaction studies to measure quality improvements, a clinic's strengths and weaknesses, and the patients' expectations. Patients are your lifetime partners and have valuable information for the survival of a practice. They help define where a practice is and where it should be.

  5. Some parameters of innate immunity in senile group patients with eye injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Namazova

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Investigation of the parameters of innate immunity in senile group patients with eye injury.Methods: Standard ophthalmologic and immunologic study of 12 patients aged 63±11 with eye injury complicated by inflamma- tion. Immunological study of peripheral blood, tear and conjunctival scraping from the injured eye and the binate eye was carried out on 1-3 days after the injury. the parameters of innate local immunity was determined in the result of immune-cytological study of the conjunctival scraping by assessing phagocytosis of neutrophils and index of neutrophils/lymphocytes (INL, immunofluorescent counting of NK-cells CD56+ (panel of monoclonal antibodies of company «Sorbent» Ltd., Russia. the concentration of transferrin (a set of «Human» Company, Germany in the blood and lacrimal fluid was assayed by the biochemical analyzer (Bioscreen MS-500. the results obtained were processed by the method of variational statistics.Results: As a result of the conducted studies there has been detected a decrease in the amount of transferrin both in blood and lacrimal fluid by almost 2 times (p <0,001. there was recorded the rise in the INL index at the systemic (3,8±0,1 and local (4.9±0.4 level, reflecting a compensatory, more pronounced activity of nonspecific protection factors of general and local immunity in the acute stage of inflammation. the level of phagocytosis in the blood of the examined patients was reduced relative to the control (p<0.001. In the scraping material of the injured eye the phagocytosis percentage was 16.4±0.9%. the results of a comparative study of the content of NK-cells (СD56+, revealed reduction in the average value of this parameter in the blood of the patients with eye injury relative to the control (p<0.001, and in the conjunctival scraping the level of СD56+-lymphocytes increased, amounting to 2-3 in the field of vision.Conclusion: In the senile group patients with an eye injury there is an activation of

  6. Photorefractive keratectomy results in myopic patients with thin cornea eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Hashemi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: PRK is a safe, effective, and predictable procedure with desirable effects on mesopic CS in patients with corneal thickness <500 μm, which increases HOAs and decreases corneal integrity proportionate to its value before the procedure.

  7. [Characteristics of aphakic eye in patients with diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartasheva, E A; Abramov, M V; Evdokimova, M I

    1998-01-01

    Ninety patients with aphakia and diabetes were examined. Intraocular pressure was normal in 30 patients, in 30 aphakia was concomitant with primary glaucoma, and 30 presented with aphakic glaucoma. Fundus oculi was examined with a slit lamp and +60 D lens, gonioscopy and cycloscopy were carried out using a contact prism proposed by the authors. Aphakic glaucoma developed as a result of changes in the anterior chamber corner: coarse postoperative cicatrices and vitreo-corneal adhesions. Diabetic retinopathy was equally incident in all three groups of patients. Changes in the ciliary vessels can anticipate diabetic retinopathy. New vessels on ciliary body processes is an unfavorable prognostic sign as regards visual functions in patients with aphakia and increased intraocular pressure.

  8. Increased Saccadic Rate during Smooth Pursuit Eye Movements in Patients at Ultra High Risk for Developing a Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tricht, M. J.; Nieman, D. H.; Bour, L. J.; Boeree, T.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; de Haan, L.; Linszen, D. H.

    2010-01-01

    Abnormalities in eye tracking are consistently observed in schizophrenia patients and their relatives and have been proposed as an endophenotype of the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the performance of patients at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for developing psychosis on a task of smooth pursuit eye movement (SPEM). Forty-six UHR…

  9. Delayed Spontaneous Bleeding in the Blind Eye of a Type A Hemophilic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gi Sung Son

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old man was complaining of severe left ocular pain and headache for the past 2 months. His left eye was traumatized and rendered blind about 20 years ago. He had no other medical problems and his preoperative laboratory tests were nonspecific. Evisceration of the left eye was performed for pain control and cosmetic improvement. However, postoperative progressive and prolonged eyelid swelling, bruising, and wound bleeding recurred. This patient was diagnosed with moderate factor VIII deficiency with a coagulation time within the normal range.

  10. Exome sequencing in 32 patients with anophthalmia/microphthalmia and developmental eye defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavotinek, A M; Garcia, S T; Chandratillake, G; Bardakjian, T; Ullah, E; Wu, D; Umeda, K; Lao, R; Tang, P L-F; Wan, E; Madireddy, L; Lyalina, S; Mendelsohn, B A; Dugan, S; Tirch, J; Tischler, R; Harris, J; Clark, M J; Chervitz, S; Patwardhan, A; West, J M; Ursell, P; de Alba Campomanes, A; Schneider, A; Kwok, P-Y; Baranzini, S; Chen, R O

    2015-11-01

    Anophthalmia/microphthalmia (A/M) is a genetically heterogeneous birth defect for which the etiology is unknown in more than 50% of patients. We used exome sequencing with the ACE Exome(TM) (Personalis, Inc; 18 cases) and UCSF Genomics Core (21 cases) to sequence 28 patients with A/M and four patients with varied developmental eye defects. In the 28 patients with A/M, we identified de novo mutations in three patients (OTX2, p.(Gln91His), RARB, p.Arg387Cys and GDF6, p.Ala249Glu) and inherited mutations in STRA6 in two patients. In patients with developmental eye defects, a female with cataracts and cardiomyopathy had a de novo COL4A1 mutation, p.(Gly773Arg), expanding the phenotype associated with COL4A1 to include cardiomyopathy. A male with a chorioretinal defect, microcephaly, seizures and sensorineural deafness had two PNPT1 mutations, p.(Ala507Ser) and c.401-1G>A, and we describe eye defects associated with this gene for the first time. Exome sequencing was efficient for identifying mutations in pathogenic genes for which there is no clinical testing available and for identifying cases that expand phenotypic spectra, such as the PNPT1 and COL4A1-associated disorders described here.

  11. Feasibility of utilizing a commercial eye tracker to assess electronic health record use during patient simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Jeffrey Allen; Stephenson, Laurel E; Gorsuch, Adriel; Parthasarathy, Keshav; Mohan, Vishnu

    2016-09-01

    Numerous reports describe unintended consequences of electronic health record implementation. Having previously described physicians' failures to recognize patient safety issues within our electronic health record simulation environment, we now report on our use of eye and screen-tracking technology to understand factors associated with poor error recognition during an intensive care unit-based electronic health record simulation. We linked performance on the simulation to standard eye and screen-tracking readouts including number of fixations, saccades, mouse clicks and screens visited. In addition, we developed an overall Composite Eye Tracking score which measured when, where and how often each safety item was viewed. For 39 participants, the Composite Eye Tracking score correlated with performance on the simulation (p = 0.004). Overall, the improved performance was associated with a pattern of rapid scanning of data manifested by increased number of screens visited (p = 0.001), mouse clicks (p = 0.03) and saccades (p = 0.004). Eye tracking can be successfully integrated into electronic health record-based simulation and provides a surrogate measure of cognitive decision making and electronic health record usability.

  12. Comparative Study of Recombinant Bovine Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Ophthalmic Gel and Sodium Hyaluronate Eye Drops for Treating Meibomian Gland Abnormality Related Dry Eye%重组牛碱性成纤维细胞生长因子眼用凝胶和玻璃酸钠滴眼液治疗睑板腺异常相关干眼疗效比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪飞; 覃冬菊; 李明哲

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the efficacy of Recombinant Bovine Basic Fibroblast growth Factor Ophthalmic gel and Sodium Hyaluronate Eye Drops for the treatment of meibomian gland abnormality related dry eye. Methods 73 patients (73 eyes) with meibo-mian gland abnormaly related dry eye in the department of ophthalmology of our hospital from march 2012 to march 2013 were ran-domly divided into the Recombinant Bovine Basic Fibroblast growth Factor Ophthalmic gel group (observation group) and Sodium Hyaluronate Eye Drops group( control group) . And the clinical symptom score, tear film breakup time ( BUT) , Schirmer test ( Schirmer Ia), corneal fluorescein staining score (FL) and meibomian gland score before treatment and on 15, 30 d after treatment were compared between the two groups. Results The clinical symptom scores, BUT and FL scores after 30 d treatment in the two groups were both better than those before treatment and after 15 d treatment (all P 0. 05) . The effective rate of the observation group was higher than that of the control group and the total effect had statistically significant difference between the two groups( P 0.05)。观察组治疗总有效率明显高于对照组( P <0.05)。结论重组牛碱性成纤维细胞生长因子眼用凝胶和玻璃酸钠滴眼液均可改善患者的临床症状,延长泪膜破裂时间,修复角膜损伤,但前者疗效优于后者。两者对睑板腺功能障碍的改善作用均不佳,需配合其他药物治疗。

  13. Evaluating Silent Reading Performance with an Eye Tracking System in Patients with Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Noriaki; Fukuchi, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between silent reading performance and visual field defects in patients with glaucoma using an eye tracking system. Methods Fifty glaucoma patients (Group G; mean age, 52.2 years, standard deviation: 11.4 years) and 20 normal controls (Group N; mean age, 46.9 years; standard deviation: 17.2 years) were included in the study. All participants in Group G had early to advanced glaucomatous visual field defects but better than 20/20 visual acuity in both eyes. Participants silently read Japanese articles written horizontally while the eye tracking system monitored and calculated reading duration per 100 characters, number of fixations per 100 characters, and mean fixation duration, which were compared with mean deviation and visual field index values from Humphrey visual field testing (24–2 and 10–2 Swedish interactive threshold algorithm standard) of the right versus left eye and the better versus worse eye. Results There was a statistically significant difference between Groups G and N in mean fixation duration (G, 233.4 msec; N, 215.7 msec; P = 0.010). Within Group G, significant correlations were observed between reading duration and 24–2 right mean deviation (rs = -0.280, P = 0.049), 24–2 right visual field index (rs = -0.306, P = 0.030), 24–2 worse visual field index (rs = -0.304, P = 0.032), and 10–2 worse mean deviation (rs = -0.326, P = 0.025). Significant correlations were observed between mean fixation duration and 10–2 left mean deviation (rs = -0.294, P = 0.045) and 10–2 worse mean deviation (rs = -0.306, P = 0.037), respectively. Conclusions The severity of visual field defects may influence some aspects of reading performance. At least concerning silent reading, the visual field of the worse eye is an essential element of smoothness of reading. PMID:28095478

  14. Initial clinical observation of Smart Plug lacrimal plug in the treatment of aqueous tear deficiency dry eye%Smart Plug泪小管塞治疗水液缺乏型干眼症临床初步观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭丽; 袁方; 李斌

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy of SmartPlug lacrimal plug in the treatment of aqueous tear deficiency dry eye. Methods SmartPlug lacrimal plugs were inserted to treat 42 cases of aqueous tear deficiency dry eye ( 84 eyes). All patients were followed-up for 5-15 months( average 8.3 months). Schirmer I test (SIT) ,tear break-up time (TBUT), and fluorescent of cornea (FL) were used to evaluate the clinical efficacy. Results ①Pre- and posttreatment SIT were 3.41 ± 0.60mm and 5.75 ± 0.44 mm ( P < 0.05 ), respectively; ② Pre- and post-treatment TBUT were 3.75 ± 1.26 seconds and 6.46 ± 1.47 seconds ( P < 0.05 ), respectively; ③Pre- and post-treatment FL were 2.45 ±0.06 and 0.04 ± 0.02 (P < 0.05 ), respectively;④The subjective symptoms improved in most patients. Conclusions The SmartPlug lacrimal plug is effective in the treatment of aqueous tear deficiency dry eye. Moreover, it is recommended that lacrimal punctual occlusion should be done before irreversible damages of the ocular surface.%目的 观察Smart Plug泪小管塞治疗水液缺乏型干眼症的临床疗效.方法 应用Smart Plug泪小管塞治疗水液缺乏型干眼症患者42例(84眼),随访5~15个月,平均8.3个月,根据SchirmerI试验(SIT)、泪膜破裂时间(TBUT)、角膜荧光素染色(FL)观察临床疗效.结果 ①治疗前后SIT分别为(3.41±0.60)mm和(5.75±0.44)mm(P<0.05);②治疗前后TBUT分别为(3.75±1.26)s和(6.46±1.47)s(P<0.05);③FL评分分别为(2.45±0.06)分和(0.04±0.02)分(P<0.05);④患者主观症状改善.结论 Smart Plug泪小管塞治疗水液缺乏型干眼症具有明确的疗效,对于水液缺乏型干眼病患者在眼表发生不可逆性损害之前即应早期行泪道栓塞治疗.

  15. Influence of local application of glaucoma medications-travoprost eye drops on patients' tear film function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chengpu

    2015-03-01

    This study discussed about the influence of local application of glaucoma medications -- travoprost eye drops to patients' tear film function. We selected 24 patients, 45 eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma or intraocular hypertension. All of the patients topically used the travoprost eye drops for one time every night. After and before the pharmacy, we proceeded 1, 2, 3 mo lines symptom score and Schirmer's test (St), corneal fluorescein staining (FL), breakup time of tear film (BUT). Average value of symptom score and FL of all the patients before pharmacy were 1.32 ± 1. 55, 0.42 ± 0.68, and 1, 2, 3mo after pharmacy were respectively 2.68 ± 1.59, 0.96 ± 0.81; 4.97 ± 1.62, 1.46 ± 0.62; 6.21 ± 1.33, 1.88 ± 0.44. Symptom score and FL of 1, 2, 3 mo patients after pharmacy were all prominent higher than it before pharmacy (P=0.00), and it gradually increased. The average value of patients symptom BUT and St before pharmacy were (7.71 ± 0.87s), (8.32 ± 2.63mm /5min) and 1, 2, 3 mo after pharmacy were respectively (6.93 ± 1.17s), (7.69 ± 3. 33mm /5min); (5.48 ± 1.29s), (6.79 ± 2.94mm /5min); (4.33 ± 1.83s), (5.98 ± 3.11mm/5min). BUT and St value after pharmacy were prominent all lower than the level before pharmacy (P=0.00). And it gradually reduced. Short-term use of travoprost eye drops would aggravate the corneal irritation of patients, and decrease the tear film stability and tear secretion.

  16. A case-control study to evaluate salivary cortisol levels in patients with dry mouth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Shekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the salivary cortisol levels in patients with dry mouth. Materials and Methods: The study population consisted of 20 patients with a complaint of dry mouth and 20 asymptomatic age- and sex-matched controls. In patients who complained of dry mouth, the salivary flow rate (ml/minute was estimated by measuring the quantity of the saliva collected in the collector. The concentration of cortisol in the saliva (΅g/dl was determined by using a salivary enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA kit. Statistical Analysis: The results were evaluated using the Student′s t-test. Results: There was only a mild increase in salivary cortisol in both stimulated and unstimulated saliva in patients with dry mouth compared to the controls (p-value 0.981 and 0.481, respectively, which was not statistically significant. Conclusion: There may not be a clear association between the salivary cortisol level and dry mouth. In older individuals, age-associated salivary gland hypofunction and life changes may be the main risk factors for dry mouth compared to stress and anxiety.

  17. Could interchangeable use of dry powder inhalers affect patients?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, D; Summers, M; Zanen, P

    2005-01-01

    The aim of asthma treatment is optimal disease control. Poor asthma control results in considerable patient morbidity, as well as contributing to the considerable burden placed by the disease on healthcare budgets. There is a need for costs to be carefully scrutinised, with the switching of patients

  18. A novel spelling system for locked-in syndrome patients using only eye contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsky, David Jos; Winninghoff, Yvonne; Winninghoff, Albert C M; Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke Marjan

    2014-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a novel spelling system for patients with locked-in syndrome: patients with tetraplegia, not able to talk, and only able to blink their eyes. A new communication grid was compared with existing non-technical communication methods for practical daily use. The means of the number of decision steps to reach a full sentence were compared testing 10 sentences relevant in daily care. These 10 sentences together encompass all letters of the alphabet. The new communication grid is organised alphabetically in 4 columns and 2 main rows, with each row subdivided in three rows. The first column contains vowels while the other columns contain consonants. Letters in each column are alphabetically ordered. When spelling a sentence the conversation partner counts the columns, until the patient indicates by an upward eye movement that the column contains the intended letter. Hereafter, the patient indicates by looking straight ahead or by looking down, whether the intended letter is in the upper or in the lower main row, respectively. The conversation partner will then read out the letters until the patient indicates the intended letter. Compared to other spelling systems, this system requires only vertical eye movement, is easier to memorise, and faster in use. The comparison of means of decision steps to reach the 10 full sentences for different communication grids shows that using the new communication grid is approximately one-third to three times faster than the existing spelling systems (p = 0.005). This new grid is a valuable communication tool, especially in situations, such as bathing, getting dressed or out of house activities where no devices are available. Implications for Rehabilitation Communication with patients with locked-in syndrome is a complicated and strenuous task. Communication methods, such as the alphabet board and brain-computer interfaces, are time consuming or too sophisticated to use in daily life tasks. This communication

  19. A CASE OF SELF-INDUCED ACUTE HYDROPS IN A PATIENT WITH IMPULSE CONTROL DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH COMPULSIVE EYE TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Madhavi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To describe acute hydrops in a patient with impulse control disorder (not otherwise specified secondary to self-induced repetitive eye trauma. METHODS A 22-year-old male patient was referred from a psychiatrist with a diagnosis of impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (compulsive impulse self-mutilating behaviour for opacity and watering of both eyes (left eye more than right eye. Left eye showed features of acute hydrops with Descemet’s tear and right eye showed corneal opacity with Descemet’s tear (status post hydrops. RESULT The patient was prescribed cycloplegics, hypertonic saline for left eye and was advised against scratching the eye and was given protective goggles and was told for close followup in conjunction with psychiatric management. CONCLUSION Impulse control disorders are relatively common psychiatric conditions, yet are poorly understood by clinicians, patients suffering from the disorder and public. And hence identification of this disorder and close observation of patient allows for avoiding complications such as progression of hydrops, perforation and infection.

  20. Erosive potential of calcium-modified acidic candies in irradiated dry mouth patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensdottir, Thorbjörg; Buchwald, Christian; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: Patients who have received irradiation therapy on the head and neck area are known to suffer from reduced saliva flow and may therefore use acidic candies to relieve symptoms of dry mouth. However, such acidic candies have erosive potential even among healthy individuals. Therefore......, surprisingly, slightly lower in patients compared to normative data. CONCLUSIONS: Modified acidic candy with calcium has reduced erosive potential in patients irradiated on the head and neck area and could therefore be used as a favourable stimulant for relief of dry mouth....

  1. 复发性儿童睑缘炎导致干眼的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Dry Eye Induced by Recurrent Children Blepharitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚茜; 李冰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To discuss the changes in tear film function after treatment in relevant dry eye induced by childhood recurrent blepharitis. Methods Thirty-six cases(55 eyes)in Clinical Cornea De-partment of Shanxi Eye Hospital were selected for observation from April 2013 to January 2014. Before and after treatment,the slit-lamp examination,meibomian gland function,tear film break-up time( BUT)exami-nation,Schirmer I test( SIt)and corneal fluorescein staining test( FL)were performed. Results The tear film function was abnormal to different extents in children. The meibomian gland function score,BUT test and FL score changed apparently in comparison before and after treatment. The difference in SIt was not significant( P﹥0. 05). The meibomian gland function score was negatively correlated with SIt(r= -0. 108,P=0. 457). Conclusion In clinic,blepharitis leads to evaporative-type dry eye disease in children. If blepharitis is treated well in combination with the application of artificial tears and topical herbal medicine,the subjective symptoms can be relieved apparently and tear film stability be improved. Moreover the recurrence of blephari-tis can be prevented.%目的:探讨儿童期反复发作的睑缘炎导致相关性干眼治疗后泪膜功能的变化。方法选取2013年4月~2014年1月就诊于山西省眼科医院门诊角膜科的患儿36例(55只眼)进行观察,治疗前后分别行眼前节检查,对比睑板腺功能评分、泪膜破裂时间( trar break-up time,BUT)检查、泪液分泌试验( Schirmer I test,SIt)及角膜荧光素染色试验( fluorescein,FL)。结果患儿的泪膜功能均有不同程度的异常。患者治疗前后的睑板腺功能评分、BUT试验和FL评分有明显变化;SIt差异无统计学意义( P﹥0.05);睑板腺功能评分与BUT呈负相关( r=-0.667,P=0.000),与FL呈正相关( r=0.722,P=0.000),与SIt无明显相关性( r=-0.108,P=0.457)。结论

  2. Difference in Outcomes between First-Operated vs. Fellow-Operated Eyes in Patients Undergoing Bilateral Trabeculectomies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younhea Jung

    Full Text Available To compare the course and outcome of first- and fellow-operated eyes in patients who underwent bilateral trabeculectomies and to investigate the factors associated with the difference.Preoperative characteristics, including the interval between surgeries, were compared between the first- and fellow-operated eyes in 42 patients who underwent bilateral trabeculectomies. Postoperative intraocular pressure and bleb vascularity, using postoperative anterior segment photos, were compared at various time points between the first- and fellow-operated eyes. Surgical success was evaluated at 1 year after surgery and at the final follow-up. Factors affecting the difference between the first and fellow eyes were analyzed.There was no significant difference in success or failure rates at 1 year postoperatively and at the final follow-up between the first- and fellow-operated eyes. Early postoperative IOP and the degree of bleb vascularity were higher in the fellow-operated eyes (P = 0.001 and 0.003, respectively at week 1 postoperative. The difference in IOP between the first- and fellow-operated eyes was greater in patients whose interval between surgeries was shorter than 3 weeks (P = 0.026.In patients undergoing bilateral trabeculectomies, early postoperative IOP was higher in the fellow-operated eyes than the first-operated eyes; the difference was greater when the interval between surgeries was shorter. The first-operated eye may influence the early postoperative inflammatory response in the fellow-operated eye. Our findings have clinical implications for planning treatment of patients who may need bilateral surgery.

  3. Oclusión canalicular con tapones de silicona de Herrick en el tratamiento del ojo seco Canicular occlusion with Herrick silicone plugs in the treatment of dry eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Alemañy González

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Para evaluar la desaparición de síntomas y signos en el síndrome de ojo seco por deficiencia del componente acuoso de la película lagrimal, se estudiaron 15 pacientes que llevaban tratamiento con lágrimas artificiales, a pesar de lo cual presentaban síntomas por sequedad ocular. Se realizó oclusión canalicular de prueba con tapones de colágeno y luego definitiva con los de silicona de Herrick en el canalículo inferior. Se evaluaron por consulta hasta un año después del proceder. Se encontró que el 52 % de los casos tuvieron desaparición de los síntomas, el 40 % necesitaron añadir colirio de lágrimas artificiales ocasionalmente y el 8 % de los casos necesitaron oclusión del canalículo superior. Este tratamiento es un método sencillo y efectivo, que proporciona alivio a largo plazo a los pacientes con síndrome de ojo seco, mejorando su calidad de vida.To evaluate the disappearance of symptoms and signs in the dry eye syndrome due to deficiency of the aqueous component of the lacrimal film, 15 patients that were under treatment with artificial tears, although they still had symptoms resulting from ocular dryness, were studied. Canicular occlusion with collagen plugs was performed first as a test and then definitive occlusion with Herrick silicone plugs in the inferior canaliculus. These patients were evaluated at the physician’s office a year after the procedure. It was found that the symptoms dissappeared in 52 % of the cases, that 40 % needed to add occasionally collyrium of artificial tears and that 8 % of them required occlusion of the superior canaliculus. This treatment is a simple and effective method that provides long-term release to patients with dry eye syndrome and improves their quality of life.

  4. Differential Effects of Dexamethasone and Doxycycline on Inflammation and MMP Production in Murine Alkali-Burned Corneas Associated with Dry Eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Fang; Pelegrino, Flavia S A; Henriksson, Johanna Tukler; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Volpe, Eugene A; Li, De-Quan; de Paiva, Cintia S

    2016-04-01

    Alkali burns to the cornea are among the most devastating injuries to the eye. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dexamethasone (Dex) or doxycycline (Doxy) on protease activity and corneal complications in a combined model (CM) of alkali burn and dry eye. C57BL/6 mice were subjected to the CM for 2 or 5 days (D). Mice were topically treated either with Dex (0.1%), Dox (0.025%) or vehicle QID and observed daily for appearance of corneal perforation. Quantitative real time PCR was performed to measure expression of inflammation cytokines and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in whole cornea lysates. No perforations were observed in the Dex-treated corneas. All wounds in Doxy-treated corneas were closed 2D post-injury, and they had significantly lower corneal opacity scores at days 4 and 5 post-injury compared to BSS treatment. Dex-treated corneas had the lowest corneal opacity scores. Dex treatment significantly decreased expression of IL-1β, IL-6, MMPs -1, -9, -13, and TIMP-1 after 2 days but increased levels of MMP-8, while Doxy treatment significantly decreased IL-1β, IL-6, MMP-8, and -9, compared to vehicle. Decreased MMP-1, -9 and -13 immunoreactivity and gelatinolytic activity were seen in corneas treated with Doxy and Dex compared to vehicle. Increased neutrophil infiltration and myeloperoxidase activity was noted in the vehicle group compared to Dex 2 days post-injury. These findings demonstrate that early initiation of anti-inflammatory therapy is very efficacious in preserving corneal clarity and facilitating wound healing, while modulating MMP production and suppressing neutrophil infiltration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Treatment of patients with painful blind eye using stellate ganglion block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Vaz Horta Xavier

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: management of pain in painful blind eyes is still a challenge. Corticosteroids and hypotensive agents, as well as evisceration and enucleation, are some of the strategies employed so far that are not always effective and, depending on the strategy, cause a deep emotional shock to the patient. Given these issues, the aim of this case report is to demonstrate a new and viable option for the management of such pain by treating the painful blind eye with the stellate ganglion block technique, a procedure that has never been described in the literature for this purpose. CASE REPORT: six patients with painful blind eye, all caused by glaucoma, were treated; in these patients, VAS (visual analogue scale for pain assessment, in which 0 is the absence of pain and 10 is the worst pain ever experienced ranged from 7 to 10. We opted for weekly sessions of stellate ganglion block with 4 mL of bupivacaine (0.5% without vasoconstrictor and clonidine 1 mcg/kg. Four patients had excellent results at VAS, ranging between 0 and 3, and two remained asymptomatic (VAS = 0, without the need for additional medication. The other two used gabapentin 300 mg every 12 h. CONCLUSION: currently, there are several therapeutic options for the treatment of painful blind eye, among which stand out the retrobulbar blocks with chlorpromazine, alcohol and phenol. However, an effective strategy with low rate of serious complications, which is non-mutilating and improves the quality of life of the patient, is essential. Then, stellate ganglion block arises as a demonstrably viable and promising option to meet this demand.

  6. Tear film lipid layer pattern in office dry eye%办公室干眼泪膜脂质层形态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓博; 陈绮; 王耀增

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the tear film lipid layer pattern in office dry eye (ODE) with a Keeler tearscope and to determine its relationship to clinical tests.Methods Cross-sectional study.Thirty-three ODE patients and 28 control subjects participated in this study.Subjects were evaluated with the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI),which was followed by measurements of the total tear meniscus volume (TTMV),tear film lipid layer thickness (TFLLT) grading,non-invasive tear breakup time (NITBUT),fluorescein tear breakup time (FTBUT),corneal fluorescein staining (CFS) and Schirmer I test (SIT).All the measurements were performed on one eye selected at random for each subject.A paired t test or Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the difference in each variable between the two groups.Spearman's rank correlation was used to indicate the relationship between TFLLT and other variables in the ODE group.Results TFLLT grading was significantly lower in the ODE group [2(1~3)] compared to the control group [3(3~4)] (U=250,P<0.01).High sensitivity and specificity of TFLLT grading (0.545 and 0.857,respectively) were found in the diagnosis of ODE,the cut-off value of which was grade 2.TFLLT grading was correlated with TTMV (r=0.349,P<0.05) and NITBUT (r=0.485,P<0.05),while it was not correlated with the OSDI score,FTBUT,CFS or SIT.Conclusion A Keeler tearscope may effectively evaluate tear film lipid layer in ODE.Tear film lipid layer can also reflect the tear meniscus volume and tear film stability in ODE.%目的 应用Keeler泪膜镜评估办公室干眼泪膜脂质层形态的变化,并分析泪膜脂质层与其他干眼检测方法之间的相关性.方法 横断面研究.本研究共纳入61例办公室工作人员(干眼患者33例,正常者28例).所有受检者采用随机数字表法选择一眼按照以下顺序进行检查:干眼症状问卷表(OSDI)、泪新月容量、泪膜脂质层形态、非侵入性泪膜破裂时间、荧光素泪膜破裂时间、

  7. Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a new device for eye drops instillation in patients with glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqueira, Daniela M; Lopes, Flavio S; de Souza, Fabiola C; Dorairaj, Syril; Prata, Tiago S

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy and safety of a new device (Eyedrop(®)) designed for eye drop instillation in patients with and without glaucoma. This prospective study included consecutive patients with glaucoma and healthy participants. After a complete eye examination and determination of baseline intraocular pressure (IOP), topical hypotensive medication was introduced in both eyes, and the Eyedrop(®) delivery device (a plastic device in which the bottle with eye drops is inserted) was made available to all participants (with video and written instructions) for use in one eye, randomly chosen. In the second phase, all patients were evaluated by an experienced examiner for IOP determination, investigation of possible associated side effects, and ease of instilling eye drops (by a visual analog scale [VAS]; 0-10). Thirty two participants (mean age 42.3±16.2 years) were evaluated. Of these, 44% had glaucoma. There was no significant difference in mean IOP variation when comparing the eye using (-3.9±2.9 mmHg) or not using the device (-3.3±2.6 mmHg; P=0.36). The subjective rating of the facility of drops instillation was significantly higher with the Eyedrop(®) applicator (VAS =7.6±1.6) than without it (VAS =6.2±1.8; P5) among participants without prior experience with eye drop instillation (78.6% [11/14]) versus those already experienced (66.7% [12/18]). No difference in the frequency of side effects or in the distribution pattern of fluorescein between eyes was observed (P≥0.63). Eyedrop(®) received a better subjective response regarding the ease of instillation of hypotensive eye drops compared to traditional instillation, especially in patients with no previous experience with eye drops. Using the device did not result in any loss of hypotensive effect or increase in the frequency of side effects.

  8. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with uveitis in an emergency eye care center in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Nery Rossi Camilo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To analyze the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with uveitis in an emergency eye care center. Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational study of patients with active uveitis admitted between May 2012 and July 2012 to an emergency eye care center. Results: The majority of patients were male (63.2%, with a mean age of 43.2 years; 66.2% patients were of mixed ethnicity, 22.5% were Caucasian, and 11.3% were black. Anterior uveitis was observed in 70.1% patients, posterior uveitis in 26.5%, and panuveitis in 3.4%; no patient was diagnosed with intermediate uveitis. All patients had a sudden and acute presentation. The most frequent symptoms were ocular pain (76.9%, redness (59.8%, and visual blurring (46.2%. The majority of patients had unilateral disease (94.9% with a mean symptom duration of 6.2 days. Diffuse and anterior uveitis were associated with ocular pain (p<0.001. Scotomata and floaters were more frequent in patients with posterior uveitis (p=0.003 and p=0.016, respectively. Patients with anterior uveitis presented with better visual acuity (p=0.025. Granulomatous keratotic precipitates were more frequent in patients with posterior uveitis (p=0.038. An etiological diagnosis based on the evaluation at the emergency center was made in 45 patients (38.5%. Conclusions: Acute anterior uveitis was the most frequent form of uveitis. Initial patient evaluation provided sufficient information for deciding primary therapy and aided in arriving at an etiological diagnosis in a considerable number of patients.

  9. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Written by: David Turbert Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan- ...

  10. Characteristics of Keratoconus Patients at a Tertiary Eye Center in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay B Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the presentation and characteristics of patients with keratoconus at a tertiary eye care center in Mumbai, India. Methods: This single center, non-comparative, retrospective cohort analysis was performed on patients with keratoconus who presented to the Clear Vision Eye Center clinic from April 2007 to March 2009. Data was collected to characterize correlations among visual acuity, corneal biomicroscopic findings, and refractive and topographic findings in keratoconus. Results: Records of 274 patients including 189 male and 85 female subjects with mean age of 20.1±3.5 (range, 13 to 29 years at the time of diagnosis were assessed. There was history of skin allergy in 73 (26.6%, symptomatic ocular allergy in 67 (24.45% and asthma in 31 (11.31% patients. The most frequent corneal sign was Fleischer′s ring which was observed in 81% of cases. Corneal topography revealed mean simK (simulated keratometry of 53.3±6.1 (range, 41.2 to 69.0 diopters. Corneal topography analysis with the Cone Location Magnitude Index disclosed the presence of inferior cones in 93% of patients. Conclusion: This group of patients had younger age at presentation and more severe keratoconus as compared to western populati